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Sample records for blurred vision dizziness

  1. A pilot trial of tele-ophthalmology for diagnosis of chronic blurred vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Johnson Choon Hwai; Poh, Eugenie Wei Ting; Srinivasan, Sanjay; Lim, Tock Han

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of tele-ophthalmology in diagnosing the major causes of chronic blurring of vision. Thirty consecutive patients attending a primary eye-care facility in Singapore (the Ang Mo Kio Polyclinic, AMKP) with the symptom of chronic blurred vision were recruited. An ophthalmic technician was trained to perform Snellen acuity; auto-refraction; intraocular pressure measurement; red-colour perimetry; video recordings of extraocular movement, cover tests and pupillary reactions; and anterior segment and fundus photography. Digital information was transmitted to a tertiary hospital in Singapore (the Tan Tock Seng Hospital) via a tele-ophthalmology system for teleconsultation with an ophthalmologist. The diagnoses were compared with face-to-face consultation by another ophthalmologist at the AMKP. A user experience questionnaire was administered at the end of the consultation. Using face-to-face consultation as the gold standard, tele-ophthalmology achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing media opacity (n = 29), maculopathy (n = 23) and keratopathy (n = 30) of any type; and 100% sensitivity and 92% specificity in diagnosing optic neuropathy of any type (n = 24). The majority of the patients (97%) were satisfied with the tele-ophthalmology workflow and consultation. The tele-ophthalmology system was able to detect causes of chronic blurred vision accurately. It has the potential to deliver high-accuracy diagnostic eye support to remote areas if suitably trained ophthalmic technicians are available.

  2. Blur Clarified: A review and Synthesis of Blur Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J.

    2011-01-01

    Blur is an important attribute of human spatial vision, and sensitivity to blur has been the subject of considerable experimental research and theoretical modeling. Often these models have invoked specialized concepts or mechanisms, such as intrinsic blur, multiple channels, or blur estimation units. In this paper we review the several experimental studies of blur discrimination and find they are in broad empirical agreement. But contrary to previous modeling efforts, we find that the essential features of blur discrimination are fully accounted for by a visible contrast energy model (ViCE), in which two spatial patterns are distinguished when the integrated difference between their masked local contrast energy responses reaches a threshold value.

  3. Image Acquisition of Robust Vision Systems to Monitor Blurred Objects in Hazy Smoking Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yongjin; Park, Seungkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Kim, Donglyul; Nam, Sungmo; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2014-01-01

    Image information in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important data for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, robust vision system for structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments, such as the places of a fire and detonation, is essential in remote monitoring. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog, dust. The vision system based on wavefront correction can be applied to blurred imaging environments and the range-gated imaging system can be applied to both of blurred imaging and darken light environments. Wavefront control is a widely used technique to improve the performance of optical systems by actively correcting wavefront distortions, such as atmospheric turbulence, thermally-induced distortions, and laser or laser device aberrations, which can reduce the peak intensity and smear an acquired image. The principal applications of wavefront control are for improving the image quality in optical imaging systems such as infrared astronomical telescopes, in imaging and tracking rapidly moving space objects, and in compensating for laser beam distortion through the atmosphere. A conventional wavefront correction system consists of a wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror and a control computer. The control computer measures the wavefront distortions using a wavefront sensor and corrects it using a deformable mirror in a closed-loop. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra

  4. Image Acquisition of Robust Vision Systems to Monitor Blurred Objects in Hazy Smoking Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yongjin; Park, Seungkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Kim, Donglyul; Nam, Sungmo; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Image information in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important data for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, robust vision system for structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments, such as the places of a fire and detonation, is essential in remote monitoring. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog, dust. The vision system based on wavefront correction can be applied to blurred imaging environments and the range-gated imaging system can be applied to both of blurred imaging and darken light environments. Wavefront control is a widely used technique to improve the performance of optical systems by actively correcting wavefront distortions, such as atmospheric turbulence, thermally-induced distortions, and laser or laser device aberrations, which can reduce the peak intensity and smear an acquired image. The principal applications of wavefront control are for improving the image quality in optical imaging systems such as infrared astronomical telescopes, in imaging and tracking rapidly moving space objects, and in compensating for laser beam distortion through the atmosphere. A conventional wavefront correction system consists of a wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror and a control computer. The control computer measures the wavefront distortions using a wavefront sensor and corrects it using a deformable mirror in a closed-loop. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra

  5. A 58-year-old female with blurred vision and apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hong SHI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old right handed woman, with 12 years of formal education, had a five-year history of slowly progressive blurred vision and apraxia. Five years before the examination she gradually became blurred vision and had difficulties identifying static objects within the visual field. Then she went to an ophthalmologist and received cataract surgery. However, the symptoms were not improved after surgery. Two years later, she had difficulty doing household chores and was unable to dress herself. She developed an anxiety disorder in the absence of prominent language or memory deficits. Five years after onset, she showed global cognitive decline and abilities of daily life decline. On neurological examination she was alert. Neuropsychological testing revealed a mini-mental state examination (MMSE score of 20/30 with anomia, agraphia, alexia and partial impairment on time orientation. Biochemical investigations for disorders involving thyroid function, vitamin B12, and folate were unremarkable. A brain MRI showed diffuse cortical atrophy and hippocampus atrophy. An 18F-FDG PET scan showed bilateral hypometabolism at the frontal lobes, tempoparietooccipital adjunction, posterior cingulate cortices and precuneus, insular lobes, caudate nuclei and right thalamus. An 11C-PIB PET scan showed bilateral amyloid deposits at bilateral frontal lobes and occipital lobes, left temporal lobe and insular, basal ganglia, bilateral cingulate cortices and precuneus. No PSEN1, PSEN2 or APP mutations were identified. This early-onset patient had an unusual cognitive complaint, including visual agnosia and apraxia. The clinical features, structural and functional imaging findings of this case were compatible with the diagnosis of Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA. PCA is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by a progressive, often dramatic and relatively selective decline in visual processing skills and other functions subserved by parietal, occipital and

  6. Chromatic blur perception in the presence of luminance contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Ben J; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2017-06-01

    Hel-Or showed that blurring the chromatic but not the luminance layer of an image of a natural scene failed to elicit any impression of blur. Subsequent studies have suggested that this effect is due either to chromatic blur being masked by spatially contiguous luminance edges in the scene (Journal of Vision 13 (2013) 14), or to a relatively compressed transducer function for chromatic blur (Journal of Vision 15 (2015) 6). To test between the two explanations we conducted experiments using as stimuli both images of natural scenes as well as simple edges. First, we found that in color-and-luminance images of natural scenes more chromatic blur was needed to perceptually match a given level of blur in an isoluminant, i.e. colour-only scene. However, when the luminance layer in the scene was rotated relative to the chromatic layer, thus removing the colour-luminance edge correlations, the matched blur levels were near equal. Both results are consistent with Sharman et al.'s explanation. Second, when observers matched the blurs of luminance-only with isoluminant scenes, the matched blurs were equal, against Kingdom et al.'s prediction. Third, we measured the perceived blur in a square-wave as a function of (i) contrast (ii) number of luminance edges and (iii) the relative spatial phase between the colour and luminance edges. We found that the perceived chromatic blur was dependent on both relative phase and the number of luminance edges, or dependent on the luminance contrast if only a single edge is present. We conclude that this Hel-Or effect is largely due to masking of chromatic blur by spatially contiguous luminance edges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. "But You Look So Good!": Managing Specific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to see include fatigue, pain, cognitive problems like memory loss or trouble solving problems, weakness, blurred vision, numbness, prickly or tingling sensations, heat sensitivity, dizziness, balance/coordination problems, and bladder ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dizziness, blurred vision, clumsiness, birth defects, liver problems, possible risk of osteoporosis. You may be at greater risk of these effects if you drink high amounts of alcohol or ...

  9. TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, fatigue (including changed sleep patterns), behavior or mood swings, trouble with memory and concentration. Moderate or severe: As above, but headache worsens ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vomiting, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, clumsiness, birth defects, liver problems, possible risk of osteoporosis. You may be ... drink high amounts of alcohol or you have liver problems, high cholesterol levels or don't get ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... acid): Nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, clumsiness, birth defects, liver problems, possible risk of osteoporosis. You ... Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), provide science-based advice to promote health ... acid): Nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, clumsiness, birth defects, liver problems, possible risk of osteoporosis. You ...

  13. Restoration of non-uniform exposure motion blurred image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanhong; Xu, Tingfa; Wang, Ningming; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Restoring motion-blurred image is the key technologies in the opto-electronic detection system. The imaging sensors such as CCD and infrared imaging sensor, which are mounted on the motion platforms, quickly move together with the platforms of high speed. As a result, the images become blur. The image degradation will cause great trouble for the succeeding jobs such as objects detection, target recognition and tracking. So the motion-blurred images must be restoration before detecting motion targets in the subsequent images. On the demand of the real weapon task, in order to deal with targets in the complex background, this dissertation uses the new theories in the field of image processing and computer vision to research the new technology of motion deblurring and motion detection. The principle content is as follows: 1) When the prior knowledge about degradation function is unknown, the uniform motion blurred images are restored. At first, the blur parameters, including the motion blur extent and direction of PSF(point spread function), are estimated individually in domain of logarithmic frequency. The direction of PSF is calculated by extracting the central light line of the spectrum, and the extent is computed by minimizing the correction between the fourier spectrum of the blurred image and a detecting function. Moreover, in order to remove the strip in the deblurred image, windows technique is employed in the algorithm, which makes the deblurred image clear. 2) According to the principle of infrared image non-uniform exposure, a new restoration model for infrared blurred images is developed. The fitting of infrared image non-uniform exposure curve is performed by experiment data. The blurred images are restored by the fitting curve.

  14. Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sleep. Fatigue is a lack of energy and motivation. Drowsiness and apathy (a feeling of not caring ... Call your provider right away if you have any of the following: Confusion or dizziness Blurred vision Little or no urine, or recent ...

  15. Your First Chiropractic Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone disorders such as osteoporosis • Implants like pacemakers, artificial joints, cosmetic implants, etc. • Circulatory problems • Dizziness or blurred vision • Heart conditions such as hypertension • Nausea • Injuries, such as bone fractures, muscle sprains/strains, or disc injuries • Joint disorders such ...

  16. Dizziness in stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zamergrad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential diagnosis of new-onset acute vestibular vertigo is chiefly made between vestibular neuronitis and stroke. Dizziness in stroke is usually accompanied by other focal neurological symptoms of brainstem and cerebellar involvement. However, stroke may appear as isolated vestibular vertigo in some cases. An analysis of history data and the results of neurovestibular examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging allows stroke to be diagnosed in patients with acute isolated dizziness. The treatment of patients with stroke-induced dizziness involves a wide range of medications for the reduction of the degree of dizziness and unsteadiness and for the secondary prevention of stroke. Vestibular rehabilitation is an important component of treatment. The paper describes an observation of a patient with poorly controlled hypertension, who developed new-onset acute systemic dizziness. Vestibular neuronitis might be presumed to be a peripheral cause of vestibular disorders, by taking into account the absence of additional obvious neurological symptoms (such as pareses, defective sensation, diplopia, etc. and the nature of nystagmus. However, intention tremor in fingernose and heel-knee tests on the left side, a negative Halmagyi test, and results of Romberg’s test could suggest that stroke was a cause ofdizziness.

  17. Dizziness in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L E

    1994-11-01

    To evaluate the causes of dizziness in elderly men. A descriptive study involving the clinical and laboratory features of elderly men with dizziness. A university-affiliated Veterans Affairs medical center. One hundred seventeen consecutive men more than 50 years of age attending a general neurology clinic with the chief complaint of dizziness. The median duration of dizziness at first office visit was 45 weeks. Forty-nine percent of patients had more than one diagnosis that contributed to their dizziness. Dysfunctions of the peripheral vestibular system were found in 71% and were the principal causes in 56%. Benign positional vertigo was present in 34%. Disorders of the visual system were found in 26% but were the major cause in only 1%. Diagnoses involving the proprioceptive system were present in 17% and were the principal cause in 7%. Structural lesions of the brainstem or cerebellum or metabolic disorders that affected normal brainstem function were identified in 59% and were the major diagnoses in 22%. A psychophysiologic diagnosis was made in 6% but was the major diagnosis in only 3%. At the 6-months follow-up, 55% of patients improved, 34% were unchanged, 4% worsened, and 7% were lost to follow-up. Contrary to reports in the literature, dizziness in the elderly is more persistent, has more causes, is less often due to a psychophysiologic cause, and seems to be more incapacitating than dizziness in younger patients.

  18. Nanotech, blur and tragedy in recent artworks by Gerhard Richter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2008-01-01

    The author considers Gerhard Richter's work on nanotechnology, highlighting how these pieces continue the artist's ontology on photographic blur and, as such, raise questions about truth and reality with respect to the mass media's visual presentation of nanotechnology. The four works discussed i...... and terrorism, and contrasts Richter's artworks with utopian visions of nano-science in the mass media.......The author considers Gerhard Richter's work on nanotechnology, highlighting how these pieces continue the artist's ontology on photographic blur and, as such, raise questions about truth and reality with respect to the mass media's visual presentation of nanotechnology. The four works discussed...

  19. Prevalence of computer vision syndrome in Erbil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dler Jalal Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Nearly all colleges, universities and homes today are regularly using video display terminals, such as computer, iPad, mobile, and TV. Very little research has been carried out on Kurdish users to reveal the effect of video display terminals on the eye and vision. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of computer vision syndrome among computer users. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department of Rizgary and Erbil teaching hospitals in Erbil city. Those used computers in the months preceding the date of this study were included in the study. Results: Among 173 participants aged between 8 to 48 years (mean age of 23.28±6.6 years, the prevalence of computer vision syndrome found to be 89.65%. The most disturbing symptom was eye irritation (79.8%, followed by blurred vision(75.7%. Participants who were using visual display terminals for more than six hours per day were at higher risk of developing nearly all symptoms of computer vision syndrome. Significant correlation was found between time-consuming on computer and symptoms such as headache (P <0.001, redness (P <0.001, eye irritation (P <0.001, blurred vision (P <0.001 and neck pain (P <0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that more than three-fourths of the participants had one of the symptoms of computer vision syndrome while working on visual display terminals. Keywords: Computer vision syndrome; Headache; Neck pain; Blurred vision.

  20. Dizziness causes absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zaag-Loonen, H J; van Leeuwen, R B

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the study was to assess absenteeism from work due to dizziness in patients referred to a tertiary centre. Consecutive patients with a paid employment completed the WHO Health and work Performance Questionnaire, including items on work absence in the past 7 days and 4 weeks, and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. Of the 400 patients [55% females, mean age 46.3 years (SD 10.8), range 18-68 years], 46 (12%) indicated they were completely disabled to work due to dizziness, while 202 (51%) patients indicated they had worked less than expected due to dizziness. Patients with more disease-related disabilities had more absenteeism from work. Half of the patients who are referred to a tertiary centre for dizziness report work absenteeism due to their complaints, and 12% is completely disabled to work.

  1. A Stochastic Approach for Blurred Image Restoration and Optical Flow Computation on Field Image Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文; 陈熙霖

    1997-01-01

    The blur in target images caused by camera vibration due to robot motion or hand shaking and by object(s) moving in the background scene is different to deal with in the computer vision system.In this paper,the authors study the relation model between motion and blur in the case of object motion existing in video image sequence,and work on a practical computation algorithm for both motion analysis and blut image restoration.Combining the general optical flow and stochastic process,the paper presents and approach by which the motion velocity can be calculated from blurred images.On the other hand,the blurred image can also be restored using the obtained motion information.For solving a problem with small motion limitation on the general optical flow computation,a multiresolution optical flow algoritm based on MAP estimation is proposed. For restoring the blurred image ,an iteration algorithm and the obtained motion velocity are used.The experiment shows that the proposed approach for both motion velocity computation and blurred image restoration works well.

  2. A blur-invariant local feature for motion blurred image matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qiang; Aoki, Terumasa

    2017-07-01

    Image matching between a blurred (caused by camera motion, out of focus, etc.) image and a non-blurred image is a critical task for many image/video applications. However, most of the existing local feature schemes fail to achieve this work. This paper presents a blur-invariant descriptor and a novel local feature scheme including the descriptor and the interest point detector based on moment symmetry - the authors' previous work. The descriptor is based on a new concept - center peak moment-like element (CPME) which is robust to blur and boundary effect. Then by constructing CPMEs, the descriptor is also distinctive and suitable for image matching. Experimental results show our scheme outperforms state of the art methods for blurred image matching

  3. UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    REDDY SC; LOH KY

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syn...

  4. Dizzy - why not take a walk? Low level physical activity improves quality of life among elderly with dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwall, Anna; Lindberg, Asa; Magnusson, Måns

    2009-01-01

    Dizziness is a very common complaint. The frequency of dizziness increases with age. It affects quality of life negatively for older persons in several ways. This study intended to investigate which variables (physical activity, loneliness, health complaints, need of help for daily living and falls) differed between those with and without dizziness and also to investigate which factors affected quality of life among older persons with dizziness. An age-stratified, randomised sample of senior citizens - aged 75 or older - living in the south of Sweden (n = 4,360) answered a questionnaire concerning demographic data, social network, health complaints and diseases, feelings of loneliness, quality of life (Short Form 12), frequency of falls and activities. Dizziness was associated with an increased risk of falling. Falls in the last 3 months were reported in 31% of the subjects with dizziness compared to 15% among those without (p < 0.001). Dizziness also correlated with depression, with 42.5% feeling depressed among the elderly reporting dizziness as compared with 13.2%. Exercise, both light (i.e. go for a walk) or heavy (i.e. work in the garden), correlated with reduced risk of low quality of life among older, dizzy persons, both mental (light exercise OR 0.58; heavy OR 0.48) and physical (light OR 0.62; heavy OR 0.21). The proportion of dizzy persons doing light exercise was 75.6% versus 87.4% among the not dizzy (p < 0.001). Exercise reduces the risk of falling and the risk of being depressed, and increases quality of life. Even light exercise seems beneficial both for improving quality of life and to decrease the risk of falling, which in turn will lower the mortality rate. Older persons reporting dizziness should be encouraged and perhaps helped to exercise. If one could increase physical activity among the elderly, it would reduce the number of falls, diminish medical costs, suffering for the individual, and be of paramount medicosocial importance for society.

  5. Postural stability changes in the elderly with cataract simulation and refractive blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2003-11-01

    To determine the influence of cataractous and refractive blur on postural stability and limb-load asymmetry (LLA) and to establish how postural stability changes with the spatial frequency and contrast of the visual stimulus. Thirteen elderly subjects (mean age, 70.76 +/- 4.14 [SD] years) with no history of falls and normal vision were recruited. Postural stability was determined as the root mean square [RMS] of the center of pressure (COP) signal in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral directions and LLA was determined as the ratio of the average body weight placed on the more-loaded limb to the less-loaded limb, recorded during a 30-second period. Data were collected under normal standing conditions and with somatosensory system input disrupted. Measurements were repeated with four visual targets with high (8 cyc/deg) or low (2 cyc/deg) spatial frequency and high (Weber contrast, approximately 95%) or low (Weber contrast, approximately 25%) contrast. Postural stability was measured under conditions of binocular refractive blur of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 D and with cataract simulation. The data were analyzed in a population-averaged linear model. The cataract simulation caused significant increases in postural instability equivalent to that caused by 8-D blur conditions, and its effect was greater when the input from the somatosensory system was disrupted. High spatial frequency targets increased postural instability. Refractive blur, cataract simulation, or eye closure had no effect on LLA. Findings indicate that cataractous and refractive blur increase postural instability, and show why the elderly, many of whom have poor vision along with musculoskeletal and central nervous system degeneration, are at greater risk of falling. Findings also highlight that changes in contrast sensitivity rather than resolution changes are responsible for increasing postural instability. Providing low spatial frequency information in certain environments may be useful in

  6. Vertigo and dizziness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, K

    2016-01-01

    Vertigo and dizziness of at least moderate severity occur in >5% of school-aged children and cause considerable restrictions in participation in school and leisure activity. More than 50% of dizzy children also have headache. Vestibular migraine and benign paroxysmal vertigo as a migraine precursor are the most common diagnoses in dizziness clinics for children and adolescents. They account for 30-60% of diagnoses. Other common causes are somatoform, orthostatic, or posttraumatic dizziness. All other disorders that are known to cause vertigo and dizziness in adults also occur in children, but incidence rates are usually lower. The vestibular and balance systems are largely developed after 1 year of age. Therefore, clinical and laboratory testing is reliable. Brain magnetic resonance imaging to exclude severe conditions, such as a brainstem tumor, is necessary only if clinical - in particular, ocular motor - testing is abnormal. Most conditions causing vertigo and dizziness in childhood and adolescence are treatable. Nonpharmacologic prophylaxis should always be recommended in vestibular migraine. Behavioral support is useful in somatization. Evidence for the effectiveness of drug therapy is largely based on experience in adult populations. High-quality controlled studies in childhood cohorts are sparse. It is important to make a correct diagnosis early on, as counseling and appropriate treatment may avoid chronic illness. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Period Prevalence of Dizziness and Vertigo in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhagen, Thyra; Albers, Lucia; Heinen, Florian; Straube, Andreas; Filippopulos, Filipp; Landgraf, Mirjam N; Gerstl, Lucia; Jahn, Klaus; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    To assess the period prevalence and severity of dizziness and vertigo in adolescents. In 1661 students in 8th-10th grade in twelve grammar schools in Munich, Germany information on vertigo/dizziness was assessed by a questionnaire in the class room setting. Three month prevalence of dizziness/vertigo was estimated; symptoms were categorized as orthostatic dizziness, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo or unspecified dizziness. Duration of symptoms and impact on daily life activities were assessed. 72.0% (95%-CI = [69.8-74.2]; N = 1196) of the students (mean age 14.5±1.1) reported to suffer from at least one episode of dizziness or vertigo in the last three months. Most adolescents ticked to have symptoms of orthostatic dizziness (52.0%, 95%-CI = [49.5-54.4], N = 863). The period prevalence for the other types of vertigo were spinning vertigo: 11.6%, 95%-CI = [10.1-13.3], N = 193; swaying vertigo: 12.2%, 95%-CI = [10.6-13.8], N = 202; and unspecified dizziness: 15.2%, 95%-CI = [13.5-17.1], N = 253. About 50% of students with spinning vertigo and swaying vertigo also report to have orthostatic dizziness. Most vertigo/dizziness types were confined to less than one minute on average. The proportion of students with any dizziness/vertigo accounting for failure attending school, leisure activities or obliging them to stay in bed were more pronounced for spinning or swaying vertigo. Dizziness and vertigo in grammar school students appear to be as common as in adults. In face of the high period prevalence and clinical relevance of dizziness/vertigo in adolescents there is a need for prevention strategies. Risk factors for dizziness/vertigo need to be assessed to allow for conception of an intervention programme.

  8. A "crick" in the neck followed by massage offered him a stroke: An uncommon case of vertebral artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Gautam; Jagetia, Anita; Srivastava, Arvind K; Singh, Daljit; Singh, Hukum; Saran, Ravindra K

    2018-04-10

    We present an unusual case of vertebral artery dissection in a 30-year-old male patient following an episode of neck massage. He developed headache, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, diplopia, dizziness, and ataxia following the procedure. We also discuss a review of the pathology, diagnosis, symptomatology, treatment, prognosis, and occurrence of this rare entity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Photographic simulation of off-axis blurring due to chromatic aberration in spectacle lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroslovački, Pavle; Guyton, David L

    2015-02-01

    Spectacle lens materials of high refractive index (nd) tend to have high chromatic dispersion (low Abbé number [V]), which may contribute to visual blurring with oblique viewing. A patient who noted off-axis blurring with new high-refractive-index spectacle lenses prompted us to do a photographic simulation of the off-axis aberrations in 3 readily available spectacle lens materials, CR-39 (nd = 1.50), polyurethane (nd = 1.60), and polycarbonate (nd = 1.59). Both chromatic and monochromatic aberrations were found to cause off-axis image degradation. Chromatic aberration was more prominent in the higher-index materials (especially polycarbonate), whereas the lower-index CR-39 had more astigmatism of oblique incidence. It is important to consider off-axis aberrations when a patient complains of otherwise unexplained blurred vision with a new pair of spectacle lenses, especially given the increasing promotion of high-refractive-index materials with high chromatic dispersion. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  11. Balance, dizziness and proprioception in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders complaining of dizziness: A prospective randomized study comparing three exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleaven, Julia; Peterson, Gunnel; Ludvigsson, Maria Landén; Kammerlind, Ann-Sofi; Peolsson, Anneli

    2016-04-01

    Dizziness and unsteadiness are common symptoms following a whiplash injury. To compare the effect of 3 exercise programs on balance, dizziness, proprioception and pain in patients with chronic whiplash complaining of dizziness. A sub-analysis of a randomized study. One hundred and forty subjects were randomized to either a physiotherapist-guided neck-specific exercise (NSE), physiotherapist-guided neck-specific exercise, with a behavioural approach (NSEB) or prescription of general physical activity (PPA) group. Pre intervention, 3, 6 and 12 months post baseline they completed the University of California Los Angeles Dizziness Questionnaire (UCLA-DQ), Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for, dizziness at rest and during activity and physical measures (static and dynamic clinical balance tests and head repositioning accuracy (HRA)). There were significant time by group differences with respect to dizziness during activity and UCLA-Q favouring the physiotherapy led neck specific exercise group with a behavioural approach. Within group analysis of changes over time also revealed significant changes in most variables apart from static balance. Between and within group comparisons suggest that physiotherapist led neck exercise groups including a behavioural approach had advantages in improving measures of dizziness compared with the general physical activity group, although many still complained of dizziness and balance impairment. Future studies should consider exercises specifically designed to address balance, dizziness and cervical proprioception in those with persistent whiplash. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Postural stability in the elderly during sensory perturbations and dual tasking: the influence of refractive blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2003-07-01

    To determine the influence of refractive blur on postural stability during somatosensory and vestibular system perturbation and dual tasking. Fifteen healthy, elderly subjects (mean age, 71 +/- 5 years), who had no history of falls and had normal vision, were recruited. Postural stability during standing was assessed using a force platform, and was determined as the root mean square (RMS) of the center of pressure (COP) signal in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral directions collected over a 30-second period. Data were collected under normal standing conditions and with somatosensory and vestibular system perturbations. Measurements were repeated with an additional physical and/or cognitive task. Postural stability was measured under conditions of binocular refractive blur of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 D and with eyes closed. The data were analyzed with a population-averaged linear model. The greatest increases in postural instability were due to disruptions of the somatosensory and vestibular systems. Increasing refractive blur caused increasing postural instability, and its effect was greater when the input from the other sensory systems was disrupted. Performing an additional cognitive and physical task increased A-P RMS COP further. All these detrimental effects on postural stability were cumulative. The findings highlight the multifactorial nature of postural stability and indicate why the elderly, many of whom have poor vision and musculoskeletal and central nervous system degeneration, are at greater risk of falling. The findings also highlight that standing instability in both normal and perturbed conditions was significantly increased with refractive blur. Correcting visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive error could be a useful intervention strategy to help prevent falls and fall-related injuries in the elderly.

  13. Enhancement of blurred image portions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for image enhancement, comprising a first step ( 41 ) of distinguishing blurred and non-blurred image portions of an input image, and a second step ( 42 ) of enhancing at least one of said blurred image portions of said input image to produce an output image. Said

  14. [Causes of emergency dizziness stratified by etiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wenying; Liu, Jianguo; Zeng, Hong; Liu, Yugeng; Jia, Weihua; Wang, Honghong; Liu, Bo; Tan, Jing; Li, Changqing

    2014-06-03

    To explore the causes of emergency dizziness stratified to improve the diagnostic efficiency. A total of 1 857 cases of dizziness at our emergency department were collected and their etiologies stratified by age and gender. The top three diagnoses were benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, 31.7%), hypertension (24.0%) and posterior circulation ischemia (PCI, 20.5%). Stratified by age, the main causes of dizziness included BPPV (n = 6), migraine-associated vertigo (n = 2), unknown cause (n = 1) for the group of vertigo (14.5%) and neurosis (7.3%) for 18-44 years; BPPV (36.8%), hypertension (22.4%) and migraine-associated vertigo (11.2%) for 45-59 years; hypertension (30.8%), PCI (29.8%) and BPPV (22.9%) for 60-74 years; PCI (30.7%), hypertension (28.6%) and BPPV (25.5%) for 75-92 years. BPPV, migraine and neurosis were more common in females while hypertension and PCI predominated in males (all P hypertension, neurosis and migraine showed the following significant demographic features: BPPV, PCI, hypertension, neurosis and migraine may be the main causes of dizziness. BPPV should be considered initially when vertigo was triggered repeatedly by positional change, especially for young and middle-aged women. And the other common causes of dizziness were migraine-associated vertigo, neurosis and Meniere's disease.Hypertension should be screened firstly in middle-aged and elderly patients presenting mainly with head heaviness and stretching. In elders with dizziness, BPPV is second in constituent ratio to PCI and hypertension.In middle-aged and elderly patients with dizziness, psychological factors should be considered and diagnosis and treatment should be offered timely.

  15. Ischemic syndromes causing dizziness and vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K-D; Lee, H; Kim, J-S

    2016-01-01

    Dizziness/vertigo and imbalance are the most common symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia. Even though dizziness/vertigo usually accompanies other neurologic symptoms and signs in cerebrovascular disorders, a diagnosis of isolated vascular vertigo is increasing markedly by virtue of recent developments in clinical neurotology and neuroimaging. It is important to differentiate isolated vertigo of a vascular cause from more benign disorders involving the inner ear, since therapeutic strategies and prognosis differ between these two conditions. Over the last decade, we have achieved a marked development in the understanding and diagnosis of vascular dizziness/vertigo. Introduction of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has greatly enhanced detection of infarctions in patients with vascular dizziness/vertigo, especially in the posterior-circulation territories. However, well-organized bedside neurotologic evaluation is even more sensitive than MRI in detecting acute infarction as a cause of spontaneous prolonged vertigo. Furthermore, detailed evaluation of strategic infarctions has elucidated the function of various vestibular structures of the brainstem and cerebellum. In contrast, diagnosis of isolated labyrinthine infarction still remains a challenge. This diagnostic difficulty also applies to isolated transient dizziness/vertigo of vascular origin. Regarding the common nonlacunar mechanisms in the acute vestibular syndrome from small infarctions, individual strategies may be indicated to prevent recurrences of stroke in patients with vascular vertigo. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dizziness and Falls in Obese Inpatients Undergoing Metabolic Rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Corna

    Full Text Available The relationship between dizziness and falls in the obese population is a relatively unexplored issue. The aims of the present study were to define the 1-year prevalence of dizziness in an obese inpatient population undergoing metabolic rehabilitation and to investigate possible correlations with fall events.We recruited 329 obese subjects: 203 female (BMI 43,74 kg/m2 ± 0.5 SE; age 17-83 years, 58.33 ± 0.9 SE and 126 male (BMI 44,27kg/m2 ± 0.7 DE age 27-79 years, 58.84 ± 1 SE. To assess dizziness we used the validated Italian version (38 of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI.Out of the experimental sample, 100 subjects did not complain of dizziness and felt confident about their balance control, while 69.6% reported some degree of dizziness. Their mean DHI score was 22.3, which corresponds to mild dizziness. Twenty-one percent reported more severe dizziness (DHI score > 40. The majority of our sample reported minor dizziness and its perception appears to be independent from BMI: DHI scores were consistent across classes of obesity.The rate of dizziness and falls (30.1% in an this obese population was higher than that previously reported in a general matched population. However, obese subjects, in our sample, seem to underestimate their risk of fall and DHI score does not appear a reliable predictor of falls. Since complications associated with falls in obese persons generally require longer treatments than in lean individuals, our findings should be taken into account in order to identify other predictors, including cognitive and perceptual, of risk of fall and to implement fall prevention programs.

  17. COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME: A SHORT REVIEW.

    OpenAIRE

    Sameena; Mohd Inayatullah

    2012-01-01

    Computers are probably one of the biggest scientific inventions of the modern era, and since then they have become an integral part of our life. The increased usage of computers have lead to variety of ocular symptoms which includ es eye strain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, and diplopia, collectively referred to as Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). CVS may have a significant impact not only on visual com fort but also occupational productivit...

  18. Blur Detection is Unaffected by Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschky, Lester C; Ringer, Ryan V; Johnson, Aaron P; Larson, Adam M; Neider, Mark; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-03-01

    Blur detection is affected by retinal eccentricity, but is it also affected by attentional resources? Research showing effects of selective attention on acuity and contrast sensitivity suggests that allocating attention should increase blur detection. However, research showing that blur affects selection of saccade targets suggests that blur detection may be pre-attentive. To investigate this question, we carried out experiments in which viewers detected blur in real-world scenes under varying levels of cognitive load manipulated by the N -back task. We used adaptive threshold estimation to measure blur detection thresholds at 0°, 3°, 6°, and 9° eccentricity. Participants carried out blur detection as a single task, a single task with to-be-ignored letters, or an N-back task with four levels of cognitive load (0, 1, 2, or 3-back). In Experiment 1, blur was presented gaze-contingently for occasional single eye fixations while participants viewed scenes in preparation for an easy picture recognition memory task, and the N -back stimuli were presented auditorily. The results for three participants showed a large effect of retinal eccentricity on blur thresholds, significant effects of N -back level on N -back performance, scene recognition memory, and gaze dispersion, but no effect of N -back level on blur thresholds. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 but presented the images tachistoscopically for 200 ms (half with, half without blur), to determine whether gaze-contingent blur presentation in Experiment 1 had produced attentional capture by blur onset during a fixation, thus eliminating any effect of cognitive load on blur detection. The results with three new participants replicated those of Experiment 1, indicating that the use of gaze-contingent blur presentation could not explain the lack of effect of cognitive load on blur detection. Thus, apparently blur detection in real-world scene images is unaffected by attentional resources, as manipulated by

  19. Vertigo/dizziness as a Drugs’ adverse reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimirri, Serafina; Aiello, Rossana; Mazzitello, Carmela; Mumoli, Laura; Palleria, Caterina; Altomonte, Mariolina; Citraro, Rita; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Vertigo, dizziness, and nausea encompass a spectrum of balance-related symptoms caused by a variety of etiologies. Balance is affected by many systems: Proprioceptive pathways and visual, cerebellar, vestibulocochlear, and vascular / vasovagal systems. Vertigo is a subtype of dizziness, in which a subject, as a result to a dysfunction of the vestibular system, improperly experiments the perception of motion. The most useful clinical subdivision is to categorize vertigo into true vertigo and pseudovertigo, whereas from a pathophysiological point of view, vertigo can be classified into central, peripheral, and psychogenic. It is not easy to identify the cause of vertigo since the patients often are not able to precisely describe their symptoms. An impressive list of drugs may cause vertigo or dizziness. Materials and Methods: The aim of the present study was to analyze the data extracted from the reporting cards of the ADRs (adverse drug reactions), received at our Pharmacovigilance Regional Center (Calabria, Italy) in 2012. In particular, the data concerning the occurrence of vertigo and dizziness, after taking certain classes of drugs, have been considered. Results: Our results show that, among the side-effects of different classes of drugs such as anti-convulsants, anti-hypertensives, antibiotics, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, and anti-inflammatory, also vertigo or dizziness are included. Conclusions: Spontaneous reports of vertigo or dizziness, as side-effect of certain drugs, received at our Pharmacovigilance Center, represented the 5% of all reports in 2012. Considering the high incidence of such an ADR for several drugs’ classes, it can be speculated that under-reporting also affect vertigo and dizziness. Despite the fact that these ADRs might not represent a direct threaten for life, indirectly they can cause secondary damage to patients such as falls, fractures etc. Balance should be accurately monitored during drug use and particularly

  20. Vertigo/dizziness as a Drugs' adverse reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimirri, Serafina; Aiello, Rossana; Mazzitello, Carmela; Mumoli, Laura; Palleria, Caterina; Altomonte, Mariolina; Citraro, Rita; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2013-12-01

    Vertigo, dizziness, and nausea encompass a spectrum of balance-related symptoms caused by a variety of etiologies. Balance is affected by many systems: Proprioceptive pathways and visual, cerebellar, vestibulocochlear, and vascular / vasovagal systems. Vertigo is a subtype of dizziness, in which a subject, as a result to a dysfunction of the vestibular system, improperly experiments the perception of motion. The most useful clinical subdivision is to categorize vertigo into true vertigo and pseudovertigo, whereas from a pathophysiological point of view, vertigo can be classified into central, peripheral, and psychogenic. It is not easy to identify the cause of vertigo since the patients often are not able to precisely describe their symptoms. An impressive list of drugs may cause vertigo or dizziness. The aim of the present study was to analyze the data extracted from the reporting cards of the ADRs (adverse drug reactions), received at our Pharmacovigilance Regional Center (Calabria, Italy) in 2012. In particular, the data concerning the occurrence of vertigo and dizziness, after taking certain classes of drugs, have been considered. Our results show that, among the side-effects of different classes of drugs such as anti-convulsants, anti-hypertensives, antibiotics, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, and anti-inflammatory, also vertigo or dizziness are included. Spontaneous reports of vertigo or dizziness, as side-effect of certain drugs, received at our Pharmacovigilance Center, represented the 5% of all reports in 2012. Considering the high incidence of such an ADR for several drugs' classes, it can be speculated that under-reporting also affect vertigo and dizziness. Despite the fact that these ADRs might not represent a direct threaten for life, indirectly they can cause secondary damage to patients such as falls, fractures etc. Balance should be accurately monitored during drug use and particularly in fragile patients.

  1. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  2. UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REDDY SC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  3. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level....

  4. Evaluation of dizziness at Jordan University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Baqi, Khader J; Mohammed, Faisal I; Shubair, Kandil S; Sarhan, Yusef S; Tawalbeh, Mohamed I

    2004-05-01

    This study was performed prospectively to evaluate the dizzy patients in the Neurotology Outpatient clinic at Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan during the period 1993-2000 and to discuss the prevalence and etiology of dizziness. Data were collected from 108 patients (52 males and 56 females) with a mean age of 45.6-years. Diagnosis was made on the basis of history, physical, otolaryngological and neurological examination and confirmed by relevant investigation including laboratory, radiological and audio vestibular tests. Secure diagnosis were made in 98% of patients (14% had one cause alone and 84% had multiple causes). Cardiovascular disorders accounted for 31.5% of primary and 49% of secondary causes, peripheral vestibular disorders, 25% of primary and 3% of secondary causes, central vestibular disorders 17% of primary and 9% of secondary causes, metabolic endocrine 13% of primary and 38% of secondary causes, cervical osteoarthritis 5.5% of primary and 28% of secondary causes and psychogenic 4.6% of primary and 6.5% of secondary causes. Our findings demonstrate that vertigo is the most common subtype of dizziness (50%). Multiple causes are more prevalent in older age and the single cause is more prevalent in younger age. Cardiovascular was the most common cause of dizziness followed by vestibular disorders, metabolic and cervical osteoarthritis. Vestibular disorders are primary causes and non vestibular are predominantly secondary causes of dizziness. Hyperlipidemia, diabetes and cervical causes are major secondary contributors to dizziness. We recommend a multi disciplinary setting and application of a comprehensive diagnostic and treatment approach without unnecessary protracted investigative scheme and installment of rehabilitation facilities.

  5. Evaluation of dizziness at Jordan University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Baqi, Khader J.; Moamed, Faisal I.; Shubair, Kandil S.; Sarhan, Yusuf S.; Tawalbeh, Mohmed I.

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed prospectively to the dizzy patients in the Neurotology Outpatient Clinic at Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan during the period 1993-2000 and to discuss the prevalence and and etiology of dizziness. Data were collected from 108 patients (52 male and 56 female) with a mean age of 45.6-years. diagnosis was made on the basis of history, physical, otolarygological and neurological examination and confirmed by relevant investigation including laboratory, radiological and audio vestibular tests. Secure diagnosis was made in 98% of patients (14% had one cause alone and 84% had multiple causes). Cardivascular disorders accounted for 31.5% of primary and 49% of secondary causes, perpheral vestibular disorders, 25% of primary and 3% of secondary causes, central vestibular disorders 17% of primary and 9% of secondary causes, metabolic endocrine 13% of primary and 38% of secondary causes and psychogenic 4.6% of primary and 6.5% of secondary causes.Our findings demonstrate that vertigo is most common subtype of dizziness (50%). Multiple causes are more prevalent in older age and single cause is more prevalent in younger age. Cardiovascular was the most common cause of dizziness followed by vestibular disorders, metabolic and cervical osteoarthritis. Vestibular disorders are primary causes and non vestibular are predominantly secondary causes of dizziness. Hyperlipidemia, diabetes and cervical causes are major secondary contributionsto dizziness. We recommend a a multi disciplinary setting and application of a comprehensive diagnostic and treatment approach without unnecessary protracted investigative schemeand installment of rehabilitatioon facilities. (author)

  6. The social impact of dizziness in London and Siena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Adolfo M; Golding, John F; Gresty, Michael A; Mandalà, Marco; Nuti, Daniele; Shetye, Anu; Silove, Yvonne

    2010-02-01

    Although dizziness is a common presenting symptom in general and hospital practice, its social cost is not known. We assessed the social and work life impact of dizziness on patients in two contrasting European cities, Siena and London. First, we developed the 'Social life & Work Impact of Dizziness questionnaire' (SWID), which was validated by administering it to 43 patients with dizziness and 45 normal controls and by correlating the results with the EQ-5D (Europe quality of life) questionnaire. The SWID and EQ-5D scores were worse in patients than controls (p work as a result of the dizziness. Over 50% of patients felt that their efficiency at work had dropped considerably. The mean number of days off work attributed to the dizziness in the previous 6 months was 7.15 days. Social life was disrupted in 57% of all 400 patients. Factor analysis identified that detrimental effects on work, travel, social and family life combine to create a single factor accounting for much of the overall impact of their dizziness. Significant differences in some measures of handicap between London and Siena emerged, with London patients often faring worse. Reasons for these location differences include, as expected, a higher proportion of neurological patients in London than in Siena. However, factors related to city demographics and social cohesion may also modulate the impact on quality of life and working practice. Regardless of inter-city differences, these findings highlight the high social and economic impact of dizziness.

  7. Biofeedback for Better Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.

  8. Cervical vertigo and dizziness after whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kenji; Ichimaru, Katsuji; Komagata, Mashashi; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2006-06-01

    Whiplash injury is not only limited to neck injury but also brainstem injury that does not involve direct damage to the neck or head. The symptoms of whiplash injury are polymorphous, with the most common complaints being cervical pain, headache and scapulodynia. Vertigo and dizziness are also reported in 25-50% of the cases. In otoneurologic studies, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is used for the evaluation of vertebrobasilar hemodynamics in patients who complain of dizziness and vertigo. It is reported that vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) leads to brainstem and cerebellar ischemia and infarction following cervical manipulation. Here we examined the correlation between vertigo or dizziness and the right and left side difference in vertebral arteries after whiplash injury using MRA. We studied 20 patients who complained of neck pain with vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury and 13 healthy volunteers as a control. In the control group, abnormal MRA findings in the vertebral arteries such as occlusion, stenosis or slow blood flow were seen in 77% of the cases. In the patient group, abnormal MRA findings were seen in 60%. The side difference in blood flow was 3.5+/-2.5 cm/s in the control group and 6.1+/-3.0 cm/s in the patient group. Our findings suggest that some subjects with persistent vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury are more likely to have VBI on MRA. VBI might be an important background factor to evoke cervical vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury. The side difference between the two vertebral arteries could cause a circulation disorder in the vertebrobasilar system after whiplash injury. However, the VBI on MRA itself was also seen in the control group, and thus it is not clear whether it is due to whiplash injury in the patient group.

  9. Partial Deconvolution with Inaccurate Blur Kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongwei; Zuo, Wangmeng; Zhang, David; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Lei

    2017-10-17

    Most non-blind deconvolution methods are developed under the error-free kernel assumption, and are not robust to inaccurate blur kernel. Unfortunately, despite the great progress in blind deconvolution, estimation error remains inevitable during blur kernel estimation. Consequently, severe artifacts such as ringing effects and distortions are likely to be introduced in the non-blind deconvolution stage. In this paper, we tackle this issue by suggesting: (i) a partial map in the Fourier domain for modeling kernel estimation error, and (ii) a partial deconvolution model for robust deblurring with inaccurate blur kernel. The partial map is constructed by detecting the reliable Fourier entries of estimated blur kernel. And partial deconvolution is applied to wavelet-based and learning-based models to suppress the adverse effect of kernel estimation error. Furthermore, an E-M algorithm is developed for estimating the partial map and recovering the latent sharp image alternatively. Experimental results show that our partial deconvolution model is effective in relieving artifacts caused by inaccurate blur kernel, and can achieve favorable deblurring quality on synthetic and real blurry images.Most non-blind deconvolution methods are developed under the error-free kernel assumption, and are not robust to inaccurate blur kernel. Unfortunately, despite the great progress in blind deconvolution, estimation error remains inevitable during blur kernel estimation. Consequently, severe artifacts such as ringing effects and distortions are likely to be introduced in the non-blind deconvolution stage. In this paper, we tackle this issue by suggesting: (i) a partial map in the Fourier domain for modeling kernel estimation error, and (ii) a partial deconvolution model for robust deblurring with inaccurate blur kernel. The partial map is constructed by detecting the reliable Fourier entries of estimated blur kernel. And partial deconvolution is applied to wavelet-based and learning

  10. The epidemiology of dizziness and vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, H K

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the epidemiology of dizziness, vertigo, and imbalance, and of specific vestibular disorders. In the last decade, population-based epidemiologic studies have complemented previous publications from specialized settings and provided evidence for the high burden of dizziness and vertigo in the community. Dizziness (including vertigo) affects about 15% to over 20% of adults yearly in large population-based studies. Vestibular vertigo accounts for about a quarter of dizziness complaints and has a 12-month prevalence of 5% and an annual incidence of 1.4%. Its prevalence rises with age and is about two to three times higher in women than in men. Imbalance has been increasingly studied as a highly prevalent complaint particularly affecting healthy aging. Studies have documented the high prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and vestibular migraine (VM), as well as of comorbid anxiety at the population level. BPPV and VM are largely underdiagnosed, while Menière's disease, which is about 10 times less frequent than BPPV, appears to be overdiagnosed. Risk factor research is only at its beginning, but has provided some interesting observations, such as the consistent association of vertigo and migraine, which has greatly contributed to the recognition of VM as a distinct vestibular syndrome. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Discussion of the dizziness handicap inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Basak; Serbetcioglu, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    A review of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). NUMBER OF STUDIES: Seventy-four studies. Articles published between January 1990 and May 2012 were identified by searches in PubMed electronic database. Of the 227 articles meeting the inclusion criteria 74 were reviewed. These articles are discussed under nine topics; Reliability, validity and internal consistency of the original version of DHI, relationship between vestibular/balance tests and DHI, association between DHI and the other scales related to balance impairments, exploratory factor analysis of the DHI, screening version of DHI, translations of DHI into other languages, the role of DHI to assess the success of the treatment of balance disorder, DHI results in various vestibular disorders, general characteristics of DHI in patients with balance impairment. Self reported measures represent unique pieces of the information important for the management of dizzy patients. DHI is the most widely used self reported measurement of patients with dizziness. It has been translated into fourteen languages, so it is widely accepted.

  12. Utility of a brief assessment tool developed from the Dizziness Handicap Inventory to screen for Cervicogenic dizziness: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Susan A; Callister, Robin; Katekar, Michael G; Treleaven, Julia M

    2017-08-01

    Cervicogenic dizziness (CGD) is hard to diagnose as there is no objective test. Can a brief assessment tool be derived from the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) to assist in screening for CGD? Case-control study with split-sample analysis. 86 people with CGD and 86 people with general dizziness completed the DHI as part of the assessment of their dizziness. Descriptive statistics were used to assess how frequently each question on the DHI was answered 'yes' or 'sometimes' by participants with CGD and by participants with general dizziness. The questions that best discriminated between GCD and general dizziness were compiled into a brief assessment tool for CGD. Data from 80 participants (40 from each group) were used to generate a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to establish a cut-off score for that brief assessment tool. Then, data from the remaining 92 participants were used to try to validate the diagnostic ability of the brief assessment tool using that cut-off score. Questions 1, 9 and 11 were the most discriminatory and were combined to form the brief assessment tool. The ROC curve indicated an optimal threshold of 9. The diagnostic ability of the brief assessment tool among the remaining 46 participants from each group was: sensitivity 77% (95% CI: 67 to 84), specificity 66% (56-75), positive likelihood ratio 2.28 (1.66-3.13), and negative likelihood ratio 0.35 (0.23-0.53). A brief assessment tool of three questions appears to be helpful in screening for CGD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Management of dizziness in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, P D; Dallara, J; Roach, C; Bailey, K E; Mitchell, M; McNutt, R

    1994-01-01

    We sought to determine the types of dizziness problems that are commonly seen in primary care practices, and to bring to light clinical and demographic factors that predict management decisions. We undertook a prospective cohort study with a 6-month follow-up using data gathered in nine primary care practices in two North Carolina counties. Subjects were 144 dizziness patients examined by primary care physicians. Data collected included demographic characteristics, a standardized dizziness history, physician estimation of symptom severity and diagnostic certainty, and physician "worry" about arrhythmia, transient ischemic attack, and brain tumor. Physicians reported their management decisions and diagnosis (or differential diagnosis) by responding to a questionnaire after completing the patient encounter. A 6-month follow-up chart review and physician interview were completed on 140 patients (97.2 percent); information obtained included changes in diagnosis and patient mortality. The most common diagnoses were labyrinthitis, otitis media, benign positional vertigo, unspecified presyncope, sinusitis, and transient ischemic attack. The initial diagnosis changed during the 6-month follow-up period in 34 (24.3 percent) of patients. The overall course of these patients was benign, however, with only one death occurring during the 6-month follow-up period. Patients' dizziness tended to be managed using a combination of strategies, including office laboratory testing (33.6 percent), advanced testing (11.4 percent), referral to a specialist (9.3 percent), medication (61.3 percent), observation (71.8 percent), reassurance (41.6 percent), and behavioral recommendations (15.0 percent). Office laboratory testing was associated with younger patient age, a suspected metabolic or endocrine disorder, and physician worry about a cardiac arrhythmia; advanced laboratory testing was associated with suspected cardiovascular or neurologic disorders. Medication tended to be prescribed

  14. Vertigo/dizziness as a Drugs? adverse reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Chimirri, Serafina; Aiello, Rossana; Mazzitello, Carmela; Mumoli, Laura; Palleria, Caterina; Altomonte, Mariolina; Citraro, Rita; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Vertigo, dizziness, and nausea encompass a spectrum of balance-related symptoms caused by a variety of etiologies. Balance is affected by many systems: Proprioceptive pathways and visual, cerebellar, vestibulocochlear, and vascular / vasovagal systems. Vertigo is a subtype of dizziness, in which a subject, as a result to a dysfunction of the vestibular system, improperly experiments the perception of motion. The most useful clinical subdivision is to categorize vertigo into true...

  15. IDENTIFIKASI DISTORSI BLUR PADA GAMBAR DIGITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Prasetya Gunawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu masalah yang sering muncul dalam dunia fotografi adalah efek blur yang dapat diakibatkan baik oleh objek yang bergerak maupun gerakan kamera yang berhubungan dengan kecepatan rana (shutter speed ketika gambar akan diambil. Paper ini menyajikan sebuah metode baru yang sederhana untuk mendeteksi kemunculan distorsi blur yang tidak diinginkan pada gambar digital. Metode yang diusulkan menggunakan transformasi discrete cosine transform (DCT pada gambar yang telah mengalami distorsi dengan ukuran blok DCT yang bervariasi. Hasil dari pendeteksian ini kemudian digunakan untuk meningkatkan kualitas gambar melalui metode debluring berdasarkan korelasi pixel yang diterapkan pada area tertentu pada gambar yang mengandung distorsi blur ini. Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan bahwa kualitas gambar yang disempurnakan dihasilkan oleh metode debluring secara selektif menggunakan deteksi distorsi blur lokal akan lebih baik daripada yang tidak melalui proses seleksi. Dari berbagai ukuran blok yang digunakan dalam percobaan, blok berukuran 32×32 piksel menghasilkan kualitas gambar yang secara umum lebih baik. One of the problems that often arise in photography is a blurring effect that can be caused either by a moving object or camera movements that associated with the shutter speed when the picture is taken. This paper presents a simple new method for detecting the appearance of unwanted blur distortion in digital images. The proposed method uses the transformation of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT on the image that has been distorted with varying DCT block size. The results of the detection used to improve image quality through debluring method based on pixel correlation that applied to certain areas of the image that contains this blur distortion. The experimental results show that the enhanced picture quality produced by the method of selectively debluring using a local blur distortion detection is better than not through the selection process

  16. Vertigo and Dizziness in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Lara; Breinbauer, Hayo A.; Delano, Paul Hinckley

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vertigo and dizziness in people aged more than 60 years reaches 30%, and due to aging of world population, the number of patients is rapidly increasing. The presence of dizziness in the elderly is a strong predictor of falls, which is the leading cause of accidental death in people older than 65 years. Balance disorders in the elderly constitute a major public health problem, and require an adequate diagnosis and management by trained physicians. In the elderly, common causes of vertigo may manifest differently, as patients tend to report less rotatory vertigo and more non-specific dizziness and instability than younger patients, making diagnosis more complex. In this mini review, age-related degenerative processes that affect balance are presented. Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches oriented to the specific impaired system, including visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular pathways, are proposed. In addition, presbystasis – the loss of vestibular and balance functions associated with aging – benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and stroke (in acute syndromes) should always be considered. PMID:26167157

  17. Theory of reflectivity blurring in seismic depth imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, C. J.; Kitchenside, P. W.; Fletcher, R. P.

    2016-05-01

    A subsurface extended image gather obtained during controlled-source depth imaging yields a blurred kernel of an interface reflection operator. This reflectivity kernel or reflection function is comprised of the interface plane-wave reflection coefficients and so, in principle, the gather contains amplitude versus offset or angle information. We present a modelling theory for extended image gathers that accounts for variable illumination and blurring, under the assumption of a good migration-velocity model. The method involves forward modelling as well as migration or back propagation so as to define a receiver-side blurring function, which contains the effects of the detector array for a given shot. Composition with the modelled incident wave and summation over shots then yields an overall blurring function that relates the reflectivity to the extended image gather obtained from field data. The spatial evolution or instability of blurring functions is a key concept and there is generally not just spatial blurring in the apparent reflectivity, but also slowness or angle blurring. Gridded blurring functions can be estimated with, for example, a reverse-time migration modelling engine. A calibration step is required to account for ad hoc band limitedness in the modelling and the method also exploits blurring-function reciprocity. To demonstrate the concepts, we show numerical examples of various quantities using the well-known SIGSBEE test model and a simple salt-body overburden model, both for 2-D. The moderately strong slowness/angle blurring in the latter model suggests that the effect on amplitude versus offset or angle analysis should be considered in more realistic structures. Although the description and examples are for 2-D, the extension to 3-D is conceptually straightforward. The computational cost of overall blurring functions implies their targeted use for the foreseeable future, for example, in reservoir characterization. The description is for scalar

  18. Psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial impairment among patients with vertigo and dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, Claas; Henningsen, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Strupp, Michael; Jahn, Klaus; Dieterich, Marianne; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret; Feuerecker, Regina; Dinkel, Andreas; Schmid, Gabriele

    2015-03-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are often not fully explained by an organic illness, but instead are related to psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity and assess psychosocial impairment in a large sample of patients with a wide range of unselected organic and non-organic (ie, medically unexplained) vertigo/dizziness syndromes. This cross-sectional study involved a sample of 547 patients recruited from a specialised interdisciplinary treatment centre for vertigo/dizziness. Diagnostic evaluation included standardised neurological examinations, structured clinical interview for major mental disorders (SCID-I) and self-report questionnaires regarding dizziness, depression, anxiety, somatisation and quality of life. Neurological diagnostic workup revealed organic and non-organic vertigo/dizziness in 80.8% and 19.2% of patients, respectively. In 48.8% of patients, SCID-I led to the diagnosis of a current psychiatric disorder, most frequently anxiety/phobic, somatoform and affective disorders. In the organic vertigo/dizziness group, 42.5% of patients, particularly those with vestibular paroxysmia or vestibular migraine, had a current psychiatric comorbidity. Patients with psychiatric comorbidity reported more vertigo-related handicaps, more depressive, anxiety and somatisation symptoms, and lower psychological quality of life compared with patients without psychiatric comorbidity. Almost half of patients with vertigo/dizziness suffer from a psychiatric comorbidity. These patients show more severe psychosocial impairment compared with patients without psychiatric disorders. The worst combination, in terms of vertigo-related handicaps, is having non-organic vertigo/dizziness and psychiatric comorbidity. This phenomenon should be considered when diagnosing and treating vertigo/dizziness in the early stages of the disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  19. Cervical vertigo and dizziness after whiplash injury

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Kenji; Ichimaru, Katsuji; Komagata, Mashashi; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2006-01-01

    Whiplash injury is not only limited to neck injury but also brainstem injury that does not involve direct damage to the neck or head. The symptoms of whiplash injury are polymorphous, with the most common complaints being cervical pain, headache and scapulodynia. Vertigo and dizziness are also reported in 25–50% of the cases. In otoneurologic studies, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is used for the evaluation of vertebrobasilar hemodynamics in patients who complain of dizziness and verti...

  20. Seasonality of dizziness and vertigo in a tropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alcione Botelho; Almeida, Leonardo Alves Ferreira; Pereira, Nayara Gorette; Menezes, Patrícia Andrade Freitas de; Felipe, Lilian; Volpe, Fernando Madalena

    2015-06-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common medical complaints in the emergency room, and are associated with a considerable personal and health care burden. Scarce and conflicting reports indicate those symptoms may present a seasonal distribution. This study aimed at investigating the existence of a seasonal distribution of vertigo/dizziness in a tropical region, and the correlations of these findings with climatic variables. The charts of all patients consecutively admitted between 2009 and 2012 in the emergency room of a Brazilian general hospital were reviewed. A total of 4920 cases containing these terms were sorted from a sample of 276,076 emergency records. Seasonality was assessed using Cosinor Analysis. Pearson's correlations were performed between the incidence of consultations, considering separately dizziness and vertigo and each of the predictor climatic variables of that index month. Significant seasonal patterns were observed for dizziness and vertigo in the emergency room. Vertigo was more frequent in late winter-spring, negatively correlating to humidity (r = -0.374; p = 0.013) and rainfall (r = -0.334; p = 0.020). Dizziness peaked on summer months, and positively correlated to average temperatures (r = 0.520; p vertigo indicate possible distinct underlying mechanisms of how seasons may influence the occurrence of those symptoms.

  1. Recognition of Images Degraded by Gaussian Blur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Farokhi, Sajad; Höschl, Cyril; Suk, Tomáš; Zitová, Barbara; Pedone, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2016), s. 790-806 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Blurred image * object recognition * blur invariant comparison * Gaussian blur * projection operators * image moments * moment invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 4.828, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0454335.pdf

  2. Restoration of motion-blurred image based on border deformation detection: a traffic sign restoration model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of motor vehicle Driver Assistance Systems (DAS, the safety problems associated with automatic driving have become a hot issue in Intelligent Transportation. The traffic sign is one of the most important tools used to reinforce traffic rules. However, traffic sign image degradation based on computer vision is unavoidable during the vehicle movement process. In order to quickly and accurately recognize traffic signs in motion-blurred images in DAS, a new image restoration algorithm based on border deformation detection in the spatial domain is proposed in this paper. The border of a traffic sign is extracted using color information, and then the width of the border is measured in all directions. According to the width measured and the corresponding direction, both the motion direction and scale of the image can be confirmed, and this information can be used to restore the motion-blurred image. Finally, a gray mean grads (GMG ratio is presented to evaluate the image restoration quality. Compared to the traditional restoration approach which is based on the blind deconvolution method and Lucy-Richardson method, our method can greatly restore motion blurred images and improve the correct recognition rate. Our experiments show that the proposed method is able to restore traffic sign information accurately and efficiently.

  3. Differential diagnosis of vertigo and dizziness in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Yoshiyuki; Kitahara, Tadashi; Fukushima, Munehisa; Michiba, Takahiro; Imai, Ryusuke; Tomiyama, Youichirou; Nishiike, Suetaka; Inohara, Hidenori; Morita, Hisaki

    2014-02-01

    To establish a system of differential diagnosis for vertigo/dizziness at the Emergency Department (ED), careful history-taking of complications and examinations of nystagmus should be helpful and therefore prepared by ED staff. Vertigo/dizziness could come from various kinds of organs for equilibrium, sometimes resulting in an emergency due to the central origin. In the present study, we checked patients' background data at the ED in advance of a definitive diagnosis at the Department of Otolaryngology and examined the significance of the correlation between the data and the diagnosis. We studied a series of 120 patients with vertigo/dizziness, who visited the Departments of Emergency and Otolaryngology between April 2011 and March 2012. At the ED, we first checked patients' backgrounds and carried out neurologic and neuro-otologic examinations. At the Department of Otolaryngology, we finally diagnosed all the patients according to the criteria and classified the origins of vertigo/dizziness into central and non-central diseases. The ratio of patients with disease of central origin was 12.5% and that for non-central origin was 87.5%. The risk factors for cerebrovascular disease such as hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes were also the risk factors for central vertigo/dizziness by the chi-squared test. To predict a central origin for vertigo/dizziness, only gaze nystagmus was the significant factor by multivariate regression analysis.

  4. Diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation in patients with dizziness and cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Antonenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of dizziness and instability are the common reason for seeking a neurologist's advice at an outpatient visit and can be the frequent reason for emergency hospitalization.Difficulty in diagnosing the causes of dizziness and instability is due to a diversity of diseases manifested by these symptoms. The list of etiological factors includes peripheral and central vestibular lesions and unrelated nervous system diseases. In a number of cases, dizziness and instability are concurrent with cognitive impairment. Complaints of poor concentration and memory, dizziness and instability can often be associated with brain degenerative and/or vascular lesions, as well as with pathological mood changes and anxiety disorder.The diagnosis of these diseases requires neurovestibular examination, cognitive testing, and assessment of the emotional status of patients. Early detection of the causes of dizziness and memory disorders ensures better treatment results. There are different approaches to therapy for dizziness and cognitive impairment: drug and non-drug correction techniques (vestibular rehabilitation and cognitive training. Biofeedback procedures were shown to be highly effective.The effect of tanakan in treating patients with involvement of the peripheral vestibular system and brain structures is discussed

  5. Restoration of motion blurred images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola, Leopoldo N.; Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-08-01

    Image restoration is a classic problem in image processing. Image degradations can occur due to several reasons, for instance, imperfections of imaging systems, quantization errors, atmospheric turbulence, relative motion between camera or objects, among others. Motion blur is a typical degradation in dynamic imaging systems. In this work, we present a method to estimate the parameters of linear motion blur degradation from a captured blurred image. The proposed method is based on analyzing the frequency spectrum of a captured image in order to firstly estimate the degradation parameters, and then, to restore the image with a linear filter. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by processing synthetic and real-life images. The obtained results are characterized in terms of accuracy of image restoration given by an objective criterion.

  6. Using Opaque Image Blur for Real-Time Depth-of-Field Rendering and Image-Based Motion Blur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    While depth of field is an important cinematographic means, its use in real-time computer graphics is still limited by the computational costs that are necessary to achieve a sufficient image quality. Specifically, color bleeding artifacts between objects at different depths are most effectively...... that the opaque image blur can also be used to add motion blur effects to images in real time....

  7. Computer vision syndrome and ergonomic practices among undergraduate university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowatt, Lizette; Gordon, Carron; Santosh, Arvind Babu Rajendra; Jones, Thaon

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) and ergonomic practices among students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences at The University of the West Indies (UWI), Jamaica. A cross-sectional study was done with a self-administered questionnaire. Four hundred and nine students participated; 78% were females. The mean age was 21.6 years. Neck pain (75.1%), eye strain (67%), shoulder pain (65.5%) and eye burn (61.9%) were the most common CVS symptoms. Dry eyes (26.2%), double vision (28.9%) and blurred vision (51.6%) were the least commonly experienced symptoms. Eye burning (P = .001), eye strain (P = .041) and neck pain (P = .023) were significantly related to level of viewing. Moderate eye burning (55.1%) and double vision (56%) occurred in those who used handheld devices (P = .001 and .007, respectively). Moderate blurred vision was reported in 52% who looked down at the device compared with 14.8% who held it at an angle. Severe eye strain occurred in 63% of those who looked down at a device compared with 21% who kept the device at eye level. Shoulder pain was not related to pattern of use. Ocular symptoms and neck pain were less likely if the device was held just below eye level. There is a high prevalence of Symptoms of CVS amongst university students which could be reduced, in particular neck pain and eye strain and burning, with improved ergonomic practices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Headache and Dizziness: How to Differentiate Vestibular Migraine from Other Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua M; Escasena, Carlos A

    2015-07-01

    Headache and dizziness are two of the most common symptoms prompting medical evaluation and may be seen in many primary and secondary headache and dizziness syndromes. Many of these disease processes share common characteristics making determination of the diagnosis extremely challenging. As more is understood about the concurrence of these symptoms, new diagnostic considerations have emerged, and the beta version of the latest edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders describes a new entity termed vestibular migraine that may affect many patients presenting with headache and dizziness. This article examines the epidemiology of headache and dizziness, describes the presenting features of patients with conditions which often express these two symptoms, discusses recommendations for evaluation and testing for these patients, and serves to aid in the differentiation between vestibular migraine and other potential diagnoses.

  9. Newly diagnosed incident dizziness of older patients: a follow-up study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hummers-Pradier Eva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness is a common complaint of older patients in primary care, yet not much is known about the course of incident dizziness. The aim of the study was to follow-up symptoms, subjective impairments and needs of older patients (≥65 with incident dizziness and to determine predictors of chronic dizziness. Furthermore, we analysed general practitioners' (GPs' initial diagnoses, referrals and revised diagnoses after six months. Methods An observational study was performed in 21 primary care practices in Germany, including a four-week and six-month follow-up. A questionnaire comprising characteristic matters of dizziness and a series of validated instruments was completed by 66 participants during enrolment and follow-up (after 1 month and 6 months. After six months, chart reviews and face-to-face interviews were also performed with the GPs. Results Mean scores of dizziness handicap, depression and quality of life were not or only slightly affected, and did not deteriorate during follow-up; however, 24 patients (34.8% showed a moderate or severe dizziness handicap, and 43 (62.3% showed a certain disability in terms of quality of life at the time of enrolment. In multivariate analysis, n = 44 patients suffering from chronic dizziness (dependent variable, i.e. relapsing or persistent at six months initially had a greater dizziness handicap (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.05-1.47 than patients with transient dizziness. GPs referred 47.8% of the patients to specialists who detected two additional cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. Conclusions New-onset dizziness relapsed or persisted in a considerable number of patients within six months. This was difficult to predict due to the patients' heterogeneous complaints and characteristics. Symptom persistence does not seem to be associated with deterioration of the psychological status in older primary care patients. Management strategies should routinely consider BPPV as

  10. Dizziness in older people: at risk of shared therapeutic nihilism between patient and physician. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Hanneke; Wisse, Marjanne; Mulder, Bram; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Maarsingh, Otto R; van der Horst, Henriëtte E

    2016-07-16

    Dizziness-related impairment is a strong predictor for an unfavourable course of dizziness in older people. In this study we explored the experiences of older patients with significant dizziness-related impairment and their wishes and expectations regarding general practitioner (GP) care. Knowing the expectations and priorities of people with dizziness may enable the GP to provide tailor-made care, which in turn may substantially increase the quality of life and decrease the use and costs of health care. We conducted a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews. We selected patients from ten Dutch general practices. Patients were invited to participate in the study if they were ≥ 65 years, visited their GP because of dizziness and were significantly impaired due to dizziness (Dizziness Handicap Inventory ≥ 30). We applied content analysis to the semi-structured interviews. Thirteen participants participated, seven were female. Analysis of the interviews resulted in the overall theme "Dizziness in older people: at risk of shared therapeutic nihilism by the patient and the GP". Firstly, this can explained by the fact that participants frequently presented dizziness as a secondary complaint when they visited the GP for another complaint. Secondly, participants reported that the GP often could not help them with any treatment. Despite a poor therapeutic outcome, the vast majority of participants was satisfied how the GP handled their dizziness. Yet, understanding the cause of dizziness seems important for dizzy older patients. Despite significant dizziness-related impairment, older dizzy patients may not present dizziness as main reason for encounter. Presenting dizziness as a secondary complaint may give GPs the - wrong - impression that the dizziness-related impairment is only mild. GPs need to be aware of this potential underreporting. Knowing the cause of dizziness seems important for older patients. Yet, GPs regularly did not succeed in

  11. Occlusion edge blur: A cue to relative visual depth

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, J.A.; Burbeck, C.A.; Ariely, D.; Rolland, J.P.; Martin, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    We studied whether the blur/sharpness of an occlusion boundary between a sharply focused surface and a blurred surface is used as a relative depth cue. Observers judged relative depth in pairs of images that differed only in the blurriness of the common boundary between two adjoining texture regions, one blurred and one sharply focused. Two experiments were conducted; in both, observers consistently used the blur of the boundary as a cue to relative depth. However, the strength of the cue, re...

  12. Ocular problems of computer vision syndrome: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayakutty Muni Raja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, ophthalmologists are facing a new group of patients having eye problems related to prolonged and excessive computer use. When the demand for near work exceeds the normal ability of the eye to perform the job comfortably, one develops discomfort and prolonged exposure, which leads to a cascade of reactions that can be put together as computer vision syndrome (CVS. In India, the computer-using population is more than 40 million, and 80% have discomfort due to CVS. Eye strain, headache, blurring of vision and dryness are the most common symptoms. Workstation modification, voluntary blinking, adjustment of the brightness of screen and breaks in between can reduce CVS.

  13. DIZZINESS OF ISCHEMIC GENESIS: DESCRIPTION OF VESTIBULAR DISORDERS AND POSSIBILITY OF THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Alekseeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To reveal the peculiarities of peripheral and central vestibular disorders in patients with mild dizziness in initial and reversible cerebrovascular diseases and estimate the efficacy of dizziness therapy with betahistine dihydrochloride (Betaserc, Solvay Pharma.Material and methods: 40 patients (all women with dizziness were studied. Neurological and otoneurological examination was done; central hemodynamics and number of vascular indices were analyzed. Therapy with Betaserc in daily dose of 48 mg was held during 2 months.Results. Dysfunction of both peripheral and central parts of vestibular analyzer was revealed in all patients. Most patients complained on diminished hearing, buzzing in ears and head, imbalance while walking. All patients mentioned the performance impairment, easy fatigability, change of mood. Therapy with Betaserc improved the condition of 97% patients with dizziness, the intensity of associated acoustic disturbances considerably reduced.Conclusion. Betaserc is an effective drug for dizziness therapy in patients with initial and reversible cerebrovascular diseases.

  14. Physical examination of dizziness in athletes after a concussion: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneker, Jennifer C; Cheruvu, Vinay K; Yang, Jingzhen; James, Mark A; Cook, Chad E

    2018-04-01

    Dizziness is commonly reported after concussion. With the forces experienced at the time of the injury, several anatomical locations may have been altered, causing dizziness. Describe an objective examination and the types of impairment/dysfunction implicated by the results of clinical examination tests in subjects with dizziness after a concussion. Cross-Sectional. Athletes between ages 10-23 were enrolled with a diagnosis of concussion. An examination was completed to identify areas potentially contributing to dizziness, including tests of oculomotor control, the vestibular system, neuromotor control, and musculoskeletal components of the cervical spine. Descriptive analyses were completed to define the anatomical areas/types of dysfunction identified by positive findings of the examination tests. All (n = 41; 100%) subjects had examination findings consistent with central dysfunction. Of these, 36 (97.8%) had oculomotor control deficits; 29 (70.7%) demonstrated motion sensitivity; and 6 (15%) had central vestibular deficits. Nineteen (46.3%) had peripheral dysfunction, including 18 (43.9%) with unilateral hypofunction, and 2 (4.9%) with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. Thirty-four (82.9%) had cervical dysfunction, with 11 (26.8%) presenting with cervicogenic dizziness, and 31 (75.6%) with altered neuromotor control. Functional injury to centrally-mediated pathways, specifically oculomotor control, and afferent and efferent pathways in the cervical spine are commonly identified through clinical examination tests in individuals with a complaint of dizziness post-concussion. According to results presented here, a high majority (90%) of the participants demonstrated dizziness that appeared to be multifactorial in nature and was not attributable to one main type of dysfunction. The common pathways between the systems make it difficult to isolate only one anatomical area as a contributor to dizziness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficient Image Blur in Web-Based Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Scripting languages require the use of high-level library functions to implement efficient image processing; thus, real-time image blur in web-based applications is a challenging task unless specific library functions are available for this purpose. We present a pyramid blur algorithm, which can ...

  16. Manual therapy with and without vestibular rehabilitation for cervicogenic dizziness: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lystad Reidar P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manual therapy is an intervention commonly advocated in the management of dizziness of a suspected cervical origin. Vestibular rehabilitation exercises have been shown to be effective in the treatment of unilateral peripheral vestibular disorders, and have also been suggested in the literature as an adjunct in the treatment of cervicogenic dizziness. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence for manual therapy, in conjunction with or without vestibular rehabilitation, in the management of cervicogenic dizziness. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted in the databases Scopus, Mantis, CINHAL and the Cochrane Library for terms related to manual therapy, vestibular rehabilitation and cervicogenic dizziness. Included studies were assessed using the Maastricht-Amsterdam criteria. Results A total of fifteen articles reporting findings from thirteen unique investigations, including five randomised controlled trials and eight prospective, non-controlled cohort studies were included in this review. The methodological quality of the included studies was generally poor to moderate. All but one study reported improvement in dizziness following either unimodal or multimodal manual therapy interventions. Some studies reported improvements in postural stability, joint positioning, range of motion, muscle tenderness, neck pain and vertebrobasilar artery blood flow velocity. Discussion Although it has been argued that manual therapy combined with vestibular rehabilitation may be superior in the treatment of cervicogenic dizziness, there are currently no observational and experimental studies demonstrating such effects. A rationale for combining manual therapy and vestibular rehabilitation in the management of cervicogenic dizziness is presented. Conclusion There is moderate evidence to support the use of manual therapy, in particular spinal mobilisation and manipulation, for cervicogenic dizziness. The evidence

  17. Anxiety and depressive disorders in elderly with chronic dizziness of vestibular origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Toledo Piza Peluso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Dizziness is one of the most prevalent symptoms in the elderly. Anxiety and depression are common in dizzy adult patients, but there is scarce information about comorbidity between vestibular disturbances and psychiatric disorders in the aged. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression disorders in elderly with chronic dizziness of vestibular origin. METHODS: Transversal study that used the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 to assess anxiety and depressive disorders in elderly patients (≥60 years old with chronic dizziness. RESULTS: Most of the 44 patients included in the study were female (88.6% with a mean age of 71 years (±7.5, 68.1% had experienced dizziness for 1 year or more. The most prevalent diagnosis was benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (52.3%. The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder and specific phobias during life were 29.5% and 22.7%, respectively, and, in the last 12 months, 18.2% and 15.9%. There was no patient with panic disorder, agoraphobia or social phobia. The prevalence of depressive disorder during life was 45.4%, and, in the last 12 months, were 11.3%. CONCLUSION: Aged patients with chronic dizziness had high prevalence of some mental disorders.

  18. Edge Modeling by Two Blur Parameters in Varying Contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Suyoung

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a method of modeling edge profiles with two blur parameters, and estimating and predicting those edge parameters with varying brightness combinations and camera-to-object distances (COD). First, the validity of the edge model is proven mathematically. Then, it is proven experimentally with edges from a set of images captured for specifically designed target sheets and with edges from natural images. Estimation of the two blur parameters for each observed edge profile is performed with a brute-force method to find parameters that produce global minimum errors. Then, using the estimated blur parameters, actual blur parameters of edges with arbitrary brightness combinations are predicted using a surface interpolation method (i.e., kriging). The predicted surfaces show that the two blur parameters of the proposed edge model depend on both dark-side edge brightness and light-side edge brightness following a certain global trend. This is similar across varying CODs. The proposed edge model is compared with a one-blur parameter edge model using experiments of the root mean squared error for fitting the edge models to each observed edge profile. The comparison results suggest that the proposed edge model has superiority over the one-blur parameter edge model in most cases where edges have varying brightness combinations.

  19. Blind estimation of blur in hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mo; Vozel, Benoit; Chehdi, Kacem; Uss, Mykhail; Abramov, Sergey; Lukin, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Hyperspectral images acquired by remote sensing systems are generally degraded by noise and can be sometimes more severely degraded by blur. When no knowledge is available about the degradations present on the original image, blind restoration methods can only be considered. By blind, we mean absolutely no knowledge neither of the blur point spread function (PSF) nor the original latent channel and the noise level. In this study, we address the blind restoration of the degraded channels component-wise, according to a sequential scheme. For each degraded channel, the sequential scheme estimates the blur point spread function (PSF) in a first stage and deconvolves the degraded channel in a second and final stage by means of using the PSF previously estimated. We propose a new component-wise blind method for estimating effectively and accurately the blur point spread function. This method follows recent approaches suggesting the detection, selection and use of sufficiently salient edges in the current processed channel for supporting the regularized blur PSF estimation. Several modifications are beneficially introduced in our work. A new selection of salient edges through thresholding adequately the cumulative distribution of their corresponding gradient magnitudes is introduced. Besides, quasi-automatic and spatially adaptive tuning of the involved regularization parameters is considered. To prove applicability and higher efficiency of the proposed method, we compare it against the method it originates from and four representative edge-sparsifying regularized methods of the literature already assessed in a previous work. Our attention is mainly paid to the objective analysis (via ݈l1-norm) of the blur PSF error estimation accuracy. The tests are performed on a synthetic hyperspectral image. This synthetic hyperspectral image has been built from various samples from classified areas of a real-life hyperspectral image, in order to benefit from realistic spatial

  20. How Commonly Is Stroke Found in Patients with Isolated Vertigo or Dizziness Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doijiri, Ryosuke; Uno, Hisakazu; Miyashita, Kotaro; Ihara, Masafumi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2016-10-01

    The sudden development of vertigo or dizziness without focal neurological symptoms is generally attributable to vestibular diseases such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Isolated vertigo or dizziness attack needs more attention than vestibular diseases. This retrospective study was performed to elucidate the frequency of strokes in patients with isolated vertigo or dizziness attack. We enrolled 221 patients (men, 119; women, 102; mean age, 68.4 ± 10.3 years) who were admitted to our hospital over the last 10 years because of sudden isolated vertigo or dizziness attack without other neurological symptoms except for nystagmus, deafness, or tinnitus. We investigated the clinical features, final diagnosis, neuroimaging findings, and short- or long-term outcome of these patients. One hundred eighteen patients had vertigo whereas the other 103 had dizziness. Brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging revealed recent stroke lesions in 25 patients (11.3%) (ischemic, 21; hemorrhagic, 4).The lesions were generally small and localized in the cerebellum (n = 21), pons (n = 1), medulla oblongata (n = 1), or corona radiata (n = 1). Of the 25 patients, 19 (76%) had dizzy-type spells; none had neurological dysfunction at the time of discharge. In the remaining 196 patients, no stroke was detected on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Stroke was found in 11% of patients with isolated vertigo or dizziness attack. The posterior inferior cerebellar artery area was the most frequently implicated for isolated vertigo or dizziness. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of dizziness on the life quality of elderly with chronic vestibulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika Maria dos; Gazzola, Juliana Maria; Ganança, Cristina Freitas; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena; Ganança, Fernando Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Dizziness impact on the quality of life (QoL) of elderly patients with chronic vestibular dysfunction. To evaluate the association between the impact of dizziness on the QoL of elderly patients with chronic vestibular dysfunction and demographic and clinical variables. A prospective study. A hundred and twenty elderly patients with chronic vestibular dysfunction underwent the Brazilian version of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). In order to verify the association between the QoL and the demographic and clinical variables, the following testes were used: Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's correlation coefficient. There were significant associations between the presence of rotating and non-rotating dizziness with the total score of the DHI (p = 0.010) and physical (p = 0.049) and functional (p = 0.009) subscales; between recurrent falls with total DHI (p = 0.004) and physical (p = 0.045), functional (p = 0.010) and emotional (p = 0.011) subscales. Significant correlations were found between functional incapacity and total DHI (r = + 0.557; p functional (r = + 0.570; p elderly patients with rotating and non-rotating dizziness, recurrent falls and functional incapacity.

  2. Disparity-driven vs blur-driven models of accommodation and convergence in binocular vision and intermittent strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2014-12-01

    To propose an alternative and practical model to conceptualize clinical patterns of concomitant intermittent strabismus, heterophoria, and convergence and accommodation anomalies. Despite identical ratios, there can be a disparity- or blur-biased "style" in three hypothetical scenarios: normal; high ratio of accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) and low ratio of convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C); low AC/A and high CA/C. We calculated disparity bias indices (DBI) to reflect these biases and provide early objective data from small illustrative clinical groups that fit these styles. Normal adults (n = 56) and children (n = 24) showed disparity bias (adult DBI 0.43 [95% CI, 0.50-0.36], child DBI 0.20 [95% CI, 0.31-0.07]; P = 0.001). Accommodative esotropia (n = 3) showed less disparity-bias (DBI 0.03). In the high AC/A-low CA/C scenario, early presbyopia (n = 22) showed mean DBI of 0.17 (95% CI, 0.28-0.06), compared to DBI of -0.31 in convergence excess esotropia (n=8). In the low AC/A-high CA/C scenario near exotropia (n = 17) showed mean DBI of 0.27. DBI ranged between 1.25 and -1.67. Establishing disparity or blur bias adds to AC/A and CA/C ratios to explain clinical patterns. Excessive bias or inflexibility in near-cue use increases risk of clinical problems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a Compact Range-gated Vision System to Monitor Structures in Low-visibility Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Lyul; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Image acquisition in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, automatic vision system to monitor structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments such as the places of a fire and detonation is essential. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog and dust. To overcome the imaging distortion caused by obstacle materials, robust vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination through disturbance materials. One of active vision system is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from the blurred and darken light environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and range image data is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through disturbance materials, such as smoke particles and dust particles. In contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology enables operation even in harsh environments like low-visibility smoky environment. In this paper, a compact range-gated vision system is developed to monitor structures in low-visibility environment. The system consists of illumination light, a range-gating camera and a control computer. Visualization experiments are carried out in low-visibility foggy environment to see imaging capability

  4. Development of a Compact Range-gated Vision System to Monitor Structures in Low-visibility Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Lyul; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Image acquisition in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, automatic vision system to monitor structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments such as the places of a fire and detonation is essential. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog and dust. To overcome the imaging distortion caused by obstacle materials, robust vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination through disturbance materials. One of active vision system is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from the blurred and darken light environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and range image data is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through disturbance materials, such as smoke particles and dust particles. In contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology enables operation even in harsh environments like low-visibility smoky environment. In this paper, a compact range-gated vision system is developed to monitor structures in low-visibility environment. The system consists of illumination light, a range-gating camera and a control computer. Visualization experiments are carried out in low-visibility foggy environment to see imaging capability.

  5. Anxiety in a dizzy patient: the importance of communication in improving outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Terry D

    2012-10-01

    Most patients with dizziness have a benign self-limited condition, often of labyrinthine origin; however, some develop a more intractable form of dizziness that can be challenging to evaluate. In many of these patients, brain imaging, vestibular testing, and clinical examination are normal, but the patient is significantly impaired. Many such patients have coexisting anxiety, which can make it difficult to determine whether the anxiety is a reaction to the dizziness or its primary cause. A careful history, including an assessment of the impact of symptoms on quality-of-life, social, and work-related issues is critical, and effective patient communication is essential. The following case exemplifies how a high-functioning person can become severely limited because of the complex intertwining of several types of dizziness with anxiety.

  6. Automatic detection of blurred images in UAV image sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberth, Till; Wackrow, Rene; Chandler, Jim H.

    2016-12-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become an interesting and active research topic for photogrammetry. Current research is based on images acquired by an UAV, which have a high ground resolution and good spectral and radiometrical resolution, due to the low flight altitudes combined with a high resolution camera. UAV image flights are also cost effective and have become attractive for many applications including, change detection in small scale areas. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. This can be caused by the normal flight movement of the UAV as well as strong winds, turbulence or sudden operator inputs. This blur disturbs the visual analysis and interpretation of the data, causes errors and can degrade the accuracy in automatic photogrammetric processing algorithms. The detection and removal of these images is currently achieved manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error, particularly for large image-sets. To increase the quality of data processing an automated process is necessary, which must be both reliable and quick. This paper describes the development of an automatic filtering process, which is based upon the quantification of blur in an image. Images with known blur are processed digitally to determine a quantifiable measure of image blur. The algorithm is required to process UAV images fast and reliably to relieve the operator from detecting blurred images manually. The newly developed method makes it possible to detect blur caused by linear camera displacement and is based on human detection of blur. Humans detect blurred images best by comparing it to other images in order to establish whether an image is blurred or not. The developed algorithm simulates this procedure by creating an image for comparison using image processing. Creating internally a comparable image makes the method independent of

  7. Rate and predictors of serious neurologic causes of dizziness in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navi, Babak B; Kamel, Hooman; Shah, Maulik P; Grossman, Aaron W; Wong, Christine; Poisson, Sharon N; Whetstone, William D; Josephson, S Andrew; Johnston, S Claiborne; Kim, Anthony S

    2012-11-01

    To describe the rate and predictors of central nervous system (CNS) disease in emergency department (ED) patients with dizziness in the modern era of neuroimaging. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all adults presenting between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2009, to an academic ED for a primary triage complaint of dizziness, vertigo, or imbalance. The final diagnosis for the cause of dizziness was independently assigned by 2 neurologists, with a third neurologist resolving any disagreements. The primary outcome was a composite of ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack, seizure, brain tumor, demyelinating disease, and CNS infection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess the association between clinical variables and serious CNS causes of dizziness. Of 907 patients experiencing dizziness (mean age, 59 years; 58% women [n=529]), 49 (5%) had a serious neurologic diagnosis, including 37 cerebrovascular events. Dizziness was often caused by benign conditions, such as peripheral vertigo (294 patients [32%]) or orthostatic hypotension (121 patients [13%]). Age 60 years or older (odds ratio [OR], 5.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-11.2), a chief complaint of imbalance (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.3-15.2), and any focal examination abnormality (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 3.1-11.2) were independently associated with serious neurologic diagnoses, whereas isolated dizziness symptoms were inversely associated (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.0-0.7). Dizziness in the ED is generally benign, although a substantial fraction of patients harbor serious neurologic disease. Clinical suspicion should be heightened for patients with advanced age, imbalance, or focal deficits. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vertigo/dizziness in pediatric emergency department: Five years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci, Umberto; Vanacore, Nicola; Paolino, Maria Chiara; Silenzi, Romina; Mariani, Rosanna; Urbano, Antonella; Reale, Antonino; Villa, Maria Pia; Parisi, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Vertigo/Dizziness in childhood is not a rare cause of visits to the emergency department (ED). We analyzed a selected group with vertigo/dizziness to identify signs and symptoms that may help to guide the diagnostic approach and management. A total of 616 children admitted for vertigo to the ED over a five-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Their medical history, clinical characteristics, laboratory and neuroimaging tests, final diagnoses and management were analyzed. Migraine and syncope were the most frequent causes. Two patients were affected by life-threatening cardiac syncope, while structural life-threatening central nervous system diseases were found in 15 patients, none of whom presented with vertigo as an isolated clinical finding. Most cases of vertigo/dizziness in childhood that consist mainly of migraine and syncope are of benign origin. The prompt identification of neurological or cardiological signs or symptoms associated with vertigo in children is mandatory to rule out life-threatening conditions. © International Headache Society 2015.

  9. Importance of an Interprofessional Team Approach in Achieving Improved Management of the Dizzy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Amanda I; Zupancic, Steven; Song, Michael M; Cordero, Joehassin; Nguyen, Tam Q; Seifert, Charles

    2017-03-01

    Because of its multifaceted nature, dizziness is difficult for clinicians to diagnose and manage independently. Current treatment trends suggest that patients are often referred to the otolaryngologist for intervention despite having a nonotologic disorder. Additionally, many individuals with atypical presentations are often misdiagnosed and spend a significant amount of time waiting for consultation by the otolaryngologist. Few studies have alluded that implementation of an interprofessional team approach in the diagnosis and management of the dizzy patient can improve clinical decision-making. However, to the authors' knowledge, there is no information specifically quantifying the outcomes and potential benefits of using an interprofessional balance care team approach. To compare dizziness diagnoses trends and referral practices with and without the use of an interprofessional management approach within a university healthcare system. Over the course of a 3-yr period, a retrospective review of the diagnosis and management of dizziness was performed with and without implementation of an interprofessional team. To observe potential differences, year 3 incorporated the interprofessional management approach while years 1-2 did not. The two periods were then compared to each other. A total of 134 patients referred to a university hearing clinic for a vestibular and balance function evaluation. Diagnoses and management trends were examined with descriptive statistics (percentages and frequencies). Fisher's exact tests, analysis of contingency tables, were conducted to evaluate the influence of interprofessional management on dizziness diagnoses and treatment patterns. Results demonstrated that before implementation of an interprofessional team approach, (1) referring clinicians used unspecific dizziness diagnosis codes (e.g., dizziness and giddiness), (2) a low number of patients with dizziness were referred for balance function testing, (3) diagnoses remained

  10. Assessment of dizziness among older patients at a family practice clinic: a chart audit study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimlott Nicholas JG

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness is a common complaint among the elderly with a prevalence of over 30% in people over the age of 65. Although it is a common problem the assessment and management of dizziness in the elderly is challenging for family physicians. There is little published research which assesses the quality of dizziness assessment and management by family physicians. Methods We conducted a retrospective, chart audit study of patients with dizziness attending the Sunnybrook Family Practice Center of Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Center (SWCHSC in Toronto. We audited a random sample of 50 charts of patients from 310 eligible charts. Quality indicators across all dizziness subtypes were assessed. These quality indicators included: onset and course of symptoms; symptoms in patients' own words; number of medications used; postural blood pressure changes; symptoms of depression or anxiety; falls; syncope; diagnosis; outcome; specialty referrals. Quality indicators specific to each dizziness subtype were also audited. Results 310 charts satisfied inclusion criteria with 20 charts excluded and 50 charts were randomly generated. Documentation of key quality indicators in the management of dizziness was sub-optimal. Charts documenting patients' dizziness symptoms in their own words were more likely to have a clinical diagnosis compared to charts without (P = 0.002. Conclusions Documentation of selected key quality indicators could be improved, especially that of patients' symptoms in their own words.

  11. [A design of refractometer based on blur circle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yikui; Huang, Shenghai; Ye, Huifang; Zou, Ruitao; Tong, Gengmin; Zhuo, Ran

    2011-03-01

    Design a convenient and stable eye refractometer based on the theory of blur circle. Analyze the retinal blur circle in both Emsly reduced eye model and Liou & Brennan 1997 eye model by ZEMAX. Design the coefficients including PD (pupil diameter) and NO' (length between node point and fovea) with the purpose of improving the accuracy. At last, compare the clinical optometry data from this refractor with the data obtained from optometry hospital in Wenzhou. The blur circle diameters are nearly the same in both reduced eye model and the Liou & Brennan 1997 eye model. With the PD = 4 mm and NO' = 20 mm, the refractor shows a fine accuracy in optometry. The paired t test shows that the myopia group and the astigmatism axial direction group have no statistical difference between the data from the blur circle refractor and the hospital (P > 0.05), while the astigmatism degree group has the result of P = 0.41 which may be caused by the poor cooperation of pediatric patients. 80% of the astigmatism degree data differ from the data from the hospital in less than 0.75D. The blur circle refractor, with the features of convenience and fine accuracy, is promised to be a new style of refractometer in the future.

  12. INTEGRATION OF IMAGE-DERIVED AND POS-DERIVED FEATURES FOR IMAGE BLUR DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-A. Teo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The image quality plays an important role for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV’s applications. The small fixed wings UAV is suffering from the image blur due to the crosswind and the turbulence. Position and Orientation System (POS, which provides the position and orientation information, is installed onto an UAV to enable acquisition of UAV trajectory. It can be used to calculate the positional and angular velocities when the camera shutter is open. This study proposes a POS-assisted method to detect the blur image. The major steps include feature extraction, blur image detection and verification. In feature extraction, this study extracts different features from images and POS. The image-derived features include mean and standard deviation of image gradient. For POS-derived features, we modify the traditional degree-of-linear-blur (blinear method to degree-of-motion-blur (bmotion based on the collinear condition equations and POS parameters. Besides, POS parameters such as positional and angular velocities are also adopted as POS-derived features. In blur detection, this study uses Support Vector Machines (SVM classifier and extracted features (i.e. image information, POS data, blinear and bmotion to separate blur and sharp UAV images. The experiment utilizes SenseFly eBee UAV system. The number of image is 129. In blur image detection, we use the proposed degree-of-motion-blur and other image features to classify the blur image and sharp images. The classification result shows that the overall accuracy using image features is only 56%. The integration of image-derived and POS-derived features have improved the overall accuracy from 56% to 76% in blur detection. Besides, this study indicates that the performance of the proposed degree-of-motion-blur is better than the traditional degree-of-linear-blur.

  13. [Analyses of clinical features and efficacy of sudden deafness with vertigo and dizziness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Han, Demin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Yongxin; Gong, Shusheng; Chen, Xiuwu; Meng, Xixi; Tang, Junxiang; Xiang, Jie; Jiang, Xuejun; Yang, Ning; Tian, Ying; Hui, Lian; Feng, Shuai

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics and the effect of drug treatment for sudden hearing loss with vertigo or dizziness. In a prospective, randomized, single blinded randomized multicenter clinical study, patients with sudden deafness, ranging in age from 18 to 65 years old, with a duration less than 2 weeks, and with no any medical treatments were collected. In accordance with the hearing curve, those patients were divided into four types, i.e., low and intermediate frequency descent type; high frequency descent type; fall flat type; and total deafness type. Each type was treated by four different treatment options, according to the unified design of the random table, and randomly selected one of the options for treatment. The efficacy of the patients with sudden deafness with vertigo and dizziness was analyzed statistically after the follow-up for 4 weeks. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. In August 2007 to October 2011, 33 hospitals in the country included 1 024 patients with sudden deafness in line with the inclusion criteria, of whom 296 (28.91%) were accompanied by vertigo/dizziness symptoms, 126 were males and 170 were females, with an average age of (41.2 ± 13.5) years old. types of the different audiometric curves of sudden deafness, the occurrence of complete deafness with vertigo/dizziness was the highest (44.93%), followed by flat down type (25.87%), high frequency descent type (21.28%) and low intermediate frequency descent type (18.54%). After the standard treatment, the vertigo and dizziness symptoms of the sudden deafness patients could disappear, and the hearing in each group was obviously improved. The hearing curative effect on patients accompanied by vertigo/dizziness of low frequency and intermediate frequency descent type was the best, and the total efficiency can reach up to 94.74%, with the cure rate of 68.42%; followed by flat type, in which the total effective rate was 80.76%, with the recovery rate of 22.12%; and

  14. Altered vision destabilizes gait in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Hesseberg, Karin; Sletvold, Olav

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of dim light and four experimentally induced changes in vision on gait speed and footfall and trunk parameters in older persons walking on level ground. Using a quasi-experimental design, gait characteristics were assessed in full light, dim light, and in dim light combined with manipulations resulting in reduced depth vision, double vision, blurred vision, and tunnel vision, respectively. A convenience sample of 24 home-dwelling older women and men (mean age 78.5 years, SD 3.4) with normal vision for their age and able to walk at least 10 m without assistance participated. Outcome measures were gait speed and spatial and temporal parameters of footfall and trunk acceleration, derived from an electronic gait mat and accelerometers. Dim light alone had no effect. Vision manipulations combined with dim light had effect on most footfall parameters but few trunk parameters. The largest effects were found regarding double and tunnel vision. Men increased and women decreased gait speed following manipulations (p=0.017), with gender differences also in stride velocity variability (p=0.017) and inter-stride medio-lateral trunk acceleration variability (p=0.014). Gender effects were related to differences in body height and physical functioning. Results indicate that visual problems lead to a more cautious and unstable gait pattern even under relatively simple conditions. This points to the importance of assessing vision in older persons and correcting visual impairments where possible.

  15. Examining postconcussion symptoms of dizziness and imbalance on neurocognitive performance in collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honaker, Julie A; Lester, Houston F; Patterson, Jessie N; Jones, Sherri M

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the effects of symptom reports of dizziness and imbalance on cognitive function in concussed collegiate football players. Retrospective, descriptive. University athletic medicine facility. Twenty-seven collegiate football players were included in the final analysis: 16 with symptoms of dizziness/imbalance resulting from concussion and 11 without dizziness/imbalance resulting from concussion. Participants completed the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) at baseline, at 1 to 2 days postconcussion and 5 to 7 days postconcussion. The ImPACT neurocognitive assessment consists of 6 modules, yielding 4 composite scores: verbal memory, visual memory, visual-motor processing speed, and reaction time. In addition, it includes a postconcussion symptom scale total score. Results revealed that participants with reports of dizziness and imbalance had significantly lower scores on the ImPACT composite scores; however, these individuals also had an overall higher symptom inventory. When accounting for the additional postconcussion symptoms, time was the only significant effect. Dizziness and imbalance are common symptoms postconcussion; however, these symptoms did not predict performance on acute ImPACT scores. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms causing postconcussion symptoms, including symptoms of dizziness and imbalance, and influence on outcomes postconcussion.

  16. Impact of computer use on children's vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozeis, N

    2009-10-01

    Today, millions of children use computers on a daily basis. Extensive viewing of the computer screen can lead to eye discomfort, fatigue, blurred vision and headaches, dry eyes and other symptoms of eyestrain. These symptoms may be caused by poor lighting, glare, an improper work station set-up, vision problems of which the person was not previously aware, or a combination of these factors. Children can experience many of the same symptoms related to computer use as adults. However, some unique aspects of how children use computers may make them more susceptible than adults to the development of these problems. In this study, the most common eye symptoms related to computer use in childhood, the possible causes and ways to avoid them are reviewed.

  17. Usual care and management of fall risk increasing drugs in older dizzy patients in Dutch general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Hanneke; Harting, Thomas; van der Sluijs, Marjolijn; van Marum, Rob; van der Horst, Henriëtte; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Maarsingh, Otto R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective For general practitioners (GPs) dizziness is a challenging condition to deal with. Data on the management of dizziness in older patients are mostly lacking. Furthermore, it is unknown whether GPs attempt to decrease Fall Risk Increasing Drugs (FRIDs) use in the management of dizziness in older patients. The aim of this study is to gain more insight into GP’s management of dizziness in older patients, including FRID evaluation and adjustment. Design Data were derived from electronic medical records, obtained over a 12-month period in 2013. Setting Forty-six Dutch general practices. Patients The study sample comprised of 2812 older dizzy patients of 65 years and over. Patients were identified using International Classification of Primary Care codes and free text. Main outcome measures Usual care was categorized into wait-and-see strategy (no treatment initiated); education and advice; additional testing; medication adjustment; and referral. Results Frequently applied treatments included a wait-and-see strategy (28.4%) and education and advice (28.0%). Additional testing was performed in 26.8%; 19.0% of the patients were referred. Of the patients 87.2% had at least one FRID prescription. During the observation period, GPs adjusted the use of one or more FRIDs for 11.7% of the patients. Conclusion This study revealed a wide variety in management strategies for dizziness in older adults. The referral rate for dizziness was high compared to prior research. Although many older dizzy patients use at least one FRID, FRID evaluation and adjustment is scarce. We expect that more FRID adjustments may reduce dizziness and dizziness-related impairment. Key PointsIt is important to know how general practitioners manage dizziness in older patients in order to assess potential cues for improvement.This study revealed a wide variety in management strategies for dizziness in older patients.There was a scarcity in Fall Risk Increasing Drug (FRID) evaluation and adjustment

  18. DETECTING AND CORRECTING MOTION BLUR FROM IMAGES SHOT WITH CHANNEL-DEPENDENT EXPOSURE TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lelégard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a pipeline developed to automatically detect and correct motion blur due to the airplane motion in aerial images provided by a digital camera system with channel-dependent exposure times. Blurred images show anisotropy in their Fourier Transform coefficients that can be detected and estimated to recover the characteristics of the motion blur. To disambiguate the anisotropy produced by a motion blur from the possible spectral anisotropy produced by some periodic patterns present in a sharp image, we consider the phase difference of the Fourier Transform of two channel shot with different exposure times (i.e. with different blur extensions. This is possible because of the deep correlation between the three visible channels ensures phase coherence of the Fourier Transform coefficients in sharp images. In this context, considering the phase difference constitutes both a good detector and estimator of the motion blur parameters. In order to improve on this estimation, the phase difference is performed on local windows in the image where the channels are more correlated. The main lobe of the phase difference, where the phase difference between two channels is close to zero actually imitates an ellipse which axis ratio discriminates blur and which orientation and minor axis give respectively the orientation and the blur kernel extension of the long exposure-time channels. However, this approach is not robust to the presence in the phase difference of minor lobes due to phase sign inversions in the Fourier transform of the motion blur. They are removed by considering the polar representation of the phase difference. Based on the blur detection step, blur correction is eventually performed using two different approaches depending on the blur extension size: using either a simple frequency-based fusion for small blur or a semi blind iterative method for larger blur. The higher computing costs of the latter method make it only

  19. Cerebellar stroke presenting with isolated dizziness: Brain MRI in 136 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, Michael D; Patel, Nimesh S; Kase, Carlos S; Oza, Anuja U; Voetsch, Barbara; Romero, Jose R

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate occurrence of cerebellar stroke in Emergency Department (ED) presentations of isolated dizziness (dizziness with a normal exam and negative neurological review of systems). A 5-year retrospective study of ED patients presenting with a chief complaint of "dizziness or vertigo", without other symptoms or signs in narrative history or on exam to suggest a central nervous system lesion, and work-up included a brain MRI within 48h. Patients with symptoms commonly peripheral in etiology (nystagmus, tinnitus, gait instability, etc.) were included in the study. Patient demographics, stroke risk factors, and gait assessments were recorded. One hundred and thirty-six patients, who had a brain MRI for isolated dizziness, were included. There was a low correlation of gait assessment between ED physician and Neurologist (49 patients, Spearman's correlation r 2 =0.17). Based on MRI DWI sequence, 3.7% (5/136 patients) had acute cerebellar strokes, limited to or including, the medial posterior inferior cerebellar artery vascular territory. In the 5 cerebellar stroke patients, mean age, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c, gender distribution, and prevalence of hypertension were similar to the non-cerebellar stroke patient group. Mean LDL/HDL ratio was 3.63±0.80 and smoking prevalence was 80% in the cerebellar stroke group compared to 2.43±0.79 and 22% (respectively, p valuesstroke group. Though there was preselection bias for stroke risk factors, our study suggests an important proportion of cerebellar stroke among ED patients with isolated dizziness, considering how common this complaint is. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Visually Induced Dizziness in Children and Validation of the Pediatric Visually Induced Dizziness Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marousa Pavlou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AimsTo develop and validate the Pediatric Visually Induced Dizziness Questionnaire (PVID and quantify the presence and severity of visually induced dizziness (ViD, i.e., symptoms induced by visual motion stimuli including crowds and scrolling computer screens in children.Methods169 healthy (female n = 89; recruited from mainstream schools, London, UK and 114 children with a primary migraine, concussion, or vestibular disorder diagnosis (female n = 62, aged 6–17 years, were included. Children with primary migraine were recruited from mainstream schools while children with concussion or vestibular disorder were recruited from tertiary balance centers in London, UK, and Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Children completed the PVID, which assesses the frequency of dizziness and unsteadiness experienced in specific environmental situations, and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, a brief behavioral screening instrument.ResultsThe PVID showed high internal consistency (11 items; α = 0.90. A significant between-group difference was noted with higher (i.e., worse PVID scores for patients vs. healthy participants (U = 2,436.5, z = −10.719, p < 0.001; a significant difference was noted between individual patient groups [χ2(2 = 11.014, p = 0.004] but post hoc analysis showed no significant pairwise comparisons. The optimal cut-off score for discriminating between individuals with and without abnormal ViD levels was 0.45 out of 3 (sensitivity 83%, specificity 75%. Self-rated emotional (U = 2,730.0, z = −6.169 and hyperactivity (U = 3,445.0, z = −4.506 SDQ subscale as well as informant (U = 188.5, z = −3.916 and self-rated (U = 3,178.5, z = −5.083 total scores were significantly worse for patients compared to healthy participants (p < 0.001.ConclusionViD is common in children with a primary concussion, migraine, or vestibular diagnosis. The PVID is a valid measure for

  1. The effectiveness of manual therapy in treating cervicogenic dizziness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Khalid; Hendrick, Paul; Ismail, Ayah; Felemban, Mohannad; Alshehri, Mansour Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This review provides an evaluation of the evidence for the effectiveness of using manual therapy to treat cervicogenic dizziness. [Subjects and Methods] The literature was systematically searched on the May 2, 2016 using the following online databases: Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDro. This review included randomised controlled trials and compared the efficacy of manual therapy for the treatment of cervicogenic dizziness, compared to other types of intervention. This study measured changes based on dizziness intensity and frequency. [Results] The primary search found 30 articles, but only four articles met the inclusion criteria. Assessment of methodological quality was performed by two researchers using the PEDro scale. The level of evidence was determined using a recognised grading scale. Three out of the four articles were deemed to have high methodological quality, while the fourth was rated as moderate quality. The attributed level of evidence was moderate (level 2). [Conclusion] Manual therapy is potentially effective for managing cervicogenic dizziness. However, due to the heterogeneity of the results and techniques and the low number of studies, further research is recommended to provide conclusive evidence.

  2. [Ophthalmologist and "computer vision syndrome"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barar, A; Apatachioaie, Ioana Daniela; Apatachioaie, C; Marceanu-Brasov, L

    2007-01-01

    The authors had tried to collect the data available on the Internet about a subject that we consider as being totally ignored in the Romanian scientific literature and unexpectedly insufficiently treated in the specialized ophthalmologic literature. Known in the specialty literature under the generic name of "Computer vision syndrome", it is defined by the American Optometric Association as a complex of eye and vision problems related to the activities which stress the near vision and which are experienced in relation, or during, the use of the computer. During the consultations we hear frequent complaints of eye-strain - asthenopia, headaches, blurred distance and/or near vision, dry and irritated eyes, slow refocusing, neck and backache, photophobia, sensation of diplopia, light sensitivity, and double vision, but because of the lack of information, we overlooked them too easily, without going thoroughly into the real motives. In most of the developed countries, there are recommendations issued by renowned medical associations with regard to the definition, the diagnosis, and the methods for the prevention, treatment and periodical control of the symptoms found in computer users, in conjunction with an extremely detailed ergonomic legislation. We found out that these problems incite a much too low interest in our country. We would like to rouse the interest of our ophthalmologist colleagues in the understanding and the recognition of these symptoms and in their treatment, or at least their improvement, through specialized measures or through the cooperation with our specialist occupational medicine colleagues.

  3. Motion-Blur-Free High-Speed Video Shooting Using a Resonant Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiaki Inoue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel concept of actuator-driven frame-by-frame intermittent tracking for motion-blur-free video shooting of fast-moving objects. The camera frame and shutter timings are controlled for motion blur reduction in synchronization with a free-vibration-type actuator vibrating with a large amplitude at hundreds of hertz so that motion blur can be significantly reduced in free-viewpoint high-frame-rate video shooting for fast-moving objects by deriving the maximum performance of the actuator. We develop a prototype of a motion-blur-free video shooting system by implementing our frame-by-frame intermittent tracking algorithm on a high-speed video camera system with a resonant mirror vibrating at 750 Hz. It can capture 1024 × 1024 images of fast-moving objects at 750 fps with an exposure time of 0.33 ms without motion blur. Several experimental results for fast-moving objects verify that our proposed method can reduce image degradation from motion blur without decreasing the camera exposure time.

  4. Vestibular asymmetry predicts falls among elderly patients with multi-sensory dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekvall Hansson, Eva; Magnusson, Måns

    2013-07-22

    Dizziness is the most common symptom in elderly patients and has been identified as a risk factor for falls. While BPPV is the most common cause of dizziness among elderly, multisensory deficits is the second, with visual, vestibular and proprioceptive reduced function. Asymmetric vestibular function is overrepresented in elderly persons with hip fractures and wrist fractures and can be accessed for screening. In this prospective study with one year observation period, 55 patients (41 women, 14 men), 65 to 90 years old (median 80, interquartile range 11) with multisensory dizziness were included. Headshake test were pathologic in 24 patients, which substantially increased the risk of falls (OR 3.4). Thirteen of the 21 patients who had fallen (p = 0.03), and all 6 patients who sustained three falls or more (p = 0.04), had vestibular asymmetry. No other measure could predict the risk of falls (OR 0.55-1.71). Signs of vestibular asymmetry among elderly with multisensory dizziness could predict falls. Hence, it seems important to address fall-prevention programs to such a group of patients. Simple bedside tests of vestibular asymmetry might be a possibility to screen for one risk factor for falls among elderly.

  5. A Single Image Deblurring Algorithm for Nonuniform Motion Blur Using Uniform Defocus Map Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common artifacts in digital photography is motion blur. When capturing an image under dim light by using a handheld camera, the tendency of the photographer’s hand to shake causes the image to blur. In response to this problem, image deblurring has become an active topic in computational photography and image processing in recent years. From the view of signal processing, image deblurring can be reduced to a deconvolution problem if the kernel function of the motion blur is assumed to be shift invariant. However, the kernel function is not always shift invariant in real cases; for example, in-plane rotation of a camera or a moving object can blur different parts of an image according to different kernel functions. An image that is degraded by multiple blur kernels is called a nonuniform blur image. In this paper, we propose a novel single image deblurring algorithm for nonuniform motion blur images that is blurred by moving object. First, a proposed uniform defocus map method is presented for measurement of the amounts and directions of motion blur. These blurred regions are then used to estimate point spread functions simultaneously. Finally, a fast deconvolution algorithm is used to restore the nonuniform blur image. We expect that the proposed method can achieve satisfactory deblurring of a single nonuniform blur image.

  6. Vestibular asymmetry predicts falls among elderly patients with multi- sensory dizziness

    OpenAIRE

    Ekvall Hansson, Eva; Magnusson, M?ns

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dizziness is the most common symptom in elderly patients and has been identified as a risk factor for falls. While BPPV is the most common cause of dizziness among elderly, multisensory deficits is the second, with visual, vestibular and proprioceptive reduced function. Asymmetric vestibular function is overrepresented in elderly persons with hip fractures and wrist fractures and can be accessed for screening. The objective was to study if vestibular asymmetry, vibration sense, ba...

  7. Computer Vision Syndrome in Eleven to Eighteen-Year-Old Students in Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Prolonged use of computers can lead to complications such as eye strain, eye and head aches, double and blurred vision, tired eyes, irritation, burning and itching eyes, eye redness, light sensitivity, dry eyes, muscle strains, and other problems. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate visual problems and major symptoms, and their associations among computer users, aged between 11 and 18 years old, residing in the Qazvin city of Iran, during year 2010. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was done on 642 secondary to pre university students who had referred to the eye clinic of Buali hospital of Qazvin during year 2013. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information and 26 questions on visual effects of the computer was used to gather information. Participants answered all questions and then underwent complete eye examinations and in some cases cycloplegic refraction. Visual acuity (VA was measured with a logMAR in six meters. Refraction errors were determined using an auto refractometer (Potece and Heine retinoscope. The collected data was then analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. Results The results of this study indicated that 63.86% of the subjects had refractive errors. Refractive errors were significantly different in children of different genders (P < 0.05. The most common complaints associated with the continuous use of computers were eyestrain, eye pain, eye redness, headache, and blurred vision. The most prevalent (81.8% eye-related problem in computer users was eyestrain and the least prevalent was dry eyes (7.84%. In order to reduce computer related problems 54.2% of the participants suggested taking enough rest, 37.9% recommended use of computers only for necessary tasks, while 24.4% and 19.1% suggested the use of monitor shields and proper working distance, respectively. Conclusions Our findings revealed that using computers for prolonged periods of time can lead to eye

  8. Blurred digital mammography images: an analysis of technical recall and observer detection performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wang Kei; Borgen, Rita; Kelly, Judith; Millington, Sara; Hilton, Beverley; Aspin, Rob; Lança, Carla; Hogg, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Blurred images in full-field digital mammography are a problem in the UK Breast Screening Programme. Technical recalls may be due to blurring not being seen on lower resolution monitors used for review. This study assesses the visual detection of blurring on a 2.3-MP monitor and a 5-MP report grade monitor and proposes an observer standard for the visual detection of blurring on a 5-MP reporting grade monitor. 28 observers assessed 120 images for blurring; 20 images had no blurring present, whereas 100 images had blurring imposed through mathematical simulation at 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mm levels of motion. Technical recall rate for both monitors and angular size at each level of motion were calculated. χ 2 tests were used to test whether significant differences in blurring detection existed between 2.3- and 5-MP monitors. The technical recall rate for 2.3- and 5-MP monitors are 20.3% and 9.1%, respectively. The angular size for 0.2- to 1-mm motion varied from 55 to 275 arc s. The minimum amount of motion for visual detection of blurring in this study is 0.4 mm. For 0.2-mm simulated motion, there was no significant difference [χ 2 (1, N = 1095) = 1.61, p = 0.20] in blurring detection between the 2.3- and 5-MP monitors. According to this study, monitors ≤2.3 MP are not suitable for technical review of full-field digital mammography images for the detection of blur. Advances in knowledge: This research proposes the first observer standard for the visual detection of blurring.

  9. Long-term outcome of vertigo and dizziness associated disorders following treatment in specialized tertiary care: the Dizziness and Vertigo Registry (DiVeR) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, Mark; Bock, Eva; Sabev, Nikolay; Lehmann, Nils; Weber, Ralph; Gerwig, Marcus; Frings, Markus; Arweiler-Harbeck, Diana; Lang, Stephan; Diener, Hans-Christoph

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the long-term outcome of interdisciplinary treatment in a tertiary care neuro-otology institution after 2 years as part of the Dizziness and Vertigo Registry study. Risk factors associated with unfavourable outcome were assessed. 3113 consecutive patients with disorders of vertigo and dizziness were recruited prospectively between March 2010 and February 2012. Patients were clinically assessed and treated according to their diagnosis. Standardized instruments were used at baseline and at 2-year follow-up [Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Quality of Life Questionnaire, General Depression Scale, Stait-Trait Anxiety Index], as well as a custom health-related questionnaire. The primary outcome variable of this observational study was the change in DHI after 2 years. Patients suffered from phobic postural vertigo (23%), benign peripheral paroxysmal vertigo (14.4%), unilateral vestibulopathy (10.5%), central vestibular disorders (8%), Menière's disease (9.8%), vestibular migraine (6.9%), bilateral vestibulopathy (5.5%), and vestibular paroxysmia (3.1%). Mean disease duration was 4.6 ± 6.3 years. 1272 patients were available for follow-up, 1159 completed the DHI score. 72.1% of patients improved in DHI score from baseline to 2 years follow-up. Mean reduction in DHI score was 14 points (p = 0.02). Long-term outcome following diagnosis and treatment in a specialized tertiary care centre is good and persistent after 2 years. Risk factors for an unfavourable outcome were advanced age, severe disability, constant vertigo or dizziness, and concomitant back pain, while depression and anxiety did not contribute to this risk considerably.

  10. Efficacy and safety of acupuncture for dizziness and vertigo in emergency department: a pilot cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Wen; Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Hsu, Po-Chi; Chen, Chia-Yun; Chang, Shun-Chang; Chiang, John Y; Lo, Lun-Chien

    2015-06-09

    Dizziness and vertigo account for roughly 4% of chief symptoms in the emergency department (ED). Pharmacological therapy is often applied for these symptoms, such as vestibular suppressants, anti-emetics and benzodiazepines. However, every medication is accompanied with unavoidable side-effects. There are several research articles providing evidence of acupuncture treating dizziness and vertigo but few studies of acupuncture as an emergent intervention in ED. We performed a pilot cohort study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in treating patients with dizziness and vertigo in ED. A total of 60 participants, recruited in ED, were divided into acupuncture and control group. Life-threatening conditions or central nervous system disorders were excluded to ensure participants' safety. The clinical effect of treating dizziness and vertigo was evaluated by performing statistical analyses on data collected from questionnaires of Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of dizziness and vertigo, and heart rate variability (HRV). The variation of VAS demonstrated a significant decrease (p-value: 0.001 and p-value: 0.037) between two groups after two different durations: 30 mins and 7 days. The variation of DHI showed no significant difference after 7 days. HRV revealed a significant increase in high frequency (HF) in the acupuncture group. No adverse event was reported in this study. Acupuncture demonstrates a significant immediate effect in reducing discomforts and VAS of both dizziness and vertigo. This study provides clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of acupuncture to treat dizziness and vertigo in the emergency department. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02358239 . Registered 5 February 2015.

  11. Diagnostic indicators of anxiety and depression in older dizzy patients in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, O.R.; Dros, J.; Windt, D.A. van der; Riet, G. ter; Schellevis, F.G.; Weert, H.C. van; Horst, H.E. van der

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dizzy patients with both psychological and physical symptoms tend to have high levels of disability and are at risk of remaining symptomatic and disabled. The objective of this study was to develop a prediction model for the presence of anxiety and/or depression in older dizzy patients

  12. Biobehavioural analysis of the vestibular system and posture control in patients with cervicogenic dizziness. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande-Alonso, M; Moral Saiz, B; Mínguez Zuazo, A; Lerma Lara, S; La Touche, R

    2018-03-01

    Cervicogenic dizziness is a musculoskeletal disorder mainly characterised by dizziness and disequilibrium associated with neck pain. The pathophysiology is unclear and the neurophysiological basis remains to be ascertained. The aim of this study is to compare the vestibulo-ocular reflex and postural control between patients with cervicogenic dizziness and asymptomatic subjects, and to assess the association between debilitating dizziness and other psychosocial variables. A total of 20 patients and 22 asymptomatic subjects were selected. Vestibulo-ocular reflex was assessed by performing the head impulse test. Computerised dynamic posturography was used to evaluate the postural control by means of the sensory organisation test. In addition, subjects self-reported their degree of disability due to dizziness, cervical disability, kinesiophobia, and state of anxiety and depression. There were no differences in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (P>.05). However, we found differences with a medium-to-large effect size (d>0.60) in variables related to proprioception and visual information integration; the former variable set was related to disability due to dizziness. Disability due to dizziness presents strong-to-moderate associations with cervical disability, kinesiophobia, and anxiety. Our data rule out changes in the vestibular system in cervicogenic dizziness, but they do point to proprioceptive impairment. According to our results, the association between dizziness-related disability and other psychosocial factors in cervicogenic dizziness is very relevant for clinical medicine and for future research projects. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical Decision Making in the Management of Patients With Cervicogenic Dizziness: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Francis C; Mathew, Sherin; Littmann, Andrew E; MacDonald, Cameron W

    2017-11-01

    Study Design Case series. Background Although growing recognition of cervicogenic dizziness (CGD) is emerging, there is still no gold standard for the diagnosis of CGD. The purpose of this case series is to describe the clinical decision making utilized in the management of 7 patients presenting with CGD. Case Description Patients presenting with neck pain and accompanying subjective symptoms, including dizziness, unsteadiness, light-headedness, and visual disturbance, were selected. Clinical evidence of a temporal relationship between neck pain and dizziness, with or without sensorimotor disturbances, was assessed. Clinical decision making followed a 4-step process, informed by the current available best evidence. Outcome measures included the numeric rating scale for dizziness and neck pain, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, Patient-Specific Functional Scale, and global rating of change. Outcomes Seven patients (mean age, 57 years; range, 31-86 years; 7 female) completed physical therapy management at an average of 13 sessions (range, 8-30 sessions) over a mean of 7 weeks. Clinically meaningful improvements were observed in the numeric rating scale for dizziness (mean difference, 5.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0, 7.5), neck pain (mean difference, 5.4; 95% CI: 3.8, 7.1), and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (mean difference, 32.6; 95% CI: 12.9, 52.2) at discontinuation. Patients also demonstrated overall satisfaction via the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (mean difference, 9) and global rating of change (mean, +6). Discussion This case series describes the physical therapist decision making, management, and outcomes in patients with CGD. Further investigation is warranted to develop a valid clinical decision-making guideline to inform management of patients with CGD. Level of Evidence Diagnosis, therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(11):874-884. Epub 9 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7425.

  14. Incidence and localizing value of vertigo and dizziness in patients with epilepsy: Video-EEG monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-10-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are common neurological complaints that have long been associated with epilepsy. However, studies of patients with epileptic vertigo or dizziness with concurrent EEG monitoring are scarce. We performed the present study to investigate the incidence and localizing value of vertigo and dizziness in patients with epilepsy who had confirmation of EEG changes via video-EEG monitoring. Data of aura and clinical seizure episodes of 831 consecutive patients who underwent video-EEG monitoring were analyzed retrospectively. Out of 831 patients, 40 patients (4.8%) experienced vertigo or dizziness as aura (mean age, 32.8±11.8years), all of whom had partial seizures. Eight had mesial temporal, 20 had lateral temporal, four had frontal, one had parietal, and seven had occipital lobe onset seizures. An intracranial EEG with cortical stimulation study was performed in seven patients, and the area of stimulation-induced vertigo or dizziness coincided with the ictal onset area in only one patient. Our study showed that vertigo or dizziness is a common aura in patients with epilepsy, and that the temporal lobe is the most frequent ictal onset area in these patients. However, it can be suggested that the symptomatogenic area in patients with epileptic vertigo and dizziness may not coincide with the ictal onset area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Projection Operators and Moment Invariants to Image Blurring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Suk, Tomáš; Boldyš, Jiří; Zitová, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2015), s. 786-802 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S; GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Blurred image * N-fold rotation symmetry * projection operators * image moments * moment invariants * blur invariants * object recognition Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 6.077, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/flusser-0434521.pdf

  16. Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in community-dwelling older people: a cross sectional population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Moraes Suzana Albuquerque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and has been linked to a wide range of health conditions, psychological and social characteristics in this population. However a profile of dizziness is still uncertain which hampers clinical decision-making. We therefore sought to explore the relationship between dizziness and a comprehensive range of demographic data, diseases, health and geriatric conditions, and geriatric syndromes in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a cross-sectional, population-based study derived from FIBRA (Network for the Study of Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Adults, with 391 elderly adults, both men and women, aged 65 years and older. Elderly participants living at home in an urban area were enrolled through a process of random cluster sampling of census regions. The outcome variable was the self-report of dizziness in the last year. Several feelings of dizziness were investigated including vertigo, spinning, light or heavy headedness, floating, fuzziness, giddiness and instability. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and build the probability model for dizziness. Results The complaint of dizziness was reported by 45% of elderly adults, from which 71.6% were women (p=0.004. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that dizziness is associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.29–3.35, perceived fatigue (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.21-3.10, recurring falls (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.11-3.62 and excessive drowsiness (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.11–3.29. The discrimination of the final model was AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.619-0.727 (p Conclusions The prevalence of dizziness in community-dwelling elderly adults is substantial. It is associated with other common geriatric conditions usually neglected in elderly adults, such as fatigue and drowsiness, supporting its possible multifactorial manifestation. Our

  17. Edge dependent motion blur reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a circuit arrangement to reduce motion blur of images shown in non-stroboscopic display devices, in particular Liquid Crystal Display Panels (LCDs). Thin Film Transistor Displays (TFTs), Color Sequential Displays. Plasma Display Panels (PDPs), Digital Micro

  18. Dizziness, Physical Exercise, Falls, and Depression in Adults and the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dizziness is a symptom that can lead to falls, which, in turn, undermine onés independence and autonomy, leading to several comorbidities. The practice of physical exercise, however, can help prevent falls. Objective The objective of this study is to confirm the association between physical exercise, dizziness, probability of falling, and depressive symptoms in a group of middle-aged adults and seniors. Methods The authors evaluated subjects based on history, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and functional reach test. Results The sample consisted of 90 individuals with a mean age of 69.3 ± 6.8 years. The authors found that 37.8% had been practicing exercise, 33.7% had depressive symptoms, and their probability of falling was above average in the functional reach test. Conclusion The results of this study indicated an association between dizziness, exercise practice and depressive symptoms, indicating that physical activity is a beneficial factor for the aging population.

  19. Medical image of the week: acute encephalopathy in a multiple myeloma patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateeli H

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. A 45-year-old man with new diagnosis of multiple myeloma waiting to start treatment presented with worsening dizziness, blurred vision that progressed to altered mental status over a week. His physical exam revealed confusion but no focal deficit. His extensive work up showed no abnormality except for mildly elevated serum viscosity. The patient was started immediately on plasmapheresis. He also received dexamethasone, thalidomide and cyclophosphamide. His symptoms resolved completely within a few days of therapy. Serum viscosity measurements do not correlate well with symptoms or the clinical findings of hypervicosity syndrome. Plasmapheresis promptly relieves the symptoms and should be performed in symptomatic patients regardless of the viscosity level (1,2.

  20. Computer vision syndrome (CVS) - Thermographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamosa-Rincón, L. E.; Jaime-Díaz, J. M.; Ruiz-Cardona, D. F.

    2017-01-01

    The use of computers has reported an exponential growth in the last decades, the possibility of carrying out several tasks for both professional and leisure purposes has contributed to the great acceptance by the users. The consequences and impact of uninterrupted tasks with computers screens or displays on the visual health, have grabbed researcher’s attention. When spending long periods of time in front of a computer screen, human eyes are subjected to great efforts, which in turn triggers a set of symptoms known as Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). Most common of them are: blurred vision, visual fatigue and Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) due to unappropriate lubrication of ocular surface when blinking decreases. An experimental protocol was de-signed and implemented to perform thermographic studies on healthy human eyes during exposure to dis-plays of computers, with the main purpose of comparing the existing differences in temperature variations of healthy ocular surfaces.

  1. Spectrum of dizziness visits to US emergency departments: cross-sectional analysis from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Toker, David E; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Camargo, Carlos A; Pelletier, Andrea J; Butchy, Gregary T; Edlow, Jonathan A

    2008-07-01

    To describe the spectrum of visits to US emergency departments (EDs) for acute dizziness and determine whether ED patients with dizziness are diagnosed as having a range of benign and dangerous medical disorders, rather than predominantly vestibular ones. A cross-sectional study of ED visits from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) used a weighted sample of US ED visits (1993-2005) to measure patient and hospital demographics, ED diagnoses, and resource use in cases vs controls without dizziness. Dizziness in patients 16 years or older was defined as an NHAMCS reason-for-visit code of dizziness/vertigo (1225.0) or a final International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis of dizziness/vertigo (780.4) or of a vestibular disorder (386.x). A total of 9472 dizziness cases (3.3% of visits) were sampled over 13 years (weighted 33.6 million). Top diagnostic groups were otologic/vestibular (32.9%), cardiovascular (21.1%), respiratory (11.5%), neurologic (11.2%, including 4% cerebrovascular), metabolic (11.0%), injury/poisoning (10.6%), psychiatric (7.2%), digestive (7.0%), genitourinary (5.1%), and infectious (2.9%). Nearly half of the cases (49.2%) were given a medical diagnosis, and 22.1% were given only a symptom diagnosis. Predefined dangerous disorders were diagnosed in 15%, especially among those older than 50 years (20.9% vs 9.3%; Pdisorder in most ED cases and often is associated with cardiovascular or other medical causes, including dangerous ones. Resource use is substantial, yet many patients remain undiagnosed.

  2. Vertigo and nystagmus in orthostatic hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J-H; Seo, J-D; Kim, M-J; Choi, B-Y; Choi, Y R; Cho, B M; Kim, J S; Choi, K-D

    2015-04-01

    Generalized cerebral ischaemia from cardiovascular dysfunction usually leads to presyncopal dizziness, but several studies reported a higher frequency of rotatory vertigo in cardiovascular patients. Whether generalized cerebral ischaemia due to cardiovascular disorders may produce objective vestibular dysfunction was investigated. Thirty-three patients with orthostatic dizziness/vertigo due to profound orthostatic hypotension and 30 controls were recruited. All participants underwent recording of eye movements during two orthostatic challenging tests: the Schellong and the squatting-standing tests. Most patients had neuroimaging, and patients with abnormal eye movements were subjected to follow-up evaluations. Symptoms associated with orthostatic dizziness/vertigo included blurred vision, fainting and tinnitus. Ten (30%) of 33 patients developed rotatory vertigo and nystagmus during the Schellong (n = 5) or squatting-standing test (n = 5). Four of them showed pure downbeat nystagmus whilst five had downbeat and horizontal nystagmus with or without torsional component. Patients with orthostatic nystagmus had shorter duration of orthostatic intolerance than those without nystagmus (1.0 ± 1.6 vs. 11.0 ± 9.7 months, P vertigo due to objective vestibular dysfunction. The presence of orthostatic vertigo and nystagmus has an association with the duration of orthostatic intolerance. © 2014 EAN.

  3. Dizziness in a community hospital: central neurological causes, clinical predictors, and diagnostic yield and cost of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Hussam; Govindu, Rukma; Fouda, Ragai; Zohdy, Wael; Supsupin, Emilio

    2017-03-01

    Objectives : Neuroimaging is contributing to the rising costs of dizziness evaluation. This study examined the rate of central neurological causes of dizziness, relevant clinical predictors, and the costs and diagnostic yields of neuroimaging in dizziness assessment. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the records of 521 adult patients who visited the hospital during a 12-month period with dizziness as the chief complaint. Clinical findings were analyzed using Fisher's exact test to determine how they correlated with central neurological causes of dizziness identified by neuroimaging. Costs and diagnostic yields of neuroimaging were calculated. Results : Of the 521 patients, 1.5% had dizziness produced by central neurological causes. Gait abnormalities, limb ataxia, diabetes mellitus, and the existence of multiple neurological findings predicted central causes. Cases were associated with gait abnormalities, limb ataxia, diabetes mellitus, and the existence of multiple neurological findings . Brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in 42% and 9.5% of the examined cases, respectively, with diagnostic yields of 3.6% and 12%, respectively. Nine cases of dizziness were diagnosed from 269 brain scans, costing $607 914. Conclusion : Clinical evaluation can predict the presence of central neurological causes of dizziness, whereas neuroimaging is a costly and low-yield approach. Guidelines are needed for physicians, regarding the appropriateness of ordering neuroimaging studies. Abbreviations : OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; ED: emergency department; CT: computed tomography; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; HINTS: Head impulse, Nystagmus, Test of skew.

  4. Does chronic idiopathic dizziness reflect an impairment of sensory predictions of self-motion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern K Pomper

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most patients suffering from chronic idiopathic dizziness do not present signs of vestibular dysfunction or organic failures of other kinds. Hence, this kind of dizziness is commonly seen as psychogenic in nature, sharing commonalities with specific phobias, panic disorder and generalized anxiety. A more specific concept put forward by Brandt and Dieterich (1986 states that these patients suffer from dizziness because of an inadequate compensation of self-induced sensory stimulation. According to this hypothesis self-motion-induced reafferent visual stimulation is interpreted as motion in the world since a predictive signal reflecting the consequences of self-motion, needed to compensate the reafferent stimulus, is inadequate. While conceptually intriguing, experimental evidence supporting the idea of an inadequate prediction of the sensory consequences of own movements has as yet been lacking. Here we tested this hypothesis by applying it to the perception of background motion induced by smooth-pursuit eye movements. As a matter of fact, we found the same mildly undercompensating prediction, responsible for the perception of slight illusory world motion („Filehne illusion in the 15 patients tested and their age-matched controls. Likewise, the ability to adapt this prediction to the needs of the visual context was not deteriorated in patients. Finally, we could not find any correlation between measures of the individual severity of dizziness and the ability to predict. In sum, our results do not support the concept of a deviant prediction of self-induced sensory stimulation as cause of chronic idiopathic dizziness.

  5. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an e...

  6. Computer vision syndrome: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrisankaran, Sowjanya; Sheedy, James E

    2015-01-01

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a collection of symptoms related to prolonged work at a computer display. This article reviews the current knowledge about the symptoms, related factors and treatment modalities for CVS. Relevant literature on CVS published during the past 65 years was analyzed. Symptoms reported by computer users are classified into internal ocular symptoms (strain and ache), external ocular symptoms (dryness, irritation, burning), visual symptoms (blur, double vision) and musculoskeletal symptoms (neck and shoulder pain). The major factors associated with CVS are either environmental (improper lighting, display position and viewing distance) and/or dependent on the user's visual abilities (uncorrected refractive error, oculomotor disorders and tear film abnormalities). Although the factors associated with CVS have been identified the physiological mechanisms that underlie CVS are not completely understood. Additionally, advances in technology have led to the increased use of hand-held devices, which might impose somewhat different visual challenges compared to desktop displays. Further research is required to better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying CVS and symptoms associated with the use of hand-held and stereoscopic displays.

  7. DE-BLURRING SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IMAGES USING WAVELET DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu M. Sasi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Single photon emission computed tomography imaging is a popular nuclear medicine imaging technique which generates images by detecting radiations emitted by radioactive isotopes injected in the human body. Scattering of these emitted radiations introduces blur in this type of images. This paper proposes an image processing technique to enhance cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images by reducing the blur in the image. The algorithm works in two main stages. In the first stage a maximum likelihood estimate of the point spread function and the true image is obtained. In the second stage Lucy Richardson algorithm is applied on the selected wavelet coefficients of the true image estimate. The significant contribution of this paper is that processing of images is done in the wavelet domain. Pre-filtering is also done as a sub stage to avoid unwanted ringing effects. Real cardiac images are used for the quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the algorithm. Blur metric, peak signal to noise ratio and Tenengrad criterion are used as quantitative measures. Comparison against other existing de-blurring algorithms is also done. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method effectively reduces blur present in the image.

  8. Increased Risk of Vascular Events in Emergency Room Patients Discharged Home with Diagnosis of Dizziness or Vertigo: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chiu, Brian C-H; Su, Yung-Cheng; Lee, Yi-Da; Chou, Pesus

    2012-01-01

    Background Dizziness and vertigo symptoms are commonly seen in emergency room (ER). However, these patients are often discharged without a definite diagnosis. Conflicting data regarding the vascular event risk among the dizziness or vertigo patients have been reported. This study aims to determine the risk of developing stroke or cardiovascular events in ER patients discharged home with a diagnosis of dizziness or vertigo. Methodology A total of 25,757 subjects with at least one ER visit in 2004 were identified. Of those, 1,118 patients were discharged home with a diagnosis of vertigo or dizziness. A Cox proportional hazard model was performed to compare the three-year vascular event-free survival rates between the dizziness/vertigo patients and those without dizziness/vertigo after adjusting for confounding and risk factors. Results We identified 52 (4.7%) vascular events in patients with dizziness/vertigo and 454 (1.8%) vascular events in patients without dizziness/vertigo. ER patients discharged home with a diagnosis of vertigo or dizziness had 2-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35–2.96; pvertigo during the first year. Conclusions ER patients discharged home with a diagnosis of dizziness or vertigo were at a increased risk of developing subsequent vascular events than those without dizziness/vertigo after the onset of dizziness or vertigo. Further studies are warranted for developing better diagnostic and follow-up strategies in increased risk patients. PMID:22558272

  9. Vertigo and dizziness in adolescents: Risk factors and their population attributable risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippopulos, Filipp M; Albers, Lucia; Straube, Andreas; Gerstl, Lucia; Blum, Bernhard; Langhagen, Thyra; Jahn, Klaus; Heinen, Florian; von Kries, Rüdiger; Landgraf, Mirjam N

    2017-01-01

    To assess potential risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and to evaluate their variability by different vertigo types. The role of possible risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and their population relevance needs to be addressed in order to design preventive strategies. The study population consisted of 1482 school-children between the age of 12 and 19 years, who were instructed to fill out a questionnaire on different vertigo types and related potential risk factors. The questionnaire specifically asked for any vertigo, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo, orthostatic dizziness, and unspecified dizziness. Further a wide range of potential risk factors were addressed including gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration, migraine, coffee and alcohol consumption, physical activity and smoking. Gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration and migraine were identified as independent risk factors following mutual adjustment: The relative risk was 1.17 [1.10-1.25] for female sex, 1.07 [1.02-1.13] for stress, 1.24 [1.17-1.32] for muscular pain, and 1.09 [1.03-1.14] for migraine. The population attributable risk explained by these risk factors was 26%, with muscular pain, stress, and migraine accounting for 11%, 4%, and 3% respectively. Several established risk factors in adults were also identified in adolescents. Risk factors amenable to prevention accounted for 17% of the total population risk. Therefore, interventions targeting these risk factors may be warranted.

  10. Effects of Nonpharmacological Interventions for Dizziness in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kendall, Julie C; Hartvigsen, Jan; Azari, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    people. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, CINAHL, AMED, Index to Chiropractic Literature, PsychINFO and MANTIS were searched from inception to May 2014. STUDY SELECTION: Two investigators independently screened controlled trials with dizzy participants...

  11. Luminance cues constrain chromatic blur discrimination in natural scene stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Rebecca J; McGraw, Paul V; Peirce, Jonathan W

    2013-03-22

    Introducing blur into the color components of a natural scene has very little effect on its percept, whereas blur introduced into the luminance component is very noticeable. Here we quantify the dominance of luminance information in blur detection and examine a number of potential causes. We show that the interaction between chromatic and luminance information is not explained by reduced acuity or spatial resolution limitations for chromatic cues, the effective contrast of the luminance cue, or chromatic and achromatic statistical regularities in the images. Regardless of the quality of chromatic information, the visual system gives primacy to luminance signals when determining edge location. In natural viewing, luminance information appears to be specialized for detecting object boundaries while chromatic information may be used to determine surface properties.

  12. TO STUDY THE ROLE OF ERGONOMICS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Ergonomics is the science of designing the job equipment and workplace to fit the worker by obtaining a correct match between the human body, work related tasks and work tools. By applying the science of ergonomics we can reduce the difficulties faced by computer users. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of tear substitutes and the role of ergonomics in the management of Computer Vision Syndrome. Development of counseling plan, initial treatment plan, prevent complications and educate the subjects about the disease process and to enhance public awareness. MATERIALS AND METHODS A minimum of 100 subjects were selected randomly irrespective of gender, place and nature of computer work & ethnic differences. The subjects were between age group of 10-60 years who had been using the computer for a minimum of 2 hours/day for atleast 5-6 days a week. The subjects underwent tests like Schirmer's, Test film breakup time (TBUT, Inter Blink Interval and Ocular surface staining. A Computer Vision score was taken out based on 5 symptoms each of which was given a score of 2. The symptoms included foreign body sensation, redness, eyestrain, blurring of vision and frequent change in refraction. The score of more than 6 was treated as Computer Vision syndrome and the subjects underwent synoptophore tests and refraction. RESULT In the present study where we had divided 100 subjects into 2 groups of 50 each and given tear substitutes only in one group and ergonomics was considered with tear substitutes in the other. We saw that there was more improvement after 4 weeks and 8 weeks in the group taking lubricants and ergonomics into consideration than lubricants alone. More improvement was seen in eyestrain and blurring (P0.05. CONCLUSION Advanced training in proper computer usage can decrease discomfort.

  13. Incidence of dizziness and vertigo in Japanese primary care clinic patients with lifestyle-related diseases: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaoki; Takeshima, Taro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Oki, Hiroshi; Kajii, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Dizziness and vertigo are highly prevalent symptoms among patients presenting at primary care clinics, and peripheral vestibular disorder (PVD) is their most frequent cause. However, the incidence of PVD has not been well documented. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of dizziness, vertigo, and PVD among patients presenting at a primary care clinic. This was an observational study. Between November 2011 and March 2013, we observed 393 patients, all at least 20 years old, who had been treated for chronic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus for at least 6 months at a primary clinic (Oki Clinic) in Japan. The main outcome of interest was new incidence of dizziness, vertigo, and PVD events. During the 1-year follow-up period, the otorhinolaryngologist diagnosed and reported new PVD events. The mean age of the 393 participants at entry was 65.5 years. Of the study participants, 12.7%, 82.4%, and 92.6% had diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, respectively. We followed up all the participants (100%). During the 662.5 person-years of follow-up, 121 cases of dizziness or vertigo (dizziness/vertigo) and 76 cases of PVD were observed. The incidence of dizziness/vertigo and PVD was 194.7 (95% confidence interval: 161.6-232.6) per 1,000 person-years and 115.7 (95% confidence interval: 92.2-142.6) per 1,000 person-years, respectively. There were 61 cases of acute peripheral vestibulopathy, 12 of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and three of Meniere's disease among the 76 PVD patients. We reported the incidence of dizziness/vertigo among Japanese primary care clinic patients, which was higher than that usually observed in the general population. Furthermore, we described the incidence of PVD and found that it was a major cause of dizziness/vertigo.

  14. Incidence of dizziness and vertigo in Japanese primary care clinic patients with lifestyle-related diseases: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaoki; Takeshima, Taro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Oki, Hiroshi; Kajii, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dizziness and vertigo are highly prevalent symptoms among patients presenting at primary care clinics, and peripheral vestibular disorder (PVD) is their most frequent cause. However, the incidence of PVD has not been well documented. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of dizziness, vertigo, and PVD among patients presenting at a primary care clinic. Design This was an observational study. Setting and participants Between November 2011 and March 2013, we observed 393 patients, all at least 20 years old, who had been treated for chronic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus for at least 6 months at a primary clinic (Oki Clinic) in Japan. Outcome The main outcome of interest was new incidence of dizziness, vertigo, and PVD events. During the 1-year follow-up period, the otorhinolaryngologist diagnosed and reported new PVD events. Results The mean age of the 393 participants at entry was 65.5 years. Of the study participants, 12.7%, 82.4%, and 92.6% had diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, respectively. We followed up all the participants (100%). During the 662.5 person-years of follow-up, 121 cases of dizziness or vertigo (dizziness/vertigo) and 76 cases of PVD were observed. The incidence of dizziness/vertigo and PVD was 194.7 (95% confidence interval: 161.6–232.6) per 1,000 person-years and 115.7 (95% confidence interval: 92.2–142.6) per 1,000 person-years, respectively. There were 61 cases of acute peripheral vestibulopathy, 12 of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and three of Meniere’s disease among the 76 PVD patients. Conclusion We reported the incidence of dizziness/vertigo among Japanese primary care clinic patients, which was higher than that usually observed in the general population. Furthermore, we described the incidence of PVD and found that it was a major cause of dizziness/vertigo. PMID:25931828

  15. Dizziness and Balance Problems in Kids: Spinning Sensations and Unsteadiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any problems. Related Stories Building Social Bonds Are Proteins in Formula Linked to Type 1 Diabetes? Sound Health Reducing Children’s Chances of Asthma Wise Choices Tell Your Doctor Dizziness and balance problems ...

  16. Vestibular rehabilitation using video gaming in adults with dizziness: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J S; Fitzgerald, J; Phillis, D; Underwood, A; Nunney, I; Bath, A

    2018-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of vestibular rehabilitation using the Wii Fit balance platform, in adults with dizziness. A single-site prospective clinical trial was conducted in a university hospital in the UK. Forty patients with dizziness, who would normally be candidates for vestibular rehabilitation, were identified and considered as potential participants. Participants were randomised into either the treatment group (the Wii Fit group) or the control group (standard customised vestibular rehabilitation protocol). Participants were assessed over a 16-week period using several balance and quality of life questionnaires. Both exercise regimes resulted in a reduction of dizziness and an improvement in quality of life scores over time, but no statistically significant difference between the two interventions was identified. This pilot study demonstrated that use of the Wii Fit balance platform resulted in a statistically significant improvement in balance function and quality of life. Furthermore, outcomes were comparable to a similar group of individuals following a standard customised vestibular rehabilitation protocol. The study provides useful information to inform the design and execution of a larger clinical trial.

  17. Real-time deblurring of handshake blurred images on smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourreza-Shahri, Reza; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses an Android app for the purpose of removing blur that is introduced as a result of handshakes when taking images via a smartphone. This algorithm utilizes two images to achieve deblurring in a computationally efficient manner without suffering from artifacts associated with deconvolution deblurring algorithms. The first image is the normal or auto-exposure image and the second image is a short-exposure image that is automatically captured immediately before or after the auto-exposure image is taken. A low rank approximation image is obtained by applying singular value decomposition to the auto-exposure image which may appear blurred due to handshakes. This approximation image does not suffer from blurring while incorporating the image brightness and contrast information. The eigenvalues extracted from the low rank approximation image are then combined with those from the shortexposure image. It is shown that this deblurring app is computationally more efficient than the adaptive tonal correction algorithm which was previously developed for the same purpose.

  18. Vision, eye disease, and art: 2015 Keeler Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, M F

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine normal vision and eye disease in relation to art. Ophthalmology cannot explain art, but vision is a tool for artists and its normal and abnormal characteristics may influence what an artist can do. The retina codes for contrast, and the impact of this is evident throughout art history from Asian brush painting, to Renaissance chiaroscuro, to Op Art. Art exists, and can portray day or night, only because of the way retina adjusts to light. Color processing is complex, but artists have exploited it to create shimmer (Seurat, Op Art), or to disconnect color from form (fauvists, expressionists, Andy Warhol). It is hazardous to diagnose eye disease from an artist's work, because artists have license to create as they wish. El Greco was not astigmatic; Monet was not myopic; Turner did not have cataracts. But when eye disease is documented, the effects can be analyzed. Color-blind artists limit their palette to ambers and blues, and avoid greens. Dense brown cataracts destroy color distinctions, and Monet's late canvases (before surgery) showed strange and intense uses of color. Degas had failing vision for 40 years, and his pastels grew coarser and coarser. He may have continued working because his blurred vision smoothed over the rough work. This paper can barely touch upon the complexity of either vision or art. However, it demonstrates some ways in which understanding vision and eye disease give insight into art, and thereby an appreciation of both art and ophthalmology.

  19. Hormonal and cardiovascular reflex assessment in a female patient with pure autonomic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heno Ferreira Lopes

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 72-year-old female with pure autonomic failure, a rare entity, whose diagnosis of autonomic dysfunction was determined with a series of complementary tests. For approximately 2 years, the patient has been experiencing dizziness and a tendency to fall, a significant weight loss, generalized weakness, dysphagia, intestinal constipation, blurred vision, dry mouth, and changes in her voice. She underwent clinical assessment and laboratory tests (biochemical tests, chest X-ray, digestive endoscopy, colonoscopy, chest computed tomography, abdomen and pelvis computed tomography, abdominal ultrasound, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Measurements of catecholamine and plasmatic renin activity were performed at rest and after physical exercise. Finally the patient underwent physiological and pharmacological autonomic tests that better diagnosed dysautonomia.

  20. Development of a diagnostic protocol for dizziness in elderly patients in general practice: a Delphi procedure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, O.R.; Dros, J.; Weert, H.C. van; Schellevis, F.G.; Bindels, P.J.; Horst, H.E. van der

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dizziness in general practice is very common, especially in elderly patients. The empirical evidence for diagnostic tests in the evaluation of dizziness is scarce. Aim of our study was to determine which set of diagnostic tests should be part of a diagnostic protocol for evaluating

  1. COMPLEX TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH POSTURAL PHOBIC DIZZINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Romanоva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 patients with postural phobic dizziness were examined. Somatic state and neurological status were assessed, neurovisualization and stabilometric investigation were carried out as well as a neuropsychological testing using estimation scales. The efficiency of complex rehabilitation was revealed including vestibular gymnastics, stabilometric training, psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy in correction of psychoemotional disturbances. 

  2. Vertigo and dizziness in adolescents: Risk factors and their population attributable risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipp M Filippopulos

    Full Text Available To assess potential risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and to evaluate their variability by different vertigo types. The role of possible risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and their population relevance needs to be addressed in order to design preventive strategies.The study population consisted of 1482 school-children between the age of 12 and 19 years, who were instructed to fill out a questionnaire on different vertigo types and related potential risk factors. The questionnaire specifically asked for any vertigo, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo, orthostatic dizziness, and unspecified dizziness. Further a wide range of potential risk factors were addressed including gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration, migraine, coffee and alcohol consumption, physical activity and smoking.Gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration and migraine were identified as independent risk factors following mutual adjustment: The relative risk was 1.17 [1.10-1.25] for female sex, 1.07 [1.02-1.13] for stress, 1.24 [1.17-1.32] for muscular pain, and 1.09 [1.03-1.14] for migraine. The population attributable risk explained by these risk factors was 26%, with muscular pain, stress, and migraine accounting for 11%, 4%, and 3% respectively.Several established risk factors in adults were also identified in adolescents. Risk factors amenable to prevention accounted for 17% of the total population risk. Therefore, interventions targeting these risk factors may be warranted.

  3. Eyesight quality and Computer Vision Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdănici, Camelia Margareta; Săndulache, Diana Elena; Nechita, Corina Andreea

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effects that gadgets have on eyesight quality. A prospective observational study was conducted from January to July 2016, on 60 people who were divided into two groups: Group 1 - 30 middle school pupils with a mean age of 11.9 ± 1.86 and Group 2 - 30 patients evaluated in the Ophthalmology Clinic, "Sf. Spiridon" Hospital, Iași, with a mean age of 21.36 ± 7.16 years. The clinical parameters observed were the following: visual acuity (VA), objective refraction, binocular vision (BV), fusional amplitude (FA), Schirmer's test. A questionnaire was also distributed, which contained 8 questions that highlighted the gadget's impact on the eyesight. The use of different gadgets, such as computer, laptops, mobile phones or other displays become part of our everyday life and people experience a variety of ocular symptoms or vision problems related to these. Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) represents a group of visual and extraocular symptoms associated with sustained use of visual display terminals. Headache, blurred vision, and ocular congestion are the most frequent manifestations determined by the long time use of gadgets. Mobile phones and laptops are the most frequently used gadgets. People who use gadgets for a long time have a sustained effort for accommodation. A small amount of refractive errors (especially myopic shift) was objectively recorded by various studies on near work. Dry eye syndrome could also be identified, and an improvement of visual comfort could be observed after the instillation of artificial tears drops. Computer Vision Syndrome is still under-diagnosed, and people should be made aware of the bad effects the prolonged use of gadgets has on eyesight.

  4. Burden of disability attributable to vertigo and dizziness in the aged: results from the KORA-Age study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Martin; Strobl, Ralf; Jahn, Klaus; Linkohr, Birgit; Peters, Annette; Grill, Eva

    2014-10-01

    Complaints of vertigo and dizziness are common in primary care in the aged. They can be caused by distinct vestibular disorders, but can also be a symptom in other conditions like non-vestibular sensory loss, vascular encephalopathy or anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific contribution of vertigo and dizziness to the total burden of disability in aged persons when controlling for the presence of other health conditions. Data originate from the MONICA/KORA study, a population-based cohort. Survivors of the original cohorts who were 65 years and older were examined by telephone interview in 2009. Disability was assessed with the Health Assessment Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders and additive regression to estimate the contribution of vertigo and dizziness to disability prevalence. Adjusted for age, sex and other chronic conditions, vertigo and dizziness were associated with disability (odds ratio 1.66, 95% confidence intervals 1.40-1.98). In both men and women between 65 and 79 years, vertigo and dizziness were among the strongest contributors to the burden of disability with a prevalence of 10.5% (6.6 to 15.1) in men and 9.0% (5.7 to 13.0) in women. In men, this effect is stable across all age-groups, whereas it decreases with age in women. Vertigo and dizziness independently and relevantly contribute to population-attributable disability in the aged. They are not inevitable consequences of ageing but arise from distinct disease entities. Careful management of vertigo and dizziness might increase population health and reduce disability. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical statistics of patients with dizziness consulting the emergency outpatient clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yasuo; Hagiwara, Akira; Kitajima, Naoharu; Inagaki, Taro; Shimizu, Masaaki; Furuse, Hiroko; Konomi, Ujimoto; Yukawa, Kumiko; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2007-01-01

    Between May 2004 and April 2006, 468 emergency patients with vertigo or dizziness consulted the otorhinolarygological emergency room of Tokyo Medical University. Patients with vertigo or dizziness comprised about 9% of the whole otorhinolaryngological emergency patients. The number of female patients was larger than that of male patients. About half of the patients were brought to our hospital by ambulance. Nystagmus was observed in 219 patients (46.8%). Incidence of nystagmus was highest on positional nystagmus test. Brain CT was obtained in 185 patients (39.5%), but there were no abnormal findings in any patients. The most frequent diagnosis was inner ear disorder (22%), followed by Meniere's disease (7%), vestibular neuritis (6%), Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) (6%). Cerebral infarction was observed in 1.9%. Eighty-four patients were admitted. Major diseases requiring admission were vestibular neuritis and inner ear disorder. In patients with cerebral infarction, brain CT was normal. These patients were all elderly males over 60 years old. Their nystagmus in the emergency room did not suggest central disorder, or they did not have other neurological findings. Neurological signs and symptoms appeared thereafter. In the emergency room, establishing a diagnosis by limited examination is difficult. Careful examination is necessary, since vertigo or dizzy patient with a central disorder can show sudden change. (author)

  6. Effects of a program of cognitive-behavioural group therapy, vestibular rehabilitation, and psychoeducational explanations on patients with dizziness and no quantified balance deficit, compared to patients with dizziness and a quantified balance deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D A; Allum, J H J; Sleptsova, M; Gross, S; Gaab, J; Welge-Lüssen, A; Schaefert, R; Langewitz, W

    2018-02-01

    We examined whether a program combining cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), vestibular rehabilitation (VR) and psychoeducation is equally effective in improving psychometric measures in patients with dizziness independent of a balance deficit. Measures of patients with dizziness only (DO) were compared to those of patients also having a quantified balance deficit (QBD). 32 patients (23 female, 9 male) with persistent dizziness were analysed as 2 groups based on stance and gait balance control: those with QBD (pathological balance) or DO (normal balance). Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) questionnaires were used pre- and post-therapy to assess psychometric measures. Patients then received the same combination therapy in a group setting. The QBD group mean age was 60.6, SD 8.3, and DO group mean age 44.8, SD 12.1, years. Pre-therapy, questionnaire scores were pathological but not different between groups. Balance improved significantly for the QBD group (p=0.003) but not for the DO group. DHI and BSI scores improved significantly in the DO group (0.001balance control improving to near normal. Possibly, greater focus on phobic anxiety during the group therapy program would have improved psychological measures of QBD patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of vertigo and dizziness on self-perceived participation and autonomy in older adults: results from the KORA-Age study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Martin; Strobl, Ralf; Jahn, Klaus; Linkohr, Birgit; Ladwig, Karl Heinz; Mielck, Andreas; Grill, Eva

    2014-10-01

    The impact of vertigo and dizziness on healthy ageing, and especially on participation, is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of vertigo and dizziness with self-perceived participation and autonomy in older non-institutionalised individuals, adjusted for the presence of other health conditions. Specifically, we wanted to investigate the different effects of vertigo and dizziness on specific components of participation, i.e. restrictions in indoor and outdoor autonomy, family role, social life and relationships, and work and education. Data originate from the second wave of the German KORA-Age cohort study collected in 2012. Participation and autonomy was investigated with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire. We used robust regression to analyse the association of vertigo and dizziness with self-perceived participation and autonomy adjusted for covariates. A total of 822 participants (49.6% female) had a mean age of 78.1 years (SD 6.39). Participation and autonomy were significantly lower in participants with vertigo and dizziness across all domains. Adjusted for age, sex, and chronic conditions, vertigo and dizziness were significantly associated with participation restrictions in all domains except social life and relationships. The results of our study indicate that vertigo and dizziness contribute to restrictions in participation and autonomy in individuals of older age. Recognising vertigo and dizziness as independent contributors to loss of autonomy and decreased chances for independent living may create new options for patient care and population health, such as the designing of complex interventions to maintain participation and autonomy.

  8. Accurate estimation of motion blur parameters in noisy remote sensing image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xueyan; Wang, Lin; Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Huilin; Tao, Zhong

    2015-05-01

    The relative motion between remote sensing satellite sensor and objects is one of the most common reasons for remote sensing image degradation. It seriously weakens image data interpretation and information extraction. In practice, point spread function (PSF) should be estimated firstly for image restoration. Identifying motion blur direction and length accurately is very crucial for PSF and restoring image with precision. In general, the regular light-and-dark stripes in the spectrum can be employed to obtain the parameters by using Radon transform. However, serious noise existing in actual remote sensing images often causes the stripes unobvious. The parameters would be difficult to calculate and the error of the result relatively big. In this paper, an improved motion blur parameter identification method to noisy remote sensing image is proposed to solve this problem. The spectrum characteristic of noisy remote sensing image is analyzed firstly. An interactive image segmentation method based on graph theory called GrabCut is adopted to effectively extract the edge of the light center in the spectrum. Motion blur direction is estimated by applying Radon transform on the segmentation result. In order to reduce random error, a method based on whole column statistics is used during calculating blur length. Finally, Lucy-Richardson algorithm is applied to restore the remote sensing images of the moon after estimating blur parameters. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and robustness of our algorithm.

  9. Sensor performance as a function of sampling (d) and optical blur (Fλ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Detector sampling and optical blur are two major factors affecting Target Acquisition (TA) performance with modern EO and IR systems. In order to quantify their relative significance, we simulated five realistic LWIR and MWIR sensors from very under-sampled (detector pitch d >> diffraction blur Fλ)

  10. Efficacy of manual therapy treatments for people with cervicogenic dizziness and pain: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Susan A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervicogenic dizziness is a disabling condition characterised by postural unsteadiness that is aggravated by cervical spine movements and associated with a painful and/or stiff neck. Two manual therapy treatments (Mulligan’s Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glides (SNAGs and Maitland’s passive joint mobilisations are used by physiotherapists to treat this condition but there is little evidence from randomised controlled trials to support their use. The aim of this study is to conduct a randomised controlled trial to compare these two forms of manual therapy (Mulligan glides and Maitland mobilisations to each other and to a placebo in reducing symptoms of cervicogenic dizziness in the longer term and to conduct an economic evaluation of the interventions. Methods Participants with symptoms of dizziness described as imbalance, together with a painful and/or stiff neck will be recruited via media releases, advertisements and mail-outs to medical practitioners in the Hunter region of NSW, Australia. Potential participants will be screened by a physiotherapist and a neurologist to rule out other causes of their dizziness. Once diagnosed with cervciogenic dizziness, 90 participants will be randomly allocated to one of three groups: Maitland mobilisations plus range-of-motion exercises, Mulligan SNAGs plus self-SNAG exercises or placebo. Participants will receive two to six treatments over six weeks. The trial will have unblinded treatment but blinded outcome assessments. Assessments will occur at baseline, post-treatment, six weeks, 12 weeks, six months and 12 months post treatment. The primary outcome will be intensity of dizziness. Other outcome measures will be frequency of dizziness, disability, intensity of cervical pain, cervical range of motion, balance, head repositioning, adverse effects and treatment satisfaction. Economic outcomes will also be collected. Discussion This paper describes the methods for a randomised

  11. Using the Physical Examination to Diagnose Patients with Acute Dizziness and Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Jonathan A; Newman-Toker, David

    2016-04-01

    Emergency department (ED) patients who present with acute dizziness or vertigo can be challenging to diagnose. Roughly half have general medical disorders that are usually apparent from the context, associated symptoms, or initial laboratory tests. The rest include a mix of common inner ear disorders and uncommon neurologic ones, particularly vertebrobasilar strokes or posterior fossa mass lesions. In these latter cases, misdiagnosis can lead to serious adverse consequences for patients. Our aim was to assist emergency physicians to use the physical examination effectively to make a specific diagnosis in patients with acute dizziness or vertigo. Recent evidence indicates that the physical examination can help physicians accurately discriminate between benign inner ear conditions and dangerous central ones, enabling correct management of peripheral vestibular disease and avoiding dangerous misdiagnoses of central ones. Patients with the acute vestibular syndrome mostly have vestibular neuritis, but some have stroke. Data suggest that focused eye movement examinations, at least when performed by specialists, are more sensitive for detecting early stroke than brain imaging, including diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with the triggered episodic vestibular syndrome mostly have benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), but some have posterior fossa mass lesions. Specific positional tests to provoke nystagmus can confirm a BPPV diagnosis at the bedside, enabling immediate curative therapy, or indicate the need for imaging. Emergency physicians can effectively use the physical examination to make a specific diagnosis in patients with acute dizziness or vertigo. They must understand the limitations of brain imaging. This may reduce misdiagnosis of serious central causes of dizziness, including posterior circulation stroke and posterior fossa mass lesions, and improve resource utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of normalizing the sagittal cervical configuration on dizziness, neck pain, and cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility: a 1-year randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ibrahim M; Diab, Aliaa A; Harrison, Deed E

    2017-02-01

    Cervicogenic dizziness is a disabling condition commonly associated with cervical dysfunction. Although the growing interest with the importance of normal sagittal configuration of cervical spine, the missing component in the management of cervicogenic dizziness might be altered structural alignment of the cervical spinal region itself. To investigate the immediate and long-term effects of a 1-year multimodal program, with the addition of cervical lordosis restoration and anterior head translation (AHT) correction, on the severity of dizziness, disability, cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility, and cervical pain in patients with cervicogenic dizziness. A randomized controlled study with a 1 year and 10 weeks' follow-up. University research laboratory. Seventy-two patients (25 female) between 40 and 55 years with cervicogenic dizziness, a definite hypolordotic cervical spine and AHT posture were randomly assigned to the control or an experimental group. Both groups received the multimodal program; additionally, the experimental group received the Denneroll™ cervical traction. Outcome measures included AHT distance, cervical lordosis, dizziness handicap inventory (DHI), severity of dizziness, dizziness frequency, head repositioning accuracy (HRA) and cervical pain. Measures were assessed at three time intervals: baseline, 10 weeks, and follow-up at 1 year and 10 weeks. Significant group × time effects at both the 10 week post treatment and the 1-year follow-up were identified favoring the experimental group for measures of cervical lordosis (Ppain intensity, and HRA; DHI scale (P=0.5), severity of dizziness (P=0.2), dizziness frequency (P=0.09), HRA (P=0.1) and neck pain (P=0.3). At 1-year follow-up, the between-group analysis identified statistically significant differences for all of the measured variables including anterior head translation (2.4 cm [-2.3;-1.8], Pcervical lordosis (-14.4° [-11.6;-8.3], Ppain (4.97 [-5.3;-4.3], Pcervical extension traction to

  13. Incidence of dizziness and vertigo in Japanese primary care clinic patients with lifestyle-related diseases: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Masaoki Wada,1,2 Taro Takeshima,1 Yosikazu Nakamura,3 Shoichiro Nagasaka,4 Toyomi Kamesaki,1 Hiroshi Oki,2 Eiji Kajii1 1Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 2Oki Clinic, Ibaraki, Japan; 3Department of Public Health, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan Objective: Dizziness and vertigo are highly prevalent symptoms among patients presenting at primary care clinics, and peripheral vestibular disorder (PVD is their most frequent cause. However, the incidence of PVD has not been well documented. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of dizziness, vertigo, and PVD among patients presenting at a primary care clinic. Design: This was an observational study. Setting and participants: Between November 2011 and March 2013, we observed 393 patients, all at least 20 years old, who had been treated for chronic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus for at least 6 months at a primary clinic (Oki Clinic in Japan. Outcome: The main outcome of interest was new incidence of dizziness, vertigo, and PVD events. During the 1-year follow-up period, the otorhinolaryngologist diagnosed and reported new PVD events. Results: The mean age of the 393 participants at entry was 65.5 years. Of the study participants, 12.7%, 82.4%, and 92.6% had diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, respectively. We followed up all the participants (100%. During the 662.5 person-years of follow-up, 121 cases of dizziness or vertigo (dizziness/vertigo and 76 cases of PVD were observed. The incidence of dizziness/vertigo and PVD was 194.7 (95% confidence interval: 161.6–232.6 per 1,000 person-years and 115.7 (95% confidence interval: 92.2–142.6 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. There were 61 cases of acute peripheral vestibulopathy, 12 of

  14. Gender differences in patients with dizziness and unsteadiness regarding self-perceived disability, anxiety, depression, and its associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurre Annette

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that anxiety and depression influence the level of disability experienced by persons with vertigo, dizziness or unsteadiness. Because higher prevalence rates of disabling dizziness have been found in women and some studies reported a higher level of psychiatric distress in female patients our primary aim was to explore whether women and men with vertigo, dizziness or unsteadiness differ regarding self-perceived disability, anxiety and depression. Secondly we planned to investigate the associations between disabling dizziness and anxiety and depression. Method Patients were recruited from a tertiary centre for vertigo and balance disorders. Participants rated their global disability as mild, moderate or severe. They filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the two subscales of the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. The HADS was analysed 1 by calculating the median values, 2 by estimating the prevalence rates of abnormal anxiety/depression based on recommended cut-off criteria. Mann-Whitney U-tests, Chi-square statistics and odds ratios (OR were calculated to compare the observations in both genders. Significance values were adjusted with respect to multiple comparisons. Results Two-hundred and two patients (124 women mean age (standard deviation of 49.7 (13.5 years participated. Both genders did not differ significantly in the mean level of self-perceived disability, anxiety, depression and symptom severity. There was a tendency of a higher prevalence of abnormal anxiety and depression in men (23.7%; 28.9% compared to women (14.5%; 15.3%. Patients with abnormal depression felt themselves 2.75 (95% CI: 1.31-5.78 times more severely disabled by dizziness and unsteadiness than patients without depression. In men the OR was 8.2 (2.35-28.4. In women chi-square statistic was not significant. The ORs (95% CI of abnormal anxiety and severe disability were 4.2 (1.9-8.9 in the whole sample, 8.7 (2.5-30.3 in men

  15. Blurring of the public/private divide: the Canadian chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Thomas, Bryan

    2010-06-01

    Blurring of public/private divide is occurring in different ways around the world, with differential effects in terms of access and equity. In Canada, one pathway towards privatization has received particular attention: duplicative private insurance, allowing those with the financial means to bypass queues in the public system. We assess recent legal and policy developments on this front, but also describe other trends towards the blurring of public and private in Canada: the reliance on mandated private insurance for pharmaceutical coverage; provincial governments' reliance on public-private partnerships to finance hospitals; and the incorporation of for-profit clinics within the public health care system.

  16. Accommodative spasm with bilateral vision loss due to untreated intermittent exotropia in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, V; Ganesh, S; Sethi, S

    2012-01-01

    Intermittent exotropia (IXT) is an exodeviation intermittently controlled by fusional mechanisms. Patients with IXT may present with asthenopic symptoms, blurred vision, headaches, diplopia or visual confusion and reading difficulties; especially after prolonged periods of near work. To report the presentation and management of a young adult with intractable accommodative spasm secondary to long standing intermittent exotropia. The patient was found to have bilateral accommodative spasm with high pseudomyopia and severe impairment of vision. There was a tendency for recurrence with discontinuation of cycloplegics. A total relief of symptoms was noticed after strabismus surgery was undertaken for the exotropia. A detailed orthoptic evaluation with emphasis on recognizing accommodative spasm as an unusual presentation of IXT, could aid in appropriate diagnosis and treatment of such cases. © NEPjOPH.

  17. Clinical significance of orthostatic dizziness in the diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and orthostatic intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun-Ju; Park, Yong-Soo; Park, Shi-Nae; Park, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Nam, In-Chul; Chang, Ki-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Orthostatic dizziness (OD) and positional dizziness (PD) are considerably common conditions in dizziness clinic, whereas those two conditions are not clearly separated. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of simple OD and OD combined with PD for the diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and orthostatic intolerance (OI). Patients presenting with OD (n=102) were divided into two groups according to their symptoms: group PO, presenting with PD as well as OD; group O, presenting with OD. A thorough medical history, physical examination, and vestibular function tests were performed to identify the etiology of the dizziness. Orthostatic vital sign measurement (OVSM) was used to diagnose OI. The majority of patients were in group PO (87.3%). BPPV was the most common cause of OD for entire patients (36.3%) and group PO (37.1%), while OI was most common etiology for group O (38.5%). Total of 17 (16.7%) OI patients were identified by OVSM test. Orthostatic hypotension (n=10) was most frequently found, followed by orthostatic hypertension (n=5), and orthostatic tachycardia (n=2). Group O showed significantly higher percentage (38.5%) of OI than group PO (13.5%) (P=0.039). It is suggested that orthostatic testing such as OVSM or head-up tilt table test should be performed as an initial work up for the patients with simple OD. Positional tests for BPPV should be considered as an essential diagnostic test for patients with OD, even though their dizziness is not associated with PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lack of association of MRI determined subclinical cardiovascular disease with dizziness and vertigo in a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbeer, Roberto; Hetterich, Holger; Strobl, Ralf; Schafnitzel, Anina; Patscheider, Hannah; Schindler, Andreas; Müller-Peltzer, Katharina; Sommer, Wieland; Peters, Annette; Meisinger, Christa; Heier, Margit; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Bamberg, Fabian; Grill, Eva

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association between subclinical cardiovascular diseases assessed by MRI examination and symptoms of dizziness and vertigo in participants of a population-based sample. Data from 400 participants (169 women) aged from 39 to 73 of a cross-sectional MRI sub-study of the "Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg" (KORA) FF4 study from the south of Germany was used. MRI determined subclinical cardiovascular diseases include left and right ventricular structure and function as well as the presence of carotid plaque and carotid wall thickness. Cerebrum diseases include white matter lesions (WML) and cerebral microbleeds (CMB). The main outcomes of dizziness and vertigo were assessed by standardized interview. Logistic regression models were applied and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were provided. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of dizziness and vertigo were 30% (95%CI 26% to 35%) and 21% (95%CI 17% to 26%) respectively in this sample. On multivariable analysis, cardiac and carotid measurements were not associated with dizziness and vertigo excluding orthostatic vertigo (20%, 95CI 16% to 24%). Only in male participants, there was a significant association between WML and the presence of dizziness and vertigo (OR = 2.95, 95%CI 1.08 to 8.07). There was no significant association of CMB with dizziness and vertigo. However, CMB and WML were tending to associate with a higher risk of dizziness and vertigo in the whole sample (CMB: OR = 1.48, 95%CI 0.70; 3.15; WML: OR = 1.71, 95%CI 0.80 to 3.67;), in persons with prediabetes and diabetes (WML: OR = 2.71, 95%CI 0.89 to 8.23) and in men with normal glucose metabolism (CMB: OR = 2.60, 95%CI 0.56 to 12.0; WML: OR = 3.08, 95%CI 0.58 to 16.5). In this sample of participants without manifest cardiovascular diseases, subclinical left and right ventricular function and carotid structure were consistently not associated with dizziness and vertigo. Subclinical cerebrum

  19. Lack of association of MRI determined subclinical cardiovascular disease with dizziness and vertigo in a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lorbeer

    Full Text Available We investigated the association between subclinical cardiovascular diseases assessed by MRI examination and symptoms of dizziness and vertigo in participants of a population-based sample.Data from 400 participants (169 women aged from 39 to 73 of a cross-sectional MRI sub-study of the "Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg" (KORA FF4 study from the south of Germany was used. MRI determined subclinical cardiovascular diseases include left and right ventricular structure and function as well as the presence of carotid plaque and carotid wall thickness. Cerebrum diseases include white matter lesions (WML and cerebral microbleeds (CMB. The main outcomes of dizziness and vertigo were assessed by standardized interview. Logistic regression models were applied and adjusted odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were provided.Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of dizziness and vertigo were 30% (95%CI 26% to 35% and 21% (95%CI 17% to 26% respectively in this sample. On multivariable analysis, cardiac and carotid measurements were not associated with dizziness and vertigo excluding orthostatic vertigo (20%, 95CI 16% to 24%. Only in male participants, there was a significant association between WML and the presence of dizziness and vertigo (OR = 2.95, 95%CI 1.08 to 8.07. There was no significant association of CMB with dizziness and vertigo. However, CMB and WML were tending to associate with a higher risk of dizziness and vertigo in the whole sample (CMB: OR = 1.48, 95%CI 0.70; 3.15; WML: OR = 1.71, 95%CI 0.80 to 3.67;, in persons with prediabetes and diabetes (WML: OR = 2.71, 95%CI 0.89 to 8.23 and in men with normal glucose metabolism (CMB: OR = 2.60, 95%CI 0.56 to 12.0; WML: OR = 3.08, 95%CI 0.58 to 16.5.In this sample of participants without manifest cardiovascular diseases, subclinical left and right ventricular function and carotid structure were consistently not associated with dizziness and vertigo. Subclinical cerebrum

  20. Lack of association of MRI determined subclinical cardiovascular disease with dizziness and vertigo in a cross-sectional population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetterich, Holger; Strobl, Ralf; Schafnitzel, Anina; Patscheider, Hannah; Schindler, Andreas; Müller-Peltzer, Katharina; Sommer, Wieland; Peters, Annette; Meisinger, Christa; Heier, Margit; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Bamberg, Fabian; Grill, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Objective We investigated the association between subclinical cardiovascular diseases assessed by MRI examination and symptoms of dizziness and vertigo in participants of a population-based sample. Methods Data from 400 participants (169 women) aged from 39 to 73 of a cross-sectional MRI sub-study of the “Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg” (KORA) FF4 study from the south of Germany was used. MRI determined subclinical cardiovascular diseases include left and right ventricular structure and function as well as the presence of carotid plaque and carotid wall thickness. Cerebrum diseases include white matter lesions (WML) and cerebral microbleeds (CMB). The main outcomes of dizziness and vertigo were assessed by standardized interview. Logistic regression models were applied and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were provided. Results Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of dizziness and vertigo were 30% (95%CI 26% to 35%) and 21% (95%CI 17% to 26%) respectively in this sample. On multivariable analysis, cardiac and carotid measurements were not associated with dizziness and vertigo excluding orthostatic vertigo (20%, 95CI 16% to 24%). Only in male participants, there was a significant association between WML and the presence of dizziness and vertigo (OR = 2.95, 95%CI 1.08 to 8.07). There was no significant association of CMB with dizziness and vertigo. However, CMB and WML were tending to associate with a higher risk of dizziness and vertigo in the whole sample (CMB: OR = 1.48, 95%CI 0.70; 3.15; WML: OR = 1.71, 95%CI 0.80 to 3.67;), in persons with prediabetes and diabetes (WML: OR = 2.71, 95%CI 0.89 to 8.23) and in men with normal glucose metabolism (CMB: OR = 2.60, 95%CI 0.56 to 12.0; WML: OR = 3.08, 95%CI 0.58 to 16.5). Conclusions In this sample of participants without manifest cardiovascular diseases, subclinical left and right ventricular function and carotid structure were consistently not associated with

  1. A Randomized Trial of Chinese Diaoshi Jifa on Treatment of Dizziness in Meniere’s Disease

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    Yong-Xin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Meniere’s disease is characterized by refractory dizziness and hearing disturbance. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and tolerance of Diaoshi Jifa, a Chinese hand skill for treating dizziness in Meniere’s disease. Methods. An open-labeled, randomized, controlled intervention trial was conducted. Twenty-seven patients diagnosed with Meniere’s disease were randomly allocated to control group or experimental group. Both groups were assessed by DHI (dizziness handicap inventory (DHI questionnaire score before and within 24 hours of receiving treatment, respectively. Results. Twenty-six participants completed the study, and no adverse event was reported due to Diaoshi Jifa treatment. The difference in the DHI scores between baseline and posttreatment reached significant difference in both groups (63.88±19.94 versus 10.25±9.77 and 54.36±17.97 versus 49.6±20.50. Significant difference in DHI scores was observed between the two groups after treatment (10.25±9.77 versus 49.6±20.50. Further investigation of DHI subscales in the experimental group revealed significant improvement posttreatment in the physical domain, functional domain, and emotional domain. Although higher rate of improvement in the emotional domain compared to physical or functional domains was found, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions. Diaoshi Jifa might be a fast, effective, and well-tolerated method for alleviating dizziness in Meniere’s disease.

  2. Blurring Boundaries: From the Danish Welfare State to the European Social Model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context and on the inte......Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context...... and on the integration of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services, 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law...... aspects, and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...

  3. Age Estimation Robust to Optical and Motion Blurring by Deep Residual CNN

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    Jeon Seong Kang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, real-time human age estimation based on facial images has been applied in various areas. Underneath this phenomenon lies an awareness that age estimation plays an important role in applying big data to target marketing for age groups, product demand surveys, consumer trend analysis, etc. However, in a real-world environment, various optical and motion blurring effects can occur. Such effects usually cause a problem in fully capturing facial features such as wrinkles, which are essential to age estimation, thereby degrading accuracy. Most of the previous studies on age estimation were conducted for input images almost free from blurring effect. To overcome this limitation, we propose the use of a deep ResNet-152 convolutional neural network for age estimation, which is robust to various optical and motion blurring effects of visible light camera sensors. We performed experiments with various optical and motion blurred images created from the park aging mind laboratory (PAL and craniofacial longitudinal morphological face database (MORPH databases, which are publicly available. According to the results, the proposed method exhibited better age estimation performance than the previous methods.

  4. Tontura em idosos da comunidade: estudo de base populacional Dizziness in community-dewelling older adults: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Albuquerque de Moraes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A queixa de tontura é comum em idosos. OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência de tontura e os fatores associados em uma amostra de idosos que vivem na comunidade. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo de coorte histórica prospectivo, com idosos de 65 anos ou mais. Foi utilizado um inquérito multidimensional e uma bateria de testes físico-funcionais. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de tontura foi de 45%. A tontura giratória foi relatada por 70,4% dos idosos e 43,8% disseram já ter tido crises vertiginosas em algum momento da vida. Houve associação significativa entre queixa de tontura e gênero feminino (p=0,004, relato de dificuldade de memória (p=0,015, má percepção de saúde (p=0,001, depressão (pDizziness is a common complaint among older adults. AIM: To identify the prevalence of dizziness and its related factors in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: A prospective population-based study with a representative sample of older adults aged 65 years and over. A multidimensional questionnaire and a battery of measures were used for assessing physical function. RESULTS: The prevalence of dizziness was 45%. Vertigo was found in 70.4% of older adults with dizziness and 43.8% of them referred vertigo crises along life. A significant association was found between dizziness and female gender (p=0.004, memory difficulties complaints (p=0.015, bad health perception (p=0.001, depression (p<0.0001, five or more comorbidities (p=0.021, self-reported fatigue (p<0.0001, recurrent falls (p=0.001, excessive sleepiness (p=0.003, fear of falling (p<0.0001, left leg unipedal stance (p=0.002 and Short Performance Physical Battery score (p=0.009. CONCLUSION: Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and it is associated with limiting clinical conditions, such as depression, fatigue, excessive sleepiness and impaired memory. It is highlighted the association between dizziness and recurrent falls, fear of falling and lower performance in physical

  5. Emergency Physician Attitudes, Preferences, and Risk Tolerance for Stroke as a Potential Cause of Dizziness Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamata V. Kene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We evaluated emergency physicians’ (EP current perceptions, practice, and attitudes towards evaluating stroke as a cause of dizziness among emergency department patients. Methods: We administered a survey to all EPs in a large integrated healthcare delivery system. The survey included clinical vignettes, perceived utility of historical and exam elements, attitudes about the value of and requisite post-test probability of a clinical prediction rule for dizziness. We calculated descriptive statistics and post-test probabilities for such a clinical prediction rule. Results: The response rate was 68% (366/535. Respondents’ median practice tenure was eight years (37% female, 92% emergency medicine board certified. Symptom quality and typical vascular risk factors increased suspicion for stroke as a cause of dizziness. Most respondents reported obtaining head computed tomography (CT (74%. Nearly all respondents used and felt confident using cranial nerve and limb strength testing. A substantial minority of EPs used the Epley maneuver (49% and HINTS (head-thrust test, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and skew deviation testing (30%; however, few EPs reported confidence in these tests’ bedside application (35% and 16%, respectively. Respondents favorably viewed applying a properly validated clinical prediction rule for assessment of immediate and 30-day stroke risk, but indicated it would have to reduce stroke risk to <0.5% to be clinically useful. Conclusion: EPs report relying on symptom quality, vascular risk factors, simple physical exam elements, and head CT to diagnose stroke as the cause of dizziness, but would find a validated clinical prediction rule for dizziness helpful. A clinical prediction rule would have to achieve a 0.5% post-test stroke probability for acceptability.

  6. Altered Ecological Flows Blur Boundaries in Urbanizing Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Lookingbill

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the boundary concept to ecological processes has been recently questioned. Humans in the post-industrial era have created novel lateral transport fluxes that have not been sufficiently considered in watershed studies. We describe patterns of land-use change within the Potomac River basin and demonstrate how these changes have blurred traditional ecosystem boundaries by increasing the movement of people, materials, and energy into and within the basin. We argue that this expansion of ecological commerce requires new science, monitoring, and management strategies focused on large rivers and suggest that traditional geopolitical and economic boundaries for environmental decision making be appropriately revised. Effective mitigation of the consequences of blurred boundaries will benefit from a broad-scale, interdisciplinary framework that can track and explicitly account for ecological fluxes of water, energy, materials, and organisms across human-dominated landscapes.

  7. Iterative PSF Estimation and Its Application to Shift Invariant and Variant Blur Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Won Jung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among image restoration approaches, image deconvolution has been considered a powerful solution. In image deconvolution, a point spread function (PSF, which describes the blur of the image, needs to be determined. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an iterative PSF estimation algorithm which is able to estimate an accurate PSF. In real-world motion-blurred images, a simple parametric model of the PSF fails when a camera moves in an arbitrary direction with an inconsistent speed during an exposure time. Moreover, the PSF normally changes with spatial location. In order to accurately estimate the complex PSF of a real motion blurred image, we iteratively update the PSF by using a directional spreading operator. The directional spreading is applied to the PSF when it reduces the amount of the blur and the restoration artifacts. Then, to generalize the proposed technique to the linear shift variant (LSV model, a piecewise invariant approach is adopted by the proposed image segmentation method. Experimental results show that the proposed method effectively estimates the PSF and restores the degraded images.

  8. Effects of vestibular rehabilitation combined with transcranial cerebellar direct current stimulation in patients with chronic dizziness: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koganemaru, Satoko; Goto, Fumiyuki; Arai, Miki; Toshikuni, Keitaro; Hosoya, Makoto; Wakabayashi, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Nobuko; Minami, Shujiro; Ikeda, Satoshi; Ikoma, Katsunori; Mima, Tatsuya

    Vestibular rehabilitation is useful to alleviate chronic dizziness in patients with vestibular dysfunction. It aims to induce neuronal plasticity in the central nervous system (especially in the cerebellum) to promote vestibular compensation. Transcranial cerebellar direct current stimulation (tcDCS) reportedly enhances cerebellar function. We investigated whether vestibular rehabilitation partially combined with tcDCS is superior to the use of rehabilitation alone for the alleviation of dizziness. Patients with chronic dizziness due to vestibular dysfunction received rehabilitation concurrently with either 20-min tcDCS or sham stimulation for 5 days. Pre- and post-intervention (at 1 month) dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) scores and psychometric and motor parameters were compared. Sixteen patients completed the study. DHI scores in the tcDCS group showed significant improvement over those in the sham group (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.033). Vestibular rehabilitation partially combined with tcDCS appears to be a promising approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Vertigo and dizziness in the emergency room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwergal, A; Möhwald, K; Dieterich, M

    2017-06-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common chief complaints in the emergency department. Etiologies can be categorized into three subgroups: neurootological (vestibular), medical (especially cardiovascular, metabolic), and psychiatric disorders. The diagnostic approach in the emergency department is based on a systematic analysis of case history (type, time course of symptoms, modulating factors, associated symptoms), clinical examination of the vestibular, ocular motor, and cerebellar systems (head impulse test, nystagmus, skew deviation, positioning maneuver, test of gait and stance), as well as a basal monitoring (vital signs, 12-lead ECG, blood tests). For differentiation of peripheral and central etiologies in acute vestibular syndrome, the HINTS exam (head impulse test, nystagmus, test of skew) and examination of smooth pursuit and saccades should be applied. Nonselective use of neuroimaging is not indicated due to a low diagnostic yield. Cranial imaging should be done in the following constellations: (1) detection of focal neurological or central ocular motor and vestibular signs on clinical exam, (2) acute abasia with only minor ocular motor signs, (3) presence of various cardiovascular risk factors, (4) headache of unknown quality as an accompanying symptom. Besides the symptomatic therapy of vertigo and dizziness with antiemetics or analgesics, further diagnostic differentiation is urgent to guide proper treatment. Examples are the acute therapy in cerebral ischemia, the execution of positioning maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, the use of corticosteroids in acute unilateral vestibulopathy, as well as the readjustment of metabolic homeostasis in medical disorders.

  10. Childhood otitis media is associated with dizziness in adulthood: the HUNT cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarhus, Lisa; Tambs, Kristian; Hoffman, Howard J; Engdahl, Bo

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the association between otitis media in childhood and dizziness in adulthood. Longitudinal, population-based cohort study of 21,962 adults (aged 20-59 years, mean 40) who completed a health questionnaire in the Nord-Trøndelag Hearing Loss Study was conducted. At 7, 10 and 13 years of age, the same individuals underwent screening audiometry in a longitudinal school hearing investigation. Children found with hearing loss underwent an ear, nose and throat specialist examination. Adults diagnosed with childhood chronic suppurative otitis media (n = 102) and childhood hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media (n = 590) were significantly more likely to have increased risk of reported dizziness when compared to adults with normal hearing as children at the school investigation and also a negative history of recurrent otitis media (n = 21,270), p otitis media and childhood hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media are associated with increased risk of dizziness in adulthood. This might reflect a permanent effect of inflammatory mediators or toxins on the vestibular system. The new finding stresses the importance of treatment and prevention of these otitis media conditions.

  11. Point prevalence of vertigo and dizziness in a sample of 2672 subjects and correlation with headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teggi, R; Manfrin, M; Balzanelli, C; Gatti, O; Mura, F; Quaglieri, S; Pilolli, F; Redaelli de Zinis, L O; Benazzo, M; Bussi, M

    2016-06-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are common symptoms in the general population, with an estimated prevalence between 20% and 56%. The aim of our work was to assess the point prevalence of these symptoms in a population of 2672 subjects. Patients were asked to answer a questionnaire; in the first part they were asked about demographic data and previous vertigo and or dizziness. Mean age of the sample was 48.3 ± 15 years, and 46.7% were males. A total of 1077 (40.3%) subjects referred vertigo/dizziness during their lifetime, and the mean age of the first vertigo attack was 39.2 ± 15.4 years; in the second part they were asked about the characteristics of vertigo (age of first episode, rotational vertigo, relapsing episodes, positional exacerbation, presence of cochlear symptoms) and lifetime presence of moderate to severe headache and its clinical features (hemicranial, pulsatile, associated with phono and photophobia, worse on effort). An age and sex effect was demonstrated, with symptoms 4.4 times more elevated in females and 1.8 times in people over 50 years. In the total sample of 2672 responders, 13.7% referred a sensation of spinning, 26.3% relapsing episodes, 12.9% positional exacerbation and 4.8% cochlear symptoms; 34.8% referred headache during their lifetime. Subjects suffering from headache presented an increased rate of relapsing episodes, positional exacerbation, cochlear symptoms and a lower age of occurrence of the first vertigo/dizziness episode. In the discussion, our data are compared with those of previous studies, and we underline the relationship between vertigo/dizziness from one side and headache with migrainous features on the other. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  12. Blurred image restoration using knife-edge function and optimal window Wiener filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shudao; Yan, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Motion blur in images is usually modeled as the convolution of a point spread function (PSF) and the original image represented as pixel intensities. The knife-edge function can be used to model various types of motion-blurs, and hence it allows for the construction of a PSF and accurate estimation of the degradation function without knowledge of the specific degradation model. This paper addresses the problem of image restoration using a knife-edge function and optimal window Wiener filtering. In the proposed method, we first calculate the motion-blur parameters and construct the optimal window. Then, we use the detected knife-edge function to obtain the system degradation function. Finally, we perform Wiener filtering to obtain the restored image. Experiments show that the restored image has improved resolution and contrast parameters with clear details and no discernible ringing effects. PMID:29377950

  13. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Ángel; Carbonell-Bonete, Stela; Cacho-Martínez, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the symptoms associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the methods used to obtain the subjects' symptoms. We conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1988 and 2012 that analysed any aspect of the symptomatology associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions. The literature search was performed in Medline (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS. A total of 657 articles were identified, and 56 met the inclusion criteria. We found 267 different ways of naming the symptoms related to these anomalies, which we grouped into 34 symptom categories. Of the 56 studies, 35 employed questionnaires and 21 obtained the symptoms from clinical histories. We found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS V-15) and CIRS parent version, both specific for convergence insufficiency, and the Conlon survey, developed for visual anomalies in general. The most widely used questionnaire (21 studies) was the CISS V-15. Of the 34 categories of symptoms, the most frequently mentioned were: headache, blurred vision, diplopia, visual fatigue, and movement or flicker of words at near vision, which were fundamentally related to near vision and binocular anomalies. There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3) were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  14. The Methods of Information Security Based on Blurring of System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Andreevich Styugin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the model of researching system with own known input, output and set of discrete internal states. These theoretical objects like an absolutely protected from research system and an absolutely indiscernible data transfer channel are defined. Generalization of the principle of Shannon Secrecy are made. The method of system blurring is defined. Theoretically cryptographically strong of absolutely indiscernible data transfer channel is proved and its practical unbreakable against unreliable pseudo random number generator is shown. This paper present system with blurring of channel named Pseudo IDTC and shown asymptotic complexity of break this system compare with AES and GOST.

  15. Reduce blurring and distortion in a projection type virtual image display using integrated small optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yendo, Tomohiro

    2015-03-01

    Head Up Display (HUD) is being applied to automobile. HUD displays information as far virtual image on the windshield. Existing HUD usually displays planar information. If the image corresponding to scenery on the road like Augmented Reality (AR) is displayed on the HUD, driver can efficiently get the information. To actualize this, HUD covering large viewing field is needed. However existing HUD cannot cover large viewing field. Therefore we have proposed system consisting of projector and many small diameter convex lenses. However observed virtual image has blurring and distortion . In this paper, we propose two methods to reduce blurring and distortion of images. First, to reduce blurring of images, distance between each of screen and lens comprised in lens array is adjusted. We inferred from the more distant the lens from center of the array is more blurred that the cause of blurring is curvature of field of lens in the array. Second, to avoid distortion of images, each lens in the array is curved spherically. We inferred from the more distant the lens from center of the array is more distorted that the cause of distortion is incident angle of ray. We confirmed effectiveness of both methods.

  16. Differences in children and adolescents' ability of reporting two CVS-related visual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Yan, Zheng; Ye, Tiantian; Lu, Fan; Xu, Peng; Chen, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether children and adolescents can correctly report dry eyes and blurred distance vision, two visual problems associated with computer vision syndrome. Participants are 913 children and adolescents aged 6-17. They were asked to report their visual problems, including dry eyes and blurred distance vision, and received an eye examination, including tear film break-up time (TFBUT) and visual acuity (VA). Inconsistency was found between participants' reports of dry eyes and TFBUT results among all 913 participants as well as for all of four subgroups. In contrast, consistency was found between participants' reports of blurred distance vision and VA results among 873 participants who had never worn glasses as well as for the four subgroups. It was concluded that children and adolescents are unable to report dry eyes correctly; however, they are able to report blurred distance vision correctly. Three practical implications of the findings were discussed. Little is known about children's ability to report their visual problems, an issue critical to diagnosis and treatment of children's computer vision syndrome. This study compared children's self-reports and clinic examination results and found children can correctly report blurred distance vision but not dry eyes.

  17. Iterative correction method for shift-variant blurring caused by collimator aperture in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Koichi; Katsu, Haruto

    1996-01-01

    A collimation system in single photon computed tomography (SPECT) induces blurring on reconstructed images. The blurring varies with the collimator aperture which is determined by the shape of the hole (its diameter and length), and with the distance between the collimator surface and the object. The blurring has shift-variant properties. This paper presents a new iterative method for correcting the shift-variant blurring. The method estimates the ratio of 'ideal projection value' to 'measured projection value' at each sample point. The term 'ideal projection value' means the number of photons which enter the hole perpendicular to the collimator surface, and the term 'measured projection value' means the number of photons which enter the hole at acute angles to the collimator aperture axis. If the estimation is accurate, ideal projection value can be obtained as the product of the measured projection value and the estimated ratio. The accuracy of the estimation is improved iteratively by comparing the measured projection value with a weighted summation of several estimated projection value. The simulation results showed that spatial resolution was improved without amplification of artifacts due to statistical noise. (author)

  18. Dizzy people perform no worse at a motor imagery task requiring whole body mental rotation; a case-control comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B Wallwork

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We wanted to find out whether people who suffer from dizziness take longer than people who do not, to perform a motor imagery task that involves implicit whole body rotation. Our prediction was that people in the ‘dizzy’ group would take longer at a left/right neck rotation judgment task but not a left/right hand judgment task, because actually performing the former, but not the latter, would exacerbate their dizziness. Secondly, we predicted that when dizzy participants responded to neck rotation images, responses would be greatest when images were in the upside-down orientation; an orientation with greatest dizzy-provoking potential. To test this idea, we used a case-control comparison design. One hundred and eighteen participants who suffered from dizziness and 118 age, gender, arm pain and neck pain matched controls took part in the study. Participants undertook two motor imagery tasks; a left/right neck rotation judgment task and a left/right hand judgment task. The tasks were completed using the Recognise program; an on-line reaction time task program. Images of neck rotation were shown in four different orientations; 0°, 90°, 180° and 270°. Participants were asked to respond to each ‘neck’ image identifying it as either ‘right neck rotation’ or a ‘left neck rotation’, or for hands, a right or a left hand. Results showed that participants in the ‘dizzy’ group were slower than controls at both tasks (p= 0.015, but this was not related to task (p= 0.498. Similarly, ‘dizzy’ participants were not proportionally worse at images of different orientations (p= 0.878. Our findings suggest impaired performance in dizzy people, an impairment that may be confined to motor imagery or may extend more generally.

  19. A Fast Algorithm for Image Super-Resolution from Blurred Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Michael K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of reconstruction of a high-resolution image from several blurred low-resolution image frames. The image frames consist of blurred, decimated, and noisy versions of a high-resolution image. The high-resolution image is modeled as a Markov random field (MRF, and a maximum a posteriori (MAP estimation technique is used for the restoration. We show that with the periodic boundary condition, a high-resolution image can be restored efficiently by using fast Fourier transforms. We also apply the preconditioned conjugate gradient method to restore high-resolution images in the aperiodic boundary condition. Computer simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. Effect of intensive insulin therapy on macular biometrics, plasma VEGF and its soluble receptor in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Cristina; Zapata, Miguel A; Losada, Eladio; Villarroel, Marta; García-Ramírez, Marta; García-Arumí, José; Simó, Rafael

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate whether intensive insulin therapy leads to changes in macular biometrics (volume and thickness) in newly diagnosed diabetic patients with acute hyperglycaemia and its relationship with serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its soluble receptor (sFlt-1). Twenty-six newly diagnosed diabetic patients admitted to our hospital to initiate intensive insulin treatment were prospectively recruited. Examinations were performed on admission (day 1) and during follow-up (days 3, 10 and 21) and included a questionnaire regarding the presence of blurred vision, standardized refraction measurements and optical coherence tomography. Plasma VEGF and sFlt-1 were assessed by ELISA at baseline and during follow-up. At study entry seven patients (26.9%) complained of blurred vision and five (19.2%) developed burred vision during follow-up. Macular volume and thickness increased significantly (p = 0.008 and p = 0.04, respectively) in the group with blurred vision at day 3 and returned to the baseline value at 10 days. This pattern was present in 18 out of the 24 eyes from patients with blurred vision. By contrast, macular biometrics remained unchanged in the group without blurred vision. We did not detect any significant changes in VEGF levels during follow-up. By contrast, a significant reduction of sFlt-1 was observed in those patients with blurred vision at day 3 (p = 0.03) with normalization by day 10. Diabetic patients with blurred vision after starting insulin therapy present a significant transient increase in macular biometrics which is associated with a decrease in circulating sFlt-1. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Use of the SMART Balance Master to quantify the effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment in patients with dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraix, Marcel; Gordon, Ashlynn; Graham, Victoria; Hurwitz, Eric; Seffinger, Michael A

    2013-05-01

    Dizziness is the third most common complaint among outpatients and the most common complaint in patients aged 75 years or older. It can be incapacitating for patients, affecting both productivity and quality of life. To evaluate the effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) for spinal somatic dysfunction in patients with dizziness lasting longer than 3 months. A prospective clinical cohort study that took place in 2011. Department of Physical Therapy laboratory at the Western University of Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine in Pomona, California. Sixteen participants (2 male, 14 female; mean [range] age, 49 [13-75] years) with dizziness lasting at least 3 months (mean duration of symptoms, 84 months) and spinal somatic dysfunction, but no history of known stroke or brain disease, were recruited from the local community and evaluated for postural balance control before, immediately after, and 1 week after OMT. Four osteopathic physicians board certified in neuromusculoskeletal medicine/osteopathic manipulative medicine provided OMT, including muscle energy; high-velocity, low-amplitude; counterstrain; myofascial release; balanced ligamentous release; and cranial OMT techniques. Outcomes were assessed with the SMART Balance Master (NeuroCom), a validated instrument that provides graphic and quantitative analyses of sway and balance, and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), a self-assessment inventory designed to assess precipitating physical factors associated with dizziness and functional and emotional consequences of vestibular disease. Paired t tests, performed to assess changes in mean composite scores for all challenge tests, revealed that balance was significantly improved both immediately and 1 week after OMT (both P<.001), with no significant difference between immediate and 1-week post-OMT scores (P=.20). The DHI scores, both total and subscale, improved significantly after OMT (P<.001), and changes in composite and DHI scores were

  2. The influence of structure depth on image blurring of micrometres-thick specimens in MeV transmission electron imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Ying; Cao, Meng; Nishi, Ryuji

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of structure depth on image blurring of micrometres-thick films by experiment and simulation with a conventional transmission electron microscope (TEM). First, ultra-high-voltage electron microscope (ultra-HVEM) images of nanometer gold particles embedded in thick epoxy-resin films were acquired in the experiment and compared with simulated images. Then, variations of image blurring of gold particles at different depths were evaluated by calculating the particle diameter. The results showed that with a decrease in depth, image blurring increased. This depth-related property was more apparent for thicker specimens. Fortunately, larger particle depth involves less image blurring, even for a 10-μm-thick epoxy-resin film. The quality dependence on depth of a 3D reconstruction of particle structures in thick specimens was revealed by electron tomography. The evolution of image blurring with structure depth is determined mainly by multiple elastic scattering effects. Thick specimens of heavier materials produced more blurring due to a larger lateral spread of electrons after scattering from the structure. Nevertheless, increasing electron energy to 2MeV can reduce blurring and produce an acceptable image quality for thick specimens in the TEM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Altered Insular and Occipital Responses to Simulated Vertical Self-Motion in Patients with Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Riccelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPersistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD is a common functional vestibular disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of non-vertiginous dizziness and unsteadiness that are exacerbated by upright posture, self-motion, and exposure to complex or moving visual stimuli. Recent physiologic and neuroimaging data suggest that greater reliance on visual cues for postural control (as opposed to vestibular cues—a phenomenon termed visual dependence and dysfunction in central visuo-vestibular networks may be important pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying PPPD. Dysfunctions are thought to involve insular regions that encode recognition of the visual effects of motion in the gravitational field.MethodsWe tested for altered activity in vestibular and visual cortices during self-motion simulation obtained via a visual virtual-reality rollercoaster stimulation using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 15 patients with PPPD and 15 healthy controls (HCs. We compared between groups differences in brain responses to simulated displacements in vertical vs horizontal directions and correlated the difference in directional responses with dizziness handicap in patients with PPPD.ResultsHCs showed increased activity in the anterior bank of the central insular sulcus during vertical relative to horizontal motion, which was not seen in patients with PPPD. However, for the same comparison, dizziness handicap correlated positively with activity in the visual cortex (V1, V2, and V3 in patients with PPPD.ConclusionWe provide novel insight into the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying PPPD, including functional alterations in brain processes that affect balance control and reweighting of space-motion inputs to favor visual cues. For patients with PPPD, difficulties using visual data to discern the effects of gravity on self-motion may adversely affect balance control, particularly for individuals who simultaneously rely too heavily on visual

  4. Effectiveness of Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy for Treatment of Concussed Adolescents With Persistent Symptoms of Dizziness and Imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoungyoun; Ksiazek, Thomas; Olson, Bernadette

    2018-05-04

    Adolescents who suffer sport concussion typically respond to a prescription of cognitive and physical rest in the acute phases of healing; however, some adolescents do not respond to rest alone. Dizziness, unsteadiness, and imbalance are impairments, which may linger longer than 30 days, leading to a diagnosis of postconcussion syndrome (PCS). Vestibular assessment and therapy may benefit adolescents suffering from these persistent symptoms. Does vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) rather than continued prescription of rest (cognitive and physical) reduce recovery time and persistent symptoms of dizziness, unsteadiness, and imbalance in adolescents (12-18 y) who suffer PCS following a sports-related concussion? Summary of Key Findings: All 4 studies selected included adolescents suffering from PCS, specifically continued dizziness, unsteadiness, and imbalance. VRT was an effective intervention for this population. Adolescents presenting with this cluster of symptoms may also demonstrate verbal and visual memory loss linked to changes in the vestibular system postconcussion. Improved screening tools can help better understand vestibular system changes, identify adolescents who may benefit from VRT sooner, and decrease long-term impairments. Clinical Bottom Line: Moderate evidence supports that adolescents who suffer from persistent symptoms of dizziness, unsteadiness, and imbalance following sport concussion should be evaluated more specifically and earlier for vestibular dysfunction and can benefit from participation in individualized VRT. Early evaluation and treatment may result in a reduction of time lost from sport as well as a return to their premorbid condition. For these adolescents, VRT may be more beneficial than continued physical and cognitive rest when an adolescent's symptoms last longer than 30 days. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support that VRT is more effective than continued cognitive and physical rest in reducing

  5. Efficient dense blur map estimation for automatic 2D-to-3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosters, L. P. J.; de Haan, G.

    2012-03-01

    Focus is an important depth cue for 2D-to-3D conversion of low depth-of-field images and video. However, focus can be only reliably estimated on edges. Therefore, Bea et al. [1] first proposed an optimization based approach to propagate focus to non-edge image portions, for single image focus editing. While their approach produces accurate dense blur maps, the computational complexity and memory requirements for solving the resulting sparse linear system with standard multigrid or (multilevel) preconditioning techniques, are infeasible within the stringent requirements of the consumer electronics and broadcast industry. In this paper we propose fast, efficient, low latency, line scanning based focus propagation, which mitigates the need for complex multigrid or (multilevel) preconditioning techniques. In addition we propose facial blur compensation to compensate for false shading edges that cause incorrect blur estimates in people's faces. In general shading leads to incorrect focus estimates, which may lead to unnatural 3D and visual discomfort. Since visual attention mostly tends to faces, our solution solves the most distracting errors. A subjective assessment by paired comparison on a set of challenging low-depth-of-field images shows that the proposed approach achieves equal 3D image quality as optimization based approaches, and that facial blur compensation results in a significant improvement.

  6. Malfunction of the inner ear is the most frequent cause of dizziness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Mads; Vesterhauge, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Half of all dizziness patients suffer from a malfunction of the inner ear and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo causes 25-30% of these malfunctions. During the latest two decades new vestibular test equipment has been developed and has made it possible to refine the vestibular diagnoses...

  7. Blind assessment of image blur using the Haar wavelet

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available algorithms. We present an intuitive quality metric for characterizing the amount of blur in an image, through blind image assessment, using the Haar discrete wavelet transform. Thus, the method does not require a reference image or any prior information...

  8. Registration of Large Motion Blurred CMOS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    raju@ee.iitm.ac.in - Institution : Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras, India - Mailing Address : Room ESB 307c, Dept. of Electrical ...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0066 Registration of Large Motion Blurred CMOS Images Ambasamudram Rajagopalan INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MADRAS Final...NUMBER 5f.  WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MADRAS SARDAR PATEL ROAD Chennai, 600036

  9. Chronic subjective dizziness versus conversion disorder: discussion of clinical findings and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honaker, Julie A; Gilbert, Jane M; Staab, Jeffrey P

    2010-06-01

    Audiologists frequently encounter patients who complain of chronic dizziness or imbalance, in the absence of active vestibular or neurological deficits. Knowledge about conditions that cause this clinical presentation will allow audiologists to make important contributions to accurate diagnosis and effective management of these patients. This article reviews 2 such conditions, chronic subjective dizziness (CSD) and conversion disorder. A case of CSD and another of conversion disorder are presented, with a literature review of their clinical presentations, key diagnostic features, and treatment strategies. The role of the audiologist in assessing patients with these conditions and facilitating appropriate treatment referrals is discussed. The audiologist is in a key position to identify individuals with CSD and conversion disorder, 2 conditions that can be effectively managed if properly recognized. The authors demonstrate an effective team approach program that includes the audiologist's contribution to differential diagnosis, education of patients and other clinicians about these conditions, and development of recommendations for neurological, psychiatric, otologic, and physical therapy referrals.

  10. Iterative PSF Estimation and Its Application to Shift Invariant and Variant Blur Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Won Jung; Byeong-Doo Choi; Sung-Jea Ko

    2009-01-01

    Among image restoration approaches, image deconvolution has been considered a powerful solution. In image deconvolution, a point spread function (PSF), which describes the blur of the image, needs to be determined. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an iterative PSF estimation algorithm which is able to estimate an accurate PSF. In real-world motion-blurred images, a simple parametric model of the PSF fails when a camera moves in an arbitrary direction with an inconsistent speed during an e...

  11. Positron range in PET imaging: an alternative approach for assessing and correcting the blurring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars; Le Loirec, Cindy; Champion, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Background: Positron range impairs resolution in PET imaging, especially for high-energy emitters and for small-animal PET. De-blurring in image reconstruction is possible if the blurring distribution is known. Further, the percentage of annihilation events within a given distance from the point...... on allowed-decay isotopes. Methods: It is argued that blurring at the detection level should not be described by positron range r, but instead the 2D-projected distance δ (equal to the closest distance between decay and line-of-response). To determine these 2D distributions, results from a dedicated positron...... is important for improved resolution in PET imaging. Relevant distributions for positron range have been derived for seven isotopes. Distributions for other allowed-decay isotopes may be estimated with the above formulas....

  12. Recent advances in orthostatic hypotension presenting orthostatic dizziness or vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Yi, Hyon-Ah; Lee, Hyung

    2015-11-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH), a proxy for sympathetic adrenergic failure, is the most incapacitating sign of autonomic failure. Orthostatic dizziness (OD) is known to be the most common symptom of OH. However, recent studies have demonstrated that 30-39 % of patients with OH experienced rotatory vertigo during upright posture (i.e., orthostatic vertigo, OV), which challenges the dogma that OH induces dizziness and not vertigo. A recent population-based study on spontaneously occurring OD across a wide age range showed that the one-year and lifetime prevalence of OD was 10.9 and 12.5 %, respectively. Approximately 83 % of patients with OD had at least one abnormal autonomic function test result. So far, 11 subtypes of OD have been proposed according to the pattern of autonomic dysfunction, and generalized autonomic failure of sympathetic adrenergic and parasympathetic cardiovagal functions was the most common type. Four different patterns of OH, such as classic, delayed, early, and transient type have been found in patients with OD. The head-up tilt test and Valsalva maneuver should be performed for a comprehensive evaluation of sympathetic adrenergic failure in patients with OD/OV. This review summarizes current advances in OH presenting OD/OV, with a particular focus on the autonomic dysfunction associated with OD.

  13. The influence of unilateral saccular impairment on functional balance performance and self-report dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Devin L; Jacobson, Gary P; Grantham, Sarah L; Piker, Erin G; Verghese, Susha

    2011-09-01

    Postural stability in humans is largely maintained by vestibular, visual, and somatosensory inputs to the central nervous system. Recent clinical advances in the assessment of otolith function (e.g., cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials [cVEMPs and oVEMPs], subjective visual vertical [SVV] during eccentric rotation) have enabled investigators to identify patients with unilateral otolith impairments. This research has suggested that patients with unilateral otolith impairments perform worse than normal healthy controls on measures of postural stability. It is not yet known if patients with unilateral impairments of the saccule and/or inferior vestibular nerve (i.e., unilaterally abnormal cVEMP) perform differently on measures of postural stability than patients with unilateral impairments of the horizontal SCC (semicircular canal) and/or superior vestibular nerve (i.e., unilateral caloric weakness). Further, it is not known what relationship exists, if any, between otolith system impairment and self-report dizziness handicap. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which saccular impairments (defined by a unilaterally absent cVEMP) and impairments of the horizontal semicircular canal (as measured by the results of caloric testing) affect vestibulospinal function as measured through the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) of the computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). A secondary objective of this investigation was to measure the effects, if any, that saccular impairment has on a modality-specific measure of health-related quality of life. A retrospective cohort study. Subjects were assigned to one of four groups based on results from balance function testing: Group 1 (abnormal cVEMP response only), Group 2 (abnormal caloric response only), Group 3 (abnormal cVEMP and abnormal caloric response), and Group 4 (normal control group). Subjects were 92 adult patients: 62 were seen for balance function testing due to complaints

  14. Variation in the Use of Vestibular Diagnostic Testing for Patients Presenting to Otolaryngology Clinics with Dizziness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piker, Erin G.; Schulz, Kris; Parham, Kourosh; Vambutas, Andrea; Witsell, David; Tucci, Debara; Shin, Jennifer J.; Pynnonen, Melissa A.; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh; Crowson, Matthew; Ryan, Sheila E.; Langman, Alan; Roberts, Rhonda; Wolfley, Anne; Lee, Walter T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We used a national otolaryngology practice–based research network database to characterize the utilization of vestibular function testing in patients diagnosed with dizziness and/or a vestibular disorder. Study Design Database review. Setting The Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research (CHEER) practice-based research network of academic and community providers Subjects and Methods Dizzy patients in the CHEER retrospective database were identified through ICD-9 codes; vestibular testing procedures were identified with CPT codes. Demographics and procedures per patient were tabulated. Analysis included number and type of vestibular tests ordered, stratified by individual clinic and by practice type (community vs academic). Chi-square tests were performed to assess if the percentage of patients receiving testing was statistically significant across clinics. A logistic regression model was used to examine the association between receipt of testing and being tested on initial visit. Results A total of 12,468 patients diagnosed with dizziness and/or a vestibular disorder were identified from 7 community and 5 academic CHEER network clinics across the country. One-fifth of these patients had at least 1 vestibular function test. The percentage of patients tested varied widely by site, from 3% to 72%; academic clinics were twice as likely to test. Initial visit vestibular testing also varied, from 0% to 96% of dizzy patients, and was 15 times more likely in academic clinics. Conclusion There is significant variation in use and timing of vestibular diagnostic testing across otolaryngology clinics. The CHEER network research database does not contain outcome data. These results illustrate the critical need for research that examines outcomes as related to vestibular testing. PMID:27371625

  15. Fourier correction for spatially variant collimator blurring in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, W.; Lewitt, R.M.; Edholm, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    In single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), projection data are acquired by rotating the photon detector around a patient, either in a circular orbit or in a noncircular orbit. The projection data of the desired spatial distribution of emission activity is blurred by the point-response function of the collimator that is used to define the range of directions of gamma-ray photons reaching the detector. The point-response function of the collimator is not spatially stationary, but depends on the distance from the collimator to the point. Conventional methods for deblurring collimator projection data are based on approximating the actual distance-dependent point-response function by a spatially invariant blurring function, so that deconvolution methods can be applied independently to the data at each angle of view. A method is described in this paper for distance-dependent preprocessing of SPECT projection data prior to image reconstruction. Based on the special distance-dependent characteristics of the Fourier coefficients of the sinogram, a spatially variant inverse filter can be developed to process the projection data in all views simultaneously. The algorithm is first derived from fourier analysis of the projection data from the circular orbit geometry. For circular orbit projection data, experimental results from both simulated data and real phantom data indicate the potential of this method. It is shown that the spatial filtering method can be extended to the projection data from the noncircular orbit geometry. Experiments on simulated projection data from an elliptical orbit demonstrate correction of the spatially variant blurring and distortion in the reconstructed image caused by the noncircular orbit geometry

  16. Circular blurred shape model for multiclass symbol recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Fornés, Alicia; Pujol, Oriol; Lladós, Josep; Radeva, Petia

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a circular blurred shape model descriptor to deal with the problem of symbol detection and classification as a particular case of object recognition. The feature extraction is performed by capturing the spatial arrangement of significant object characteristics in a correlogram structure. The shape information from objects is shared among correlogram regions, where a prior blurring degree defines the level of distortion allowed in the symbol, making the descriptor tolerant to irregular deformations. Moreover, the descriptor is rotation invariant by definition. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed descriptor in both the multiclass symbol recognition and symbol detection domains. In order to perform the symbol detection, the descriptors are learned using a cascade of classifiers. In the case of multiclass categorization, the new feature space is learned using a set of binary classifiers which are embedded in an error-correcting output code design. The results over four symbol data sets show the significant improvements of the proposed descriptor compared to the state-of-the-art descriptors. In particular, the results are even more significant in those cases where the symbols suffer from elastic deformations.

  17. Vision rehabilitation for visual-vestibular dysfunction: the role of the neuro-optometrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Allen H

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses, in a clinically relevant format, the importance of including a neuro-optometrist as a member of the management team for patients with balance disorders. To review the importance of vision and visual processing for maintaining a sense of balance and equilibrium and the role of the neuro-optometrist in the overall rehabilitation of patients with balance disorders Dizziness, balance problems and the sensation that the space world is moving (vertigo) are one of the most commonly reported problems in general medical practice. Persons with a central nervous system injury or other idiopathic causes of visual processing problems or who have functional vision problems that are not adequately managed, often experience extreme difficulty with balance and movement, as well as with their perception of space. Consequently, the patient often experiences difficulty functioning in an environment with excessive visual stimulation such as a grocery store or shopping mall. Symptoms of disequilibrium, vestibular and balance problems are commonly a result of VOR disturbance secondary to an inner ear problem and an unstable binocularity. The combination of neuro-optomertic rehabilitative therapy and balance therapy will result in a is an effective treatment for reducing or resolving these symptoms.

  18. Few-view single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction based on a blurred piecewise constant object model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Paul A.; Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Schmidt, Taly G.

    2013-01-01

    the assumed blurring model. Generally, increased values of the blurring parameter and TV weighting parameters reduced noise and streaking artifacts, while decreasing spatial resolution. As the number of views decreased from 60 to 9 the accuracy of images reconstructed using the proposed algorithm varied...

  19. Local blur analysis and phase error correction method for fringe projection profilometry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li; Da, Feipeng

    2018-05-20

    We introduce a flexible error correction method for fringe projection profilometry (FPP) systems in the presence of local blur phenomenon. Local blur caused by global light transport such as camera defocus, projector defocus, and subsurface scattering will cause significant systematic errors in FPP systems. Previous methods, which adopt high-frequency patterns to separate the direct and global components, fail when the global light phenomenon occurs locally. In this paper, the influence of local blur on phase quality is thoroughly analyzed, and a concise error correction method is proposed to compensate the phase errors. For defocus phenomenon, this method can be directly applied. With the aid of spatially varying point spread functions and local frontal plane assumption, experiments show that the proposed method can effectively alleviate the system errors and improve the final reconstruction accuracy in various scenes. For a subsurface scattering scenario, if the translucent object is dominated by multiple scattering, the proposed method can also be applied to correct systematic errors once the bidirectional scattering-surface reflectance distribution function of the object material is measured.

  20. Computer vision syndrome: a review of ocular causes and potential treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is the combination of eye and vision problems associated with the use of computers. In modern western society the use of computers for both vocational and avocational activities is almost universal. However, CVS may have a significant impact not only on visual comfort but also occupational productivity since between 64% and 90% of computer users experience visual symptoms which may include eyestrain, headaches, ocular discomfort, dry eye, diplopia and blurred vision either at near or when looking into the distance after prolonged computer use. This paper reviews the principal ocular causes for this condition, namely oculomotor anomalies and dry eye. Accommodation and vergence responses to electronic screens appear to be similar to those found when viewing printed materials, whereas the prevalence of dry eye symptoms is greater during computer operation. The latter is probably due to a decrease in blink rate and blink amplitude, as well as increased corneal exposure resulting from the monitor frequently being positioned in primary gaze. However, the efficacy of proposed treatments to reduce symptoms of CVS is unproven. A better understanding of the physiology underlying CVS is critical to allow more accurate diagnosis and treatment. This will enable practitioners to optimize visual comfort and efficiency during computer operation. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  1. Edge and line detection of complicated and blurred objects

    OpenAIRE

    Haugsdal, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This report deals with edge and line detection in pictures with complicated and/or blurred objects. It explores the alternatives available, in edge detection, edge linking and object recognition. Choice of methods are the Canny edge detection and Local edge search processing combined with regional edge search processing in the form of polygon approximation.

  2. Dizziness and Imbalance in the Elderly: Age-related Decline in the Vestibular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Dizziness and imbalance are amongst the most common complaints in older people, and are a growing public health concern since they put older people at a significantly higher risk of falling. Although the causes of dizziness in older people are multifactorial, peripheral vestibular dysfunction is one of the most frequent causes. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most frequent form of vestibular dysfunction in the elderly, followed by Meniere’s disease. Every factor associated with the maintenance of postural stability deteriorates during aging. Age-related deterioration of peripheral vestibular function has been demonstrated through quantitative measurements of the vestibulo-ocular reflex with rotational testing and of the vestibulo-collic reflex with testing of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Age-related decline of vestibular function has been shown to correlate with the age-related decrease in the number of vestibular hair cells and neurons. The mechanism of age-related cellular loss in the vestibular endorgan is unclear, but it is thought that genetic predisposition and cumulative effect of oxidative stress may both play an important role. Since the causes of dizziness in older people are multi-factorial, management of this disease should be customized according to the etiologies of each individual. Vestibular rehabilitation is found to be effective in treating both unilateral and bilateral vestibular dysfunction. Various prosthetic devices have also been developed to improve postural balance in older people. Although there have been no medical treatments improving age-related vestibular dysfunction, new medical treatments such as mitochondrial antioxidants or caloric restriction, which have been effective in preventing age-related hearing loss, should be ienvestigated in the future. PMID:25657851

  3. Registration of Images with N-fold Dihedral Blur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pedone, M.; Flusser, Jan; Heikkila, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 1036-1045 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S; GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Image registration * blurred images * N-fold rotational symmetry * dihedral symmetry * phase correlation Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 3.735, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/ZOI/flusser-0441247.pdf

  4. An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of booklet-based self-management of dizziness in primary care, with and without expert telephone support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Debbie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness is a very common symptom that often leads to reduced quality of life, anxiety and emotional distress, loss of fitness, lack of confidence in balance, unsteadiness and an increased risk of falling. Most dizzy patients are managed in primary care by reassurance and medication to suppress symptoms. Trials have shown that chronic dizziness can be treated effectively in primary care using a self-help booklet to teach patients vestibular rehabilitation exercises that promote neurological adaptation and skill and confidence in balance. However, brief support from a trained nurse was provided in these trials, and this model of managing dizzy patients has not been taken up due to a lack of skills and resources in primary care. The aim of this trial is to evaluate two new alternative models of delivery that may be more feasible and cost-effective. Methods/Design In a single blind two-centre pragmatic controlled trial, we will randomise 330 patients from 30 practices to a self-help booklet with telephone support from a vestibular therapist, b self-help booklet alone, c routine medical care. Symptoms, disability, handicap and quality of life will be assessed by validated questionnaires administered by post at baseline, immediately post-treatment (3 months, and at one year follow-up. The study is powered to test our primary hypothesis, that the self-help booklet with telephone support will be more effective than routine care. We will also explore the effectiveness of the booklet without any support, and calculate the costs of treatment in each arm. Discussion If our trial indicates that patients can cost-effectively manage their dizziness in primary care, then it can be easily rolled out to relieve the symptoms of the many patients in primary care who currently have chronic, untreated, disabling dizziness. Treatment in primary care may reduce the development of psychological and physical sequelae that cause handicap and require

  5. The TriAGe+ Score for Vertigo or Dizziness: A Diagnostic Model for Stroke in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, R; Nakada, T; Ojima, T; Serizawa, M; Imai, N; Yagi, N; Tasaki, A; Aoki, M; Oiwa, T; Ogane, T; Mochizuki, K; Kobari, M; Miyajima, H

    2017-05-01

    Vertigo or dizziness is a common occurrence, but it remains a challenging symptom when encountered in the emergency department (ED). A diagnostic score for stroke with high accuracy is therefore required. A single-center observational study (498 patients) was conducted. The predictor variables were derived from a multivariate logistic regression analysis with Akaike information criterion. The outcome was the occurrence of stroke. We evaluated the utility of a new diagnostic score (TriAGe+) and compared it with the ABCD2 score. The cohorts included 498 patients (147 with stroke [29.4%]). Eight variables were included: triggers, atrial fibrillation, male gender, blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg, brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction, focal weakness or speech impairment, dizziness, and no history of vertigo or dizziness or labyrinth or vestibular disease. We derived the TriAGe+ score from these variables. In the cohort, the prevalence of stroke increased significantly using the diagnostic score: 5.9% for a score of 0-4; 9.1% for 5-7; 24.7% for 8-9; and 57.3% for 10-17. At a cutoff value of 10 points, the sensitivity of the score was 77.5%, the specificity was 72.1%, and the positive likelihood ratio was 3.2. When the cutoff was defined as 5 points, the score obtained a high sensitivity (96.6%) with a good negative likelihood ratio (.15). The new score outperformed the ABCD2 score for the occurrence of stroke (C statistic, .818 versus .726; P vertigo or dizziness presenting to the ED. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of Phlebotomy (Fasd) and Wet Cupping (Hijamat) to Manage Dizziness and Vertigo From the Viewpoint of Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Nazem, Esmaeil; Moghimi, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman; Kenari, Hoorieh Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Dizziness and vertigo are the most common complaints of patients that has a high economic burden on the health system. In modern medicine, treatment for dizziness and vertigo consists of chemical pharmacological therapy. Although these drugs are useful in controlling the disease, their side effects and inefficiency in full control of the disease require the use of complementary medicine in this field. Persian medicine consists of valuable experiences of Persian medicine scholars based on the theory of humors and temperaments. In Persian medicine, 2 types of disease are presented: dizziness (sadar) and vertigo (dovar). Persian medicine physicians expressed a different mechanism of action than modern medicine for these diseases. They believed that accumulation of abnormal humors, reeh (normal bloating) or causative pathologic substances, is the basic cause of sadar and dovar and that the most important treatment is cleansing the body, particularly the head from accumulated substances by bloodletting methods.

  7. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The imaging capability of a surveillance vision system from harsh low-visibility environments such as in fire and detonation areas is a key function to monitor the safety of the facilities. 2D and range image data acquired from low-visibility environment are important data to assess the safety and prepare appropriate countermeasures. Passive vision systems, such as conventional camera and binocular stereo vision systems usually cannot acquire image information when the reflected light is highly scattered and absorbed by airborne particles such as fog. In addition, the image resolution captured through low-density airborne particles is decreased because the image is blurred and dimmed by the scattering, emission and absorption. Active vision systems, such as structured light vision and projected stereo vision are usually more robust for harsh environment than passive vision systems. However, the performance is considerably decreased in proportion to the density of the particles. The RGI system provides 2D and range image data from several RGI images and it moreover provides clear images from low-visibility fog and smoke environment by using the sum of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays becoming more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of its compact portable configuration. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been

  8. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The imaging capability of a surveillance vision system from harsh low-visibility environments such as in fire and detonation areas is a key function to monitor the safety of the facilities. 2D and range image data acquired from low-visibility environment are important data to assess the safety and prepare appropriate countermeasures. Passive vision systems, such as conventional camera and binocular stereo vision systems usually cannot acquire image information when the reflected light is highly scattered and absorbed by airborne particles such as fog. In addition, the image resolution captured through low-density airborne particles is decreased because the image is blurred and dimmed by the scattering, emission and absorption. Active vision systems, such as structured light vision and projected stereo vision are usually more robust for harsh environment than passive vision systems. However, the performance is considerably decreased in proportion to the density of the particles. The RGI system provides 2D and range image data from several RGI images and it moreover provides clear images from low-visibility fog and smoke environment by using the sum of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays becoming more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of its compact portable configuration. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been

  9. Prevalence and associated factors of computer vision syndrome among bank workers in Gondar City, northwest Ethiopia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa NL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Natnael Lakachew Assefa, Dawit Zenebe Weldemichael, Haile Woretaw Alemu, Dereje Hayilu Anbesse Department of Optometry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Use of computers is generally encouraged; this is to keep up with the fast-moving world of technology, research and science. Extensive use of computers will result in computer vision syndrome (CVS, and the prevalence is increased dramatically. The main objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of CVS among bank workers in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional institution-based study was conducted among computer-using bank workers in Gondar city from April to June, 2015. Data were collected through structured questionnaires and observations with checklists, entered with Epi Info™ 7 and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were carried out to compute the different rates, proportion and relevant associations.Results: Among the total 304 computer-using bank workers, the prevalence of CVS was 73% (95% confidence interval [CI]=68.04, 78.02. Blurred vision (42.4%, headache (23.0% and redness (23.0% were the most experienced symptoms. Inappropriate sitting position was 2.3 times (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.33; 95% CI=1.27, 4.28 more likely to be associated with CVS when compared with appropriate sitting position. Those working on the computer for more than 20 minutes without break were nearly 2 times (AOR=1.93; 95% CI=1.11, 3.35 more likely to have suffered from CVS when compared with those taking break within 20 minutes, and those wearing eye glasses were 3 times (AOR=3.19; 95% CI=1.07, 9.51 more likely to suffer from CVS when compared with those not wearing glasses.Conclusion: About three-fourths of computer-using bank workers suffered from CVS with the most experienced symptoms being blurred vision

  10. Thermal blurring effects on fluctuations of conserved charges in rapidity space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, M.; Kitazawa, M.; Onishi, Y.; Sakaida, M.

    2016-12-15

    We argue that the diffusion in the hadron phase and the thermal blurring at thermal freezeout affect observed conserved charge fluctuations considerably in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and show that their effects are of similar order at RHIC and LHC, and thus equally important in understanding experimental data. We also argue that, in order to disentangle them and obtain the initial state charge fluctuations, which we are interested in, it is crucial to measure their dependence on the rapidity window size. In the energy range of the beam energy scan program at RHIC, the diffusion effect would be less important because of the shorter duration of the hadron phase, but the importance of thermal blurring is not reduced. In addition, it is necessary to take account of the complex correspondence between the space-time rapidity and rapidity of observed particles, there.

  11. The epidemiology of vertigo, dizziness and unsteadiness and its links to co-morbidities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eBisdorff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo, dizziness and unsteadiness (VDU are common symptoms traditionally considered to result from different kinds of vestibular and non-vestibular dysfunctions. The epidemiology of each symptom and how they relate to each other and to migraine, agoraphobia, motion sickness susceptibility (MSS, vaso-vagal episodes (VVE and anxiety-depression (AD was the object of this population-based study in north-eastern France. A self-administered questionnaire was returned by 2987 adults (age span 18-86 years, 1471 women. The 1-year prevalence for vertigo was 48.3%, for unsteadiness 39.1% and for dizziness 35.6%. The three symptoms were correlated with each other, occurred mostly (69.4% in various combinations rather than in isolation, less than once per month, and 90% of episodes lasted ≤ 2 minutes. The three symptoms were similar in terms of female predominance, temporary profile of the episodes and their link to falls and nausea. Symptom episodes of >1 hour increase the risk of falls. VDU are much more common than the known prevalence of vestibular disorders. The number of drugs taken increase VDU even when controlling for age. Each VDU symptom was correlated with each co-morbidity in Chi2 tests. The data suggest that the three symptoms are more likely to represent a spectrum resulting from a range of similar — rather than from different, unrelated — mechanisms or disorders. Logistic regressions controlling for each vestibular symptom showed that vertigo correlated with each co-morbidity but dizziness and unsteadiness did not, suggesting that vertigo is certainly not a more specific symptom than the other two. A logistic regression using a composite score of VDU, controlling for each co-morbidity showed a correlation of VDU to migraine and VVE but not to MSS and not to agoraphobia in men, only in women.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of traumatic intracranial hypotension (cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinonaga, Masamichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2003-01-01

    Patients who complain headache, neck pain, dizziness or vertigo, tinnitus, blurred vision, loss of concentration, memory disturbance and fatigue for over one year after mild head injury and whiplash injury are diagnosed as post-traumatic syndrome. Mechanism and treatment of post-traumatic syndrome are not well established. We studied radioisotope (RI) cisternography and enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the patient of post-traumatic syndrome. Of 175 cases in post-traumatic syndrome 141 cases (120 cases of motor vehicle accident, 21 cases of sports injury) were diagnosed, as intracranial hypotension (cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia). RI cisternography showed 86% positive findings (early accumulation of RI in bladder and leakage). Prominent findings in MRI were dilatation of subdural space and venous dilatation. In every case epidural blood patch was performed and symptoms were improved in almost 70% of patients. This study revealed cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia might be one cause of post-traumatic syndrome. (author)

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of traumatic intracranial hypotension (cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinonaga, Masamichi [Hiratsuka Kyousai Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Suzuki, Shinichi [Inadanoborito Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    Patients who complain headache, neck pain, dizziness or vertigo, tinnitus, blurred vision, loss of concentration, memory disturbance and fatigue for over one year after mild head injury and whiplash injury are diagnosed as post-traumatic syndrome. Mechanism and treatment of post-traumatic syndrome are not well established. We studied radioisotope (RI) cisternography and enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the patient of post-traumatic syndrome. Of 175 cases in post-traumatic syndrome 141 cases (120 cases of motor vehicle accident, 21 cases of sports injury) were diagnosed, as intracranial hypotension (cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia). RI cisternography showed 86% positive findings (early accumulation of RI in bladder and leakage). Prominent findings in MRI were dilatation of subdural space and venous dilatation. In every case epidural blood patch was performed and symptoms were improved in almost 70% of patients. This study revealed cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia might be one cause of post-traumatic syndrome. (author)

  14. The Relationship Between Fusion, Suppression, and Diplopia in Normal and Amblyopic Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Daniel P; Baldwin, Alex S; Hess, Robert F

    2016-10-01

    Single vision occurs through a combination of fusion and suppression. When neither mechanism takes place, we experience diplopia. Under normal viewing conditions, the perceptual state depends on the spatial scale and interocular disparity. The purpose of this study was to examine the three perceptual states in human participants with normal and amblyopic vision. Participants viewed two dichoptically separated horizontal blurred edges with an opposite tilt (2.35°) and indicated their binocular percept: "one flat edge," "one tilted edge," or "two edges." The edges varied with scale (fine 4 min arc and coarse 32 min arc), disparity, and interocular contrast. We investigated how the binocular interactions vary in amblyopic (visual acuity [VA] > 0.2 logMAR, n = 4) and normal vision (VA ≤ 0 logMAR, n = 4) under interocular variations in stimulus contrast and luminance. In amblyopia, despite the established sensory dominance of the fellow eye, fusion prevails at the coarse scale and small disparities (75%). We also show that increasing the relative contrast to the amblyopic eye enhances the probability of fusion at the fine scale (from 18% to 38%), and leads to a reversal of the sensory dominance at coarse scale. In normal vision we found that interocular luminance imbalances disturbed binocular combination only at the fine scale in a way similar to that seen in amblyopia. Our results build upon the growing evidence that the amblyopic visual system is binocular and further show that the suppressive mechanisms rendering the amblyopic system functionally monocular are scale dependent.

  15. Effect of Repositioning Maneuver Type and Postmaneuver Restrictions on Vertigo and Dizziness in Benign Positional Paroxysmal Vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupet, Michel; Ferrary, Evelyne; Bozorg Grayeli, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. To compare the efficiency of Epley (Ep) and Sémont-Toupet (ST) repositioning maneuvers and to evaluate postmaneuver restriction effect on short-term vertigo and dizziness after repositioning maneuvers by an analog visual scale (VAS) in benign positional paroxysmal vertigo (BPPV). Material and Methods. 226 consecutive adult patients with posterior canal BPPV were included. Patients were randomized into 2 different maneuver sequence groups (n = 113): 2 ST then 1 Ep or 2 Ep then 1 ST. Each group of sequence was randomized into 2 subgroups: with or without postmaneuver restrictions. Vertigo and dizziness were assessed from days 0 to 5 by VAS. Results. There was no difference between vertigo scores between Ep and ST groups. Dizziness scores were higher in Ep group during the first 3 days but became similar to those of ST group at days 4 and 5. ST maneuvers induced liberatory signs more frequently than Ep (58% versus 42% resp., P < 0.01, Fisher's test). After repositioning maneuvers, VAS scores decreased similarly in patients with and without liberatory signs. Postmaneuver restrictions did not influence VAS scores. Conclusion. Even if ST showed a higher rate of liberatory signs than Ep in this series, VAS scores were not influenced by these signs. PMID:22973168

  16. Blurring the Boundaries of Public and Private Education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Abdeljalil

    2013-01-01

    A typical analysis of the privatization of education in Latin America focuses on private sector development at the expense of public education. In this paper, I propose a different view that will highlight the blurring of boundaries between public and private education in Brazil. This confusion perpetuates the historical duality of the education…

  17. Nanotech, blur and tragedy in recent artworks by Gerhard Richter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2008-01-01

    The author considers Gerhard Richter's work on nanotechnology, highlighting how these pieces continue the artist's ontology on photographic blur and, as such, raise questions about truth and reality with respect to the mass media's visual presentation of nanotechnology. The four works discussed i...

  18. GrabBlur--a framework to facilitate the secure exchange of whole-exome and -genome SNV data using VCF files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stade, Björn; Seelow, Dominik; Thomsen, Ingo; Krawczak, Michael; Franke, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of whole exomes or genomes is increasingly being used in human genetic research and diagnostics. Sharing NGS data with third parties can help physicians and researchers to identify causative or predisposing mutations for a specific sample of interest more efficiently. In many cases, however, the exchange of such data may collide with data privacy regulations. GrabBlur is a newly developed tool to aggregate and share NGS-derived single nucleotide variant (SNV) data in a public database, keeping individual samples unidentifiable. In contrast to other currently existing SNV databases, GrabBlur includes phenotypic information and contact details of the submitter of a given database entry. By means of GrabBlur human geneticists can securely and easily share SNV data from resequencing projects. GrabBlur can ease the interpretation of SNV data by offering basic annotations, genotype frequencies and in particular phenotypic information - given that this information was shared - for the SNV of interest. GrabBlur facilitates the combination of phenotypic and NGS data (VCF files) via a local interface or command line operations. Data submissions may include HPO (Human Phenotype Ontology) terms, other trait descriptions, NGS technology information and the identity of the submitter. Most of this information is optional and its provision at the discretion of the submitter. Upon initial intake, GrabBlur merges and aggregates all sample-specific data. If a certain SNV is rare, the sample-specific information is replaced with the submitter identity. Generally, all data in GrabBlur are highly aggregated so that they can be shared with others while ensuring maximum privacy. Thus, it is impossible to reconstruct complete exomes or genomes from the database or to re-identify single individuals. After the individual information has been sufficiently "blurred", the data can be uploaded into a publicly accessible domain where aggregated genotypes are

  19. Depth-Based Selective Blurring in Stereo Images Using Accelerated Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Subhayan; Guddeti, Ram Mohana Reddy

    2014-09-01

    We propose a hybrid method for stereo disparity estimation by combining block and region-based stereo matching approaches. It generates dense depth maps from disparity measurements of only 18 % image pixels (left or right). The methodology involves segmenting pixel lightness values using fast K-Means implementation, refining segment boundaries using morphological filtering and connected components analysis; then determining boundaries' disparities using sum of absolute differences (SAD) cost function. Complete disparity maps are reconstructed from boundaries' disparities. We consider an application of our method for depth-based selective blurring of non-interest regions of stereo images, using Gaussian blur to de-focus users' non-interest regions. Experiments on Middlebury dataset demonstrate that our method outperforms traditional disparity estimation approaches using SAD and normalized cross correlation by up to 33.6 % and some recent methods by up to 6.1 %. Further, our method is highly parallelizable using CPU-GPU framework based on Java Thread Pool and APARAPI with speed-up of 5.8 for 250 stereo video frames (4,096 × 2,304).

  20. New Hybrid Variational Recovery Model for Blurred Images with Multiplicative Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yiqiu; Zeng, Tieyong

    2013-01-01

    A new hybrid variational model for recovering blurred images in the presence of multiplicative noise is proposed. Inspired by previous work on multiplicative noise removal, an I-divergence technique is used to build a strictly convex model under a condition that ensures the uniqueness...

  1. A Convex Variational Model for Restoring Blurred Images with Multiplicative Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yiqiu; Tieyong Zeng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new variational model for restoring blurred images with multiplicative noise is proposed. Based on the statistical property of the noise, a quadratic penalty function technique is utilized in order to obtain a strictly convex model under a mild condition, which guarantees...

  2. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Eidhof, Marloes B; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients make EM during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies on recall + EM have focused on emotional memories. WM theory suggests that recall + EM is superior to recall only but is silent about effects of memory emotionality. Based on the emotion and memory literature, we examined whether recall + EM has superior effects in blurring emotional memories relative to neutral memories. Healthy volunteers recalled negative or neutral memories, matched for vividness, while visually tracking a dot that moved horizontally ("recall + EM") or remained stationary ("recall only"). Compared to a pre-test, a post-test (without concentrating on the dot) replicated earlier findings: negative memories are rated as less vivid after "recall + EM" but not after "recall only". This was not found for neutral memories. Emotional memories are more taxing than neutral memories, which may explain the findings. Alternatively, transient arousal induced by recall of aversive memories may promote reconsolidation of the blurred memory image that is provoked by EM.

  3. Visions and visioning in foresight activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Grosu, Dan

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the roles of visioning processes and visions in foresight activities and in societal discourses and changes parallel to or following foresight activities. The overall topic can be characterised as the dynamics and mechanisms that make visions and visioning processes work...... or not work. The theoretical part of the paper presents an actor-network theory approach to the analyses of visions and visioning processes, where the shaping of the visions and the visioning and what has made them work or not work is analysed. The empirical part is based on analyses of the roles of visions...... and visioning processes in a number of foresight processes from different societal contexts. The analyses have been carried out as part of the work in the COST A22 network on foresight. A vision is here understood as a description of a desirable or preferable future, compared to a scenario which is understood...

  4. Chiropractic treatment including instrument-assisted manipulation for non-specific dizziness and neck pain in community-dwelling older people: a feasibility randomised sham-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Julie C; French, Simon D; Hartvigsen, Jan; Azari, Michael F

    2018-01-01

    Dizziness in older people is a risk factor for falls. Neck pain is associated with dizziness and responds favourably to neck manipulation. However, it is unknown if chiropractic intervention including instrument-assisted manipulation of the neck in older people with neck pain can also improve dizziness. This parallel two-arm pilot trial was conducted in Melbourne, Australia over nine months (October 2015 to June 2016). Participants aged 65-85 years, with self-reported chronic neck pain and dizziness, were recruited from the general public through advertisements in local community newspapers and via Facebook. Participants were randomised using a permuted block method to one of two groups: 1) Activator II™-instrument-assisted cervical and thoracic spine manipulation plus a combination of: light massage; mobilisation; range of motion exercises; and home advice about the application of heat, or 2) Sham-Activator II™-instrument-assisted manipulation (set to zero impulse) plus gentle touch of cervical and thoracic spinal regions. Participants were blinded to group allocation. The interventions were delivered weekly for four weeks. Assessments were conducted one week pre- and post-intervention. Clinical outcomes were assessed blindly and included: dizziness (dizziness handicap inventory [DHI]); neck pain (neck disability index [NDI]); self-reported concerns of falling; mood; physical function; and treatment satisfaction. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment rates, compliance with intervention and outcome assessment, study location, success of blinding, costs and harms. Out of 162 enquiries, 24 participants were screened as eligible and randomised to either the chiropractic ( n  = 13) or sham ( n  = 11) intervention group. Compliance was satisfactory with only two participants lost to follow up; thus, post-intervention data for 12 chiropractic intervention and 10 sham intervention participants were analysed. Blinding was similar between groups. Mild harms

  5. Understanding and Modeling the Evolution of Critical Points under Gaussian Blurring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, A.; Florack, L.M.J.; Heyden, A.; Sparr, G.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the deep structure of Gaussian scale space images, one needs to understand the behaviour of critical points under the influence of parameter-driven blurring. During this evolution two different types of special points are encountered, the so-called scale space saddles and the

  6. Local Directional Probability Optimization for Quantification of Blurred Gray/White Matter Junction in Magnetic Resonance Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Qu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The blurred gray/white matter junction is an important feature of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD lesions. FCD is the main cause of epilepsy and can be detected through magnetic resonance (MR imaging. Several earlier studies have focused on computing the gradient magnitude of the MR image and used the resulting map to model the blurred gray/white matter junction. However, gradient magnitude cannot quantify the blurred gray/white matter junction. Therefore, we proposed a novel algorithm called local directional probability optimization (LDPO for detecting and quantifying the width of the gray/white matter boundary (GWB within the lesional areas. The proposed LDPO method mainly consists of the following three stages: (1 introduction of a hidden Markov random field-expectation-maximization algorithm to compute the probability images of brain tissues in order to obtain the GWB region; (2 generation of local directions from gray matter (GM to white matter (WM passing through the GWB, considering the GWB to be an electric potential field; (3 determination of the optimal local directions for any given voxel of GWB, based on iterative searching of the neighborhood. This was then used to measure the width of the GWB. The proposed LDPO method was tested on real MR images of patients with FCD lesions. The results indicated that the LDPO method could quantify the GWB width. On the GWB width map, the width of the blurred GWB in the lesional region was observed to be greater than that in the non-lesional regions. The proposed GWB width map produced higher F-scores in terms of detecting the blurred GWB within the FCD lesional region as compared to that of FCD feature maps, indicating better trade-off between precision and recall.

  7. HINTS outperforms ABCD2 to screen for stroke in acute continuous vertigo and dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Toker, David E; Kerber, Kevin A; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Pula, John H; Omron, Rodney; Saber Tehrani, Ali S; Mantokoudis, Georgios; Hanley, Daniel F; Zee, David S; Kattah, Jorge C

    2013-10-01

    Dizziness and vertigo account for about 4 million emergency department (ED) visits annually in the United States, and some 160,000 to 240,000 (4% to 6%) have cerebrovascular causes. Stroke diagnosis in ED patients with vertigo/dizziness is challenging because the majority have no obvious focal neurologic signs at initial presentation. The authors sought to compare the accuracy of two previously published approaches purported to be useful in bedside screening for possible stroke in dizziness: a clinical decision rule (head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew [HINTS]) and a risk stratification rule (age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration of symptoms, diabetes [ABCD2]). This was a cross-sectional study of high-risk patients (more than one stroke risk factor) with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS; acute, persistent vertigo or dizziness with nystagmus, plus nausea or vomiting, head motion intolerance, and new gait unsteadiness) at a single academic center. All underwent neurootologic examination, neuroimaging (97.4% by magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), and follow-up. ABCD2 risk scores (0-7 points), using the recommended cutoff of ≥4 for stroke, were compared to a three-component eye movement battery (HINTS). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR-) were assessed for stroke and other central causes, and the results were stratified by age. False-negative initial neuroimaging was also assessed. A total of 190 adult AVS patients were assessed (1999-2012). Median age was 60.5 years (range = 18 to 92 years; interquartile range [IQR] = 52.0 to 70.0 years); 60.5% were men. Final diagnoses were vestibular neuritis (34.7%), posterior fossa stroke (59.5% [105 infarctions, eight hemorrhages]), and other central causes (5.8%). Median ABCD2 was 4.0 (range = 2 to 7; IQR = 3.0 to 4.0). ABCD2 ≥ 4 for stroke had sensitivity of 61.1%, specificity of 62.3%, LR+ of 1.62, and LR- of 0.62; sensitivity was lower for those

  8. Multi-frequency interpolation in spiral magnetic resonance fingerprinting for correction of off-resonance blurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostenson, Jason; Robison, Ryan K; Zwart, Nicholas R; Welch, E Brian

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) pulse sequences often employ spiral trajectories for data readout. Spiral k-space acquisitions are vulnerable to blurring in the spatial domain in the presence of static field off-resonance. This work describes a blurring correction algorithm for use in spiral MRF and demonstrates its effectiveness in phantom and in vivo experiments. Results show that image quality of T1 and T2 parametric maps is improved by application of this correction. This MRF correction has negligible effect on the concordance correlation coefficient and improves coefficient of variation in regions of off-resonance relative to uncorrected measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Guided and unguided internet-based vestibular rehabilitation versus usual care for dizzy adults of 50 years and older : a protocol for a three-armed randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Vincent A; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Bosmans, Judith E; Smalbrugge, Martin; van Diest, Willianne; Essery, Rosie; Yardley, Lucy; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Maarsingh, Otto R

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dizziness is a common symptom in general practice with a high prevalence among older adults. The most common cause of dizziness in general practice is peripheral vestibular disease. Vestibular rehabilitation (VR) is a safe and effective treatment for peripheral vestibular disease that

  10. A Blur track on Mars: how do you top that?

    CERN Multimedia

    Cooke, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    "On the eve of the landing of the Beagle 2 space probe on Mars, one of its instigators, Blur bassist Alex James, talks exclusively about his new-found passion for space 'Talking with scientists makes me feel giddy with excitement. Life on Mars, I mean, come on! How dead do you have to be not to find that interesting?' (1 page).

  11. Correlação entre tontura e disfunções do metabolismo da glicose Correlation between dizziness and impaired glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Santana Fonseca

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: as alterações do metabolismo da glicose são caracterizadas por estados de hipoglicemia e hiperglicemia. OBJETIVO: A proposta deste trabalho é verificar a associação entre as alterações do metabolismo da glicose, por glicemia de jejum e teste de tolerância à glicose e à tontura, avaliada por sua queixa e exames clínicos e subsidiários. MÉTODO: O estudo foi efetivado num grupo de 33 pacientes divididos em 3 subgrupos: pacientes com queixa de tontura, pacientes diabéticos e pacientes assintomáticos. RESULTADOS: O grupo de pacientes com queixa espontânea ou questionada de tontura apresentava alterações no metabolismo da glicose em 65% dos casos. Já entre os pacientes dos 3 grupos sem queixa de tontura, 30% apresentavam alterações do metabolismo da glicose. 40% dos pacientes que apresentaram queixas de tonturas tinham o exame vestibular clínico e a vectoeletronistagmografia alterados, enquanto que entre os assintomáticos 7,5% apresentaram as alterações vestibulares referidas. CONCLUSÃO: A tontura é um bom indicador de alteração do metabolismo da glicose e a alteração do metabolismo da glicose é um bom indicador de alteração do exame vestibular. O estudo do metabolismo da glicose a partir dos níveis glicêmicos é eficaz e tem resultados próximos dos observados nos estudos que mensuram os níveis insulinêmicos.INTRODUCTION: Impaired glucose metabolism is characterized by conditions of hypo and hyperglycemia. AIM: The objective of the present study was to asses whether or not there is a relationship between impaired glucose metabolism and dizziness. In the clinical laboratory settings, patients were examined using vectoelectronystagmography in association with glycemic levels. METHODS: 33 patients were divided in 3 groups: diabetics; patients with dizziness and a control group. RESULTS: 65% of the patients with dizziness showed impaired glucose metabolism. 40% of the patients with dizziness had

  12. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Pedro L Mangabeira

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  13. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Methods Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Results Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. Conclusions The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  14. Positron range in PET imaging: an alternative approach for assessing and correcting the blurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jødal, L.; Le Loirec, C.; Champion, C.

    2012-06-01

    Positron range impairs resolution in PET imaging, especially for high-energy emitters and for small-animal PET. De-blurring in image reconstruction is possible if the blurring distribution is known. Furthermore, the percentage of annihilation events within a given distance from the point of positron emission is relevant for assessing statistical noise. This paper aims to determine the positron range distribution relevant for blurring for seven medically relevant PET isotopes, 18F, 11C, 13N, 15O, 68Ga, 62Cu and 82Rb, and derive empirical formulas for the distributions. This paper focuses on allowed-decay isotopes. It is argued that blurring at the detection level should not be described by the positron range r, but instead the 2D projected distance δ (equal to the closest distance between decay and line of response). To determine these 2D distributions, results from a dedicated positron track-structure Monte Carlo code, Electron and POsitron TRANsport (EPOTRAN), were used. Materials other than water were studied with PENELOPE. The radial cumulative probability distribution G2D(δ) and the radial probability density distribution g2D(δ) were determined. G2D(δ) could be approximated by the empirical function 1 - exp(-Aδ2 - Bδ), where A = 0.0266 (Emean)-1.716 and B = 0.1119 (Emean)-1.934, with Emean being the mean positron energy in MeV and δ in mm. The radial density distribution g2D(δ) could be approximated by differentiation of G2D(δ). Distributions in other media were very similar to water. The positron range is important for improved resolution in PET imaging. Relevant distributions for the positron range have been derived for seven isotopes. Distributions for other allowed-decay isotopes may be estimated with the above formulas.

  15. The effectiveness of exercise-based vestibular rehabilitation in adult patients with chronic dizziness: A systematic review [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Kundakci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dizziness is a non-specific term used by patients to describe several symptoms ranging from true vertigo, light headedness, disorientation or sense of imbalance. Vestibular rehabilitation (VR is a specific form of exercise-based therapy programme aimed at alleviating the primary and secondary problems of a vestibular pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of exercise-based vestibular rehabilitation in adult patients with chronic dizziness. Methods: The following five databases were searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro and Scopus (Elsevier. Two investigators independently reviewed all articles and a systematic review of literature was performed using the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The articles were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: (1 randomised controlled trial, (2 people with chronic dizziness, (3 adults aged 18 or over, (4 exercise-based VR, (5 VR exercises compared with sham or usual care, non-treatment or placebo and (6 only studies published full text in English. Results: The initial search identified 304 articles, four of which met the criteria for analysis. All studies involved some form of vestibular rehabilitation, including vestibular compensation, vestibular adaptation and substitution exercises. These exercises were compared with usual medical care (three studies or placebo eye exercise (one study. The Vertigo Symptom Scale was the most commonly used outcome measure to assess subjective perception of symptoms of dizziness (three studies. According to the PEDro scale, three studies were considered to be of high quality, and one was rated as fair.  Conclusions: This review suggests that exercise-based vestibular rehabilitation shows benefits for adult patients with chronic

  16. Impact of the Parameter Variation on the Image Blurring in 3 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Phantom Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Nam Kug; Cho, Kyung Sik; Lee, Jin Seong [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    To evaluate the effects of the key imaging-parameter alterations on the four MR sequences in a phantom study. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on a MR phantom with an 8-channel head coil by using a 3 T MR system. The images were obtained in the axial plane on four MR sequences [T1-weighted, T2-weighted, Proton-density, and 3 dimensional (3D) fast spin echo (FSE)] with controlled variations in the following key parameters: 1) echo train length (ETL), 2) repetition time (TR), and 3) echo time (TE). The image blurring was determined by the degree of the gradient angle; i.e., the blurring increased as the gradient angle decreases. The increasing ETL was observed to cause an increase in the image blurring on all pulse sequences with a statistical significance (p = 0.004) on the 3D FSE. Increasing the TR appeared to have no effect except a statistically significant decrease on the T1-weighted images (p = 0.011). Increasing TE showed no effect on the T1-weighted images (p = 0.932); however, it caused an increase of blurring on the proton density images (p = 0.016) as well as the T2-weighted images (p < 0.001), and a decrease on the 3D FSE (p = 0.001). To reduce the image blurring, short ETL and long TE for 3D FSE, long TR for T1-weighted images and short TE for proton-density and T2-weighted images should be applied.

  17. Development of an In Flight Vision Self-Assessment Questionnaire for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Vicky E.; Gibson, Charles R.; Pierpoline, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    OVERVIEW A NASA Flight Medicine optometrist teamed with a human factors specialist to develop an electronic questionnaire for crewmembers to record their visual acuity test scores and perceived vision assessment. It will be implemented on the International Space Station (ISS) and administered as part of a suite of tools for early detection of potential vision changes. The goal of this effort was to rapidly develop a set of questions to help in early detection of visual (e.g. blurred vision) and/or non-visual (e.g. headaches) symptoms by allowing the ISS crewmembers to think about their own current vision during their spaceflight missions. PROCESS An iterative process began with a Space Shuttle one-page paper questionnaire generated by the optometrist that was updated by applying human factors design principles. It was used as a baseline to establish an electronic questionnaire for ISS missions. Additional questions needed for the ISS missions were included and the information was organized to take advantage of the computer-based file format available. Human factors heuristics were applied to the prototype and then they were reviewed by the optometrist and procedures specialists with rapid-turn around updates that lead to the final questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS With about only a month lead time, a usable tool to collect crewmember assessments was developed through this cross-discipline collaboration. With only a little expenditure of energy, the potential payoff is great. ISS crewmembers will complete the questionnaire at 30 days into the mission, 100 days into the mission and 30 days prior to return to Earth. The systematic layout may also facilitate physicians later data extraction for quick interpretation of the data. The data collected along with other measures (e.g. retinal and ultrasound imaging) at regular intervals could potentially lead to early detection and treatment of related vision problems than using the other measures alone.

  18. Older adults' experiences of internet-based vestibular rehabilitation for dizziness: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essery, Rosie; Kirby, Sarah; Geraghty, Adam W A; Yardley, Lucy

    2017-11-01

    Factors influencing engagement with self-managed rehabilitation are not well understood, but evidence suggests they may change over time. Despite increasing digitalisation of self-managed interventions, little is known about the role of internet-based interventions in patients' experiences of self-directed rehabilitation. This longitudinal qualitative study investigated individuals' ongoing experiences of internet-guided, self-managed rehabilitation within the context of rehabilitation for dizziness. Eighteen adults aged fifty and over who experienced dizziness used the 'Balance Retraining' internet intervention for six weeks. Participants took part in semi-structured telephone interviews at two-week intervals to explore their experiences. Data were inductively thematically analysed. The internet intervention was reported to facilitate engagement with rehabilitation exercises, providing motivation to continue through symptom reduction and simple but helpful strategies. It was perceived as informative, reassuring, visually pleasing and easy to use. Barriers to engagement included practicalities, symptoms and doubts about exercise efficacy. Participants' perceptions did not always remain consistent over time. The internet intervention may be a feasible method of supporting self-managed vestibular rehabilitation. More generally, longitudinal findings suggest that appearance-related perceptions of online interventions may be especially important for initial engagement. Furthermore, intervention features targeting self-efficacy seem important in overcoming barriers to engagement.

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of the amer dizziness diagnostic scale (adds) for patients with vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saif, Amer; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of a newly developed diagnostic tool, the Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale (ADDS), to evaluate and differentially diagnose vestibular disorder and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the scale and its usefulness in clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred subjects of both genders (72 males, 128 females) aged between 18 to 60 (49.5±7.8) who had a history of vertigo and/or dizziness symptoms for this previous two weeks or less were recruited for the study. All subjects were referred by otolaryngologists, neurologists or family physicians in and around Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. On the first clinic visit, all the patients were evaluated once using the ADDS, following which they underwent routine testing of clinical signs and symptoms, audiometry, and a neurological examination, coupled with tests of Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex function, which often serves as the "gold standard" for determining the probability of a vestibular deficit. [Results] The results show that the ADDS strongly correlated with "true-positive" and "true-negative" responses for determining the probability of a vestibular disorder (r =0.95). A stepwise linear regression was conducted and the results indicate that the ADDS was a significant predictor of "true-positive" and "true-negative" responses in vestibular disorders (R(2) =0.90). Approximately 90% of the variability in the vestibular gold standard test was explained by its relationship to the ADDS. Moreover, the ADDS was found to have a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 96%. [Conclusion] This study showed that the Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale has high sensitivity and specificity and that it can be used as a method of differential diagnosis for patients with vestibular disorders.

  20. A novel rotational invariants target recognition method for rotating motion blurred images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jinhui; Gong, Meiling; Dong, Mingwei; Zeng, Yiliang; Zhang, Yuzhen

    2017-11-01

    The imaging of the image sensor is blurred due to the rotational motion of the carrier and reducing the target recognition rate greatly. Although the traditional mode that restores the image first and then identifies the target can improve the recognition rate, it takes a long time to recognize. In order to solve this problem, a rotating fuzzy invariants extracted model was constructed that recognizes target directly. The model includes three metric layers. The object description capability of metric algorithms that contain gray value statistical algorithm, improved round projection transformation algorithm and rotation-convolution moment invariants in the three metric layers ranges from low to high, and the metric layer with the lowest description ability among them is as the input which can eliminate non pixel points of target region from degenerate image gradually. Experimental results show that the proposed model can improve the correct target recognition rate of blurred image and optimum allocation between the computational complexity and function of region.

  1. Blur kernel estimation with algebraic tomography technique and intensity profiles of object boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingacheva, Anastasia; Chukalina, Marina; Khanipov, Timur; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2018-04-01

    Motion blur caused by camera vibration is a common source of degradation in photographs. In this paper we study the problem of finding the point spread function (PSF) of a blurred image using the tomography technique. The PSF reconstruction result strongly depends on the particular tomography technique used. We present a tomography algorithm with regularization adapted specifically for this task. We use the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART algorithm) as the starting algorithm and introduce regularization. We use the conjugate gradient method for numerical implementation of the proposed approach. The algorithm is tested using a dataset which contains 9 kernels extracted from real photographs by the Adobe corporation where the point spread function is known. We also investigate influence of noise on the quality of image reconstruction and investigate how the number of projections influence the magnitude change of the reconstruction error.

  2. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and video head impulse test in patients with vertigo, dizziness and imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorić, Magdalena Krbot; Adamec, Ivan; Pavičić, Tin; Pavlović, Ivan; Ruška, Berislav; Crnošija, Luka; Habek, Mario

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and video head impulse test (vHIT) results in patients presenting with vertigo and dizziness. We retrospectively analyzed data of all patients with the chief complaint of vertigo, dizziness, or imbalance that underwent VEMP and vHIT from January 2015 to January 2016. A total of 117 patients (73 females, mean age 53.92±16.76) fulfilled inclusion criteria: group 1 included patients with the final diagnosis of vestibular neuritis (VN) (N=31 (16 right and 15 left VN)), group 2 included patients with the final diagnosis of vertigo of central origin (N=23) and group 3 included patients with the final diagnosis of unspecified dizziness (N=63). There was significant correlation between oVEMP asymmetry and asymmetry of the lateral canals 60ms gains on vHIT (r=0.225, p=0.026). Significant correlation between oVEMP and vHIT asymmetry was present in VN patients (r=0.749, p<0.001), while no correlation was found in the groups 2 and 3. oVEMP and vHIT lateral canals asymmetries were significantly greater in patients with vestibular neuritis. Furthermore, positive correlations of oVEMP amplitudes with 60ms gain of the lateral semicircular canal and slope of the anterior semicircular canal on vHIT, and cVEMP with slope of the posterior semicircular canal on the vHIT were found. These changes were significantly more pronounced in patients with vestibular neuritis. In conclusion, VEMPs and vHIT data should be used complementarily; asymmetry on both tests strongly supports peripheral vestibular system involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Restoration of color images degraded by space-variant motion blur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šorel, Michal; Flusser, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 4673 (2007), s. 450-457 ISSN 0302-9743. [Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns. Vienna, 27.08.2007-29.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : deblurring * space-variant restoration * motion blur * color Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74272-2_56

  4. Vision Assessment and Prescription of Low Vision Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Keeffe, Jill

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of vision and prescription of low vision devices are part of a comprehensive low vision service. Other components of the service include training the person affected by low vision in use of vision and other senses, mobility, activities of daily living, and support for education, employment or leisure activities. Specialist vision rehabilitation agencies have services to provide access to information (libraries) and activity centres for groups of people with impaired vision.

  5. Utility of an Abbreviated Dizziness Questionnaire to Differentiate Between Causes of Vertigo and Guide Appropriate Referral: A Multicenter Prospective Blinded Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Lauren T; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Sinks, Belinda C; Rauch, Steven D; Shepard, Neil T; White, Judith A; Goebel, Joel A

    2015-12-01

    Test performance of a focused dizziness questionnaire's ability to discriminate between peripheral and nonperipheral causes of vertigo. Prospective multicenter. Four academic centers with experienced balance specialists. New dizzy patients. A 32-question survey was given to participants. Balance specialists were blinded and a diagnosis was established for all participating patients within 6 months. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate questionnaire performance in predicting final diagnosis and differentiating between peripheral and nonperipheral vertigo. Univariate and multivariable stepwise logistic regression were used to identify questions as significant predictors of the ultimate diagnosis. C-index was used to evaluate performance and discriminative power of the multivariable models. In total, 437 patients participated in the study. Eight participants without confirmed diagnoses were excluded and 429 were included in the analysis. Multinomial regression revealed that the model had good overall predictive accuracy of 78.5% for the final diagnosis and 75.5% for differentiating between peripheral and nonperipheral vertigo. Univariate logistic regression identified significant predictors of three main categories of vertigo: peripheral, central, and other. Predictors were entered into forward stepwise multivariable logistic regression. The discriminative power of the final models for peripheral, central, and other causes was considered good as measured by c-indices of 0.75, 0.7, and 0.78, respectively. This multicenter study demonstrates a focused dizziness questionnaire can accurately predict diagnosis for patients with chronic/relapsing dizziness referred to outpatient clinics. Additionally, this survey has significant capability to differentiate peripheral from nonperipheral causes of vertigo and may, in the future, serve as a screening tool for specialty referral. Clinical utility of this questionnaire to guide specialty referral is discussed.

  6. The role of vision processing in prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Nick; He, Xuming; McCarthy, Chris; Horne, Lachlan; Kim, Junae; Scott, Adele; Lieby, Paulette

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic vision provides vision which is reduced in resolution and dynamic range compared to normal human vision. This comes about both due to residual damage to the visual system from the condition that caused vision loss, and due to limitations of current technology. However, even with limitations, prosthetic vision may still be able to support functional performance which is sufficient for tasks which are key to restoring independent living and quality of life. Here vision processing can play a key role, ensuring that information which is critical to the performance of key tasks is available within the capability of the available prosthetic vision. In this paper, we frame vision processing for prosthetic vision, highlight some key areas which present problems in terms of quality of life, and present examples where vision processing can help achieve better outcomes.

  7. Computer vision syndrome: a study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices in Indian ophthalmologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Jatinder; Navin, Neeraj; Thakur, Bali Renu

    2007-01-01

    To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether 'computer use by practitioners' had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS). A random KAP survey was carried out on 300 Indian ophthalmologists using a 34-point spot-questionnaire in January 2005. All the doctors who responded were aware of CVS. The chief presenting symptoms were eyestrain (97.8%), headache (82.1%), tiredness and burning sensation (79.1%), watering (66.4%) and redness (61.2%). Ophthalmologists using computers reported that focusing from distance to near and vice versa (P =0.006, chi2 test), blurred vision at a distance (P =0.016, chi2 test) and blepharospasm (P =0.026, chi2 test) formed part of the syndrome. The main mode of treatment used was tear substitutes. Half of ophthalmologists (50.7%) were not prescribing any spectacles. They did not have any preference for any special type of glasses (68.7%) or spectral filters. Computer-users were more likely to prescribe sedatives/anxiolytics (P = 0.04, chi2 test), spectacles (P = 0.02, chi2 test) and conscious frequent blinking (P = 0.003, chi2 test) than the non-computer-users. All respondents were aware of CVS. Confusion regarding treatment guidelines was observed in both groups. Computer-using ophthalmologists were more informed of symptoms and diagnostic signs but were misinformed about treatment modalities.

  8. The Role of Clarity and Blur in Guiding Visual Attention in Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, James T.; MacDonald, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Visual artists and photographers believe that a viewer's gaze can be guided by selective use of image clarity and blur, but there is little systematic research. In this study, participants performed several eye-tracking tasks with the same naturalistic photographs, including recognition memory for the entire photo, as well as recognition memory…

  9. Indications for computerized tomography in the case of headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huk, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Of the large number of patients with headache only very few suffer from an intracranial tumor. On the other hand, brain tumors may grow silently for a long period of time. Clinical analysis of patients with headache has demonstrated that a CT-scan is not indicated in cases where an adequate cause can be found and when the headache disappears together with the underlaying cause in a reasonable amount of time. A CT-scan, however, should be performed when an adequate cause is missing, when the headache recurs with increasing frequency, intensity and duration, when it is accentuated in the morning and in certain positions, and when it is associated with personality chances, dizziness and blurred vision. In chronic headache a CT-scan is indicated when a change in the character of the headache and its various qualities (location, frequency and duration of attacks, temporal coincidence etc.) can be detected. A thorough history, including the family history, of the complains together with an accurate clinical examination will deliver the criteria to avoid unnecessary CT-scanning. (orig.) [de

  10. Diabetic Ketoacidosis in a Patient with Acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ling Chen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus develops in about 10% of acromegalic patients, usually secondary to insulin resistance caused by growth hormone excess. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a result of relative insulin deficiency and is a rare feature of acromegaly. Here, we present one case of this disorder. A 57-year-old man came to the emergency room due to 2 weeks of dizziness. He also had polyuria, polydipsia, nausea, diplopia, blurred vision and dysarthria. His plasma glucose level was 32.06 mmol/L, plasma osmolarity was 322 mOsm/L, arterial pH was 7.30, level of bicarbonates was 18 mmol/L, urine ketones was 4+, and HbA1c was 14.1%. No specific cause for the development of this metabolic derangement could be found. He displayed clinical features of acromegaly during admission, which was confirmed by an elevated growth hormone level and pituitary macroadenoma shown on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent total transsphe-noid tumor removal 2 weeks later; plasma glucose levels became normal thereafter.

  11. Comments on "Weed Recognition using Image Blur Information" by Peng, Z. & Jun, C., Biosystems Engineering 110 (2), p. 198-205”

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Suk, Tomáš; Zitová, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 126 (2014), s. 104-108 ISSN 1537-5110 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Keywords : Weed recognition * Blur * Moment Invariants * Blur Invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.619, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/flusser-0431031.pdf

  12. Objective vestibular testing of children with dizziness and balance complaints following sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangwei; Brodsky, Jacob R

    2015-06-01

    To conduct objective assessment of children with balance and vestibular complaints following sports-related concussions and identify the underlying deficits by analyzing laboratory test outcomes. Case series with chart review. Pediatric tertiary care facility. Medical records were reviewed of 42 pediatric patients with balance and/or vestibular complaints following sports-related concussions who underwent comprehensive laboratory testing on their balance and vestibular function. Patients' characteristics were summarized and results analyzed. More than 90% of the children with protracted dizziness or imbalance following sports-related concussion had at least 1 abnormal finding from the comprehensive balance and vestibular evaluation. The most frequent deficit was found in dynamic visual acuity test, followed by Sensory Organization Test and rotational test. Patient's balance problem associated with concussion seemed to be primarily instigated by vestibular dysfunction. Furthermore, semicircular canal dysfunction was involved more often than dysfunction of otolith organs. Yet, sports-related concussion. Vestibular impairment is common among children with protracted dizziness or imbalance following sports-related concussion. Our study demonstrated that proper and thorough evaluation is imperative to identify these underlying deficits and laboratory tests were helpful in the diagnosis and recommendation of following rehabilitations. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  13. Epidemiology of dizziness in northern Poland – The first Polish neurootologic survey of the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Wojtczak

    2017-09-01

    The authors present the first Polish neurootologic survey of epidemiology of dizziness in the general population. This condition is common in the general population, and this study indicates its prevalence in 16.4% of the inhabitants of the town and district of Bytów. It is recommendable that epidemiological studies should be carried out.

  14. Perfect blind restoration of images blurred by multiple filters: theory and efficient algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikumar, G; Bresler, Y

    1999-01-01

    We address the problem of restoring an image from its noisy convolutions with two or more unknown finite impulse response (FIR) filters. We develop theoretical results about the existence and uniqueness of solutions, and show that under some generically true assumptions, both the filters and the image can be determined exactly in the absence of noise, and stably estimated in its presence. We present efficient algorithms to estimate the blur functions and their sizes. These algorithms are of two types, subspace-based and likelihood-based, and are extensions of techniques proposed for the solution of the multichannel blind deconvolution problem in one dimension. We present memory and computation-efficient techniques to handle the very large matrices arising in the two-dimensional (2-D) case. Once the blur functions are determined, they are used in a multichannel deconvolution step to reconstruct the unknown image. The theoretical and practical implications of edge effects, and "weakly exciting" images are examined. Finally, the algorithms are demonstrated on synthetic and real data.

  15. Trial frame refraction versus autorefraction among new patients in a low-vision clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Dawn K; McGwin, Gerald; Searcey, Karen; Gao, Liyan; Snow, Marsha; Waterbor, John; Owsley, Cynthia

    2013-01-02

    To determine the relationship between refractive error as measured by autorefraction and that measured by trial frame refraction among a sample of adults with vision impairment seen in a university-based low-vision clinic and to determine if autorefraction might be a suitable replacement for trial frame refraction. A retrospective chart review of all new patients 19 years or older seen over an 18-month period was conducted and the following data collected: age, sex, primary ocular diagnosis, entering distance visual acuity, habitual correction, trial frame refraction, autorefraction, and distance visual acuity measured after trial frame refraction. Trial frame refraction and autorefraction were compared using paired t-tests, intraclass correlations, and Bland-Altman plots. Final analyses included 440 patients for whom both trial frame refraction and autorefraction data were available for the better eye. Participants were mostly female (59%) with a mean age of 68 years (SD = 20). Age-related macular degeneration was the most common etiology for vision impairment (44%). Values for autorefraction and trial frame refraction were statistically different, but highly correlated for the spherical equivalent power (r = 0.92), the cylinder power (r = 0.80) and overall blurring strength (0.89). Although the values of the cross-cylinders J(0) and J(45) were similar, they were poorly correlated (0.08 and 0.15, respectively). The range of differences in spherical equivalent power was large (-8.6 to 4.9). Autorefraction is highly correlated with trial frame refraction. Differences are sometimes substantial, making autorefraction an unsuitable substitute for trial frame refraction.

  16. Computer vision syndrome and associated factors among medical and engineering students in chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logaraj, M; Madhupriya, V; Hegde, Sk

    2014-03-01

    Almost all institutions, colleges, universities and homes today were using computer regularly. Very little research has been carried out on Indian users especially among college students the effects of computer use on the eye and vision related problems. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) among medical and engineering students and the factors associated with the same. A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical and engineering college students of a University situated in the suburban area of Chennai. Students who used computer in the month preceding the date of study were included in the study. The participants were surveyed using pre-tested structured questionnaire. Among engineering students, the prevalence of CVS was found to be 81.9% (176/215) while among medical students; it was found to be 78.6% (158/201). A significantly higher proportion of engineering students 40.9% (88/215) used computers for 4-6 h/day as compared to medical students 10% (20/201) (P medical students. Students who used computer for 4-6 h were at significantly higher risk of developing redness (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-3.1,P = 0.04), burning sensation (OR = 2.1,95% CI = 1.3-3.1, P computer for less than 4 h. Significant correlation was found between increased hours of computer use and the symptoms redness, burning sensation, blurred vision and dry eyes. The present study revealed that more than three-fourth of the students complained of any one of the symptoms of CVS while working on the computer.

  17. DSM-5 somatic symptom disorder in patients with vertigo and dizziness symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limburg, Karina; Sattel, Heribert; Radziej, Katharina; Lahmann, Claas

    2016-12-01

    DSM-5 somatic symptom disorder (SSD) could potentially be a highly relevant diagnosis for patients with vertigo and dizziness. The criteria of SSD, particularly the B-criterion with its three components (cognitive, affective, behavioral), have however not yet been investigated in this patient group. We evaluated a large sample (n=399) of outpatients presenting in a neurological setting. Physical examinations and a psychometric assessment (SCID-I) were conducted; patients completed self-report questionnaires. The diagnosis of SSD was assigned retrospectively. The prevalence of SSD, its diagnostic criteria, and its overlap with former DSM-IV somatoform disorders were evaluated; comparisons were drawn between (1) patients fulfilling different components of the B-criterion and (2) patients with diagnoses after DSM-IV vs. DSM-5. SSD was almost twice as common as DSM-IV somatoform disorders. Patients with all three components of the B-criterion reported the highest impairment levels. Patients with both DSM-IV somatoform disorders and DSM-5 SSD were more impaired compared to groups with one of the diagnoses; patients with DSM-IV somatoform disorders only were more impaired than those with SSD only. Our findings demonstrate that SSD is highly prevalent in patients with vertigo and dizziness. The classification of severity based on the number of psychological symptoms appears valid and may assist in finding suitable treatment options according to clinical practice guidelines. Future studies should investigate the overlap of SSD and other psychiatric disorders, this may assist in better defining the diagnostic criteria of SSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... USAJobs Home » Statistics and Data » Low Vision Listen Low Vision Low Vision Defined: Low Vision is defined as the best- ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Low Vision by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 ...

  19. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Marcel A.; Eidhof, Marloes B.; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic

  20. Computer and visual display terminals (VDT) vision syndrome (CVDTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, J K S; Jain, Vaibhav Kumar; Chaturvedi, Piyush; Kaushik, Jaya; Jain, Gunjan; Parihar, Ashwini K S

    2016-07-01

    Computer and visual display terminals have become an essential part of modern lifestyle. The use of these devices has made our life simple in household work as well as in offices. However the prolonged use of these devices is not without any complication. Computer and visual display terminals syndrome is a constellation of symptoms ocular as well as extraocular associated with prolonged use of visual display terminals. This syndrome is gaining importance in this modern era because of the widespread use of technologies in day-to-day life. It is associated with asthenopic symptoms, visual blurring, dry eyes, musculoskeletal symptoms such as neck pain, back pain, shoulder pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, psychosocial factors, venous thromboembolism, shoulder tendonitis, and elbow epicondylitis. Proper identification of symptoms and causative factors are necessary for the accurate diagnosis and management. This article focuses on the various aspects of the computer vision display terminals syndrome described in the previous literature. Further research is needed for the better understanding of the complex pathophysiology and management.

  1. Tontura associada a distúrbio do pânico e agorafobia: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Dizziness associated with panic disorder and agoraphobia: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Daniel Caliman e Gurgel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Tontura é uma das queixas mais freqüentes no consultório médico tanto primário quanto especializado. Muitos dos pacientes que se apresentam com tontura sem causa orgânica aparente, portanto considerados como portadores de tontura idiopática, podem ter um distúrbio psiquiátrico. Além disso, mesmo a tontura de causa orgânica pode desencadear ou exacerbar alterações psiquiátricas "latentes". Um dos distúrbios mais comumente associados à tontura é o Distúrbio do Pânico, com ou sem Agorafobia. O objetivo deste estudo é relatar o caso de uma paciente com essa associação e realizar uma revisão da literatura relacionada ao assunto.Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints in both primary and specialized medical care facilities. Many dizzy patients, without a known organic cause, considered as having idiopathic dizziness, may have a psychiatric disorder. Besides, even organic dizziness may cause or exacerbate latent psychiatric alterations. One of the most common disorders associated with dizziness is Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia. The aim of this paper is to report a patient’s case and make a literature review on the subject.

  2. Computer vision syndrome: A study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices in Indian Ophthalmologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Jatinder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether ′computer use by practitioners′ had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS. Materials and Methods: A random KAP survey was carried out on 300 Indian ophthalmologists using a 34-point spot-questionnaire in January 2005. Results: All the doctors who responded were aware of CVS. The chief presenting symptoms were eyestrain (97.8%, headache (82.1%, tiredness and burning sensation (79.1%, watering (66.4% and redness (61.2%. Ophthalmologists using computers reported that focusing from distance to near and vice versa ( P =0.006, χ2 test, blurred vision at a distance ( P =0.016, χ2 test and blepharospasm ( P =0.026, χ2 test formed part of the syndrome. The main mode of treatment used was tear substitutes. Half of ophthalmologists (50.7% were not prescribing any spectacles. They did not have any preference for any special type of glasses (68.7% or spectral filters. Computer-users were more likely to prescribe sedatives/ anxiolytics ( P = 0.04, χ2 test, spectacles ( P = 0.02, χ2 test and conscious frequent blinking ( P = 0.003, χ2 test than the non-computer-users. Conclusions: All respondents were aware of CVS. Confusion regarding treatment guidelines was observed in both groups. Computer-using ophthalmologists were more informed of symptoms and diagnostic signs but were misinformed about treatment modalities.

  3. The blurred boundaries of political violence in the Sahel-Sahara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    The Sahel and the Sahara are faced with exceptional political instability involving a combination of rebellions, jihadist insurgencies, coups d’état, protest movements and illegal trafficking. Analysis of the outbreaks of violence reveals that the region is not just the victim of an escalation...... of wars and conflicts that marked the 20th century. The Sahel-Sahara has also become the setting of a globalised security environment, in which boundaries between what is local and global, domestic and international, military and civilian, politics and identity are blurred....

  4. Moment forms invariant to rotation and blur in arbitrary number of dimensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Boldyš, Jiří; Zitová, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2003), s. 234-246 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1711; GA ČR GP102/01/P065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : blur invariants * rotation invariants * group representation theory Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 3.823, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20030006.pdf

  5. Prosthetic component segmentation with blur compensation: a fast method for 3D fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroni, Giacomo; Tersi, Luca; Corsi, Cristiana; Stagni, Rita

    2012-06-01

    A new method for prosthetic component segmentation from fluoroscopic images is presented. The hybrid approach we propose combines diffusion filtering, region growing and level-set techniques without exploiting any a priori knowledge of the analyzed geometry. The method was evaluated on a synthetic dataset including 270 images of knee and hip prosthesis merged to real fluoroscopic data simulating different conditions of blurring and illumination gradient. The performance of the method was assessed by comparing estimated contours to references using different metrics. Results showed that the segmentation procedure is fast, accurate, independent on the operator as well as on the specific geometrical characteristics of the prosthetic component, and able to compensate for amount of blurring and illumination gradient. Importantly, the method allows a strong reduction of required user interaction time when compared to traditional segmentation techniques. Its effectiveness and robustness in different image conditions, together with simplicity and fast implementation, make this prosthetic component segmentation procedure promising and suitable for multiple clinical applications including assessment of in vivo joint kinematics in a variety of cases.

  6. A Comparison between Effect of Viewing Text on Computer Screen and iPad® on Visual Symptoms and Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pittaya Phamonvaechavan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the ocular symptoms following sustained near vision between laptop computer and iPad®. Methods: Forty normal subjects read text from a laptop computer screen and an iPad® screen for a continuous 20 min period. Similar text was used in both sessions, which was matched for size and contrast. After finishing viewing text, subjects immediately completed a written questionnaire categorizing symptom scores into three groups: Dry eye, Pain and Blurred vision score. The accommodative amplitude and fusional convergence amplitude at near vision were also assessed before and after reading. Results: In both conditions, mean symptom scores were higher during iPad use. When comparing the computer and iPad conditions, mean scores were statistically significant different in Pain score (6.30 vs 8.70; p=0.025 and Blurred vision score (10.13 vs 12.03; p=0.041 but no statistically significant difference in Dry eye score (6.30 vs 6.60; p=0.71. There were significant change in accommodative amplitude and fusional convergence amplitude with near vision when compared before and after near-vision tasks in both cases. Conclusion: Pain and Blurred vision symptoms following sustained iPad use were significantly worse than those reported after computer use under similar viewing conditions. However, both computer screen and iPad cause ocular symptoms having an impact on quality of life.

  7. Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0012 Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide Elizabeth Shoda, Alex...June 2015 – May 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... automated vision tests , or AVT. Development of the AVT was required to support threshold-level vision testing capability needed to investigate the

  8. Erasing and blurring memories: The differential impact of interference on separate aspects of forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sol Z; Fidalgo, Celia; Barense, Morgan D; Lee, Andy C H; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    Interference disrupts information processing across many timescales, from immediate perception to memory over short and long durations. The widely held similarity assumption states that as similarity between interfering information and memory contents increases, so too does the degree of impairment. However, information is lost from memory in different ways. For instance, studied content might be erased in an all-or-nothing manner. Alternatively, information may be retained but the precision might be degraded or blurred. Here, we asked whether the similarity of interfering information to memory contents might differentially impact these 2 aspects of forgetting. Observers studied colored images of real-world objects, each followed by a stream of interfering objects. Across 4 experiments, we manipulated the similarity between the studied object and the interfering objects in circular color space. After interference, memory for object color was tested continuously on a color wheel, which in combination with mixture modeling, allowed for estimation of how erasing and blurring differentially contribute to forgetting. In contrast to the similarity assumption, we show that highly dissimilar interfering items caused the greatest increase in random guess responses, suggesting a greater frequency of memory erasure (Experiments 1-3). Moreover, we found that observers were generally able to resist interference from highly similar items, perhaps through surround suppression (Experiments 1 and 4). Finally, we report that interference from items of intermediate similarity tended to blur or decrease memory precision (Experiments 3 and 4). These results reveal that the nature of visual similarity can differentially alter how information is lost from memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. A Herbal Medicine, Gongjindan, in Subjects with Chronic Dizziness (GOODNESS Study: Study Protocol for a Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, Clinical Trial for Effectiveness, Safety, and Cost-Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungwon Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study protocol aims to explore the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of a herbal medication, Gongjindan (GJD, in patients with chronic dizziness. This will be a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trial. Seventy-eight patients diagnosed with Meniere’s disease, psychogenic dizziness, or dizziness of unknown cause will be randomized and allocated to either a GJD or a placebo group in a 1 : 1 ratio. Participants will be orally given 3.75 g GJD or placebo in pill form once a day for 56 days. The primary outcome measure will be the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score. Secondary outcome measures will be as follows: severity (mean vertigo scale and visual analogue scale and frequency of dizziness, balance function (Berg Balance Scale, fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale and deficiency pattern/syndrome (qi blood yin yang-deficiency questionnaire levels, and depression (Korean version of Beck’s Depression Inventory and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory levels. To assess safety, adverse events, including laboratory test results, will be monitored. Further, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated based on quality-adjusted life years (from the EuroQoL five dimensions’ questionnaire and medical expenses. Data will be statistically analyzed at a significance level of 0.05 (two-sided. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03219515, in July 2017.

  10. Real-time high-speed motion blur compensation system based on back-and-forth motion control of galvanometer mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Takanoshin; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2015-12-14

    We developed a novel real-time motion blur compensation system for the blur caused by high-speed one-dimensional motion between a camera and a target. The system consists of a galvanometer mirror and a high-speed color camera, without the need for any additional sensors. We controlled the galvanometer mirror with continuous back-and-forth oscillating motion synchronized to a high-speed camera. The angular speed of the mirror is given in real time within 10 ms based on the concept of background tracking and rapid raw Bayer block matching. Experiments demonstrated that our system captures motion-invariant images of objects moving at speeds up to 30 km/h.

  11. Unilateral visual loss secondary to cat scratch disease in a healthy young man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norfarizal Ashikin Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease is a benign clinical syndrome manifested as lymphadenopathy, fever and sometimes with atypical symptom of blurring of vision. It occurs following cat ’s bites or scratches. This case report presented a healthy young man presented with left eye blurring of vision for 1 month duration preceeded by history of recurrent low grade fever with previous history of being scratched by cat. Examination revealed optic disc edema with macula star. Thorough investigations were done and shown positive titre towards Bartonella henselae. He responded well with intravenous ceftazidime, oral doxycycline and rifampicin. His vision improved to 6/9 and 6/6 with pinhole after 3 months.

  12. Sporadic Endolymphatic Sac Tumor-A Very Rare Cause of Hearing Loss, Tinnitus, and Dizziness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Didde Trærup; Kiss, Katalin; Hansen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic endolymphatic sac tumor is a very rare neoplasm. It is low malignant, locally destructive and expansive, but non-metastasizing. The tumor is very rare in the sporadic form, but more often associated with Von Hippel-Lindau disease. A 65-year old man with left sided tinnitus and hearing loss......-operative freeze-microscopy showed inflammation tissue, whereas subsequent microscopy showed papillary-cystic endolymphatic sac tumor. Endolymphatic sac tumor is a rare neoplasm. The tumor may present with asymmetrically sensory neural hearing loss with or without tinnitus, dizziness and facial nerve paresis...

  13. Self-treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with DizzyFix, a new dynamic visual device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, Detlef

    2010-09-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is one of the most common disorders of the vestibular system. It is characterized by episodes of recurrent vertigo triggered by head movements or position changes associated with nystagmus. There is scientific evidence that in the majority of cases this condition responds well to the particle repositioning maneuver (PRM) correctly performed by the physician. However, the PRM needs to be repeated in approximately 30% of the cases. Although the maneuver is simple, patients often find it difficult to perform correctly as self-treatment, with the result that it fails to bring about an improvement in the symptoms. DizzyFix (Clearwater Clinical Limited, Canada) is the name given to a new dynamic visual device designed to provide a visual representation of the PRM based on the canalith theory. The DizzyFiX consists of a specially curved acrylic tube containing a nontoxic viscous fluid and a bead, the purpose of which is to help the patient and the inexperienced physician to perform the PRM correctly. A randomized clinical trial has shown that it reliably enables the maneuver to be performed correctly, and a study investigating the effectiveness of patient self-treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with the device in comparison with standard office treatment revealed both techniques to be equally effective. The device has now been approved by the US FDA.

  14. Pediatric Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Pediatric Low Vision What is Low Vision? Partial vision loss that cannot be corrected causes ... and play. What are the signs of Low Vision? Some signs of low vision include difficulty recognizing ...

  15. Flexible friends? Flexible working time arrangements, blurred work-life boundaries and friendship

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Vivi Bach; Lewis, Suzan

    2012-01-01

    The changing nature and demands of work raise concerns about how workers can find time for activities such as friendship and leisure, which are important for well-being. This article brings friendship into the work-life debate by exploring how individuals do friendship in a period characterised by time dilemmas, blurred work-life boundaries and increased employer- and employee-led flexible working. Interviews with employees selected according to their working time structures were supplemented...

  16. Impact of corneal cross-linking combined with photorefractive keratectomy on blurring strength

    OpenAIRE

    Labiris, Georgios; Sideroudi, Haris; Angelonias, Dimitris; Georgantzoglou, Kimonas; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    Georgios Labiris,1,2 Haris Sideroudi,2 Dimitris Angelonias,2 Kimonas Georgantzoglou,2 Vassilios P Kozobolis1,21Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, 2Eye Institute of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of corneal cross-linking combined with photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on blurring strength.Methods: A total of 63 patients with keratoconus were recruited for this study, and two study groups were formed acc...

  17. Near vision anomalies in Black high school children in Empangeni, South Africa: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O. Wajuihian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to read efficiently and comfortably is important in the intellectual development and academic performance of a child. Some children experience difficulties when reading due to symptoms related to near vision anomalies. Aim: To explore the feasibility of conducting a large study to determine the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in high school children in Empangeni, South Africa. Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive pilot study designed to provide preliminary data on prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in a sample of high school-children in South Africa. Study participants comprised 65 Black children (30 males and 35 females, ages ranged between 13 and 19 years with a mean age and standard deviation of 17 ± 1.43 years. The visual functions evaluated and the techniques used included visual acuity (LogMAR acuity chart, refractive error (autorefractor and subjective refraction, heterophoria (von Graefe, near point of convergence (push-in-to-double, amplitude of accommodation (push-in-to-blur accommodation facility (± 2 D flipper lenses, relative accommodation, accommodation response (monocular estimation method and fusional vergences (step vergence with prism bars. Possible associations between symptoms and near vision anomalies were explored using a 20-point symptoms questionnaire. Results: Prevalence estimates were: Myopia 4.8%, hyperopia 1.6% and astigmatism 1.6%.  For accommodative anomalies, 1.6% had accommodative insufficiency while 1.6% had accommodative infacility. For convergence anomalies, 3.2% had receded near point of convergence, 16% had low suspect convergence insufficiency, no participant had high suspect convergence insufficiency, 1.6% had definite convergence insufficiency and 3.2% had convergence excess. Female participants reported more symptoms than the males and the association between clinical measures and symptoms

  18. Low Vision FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs What is low vision? Low vision is a visual impairment, not correctable ... person’s ability to perform everyday activities. What causes low vision? Low vision can result from a variety of ...

  19. A Posterior Circulation Ischemia Risk Score System to Assist the Diagnosis of Dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Su, Rui; Deng, Mingzhu; Liu, Jia; Hu, Qing; Song, Zhi

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to establish a risk score system without radio-image examination, which could help clinicians to differentiate patients with vertigo and posterior circulation ischemia (PCI) rapidly from the other dizzy patients. We analyzed 304 patients with vertigo (50% PCI). The attributes with more significant contributions were selected as the risk factors for the PCI risk score system, and every one of them was assigned a value according to their respective odds ratio values. We also compared the respective receiver operating characteristic curves of the 3 diagnostic methods (PCI score system, ABCD 2 , and Essen score systems) to evaluate their prediction effectiveness. Nine risk factors were ultimately selected for PCI score system, including high blood pressure (1'), diabetes mellitus (1'), ischemic stroke (1'), rotating and rocking (-1'), difficulty in speech (5'), tinnitus (-5'), limb and sensory deficit (5'), gait ataxia (1'), and limb ataxia (5'). According to their respective PCI risk scores, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups: low risk (≤0', risk 95.0%). When 0' was selected as a cutoff point for differentiating the patients with PCI from patients without PCI, the sensitivity was 94.1%, with a specificity of 41.4%. The areas under the receiver operator curve value of PCI score system was .82 (P = .000), much higher than the areas under the receiver operator curve value of ABCD 2 (.69, P = .000) and that of the Essen system (.67, P = .000) CONCLUSION: The PCI score system could help clinicians to differentiate patients with vertigo and PCI rapidly from the other dizzy patients. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnostic yield and impact of MRI for acute ischaemic stroke in patients presenting with dizziness and vertigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabra, R.; Robbie, H.; Connor, S.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To identify predictors of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) and evaluate the diagnostic yield and impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients imaged for dizziness and vertigo. Materials and methods: Patients imaged using MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with or without computed tomography (CT), for dizziness and vertigo over a 2-year period were identified retrospectively. MRI findings were categorised as “acute ischaemic stroke”, “significant”, or “non-significant”. We reviewed the medical records to identify presenting symptoms and signs, vascular risk factors, duration of symptoms, and pre- and post-MRI clinical management in patients with proven stroke. Results: One hundred and eighty-eight patients were included: 39 with vertebrobasilar AIS (20.7%), 32 (17%) with a significant but non-ischaemic abnormality, and 117 (62.2%) with a normal or non-related abnormality. The sensitivity of CT in diagnosing AIS was 9.52% (95% CI: 1.67–31.8%). Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory infarcts were the most common (38.5%). Patients with AIS were significantly more likely to be older than 50 years (p = 0.04), have a greater number of cardiovascular risk factors (p < 0.01), shorter duration of symptoms (p = 0.03), and at least one neurological sign (p = 0.02). DWI MRI had a diagnostic impact on 21.6% patients with stroke. Conclusion: MRI plays an important role in differentiating peripheral and central aetiology when this proves challenging clinically. Predictors of AIS were identified that aid patient selection for MRI, to increase the yield and impact of neuroimaging. -- Highlights: •CT has a low sensitivity for diagnosing stroke in patients with dizziness and vertigo. •The yield of MRI for stroke in patients with these symptoms in our study was 21%. •The diagnostic impact of MRI on the management of these patients was 22%. •Predictors of stroke to increase the yield of MRI in this clinical context are

  1. Investigation into the use of smartphone as a machine vision device for engineering metrology and flaw detection, with focus on drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Vikram; Bateman, Richard

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the use of a Smartphone and its camera vision capabilities in Engineering metrology and flaw detection, with a view to develop a low cost alternative to Machine vision systems which are out of range for small scale manufacturers. A Smartphone has to provide a similar level of accuracy as Machine Vision devices like Smart cameras. The objective set out was to develop an App on an Android Smartphone, incorporating advanced Computer vision algorithms written in java code. The App could then be used for recording measurements of Twist Drill bits and hole geometry, and analysing the results for accuracy. A detailed literature review was carried out for in-depth study of Machine vision systems and their capabilities, including a comparison between the HTC One X Android Smartphone and the Teledyne Dalsa BOA Smart camera. A review of the existing metrology Apps in the market was also undertaken. In addition, the drilling operation was evaluated to establish key measurement parameters of a twist Drill bit, especially flank wear and diameter. The methodology covers software development of the Android App, including the use of image processing algorithms like Gaussian Blur, Sobel and Canny available from OpenCV software library, as well as designing and developing the experimental set-up for carrying out the measurements. The results obtained from the experimental set-up were analysed for geometry of Twist Drill bits and holes, including diametrical measurements and flaw detection. The results show that Smartphones like the HTC One X have the processing power and the camera capability to carry out metrological tasks, although dimensional accuracy achievable from the Smartphone App is below the level provided by Machine vision devices like Smart cameras. A Smartphone with mechanical attachments, capable of image processing and having a reasonable level of accuracy in dimensional measurement, has the potential to become a handy low-cost Machine vision

  2. Framework for Processing Videos in the Presence of Spatially Varying Motion Blur

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    32 bits, a warped image requires 5000 × 5000 × 32 bits, that is 95.3 megabytes. If all three colour channels are used , this value will triple. Storing...sub-image sizes S. The blur kernels are displayed as binary images with non-zero values shown in white colour . point, any further increase in S...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MADRAS Final Report 02/10/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/ IOA

  3. Developmental changes in the balance of disparity, blur and looming/proximity cues to drive ocular alignment and focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Accurate co-ordination of accommodation and convergence is necessary to view near objects and develop fine motor co-ordination. We used a remote haploscopic videorefraction paradigm to measure longitudinal changes in simultaneous ocular accommodation and vergence to targets at different depths, and to all combinations of blur, binocular disparity, and change-in-size (“proximity”) cues. Infants were followed longitudinally and compared to older children and young adults, with the prediction that sensitivity to different cues would change during development. Mean infant responses to the most naturalistic condition were similar to those of adults from 6-7 weeks (accommodation) and 8-9 weeks (vergence). Proximity cues influenced responses most in infants less than 14 weeks of age, but sensitivity declined thereafter. Between 12-28 weeks of age infants were equally responsive to all three cues, while in older children and adults manipulation of disparity resulted in the greatest changes in response. Despite rapid development of visual acuity (thus increasing availability of blur cues), responses to blur were stable throughout development. Our results suggest that during much of infancy, vergence and accommodation responses are not dependent on the development of specific depth cues, but make use of any cues available to drive appropriate changes in response. PMID:24344547

  4. Evaluation of noise and blur effects with SIRT-FISTA-TV reconstruction algorithm: Application to fast environmental transmission electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjak, Hussein; Grenier, Thomas; Epicier, Thierry; Koneti, Siddardha; Roiban, Lucian; Gay, Anne-Sophie; Magnin, Isabelle; Peyrin, Françoise; Maxim, Voichita

    2018-06-01

    Fast tomography in Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy (ETEM) is of a great interest for in situ experiments where it allows to observe 3D real-time evolution of nanomaterials under operating conditions. In this context, we are working on speeding up the acquisition step to a few seconds mainly with applications on nanocatalysts. In order to accomplish such rapid acquisitions of the required tilt series of projections, a modern 4K high-speed camera is used, that can capture up to 100 images per second in a 2K binning mode. However, due to the fast rotation of the sample during the tilt procedure, noise and blur effects may occur in many projections which in turn would lead to poor quality reconstructions. Blurred projections make classical reconstruction algorithms inappropriate and require the use of prior information. In this work, a regularized algebraic reconstruction algorithm named SIRT-FISTA-TV is proposed. The performance of this algorithm using blurred data is studied by means of a numerical blur introduced into simulated images series to mimic possible mechanical instabilities/drifts during fast acquisitions. We also present reconstruction results from noisy data to show the robustness of the algorithm to noise. Finally, we show reconstructions with experimental datasets and we demonstrate the interest of fast tomography with an ultra-fast acquisition performed under environmental conditions, i.e. gas and temperature, in the ETEM. Compared to classically used SIRT and SART approaches, our proposed SIRT-FISTA-TV reconstruction algorithm provides higher quality tomograms allowing easier segmentation of the reconstructed volume for a better final processing and analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Abnormal computerized dynamic posturography findings in dizzy patients with normal ENG results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sataloff, Robert T; Hawkshaw, Mary J; Mandel, Heidi; Zwislewski, Amy B; Armour, Jonathan; Mandel, Steven

    2005-04-01

    The complexities of the balance system create difficulties for professionals interested in testing equilibrium function objectively. Traditionally, electronystagmography (ENG) has been used for this purpose, but it provides information on only a limited portion of the equilibrium system. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is less specific than ENG, but it provides more global insight into a patient's ability to maintain equilibrium under more challenging environmental circumstances. CD Palso appears to be valuable in obtaining objective confirmation of an abnormality in some dizzy patients whose ENG findings are normal. Our review of 33 patients with normal ENG results and abnormal CDP findings suggests that posturography is useful for confirming or quantifying a balance abnormality in some patients whose complaints cannot be confirmed by other tests frequently used by otologists.

  6. Emergency department documentation templates: variability in template selection and association with physical examination and test ordering in dizziness presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurer William J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical documentation systems, such as templates, have been associated with process utilization. The T-System emergency department (ED templates are widely used but lacking are analyses of the templates association with processes. This system is also unique because of the many different template options available, and thus the selection of the template may also be important. We aimed to describe the selection of templates in ED dizziness presentations and to investigate the association between items on templates and process utilization. Methods Dizziness visits were captured from a population-based study of EDs that use documentation templates. Two relevant process outcomes were assessed: head computerized tomography (CT scan and nystagmus examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of each outcome for patients who did or did not receive a relevant-item template. Propensity scores were also used to adjust for selection effects. Results The final cohort was 1,485 visits. Thirty-one different templates were used. Use of a template with a head CT item was associated with an increase in the adjusted probability of head CT utilization from 12.2% (95% CI, 8.9%-16.6% to 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.9%. The adjusted probability of documentation of a nystagmus assessment increased from 12.0% (95%CI, 8.8%-16.2% when a nystagmus-item template was not used to 95.0% (95% CI, 92.8%-96.6% when a nystagmus-item template was used. The associations remained significant after propensity score adjustments. Conclusions Providers use many different templates in dizziness presentations. Important differences exist in the various templates and the template that is used likely impacts process utilization, even though selection may be arbitrary. The optimal design and selection of templates may offer a feasible and effective opportunity to improve care delivery.

  7. Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mike

    2011-01-01

    While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight…

  8. Binocular versus standard occlusion or blurring treatment for unilateral amblyopia in children aged three to eight years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Vijay; Bossi, Manuela; Bunce, Catey; Greenwood, John A; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret

    2015-08-11

    Current treatments for amblyopia in children, occlusion and pharmacological blurring, have had limited success, with less than two-thirds of children achieving good visual acuity of at least 0.20 logMAR in the amblyopic eye, limited improvement of stereopsis, and poor compliance. A new treatment approach, based on the dichoptic presentation of movies or computer games (images presented separately to each eye), may yield better results, as it aims to balance the input of visual information from each eye to the brain. Compliance may also improve with these more child-friendly treatment procedures. To determine whether binocular treatments in children aged three to eight years with unilateral amblyopia result in better visual outcomes than conventional occlusion or pharmacological blurring treatment. We searched the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register (last date of searches: 14 April 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to April 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. Two review authors independently screened the results of the search in order to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria of the review: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled participants between the ages of three and eight years old with unilateral amblyopia, defined as best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) worse than 0.200 logMAR in the amblyopic eye, and BCVA 0.200 logMAR or better in the fellow eye, in the presence of an amblyogenic risk factor such as anisometropia, strabismus, or both. Prior

  9. Effects of Vestibular Rehabilitation on Balance Control in Older People with Chronic Dizziness: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; Aratani, Mayra Cristina; Caovilla, Heloísa Helena; Ganança, Fernando Freitas

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of vestibular rehabilitation protocols on balance control in elderly with dizziness. This is a randomized clinical trial with 3-mo follow-up period. The sample was composed of 82 older individuals with chronic dizziness from vestibular disorders. The control group was treated according to the Conventional Cawthorne & Cooksey protocol (n = 40), and the experimental group was submitted to a Multimodal Cawthorne & Cooksey protocol (n = 42). Measures included Dynamic Gait Index, fall history, hand grip strength, Time Up-and-Go Test, sit-to-stand test, multidirectional reach, and static balance tests. With the exception of history of falls, Forward Functional Reach, Unipedal Right and Left Leg Eyes Closed, and Sensorial Romberg Eyes Open, all outcomes improved after treatments. Such results persisted at follow-up period, with the exception of the Tandem Eyes Open and the Timed Up-and-Go manual. The between-group differences for Sensorial Romberg Eyes Closed (4.27 secs) and Unipedal Left Leg Eyes Open (4.08 secs) were significant after treatment, favoring the Multimodal protocol. Both protocols resulted in improvement on elderly's balance control, which was maintained during a short-term period. The multimodal protocol presented better performance on specific static balance tests.

  10. Computational vision

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsler, Harry

    1990-01-01

    The book is suitable for advanced courses in computer vision and image processing. In addition to providing an overall view of computational vision, it contains extensive material on topics that are not usually covered in computer vision texts (including parallel distributed processing and neural networks) and considers many real applications.

  11. Making a vision document tangible using "vision-tactics-metrics" tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Ivo; Slomski, Carol

    2006-01-01

    We describe a method of making a vision document tangible by attaching specific tactics and metrics to the key elements of the vision. We report on the development and early use of a "vision-tactics-metrics" table in a department of surgery. Use of the table centered the vision in the daily life of the department and its faculty, and facilitated cultural change.

  12. Restoration of a single superresolution image from several blurred, noisy, and undersampled measured images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, M; Feuer, A

    1997-01-01

    The three main tools in the single image restoration theory are the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator, the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimator, and the set theoretic approach using projection onto convex sets (POCS). This paper utilizes the above known tools to propose a unified methodology toward the more complicated problem of superresolution restoration. In the superresolution restoration problem, an improved resolution image is restored from several geometrically warped, blurred, noisy and downsampled measured images. The superresolution restoration problem is modeled and analyzed from the ML, the MAP, and POCS points of view, yielding a generalization of the known superresolution restoration methods. The proposed restoration approach is general but assumes explicit knowledge of the linear space- and time-variant blur, the (additive Gaussian) noise, the different measured resolutions, and the (smooth) motion characteristics. A hybrid method combining the simplicity of the ML and the incorporation of nonellipsoid constraints is presented, giving improved restoration performance, compared with the ML and the POCS approaches. The hybrid method is shown to converge to the unique optimal solution of a new definition of the optimization problem. Superresolution restoration from motionless measurements is also discussed. Simulations demonstrate the power of the proposed methodology.

  13. Gaze-contingent training enhances perceptual skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Donghyun; Mann, David L; Abernethy, Bruce; Poolton, Jamie M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether decision-making skill in perceptual-cognitive tasks could be enhanced using a training technique that impaired selective areas of the visual field. Recreational basketball players performed perceptual training over 3 days while viewing with a gaze-contingent manipulation that displayed either (a) a moving window (clear central and blurred peripheral vision), (b) a moving mask (blurred central and clear peripheral vision), or (c) full (unrestricted) vision. During the training, participants watched video clips of basketball play and at the conclusion of each clip made a decision about to which teammate the player in possession of the ball should pass. A further control group watched unrelated videos with full vision. The effects of training were assessed using separate tests of decision-making skill conducted in a pretest, posttest, and 2-week retention test. The accuracy of decision making was greater in the posttest than in the pretest for all three intervention groups when compared with the control group. Remarkably, training with blurred peripheral vision resulted in a further improvement in performance from posttest to retention test that was not apparent for the other groups. The type of training had no measurable impact on the visual search strategies of the participants, and so the training improvements appear to be grounded in changes in information pickup. The findings show that learning with impaired peripheral vision offers a promising form of training to support improvements in perceptual skill.

  14. Near vision spectacle coverage and barriers to near vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    easily help to address this visual disability.7 An average cost of near vision spectacle in Ghana is approximately. $ 5.8 Near-vision spectacle could be dispensed as single vision, bifocal or progressive eye glasses to meet near vi- sion needs.2. Recent evidence suggests that the ageing population in. Ghana is increasing ...

  15. AN INVESTIGATION OF VISION PROBLEMS AND THE VISION CARE SYSTEM IN RURAL CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yunli; Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Shi, Yaojiang; Ma, Xiaochen; Congdon, Nathan; Zhou, Zhongqiang; Boswell, Matthew; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the prevalence of vision problems and the accessibility to and quality of vision care in rural China. We obtained data from 4 sources: 1) the National Rural Vision Care Survey; 2) the Private Optometrists Survey; 3) the County Hospital Eye Care Survey; and 4) the Rural School Vision Care Survey. The data from each of the surveys were collected by the authors during 2012. Thirty-three percent of the rural population surveyed self-reported vision problems. Twenty-two percent of subjects surveyed had ever had a vision exam. Among those who self-reported having vision problems, 34% did not wear eyeglasses. Fifty-four percent of those with vision problems who had eyeglasses did not have a vision exam prior to receiving glasses. However, having a vision exam did not always guarantee access to quality vision care. Four channels of vision care service were assessed. The school vision examination program did not increase the usage rate of eyeglasses. Each county-hospital was staffed with three eye-doctors having one year of education beyond high school, serving more than 400,000 residents. Private optometrists often had low levels of education and professional certification. In conclusion, our findings shows that the vision care system in rural China is inadequate and ineffective in meeting the needs of the rural population sampled.

  16. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... of visual aids. Some options include: Magnifiers High power reading glasses Devices that make it easier to ...

  17. Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khlaiwi, Thamir; Meo, Sultan A.

    2004-01-01

    The widespread use of mobile phones has been increased over the past decade; they are now an essential part of business, commerce and society. The use of mobile phones can cause health problems. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the association of using mobile phones with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in the Saudi population and provide health and social awareness in using these devices. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saudi University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2002 to 2003. In the present study, a total of 437 subjects (55.1% male and 39.9% female) were invited, they have and had been using mobile phones. A questionnaire was distributed regarding detailed history and association of mobile phones with health hazards. The results of the present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and health hazards. The overall mean percentage for these clinical findings in all groups were headache (21.6%), sleep disturbance (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%) and dizziness (2.4%). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that long term or excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities such as group discussions, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources. (author)

  18. A child's vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Schools at the Rural-Urban Boundary - Blurring the Divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia; Logan, John R

    2017-07-01

    Schools mirror the communities in which they are located. Research on school inequality across the rural-urban spectrum tends to focus on the contrast between urban, suburban, and rural schools and glosses over the variation within these areas as well as the similarities between them. To address this gap and provide a richer description of the spatial distribution of educational inequality, we examine the school composition, achievement, and resources of all U.S. elementary schools in 2010-2011. We apply standard census definitions of what areas fall within central cities, the remainder of metropolitan regions, and in rural America. We then apply spatially explicit methods to reveal blurred boundaries and gradual gradients rather than sharp breaks at the edges of these zones. The results show high levels of variation within the suburbs and substantial commonality between rural and urban areas.

  20. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Gordon E; Gage, Rachel; Baek, Yihwa; Bochsler, Tiana M

    2016-01-01

    Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms. Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (Snellen 20/135) and Severe Blur (Snellen 20/900) conditions, and a Narrow Field (8°) condition. The subjects estimated the dimensions of seven rectangular rooms with and without these visual restrictions. They were also guided along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they were asked to estimate the distance and direction to the starting location. In Experiment 1, the subjects walked along the path. In Experiment 2, they were pushed in a wheelchair to determine if reduced proprioceptive input would result in poorer spatial updating. With unrestricted vision, mean Weber fractions for room-size estimates were near 20%. Severe Blur but not Mild Blur yielded larger errors in room-size judgments. The Narrow Field was associated with increased error, but less than with Severe Blur. There was no effect of visual restriction on estimates of distance back to the starting location, and only Severe Blur yielded larger errors in the direction estimates. Contrary to expectation, the wheelchair subjects did not exhibit poorer updating performance than the walking subjects, nor did they show greater dependence on visual condition. If our results generalize to people with low vision, severe deficits in acuity or field will adversely affect the ability to judge the size of indoor spaces, but updating of position and orientation may be less affected by visual impairment.

  1. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon E Legge

    Full Text Available Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms.Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (Snellen 20/135 and Severe Blur (Snellen 20/900 conditions, and a Narrow Field (8° condition. The subjects estimated the dimensions of seven rectangular rooms with and without these visual restrictions. They were also guided along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they were asked to estimate the distance and direction to the starting location. In Experiment 1, the subjects walked along the path. In Experiment 2, they were pushed in a wheelchair to determine if reduced proprioceptive input would result in poorer spatial updating.With unrestricted vision, mean Weber fractions for room-size estimates were near 20%. Severe Blur but not Mild Blur yielded larger errors in room-size judgments. The Narrow Field was associated with increased error, but less than with Severe Blur. There was no effect of visual restriction on estimates of distance back to the starting location, and only Severe Blur yielded larger errors in the direction estimates. Contrary to expectation, the wheelchair subjects did not exhibit poorer updating performance than the walking subjects, nor did they show greater dependence on visual condition.If our results generalize to people with low vision, severe deficits in acuity or field will adversely affect the ability to judge the size of indoor spaces, but updating of position and orientation may be less affected by visual impairment.

  2. Effects of visual skills training, vision coaching and sports vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of three different approaches to improving sports performance through improvements in “sports vision:” (1) a visual skills training programme, (2) traditional vision coaching sessions, and (3) a multi-disciplinary approach identified as sports vision dynamics.

  3. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  4. Impairments to Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  5. Vision Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Vision Lab personnel perform research, development, testing and evaluation of eye protection and vision performance. The lab maintains and continues to develop...

  6. Alport syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itching, or redness of the eye, or blurred vision. Abnormal coloring of the retina , a condition called dot-and-fleck retinopathy. It ... macula. The macula is a part of the retina that makes central vision sharper and more detailed. A macular hole causes ...

  7. Incidence of dizziness and vertigo in Japanese primary care clinic patients with lifestyle-related diseases: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Masaoki; Takeshima,Taro; Nakamura,Yosikazu; Nagasaka,Shoichiro; Kamesaki,Toyomi; Oki,Hiroshi; Kajii,Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Masaoki Wada,1,2 Taro Takeshima,1 Yosikazu Nakamura,3 Shoichiro Nagasaka,4 Toyomi Kamesaki,1 Hiroshi Oki,2 Eiji Kajii1 1Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 2Oki Clinic, Ibaraki, Japan; 3Department of Public Health, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan Objective: Dizziness and vertigo are highl...

  8. Robot Vision Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  9. Visions of Vision: An Exploratory Study of the Role College and University Presidents Play in Developing Institutional Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWade, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research explores how college and university presidents engage in the process of developing formal institutional vision. The inquiry identifies roles presidents play in vision development, which is often undertaken as part of strategic-planning initiatives. Two constructs of leadership and institutional vision are used to examine…

  10. Light Vision Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  11. What Is Low Vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Rights Training Resources Workplace Technology CareerConnect Stories Working as a Senior with Vision Loss For Seniors Age-Related Vision ... Changes Health and Aging Retirement Living Continuing to Work as a Senior with Vision Loss Get Connected About VisionAware Join ...

  12. Static and dynamic postural control in low-vision and normal-vision adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomomitsu, Mônica S V; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Morimoto, Eurica; Bobbio, Tatiana G; Greve, Julia M D

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of reduced visual information on postural control by comparing low-vision and normal-vision adults in static and dynamic conditions. Twenty-five low-vision subjects and twenty-five normal sighted adults were evaluated for static and dynamic balance using four protocols: 1) the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance on firm and foam surfaces with eyes opened and closed; 2) Unilateral Stance with eyes opened and closed; 3) Tandem Walk; and 4) Step Up/Over. The results showed that the low-vision group presented greater body sway compared with the normal vision during balance on a foam surface (p≤0.001), the Unilateral Stance test for both limbs (p≤0.001), and the Tandem Walk test. The low-vision group showed greater step width (p≤0.001) and slower gait speed (p≤0.004). In the Step Up/Over task, low-vision participants were more cautious in stepping up (right p≤0.005 and left p≤0.009) and in executing the movement (p≤0.001). These findings suggest that visual feedback is crucial for determining balance, especially for dynamic tasks and on foam surfaces. Low-vision individuals had worse postural stability than normal-vision adults in terms of dynamic tests and balance on foam surfaces.

  13. Cognitive Behavior Therapy as Augmentation for Sertraline in Treating Patients with Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Chuan; Xue, Hui; Zhang, Ying-Xin; Zhou, Jiying

    2018-01-01

    Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is a common vestibular disorder. This study was conducted to assess whether the addition of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) could significantly improve the efficacy and acceptability of sertraline in treating PPPD. PPPD patients were recruited and randomly assigned to control and experiment groups. Patients in both groups received sertraline 50-200 mg/day, and only patients in the experiment group received CBT (twice a week, one hour per time). The treatment was continued for eight weeks. At baseline, week 2, week 4, and week 8, the 25-item Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were used to assess the self-perceived handicapping effects caused by PPPD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, respectively. The dose of sertraline used and the adverse events in both groups were recorded and analyzed. In total, 91 PPPD patients were randomly assigned to the control group ( n = 45) and experiment group ( n = 46). After eight weeks of treatment, the average DHI scores, HDRS scores, and HARS scores were significantly decreased in both groups. But compared to the control group, the experiment group had significantly lower average DHI score, HDRS score, and HARS score at weeks 4 and 8. Moreover, the dose of sertraline used in the experiment group was significantly lower than that in the control group, and adverse events occurred more frequently in the control group than in the experiment group (48.9% versus 26.1%, p = 0.025). These results demonstrated that the addition of CBT could significantly improve the efficacy and acceptability of sertraline in treating PPPD and reduce the dose of sertraline used.

  14. A method for correcting the depth-of-interaction blurring in PET cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A method is presented for the purpose of correcting PET images for the blurring caused by variations in the depth-of-interaction in position-sensitive gamma ray detectors. In the case of a fine-cut 50x50x30 mm BGO block detector, the method is shown to improve the detector resolution by about 25%, measured in the geometry corresponding to detection at the edge of the field-of-view. Strengths and weaknesses of the method are discussed and its potential usefulness for improving the images of future PET cameras is assessed. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  15. Validation of the Italian Version of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire, and the Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale for Peripheral and Central Vestibular Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Colnaghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological measurements of the vestibular function for diagnosis and follow-up evaluations provide an objective assessment, which, unfortunately, does not necessarily correlate with the patients’ self-feeling. The literature provides many questionnaires to assess the outcome of rehabilitation programs for disequilibrium, but only for the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI is an Italian translation available, validated on a small group of patients suffering from a peripheral acute vertigo. We translated and validated the reliability and validity of the DHI, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire (SVQ, and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC in 316 Italian patients complaining of dizziness due either to a peripheral or to a central vestibular deficit, or in whom vestibular signs were undetectable by means of instrumental testing or clinical evaluation. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, the homogeneity index, and test–retest reproducibility, confirmed reliability of the Italian version of the three questionnaires. Validity was confirmed by correlation test between questionnaire scores. Correlations with clinical variables suggested that they can be used as a complementary tool for the assessment of vestibular symptoms. In conclusion, the Italian versions of DHI, SVQ, and ABC are reliable and valid questionnaires for assessing the impact of dizziness on the quality of life of Italian patients with peripheral or central vestibular deficit.

  16. VISION development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.; Whitman, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    VISION is a flexible and extensible object-oriented programming environment for prototyping computer-vision and pattern-recognition algorithms. This year's effort focused on three major areas: documentation, graphics, and support for new applications

  17. Video Game Vision Syndrome: A New Clinical Picture in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechichi, Caterina; De Mojà, Gilda; Aragona, Pasquale

    2017-11-01

    To examine a possible relationship between exposure to video games/electronic screens and visual issues in children between 3 and 10 years of age. An observational, cross-sectional study of a population of children using video games was employed. All patients between 3 and 10 years of age were recruited at an outpatient unit accredited by the Italian Regional Health Service. Three hundred twenty children (159 boys and 161 girls; mean age = 6.9 ± 2 years) were observed. Ophthalmological examination included assessment of stereoscopic vision on Lang-Stereotests I and II (LANG-STEREOTEST AG, Küsnacht, Switzerland) and identification of the dominant eye using the Dolman method. Furthermore, a questionnaire was used to record asthenopic symptoms and daily exposure to video games and electronic screens. Two groups of children were examined according to the average amount of time spent playing video games daily: children who played video games for less than 30 minutes per day and not every day (control group) and children who played video games for 30 minutes or more every day (video game group). Both groups were then divided into two subgroups: children using other types of electronic screens (eg, televisions, computers, tablets, and smartphones) for less than 3 hours daily (low electronic use subgroup) and children using other types of electronic screens for 3 hours or more per day (high electronic use subgroup). Asthenopia (especially headache, eyelid tic, transient diplopia, and dizziness), absence of fine stereopsis, and refractive errors were statistically more frequent (mainly in the dominant eye) in children in the video game group. These symptoms were frequent and peculiar in the video game group and might be part of a video game vision syndrome that has not been defined yet. It is important to recognize these signs as possible functional disorders to avoid erroneous diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017

  18. Temozolomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems changes in vision Some side effects can ... is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers (such ...

  19. Neurosarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause: Confusion , disorientation Decreased hearing Dementia Delirium Dizziness , vertigo , or abnormal sensations of movement Double vision or ... the condition can mimic other medical disorders, including diabetes insipidus , hypopituitarism , optic neuritis , meningitis , and certain tumors. ...

  20. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  1. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tonic-clonic seizures have vision, taste, smell, or sensory changes, hallucinations, or dizziness before the seizure. This ... longer (called the post-ictal state) Loss of memory (amnesia) about the seizure episode Headache Weakness of ...

  2. Vision-based interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In its early years, the field of computer vision was largely motivated by researchers seeking computational models of biological vision and solutions to practical problems in manufacturing, defense, and medicine. For the past two decades or so, there has been an increasing interest in computer vision as an input modality in the context of human-computer interaction. Such vision-based interaction can endow interactive systems with visual capabilities similar to those important to human-human interaction, in order to perceive non-verbal cues and incorporate this information in applications such

  3. Models for Patch-Based Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovic Nemanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a supervised learning approach for object-category specific restoration, recognition, and segmentation of images which are blurred using an unknown kernel. The novelty of this work is a multilayer graphical model which unifies the low-level vision task of restoration and the high-level vision task of recognition in a cooperative framework. The graphical model is an interconnected two-layer Markov random field. The restoration layer accounts for the compatibility between sharp and blurred images and models the association between adjacent patches in the sharp image. The recognition layer encodes the entity class and its location in the underlying scene. The potentials are represented using nonparametric kernel densities and are learnt from training data. Inference is performed using nonparametric belief propagation. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the restoration and recognition of blurred license plates as well as face images.

  4. Models for Patch-Based Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Das Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a supervised learning approach for object-category specific restoration, recognition, and segmentation of images which are blurred using an unknown kernel. The novelty of this work is a multilayer graphical model which unifies the low-level vision task of restoration and the high-level vision task of recognition in a cooperative framework. The graphical model is an interconnected two-layer Markov random field. The restoration layer accounts for the compatibility between sharp and blurred images and models the association between adjacent patches in the sharp image. The recognition layer encodes the entity class and its location in the underlying scene. The potentials are represented using nonparametric kernel densities and are learnt from training data. Inference is performed using nonparametric belief propagation. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the restoration and recognition of blurred license plates as well as face images.

  5. LASIK Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the front of your eye — to improve vision. Normally, images are clearly focused on the retina in the back of your eye because the ... sharply, light rays focus in front of the retina and blur distant vision. You can see objects that are close fairly ...

  6. Validation of the blurring of a small object on CT images calculated on the basis of three-dimensional spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Masaki; Wada, Shinichi; Saito, Masatoshi

    2005-01-01

    We determine three-dimensional (3D) blurring of a small object on computed tomography (CT) images calculated on the basis of 3D spatial resolution. The images were characterized by point spread function (PSF), line spread function (LSF) and slice sensitivity profile (SSP). In advance, we systematically arranged expressions in the model for the imaging system to calculate 3D images under various conditions of spatial resolution. As a small object, we made a blood vessel phantom in which the direction of the vessel was not parallel to either the xy scan-plane or the z-axis perpendicular to the scan-plane. Therefore, when scanning the phantom, non-sharpness must be induced in all axes of the image. To predict the image blurring of the phantom, 3D spatial resolution is essential. The LSF and SSP were measured on our scanner, and two-dimensional (2D) PSF in the scan-plane was derived from the LSF by solving an integral equation. We obtained 3D images by convolving the 3D object-function of the phantom with both 2D PSF and SSP, corresponding to the 3D convolution. Calculated images showed good agreement with scanned images. Our technique of determining 3D blurring offers an accuracy advantage in 3D shape (size) and density measurements of small objects. (author)

  7. Acute air pollution-related symptoms among residents in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwatanadate, Phongtape

    2014-01-01

    Open burnings (forest fires, agricultural, and garbage burnings) are the major sources of air pollution in Chiang Mai, Thailand. A time series prospective study was conducted in which 3025 participants were interviewed for 19 acute symptoms with the daily records of ambient air pollutants: particulate matter less than 10 microm in size (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3). PM10 was positively associated with blurred vision with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.009. CO was positively associated with lower lung and heart symptoms with adjusted ORs of 1.137 and 1.117. NO2 was positively associated with nosebleed, larynx symptoms, dry cough, lower lung symptoms, heart symptoms, and eye irritation with the range of adjusted ORs (ROAORs) of 1.024 to 1.229. SO2 was positively associated with swelling feet, skin symptoms, eye irritation, red eyes, and blurred vision with ROAORs of 1.205 to 2.948. Conversely, O3 was negatively related to running nose, burning nose, dry cough, body rash, red eyes, and blurred vision with ROAORs of 0.891 to 0.979.

  8. Development of myopia as a hazard for workers in pneumatic caissons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoo, A; Kiyosawa, M; Takase, H; Mano, Y

    2002-01-01

    Background/aim: Pneumatic caisson engineering has been developed for large civil engineering constructions. Because of complaints of blurred vision by personnel working in pneumatic caissons, the development of myopia was suspected. The aim of this study was to determine the cause of the blurred vision and the mechanism underlying the changes. Methods: 12 caisson workers underwent a complete ophthalmological examination after completing up to 11 weeks of work (4 days/week) in a pneumatic caisson. Six months later, nine of the workers were examined again. Results: Nine subjects were myopic at the initial examination, and seven of these were considered to have developed the myopia after starting to work in the pneumatic caisson. Six months after completion of the work, the mean refractive change was significantly towards hyperopia. Conclusions: The blurred vision in pneumatic caisson workers was in all likelihood due to the development of myopia. The refractive shift towards hyperopia after completion of work in the pneumatic caisson supports this and demonstrates that the changes were temporary. The myopia is similar to the myopia seen in patients treated by hyperbaric oxygen. Careful monitoring of the refraction of caisson workers should be performed for industrial health control. PMID:12386088

  9. Treatment for childhood cancer - long-term risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects based on body parts affected. Brain: Learning Memory Attention Language Behavior and emotional problems Seizures, headaches Ears: Hearing loss Ringing in the ears Dizziness Eyes: Vision problems Dry or watery eyes Sensitivity to light ...

  10. Burner (Stinger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor if: you have headaches, blurry vision, memory loss, dizziness, or feel overly tired. These are symptoms ... reviewed: October 2014 More on this topic for: Teens Safety Tips: Football Sports and Exercise Safety Dealing ...

  11. Social Media Blurred the Distinction Between Author and Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud

    The last few years have seen the emergence of the sharing economy. As social media blurred the distinction between author and reader, everyone can now offer or receive services thanks to the networking tools provided by new technological companies. Take Uber, and its billion of journeys in 2015 alone, with tens of thousands of vehicles crawling every moment in the globe's biggest cities. As often, when confronted with a technological change, we observe a polarization of society, and the search for an equilibrium characterized by new norms, rights, and obligations. Understanding the mechanisms behind this re-organization requires an integrated, interdisciplinary approach, covering an intricate web of legal, societal, economical, and computational issues which, we believe, could benefit from a complex systems perspective. As a first step, we are currently studying the dynamics of pricing in Uber. In this new de-regulated world, journey prices fluctuate in time depending on traffic but also on the service's perceived balance of passenger demand and driver supply...

  12. Barriers to accessing low vision services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Tamara L; Simpson, John A; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Keeffe, Jill E

    2003-07-01

    To investigate barriers to accessing low vision services in Australia. Adults with a vision impairment (vision difficulties, duration of vision loss and satisfaction with vision and also examined issues of awareness of low vision services and referral to services. Focus groups were also conducted with vision impaired (Vision Australia Foundation. The discussions were recorded and transcribed. The questionnaire revealed that referral to low vision services was associated with a greater degree of vision loss (p = 0.002) and a greater self-perception of low vision (p = 0.005) but that referral was not associated with satisfaction (p = 0.144) or difficulties related to vision (p = 0.169). Participants with mild and moderate vision impairment each reported similar levels of difficulties with daily activities and satisfaction with their vision (p > 0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the level of difficulties experienced with daily activities between those with mild-moderate and severe vision impairment (p low vision services related to awareness of services among the general public and eye care professionals, understanding of low vision and the services available, acceptance of low vision, the referral process, and transport. In addition to the expected difficulties with lack of awareness of services by people with low vision, many people do not understand what the services provide and do not identify themselves as having low vision. Knowledge of these barriers, from the perspective of people with low vision, can now be used to guide the development and content of future health-promotion campaigns.

  13. Cognitive Behavior Therapy as Augmentation for Sertraline in Treating Patients with Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chuan Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD is a common vestibular disorder. This study was conducted to assess whether the addition of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT could significantly improve the efficacy and acceptability of sertraline in treating PPPD. Methods. PPPD patients were recruited and randomly assigned to control and experiment groups. Patients in both groups received sertraline 50–200 mg/day, and only patients in the experiment group received CBT (twice a week, one hour per time. The treatment was continued for eight weeks. At baseline, week 2, week 4, and week 8, the 25-item Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS were used to assess the self-perceived handicapping effects caused by PPPD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, respectively. The dose of sertraline used and the adverse events in both groups were recorded and analyzed. Results. In total, 91 PPPD patients were randomly assigned to the control group n=45 and experiment group n=46. After eight weeks of treatment, the average DHI scores, HDRS scores, and HARS scores were significantly decreased in both groups. But compared to the control group, the experiment group had significantly lower average DHI score, HDRS score, and HARS score at weeks 4 and 8. Moreover, the dose of sertraline used in the experiment group was significantly lower than that in the control group, and adverse events occurred more frequently in the control group than in the experiment group (48.9% versus 26.1%, p=0.025. Conclusion. These results demonstrated that the addition of CBT could significantly improve the efficacy and acceptability of sertraline in treating PPPD and reduce the dose of sertraline used.

  14. Progress in computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A. K.; Dorai, C.

    Computer vision has emerged as a challenging and important area of research, both as an engineering and a scientific discipline. The growing importance of computer vision is evident from the fact that it was identified as one of the "Grand Challenges" and also from its prominent role in the National Information Infrastructure. While the design of a general-purpose vision system continues to be elusive machine vision systems are being used successfully in specific application elusive, machine vision systems are being used successfully in specific application domains. Building a practical vision system requires a careful selection of appropriate sensors, extraction and integration of information from available cues in the sensed data, and evaluation of system robustness and performance. The authors discuss and demonstrate advantages of (1) multi-sensor fusion, (2) combination of features and classifiers, (3) integration of visual modules, and (IV) admissibility and goal-directed evaluation of vision algorithms. The requirements of several prominent real world applications such as biometry, document image analysis, image and video database retrieval, and automatic object model construction offer exciting problems and new opportunities to design and evaluate vision algorithms.

  15. Schools at the Rural-Urban Boundary – Blurring the Divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia; Logan, John R.

    2018-01-01

    Schools mirror the communities in which they are located. Research on school inequality across the rural-urban spectrum tends to focus on the contrast between urban, suburban, and rural schools and glosses over the variation within these areas as well as the similarities between them. To address this gap and provide a richer description of the spatial distribution of educational inequality, we examine the school composition, achievement, and resources of all U.S. elementary schools in 2010–2011. We apply standard census definitions of what areas fall within central cities, the remainder of metropolitan regions, and in rural America. We then apply spatially explicit methods to reveal blurred boundaries and gradual gradients rather than sharp breaks at the edges of these zones. The results show high levels of variation within the suburbs and substantial commonality between rural and urban areas. PMID:29430017

  16. Effects of picture size reduction and blurring on emotional engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Cesarei

    Full Text Available The activity of basic motivational systems is reflected in emotional responses to arousing stimuli, such as natural pictures. The manipulation of picture properties such as size or detail allows for investigation into the extent to which separate emotional reactions are similarly modulated by perceptual changes, or, rather, may subserve different functions. Pursuing this line of research, the present study examined the effects of two types of perceptual degradation, namely picture size reduction and blurring, on emotional responses. Both manipulations reduced picture relevance and dampened affective modulation of skin conductance, possibly because of a reduced action preparation in response to degraded or remote pictures. However, the affective modulation of the startle reflex did not vary with picture degradation, suggesting that the identification of these degraded affective cues activated the neural circuits mediating appetitive or defensive motivation.

  17. Visualizing deep neural network by alternately image blurring and deblurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Haijun; Cheng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Visualization from trained deep neural networks has drawn massive public attention in recent. One of the visualization approaches is to train images maximizing the activation of specific neurons. However, directly maximizing the activation would lead to unrecognizable images, which cannot provide any meaningful information. In this paper, we introduce a simple but effective technique to constrain the optimization route of the visualization. By adding two totally inverse transformations, image blurring and deblurring, to the optimization procedure, recognizable images can be created. Our algorithm is good at extracting the details in the images, which are usually filtered by previous methods in the visualizations. Extensive experiments on AlexNet, VGGNet and GoogLeNet illustrate that we can better understand the neural networks utilizing the knowledge obtained by the visualization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diseases like encephalopathy or encephalitis evaluate problems such as persistent headaches, dizziness, weakness, blurry vision or seizures ... certain chronic diseases of the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis diagnose problems with the pituitary gland ...

  19. The CCH Vision Stimulation Program for Infants with Low Vision: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguire, L. E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital vision stimulation program, involving in-home intervention with 15 visually impaired infants. Comparison with controls indicated benefits of appropriate vision stimulation in increasing the neural foundation for vision and visual-motor function in visually impaired infants. (Author/DB)

  20. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  1. Agnosic vision is like peripheral vision, which is limited by crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strappini, Francesca; Pelli, Denis G; Di Pace, Enrico; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2017-04-01

    Visual agnosia is a neuropsychological impairment of visual object recognition despite near-normal acuity and visual fields. A century of research has provided only a rudimentary account of the functional damage underlying this deficit. We find that the object-recognition ability of agnosic patients viewing an object directly is like that of normally-sighted observers viewing it indirectly, with peripheral vision. Thus, agnosic vision is like peripheral vision. We obtained 14 visual-object-recognition tests that are commonly used for diagnosis of visual agnosia. Our "standard" normal observer took these tests at various eccentricities in his periphery. Analyzing the published data of 32 apperceptive agnosia patients and a group of 14 posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) patients on these tests, we find that each patient's pattern of object recognition deficits is well characterized by one number, the equivalent eccentricity at which our standard observer's peripheral vision is like the central vision of the agnosic patient. In other words, each agnosic patient's equivalent eccentricity is conserved across tests. Across patients, equivalent eccentricity ranges from 4 to 40 deg, which rates severity of the visual deficit. In normal peripheral vision, the required size to perceive a simple image (e.g., an isolated letter) is limited by acuity, and that for a complex image (e.g., a face or a word) is limited by crowding. In crowding, adjacent simple objects appear unrecognizably jumbled unless their spacing exceeds the crowding distance, which grows linearly with eccentricity. Besides conservation of equivalent eccentricity across object-recognition tests, we also find conservation, from eccentricity to agnosia, of the relative susceptibility of recognition of ten visual tests. These findings show that agnosic vision is like eccentric vision. Whence crowding? Peripheral vision, strabismic amblyopia, and possibly apperceptive agnosia are all limited by crowding, making it

  2. Possible Side-Effects from Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent fainting, and injuries caused by a fall. Tell your doctor if you feel dizzy, or have vision changes or ringing in the ears. Some older children and adults get severe pain in the shoulder and have ...

  3. Differences in 3D dose distributions due to calculation method of voxel S-values and the influence of image blurring in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacilio, Massimiliano; Basile, Chiara; Amato, Ernesto; Lanconelli, Nico; Torres, Leonel Alberto; Perez, Marco Coca; Gil, Alex Vergara; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila; Cremonesi, Marta; Diaz, Nestor Cornejo; Fernández, María; Lassmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study compares 3D dose distributions obtained with voxel S values (VSVs) for soft tissue, calculated by several methods at their current state-of-the-art, varying the degree of image blurring. The methods were: 1) convolution of Dose Point Kernel (DPK) for water, using a scaling factor method; 2) an analytical model (AM), fitting the deposited energy as a function of the source-target distance; 3) a rescaling method (RSM) based on a set of high-resolution VSVs for each isotope; 4) local energy deposition (LED). VSVs calculated by direct Monte Carlo simulations were assumed as reference. Dose distributions were calculated considering spheroidal clusters with various sizes (251, 1237 and 4139 voxels of 3 mm size), uniformly filled with 131 I, 177 Lu, 188 Re or 90 Y. The activity distributions were blurred with Gaussian filters of various widths (6, 8 and 12 mm). Moreover, 3D-dosimetry was performed for 10 treatments with 90 Y derivatives. Cumulative Dose Volume Histograms (cDVHs) were compared, studying the differences in D 95% , D 50% or D max (ΔD 95% , ΔD 50% and ΔD max ) and dose profiles. For unblurred spheroidal clusters, ΔD 95% , ΔD 50% and ΔD max were mostly within some percents, slightly higher for 177 Lu with DPK (8%) and RSM (12%) and considerably higher for LED (ΔD 95% up to 59%). Increasing the blurring, differences decreased and also LED yielded very similar results, but D 95% and D 50% underestimations between 30–60% and 15–50%, respectively (with respect to 3D-dosimetry with unblurred distributions), were evidenced. Also for clinical images (affected by blurring as well), cDVHs differences for most methods were within few percents, except for slightly higher differences with LED, and almost systematic for dose profiles with DPK (−1.2%), AM (−3.0%) and RSM (4.5%), whereas showed an oscillating trend with LED. The major concern for 3D-dosimetry on clinical SPECT images is more strongly represented by image blurring than by

  4. [Neuro-otological Studies of Patients Suffering from Dizziness with Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypovolemia after Traffic Accident-associated Whiplash Injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Jun-Ichi; Shimoda, Satoe

    2015-05-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are common clinical manifestations after traffic accident-associated whiplash injury. Recently, Shinonaga et al. (2001) suggested that more than 80% of patients with whiplash injury complaining of these symptoms showed cerebrospinal (CSF) hypovolemia on radioisotope (RI) cisternography (111In-DTPA). However, neuro-otological studies to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these symptoms have been insufficient. In the present study, patients complaining of these symptoms with CSF hypovolemia after traffic accidents were investigated with posturography and electronystagmography (ENG). Fourteen patients (4 men, 10 women; 24-52 yr) were examined with posturography and showed parameters (tracking distance & area) significantly (p<0.01) larger than those of healthy subjects. Among them, five cases (1 man, 4 women; 31-52 yr) were further investigated with ENG. The slow phase peak velocities of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and optokinetic-after nystagmus (OKAN) were significantly (p<0.01) reduced (62.64±6.9 SD deg/sec, 60.76±10.74 SD deg/sec, respectively) and frequencies of OKN were reduced (139.7±10.75 SD), while the ocular smooth pursuit was relatively preserved. Magnetic resonance images (sagittal view) of these five patients demonstrated the downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and flattening of the pons, which are characteristic features of CSF hypovolemia, called "brain sagging." Our results suggest that brain sagging due to CSF hypovolemia impairs vestibular and vestibulocerebellar functions, which may cause dizziness and vertigo.

  5. Peripheral vision of youths with low vision: motion perception, crowding, and visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadin, Duje; Nyquist, Jeffrey B; Lusk, Kelly E; Corn, Anne L; Lappin, Joseph S

    2012-08-24

    Effects of low vision on peripheral visual function are poorly understood, especially in children whose visual skills are still developing. The aim of this study was to measure both central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical and low vision. Of specific interest was the extent to which measures of foveal function predict performance of peripheral tasks. We assessed central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical vision (n = 7, ages 10-17) and low vision (n = 24, ages 9-18). Experimental measures used both static and moving stimuli and included visual crowding, visual search, motion acuity, motion direction discrimination, and multitarget motion comparison. In most tasks, visual function was impaired in youths with low vision. Substantial differences, however, were found both between participant groups and, importantly, across different tasks within participant groups. Foveal visual acuity was a modest predictor of peripheral form vision and motion sensitivity in either the central or peripheral field. Despite exhibiting normal motion discriminations in fovea, motion sensitivity of youths with low vision deteriorated in the periphery. This contrasted with typically sighted participants, who showed improved motion sensitivity with increasing eccentricity. Visual search was greatly impaired in youths with low vision. Our results reveal a complex pattern of visual deficits in peripheral vision and indicate a significant role of attentional mechanisms in observed impairments. These deficits were not adequately captured by measures of foveal function, arguing for the importance of independently assessing peripheral visual function.

  6. Vision restoration after brain and retina damage: the "residual vision activation theory".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Bernhard A; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Fedorov, Anton; Gall, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Vision loss after retinal or cerebral visual injury (CVI) was long considered to be irreversible. However, there is considerable potential for vision restoration and recovery even in adulthood. Here, we propose the "residual vision activation theory" of how visual functions can be reactivated and restored. CVI is usually not complete, but some structures are typically spared by the damage. They include (i) areas of partial damage at the visual field border, (ii) "islands" of surviving tissue inside the blind field, (iii) extrastriate pathways unaffected by the damage, and (iv) downstream, higher-level neuronal networks. However, residual structures have a triple handicap to be fully functional: (i) fewer neurons, (ii) lack of sufficient attentional resources because of the dominant intact hemisphere caused by excitation/inhibition dysbalance, and (iii) disturbance in their temporal processing. Because of this resulting activation loss, residual structures are unable to contribute much to everyday vision, and their "non-use" further impairs synaptic strength. However, residual structures can be reactivated by engaging them in repetitive stimulation by different means: (i) visual experience, (ii) visual training, or (iii) noninvasive electrical brain current stimulation. These methods lead to strengthening of synaptic transmission and synchronization of partially damaged structures (within-systems plasticity) and downstream neuronal networks (network plasticity). Just as in normal perceptual learning, synaptic plasticity can improve vision and lead to vision restoration. This can be induced at any time after the lesion, at all ages and in all types of visual field impairments after retinal or brain damage (stroke, neurotrauma, glaucoma, amblyopia, age-related macular degeneration). If and to what extent vision restoration can be achieved is a function of the amount of residual tissue and its activation state. However, sustained improvements require repetitive

  7. Filtering and polychromatic vision in mantis shrimps: themes in visible and ultraviolet vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W; Bok, Michael J; Marshall, N Justin; Caldwell, Roy L

    2014-01-01

    Stomatopod crustaceans have the most complex and diverse assortment of retinal photoreceptors of any animals, with 16 functional classes. The receptor classes are subdivided into sets responsible for ultraviolet vision, spatial vision, colour vision and polarization vision. Many of these receptor classes are spectrally tuned by filtering pigments located in photoreceptors or overlying optical elements. At visible wavelengths, carotenoproteins or similar substances are packed into vesicles used either as serial, intrarhabdomal filters or lateral filters. A single retina may contain a diversity of these filtering pigments paired with specific photoreceptors, and the pigments used vary between and within species both taxonomically and ecologically. Ultraviolet-filtering pigments in the crystalline cones serve to tune ultraviolet vision in these animals as well, and some ultraviolet receptors themselves act as birefringent filters to enable circular polarization vision. Stomatopods have reached an evolutionary extreme in their use of filter mechanisms to tune photoreception to habitat and behaviour, allowing them to extend the spectral range of their vision both deeper into the ultraviolet and further into the red.

  8. Micro Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Kohtaro; Ohara, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    In the field of the micro vision, there are few researches compared with macro environment. However, applying to the study result for macro computer vision technique, you can measure and observe the micro environment. Moreover, based on the effects of micro environment, it is possible to discovery the new theories and new techniques.

  9. Low Vision Devices and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Azam Butt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision is the ability to see with a clear perception of detail, colour and contrast, and to distinguish objects visually. Like any other sense, vision tends to deteriorate or diminish naturally with age. In most cases, reduction in visual capability can be corrected with glasses, medicine or surgery. However, if the visual changes occur because of an incurable eye disease, condition or injury, vision loss can be permanent. Many people around the world with permanent visual impairment have some residual vision which can be used with the help of low vision services, materials and devices. This paper describes different options for the enhancement of residual vision including optical and non-optical devices and providing training for the low vision client.

  10. Research on robot navigation vision sensor based on grating projection stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Luo, Yinsheng; Lin, Yuchi; Zhu, Lei

    2016-10-01

    A novel visual navigation method based on grating projection stereo vision for mobile robot in dark environment is proposed. This method is combining with grating projection profilometry of plane structured light and stereo vision technology. It can be employed to realize obstacle detection, SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and vision odometry for mobile robot navigation in dark environment without the image match in stereo vision technology and without phase unwrapping in the grating projection profilometry. First, we research the new vision sensor theoretical, and build geometric and mathematical model of the grating projection stereo vision system. Second, the computational method of 3D coordinates of space obstacle in the robot's visual field is studied, and then the obstacles in the field is located accurately. The result of simulation experiment and analysis shows that this research is useful to break the current autonomous navigation problem of mobile robot in dark environment, and to provide the theoretical basis and exploration direction for further study on navigation of space exploring robot in the dark and without GPS environment.

  11. Application of mathematical removal of positron range blurring in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.F.; Derenzo, S.E.; Uber, D.

    1990-01-01

    The range of positrons in tissue is an important limitation to the ultimate spatial resolution achievable in positron emission tomography. In this work the authors have applied a Fourier deconvolution technique to remove range blurring in images taken by the Donner 600-crystal positron tomograph. Using phantom data, the authors have found significant improvement in the image quality and the FWHM for both 68 Ga and 82 Rb. These were successfully corrected so that the images and FWHM almost matched those of 18 F which has negligible positron range. However, statistical noise was increased by the deconvolution process and it was not practical to recover the full spatial resolution of the tomograph

  12. Adaptive restoration of a partially coherent blurred image using an all-optical feedback interferometer with a liquid-crystal device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Tomohiro; Barnes, Thomas H

    2002-02-01

    A liquid-crystal adaptive optics system using all-optical feedback interferometry is applied to partially coherent imaging through a phase disturbance. A theoretical analysis based on the propagation of the cross-spectral density shows that the blurred image due to the phase disturbance can be restored, in principle, irrespective of the state of coherence of the light illuminating the object. Experimental verification of the theory has been performed for two cases when the object to be imaged is illuminated by spatially coherent light originating from a He-Ne laser and by spatially incoherent white light from a halogen lamp. We observed in both cases that images blurred by the phase disturbance were successfully restored, in agreement with the theory, immediately after the adaptive optics system was activated. The origin of the deviation of the experimental results from the theory, together with the effect of the feedback misalignment inherent in our optical arrangement, is also discussed.

  13. Contac overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of a Contac overdose include: Blurred vision Depression Delirium Disorientation, nervousness, hallucinations Drowsiness Enlarged pupils Fever Inability to urinate or completely empty the bladder Increased ...

  14. Peripheral Vision of Youths with Low Vision: Motion Perception, Crowding, and Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadin, Duje; Nyquist, Jeffrey B.; Lusk, Kelly E.; Corn, Anne L.; Lappin, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Effects of low vision on peripheral visual function are poorly understood, especially in children whose visual skills are still developing. The aim of this study was to measure both central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical and low vision. Of specific interest was the extent to which measures of foveal function predict performance of peripheral tasks. Methods. We assessed central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical vision (n = 7, ages 10–17) and low vision (n = 24, ages 9–18). Experimental measures used both static and moving stimuli and included visual crowding, visual search, motion acuity, motion direction discrimination, and multitarget motion comparison. Results. In most tasks, visual function was impaired in youths with low vision. Substantial differences, however, were found both between participant groups and, importantly, across different tasks within participant groups. Foveal visual acuity was a modest predictor of peripheral form vision and motion sensitivity in either the central or peripheral field. Despite exhibiting normal motion discriminations in fovea, motion sensitivity of youths with low vision deteriorated in the periphery. This contrasted with typically sighted participants, who showed improved motion sensitivity with increasing eccentricity. Visual search was greatly impaired in youths with low vision. Conclusions. Our results reveal a complex pattern of visual deficits in peripheral vision and indicate a significant role of attentional mechanisms in observed impairments. These deficits were not adequately captured by measures of foveal function, arguing for the importance of independently assessing peripheral visual function. PMID:22836766

  15. Optic disk findings in hypervitaminosis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, D F; Turgeon, P; Aaberg, T M; Wiznia, R A; Wetzig, P C; Bovino, J A

    1985-07-01

    Three cases of papilledema secondary to chronic excessive vitamin A intake are presented, and the optic disk changes are documented with intravenous fluorescein angiography. Two of the three patients reported in this study were symptomatic with blurred vision and systemic complaints. The symptoms of blurred vision and systemic complaints disappeared within one week, and papilledema resolved over several months after discontinuance of vitamin A. The fluorescein angiographic changes observed in the optic disk of patients with hypervitaminosis A are similar to those associated with other known causes of papilledema. Since vitamin A is a nonprescription drug, and its indiscriminate use is potentially great, any history of vitamin ingestion should be elicited during the evaluation of papilledema.

  16. BILATERAL SEROUS MACULAR DETACHMENT IN A PATIENT WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Ayse D; Yaylali, Sevil A; Yavuz, Sara; Simsek, İlke B

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report a case of a woman with nephrotic syndrome who presented with blurred vision because of bilateral serous macular detachment. Case report and literature review. A 55-year-old woman with a history of essential hypertension, diabetes, and nephrotic syndrome was presented with blurred vision in both eyes. Her fluorescein angiography revealed dye leakage in the early and subretinal pooling in the late phases, and optical coherence tomography scans confirmed the presence of subretinal fluid in the subfovel area. In nephrotic syndrome cases especially with accompaniment of high blood pressure, fluid accumulation in the retina layer may occur. Serous macular detachment must be kept in mind when treating these patients.

  17. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  18. Low Vision Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/lowvision.html MedlinePlus: Low Vision Tips We are sorry. MedlinePlus no longer maintains the For Low Vision Users page. You will still find health resources ...

  19. Review: Familiarity to Vision Rehabilitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Sadegh-Pour

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the numbers of low vision patients who have been visited and treated in eye clinics, sometimes there is no exact treatment to increase their visual acuity. Therefore, the necessity to pay attention to vision rehabilitation for them is strongly felt. The aims of this essay are to define vision rehabilitation and its process in relevant centers (called Low Vision Clinic.The statistic of low vision people is reported and the method of collecting data is described. Standard definition, causes of low vision and related diseases (congenital, heredity, acquired… are explained. In addition, low vision aids and role of test and prescription are discussed. Sometimes ophthalmologists and optometrists can not exactly cure patient to raise their V.A because there is no treatment or drug or ordinary glasses. In these cases the clients should refer to low vision clinic and visit low vision specialist on vision rehabilitation process. After primary evaluation they are tested completely and at the end are prescribed proper low vision aid and also provided with advice in relation to career, education role and training techniques especially in children. At the last part of present dissertation, some examples are provided to show effectiveness of vision rehabilitation and low vision aid among the clients in different countries.

  20. Head-Mounted Display Technology for Low Vision Rehabilitation and Vision Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua R.; Ojeda, Lauro V.; Wicker, Donna; Day, Sherry; Howson, Ashley; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Moroi, Sayoko E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe the various types of head-mounted display technology, their optical and human factors considerations, and their potential for use in low vision rehabilitation and vision enhancement. Design Expert perspective. Methods An overview of head-mounted display technology by an interdisciplinary team of experts drawing on key literature in the field. Results Head-mounted display technologies can be classified based on their display type and optical design. See-through displays such as retinal projection devices have the greatest potential for use as low vision aids. Devices vary by their relationship to the user’s eyes, field of view, illumination, resolution, color, stereopsis, effect on head motion and user interface. These optical and human factors considerations are important when selecting head-mounted displays for specific applications and patient groups. Conclusions Head-mounted display technologies may offer advantages over conventional low vision aids. Future research should compare head-mounted displays to commonly prescribed low vision aids in order to compare their effectiveness in addressing the impairments and rehabilitation goals of diverse patient populations. PMID:28048975

  1. Profile of Low Vision Population Attending Low Vision Clinic in a Peripheral Eye Hospital in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Safal Khanal, BOptom; Pekila Lama, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background: Blindness and low vision are major causes of morbidity and constitute a significant public health problem, both detrimental to the quality of life for the individual and an economic burden on the individual, family, and society in general. People with low vision have the potential for enhancement of functional vision if they receive the appropriate low vision services. The present study aims to determine the profile of the low vision population attending a low vision clinic at a p...

  2. Learning from vision-to-touch is different than from touch-to-vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar A Wismeijer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied whether vision can teach touch to the same extent as touch seems to teach vision. In a 2 x 2 between-participants learning study, we artificially correlated visual gloss cues with haptic compliance cues. In two "natural" tasks, we tested whether visual gloss estimations have an influence on haptic estimations of softness and vice versa. In two "new" tasks, in which participants were either asked to haptically judge glossiness or to visually judge softness, we investigated how perceptual estimates transfer from one sense to the other. Our results showed that vision does not teach touch as efficient as touch seems to teach vision.

  3. Machado-Joseph Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blurred vision, loss of the ability to distinguish color and/or contrast, and inability to control ... parkinsonian features, levodopa therapy can help for many years. Treatment with antispasmodic ...

  4. Low Vision Rehabilitation and Diabetic Retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sarfaraz A.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is emerging as a major cause of blindness. Diabetic retinopathy calls for a multidisciplinary to the patients. Management of the patient requires a team work by the internist, diabetologist, dietician, ophthalmologist and low vision therapist. Diabetic retinopathy very often results in vision loss. It is important for ophthalmologist to recognize the importance of low vision rehabilitation in formulating appropriate treatment strategies. People with low vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy usually experience difficulty in daily life. Most people with diabetic retinopathy (who have remaining useful vision) can be helped with low vision devices. However, often one low vision device may not be suitable for all purposes. A comprehensive low vision evaluation is required to assess the person's current visual status, identify the goals and the visual needs, and then design an individualized vision rehabilitation program to meet these needs. (author)

  5. MRI findings in patients with vertigo and dizziness possibly arising from vertebrobasilar insufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Inafuku, Shigeru

    1994-01-01

    In order to evaluate diagnostic usefulness of MRI in vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI), we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography (MRA) in 90 patients presenting vertigo and dizziness as an initial and cardinal complaints. High signals observed by T[sub 2]-weighted imaging in the basal ganglia (44.4%) or pontine base (48.9%) were more frequently seen in the possible VBI group than in the controls (p<0.001). The electronystagmographical abnormalities were commonly observed in the patients with a high signal in the patients with a high signal in the pontine base, reflecting diffuse ischemic lesion in the territory of the vertebrobasilar system. Vertebral artery asymmetry (45.6%) or basilar artery twisting (41.1%) as shown by MRA was also significantly more frequent in the patients than in the controls (p<0.05). In conclusion, MRI and MRA were considered to be useful in making a clinical diagnosis of VBI in such patients. (author).

  6. MRI findings in patients with vertigo and dizziness possibly arising from vertebrobasilar insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira; Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Inafuku, Shigeru.

    1994-01-01

    In order to evaluate diagnostic usefulness of MRI in vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI), we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography (MRA) in 90 patients presenting vertigo and dizziness as an initial and cardinal complaints. High signals observed by T 2 -weighted imaging in the basal ganglia (44.4%) or pontine base (48.9%) were more frequently seen in the possible VBI group than in the controls (p<0.001). The electronystagmographical abnormalities were commonly observed in the patients with a high signal in the patients with a high signal in the pontine base, reflecting diffuse ischemic lesion in the territory of the vertebrobasilar system. Vertebral artery asymmetry (45.6%) or basilar artery twisting (41.1%) as shown by MRA was also significantly more frequent in the patients than in the controls (p<0.05). In conclusion, MRI and MRA were considered to be useful in making a clinical diagnosis of VBI in such patients. (author)

  7. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  8. Vision In Stroke cohort: Profile overview of visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J

    2017-11-01

    To profile the full range of visual disorders from a large prospective observation study of stroke survivors referred by stroke multidisciplinary teams to orthoptic services with suspected visual problems. Multicenter prospective study undertaken in 20 acute Trust hospitals. Standardized screening/referral forms and investigation forms documented data on referral signs and symptoms plus type and extent of visual impairment. Of 1,345 patients referred with suspected visual impairment, 915 were recruited (59% men; mean age at stroke onset 69 years [SD 14]). Initial visual assessment was at median 22 days post stroke onset. Eight percent had normal visual assessment. Of 92% with confirmed visual impairment, 24% had reduced central visual acuity visual field loss was present in 52%, most commonly homonymous hemianopia. Fifteen percent had visual inattention and 4.6% had other visual perceptual disorders. Overall 84% were visually symptomatic with visual field loss the most common complaint followed by blurred vision, reading difficulty, and diplopia. Treatment options were provided to all with confirmed visual impairment. Targeted advice was most commonly provided along with refraction, prisms, and occlusion. There are a wide range of visual disorders that occur following stroke and, frequently, with visual symptoms. There are equally a wide variety of treatment options available for these individuals. All stroke survivors require screening for visual impairment and warrant referral for specialist assessment and targeted treatment specific to the type of visual impairment.

  9. Efficacy of vision therapy in children with learning disability and associated binocular vision anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Shah, Prerana; Ramani, Krishna Kumar; Ramanujan, Lalitha

    To report the frequency of binocular vision (BV) anomalies in children with specific learning disorders (SLD) and to assess the efficacy of vision therapy (VT) in children with a non-strabismic binocular vision anomaly (NSBVA). The study was carried out at a centre for learning disability (LD). Comprehensive eye examination and binocular vision assessment was carried out for 94 children (mean (SD) age: 15 (2.2) years) diagnosed with specific learning disorder. BV assessment was done for children with best corrected visual acuity of ≥6/9 - N6, cooperative for examination and free from any ocular pathology. For children with a diagnosis of NSBVA (n=46), 24 children were randomized to VT and no intervention was provided to the other 22 children who served as experimental controls. At the end of 10 sessions of vision therapy, BV assessment was performed for both the intervention and non-intervention groups. Binocular vision anomalies were found in 59 children (62.8%) among which 22% (n=13) had strabismic binocular vision anomalies (SBVA) and 78% (n=46) had a NSBVA. Accommodative infacility (AIF) was the commonest of the NSBVA and found in 67%, followed by convergence insufficiency (CI) in 25%. Post-vision therapy, the intervention group showed significant improvement in all the BV parameters (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.05) except negative fusional vergence. Children with specific learning disorders have a high frequency of binocular vision disorders and vision therapy plays a significant role in improving the BV parameters. Children with SLD should be screened for BV anomalies as it could potentially be an added hindrance to the reading difficulty in this special population. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthetic vision to augment sensor based vision for remotely piloted vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadema, J.; Koeners, J.; Theunissen, E.

    2006-01-01

    In the past fifteen years, several research programs have demonstrated potential advantages of synthetic vision technology for manned aviation. More recently, some research programs have focused on integrating synthetic vision technology into control stations for remotely controlled aircraft. The

  11. What You Should Know (Low Vision)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cataract Diabetic retinopathy Glaucoma Macular degeneration What is low vision? When you have low vision, eyeglasses, contact lenses, ... eyesight. How do I know if I have low vision? Below are some signs of low vision. Even ...

  12. Predictive Capability of an iPad-Based Medical Device (medx) for the Diagnosis of Vertigo and Dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Katharina; Feuerecker, Regina; Goldschagg, Nicolina; Strobl, Ralf; Brandt, Thomas; von Müller, Albrecht; Grill, Eva; Strupp, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Making the correct diagnosis of patients presenting with vertigo and dizziness in clinical practice is often challenging. In this study we examined the performance of the iPad based program me d x in the prediction of different clinical vertigo and dizziness diagnoses and as a diagnostic tool to distinguish between them. The data collection was done in the outpatient clinic of the German Center of Vertigo and Balance Disorders. The "gold standard diagnosis" was defined as the clinical diagnosis of the specialist during the visit of the patient based on standardized history and clinical examination. Another independent and blinded physician finalized each patient's case in the constellatory diagnostic system of me d x based on an algorithm using all available clinical information. These diagnoses were compared to the "gold standard" by retrospective review of the charts of the patients. The accuracy provided by me d x was defined as the number of correctly classified diagnoses. In addition, the probability of being test positive when a disease was present (sensitivity), of being test negative when a disease was absent (specificity), of having the disease when the test is positive (positive predictive value) and of not having the disease when the test is negative (negative predictive value) for the most common diagnoses were reported. Sixteen possible different vertigo and dizziness diagnoses could be provided by me d x. A total of 610 patients (mean age 58.1 ± 16.3 years, 51.2% female) were included. The accuracy for the most common diagnoses was between 82.1 and 96.6% with a sensitivity of 40 to 80.5% and a specificity of more than 80%. When analyzing the quality of me d x in a multiclass problem for the six most common clinical diagnoses, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were as follows: Bilateral vestibulopathy (81.6, 97.1, 71.1, and 97.5%), Menière's disease (77.8, 97.6, 87.0, and 95.3%), benign paroxysmal positional

  13. Predictive Capability of an iPad-Based Medical Device (medx for the Diagnosis of Vertigo and Dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Feil

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMaking the correct diagnosis of patients presenting with vertigo and dizziness in clinical practice is often challenging.ObjectiveIn this study we examined the performance of the iPad based program medx in the prediction of different clinical vertigo and dizziness diagnoses and as a diagnostic tool to distinguish between them.Patients and methodsThe data collection was done in the outpatient clinic of the German Center of Vertigo and Balance Disorders. The “gold standard diagnosis” was defined as the clinical diagnosis of the specialist during the visit of the patient based on standardized history and clinical examination. Another independent and blinded physician finalized each patient’s case in the constellatory diagnostic system of medx based on an algorithm using all available clinical information. These diagnoses were compared to the “gold standard” by retrospective review of the charts of the patients. The accuracy provided by medx was defined as the number of correctly classified diagnoses. In addition, the probability of being test positive when a disease was present (sensitivity, of being test negative when a disease was absent (specificity, of having the disease when the test is positive (positive predictive value and of not having the disease when the test is negative (negative predictive value for the most common diagnoses were reported. Sixteen possible different vertigo and dizziness diagnoses could be provided by medx.ResultsA total of 610 patients (mean age 58.1 ± 16.3 years, 51.2% female were included. The accuracy for the most common diagnoses was between 82.1 and 96.6% with a sensitivity of 40 to 80.5% and a specificity of more than 80%. When analyzing the quality of medx in a multiclass problem for the six most common clinical diagnoses, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were as follows: Bilateral vestibulopathy (81.6, 97.1, 71.1, and 97.5%, Menière’s disease

  14. Vision Problems in Homeless Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Natalie L; Smith, Thomas J; DeSantis, Diana; Suhocki, Marissa; Fenske, Danielle

    2015-08-01

    Vision problems in homeless children can decrease educational achievement and quality of life. To estimate the prevalence and specific diagnoses of vision problems in children in an urban homeless shelter. A prospective series of 107 homeless children and teenagers who underwent screening with a vision questionnaire, eye chart screening (if mature enough) and if vision problem suspected, evaluation by a pediatric ophthalmologist. Glasses and other therapeutic interventions were provided if necessary. The prevalence of vision problems in this population was 25%. Common diagnoses included astigmatism, amblyopia, anisometropia, myopia, and hyperopia. Glasses were required and provided for 24 children (22%). Vision problems in homeless children are common and frequently correctable with ophthalmic intervention. Evaluation by pediatric ophthalmologist is crucial for accurate diagnoses and treatment. Our system of screening and evaluation is feasible, efficacious, and reproducible in other homeless care situations.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition color blindness color vision defects defective color vision vision defect, color ... Perception KidsHealth from the Nemours Foundation MalaCards: color blindness MalaCards: color vision deficiency Orphanet: Blue cone monochromatism Orphanet: NON ...

  16. Learning from vision-to-touch is different than learning from touch-to-vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismeijer, Dagmar A; Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Drewing, Knut

    2012-01-01

    We studied whether vision can teach touch to the same extent as touch seems to teach vision. In a 2 × 2 between-participants learning study, we artificially correlated visual gloss cues with haptic compliance cues. In two "natural" tasks, we tested whether visual gloss estimations have an influence on haptic estimations of softness and vice versa. In two "novel" tasks, in which participants were either asked to haptically judge glossiness or to visually judge softness, we investigated how perceptual estimates transfer from one sense to the other. Our results showed that vision does not teach touch as efficient as touch seems to teach vision.

  17. Visual discomfort while watching stereoscopic three-dimensional movies at the cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeri, Fabrizio; Livi, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates discomfort symptoms while watching Stereoscopic three-dimensional (S3D) movies in the 'real' condition of a cinema. In particular, it had two main objectives: to evaluate the presence and nature of visual discomfort while watching S3D movies, and to compare visual symptoms during S3D and 2D viewing. Cinema spectators of S3D or 2D films were interviewed by questionnaire at the theatre exit of different multiplex cinemas immediately after viewing a movie. A total of 854 subjects were interviewed (mean age 23.7 ± 10.9 years; range 8-81 years; 392 females and 462 males). Five hundred and ninety-nine of them viewed different S3D movies, and 255 subjects viewed a 2D version of a film seen in S3D by 251 subjects from the S3D group for a between-subjects design for that comparison. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors underlying symptoms: External Symptoms Factors (ESF) with a mean ± S.D. symptom score of 1.51 ± 0.58 comprised of eye burning, eye ache, eye strain, eye irritation and tearing; and Internal Symptoms Factors (ISF) with a mean ± S.D. symptom score of 1.38 ± 0.51 comprised of blur, double vision, headache, dizziness and nausea. ISF and ESF were significantly correlated (Spearman r = 0.55; p = 0.001) but with external symptoms significantly higher than internal ones (Wilcoxon Signed-ranks test; p = 0.001). The age of participants did not significantly affect symptoms. However, females had higher scores than males for both ESF and ISF, and myopes had higher ISF scores than hyperopes. Newly released movies provided lower ESF scores than older movies, while the seat position of spectators had minimal effect. Symptoms while viewing S3D movies were significantly and negatively correlated to the duration of wearing S3D glasses. Kruskal-Wallis results showed that symptoms were significantly greater for S3D compared to those of 2D movies, both for ISF (p = 0.001) and for ESF (p = 0.001). In short, the analysis of the symptoms

  18. IDA's Energy Vision 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Hansen, Kenneth

    IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 provides a Smart Energy System strategy for a 100% renewable Denmark in 2050. The vision presented should not be regarded as the only option in 2050 but as one scenario out of several possibilities. With this vision the Danish Society of Engineers, IDA, presents its third...... contribution for an energy strategy for Denmark. The IDA’s Energy Plan 2030 was prepared in 2006 and IDA’s Climate Plan was prepared in 2009. IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 is developed for IDA by representatives from The Society of Engineers and by a group of researchers at Aalborg University. It is based on state......-of-the-art knowledge about how low cost energy systems can be designed while also focusing on long-term resource efficiency. The Energy Vision 2050 has the ambition to focus on all parts of the energy system rather than single technologies, but to have an approach in which all sectors are integrated. While Denmark...

  19. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  20. FPGA Vision Data Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.

    2013-01-01

    JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.

  1. FLORA™: Phase I development of a functional vision assessment for prosthetic vision users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geruschat, Duane R; Flax, Marshall; Tanna, Nilima; Bianchi, Michelle; Fisher, Andy; Goldschmidt, Mira; Fisher, Lynne; Dagnelie, Gislin; Deremeik, Jim; Smith, Audrey; Anaflous, Fatima; Dorn, Jessy

    2015-07-01

    Research groups and funding agencies need a functional assessment suitable for an ultra-low vision population to evaluate the impact of new vision-restoration treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop a pilot assessment to capture the functional visual ability and well-being of subjects whose vision has been partially restored with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System. The Functional Low-Vision Observer Rated Assessment (FLORA) pilot assessment involved a self-report section, a list of functional visual tasks for observation of performance and a case narrative summary. Results were analysed to determine whether the interview questions and functional visual tasks were appropriate for this ultra-low vision population and whether the ratings suffered from floor or ceiling effects. Thirty subjects with severe to profound retinitis pigmentosa (bare light perception or worse in both eyes) were enrolled in a clinical trial and implanted with the Argus II System. From this population, 26 subjects were assessed with the FLORA. Seven different evaluators administered the assessment. All 14 interview questions were asked. All 35 tasks for functional vision were selected for evaluation at least once, with an average of 20 subjects being evaluated for each test item. All four rating options—impossible (33 per cent), difficult (23 per cent), moderate (24 per cent) and easy (19 per cent)—were used by the evaluators. Evaluators also judged the amount of vision they observed the subjects using to complete the various tasks, with 'vision only' occurring 75 per cent on average with the System ON, and 29 per cent with the System OFF. The first version of the FLORA was found to contain useful elements for evaluation and to avoid floor and ceiling effects. The next phase of development will be to refine the assessment and to establish reliability and validity to increase its value as an assessment tool for functional vision and well-being. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical

  2. Modeling foveal vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florack, L.M.J.; Sgallari, F.; Murli, A.; Paragios, N.

    2007-01-01

    geometric model is proposed for an artificial foveal vision system, and its plausibility in the context of biological vision is explored. The model is based on an isotropic, scale invariant two-form that describes the spatial layout of receptive fields in the the visual sensorium (in the biological

  3. Joint de-blurring and nonuniformity correction method for infrared microscopy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Anselmo; Torres, Sergio; Machuca, Guillermo; Ramírez, Wagner; Gutiérrez, Pablo A.; Viafora, Laura A.; Godoy, Sebastián E.; Vera, Esteban

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we present a new technique to simultaneously reduce two major degradation artifacts found in mid-wavelength infrared microscopy imagery, namely the inherent focal-plane array nonuniformity noise and the scene defocus presented due to the point spread function of the infrared microscope. We correct both nuisances using a novel, recursive method that combines the constant range nonuniformity correction algorithm with a frame-by-frame deconvolution approach. The ability of the method to jointly compensate for both nonuniformity noise and blur is demonstrated using two different real mid-wavelength infrared microscopic video sequences, which were captured from two microscopic living organisms using a Janos-Sofradir mid-wavelength infrared microscopy setup. The performance of the proposed method is assessed on real and simulated infrared data by computing the root mean-square error and the roughness-laplacian pattern index, which was specifically developed for the present work.

  4. Impact of low vision services on the quality of life of low vision patients in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin O. Ovenseri-Ogbomo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients’ perspectives on the impact of clinical interventions have been recognised as critical elements in patient care. Quality-of-life instruments are designed to measure these perspectives. We used the National Eye Institute’s 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ to measure the impact of optical low vision devices on the quality of life of 22 low vision patients who obtained and were using low vision devices from a secondary low vision clinic in the Eastern Region, Ghana. The study employed a pre- and post-intervention technique. We found statistically significant improvements in measured visual acuity and NEI VFQ scores in 8 of the 10 domains evaluated. We conclude that optical low vision devices have a positive impact on the quality of life of low vision patients in Ghana. Keywords: low vision; quality of life; visual acuity; visual impairment; Ghana

  5. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... is present ed, and the variability of the parameters is examined and described. The concept of using CAD together with vision information is based on the fact that all items processed at OSS have an associated complete 3D CAD model that is accessible at all production states. This concept gives numerous...... possibilities for using vision in applications which otherwise would be very difficult to automate. The requirement for low tolerances in production is, despite the huge dimensions of the items involved, extreme. This fact makes great demands on the ability to do robust sub pixel estimation. A new method based...

  6. STEADFAST: Psychotherapeutic Intervention Improves Postural Strategy of Somatoform Vertigo and Dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Best

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD disorders often report instability of stance or gait and fear of falling. Posturographic measurements indeed indicated a pathological postural strategy. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational short-term intervention (PTI using static posturography and psychometric examination. Seventeen SVD patients took part in the study. The effects of PTI on SVD were evaluated with quantitative static posturography. As primary endpoint a quotient characterizing the relation between horizontal and vertical sway was calculated (QH/V, reflecting the individual postural strategy. Results of static posturography were compared to those of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n=28; baseline measurements were compared to results after PTI. The secondary endpoint was the participation-limiting consequences of SVD as measured by the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ. Compared to the healthy volunteers, the patients with SVD showed a postural strategy characterized by stiffening-up that resulted in a significantly reduced body sway quotient before PTI (patients: QH/V=0.31 versus controls: QH/V=0.38; p=0.022. After PTI the postural behavior normalized, and psychological distress was reduced. PTI therefore appears to modify pathological balance behaviour. The postural strategy of patients with SVD possibly results from anxious anticipatory cocontraction of the antigravity muscles.

  7. Habitat-induced degradation of sound signals: Quantifying the effects of communication sounds and bird location on blur ratio, excess attenuation, and signal-to-noise ratio in blackbird song

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, T.; Larsen, O N; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    1993-01-01

    measures were calculated from changes of the amplitude functions (i.e., envelopes) of the degraded songs using a new technique which allowed a compensation for the contribution of the background noise to the amplitude values. Representative songs were broadcast in a deciduous forest without leaves......The habitat-induced degradation of the full song of the blackbird (Turdus merula) was quantified by measuring excess attenuation, reduction of the signal-to-noise ratio, and blur ratio, the latter measure representing the degree of blurring of amplitude and frequency patterns over time. All three...

  8. Company Vision and Organizational Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Toman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a company is largely dependent on the company itself; it depends above all on its corporate governance, management, and implementation, as well as on decision-making processes and coordination. Many authors believe that organizational learning and knowledge are the most relevant aspects of company effectiveness. If a company wants to be effective it needs to create and realize its vision; to do this, it needs creativity, imagination, and knowledge, which can be obtained or enhanced through learning. This paper defines vision, learning, creativity and management and, above all, their relationships. The author argues that company vision influences the learning and knowledge of employees in the company through the vision’s content, through the vision-creating process, and through the vision enforcement process. Conversely, the influence of learning on company vision is explained. The paper is aimed at the use in the practice of companies and helps them to increase their effectiveness.

  9. [Quality system Vision 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Evasio; Pitocchi, Oreste; de Luca, Italo; Ferrari, Roberto

    2002-12-01

    A recent document of the Italian Ministry of Health points out that all structures which provide services to the National Health System should implement a Quality System according to the ISO 9000 standards. Vision 2000 is the new version of the ISO standard. Vision 2000 is less bureaucratic than the old version. The specific requests of the Vision 2000 are: a) to identify, to monitor and to analyze the processes of the structure, b) to measure the results of the processes so as to ensure that they are effective, d) to implement actions necessary to achieve the planned results and the continual improvement of these processes, e) to identify customer requests and to measure customer satisfaction. Specific attention should be also dedicated to the competence and training of the personnel involved in the processes. The principles of the Vision 2000 agree with the principles of total quality management. The present article illustrates the Vision 2000 standard and provides practical examples of the implementation of this standard in cardiological departments.

  10. Predictors of vision impairment in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Zubizarreta, Irati; Llufriu, Sara; Blanco, Yolanda; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Sepulveda, Maria; Guerrero, Ana; Alba, Salut; Andorra, Magi; Camos, Anna; Sanchez-Vela, Laura; Alfonso, Veronica; Saiz, Albert; Villoslada, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment significantly alters the quality of life of people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to identify predictors (independent variables) of visual outcomes, and to define their relationship with neurological disability and retinal atrophy when assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 119 consecutive patients with MS, assessing vision using high contrast visual acuity (LogMar), 2.5% and 1.25% low contrast visual acuity (Sloan charts), and color vision (Hardy-Rand-Rittler plates). Quality of vision is a patient reported outcome based on an individual's unique perception of his or her vision and was assessed with the Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (VFQ-25) with the 10 neuro-ophthalmologic items. MS disability was assessed using the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), the MS functional composite (MSFC) and the brief repetitive battery-neuropsychology (BRB-N). Retinal atrophy was assessed using spectral domain OCT, measuring the thickness of the peripapillar retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and the volume of the ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL). The vision of patients with MS was impaired, particularly in eyes with prior optic neuritis. Retinal atrophy (pRNFL and GCIPL) was closely associated with impaired low contrast vision and color vision, whereas the volume of the GCIPL showed a trend (p = 0.092) to be associated with quality of vision. Multiple regression analysis revealed that EDSS was an explanatory variable for high contrast vision after stepwise analysis, GCIPL volume for low contrast vision, and GCIPL volume and EDSS for color vision. The explanatory variables for quality of vision were high contrast vision and color vision. In summary, quality of vision in MS depends on the impairment of high contrast visual acuity and color vision due to the disease.

  11. [Comparison of the Pressure on the Larynx and Tongue Using McGRATH® MAC Video Laryngoscope--Direct Vision versus Indirect Vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasutomo; Miyazaki, Yukiko; Kitakata, Hidenori; Shibuya, Hiromi; Okada, Toshiki

    2015-12-01

    Studies show that McGRATH® MAC (McG) is useful during direct laryngoscopy. However, no study has examined whether McG re- duces pressure on the upper airway tract We compared direct vision with indirect vision concerning pressure on the larynx and tongue. Twenty two anesthesiologists and 16 junior residents attempted direct laryngoscopy of airway management simulator using McG with direct vision and indirect vision. Pressure was measured using pressure measurement film. In anesthesiologists group, pressure on larynx was 14.8 ± 2.7 kgf · cm(-2) with direct vision and 12.7 ± 2.7 kgf · cm(-2) with indirect vision (P vision and 7.6 ± 2.8 kgf · cm(-2) with indirect vision (P = 0.18). In junior residents group, pressure on larynx was 19.0 ± 1.3 kgf · cm(-2) with direct vision and 14.1 ± 3.1 kgf · cm(-2) with indirect vision (P vision and 11.2 ± 4.7 kgf · cm(-2) with indirect vision (P vision can reduce pressure on the upper airway tract.

  12. Troxler Fading, Eye Movements, and Retinal Ganglion Cell Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Bachy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present four movies demonstrating the effect of flicker and blur on the magnitude and speed of adaptation for foveal and peripheral vision along the three color axes that isolate retinal ganglion cells projecting to magno, parvo, and konio layers of the LGN. The demonstrations support the eye movement hypothesis for Troxler fading for brightness and color, and demonstrate the effects of flicker and blur on adaptation of each class of retinal ganglion cells.

  13. Stereo Vision Inside Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    1 Stereo Vision Inside Tire P.S. Els C.M. Becker University of Pretoria W911NF-14-1-0590 Final...Stereo Vision Inside Tire 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-14-1-0590 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Prof PS Els CM...on the development of a stereo vision system that can be mounted inside a rolling tire , known as T2-CAM for Tire -Terrain CAMera. The T2-CAM system

  14. Copenhagen Energy Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Connolly, David

    The short-term goal for The City of Copenhagen is a CO2 neutral energy supply by the year 2025, and the long-term vision for Denmark is a 100% renewable energy (RE) supply by the year 2050. In this project, it is concluded that Copenhagen plays a key role in this transition. The long-term vision...

  15. Hypocapnia and cerebral hypoperfusion in orthostatic intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, V; Spies, J M; Novak, P; McPhee, B R; Rummans, T A; Low, P A

    1998-09-01

    Orthostatic and other stresses trigger tachycardia associated with symptoms of tremulousness, shortness of breath, dizziness, blurred vision, and, often, syncope. It has been suggested that paradoxical cerebral vasoconstriction during head-up tilt might be present in patients with orthostatic intolerance. We chose to study middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity (BFV) and cerebral vasoregulation during tilt in patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI). Beat-to-beat BFV from the MCA, heart rate, CO2, blood pressure (BP), and respiration were measured in 30 patients with OI (25 women and 5 men; age range, 21 to 44 years; mean age, 31.3+/-1.2 years) and 17 control subjects (13 women and 4 men; age range, 20 to 41 years; mean age, 30+/-1.6 years); ages were not statistically different. These indices were monitored during supine rest and head-up tilt (HUT). We compared spontaneous breathing and hyperventilation and evaluated the effect of CO2 rebreathing in these 2 positions. The OI group had higher supine heart rates (Presponse to HUT, OI patients underwent a greater heart rate increment (Ppressure (Pdifferent between control subjects and patients with OI. Cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in OI during orthostasis, which is primarily due to hyperventilation, causing significant hypocapnia. Hypocapnia and symptoms of orthostatic hypertension are reversible by CO2 rebreathing.

  16. Vision/INS Integrated Navigation System for Poor Vision Navigation Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsun Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of an inertial navigation system, many aiding sensors can be used. Among these aiding sensors, a vision sensor is of particular note due to its benefits in terms of weight, cost, and power consumption. This paper proposes an inertial and vision integrated navigation method for poor vision navigation environments. The proposed method uses focal plane measurements of landmarks in order to provide position, velocity and attitude outputs even when the number of landmarks on the focal plane is not enough for navigation. In order to verify the proposed method, computer simulations and van tests are carried out. The results show that the proposed method gives accurate and reliable position, velocity and attitude outputs when the number of landmarks is insufficient.

  17. Governance and Vision: Visions of Cities towards a low-energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pares-Ramos, Isabel K.; Dupas, Stephane

    2010-07-01

    The overall aim of this report was to identify and review the process by which different cities have built visionary plans for the long-term sustainable development of their territory for a low-energy, climate-resilient future. We used a case studies approach to describe different methods used by cities to build their visionary plans and address present energy and climate change challenges. The purpose of this report is as well to contribute to the debate on the future of cities in the post-carbon society and to inspire further initiatives for a low-energy future. The first step towards understanding the visioning/planning process of cities for a low-energy future was to identify several initiatives were cities have developed a plan or statement to address energy and climate change issues in the next 20 to 50 years. These plans and documents were then reviewed in search of diverse and innovative methods and process for visioning, design and planning towards a low-carbon future. After these preliminary assessments and observations, we selected 4 cities based on the use of different methodologies for visioning, planning and development of the action plan and projects. Afterwards, we focused on the description of the visioning/planning process per city, based on information obtained from official plans and documents, and from interviews with local authorities and other personnel working for projects in each of the cities selected. The content of the interviews varied according to the local context of the initiative, but in general contained questions regarding methods and tools used to build their visions and action plans, as well as enquiries about the visioning steps and process, the role of stakeholders, and implementation strategies used to drive forward this initiatives

  18. Overcoming turbulence-induced space-variant blur by using phase-diverse speckle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Brian J; Paxman, Richard G; Carrara, David A; Seldin, John H

    2009-01-01

    Space-variant blur occurs when imaging through volume turbulence over sufficiently large fields of view. Space-variant effects are particularly severe in horizontal-path imaging, slant-path (air-to-ground or ground-to-air) geometries, and ground-based imaging of low-elevation satellites or astronomical objects. In these geometries, the isoplanatic angle can be comparable to or even smaller than the diffraction-limited resolution angle. We report on a postdetection correction method that seeks to correct for the effects of space-variant aberrations, with the goal of reconstructing near-diffraction-limited imagery. Our approach has been to generalize the method of phase-diverse speckle (PDS) by using a physically motivated distributed-phase-screen model. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate the reconstruction of near-diffraction-limited imagery under both matched and mismatched model assumptions. In addition, we present evidence that PDS could be used as a beaconless wavefront sensor in a multiconjugate adaptive optics system when imaging extended scenes.

  19. An Aggregated Method for Determining Railway Defects and Obstacle Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktev, Daniil; Loktev, Alexey; Stepanov, Roman; Pevzner, Viktor; Alenov, Kanat

    2018-03-01

    The method of combining algorithms of image blur analysis and stereo vision to determine the distance to objects (including external defects of railway tracks) and the speed of moving objects-obstacles is proposed. To estimate the deviation of the distance depending on the blur a statistical approach, logarithmic, exponential and linear standard functions are used. The statistical approach includes a method of estimating least squares and the method of least modules. The accuracy of determining the distance to the object, its speed and direction of movement is obtained. The paper develops a method of determining distances to objects by analyzing a series of images and assessment of depth using defocusing using its aggregation with stereoscopic vision. This method is based on a physical effect of dependence on the determined distance to the object on the obtained image from the focal length or aperture of the lens. In the calculation of the blur spot diameter it is assumed that blur occurs at the point equally in all directions. According to the proposed approach, it is possible to determine the distance to the studied object and its blur by analyzing a series of images obtained using the video detector with different settings. The article proposes and scientifically substantiates new and improved existing methods for detecting the parameters of static and moving objects of control, and also compares the results of the use of various methods and the results of experiments. It is shown that the aggregate method gives the best approximation to the real distances.

  20. Cadmium, lead, arsenic and selenium levels in patients with type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... blood/serum concentrations of these elements were measured by atomic absorption ... (polydipsia), blurred vision, unexplained weight loss and lethargy. .... with the head positioned such that the Frankfurt plane was horizontal ...

  1. Medications and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintain an active lifestyle and you may require hospitalization. Reduced levels of activity, in turn, can also ... blurred vision, reduced mental alertness, urinary retention and constipation. These side effects are even more common if ...

  2. Mulptiple Sclerosis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest NIH Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blurred or double vision, color distortion, or even blindness in one eye. Other symptoms can include tingling, ... with thinking, such as difficulties with concentration, attention, memory, and poor judgment. But such symptoms are usually ...

  3. Prochlorperazine overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AND THROAT Blurred vision Drooling Dry mouth Nasal congestion Small pupils Yellow eyes STOMACH AND INTESTINES Constipation ... symptoms Activated charcoal Laxative Breathing support, including a tube through the mouth into the lungs and connected ...

  4. Amitriptyline and perphenazine overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MOUTH Blurred vision Dry mouth Enlarged pupils Nasal congestion Unpleasant taste in mouth HEART AND BLOOD Irregular ... symptoms Activated charcoal Laxative Breathing support, including a tube through the mouth into the lungs and connected ...

  5. Thioridazine overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AND THROAT Blurred vision Drooling Dry mouth Nasal congestion Swallowing difficulties Ulcers in the mouth, on the ... urine tests Breathing support, including oxygen and a tube through the mouth into the lungs CT scan ( ...

  6. Using a Graphics Turing Test to Evaluate the Effect of Frame Rate and Motion Blur on Telepresence of Animated Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Mathias; Johansen, Stine Schmieg; Krog, Kim Srirat

    2013-01-01

    A limited Graphics Turing Test is used to determine the frame rate that is required to achieve telepresence of an animated object. For low object velocities of 2.25 and 4.5 degrees of visual angle per second at 60 frames per second a rotating object with no added motion blur is able to pass the t...

  7. The Pedagogy of Teaching Educational Vision: A Vision Coach's Field Notes about Leaders as Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The emerging field of educational visioning is full of challenges and phenomena worthy of careful analysis and documentation. A relatively neglected phenomenon is the learning curve of the leaders (often lay leaders) involved in the visioning process. This article documents a range of experiences of the author serving as a vision coach to five…

  8. Benefit of spatial filtering for visual perception with a subretinal implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Viola; Aryan, Naser Pour; Brendler, Christian; Rothermel, Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    Subretinal implants have proven to be capable of restoring vision to patients suffering from hereditary retinal degeneration diseases like retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy. Although they already provide basic visual perception, there is still much room for improvement in this field. Effects like electric field interference limit the visual acuity and may be the cause of the perceived vision to be blurred. This influence could be reduced by means of highpass spatial filtering. In this paper, based on the available reports about the visual perception parameters from the patients using the alpha-IMS subretinal implant, a model for the blurring effect of the patients retina is proposed. On this basis, highpass filters are suggested which will compensate the obscuring effect of the stimulator device plus retina system to some extent.

  9. Low vision and mobility scooters: the experiences of individuals with low vision who use mobility scooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Keri S; Butler, Mary

    2018-05-09

    Older adults with low vision are a growing population with rehabilitation needs including support with community mobility to enable community participation. Some older adults with low vision choose to use mobility scooters to mobilize within their community, but there is limited research about the use by people with low vision. This paper describes a pilot study and asks the question: what are the experiences of persons with low vision who use mobility scooters? This study gathered the experiences of four participants with low vision, aged 51 and over, who regularly use mobility scooters. Diverse methods were used including a go-along, a semi-structured interview and a new measure of functional vision for mobility called the vision-related outcomes in orientation and mobility (VROOM). Four themes were found to describe experiences: autonomy and well-being, accessibility, community interactions and self-regulation. Discussion and implications: This study was a pilot for a larger study examining self-regulation in scooter users. However, as roles emerge for health professionals and scooters, the findings also provide evidence to inform practice, because it demonstrates the complex meaning and influences on performance involved in low vision mobility scooter use. Implications for rehabilitation Scooter use supports autonomy and well-being and community connections for individuals with both mobility and visual impairments. Low vision scooter users demonstrate self-regulation of their scooter use to manage both their visual and environmental limitations. Issues of accessibility experienced by this sample affect a wider community of footpath users, emphasizing the need for councils to address inadequate infrastructure. Rehabilitators can support their low vision clients' scooter use by acknowledging issues of accessibility and promoting self-regulation strategies to manage risks and barriers.

  10. Case Report: Use of Sports and Performance Vision Training to Benefit a Low-vision Patient's Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laby, Daniel M

    2018-05-17

    Despite our inability to attenuate the course of many ocular diseases that can ultimately lead to loss or significantly decreased visual function, this report describes a potential technique to aid such patients in maximizing the use of the vision that remains. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of utilizing sports vision training to improve objective and subjective visuomotor function in a low-vision patient. A 37-year-old woman with Usher syndrome presented with reduced central visual acuity and visual field. Although we were unable to reverse the damage resulting from her diagnosis, we were able to improve the use of the remaining vision. A 27 to 31% improvement in hand-eye coordination was achieved along with a 41% improvement in object tracking and visual concentration. Most importantly, following the 14-week training period, there was also a subjective improvement in the patient's appreciation of her visual ability. The sports vision literature cites many examples in which sports vision training is useful in improving visuomotor and on-field performance. We hypothesized that these techniques may be used to aid not only athletes but also patients with low vision. Despite suffering from reduced acuity and a limited visual field, these patients often still have a significant amount of vision ability that can be used to guide motor actions. Using techniques to increase the efficient use of this remaining vision may reduce the impact of the reduced visual function and aid in activities of daily living.

  11. EAMJ Multifocal June 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-06

    Jun 6, 2010 ... nervousness or anxiety, epigastric pain, blurring of vision, convulsions as ... so that supplementary treatment by B-blockers has been used with ... child: Treatment with a combination of alpha- and beta- adrenergic blockade.

  12. Vision in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Valentine, Emma L; Gibson, Georgina; Thomas, Hannah R; Oh, Sera; Pyo, Young Ah; Lacherez, Philippe; Mathur, Ankit

    2013-09-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine visual performance in water, including the influence of pupil size. The water environment was simulated by placing goggles filled with saline in front of the eyes with apertures placed at the front of the goggles. Correction factors were determined for the different magnification under this condition in order to estimate vision in water. Experiments were conducted on letter visual acuity (seven participants), grating resolution (eight participants), and grating contrast sensitivity (one participant). For letter acuity, mean loss of vision in water, compared to corrected vision in air, varied between 1.1 log min of arc resolution (logMAR) for a 1 mm aperture to 2.2 logMAR for a 7 mm aperture. The vision in min of arc was described well by a linear relationship with pupil size. For grating acuity, mean loss varied between 1.1 logMAR for a 2 mm aperture to 1.2 logMAR for a 6 mm aperture. Contrast sensitivity for a 2 mm aperture deteriorated as spatial frequency increased with a 2 log unit loss by 3 c/°. Superimposed on this deterioration were depressions (notches) in sensitivity with the first three notches occurring at 0.45, 0.8, and 1.3 c/° with estimates for water of 0.39, 0.70, and 1.13 c/°. In conclusion, vision in water is poor. It becomes worse as pupil size increases, but the effects are much more marked for letter targets than for grating targets.

  13. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, C

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  14. Virtual Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzopoulos, Demetri; Qureshi, Faisal Z.

    Computer vision and sensor networks researchers are increasingly motivated to investigate complex multi-camera sensing and control issues that arise in the automatic visual surveillance of extensive, highly populated public spaces such as airports and train stations. However, they often encounter serious impediments to deploying and experimenting with large-scale physical camera networks in such real-world environments. We propose an alternative approach called "Virtual Vision", which facilitates this type of research through the virtual reality simulation of populated urban spaces, camera sensor networks, and computer vision on commodity computers. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by developing two highly automated surveillance systems comprising passive and active pan/tilt/zoom cameras that are deployed in a virtual train station environment populated by autonomous, lifelike virtual pedestrians. The easily reconfigurable virtual cameras distributed in this environment generate synthetic video feeds that emulate those acquired by real surveillance cameras monitoring public spaces. The novel multi-camera control strategies that we describe enable the cameras to collaborate in persistently observing pedestrians of interest and in acquiring close-up videos of pedestrians in designated areas.

  15. Immersive Environments: Using Flow and Sound to Blur Inhabitant and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Luke

    Following in the footsteps of motif-reviving, aesthetically-focused Postmodern and deconstructivist architecture, purely computer-generated formalist contemporary architecture (i.e. blobitecture) has been reduced to vast, empty sculptural, and therefore, purely ocularcentric gestures for their own sake. Taking precedent over the deliberate relation to the people inhabiting them beyond scaleless visual stimulation, the forms become separated from and hostile toward their inhabitants; a boundary appears. This thesis calls for a reintroduction of human-centered design beyond Modern functionalism and ergonomics and Postmodern form and metaphor into architecture by exploring ecological psychology (specifically how one becomes attached to objects) and phenomenology (specifically sound) in an attempt to reach a contemporary human scale using the technology of today: the physiological mind. Psychologist Dr. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's concept of flow---when one becomes so mentally immersed within the current activity and immediate surroundings that the boundary between inhabitant and environment becomes transparent through a form of trance---is the embodiment of this thesis' goal, but it is limited to only specific moments throughout the day and typically studied without regard to the environment. Physiologically, the area within the brain---the medial prefrontal cortex---stimulated during flow experiences is also stimulated by the synthesis of sound, memory, and emotion. By exploiting sound (a sense not typically focused on within phenomenology) as a form of constant nuance within the everyday productive dissonance, the engagement and complete concentration on one's own interpretation of this sensory input affords flow experiences and, therefore, a blurred boundary with one's environment. This thesis aims to answer the question: How does the built environment embody flow? The above concept will be illustrated within a ubiquitous building type---the everyday housing tower

  16. STEADFAST: Psychotherapeutic Intervention Improves Postural Strategy of Somatoform Vertigo and Dizziness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Christoph; Tschan, Regine; Stieber, Nikola; Beutel, Manfred E.; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret; Dieterich, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) disorders often report instability of stance or gait and fear of falling. Posturographic measurements indeed indicated a pathological postural strategy. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational short-term intervention (PTI) using static posturography and psychometric examination. Seventeen SVD patients took part in the study. The effects of PTI on SVD were evaluated with quantitative static posturography. As primary endpoint a quotient characterizing the relation between horizontal and vertical sway was calculated (Q H/V), reflecting the individual postural strategy. Results of static posturography were compared to those of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n = 28); baseline measurements were compared to results after PTI. The secondary endpoint was the participation-limiting consequences of SVD as measured by the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ). Compared to the healthy volunteers, the patients with SVD showed a postural strategy characterized by stiffening-up that resulted in a significantly reduced body sway quotient before PTI (patients: Q H/V = 0.31 versus controls: Q H/V = 0.38; p = 0.022). After PTI the postural behavior normalized, and psychological distress was reduced. PTI therefore appears to modify pathological balance behaviour. The postural strategy of patients with SVD possibly results from anxious anticipatory cocontraction of the antigravity muscles. PMID:26843786

  17. [Tailored Care for Functional Vertigo/Dizziness - An Integrative Group Psychotherapy Approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziej, Katharina; Schmid-Mühlbauer, Gabriele; Limburg, Karina; Lahmann, Claas

    2017-06-01

    Functional vertigo and dizziness (VD) symptoms are highly prevalent and usually accompanied by a strong impairment of quality in everyday and working life. The complaints are often associated with various psychiatric disorders, particularly phobic and other anxiety disorders, depressive or somatoform disorders. Despite this clinical relevance of VD symptoms, studies towards psychotherapeutic treatment options for patients with functional VD are still rare. Thus, the present study outlines a manual for outpatient group therapy for patients with functional VD symptoms. Our approach aims to assist patients in developing an understanding of the interaction between bodily complaints and psychosocial factors while detracting from a purely symptom based focus. The integrative-psychotherapeutic treatment program consists of 16 weekly sessions and includes a regular vestibular rehabilitation training as well as disorder-oriented modules towards anxiety and panic disorder, depression, and somatisation. We are currently conducting a randomised controlled trial in order to evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness of the program in reducing VD and further bodily symptoms, vertigo-related social and physical handicap as well as anxiety and depressive complaints. A previously completed pilot trial has led to small to large pre-follow-up-effects on primary and secondary outcome measures. Conclusions regarding acceptance and feasibility of the therapy concept are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Color Vision in Aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Hilde R; Hagen, Lene A; Landsend, Erlend C S; Gilson, Stuart J; Utheim, Øygunn A; Utheim, Tor P; Neitz, Maureen; Baraas, Rigmor C

    2018-04-01

    To assess color vision and its association with retinal structure in persons with congenital aniridia. We included 36 persons with congenital aniridia (10-66 years), and 52 healthy, normal trichromatic controls (10-74 years) in the study. Color vision was assessed with Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) pseudo-isochromatic plates (4th ed., 2002); Cambridge Color Test and a low-vision version of the Color Assessment and Diagnosis test (CAD-LV). Cone-opsin genes were analyzed to confirm normal versus congenital color vision deficiencies. Visual acuity and ocular media opacities were assessed. The central 30° of both eyes were imaged with the Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 to grade the severity of foveal hypoplasia (FH, normal to complete: 0-4). Five participants with aniridia had cone opsin genes conferring deutan color vision deficiency and were excluded from further analysis. Of the 31 with aniridia and normal opsin genes, 11 made two or more red-green (RG) errors on HRR, four of whom also made yellow-blue (YB) errors; one made YB errors only. A total of 19 participants had higher CAD-LV RG thresholds, of which eight also had higher CAD-LV YB thresholds, than normal controls. In aniridia, the thresholds were higher along the RG than the YB axis, and those with a complete FH had significantly higher RG thresholds than those with mild FH (P = 0.038). Additional increase in YB threshold was associated with secondary ocular pathology. Arrested foveal formation and associated alterations in retinal processing are likely to be the primary reason for impaired red-green color vision in aniridia.

  19. Lambda Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Michael

    2014-06-01

    There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.

  20. Jane Addams’ Social Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar

    2018-01-01

    resonated with key tenets of social gospel theology, which imbued her texts with an overarching vision of humanity’s progressive history. It is suggested that Addams’ vision of a major transition in industrial society, one involving a BChristian renaissance^ and individuals’ transformation into Bsocialized...

  1. Computer vision for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Graham; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    fixed to players or equipment is generally not possible. This provides a rich set of opportunities for the application of computer vision techniques to help the competitors, coaches and audience. This paper discusses a selection of current commercial applications that use computer vision for sports...

  2. Blepharitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tear film can result in excess tearing or dry eye. Because tears are necessary to keep the cornea ... redness of the eye, blurred vision, frothy tears, dry eye, or crusting of the eyelashes on awakening. Treatment ...

  3. The prevalence, clinical features, risk factors and outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %), neck stiffness 76 (69%) and weight loss 53 (48%). Factors independently associated with CM were male sex, headache, blurred vision and previous antifungal drug use. Night sweats and current use of anti-retroviral therapy were ...

  4. Impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision performance of children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Suma; Sethi, Sumita; Srivastav, Sonia; Chaudhary, Amrita; Arora, Priyanka

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision of children with visual impairment. The LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire, designed specifically to measure functional performance of visually impaired children of developing countries, was used to assess the level of difficulty in performing various tasks pre and post visual rehabilitation in children with documented visual impairment. Chi-square test was used to assess the impact of rehabilitation intervention on functional vision performance; a P visual acuity prior to the introduction of low vision devices (LVDs) was 0.90 ± 0.05 for distance and for near it was 0.61 ± 0.05. After the intervention, the acuities improved significantly for distance (0.2 ± 0.27; P visual rehabilitation was especially found in those activities related to their studying lifestyle like copying from the blackboard (P visual rehabilitation, especially with those activities which are related to their academic output. It is important for these children to have an early visual rehabilitation to decrease the impairment associated with these decreased visual output and to enhance their learning abilities.

  5. Functional programming for computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuel, Thomas M.

    1992-04-01

    Functional programming is a style of programming that avoids the use of side effects (like assignment) and uses functions as first class data objects. Compared with imperative programs, functional programs can be parallelized better, and provide better encapsulation, type checking, and abstractions. This is important for building and integrating large vision software systems. In the past, efficiency has been an obstacle to the application of functional programming techniques in computationally intensive areas such as computer vision. We discuss and evaluate several 'functional' data structures for representing efficiently data structures and objects common in computer vision. In particular, we will address: automatic storage allocation and reclamation issues; abstraction of control structures; efficient sequential update of large data structures; representing images as functions; and object-oriented programming. Our experience suggests that functional techniques are feasible for high- performance vision systems, and that a functional approach simplifies the implementation and integration of vision systems greatly. Examples in C++ and SML are given.

  6. Experimental determination of blurring in x-ray fluoroscopy last image hold due to patient movement and its repercussion to patient doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibelalde, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Vano, E.; Fernandez, J.M.; Alberdi, J.; Molinero, A.

    2001-01-01

    Significant dose reduction can be achieved in fluoroscopy and interventional radiology by using the last image hold (LIH). This feature in modern digital fluoroscopy x-ray units usually works with frame or temporal averaging techniques to reduce noise. This image quality works quite well for objects without motion but it could be a serious limitation in presence of motion blur. With an in-house developed robotic device, the authors have experimentally determined the image quality degradation introduced by normal physiological movements (i.e., respiratory and cardiac pulse movements). FAXIL test objects TO.10 and 18FG from Leeds University have been used for spatial resolution limit and threshold contrast detail detectability. Seven X-ray equipment with last image hold features from three different manufacturers were analysed. Although results show that motion blur affects LIH to different extends depending on equipment, magnification, entrance dose and detail size, it can be estimated that, on average for all equipment and analysed conditions, it represents 30% degradation in image quality parameters in comparison with static images. (author)

  7. Computer Vision for Timber Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate computer vision methods for timber harvesting operations. The background for developing computer vision for timber harvesting is to document origin of timber and to collect qualitative and quantitative parameters concerning the timber for efficient harvest...... segments. The purpose of image segmentation is to make the basis for more advanced computer vision methods like object recognition and classification. Our second method concerns image classification and we present a method where we classify small timber samples to tree species based on Active Appearance...... to the development of the logTracker system the described methods have a general applicability making them useful for many other computer vision problems....

  8. Development and evaluation of vision rehabilitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a range of vision rehabilitation devices and techniques for people with impaired vision due to either central vision loss or severely restricted peripheral visual field. We have conducted evaluation studies with patients to test the utilities of these techniques in an effort to document their advantages as well as their limitations. Here we describe our work on a visual field expander based on a head mounted display (HMD) for tunnel vision, a vision enhancement device for central vision loss, and a frequency domain JPEG/MPEG based image enhancement technique. All the evaluation studies included visual search paradigms that are suitable for conducting indoor controllable experiments.

  9. Night Vision Manual for the Flight Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    macula and fovea centralis. 4. Duality theory of vision-extends sensitivity of vision over 100,000 times (Fig. 12). ~Im Uilting Ullmlrage WVIVIWCentral...lowered night vision capa- bilities due to disease or degenerations . F. Hypoxia 1. Decrement of central vision due to 02 lack is quite small; such as, at

  10. Gait disorder rehabilitation using vision and non-vision based sensors: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asraf Ali

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though the amount of rehabilitation guidelines has never been greater, uncertainty continues to arise regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of the rehabilitation of gait disorders. This question has been hindered by the lack of information on accurate measurements of gait disorders. Thus, this article reviews the rehabilitation systems for gait disorder using vision and non-vision sensor technologies, as well as the combination of these. All papers published in the English language between 1990 and June, 2012 that had the phrases “gait disorder” “rehabilitation”, “vision sensor”, or “non vision sensor” in the title, abstract, or keywords were identified from the SpringerLink, ELSEVIER, PubMed, and IEEE databases. Some synonyms of these phrases and the logical words “and” “or” and “not” were also used in the article searching procedure. Out of the 91 published articles found, this review identified 84 articles that described the rehabilitation of gait disorders using different types of sensor technologies. This literature set presented strong evidence for the development of rehabilitation systems using a markerless vision-based sensor technology. We therefore believe that the information contained in this review paper will assist the progress of the development of rehabilitation systems for human gait disorders.

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... products through testing identity, purity, strength, and composition. Risks of Overdoing It As is the case with ... blurred vision, clumsiness, birth defects, liver problems, possible risk of osteoporosis. You may be at greater risk ...

  12. Original Research Prevalence and distribution of Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control. As prevalence falls, diagnostics can identify high transmission areas, monitor disease trends, and guide evidence-based control strategies. Introduction ..... Fever. 255. 0.50. Abdominal pain. 295. 0.015. Blurred vision. 26. 0.44. Blood in ...

  13. The Trickle-Down Effect of Institutional Vision: Vision Statements and Academic Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelman, Robert; Atkin, David; Dalessandro, Amy; Snyder-Suhy, Sharon; Janstova, Patricie

    2007-01-01

    A description of the kinds of educated humans to be cultivated at a particular institution can be found in the college or university vision statement. The extent that vision is reflected in the governing models of advising operations, known by personnel, and transformed into day-to-day activities was assessed through a NACADA membership survey.…

  14. Lessons Learned from the Creation of a Center of Excellence in Low Vision and Vision Rehabilitation in Wenzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoff, Rebecca; Heilberger, Michael H.

    2017-01-01

    A model Center of Excellence in Low Vision and Vision Rehabilitation was created in a health care setting in China utilizing an inter-institutional relationship with a United States optometric institution. Accomplishments of, limitations to, and stimuli to the provision of low vision and vision rehabilitation services are shared.

  15. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  16. Vision based systems for UAV applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuś, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is motivated by a significant number of vision based algorithms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) that were developed during research and development projects. Vision information is utilized in various applications like visual surveillance, aim systems, recognition systems, collision-avoidance systems and navigation. This book presents practical applications, examples and recent challenges in these mentioned application fields. The aim of the book is to create a valuable source of information for researchers and constructors of solutions utilizing vision from UAV. Scientists, researchers and graduate students involved in computer vision, image processing, data fusion, control algorithms, mechanics, data mining, navigation and IC can find many valuable, useful and practical suggestions and solutions. The latest challenges for vision based systems are also presented.

  17. LATE VISION: PROCESSES AND EPISTEMIC STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios eRaftopoulos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine the processes that occur in late vision and address the problem of whether late vision should be construed as a properly speaking perceptual stage, or as a thought-like discursive stage. Specifically, I argue that late vision, its (partly conceptual nature notwithstanding, neither is constituted by nor does it implicate what I call pure thoughts, that is, propositional structures that are formed in the cognitive areas of the brain through, and participate in, discursive reasoning and inferences. At the same time, the output of late vision, namely an explicit belief concerning the identity and category membership of an object (that is, a recognitional belief or its features, eventually enters into discursive reasoning. Using Jackendoff’s distinction between visual awareness, which characterizes perception, and visual understanding, which characterizes pure thought, I claim that the contents of late vision belong to visual awareness and not to visual understanding and that although late vision implicates beliefs, either implicit or explicit, these beliefs are hybrid visual/conceptual constructs and not pure thoughts. Distinguishing between these hybrid representations and pure thoughts and delineating the nature of the representations of late vision lays the ground for examining, among other things, the process of conceptualization that occurs in visual processing and the way concepts modulate perceptual content affecting either its representational or phenomenal character. I also do not discuss the epistemological relations between the representations of late vision and the perceptual judgments they ‘support’, or ‘guide’ or ‘render possible’ or ‘evidence’ or ‘entitle’. However, the specification of the epistemology of late vision lays the ground for attacking that problem as well.

  18. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  19. Reinforcement learning in computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, A. V.; Burnaev, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, machine learning has become one of the basic technologies used in solving various computer vision tasks such as feature detection, image segmentation, object recognition and tracking. In many applications, various complex systems such as robots are equipped with visual sensors from which they learn state of surrounding environment by solving corresponding computer vision tasks. Solutions of these tasks are used for making decisions about possible future actions. It is not surprising that when solving computer vision tasks we should take into account special aspects of their subsequent application in model-based predictive control. Reinforcement learning is one of modern machine learning technologies in which learning is carried out through interaction with the environment. In recent years, Reinforcement learning has been used both for solving such applied tasks as processing and analysis of visual information, and for solving specific computer vision problems such as filtering, extracting image features, localizing objects in scenes, and many others. The paper describes shortly the Reinforcement learning technology and its use for solving computer vision problems.

  20. INL Vision and Strategy 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Rekha Sukamar

    2015-01-01

    This Laboratory vision and strategy presents INL's vision and strategy for the Laboratory and is our introduction to a special place dedicated to improving our nation's energy security future.

  1. Variable blurred reflection in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 493

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonson, K.; Gallo, L. C.; Wilkins, D. R.; Fabian, A. C.

    2018-04-01

    We examine a 200 ks XMM-Newton observation of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 493. The active galaxy was half as bright as in a previous 2003 snapshot observation and the current lower flux enables a study of the putative reflection component in detail. We determine the characteristics of the 2015 X-ray continuum by first analyzing the short-term variability using model-independent techniques. We then continue with a time-resolve analysis including spectral fitting and modelling the fractional variability. We determine that the variability arises from changes in the amount of primary flux striking the accretion disk, which induces changes in the ionization parameter and flux of the blurred reflection component. The observations seem consistent with the picture that the primary source is of roughly constant brightness and that variations arise from changes in the degree of light bending happening in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole.

  2. National Hydrogen Vision Meeting Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-11-01

    This document provides presentations and summaries of the notes from the National Hydrogen Vision Meeting''s facilitated breakout sessions. The Vision Meeting, which took place November 15-16, 2001, kicked off the public-private partnership that will pave the way to a more secure and cleaner energy future for America. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, A National Vision of America''s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy - To 2030 and Beyond, which is also available online.

  3. The Vision Thing in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, George

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that while the concept of "vision" in higher education has been met with disdain, criticism is based on misconceptions of vision's nature and role--that vision requires a charismatic administrator and that visionaries are dreamers. Educators and planners are urged to use imaginative thinking to connect the institution's and staff's…

  4. ABCs of foveal vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchko, Roy M.; Gerhart, Grant R.

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents a simple mathematical performance model of the human foveal vision system based on an extensive analysis of the Blackwell-McCready (BM) data set. It includes a closed-form equation, the (ABC)t law, that allows the analyst to predict the entire range of BM threshold data. Relationships are derived among the four fundamental parameters of foveal vision: target area A, background luminance B, threshold contrast C, and stimulus presentation time t. Hyperbolic-curve fits on log-log plots of the data lead to the well-known laws of Ricco, Blackwell, Weber and Fechner, and Bloch. This paper unifies important relationships associated with target and background scene parameters as they relate to the human foveal vision process. The process of detecting a BM target, using foveal vision, is reduced to the total temporal summation of light energy modified by a multiplicative energy ratio. A stochastic model of human observer performance is presented in terms of a cumulative Gaussian distribution, which is a function of the apparent and BM contrast threshold values.

  5. What is vision Hampton Roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    What is Vision Hampton Roads? : Vision Hampton Roads is... : A regionwide economic development strategy based on the collective strengths of all : localities of Hampton Roads, created with the input of business, academia, nonprofits, : government,...

  6. Temporary effects of alcohol on color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col

  7. Interoperability Strategic Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Knight, Mark R.; Melton, Ronald B.; Narang, David; Martin, Maurice; Nordman, Bruce; Khandekar, Aditya; Hardy, Keith S.

    2018-02-28

    The Interoperability Strategic Vision whitepaper aims to promote a common understanding of the meaning and characteristics of interoperability and to provide a strategy to advance the state of interoperability as applied to integration challenges facing grid modernization. This includes addressing the quality of integrating devices and systems and the discipline to improve the process of successfully integrating these components as business models and information technology improve over time. The strategic vision for interoperability described in this document applies throughout the electric energy generation, delivery, and end-use supply chain. Its scope includes interactive technologies and business processes from bulk energy levels to lower voltage level equipment and the millions of appliances that are becoming equipped with processing power and communication interfaces. A transformational aspect of a vision for interoperability in the future electric system is the coordinated operation of intelligent devices and systems at the edges of grid infrastructure. This challenge offers an example for addressing interoperability concerns throughout the electric system.

  8. Pleiades Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pleiades Visions (2012) is my new musical composition for organ that takes inspiration from traditional lore and music associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster from Australian Aboriginal, Native American, and Native Hawaiian cultures. It is based on my doctoral dissertation research incorporating techniques from the fields of ethnomusicology and cultural astronomy; this research likely represents a new area of inquiry for both fields. This large-scale work employs the organ's vast sonic resources to evoke the majesty of the night sky and the expansive landscapes of the homelands of the above-mentioned peoples. Other important themes in Pleiades Visions are those of place, origins, cosmology, and the creation of the world.

  9. School Vision of Learning: Urban Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Tiffany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author develops her school vision of learning. She explains the theories she used to help develop the vision. The author then goes into detail on the methods she will use to make her vision for a school that prepares urban students for a successful life after high school. She takes into account all the stakeholders and how they…

  10. Computer vision for an autonomous mobile robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Withey, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision systems are essential for practical, autonomous, mobile robots – machines that employ artificial intelligence and control their own motion within an environment. As with biological systems, computer vision systems include the vision...

  11. Vision Restoration in Glaucoma by Activating Residual Vision with a Holistic, Clinical Approach: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Bernhard A; Cárdenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Gao, Ying

    2018-01-01

    How to cite this article: Sabel BA, Cárdenas-Morales L, Gao Y. Vision Restoration in Glaucoma by activating Residual Vision with a Holistic, Clinical Approach: A Review. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2018;12(1):1-9.

  12. The problem of dizziness and syncope in old age: transient ischemic attacks versus hypersensitive carotid sinus reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesu, C T; Eisenman, J I; Stemmer, E A

    1976-03-01

    In the elderly, a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and a hypersensitive carotid sinus reflex (HCSR) often co-exist and can pose a diagnostic challenge. Seven cases are presented. HCSR is a relative condition; besides increased irritability of the receptor or target organs, susceptibility of the nerve center to ischemia probably is induced by a slow heart rate or low blood pressure in any patient with pre-existing occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Dizziness and syncope of this type represent hemodynamic TIA in contrast to thromboembolic TIA. The carotid sinus massage test is recommended for differentiating the two types of TIA; the treatments differ. At present there is no uniform management that can be applied to either TIA or HCSR routinely. Therefore, treatment should be approached on an individual basis, keeping in mind the different pathophysiologic factors operating in the specific patient.

  13. Accuracy of vision technicians in screening ocular pathology at rural vision centres of southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suram, Vasantha; Addepalli, Uday Kumar; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Kovai, Vilas; Khanna, Rohit C

    2016-03-01

    There is paucity of data on the inter-observer agreement and diagnostic accuracy between a primary-care technician (vision technician) and an ophthalmologist. Hence, the current study was conducted to assess the accuracy of vision technicians, to screen potentially sight-threatening ocular conditions at rural vision centres of southern India and their agreement with an ophthalmologist. In July to August 2010, patients presenting to seven vision centres in Adilabad district (Andhra Pradesh) were selected and screened in a masked manner by seven vision technicians followed by an examination by a consultant ophthalmologist. Agreement was assessed between vision technicians and the ophthalmologist for screening of potential sight-threatening ocular conditions and decisions for referral. The ophthalmologist's findings were considered as the reference standard. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients were enrolled at seven vision centres with a mean age of 32.9 ± 21.8 years. Agreement for screening of ocular pathology was 0.82 (95 per cent CI, 0.8-0.83). There was excellent agreement for cataract (0.97; 95 per cent CI, 0.93-1), refractive error (0.98; 95 per cent CI, 0.96-1), corneal pathology (1.0; 95 per cent CI, 1.0-1.0) and other anterior segment pathology (0.95; 95 per cent CI, 0.9-1); the agreement was moderate to fair for detection of glaucoma suspects (0.43; 95 per cent CI, 0.28-0.60) and retinal pathology (0.39; 95 per cent CI, 0.14-0.63). Sensitivity for screening of anterior segment pathology was 94.6-100 per cent. There was a fair to moderate sensitivity for glaucoma suspect; 35.6 per cent (95 per cent CI, 21.9-51.2) and retinal pathology 26.3 per cent (95 per cent CI, 9.2-51.2). Specificity for screening of ocular pathology was 98.2 to 100 per cent. The kappa (κ) agreement for referral for any pathology was 0.82 (0.8-0.83) CONCLUSION: As there is good agreement between the vision technicians and the ophthalmologist for screening and referral of

  14. Soft Computing Techniques in Vision Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yeon-Mo

    2012-01-01

    This Special Edited Volume is a unique approach towards Computational solution for the upcoming field of study called Vision Science. From a scientific firmament Optics, Ophthalmology, and Optical Science has surpassed an Odyssey of optimizing configurations of Optical systems, Surveillance Cameras and other Nano optical devices with the metaphor of Nano Science and Technology. Still these systems are falling short of its computational aspect to achieve the pinnacle of human vision system. In this edited volume much attention has been given to address the coupling issues Computational Science and Vision Studies.  It is a comprehensive collection of research works addressing various related areas of Vision Science like Visual Perception and Visual system, Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, Psychophysics and Ophthalmology, linguistic relativity, color vision etc. This issue carries some latest developments in the form of research articles and presentations. The volume is rich of contents with technical tools ...

  15. Dense image correspondences for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ce

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems.   ·         Provides i...

  16. Materiality matters: Blurred boundaries and the domestication of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kate; Will, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Previous scholarship on novel foods, including functional foods, has suggested that they are difficult to categorise for both regulators and users. It is argued that they blur the boundary between 'food' and 'drug' and that uncertainties about the products create 'experimental' or 'restless' approaches to consumption. We investigate these uncertainties drawing on data about the use of functional foods containing phytosterols, which are licensed for sale in the EU for people wishing to reduce their cholesterol. We start from an interest in the products as material objects and their incorporation into everyday practices. We consider the scripts encoded in the physical form of the products through their regulation, production and packaging and find that these scripts shape but do not determine their use. The domestication of phytosterols involves bundling the products together with other objects (pills, supplements, foodstuffs). Considering their incorporation into different systems of objects offers new understandings of the products as foods or drugs. In their accounts of their practices, consumers appear to be relatively untroubled by uncertainties about the character of the products. We conclude that attending to materials and practices offers a productive way to open up and interrogate the idea of categorical uncertainties surrounding new food products.

  17. Participative Action Research: The Vision Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Victor Valqui Vidal

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the principles behind the design and management of the Vision Conference: a one-day workshop for a large group of participants endeavoured to create ideas, projects and visions for the future activities of a local community or an organisation. A case study from a local community in Denmark is also presented with the purpose of illustrating the organisation, planning and management of a Vision Conference. The paper focuses in the three central social processes of the conference: group work, problem solving and facilitation. The paper ends with a discussion of creativity and creativity techniques suitable for Vision Conferences.

  18. Advantages of computer cameras over video cameras/frame grabbers for high-speed vision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gaylord G.; Walker, Jo N.

    1997-09-01

    Cameras designed to work specifically with computers can have certain advantages in comparison to the use of cameras loosely defined as 'video' cameras. In recent years the camera type distinctions have become somewhat blurred, with a great presence of 'digital cameras' aimed more at the home markets. This latter category is not considered here. The term 'computer camera' herein is intended to mean one which has low level computer (and software) control of the CCD clocking. These can often be used to satisfy some of the more demanding machine vision tasks, and in some cases with a higher rate of measurements than video cameras. Several of these specific applications are described here, including some which use recently designed CCDs which offer good combinations of parameters such as noise, speed, and resolution. Among the considerations for the choice of camera type in any given application would be such effects as 'pixel jitter,' and 'anti-aliasing.' Some of these effects may only be relevant if there is a mismatch between the number of pixels per line in the camera CCD and the number of analog to digital (A/D) sampling points along a video scan line. For the computer camera case these numbers are guaranteed to match, which alleviates some measurement inaccuracies and leads to higher effective resolution.

  19. Regional new energy vision for Fukuoka city; Fukuokashi chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A regional new energy vision has been formulated for Fukuoka city, Fukuoka Prefecture, which will serve as a basic guide to the promotion of new energy introduction which is one of the measures for coping with environmental problems. The vision is described in five chapters of (1) the local characteristics of Fukuoka city, (2) energy situation in Fukuoka city, (3) basic program, (4) high priority plans, and (5) efforts to enhance the vision toward realization. Discussed as high priority plans are the introduction of new energy into public buildings above all others, high efficiency utilization of refuse-derived energy, utilization of new energy at water supply and drainage facilities, utilization of water temperature difference energy, introduction of clean energy vehicles, promotion of a new energy industry, and the extension of assistance for encouraging citizens and industrialists to adopt new energy. In extending assistance for encouraging the introduction of new energy, studies are made about measures for introducing new energy into individual residences and about a citizenry-involving new energy adopting industry (offering a site to the power generation industry) under the basal conditions that information be supplied sufficiently and that the citizenry and administration cooperate with each other in driving forward the vision. (NEDO)

  20. Vision in high-level football officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, António Manuel Gonçalves; Serra, Pedro M; McAlinden, Colm; Barrett, Brendan T

    2017-01-01

    Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9%) and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4%) were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS) and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV) questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62%) of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR) and level (international/national) of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of pfootball officials were similar to published normative values for young, adult populations and similar between R and AR. Clinically-measured vision did not differ according to officiating level. Visual acuity measured with and without a pinhole disc indicated that around one quarter of participants may be capable of better vision when officiating, as evidenced by better acuity (≥1 line of letters) using the pinhole. Amongst the clinical visual tests we used, we did not find evidence for above-average performance in elite-level football officials. Although the impact of uncorrected mild to moderate refractive error upon officiating performance is unknown, with a greater uptake of eye examinations, visual

  1. VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Jacob J.; Jeffers, Robert F.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Piet, Steven J.; Baker, Benjamin A.; Grimm, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R and D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating 'what if' scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., 'reactor types' not individual reactors and 'separation types' not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft

  2. delta-vision

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Delta Vision is intended to identify a strategy for managing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta as a sustainable ecosystem that would continue to support environmental...

  3. Computer and machine vision theory, algorithms, practicalities

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E R

    2012-01-01

    Computer and Machine Vision: Theory, Algorithms, Practicalities (previously entitled Machine Vision) clearly and systematically presents the basic methodology of computer and machine vision, covering the essential elements of the theory while emphasizing algorithmic and practical design constraints. This fully revised fourth edition has brought in more of the concepts and applications of computer vision, making it a very comprehensive and up-to-date tutorial text suitable for graduate students, researchers and R&D engineers working in this vibrant subject. Key features include: Practical examples and case studies give the 'ins and outs' of developing real-world vision systems, giving engineers the realities of implementing the principles in practice New chapters containing case studies on surveillance and driver assistance systems give practical methods on these cutting-edge applications in computer vision Necessary mathematics and essential theory are made approachable by careful explanations and well-il...

  4. Standards for vision science libraries: 2014 revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Kristin; Caldwell, C Brooke; Lamson, Karen S; Ferimer, Suzanne; Nims, J Chris

    2014-10-01

    This Association of Vision Science Librarians revision of the "Standards for Vision Science Libraries" aspires to provide benchmarks to address the needs for the services and resources of modern vision science libraries (academic, medical or hospital, pharmaceutical, and so on), which share a core mission, are varied by type, and are located throughout the world. Through multiple meeting discussions, member surveys, and a collaborative revision process, the standards have been updated for the first time in over a decade. While the range of types of libraries supporting vision science services, education, and research is wide, all libraries, regardless of type, share core attributes, which the standards address. The current standards can and should be used to help develop new vision science libraries or to expand the growth of existing libraries, as well as to support vision science librarians in their work to better provide services and resources to their respective users.

  5. Efficacy of vision therapy in children with learning disability and associated binocular vision anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with specific learning disorders have a high frequency of binocular vision disorders and vision therapy plays a significant role in improving the BV parameters. Children with SLD should be screened for BV anomalies as it could potentially be an added hindrance to the reading difficulty in this special population.

  6. Representing vision and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  7. Hi-Vision telecine system using pickup tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Goro

    1992-08-01

    Hi-Vision broadcasting, offering far more lifelike pictures than those produced by existing television broadcasting systems, has enormous potential in both industrial and commercial fields. The dissemination of the Hi-Vision system will enable vivid, movie theater quality pictures to be readily enjoyed in homes in the near future. To convert motion film pictures into Hi-Vision signals, a telecine system is needed. The Hi-Vision telecine systems currently under development are the "laser telecine," "flying-spot telecine," and "Saticon telecine" systems. This paper provides an overview of the pickup tube type Hi-Vision telecine system (referred to herein as the Saticon telecine system) developed and marketed by Ikegami Tsushinki Co., Ltd.

  8. Low Vision Care: The Need to Maximise Visual Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Pararajasegaram

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available People with low vision have residual vision with some light perception, but their vision loss does not lend itself to improvement by standard spectacles or medical or surgical treatment. Such persons have the potential for enhanced functional vision if they receive appropriate low vision care services.

  9. Algorithmic strategies for FPGA-based vision

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Yoong Kang

    2016-01-01

    As demands for real-time computer vision applications increase, implementations on alternative architectures have been explored. These architectures include Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), which offer a high degree of flexibility and parallelism. A problem with this is that many computer vision algorithms have been optimized for serial processing, and this often does not map well to FPGA implementation. This thesis introduces the concept of FPGA-tailored computer vision algorithms...

  10. Eldercare at Home: Vision Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeing close objects or reading small print. Many things can be done to help with these vision problems. Using reading ... t Working If vision problems seem to be getting worse and are of major concern to the ... what the results have been. Related Resources ...

  11. Glaucoma: a brief update for 2017

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Glaucoma is a complex condition of the eye and the second leading cause of blindness around the globe. It is an ... to a disease, trauma or drugs, or as being congenital in nature ..... as dry eyes, blurred vision, blepharitis and others.

  12. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  13. Transnational Academic Capitalism in the Arab Gulf: Balancing Global and Local, and Public and Private, Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlow, Sally; Hayes, Aneta L.

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging theoretical construct of what has been called "transnational academic capitalism", characterised by the blurring of traditional boundaries between public, private, local, regional and international, and between market-driven and critically transformative higher education visions. Here we examine…

  14. Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases of Tactical Importance to U.S. Central Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    tachypnea, air hunger , hyperventilation, and 4 ASPHYXIANTS 169 altered mental status (belligerence, agitation, eupho- ria, numbness and tingling of the...mechanisms become inadequate (air hunger ; fatigue, tunnel vision, dizziness, headache, belligerence, euphoria, reduced visual acuity, numbness and...quadriple- gia may ensue. Recovery may be slow or incomplete. Sequelae may also include subtle neuropsychological deficits. Decreased vigilance, defects

  15. Embedded active vision system based on an FPGA architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Chalimbaud , Pierre; Berry , François

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In computer vision and more particularly in vision processing, the impressive evolution of algorithms and the emergence of new techniques dramatically increase algorithm complexity. In this paper, a novel FPGA-based architecture dedicated to active vision (and more precisely early vision) is proposed. Active vision appears as an alternative approach to deal with artificial vision problems. The central idea is to take into account the perceptual aspects of visual tasks,...

  16. Age-Related Psychophysical Changes and Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnelie, Gislin

    2013-01-01

    When considering the burden of visual impairment on aging individuals and society at large, it is important to bear in mind that vision changes are a natural aspect of aging. In this article, we consider vision changes that are part of normal aging, the prevalence of abnormal vision changes caused by disorders of the visual system, and the anticipated incidence and impact of visual impairment as the US population ages. We then discuss the services available to reduce the impact of vision loss, and the extent to which those services can and should be improved, not only to be better prepared for the anticipated increase in low vision over the coming decades, but also to increase the awareness of interactions between visual impairment and comorbidities that are common among the elderly. Finally, we consider how to promote improved quality, availability, and acceptance of low vision care to lessen the impact of visual impairment on individuals, and its burden on society. PMID:24335074

  17. State of Vision Development in Slovenian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Toman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vision is a prerequisite for efficient strategic planning and the effectiveness of a company. If a company has no vision (i.e., it does not know where it is heading, then it cannot build on advantages, eliminate weaknesses, exploit opportunities and avoid threats. The term ‘vision’ is often used in scientific and professional literature, but it should be noted that different authors understand the term differently and often discuss it inadequately. Many questions regarding the nature of vision arise in practice and in theory, and I answer many of them in my article. I define vision, explain the reasons for its necessity and provide its characteristics and content. I define mission and explain the main difference between vision and mission. The majority of the article presents the results of empirical research on the state of vision setting in Slovenian companies. The article highlights the way in which these terms are understood by top managers.

  18. Understanding and applying machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Zeuch, Nello

    2000-01-01

    A discussion of applications of machine vision technology in the semiconductor, electronic, automotive, wood, food, pharmaceutical, printing, and container industries. It describes systems that enable projects to move forward swiftly and efficiently, and focuses on the nuances of the engineering and system integration of machine vision technology.

  19. Low-Power Smart Imagers for Vision-Enabled Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Berni, Jorge; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive, systematic approach to the development of vision system architectures that employ sensory-processing concurrency and parallel processing to meet the autonomy challenges posed by a variety of safety and surveillance applications.  Coverage includes a thorough analysis of resistive diffusion networks embedded within an image sensor array. This analysis supports a systematic approach to the design of spatial image filters and their implementation as vision chips in CMOS technology. The book also addresses system-level considerations pertaining to the embedding of these vision chips into vision-enabled wireless sensor networks.  Describes a system-level approach for designing of vision devices and  embedding them into vision-enabled, wireless sensor networks; Surveys state-of-the-art, vision-enabled WSN nodes; Includes details of specifications and challenges of vision-enabled WSNs; Explains architectures for low-energy CMOS vision chips with embedded, programmable spatial f...

  20. Investigation report on establishment of new energy vision in Toyohashi area; Toyohashi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The 'new energy vision for Toyohashi (Aichi Prefecture) area' was established from the viewpoint that proliferation of new energy use, which is less familiar and higher in cost, requires induction by urban and environmental measures, and consistency with district characteristics. The achievements were put into order as the report on the Toyohashi area new energy vision and the investigation on the vision establishment. The vision is composed by the following four items: 1) basic matters concerning the vision, 2) ideas and policies of the vision, 3) major measures for introducing new energies, and 4) promotion of the vision. Item 3) presents the introduction measures, introduction project, and measure development by areas. Considerations on the introduction measures include enlightenment for proliferation, expansion in information provision, development of preferential treatments, initiative introduction into public facilities, and the measures to strengthen cooperative works by citizens, business entities, and the administration. The following four projects were set: introduction of wastes power generation into the Resource Production Center (wastes treatment plant), improvement of the surplus heat utilization facilities, and introduction of wind power generation into the General Agricultural Park. (NEDO)

  1. Investigation report on establishment of new energy vision in Toyohashi area; Toyohashi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The 'new energy vision for Toyohashi (Aichi Prefecture) area' was established from the viewpoint that proliferation of new energy use, which is less familiar and higher in cost, requires induction by urban and environmental measures, and consistency with district characteristics. The achievements were put into order as the report on the Toyohashi area new energy vision and the investigation on the vision establishment. The vision is composed by the following four items: 1) basic matters concerning the vision, 2) ideas and policies of the vision, 3) major measures for introducing new energies, and 4) promotion of the vision. Item 3) presents the introduction measures, introduction project, and measure development by areas. Considerations on the introduction measures include enlightenment for proliferation, expansion in information provision, development of preferential treatments, initiative introduction into public facilities, and the measures to strengthen cooperative works by citizens, business entities, and the administration. The following four projects were set: introduction of wastes power generation into the Resource Production Center (wastes treatment plant), improvement of the surplus heat utilization facilities, and introduction of wind power generation into the General Agricultural Park. (NEDO)

  2. Malavefes: A computational voice-enabled malaria fuzzy informatics software for correct dosage prescription of anti-malarial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga O. Oluwagbemi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the infectious diseases consistently inherent in many Sub-Sahara African countries. Among the issues of concern are the consequences of wrong diagnosis and dosage administration of anti-malarial drugs on sick patients; these have resulted into various degrees of complications ranging from severe headaches, stomach and body discomfort, blurred vision, dizziness, hallucinations, and in extreme cases, death. Many expert systems have been developed to support different infectious disease diagnoses, but not sure of any yet, that have been specifically designed as a voice-based application to diagnose and translate malaria patients’ symptomatic data for pre-laboratory screening and correct prescription of proper dosage of the appropriate medication. We developed Malavefes, (a malaria voice-enabled computational fuzzy expert system for correct dosage prescription of anti-malarial drugs using Visual Basic.NET., and Java programming languages. Data collation for this research was conducted by survey from existing literature and interview from public health experts. The database for this malaria drug informatics system was implemented using Microsoft Access. The Root Sum Square (RSS was implemented as the inference engine of Malavefes to make inferences from rules, while Centre of Gravity (CoG was implemented as the defuzzification engine. The drug recommendation module was voice-enabled. Additional anti-malaria drug expiration validation software was developed using Java programming language. We conducted a user-evaluation of the performance and user-experience of the Malavefes software. Keywords: Informatics, Bioinformatics, Fuzzy, Anti-malaria, Voice computing, Dosage prescription

  3. Quality of life in Nepalese patients with low vision and the impact of low vision services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Gyawali

    2012-10-01

    Conclusions: Low vision patients have poor quality of life as measured with the NEI VFQ-25. Low vision service is associated with improved visual function, better quality of life and high rate of patient satisfaction.

  4. A memory-array architecture for computer vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsara, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    With the fast advances in the area of computer vision and robotics there is a growing need for machines that can understand images at a very high speed. A conventional von Neumann computer is not suited for this purpose because it takes a tremendous amount of time to solve most typical image processing problems. Exploiting the inherent parallelism present in various vision tasks can significantly reduce the processing time. Fortunately, parallelism is increasingly affordable as hardware gets cheaper. Thus it is now imperative to study computer vision in a parallel processing framework. The author should first design a computational structure which is well suited for a wide range of vision tasks and then develop parallel algorithms which can run efficiently on this structure. Recent advances in VLSI technology have led to several proposals for parallel architectures for computer vision. In this thesis he demonstrates that a memory array architecture with efficient local and global communication capabilities can be used for high speed execution of a wide range of computer vision tasks. This architecture, called the Access Constrained Memory Array Architecture (ACMAA), is efficient for VLSI implementation because of its modular structure, simple interconnect and limited global control. Several parallel vision algorithms have been designed for this architecture. The choice of vision problems demonstrates the versatility of ACMAA for a wide range of vision tasks. These algorithms were simulated on a high level ACMAA simulator running on the Intel iPSC/2 hypercube, a parallel architecture. The results of this simulation are compared with those of sequential algorithms running on a single hypercube node. Details of the ACMAA processor architecture are also presented.

  5. Functional vision loss: a diagnosis of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Rex B; Ilsen, Pauline F

    2007-10-01

    Most cases of visual acuity or visual field loss can be attributed to ocular pathology or ocular manifestations of systemic pathology. They can also occasionally be attributed to nonpathologic processes or malingering. Functional vision loss is any decrease in vision the origin of which cannot be attributed to a pathologic or structural abnormality. Two cases of functional vision loss are described. In the first, a 58-year-old man presented for a baseline eye examination for enrollment in a vision rehabilitation program. He reported bilateral blindness since a motor vehicle accident with head trauma 4 years prior. Entering visual acuity was "no light perception" in each eye. Ocular health examination was normal and the patient made frequent eye contact with the examiners. He was referred for neuroimaging and electrophysiologic testing. The second case was a 49-year-old man who presented with a long history of intermittent monocular diplopia. His medical history was significant for psycho-medical evaluations and a diagnosis of factitious disorder. Entering uncorrected visual acuities were 20/20 in each eye, but visual field testing found constriction. No abnormalities were found that could account for the monocular diplopia or visual field deficit. A diagnosis of functional vision loss secondary to factitious disorder was made. Functional vision loss is a diagnosis of exclusion. In the event of reduced vision in the context of a normal ocular health examination, all other pathology must be ruled out before making the diagnosis of functional vision loss. Evaluation must include auxiliary ophthalmologic testing, neuroimaging of the visual pathway, review of the medical history and lifestyle, and psychiatric evaluation. Comanagement with a psychiatrist is essential for patients with functional vision loss.

  6. From Vision to Actuality: Translating the Organizing Vision of Mobile Technology in Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    Empirical evidence from a case study of the diffusion and adoption of mobile technology in a highly structured home care setting in Denmark shows how an organizational field vision of an efficient mobile technology was created and became transformed through diverse translation mechanisms...... the organizing vision for mobile technology in practice. Our findings show that an integration of the translation perspective not only furthers our understanding of the malleability of the organizing vision but also shows how actions at multiple levels interact to enable technology adoption and eventually...... institutionalization. Our study contributes to the increasing research on diffusion and adoption of mobile technologies within healthcare by challenging dominant single level analysis and factor-orientated approaches....

  7. Robot vision for nuclear advanced robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Ryoichi; Okano, Hideharu; Kuno, Yoshinori; Miyazawa, Tatsuo; Shimada, Hideo; Okada, Satoshi; Kawamura, Astuo

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes Robot Vision and Operation System for Nuclear Advanced Robot. This Robot Vision consists of robot position detection, obstacle detection and object recognition. With these vision techniques, a mobile robot can make a path and move autonomously along the planned path. The authors implemented the above robot vision system on the 'Advanced Robot for Nuclear Power Plant' and tested in an environment mocked up as nuclear power plant facilities. Since the operation system for this robot consists of operator's console and a large stereo monitor, this system can be easily operated by one person. Experimental tests were made using the Advanced Robot (nuclear robot). Results indicate that the proposed operation system is very useful, and can be operate by only person. (author)

  8. Integrating National Space Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines value proposition assumptions for various models nations may use to justify, shape, and guide their space programs. Nations organize major societal investments like space programs to actualize national visions represented by leaders as investments in the public good. The paper defines nine 'vision drivers' that circumscribe the motivations evidently underpinning national space programs. It then describes 19 fundamental space activity objectives (eight extant and eleven prospective) that nations already do or could in the future use to actualize the visions they select. Finally the paper presents four contrasting models of engagement among nations, and compares these models to assess realistic pounds on the pace of human progress in space over the coming decades. The conclusion is that orthogonal engagement, albeit unlikely because it is unprecedented, would yield the most robust and rapid global progress.

  9. Applications of AI, machine vision and robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Kim; Bunke, H

    1995-01-01

    This text features a broad array of research efforts in computer vision including low level processing, perceptual organization, object recognition and active vision. The volume's nine papers specifically report on topics such as sensor confidence, low level feature extraction schemes, non-parametric multi-scale curve smoothing, integration of geometric and non-geometric attributes for object recognition, design criteria for a four degree-of-freedom robot head, a real-time vision system based on control of visual attention and a behavior-based active eye vision system. The scope of the book pr

  10. FPGA Implementation of Computer Vision Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhonghua

    2014-01-01

    Computer vision algorithms, which play an significant role in vision processing, is widely applied in many aspects such as geology survey, traffic management and medical care, etc.. Most of the situations require the process to be real-timed, in other words, as fast as possible. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have a advantage of parallelism fabric in programming, comparing to the serial communications of CPUs, which makes FPGA a perfect platform for implementing vision algorithms. The...

  11. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered or...

  12. 21 CFR 886.5540 - Low-vision magnifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-vision magnifier. 886.5540 Section 886.5540...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5540 Low-vision magnifier. (a) Identification. A low-vision magnifier is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a patient...

  13. 21 CFR 886.5870 - Low-vision telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-vision telescope. 886.5870 Section 886.5870...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5870 Low-vision telescope. (a) Identification. A low-vision telescope is a device that consists of an arrangement of lenses or mirrors intended for...

  14. VISION- REQUIREMENT FOR A SUCCESSFUL LEADER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela - Olimpia Lobonea (Oltean

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available These people were called in the past chiefs, rulers. Now they are known as leaders. After management by objectives, strategic planning, project organization, this concept appears as a tool called "fourth generation". It is called VISION. Leadership and vision exist in the actual sense, which has become modern a few decades ago, managing to gather during this time a variety of scientific instruments. The connection between these two domains creates a certain type of leader, the visionary leader. The hypothesis from which we start is that all active leaders have a vision of what needs to be accomplished, and the inability to predict something that could be provided involves loss the capacity of the leader. Without vision, the energy reaches the lowest quotas, production decreases, terms limits are exceeded and human resources begin to dissipate.. The conclusion is that visionary leaders are endowed with multiple attributes (multiple intelligence, even if sometimes the role of intuition and unconscious in building vision at the expense of reason that is based on experience and facts is exaggerated.

  15. The Rate of Low Vision Aids Usage after Prescription at the Saba and Khazaneh Clinics in Low Vision Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Sadegh-Pour

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was aimed to determine the rate of low vision aids uses by low vision clients in their daily living. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive study that was done at the Saba and Khazaneh clinics, 50 people from low vision clients were selected by convenient sampling during 2005 & 2006. One questionnaire was completed by therapist at the first time of optometric examination and useful low vision aid (LVA has been prescript and given to clients. After three months (at least they should came back to center and fill the second form. The first form was about functional vision without LVA and second too, but by using of LVA. They have been compared to fulfill the result of research. Data were analyzed by Spearman correlation coefficient, Chi – square and Wilcoxon tests. Results: Spearman correlation coefficient between use of LVAs for near with duration and frequency of study were 0/491 and 0/520 with probability values such as P=0/003 and P=0/002 that shown significant relation. There was significant difference in traffic measure and environment knowing between before and after of far LVAs using (P=0/002 and their SCC was 0/499. There was significant relation between use of low vision aid and education after prescription (P=0/011. Conclusion: However the LVAs improve vision of low vision person, but many of them don’t use by different reasons.

  16. Multifocal central serous chorioretinopathy with photoreceptor-retinal pigment epithelium diastasis in heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao Qiang; Pryds, Anders; Carlsen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report atypical central serous chorioretinopathy and choroidal thickening in a patient with heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS: A 40-year-old man with heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension presented with blurred vision in his left eye and was followed up for 1 year...

  17. A System Dynamics Approach to the Efficacy of Oxime Therapy in Sub Lethal Exposure to Sarin Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    limited to blurred vision, eye pain, headaches, increased salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bowel or urinary incontinence (Cannard, 2006:87...Gearhart et al. Tissue Normalization Factors Arterial .02 L/kg Gearhart et al. Brain .0214 L/kg Gearhart et al. Diaphragm .003L/kg

  18. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutstein Robert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm.

  19. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutstein, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm. PMID:20534925

  20. Accommodation and convergence palsy caused by lesions in the bilateral rostral superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Kenji; Maeda, Sachie; Oguri, Naomi

    2002-03-01

    To report a patient who developed accommodation and convergence palsy caused by lesions in the bilateral rostral superior colliculus. Observational case report. A 30-year-old right-handed man experienced sudden onset of diplopia and blurred vision at near vision. The patient showed accommodation and convergence palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed lesions located in the bilateral rostral superior colliculus. These findings suggest that the rostral superior colliculus is involved in the control of accommodation and vergence eye movements.