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Sample records for bluff arsenal pine

  1. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  2. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  3. Learning to Bluff

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Evan

    2007-01-01

    The act of bluffing confounds game designers to this day. The very nature of bluffing is even open for debate, adding further complication to the process of creating intelligent virtual players that can bluff, and hence play, realistically. Through the use of intelligent, learning agents, and carefully designed agent outlooks, an agent can in fact learn to predict its opponents reactions based not only on its own cards, but on the actions of those around it. With this wider scope of understanding, an agent can in learn to bluff its opponents, with the action representing not an illogical action, as bluffing is often viewed, but rather as an act of maximising returns through an effective statistical optimisation. By using a tee dee lambda learning algorithm to continuously adapt neural network agent intelligence, agents have been shown to be able to learn to bluff without outside prompting, and even to learn to call each others bluffs in free, competitive play.

  4. Endwall convective heat transfer for bluff bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Salewski, Mirko; Sundén, Bengt; Borg, Andreas; Abrahamsson, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The endwall heat transfer characteristics of forced flow past bluff bodies have been investigated using liquid crystal thermography (LCT). The bluff body is placed in a rectangular channel with both its ends attached to the endwalls. The Reynolds number varies from 50,000 to 100,000. In this study......, a single bluff body and two bluff bodies arranged in tandem are considered. Due to the formation of horseshoe vortices, the heat transfer is enhanced appreciably for both cases. However, for the case of two bluff bodies in tandem, it is found that the presence of the second bluff body decreases the...... heat transfer as compared to the case of a single bluff body. In addition, the results show that the heat transfer exhibits Reynolds number similarity. For a single bluff body, the Nusselt number profiles collapse well when the data are scaled by Re0.55; for two bluff bodies arranged in tandem, the...

  5. A Bluff-Bidding Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, J. Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Consider an auction in which one potential buyer wishes to participate, but the other potential buyer would rather the bidding not start. However, once bidding starts, the reluctant firm participates (submits "bluff bids") simply to make the eventual winner pay more. This incentive exists when the marginal effect of the winning bid is to increase…

  6. Arsenal tour shows signs of life

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article about the first public tour of wildlife habitat on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Wildlife Refuge prior to refuge establishment.

  7. Fishery management scenarios : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The fishery resources at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) have been managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service since the early 1960's. Management activities included...

  8. A case of psychodynamic bluff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Ferraro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Each story is told, is reconstructed and becomes a reality but it is a “reconstruction” of their own reality, so it‟s always difficult to understand for the listener, the events actually occurred. The patient, “says ...”, but is it true? In some patients, what is narrated has the explicit right now as the “reconstruction”, the presence of “double” story, the true and false. Andrea is evident in the life of a serious shortage, or lack of care from which the most significant consequence is a severe disorder of the self and the lack of autonomy initial departure. There is an ever present in the life of Andrea, a noise: it is the “devaluation” of the other, the world itself and all of all things in life including of course the psychotherapies. All that Andrea is not a real thing, because there is always a double, which neutralizes the opposite have done, or rather what can rightly be part of its products is always missing from a condition of part, by a factor so that it becomes real, authentic. The bluff is a narcissistic disorder and is always connected to the authenticity of the self that is false, however, devalued and grandiose: the person tries to valorise itself but is always terrified, indeed the certainty that sooner or later everyone will see this true nature, therefore, prefer not attributable to the things that makes or obtains. The name Andrea hides something unknown to his own self, why has not developed its originality, had no love to be born as a person has held a life of bluffing, developing skills that he never felt like his, with a mechanism that invalidates all leading him to not ever esteem, not loving each other ever.

  9. The Hydrogen Economy as a Technological Bluff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen economy is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…

  10. Arsenal Workers During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-01-01

    During World War II, Arsenal workers from Huntsville, Alabama. and surrounding areas responded to the call for civilian defense workers. This February 20, 1945 photo shows workers filling colored smoke grenades that were used for signaling. (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  11. Observations of Permafrost Bluff Failure Processes, Barter Island, NE Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, L. H.; Richmond, B. M.; Gibbs, A.; Jones, B.

    2011-12-01

    Arctic coast permafrost bluffs are extremely vulnerable to increased thaw, erosion, and landward retreat in a warming climate. Here, we report on permafrost bluff retreat processes based on field observations of bluff geology and morphology during the summers of 2010 and 2011 combined with historical analyses of bluff retreat rates from the mid 1940s to the present for Barter Island, NE Alaska. Field data collected included GPS surveys of bluff position and morphology, geologic mapping including stratigraphy, sediment size and composition, ice content, nearshore bathymetry, and temperature gradients recorded by thermistor arrays. Failure mechanisms are the direct causes of failures and include wave action, water flow (both surface and groundwater), freeze/thaw impacts, and surficial weathering. Failure modes are the processes by which the failures occur such as undercutting (notching) and oversteepening of the bluff face, retrogressive thaw slumping, rotational failures, block falls, and gullying. Processes of failure observed along the Barter Island bluffs vary both temporally with seasonal changes in temperature and sea-ice conditions, and spatially associated with variations in bluff height and composition. In the spring and early summer, sediment-entrained land-fast ice recedes, removing and reworking sediment from the bluff and foreshore. Snow melt induces surface runoff and gullying, and is accompanied by thawing of the bluff face which begins to produce debris avalanches and small alluvial fans at the base of the bluffs where a backbeach is present. During the summer months, when sea-ice has retreated from the coast, thermo-erosional niching and mechanical notch formation occurs due to small storm waves and elevated water levels in response to winds and pressure differences. As bluff-face thawing continues large thaw slump failures and block falls begin to develop. In late summer and fall, before the sea ice returns, extra-tropical storms lead to increased

  12. Bluff Body Flow Control Using Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Flint

    2005-11-01

    In this study, the use of single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators for the control of bluff body flow separation is investigated. In particular, surface mounted plasma actuators are used to reduce both drag and unsteady vortex shedding from circular cylinders in cross-flow. It is demonstrated that the plasma-induced surface blowing gives rise to a local Coanda effect that promotes the maintenance of flow attachment. Large reductions in vortex shedding and drag are demonstrated for Reynolds numbers ˜ 10^410^5. Both steady and unsteady plasma-induced surface blowing is explored. Results are presented from experiments involving both two and four surface mounted actuators.

  13. 76 FR 78294 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities to Assist the Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...-50, 1000 Independence Ave, SW., Washington, DC 20585: (202) 586- 5422; GSA: Mr. Gordon Creed, Acting...-site removal only; sq. ft. varies; current use: lab/test bldg. Bldg. 57260 Pine Bluff Arsenal...

  14. Mercury audit at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.M.; Jensen, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, G.M. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of an environmental compliance audit to identify potential mercury-containing equipment in 261 building and 197 tanks at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA). The RMA, located near Denver, Colorado, is undergoing clean up and decommissioning by the Department of the Army. Part of the decommissioning procedure is to ensure that all hazardous wastes are properly identified and disposed of. The purpose of the audit was to identify any mercury spills and mercury-containing instrumentation. The audit were conducted from April 7, 1992, through July 16, 1992, by a two-person team. The team interviewed personnel with knowledge of past uses of the buildings and tanks. Information concerning past mercury spills and the locations and types of instrumentation that contain mercury proved to be invaluable for an accurate survey of the arsenal. The team used a Jerome{reg_sign} 431-X{trademark} Mercury Vapor Analyzer to detect spills and confirm locations of mercury vapor. Twelve detections were recorded during the audit and varied from visible mercury spills to slightly elevated readings in the corners of rooms with past spills. The audit also identified instrumentation that contained mercury. All data have been incorporated into a computerized data base that is compatible with the RMA data base.

  15. Evaluation of In Situ Combustion for Schrader Bluff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathi, P.; Strycker, A.; Wang, S.

    1999-03-11

    The focus of this report is on the results related to evaluation of in situ combustion processes applied to Schrader Bluff. Initially, overall screening processes were applied to determine which of the EOR methods, were most appropriate for Schrader Bluff. In situ combustion was among the methods considered potentially favorable and was evaluated further. Laboratory scale tube runs were conducted to determine if the kinetic parameters for the crude oil were favorable. Additional sensitivity studies were conducted to evaluate the recovery potential. Described in this report are the results of the (1) initial screening,(2) experimental tube runs, and (3) simulation sensitivity studies as related to in situ combustion in Schrader Bluff.

  16. Particle Methods in Bluff Body Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj

    flow. The method is validated by simulating the turbulent flow past a flat plate and past the Great Belt East bridge, the Øresund bridge and the Busan-Geoje bridge. The dissertation introduces a novel multiresolution vortex-in-cell algorithm using patches of varying resolution. The Poisson equation...... important. This dissertation focuses on the use of vortex particle methods and computational efficiency. The work is divided into three parts. A novel method for the simulation of the aerodynamic admittance in bluff body aerodynamics is presented. The method involves a model for describing oncoming...... turbulence in two-dimensional discrete vortex method simulations by seeding the upstream flow with vortex particles. The turbulence is generated prior to the simulations and is based on analytic spectral densities of the atmospheric turbulence and a coherence function defining the spatial correlation of the...

  17. Un proyecto de arsenal para la Barceloneta (1743 / An Arsenal Project in La Barceloneta (1743

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de la Fuente de Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1743 el ingeniero militar Miguel Marín diseñó un arsenal naval en Barcelona. En este artículo se estudia el contexto inmediato de este proyecto. Primeramente, la voluntad de trasladar la principal base naval mediterránea de Cartagena a la capital catalana. En segundo lugar, la relación centro-periferia y el papel del lobby catalán dentro del proceso.In 1743 Miguel Marín, a military engineer, designed the marine arsenal in Barcelona. In this paper, we study the background of this project. Firstly, the willingness to move the Mediterranean base of the Spanish Navy from Cartagena to the capital of Catalonia. Secondly, the centre-periphery relationship and the role of Catalan lobby in this process.

  18. Jackson Bluff Hydroelectric Project. Feasibility assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    A feasibility assessment study was conducted to determine if it is economical to reinstall hydroelectric generating units at the existing Jackson Bluff Dam on the Ochlockonee River in Florida. The studies and investigations have included site reconnaissance, system loads, growth rate, site hydrology, conceptual project arrangements and layouts, power output, estimates of construction costs and annual costs, economic analyses, development of a design and construction schedule and a preliminary environmental review of the proposed Project. It was concluded that the Project poses no unusual technical problems and no significant adverse environmental effects are anticipated. It shows sufficient promise of technical, economic and financial feasibility, to justify the City entering into the next phase of work, the FERC License Application, as soon as possible. The site can be restored for an investment of $9.9 to $10.4 million to establish 8.8 MW of capacity and produce 24,920 MWh of electrical energy annually, and in 10 years would save over $4 million as compared with current fuel costs for operating an oil-fueled power plant. (LCL)

  19. China's nuclear arsenal and missile defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few years, major focus of the nuclear debate has been turned towards the United States' proposal to erect a National Missile Defence (NMD) shield for itself. Of the existing nuclear weapon powers, China has been the most vociferous critic of this proposal. As and when this shield does become a reality, China will be the first to lose credibility as a deterrent against USA's existing nuclear arsenal. Therefore taking countermeasures against such a proposal is quite natural. China's approach towards non-proliferation mechanisms is steeped in realpolitik and its ability to manoeuvre them in its favour as a P5 and N5 power. Further, the Chinese leadership have been clear about the capabilities and limitations of nuclear weapons and treated them as diplomatic and political tools. The underlying aim is to preserve China's status as a dominant player in the international system while checkmating other possible challengers. Such a pragmatic approach is of far-reaching significance to all nations, especially those that possess nuclear weapons themselves. It will also be in India's long-term strategic interest to assess and take necessary corrective measures in its national security strategy, and make the composition of Indian nuclear strategy meet the desired goal. (author)

  20. Rocky Mountain Arsenal is showing off its wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on the first tours of wildlife habitat at Rocky Mountain Arsenal prior to refuge establishment. Tours are sponsored by the Denver Audubon Society.

  1. Bison Tissue Contaminant Study - Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There is a well-documented history of disturbance and contamination from previous activities on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. In April 2013,...

  2. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Habitat Management Plan identifies important wildlife resources on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge and the management strategies that will...

  3. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Restoration Site Histories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project contains a collection of restoration site histories for the cleanup restoration at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. This project...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all nonmotorized trails on Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory...

  5. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  6. Bluff recession rates along the Lake Michigan shoreline in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibson, R.W.; Staude, J.-M.

    1992-01-01

    For two time periods, 1872-1937 and 1937-1987, rates of retreat vary from 10 to 75 cm/yr between discrete segments of bluffs (defined by lithology) and between time periods for a given bluff segment. The average retreat rates for the entire area, however, do not vary significantly between the two time periods and are approximately 20-25 cm/yr. The temporally constant regional retreat rates and the regular shape of the local shoreline indicate that a long-term uniform rate of retreat prevails and that local variations in rates balance out through time to produce long-term parallel (in map view) bluff retreat in the area. -from Authors

  7. Physics-based aeroacoustic modelling of bluff-bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Peers, Edward

    2009-01-01

    In this work physics-based modelling of bluff-body noise was performed with application to landing gear noise production. The landing gear is a primary contributor to airframe noise during approach. Noise is primarily generated from the unsteady pressures resulting from the turbulent flow around various components. The research was initiated in response to the need for an improved understanding of landing gear noise prediction tools. A computational approach was adopted so that the noise ...

  8. Simplified flutter prediction for bridges with bluff cross-section

    OpenAIRE

    Starossek, Uwe

    1994-01-01

    Wind-induced flutter of bridges occurs as coupled torsional and vertical oscillation, or uncoupled torsional oscillation. Bridges with bluff, non-streamlined sections are prone to torsional flutter. Prediction of torsional flutter on the basis of measured aerodynamic derivatives essentially corresponds to the prediction of coupled flutter, although, compared to the latter, it can be largely simplified. The theoretical background is discussed and the given formulae are checked against empirica...

  9. Bluff body flow control with atmospheric plasma actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, X.; Zhang, X.; Gabriel, S

    2008-01-01

    Plasma actuators operating in atmospheric air were employed to modify aerodynamic flow over a bluff body. The model consisted of a cylinder and a strut that was installed on the trailing half side of the cylinder. The objective was to reduce the broadband noise that is mainly generated by the impingment of the cylinder wake on the strut. The plasma actuators were configured to produce dielectric barrier discharges, through which the flow separation from the cylinder was enhanced. As a result ...

  10. Lean blowoff of bluff body stabilized flames. Scaling and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanbhogue, Santosh J.; Husain, Sajjad; Lieuwen, Tim [Daniel Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 270 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    This paper overviews the dynamics of bluff body stabilized flames and describes the phenomenology of the blowoff process. The first section of the paper provides an overview of the fluid mechanics of the non-reacting and reacting bluff body wake flow. It highlights the key features of the flow (the boundary layer, separated shear layer, and wake), the flow instabilities that influence each of these features, and the influences of the flame on these instabilities. A key point from these studies is the large differences between the non-reacting wake (dominated by an absolutely unstable, sinuous instability associated with vortex shedding from the bluff body) and the reacting wake of high dilatation ratio flames. The latter are dominated by the lower intensity, convective instability of the shear layer. Very low dilatation ratio flames begin to approach the behavior of the non-reacting wake, as might be expected. Next, the paper presents a compilation of bluff body blowoff data from the literature and shows that the basic Damkoehler correlations developed from prior studies are recovered, but without the need for semi-empirical fits or adjustable constants for chemical time estimation. The third section considers in detail the dynamics and phenomenology of near blowoff flames. It is shown that spatio/temporally localized extinction occurs sporadically on near blowoff flames, manifested as 'holes' in the flame sheet that form and convect downstream. However, these extinction events are distinct from blowoff - in fact, under certain conditions the flame can persist indefinitely with certain levels of local extinction. The number of these events per unit time increase as blowoff is approached, eventually leading to large scale alteration of the wake. We hypothesize that simple Damkoehler number correlations contain the essential physics describing the initial stage of blowoff; i.e., they are correlations for the conditions where local extinction on the flame

  11. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from transverse galloping of bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkefi, A.; Hajj, M. R.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of harvesting energy from transverse galloping oscillations of a bluff body with different cross-section geometries is investigated. The energy is harvested by attaching a piezoelectric transducer to the transverse degree of freedom of the body. The power levels that can be generated from these vibrations and the variations of these levels with the load resistance, cross-section geometry, and freestream velocity are determined. A representative model that accounts for the transverse displacement of the bluff body and harvested voltage is presented. The quasi-steady approximation is used to model the aerodynamic loads. A linear analysis is performed to determine the effects of the electrical load resistance and the cross-section geometry on the onset of galloping, which is due to a Hopf bifurcation. The normal form of this bifurcation is derived to determine the type (supercritical or subcritical) of the instability and to characterize the effects of the linear and nonlinear parameters on the level of harvested power near the bifurcation. The results show that the electrical load resistance and the cross-section geometry affect the onset speed of galloping. The results also show that the maximum levels of harvested power are accompanied with minimum transverse displacement amplitudes for all considered (square, D, and triangular) cross-section geometries, which points to the need for performing a coupled analysis of the system.

  12. Fighting Online Click-Fraud Using Bluff Ads

    CERN Document Server

    Haddadi, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Online advertising is currently the greatest source of revenue for many Internet giants. The increased number of specialized websites and modern profiling techniques, have all contributed to an explosion of the income of ad brokers from online advertising. The single biggest threat to this growth, is however, click-fraud. Trained botnets and even individuals are hired by click-fraud specialists in order to maximize the revenue of certain users from the ads they publish on their websites, or to launch an attack between competing businesses. In this note we wish to raise the awareness of the networking research community on potential research areas within this emerging field. As an example strategy, we present Bluff ads; a class of ads that join forces in order to increase the effort level for click-fraud spammers. Bluff ads are either targeted ads, with irrelevant display text, or highly relevant display text, with irrelevant targeting information. They act as a litmus test for the legitimacy of the individual...

  13. The Interaction Vortex Flow Around Two Bluff Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirao K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction vortex flow features around a pair of parallel arranged bluff cylinders were observed by visualizing water flow experiment at the range of the gap ratio G/d=0~3. It was obtained that the result of established wind tunnel test and the result of this water tank test agreed about the characteristics of vortex shedding when varying the distance of circular cylinder gap. The flow pattern and vortex shedding frequency of another type bluff cylinder (triangular and square cylinder were also investigated. As a result of the experiment, it was shown that the flow pattern of wake flow was divided into three kinds (coupled vortex streets, biased gap flow and single vortex street regardless of the cylinder section shape and cylinder size. Then, the region of the appearance of flow pattern was shown about each case. In the case where two each other independent vortex streets were formed, three typical flow patterns of vortex formation (in-phase coupled vortex streets, out-of-phase coupled vortex streets and complication coupled vortex streets were observed. It was known that three configuration of vortex formation appear intermittently and alternatively.

  14. REVIEW OF PASSIVE DRAG REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR BLUFF ROAD VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaman Altaf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:This paper presents a review of the techniques used to reduce aerodynamic drag over bluff bodies such as cylinders, spheres, 2D bodies with blunt backs and their application to commercial road vehicles.  The recent research carried out on the drag reduction is presented and categorised. A new classification of the techniques is introduced and major contributions under them are shown. It can be concluded that there is not much work done with realistic 3D bluff bodies, especially using passive methods.ABSTRAK: Kertas kerja ini membentangkan kaji selidik semula teknik yang digunakan untuk mengurangkan seret aerodinamik ke atas jasad tubir seperti silinder, sfera, jasad 2D dengan belakang tumpul dan aplikasinya terhadap kenderaan jalan raya komersial. Pengurangan seretan dibentangkan dan dikategorikan dengan kajian terkini. Klasifikasi teknik terkini diperkenalkan dan sumbangan utamanya diperbentangkan.  Secara kesimpulannya terdapat banyak tugasan yang tidak yang dapat dijalankan dengan menggunakan jasad tubir 3D sebenar, terutamanya dengan penggunaan kaedah pasif.

  15. Arsenals : tummalt kõnekas / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Tänavusel Riia filmifestivalil Arsenals nähtust, eelkõige huvitavatest tummfilmiajastu filmidest, sealhulgas Läti esimesest mängufilmist "Kus on tõde? Või juudi naiskursuslase tragöödia" (produtsent S. Mintus, 1913). Lisatud info "Eesti film võitis Riias mitu auhinda", millest nähtub, et Balti võistlusprogrammis oli parim mängufilm "Sügisball", parim dokfilm "Vastutuulesaal" ja publikupreemia ning ühe oikumeenilise žürii preemia sai "Klass"

  16. Ekonomika fotbalového klubu Arsenal F.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Vašata, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is description and the evaluation of economic situation of the professional sports club Arsenal FC, which plays in the English Premier League. The first part of my thesis focus on the theoretical introduction and d escription of economic functioning of a sports club and characterize marketing of sports clubs. In this part i will also aim at UEFA Financial Fair Play and its impact on football clubs. Next I describe methods as vertical horizontal and SWOT analysis. In the...

  17. The Security of Russia's Nuclear Arsenal: The Human Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assertions by the Russian military that all of their nuclear weapons are secure against theft and that nuclear units within the military are somehow insulated from the problems plaguing the Russian military should not be accepted uncritically. Accordingly, we should not give unwarranted credence to the pronouncements of military figures like Cal.-Gen. Igor Valynkin, Chief of the Defense Ministry's 12th Main Directorate, which oversees the country's nuclear arsenal. He contends that ''Russian nuclear weapons are under reliable supervision'' and that ''talk about the unreliability of our control over nuclear weapons has only one pragmatic goal--to convince international society that the country is incapable of maintaining nuclear safety and to introduce international oversight over those weapons, as it is done, for example, in Iraq.'' While the comparison to Iraq is preposterous, many analysts might agree with Valynkin's sanguine appraisal of the security of Russia's nuclear weapons. In contrast, I argue that the numerous difficulties confronting the military as a whole should cause concern in the West over the security of the Russian nuclear arsenal

  18. A numerical analysis of the unsteady flow past bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M. S. U. K.; Modi, V. J.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes in detail a relatively sophisticated numerical approach, using the Boundary Element Method in conjunction with the Discrete Vortex Model, to represent the complex unsteady flow field around a bluff body with separating shear layers. Important steps in the numerical analysis of this challenging problem are discussed and a performance evaluation algorithm established. Of considerable importance is the effect of computational parameters such as number of elements representing the geometry, time-step size, location of the nascent vortices, etc., on the accuracy of results and the associated cost. As an example, the method is applied to the analysis of the flow around a stationary Savonius rotor. A detailed parametric study provides fundamental information concerning the starting torque time histories, evolution of the wake, Strouhal number, etc. A comparison with the wind tunnel test data shows remarkable correlation suggesting considerable promise for the approach.

  19. Environmental contaminants in shortnose sturgeon from Bears Bluff National Fish Hatchery, Wadmalaw Island, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a federally‐listed endangered species. In 2008, eleven shortnose sturgeon, reared at the Bears Bluff National...

  20. Influence of diffuser angle on a bluff body in ground effect

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhrmann, Andreas; Xin ZHANG

    2003-01-01

    The forces and pressures on a generic bluff body in ground effect were investigated. The bluff-body model was equipped with interchangeable underbody diffuser ramps and side plates. Five different diffuser angles were tested: 5, 10, 15, 17, and 20 deg to the horizontal. The experiments were undertaken in a low-speed wind tunnel equipped with a moving ground. Load cells, pressure taps, and surface flow visualization were the techniques used to evaluate the flow field. The flow field is charact...

  1. Assessing landslide potential on coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington—Geologic site characterization for hydrologic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Smith, Joel B.; Benjamin Stark; York Lewis; Abigail Michel; Baum, Rex L.

    2016-01-01

    During the summer 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected geologic and geotechnical data for two sites on coastal bluffs along the eastern shore of Puget Sound, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey also installed hydrologic instrumentation at the sites and collected specimens for laboratory testing. The two sites are located on City of Mukilteo open-space land and are about 0.6 kilometers apart. The bluffs at each site are approximately 42 meters high, and rise steeply from the shoreline with 32–35° slopes. The more northerly of the two sites occupies an active landslide and is mostly unvegetated. The other site is forested, and although stable during the preparation of this report, shows evidence of historical and potential landslide activity. The slopes of the bluffs at both sites are mantled by a thin, nonuniform colluvium underlain by clay-rich glacial deposits and tills of the Whidbey Formation or Double Bluff Drift. Till consisting of sand, gravel, and cobbles caps the bluffs and rests on finer grained glacial deposits of sand, silt, and clay. These types of different glacial deposits are dense, vertically fractured, and generally have low permeability, but field observations indicate that locally the deposits are sufficiently permeable to allow lateral flow of water along fractures and subhorizontal boundaries between deposits of different texture. Laboratory tests indicate that many of the deposits are highly plastic, with low hydraulic conductivity, and moderate shear strength. Steep slopes combined with the strength and hydraulic characteristics of the deposits leave the bluffs prone to slope instability, particularly during the wet season when infiltrating rainfall changes moisture content, pore-water pressure, and effective stress within the hillslope. The instrumentation was designed to primarily observe rainfall variability and hydrologic changes in the subsurface that can affect stability of the bluffs, and also to compare the hydrologic

  2. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Structures around Cylindrical Bluff Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Yagmur Sercan; Dogan Sercan; Aksoy Muharrem H.; Canli Eyub; Ozgoren Muammer

    2015-01-01

    The understanding and quantitative prediction of velocity and pressure fluctuations in turbulent flows around such bluff bodies have been evolving over the years. The main aim of the present work is to investigate experimentally and numerically the flow field in the wake region of different bluff bodies such as circular, square and triangle cross section cylinders placed horizontally perpendicular to the uniform flow. The experimental studies were performed by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)...

  3. The anchoring mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanism of the laminar premixed flame anchoring near a heat-conducting bluff-body. We use unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. No artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions were imposed. Simulations show a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. A steel bluff-body resulted in a slightly larger recirculation zone than a ceramic bluff-body; the size of which grew as the equivalence ratio was decreased. A significant departure from the conventional two-zone flame-structure is shown in the anchoring region. In this region, the reaction zone is associated with a large negative energy convection (directed from products to reactants) resulting in a negative flame-displacement speed. It is shown that the premixed flame anchors at an immediate downstream location near the bluff-body where favorable ignition conditions are established; a region associated with (1) a sufficiently high temperature impacted by the conjugate heat exchange between the heat-conducting bluff-body and the hot reacting flow and (2) a locally maximum stoichiometry characterized by the preferential diffusion effects. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  4. Vortex dynamics and flapping patterns of the inverted flag with a bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeonseong; Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2015-11-01

    Flow-induced vibration of flexible structures for energy harvesting has drawn attention recently. The inverted flag whose trailing edge is clamped and leading edge is free to move was known to self-excite in a uniform flow of both water and air. In this study, we investigated the effect of an upstream bluff body, a flat plate, on the dynamics of the downstream inverted flag. Periodic vortical structures created by an upstream bluff body make the dynamics of the inverted flag quite different from those of the inverted flag without the bluff body. We examined the motion of the inverted flag by varying the relative displacement of the inverted flag from the bluff body and their relative size. Our results show that the inverted flag can flap with higher frequency and larger amplitude with the upstream bluff body. We also compared the dynamics of the inverted flag with those of the general flag with the upstream bluff body. In order to better understand the dynamics of the flag, the analysis of the flow patterns using particle image velocimetry was also conducted.

  5. Jack Pines and Walleyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Glendon

    1982-01-01

    Secondary school students in Pine River, Minnesota, need enough common knowledge to compete with graduates of other schools, but educators must keep in mind--as they move toward a more uniform curriculum--that each community is unique. (Author/RW)

  6. Short-Term Bluff Recession Behavior Along Pennsylvania's Great Lakes Coastline, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, A. M.; Naber, M. D.; Pluta, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal bluff retreat is a common problem along the world's unconsolidated coastlines. On the Great Lakes coast of Pennsylvania, Quaternary clay-rich glacial till, paleo-lake plain, and sandy strandplain sequences overlie Devonian bedrock. These Quaternary strata are subject to subaerial and lacustrine erosional processes that cause permanent coastal land loss at spatially variable rates, with the former (runoff, slumping, groundwater focusing, etc) dominating over the latter (wave and current scour, abrasion, etc). Land loss is of concern to environmental agencies because land-use planning should account for spatial and temporal variability in land-loss rates, and because bluff erosion contributes to a temporary degradation in coastal water quality. The goal of this study is to evaluate spatial variability in bluff retreat rates along a 20 km sector of Pennsylvania's short Great Lakes coast. High resolution LiDAR data covering a one-decade time frame (1998-2007) permit bluff-crest mapping on two comparable data sets that captures change within a timeframe similar to CZM planning intervals. Short-term recession data can be more useful, cost-effective, and accurate than long-term analyses that use lower-resolution field measurements, T-sheets, and historical aerial photography. Bluffs along the 20 km coastal study site consist of up to 26 m of unlithified Quaternary sediments overlying a 1-4 m ledge of sub-horizontal Devonian shale and sandstone. Bluff slopes range from 20-90 degrees, beaches are narrow (recession can locally exceed 11 m/yr. In general, bluffs retreat relatively linearly where poorly-vegetated glacial till dominates the bluff stratigraphy, while along higher-elevation strandplain-capped bluff sections, rotational earth slumps (<100 m diameter) are well developed. Retreat rates are highest at slump areas and at 1st - 2nd order ravines (100-300 m in length). Both of these settings are associated with focused groundwater discharge from thin lake plain

  7. Numerical simulation of separated flows past bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Andreas Neophytou

    1986-12-01

    The steady two-dimensional flow past bluff bodies is simulated numerically using a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian model. The boundary layer effects, such as the location of the separation points and the rate of the generation of vorticity, are determined by a boundary layer solver. This solver uses Prandtl's boundary layer equations transformed by the Falkner-Skan transformation and then solved using a cubic spline approximation and a mean weighted residual technique. The vorticity generated at separation is discretized into elemental point vortices and convected downstream into the wake in a Lagrangian manner. The wake is modeled in a finite Eulerian computational domain using a modified Cloud-in-Cell (CIC) method. The velocity field at each time step is obtained as a solution to the rotationality condition using the finite element method in a cartesian mesh with nine-node elements and biquadratic shape functions. The biquadratic shape functions introduce a higher order interpolation scheme for the distribution of the vorticity at the nodal points than the bilinear (area) interpolation used in the original CIC method. The higher order interpolation as used in the CIC formulation performs better than the bilinear interpolation of the original method. This is demonstrated by the simulation of an isolated Rankine vortex. The ability of the CIC method to simulate the dynamics of vortex structures is also tested for the cases of flow past a flat plate and a circular cylinder.

  8. Direct numerical simulation of bluff-body-stabilized premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Arias, Paul G.

    2014-01-10

    To enable high fidelity simulation of combustion phenomena in realistic devices, an embedded boundary method is implemented into direct numerical simulations (DNS) of reacting flows. One of the additional numerical issues associated with reacting flows is the stable treatment of the embedded boundaries in the presence of multicomponent species and reactions. The implemented method is validated in two test con gurations: a pre-mixed hydrogen/air flame stabilized in a backward-facing step configuration, and reactive flows around a square prism. The former is of interest in practical gas turbine combustor applications in which the thermo-acoustic instabilities are a strong concern, and the latter serves as a good model problem to capture the vortex shedding behind a bluff body. In addition, a reacting flow behind the square prism serves as a model for the study of flame stabilization in a micro-channel combustor. The present study utilizes fluid-cell reconstruction methods in order to capture important flame-to-solid wall interactions that are important in confined multicomponent reacting flows. Results show that the DNS with embedded boundaries can be extended to more complex geometries without loss of accuracy and the high fidelity simulation data can be used to develop and validate turbulence and combustion models for the design of practical combustion devices.

  9. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2012: Individual refuge results for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge and is part of the USGS Data Series 754. The...

  10. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Fiscal year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal outlines activities and accomplishments during the 2003 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction...

  11. Integrated Pest Management Plan For Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal...

  12. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal year 1994 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 fiscal year. The report begins with...

  13. Health of mule and white-tailed deer at Rocky Mountain Arsenal : March-April 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer(~ virginianus), reside within the Arsenal. Little information about the health of these animals in relation to...

  14. Irondale Gulch : Draft Water Management Plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal and Irondale Gulch draft Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The...

  15. [Draft] Black-tailed prairie dog management plan : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan provides a framework or set of guidelines providing for a sustainable black-tailed prairie dog population at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National...

  16. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  17. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  18. Investigation of vortical flow over bluff bodies with base cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Cheng Pan; Jin-Sheng Cai

    2012-01-01

    Based on our previous research about drag reduction in term of the base cavity length using two dimensional simulations,this paper describes a numerical study of a bluff body of which the number of base cavities is successively increased and the cavity geometries are also modified to assume different shapes.Here we attempt to find an effective configuration to reduce the drag by increasing the number of base cavities.The numerical simulations examining varied number of base cavities reveal the presence of different strength of vortices in the wake zone which is the reason why the drag coefficients are distinctly different for different cases.In the case with double and triple rectangular cavities,we use the pressure contours snapshots at successive time instants to describe the wake evolution.We further investigate the effect of variable base cavity shapes for a constant cavity length at an identical time instant.A total of two different geometries of base cavities are discussed here:the rectangular and the sinusoidal cavities with sharp and rounded trailing edges,respectively.The numerical results reveal that the former is an effective drag reduction configuration which can produce a significant base pressure recovery corresponding to the strength of the vortices shown in the pressure contour figures.While the latter shows no obvious reduction in drag coefficient and a similar intensity of vortex in the wake zone compared with the unmodified case.Reductions in drag are observed for all the investigated cavity configurations,and additionally it is found that the magnitude of the reduction bears a direct relationship with the number of the cavities up to a certain minimum value.

  19. DNS of turbulent flow past a bluff body with a compliant tensegrity surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Anish; Bewley, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study turbulent incompressible flow past a bluff body with a compliant surface. We use a 3D time-dependent coordinate transformation to account for the motion of the bluff body surface. Spatially, the flow domain is discretized using a dealiased pseudospectral method in the axial and azimuthal directions, while the radial (wall-normal) direction is discretized using a finite difference scheme. The grid is stretched in the azimuthal direction, which is handled spectrally. This leads to a unique challenge when solving the Poisson equation in the fractional step method for the time march, which we address with both multigrid and preconditioned BiCGStab algorithms. We are presently extending this flow code with a model for the compliant bluff body surface based on the ``tensegrity fabric'' paradigm which combines compressive members (bars) and tensile members (tendons) in a stable, flexible network.

  20. Finalization of the feasibility study for Rocky Mountain arsenal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental remediation program at the Army's premier cleanup site, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, is fast approaching the climax of the study phase and will be moving into the cleanup phase. Selecting the cleanup approach for this extremely complex site involves addressing a number of precedent-setting issues. The Remedial Investigation (RI) for this 27-sq. mile former Army chemical munitions and commercial pesticide manufacturing facility, completed in January 1992, included the collection of over 50,000 samples from soil, surface water, groundwater, structures, air and plants and animals. Samples were analyzed for over 60 specific chemical analytes and screened for hundreds of others. The RI found a number of contaminated groundwater plumes, hundreds of contaminated structures, high concentrations of contaminants in soils in former disposal basins and manufacturing areas and buried munitions. Some of the major contaminants targeted for remediation include benzene, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, dibromochloropropane, diisopropylmethyl phosphonate, aldrin, adieldrin, isodrin, chlordane, lead, arsenic and mercury. The Feasibility Study (FS) has reviewed potential remediation alternatives. The first phase of the FS, the Development and Screening of Alternatives (DSA) presented a range of alternatives. An equally complex and parallel study, the Integrated Endangerment Assessment, is in final stages. The goal of the second phase of the FS, the Detailed Analysis of Alternatives (DAA), is to analyze the soils, water and structures alternatives retained in the DSA in greater technical detail. The Army's draft version of the DAA, released in the Fall of 1993, has proposed a wide range of alternatives to remediate 27 different contamination groups and is included in the presentation

  1. Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schelhas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and enemy tribes, led to the establishment of the fire dependent and fire tolerant longleaf pine across the southern landscape. In the last 3 centuries however, the range of longleaf ecosystem has been gradually replaced first by agriculture and then by loblolly pine farming. The joint effects of agricultural expansion, intense logging of the longleaf in the late 1800s, expanded fire control since the early 20th century, and subsequent bare-root planting beginning in the 1930s, has permitted loblolly pine to become dominantly established in the south. Longleaf and loblolly pines represent two distinct woodland uses and represent separate human values. This study investigated the change from longleaf pine use to loblolly pine farming in Southern US from perspectives of human values of land and natural resources.

  2. Site investigation of Bluff, May 24-26, 1983: Trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the site visit were to 1) familiarize ourselves with Bluff in relation to present and future proposals to mine by dredge, near-shore sed5ments for...

  3. Legionella pneumophila, armed to the hilt: justifying the largest arsenal of effectors in the bacterial world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Alexander W

    2016-02-01

    Many bacterial pathogens use dedicated translocation systems to deliver arsenals of effector proteins to their hosts. Once inside the host cytosol, these effectors modulate eukaryotic cell biology to acquire nutrients, block microbial degradation, subvert host defenses, and enable pathogen transmission to other hosts. Among all bacterial pathogens studied to date, the gram-negative pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, maintains the largest arsenal of effectors, with over 330 effector proteins translocated by the Dot/Icm type IVB translocation system. In this review, I will discuss some of the recent work on understanding the consequences of this large arsenal. I will also present several models that seek to explain how L. pneumophila has acquired and subsequently maintained so many more effectors than its peers. PMID:26709975

  4. Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer across a bluff body in a channel flow

    OpenAIRE

    Taymaz Imdat; Aslan Erman; Benim Ali Cemal

    2015-01-01

    The Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a two-dimensional channel with a built-in bluff body. In this study, a triangular prism is taken as the bluff body. Not only the momentum transport, but also the energy transport is modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is us...

  5. Large Eddy Simulation of Swirling Jet in a Bluff-Body Burner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yohei FUJIMOTO; Yuzo INOKUCHI; Nobuhiko YAMASAKI

    2005-01-01

    The large eddy simulation (LES) is applied to an unconfined swirling flow of an air surrounding a bluff-body having a central jet of air, and the complicated flowfield that involves the recirculation and vortex breakdown is investigated. The Smagorinsky model is used as the sub-grid scale model. The results of the present numerical simulation are compared with the experimental data of the mean and stochastic root mean square (RMS)variations of two velocity components. Although the inflow conditions are specified in a simple manner, the obtained numerical results are in reasonable agreement with the experiments, except for a part of RMS variation values near downstream of the bluff body. The present numerical calculations can successfully reproduce the two characteristics of the flow, i.e., an upstream recirculation zone established just downstream of the burner plane and the additional recirculation zone established at the more downstream location.

  6. Orientation of bluff body for designing efficient energy harvesters from vortex-induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, H. L. [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Abdelkefi, A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Yang, Y., E-mail: cywyang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, L. [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-02-01

    The characteristics and performances of four distinct vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) piezoelectric energy harvesters are experimentally investigated and compared. The difference between these VIV energy harvesters is the installation of the cylindrical bluff body at the tip of cantilever beam with different orientations (bottom, top, horizontal, and vertical). Experiments show that the synchronization regions of the bottom, top, and horizontal configurations are almost the same at low wind speeds (around 1.5 m/s). The vertical configuration has the highest wind speed for synchronization (around 3.5 m/s) with the largest harvested power, which is explained by its highest natural frequency and the smallest coupled damping. The results lead to the conclusion that to design efficient VIV energy harvesters, the bluff body should be aligned with the beam for low wind speeds (<2 m/s) and perpendicular to the beam at high wind speeds (>2 m/s)

  7. Orientation of bluff body for designing efficient energy harvesters from vortex-induced vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics and performances of four distinct vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) piezoelectric energy harvesters are experimentally investigated and compared. The difference between these VIV energy harvesters is the installation of the cylindrical bluff body at the tip of cantilever beam with different orientations (bottom, top, horizontal, and vertical). Experiments show that the synchronization regions of the bottom, top, and horizontal configurations are almost the same at low wind speeds (around 1.5 m/s). The vertical configuration has the highest wind speed for synchronization (around 3.5 m/s) with the largest harvested power, which is explained by its highest natural frequency and the smallest coupled damping. The results lead to the conclusion that to design efficient VIV energy harvesters, the bluff body should be aligned with the beam for low wind speeds (<2 m/s) and perpendicular to the beam at high wind speeds (>2 m/s)

  8. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  9. The blow-off mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2015-04-01

    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. The objective of this work is to investigate the dynamics leading to blow-off of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on a confined bluff-body using high fidelity numerical simulations. We used unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. The flame-wall interaction between the hot reactants and the heat conducting bluff-body was accurately captured by incorporating the conjugate heat exchange between them. Simulations showed a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. The flame was negatively stretched along its entire length, primarily dominated by the normal component of the strain. Blow-off was approached by decreasing the mixture equivalence ratio, at a fixed Reynolds number, of the incoming flow. A flame is stable (does not undergo blow-off) when (1) flame displacement speed is equal to the flow speed and (2) the gradient of the flame displacement speed normal to its surface is higher than the gradient of the flow speed along the same direction. As the equivalence ratio is reduced, the difference between the former and the latter shrinks until the dynamic stability condition (2) is violated, leading to blow-off. Blow-off initiates at a location where this is first violated along the flame. Our results showed that this location was far downstream from the flame anchoring zone, near the end of the recirculation zone. Blow-off started by flame pinching separating the flame into an upstream moving (carried within the recirculation zone) and a downstream convecting (detached from the recirculation zone) flame piece. Within the range of operating conditions investigated, the conjugate heat exchange with the bluff-body had no impact on the flame blow-off.

  10. A rotating, bluff-body disc for reduced variability in wind tunnel aerosol studies

    OpenAIRE

    Koehler, Kirsten A.; Anthony, T. Renee; Van Dyke, Michael; Volckens, John

    2010-01-01

    A rotating bluff-body disc (RBD) was developed to reduce spatiotemporal variability associated with sampling supermicron aerosol in low-velocity wind tunnels. The RBD is designed to rotate eight personal aerosol samplers around a circular path in a forward-facing plane aligned with the wind tunnel cross section. Rotation of the RBD allows each sampler to traverse an identical path about the wind tunnel cross section, which reduces the effects of spatial heterogeneity associated with dispersin...

  11. An Experimental Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Separated Flows Over Bluff Bodies Using Quantitative Flow Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2000-01-01

    In order to study three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flow fields such as the wakes of bluff bodies, a Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) system was developed. This system allows non-intrusive two-dimensional and time varying velocity measurements. Software and hardware modifications necessary to enhance the capabilities of the system were preformed, resulting in increased frequency resolution. However, due to hardware limitations and limitations inherited from the implementation of t...

  12. Simulation of flow around bluff bodies and bridge deck sections using CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Liaw, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the simulation of flow around bluff bodies and bridge deck sections, in which unsteady nature and vortex shedding of flow are commonly found, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Various turbulence models have been tested to develop understanding and proper modelling techniques for the flow around such bodies. Throughout the thesis, the turbulence models employed, mainly large eddy simulation (LES) and detached eddy simulation (DES), have been validated through...

  13. Numerical study of the behavior of methane-hydrogen/air pre-mixed flame in a micro reactor equipped with catalytic segmented bluff body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, combustion characteristics of premixed methane-hydrogen/air in a micro reactor equipped with a catalytic bluff body is investigated numerically. In this regard, the detailed chemistry schemes for gas phase (homogeneous) and the catalyst surface (heterogeneous) are used. The applied catalytic bluff body is coated with a thin layer of platinum (Pt) on its surface. Also, the lean reactive mixture is entered to the reactor with equivalence ratio 0.9. The results of this study showed that the use of catalytic bluff body in the center of a micro reactor can significantly increase the flame stability, especially at high velocities. Moreover, it is found that a catalytic bluff body with several cavities on its surface and also high thermal conductivity improves the flame stability more than a catalytic bluff body without cavities and low thermal conductivity. Finally, it is maintained that the most advantage of using the catalytic bluff body is its easy manufacturing process as compared to the catalytic wall. This matter seems to be more prevalent when we want to create several cavities with various sizes on the bluff-body. - Highlights: • Presence of a bluff body in a micro reactor can move the flame towards the upstream. • Catalytic bluff body can significantly increase flame stability at high velocities. • Creating non-catalytic cavities on the bluff body promotes homogeneous reactions. • Segmented catalytic bluff body improves the flame stability more than a simple one. • Creating the segments on a bluff body is easier compared to a wall

  14. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics in Lodgepole Pine Forests, Part 1: Course of an Infectation

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Walter E; Amman, Gene D

    1980-01-01

    Much of this work is original research by the authors. However, published literature on the mountain pine beetle is reviewed with particular reference to epidemic infestations in lodgepole pine forests. The mountain pine beetle and lodgepole pine have evolved into an intensive and highly compatible relationship. Consequently, stand dynamics of lodgepole pine is a primary factor in the development of beetle epidemics. the diameter-growth relationship and the effects of environmental factors on...

  15. Characterization of flow around rectangular bluff bodies at angle of attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We describe the flow around rectangular bluff bodies at different angles of attack. ► We identify a region of angles of attack where the lift remains roughly constant. ► The constant-lift region is characterized by three-dimensional (3-D) flow. ► We develop an empirical curve fit to predict the constant-lift region. ► The empirical curve fit is valuable for modeling and simulation purposes. -- Abstract: Using data present in the literature from wind tunnel testing of semi-infinite and infinite rectangular bluff bodies at angle of attack, we develop a simple relation to predict the range of angles of attack where the lift remains approximately constant. This prediction is useful for researchers attempting to develop simplified models of the forces on rectangular bluff bodies. Additionally, prior work has shown that this region of the lift curve is characterized by complex three-dimensional flow, which has consequences for computational simulations.

  16. Transition to bluff body dynamics in the wake of vertical axis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Daniel; Dabiri, John

    2015-11-01

    A unifying characteristic among bluff bodies is a similar wake structure independent of the shape of the body. We present experimental data to demonstrate that the wake of a vertical axis wind/water turbine (VAWT) shares similar features to that of a bluff body, namely a circular cylinder. For a fixed Reynolds number (Re ~ 104) and variable tip-speed ratio, 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to measure the velocity field in the wake of three different laboratory-scale turbines: a 2-bladed, 3-bladed, and 5-bladed VAWT, each with similar geometry. From the PIV measurements, the time-averaged and dynamic characteristics of the wake are evaluated. In all cases, we observe three distinct regions in the VAWT wake: (1) the near wake, where periodic blade shedding dominates; (2) a transition region, where blade vortices decay and growth of a shear layer instability occurs; (3) the far wake, where bluff body wake oscillations dominate. We further characterize this wake transition with regard to turbine solidity and examine its relation to the mean flow, an important metric for power production within a wind farm.

  17. Drag of a D-shaped bluff body under small amplitude harmonic actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Open-loop flow control method was used to affect the development of a turbulent wake behind a D-shaped bluff body. Loud speakers were embedded inside the bluff body to produce two zero-net-mass-flux jets through 2 mm-wide span-wise slots located along the upper and lower edges on the rear wall. The drag forces for different actuation amplitudes (Cμ, the ratio between the momentum of the actuating jets and the moment deficit caused by the bluff body and frequencies (StA were examined. The effects of the phase difference in the two jets (0 and π were also studied. It was found that when Cμ was 0.1%, a drag reduction up to 5% was achieved when the velocities of the two jets varied in phase at a frequency of StA=0.16. When the velocities of the two jets varied π out of phase, significant drag increase was observed.

  18. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  19. The response of a harmonically forced premixed flame stabilized on a heat-conducting bluff-body

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. The objective of this work is to investigate the unsteady response of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame to harmonic inlet velocity excitation. A time series analysis was performed to analyze the physical sequence of events at a fixed longitudinal forcing frequency of 100 Hz for cases with (1) two different equivalence ratios and (2) two different thermal properties of the stabilizing bluff-body. It was observed that conjugate heat exchange between the heat conducting bluff-body and the surrounding reacting flow has a crucial impact on the dynamic response. The flame area and anchoring location, the net conjugate heat transfer and the total heat release underwent significant oscillations. The latter was mean shifted and had multiple frequencies. The burning velocity varied significantly along the flame length and the recirculation zone underwent complex changes in its shape and size during an unsteady cycle. The lower equivalence ratio case exhibited vortex shedding after an initial symmetric response with periodic flame extinction and re-ignition along its surface, unlike the higher equivalence ratio case. The metal/ceramic bluff-body showed a net heat transfer directed from/to the bluff-body, to/from the reacting flow during an unsteady cycle, resulting in a significantly different flame response for the two otherwise equivalent cases.

  20. Removal of n-nitrosodimethylamine from Rocky Mountain Arsenal waters using innovative adsorption technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, E.C.; Pennington, J.C.; Francingues, N.R.; Felt, D.R.; Wachob, B.G.

    1996-08-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) occupies 27 square miles in Adams County, Colorado, and is located adjacent to the Stapleton Airport. Figure 1 illustrates a general map of the RMA. The U.S. Department of the Army established the RMA in 1942 for the purpose of producing chemicals such as napalm, mustard agent, lewisite, and chlorine. After World War II, a number of private organizations leased the arsenal from the Army for a variety of manufacturing purposes. Most of the manufacturing activities were conducted in the South Plants area (see Figure 1). The North Plants were constructed in 1951 for GB nerve agent production, munitions filling, and demilitarization of munitions and used until 1957. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Air Force operated the hydrazine blending and storage facility (HBSF) of symmetrical and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). The hydrazine produced at the HBSF was used for the Titan Missile and Lunar Lander programs.

  1. Nuclear winter revisited with a modern climate model and current nuclear arsenals: Still catastrophic consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2007-07-01

    Twenty years ago, the results of climate model simulations of the response to smoke and dust from a massive nuclear exchange between the superpowers could be summarized as "nuclear winter," with rapid temperature, precipitation, and insolation drops at the surface that would threaten global agriculture for at least a year. The global nuclear arsenal has fallen by a factor of three since then, but there has been an expansion of the number of nuclear weapons states, with additional states trying to develop nuclear arsenals. We use a modern climate model to reexamine the climate response to a range of nuclear wars, producing 50 and 150 Tg of smoke, using moderate and large portions of the current global arsenal, and find that there would be significant climatic responses to all the scenarios. This is the first time that an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model has been used for such a simulation and the first time that 10-year simulations have been conducted. The response to the 150 Tg scenario can still be characterized as "nuclear winter," but both produce global catastrophic consequences. The changes are more long-lasting than previously thought, however, because the new model, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE, is able to represent the atmosphere up to 80 km, and simulates plume rise to the middle and upper stratosphere, producing a long aerosol lifetime. The indirect effects of nuclear weapons would have devastating consequences for the planet, and continued nuclear arsenal reductions will be needed before the threat of nuclear winter is removed from the Earth.

  2. The real world of bibliographic data: managing and exchanging marketing data at Arsenal Pulp Press

    OpenAIRE

    Grabham, Elizabeth Anne

    2007-01-01

    This report explores how Arsenal Pulp Press participated in a bibliographic data exchange network with its online retail and data aggregation partners in Canada from May 2005 to May 2006. Looking specifically at the data requirements of Amazon.ca, BookManager, Bowker’s Books In Print, and Indigo Books & Music, this report observes the challenges faced by this midsize, independent publisher when it used a bibliographic database management system to store and distribute industry-standard ma...

  3. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  4. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  5. Record of Decision for the Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record of decision (ROD) for the final environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado provides the...

  6. Amendment to the Record of Decision for the On-Post Operable Unit, Rocky Mountain Arsenal Federal Facility Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This decision document amends the remedy decision for the Hex Pit project of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) Federal Facility Site. The RMA is located in southern...

  7. Record of Decision for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal On-Post Operable Unit in southern Adams County, Commerce City, Colorado.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) On-Post Operable Unit in southern Adams County (east of...

  8. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 279 IMCOM-Southeast Region: Redstone Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatley, Darrel D.; Goddard, James K.

    2010-09-30

    Report describing a building retuning workshop presented to staff at Redstone Arsenal. Document includes issues identified during building audits and recommendations for future activities to reduce energy use at the site.

  9. Management of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Located approximately ten miles from downtown Denver, the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMANWR) encompasses 15,998 contiguous acres. Due to...

  10. Sportovní marketing se zaměřením na fotbalový klub Arsenal FC

    OpenAIRE

    Agalakova, Valeriia

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was identified the importance of sports marketing. Currently this field becomes an independent discipline because of small influence of the traditional marketing methods on the sports sector. The main aim is to research the marketing activities of the football club Arsenal FC in the model of 7P-marketing mix, to study merchandising activities and their relations with the fans abroad, and also to evaluate the efficiency of Arsenal's marketing strategy. Based on the analysis, the pro...

  11. Thermal evolution of the Miers Bluff Formation from apatite fission track (Livingston Island, Antarctic Peninsula region)

    OpenAIRE

    Sell, I.; G. Poupeau; J.M. González Casado; López Martínez, Jerónimo

    2000-01-01

    El análisis de las trazas de fisión en apatitos procedentes de los metasedimentos de bajo grado metamòrfico de la Formación Miers Bluff (Península Hurd, Isla Livingston, Islas Shetland del Sur) muestra que el enfriamiento posterior al pico metamòrfico comenzó hace unos 28 Ma. Este momento coincide con el fin de la actividad magmatica en este arco volcánico. Probablemente, el metamorfismo puede estar relacionado con la actividad magmàtica de este arco volcánico (140-30 Ma). La modelización de ...

  12. Numerical modelling of a turbulent bluff-body flow with Reynolds stress turbulent models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guoxiu; Dirk ROEKAERTS

    2005-01-01

    Numerical modelling of a turbulent bluff-body flow has been performed using differential Reynolds stress models (DRSMs). To clarify the applicability of the existing DRSMs in this complex flow, several typical DRSMs, including LRR-IP model, JM model, SSG model, as well as a modified LRR-IP model, have been validated and evaluated. The performance difference between various DRSMs is quite significant. Most of the above mentioned DRSMs cannot provide overall satisfactory predictions for this challenging test case. Motivated by the deficiency of the existing approaches, a new modification of LRR-IP model has been proposed. A very significant improvement of the prediction of flow field is obtained.

  13. The flame anchoring mechanism and associated flow structure in bluff-body stabilized lean premixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Dan; Shanbhogue, Santosh; Ghoniem, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    We present numerical analysis of a lean premixed flame anchoring on a heat conducting bluff-body. Different mixtures of CH4/H2/air are analyzed in order to systematically vary the burning velocity, adiabatic flame temperature and extinction strain rate. The study was motivated by our experimental measurements in a step combustor which showed that both the recirculation zone length and stability map under acoustically coupled conditions for different fuels and thermodynamic conditions collapse using the extinction strain rate. The model fully resolves unsteady two-dimensional flow with detailed chemistry and species transport, and without artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions. The model includes a low Mach number operator-split projection algorithm, coupled with a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and an immersed boundary method for the solid body. Calculations reveal that the recirculation zone length correlates with the flame extinction strain rate, consistent with the experimental evidence. It is found that in the vicinity of the bluff body the flame is highly stretched and its leading edge location is controlled by the reactants combustion characteristics under high strain. Moreover, the flame surface location relative to the shear layer influences the vorticity thus impacting the velocity field and the recirculation zone. The study sheds light on the experimentally observed collapse of the combustor dynamics using the reactants extinction strain rate.

  14. Dynamics of bluff-body-stabilized premixed hydrogen/air flames in a narrow channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Bok Jik

    2015-06-01

    Two-dimensional direct numerical simulations were conducted for bluff-body stabilized flames of a lean hydrogen/air mixture at near-blowoff conditions in a meso-scale channel. Parametric simulations were conducted by incrementally varying the inflow velocity in the vicinity of the blowoff limit, and the corresponding flame response was monitored. The present study is a showcase of combustion DNS with embedded boundary representation, and full demonstration of the detailed visualization of the near-blowoff flame characteristics. As the inflow velocity approaches blowoff limit, the flame dynamics exhibit a complex sequence of events, such as periodic local extinction and recovery, and regrowth of the bulk flame by the flame segments attached behind the bluff-body. The total extinction is observed as the attached flames shrink down and are no longer able to regrow the bulk flames. Despite the disparity in the physical scale under study, the observed sequence of the extinction pathway shows a strong similarity with experimental observations at larger scale combustion systems. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  15. Simulation, Modeling and Feedback Control of the flow around a Square-Back Bluff Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Longa, Laurent; Morgans, Aimee; Imperial College London-Flow Control Team

    2015-11-01

    Because of capacity, aesthetic and comfort requirements, most road vehicles are not streamlined but blunt bluff bodies. The flow exhibits a large wake recirculation area leading to high pressure drag, which at highway speeds, represents the main source of energy loss. In this work, Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past a square-back bluff body with interacting shear layers are performed with the aim of reducing aerodynamic drag. A linear feedback control strategy is applied to increase the back face pressure and therefore obtain drag reduction. Synthetic jets located along the perimeter of the back face are used for actuation while body mounted sensors record the base pressure. System identification, via harmonic actuator forcing, is used to characterize the flow response to actuation, which is assumed to be dynamically linear. Based on the identified frequency response, a feedback controller is designed in the frequency domain which aims to either attenuate or amplify base pressure fluctuations by shaping of the sensitivity transfer function. This is first done for a D-shaped body. Current work extends this strategy to a simplified lorry geometry on which experiments were carried out recently.

  16. Power production locality of bluff body flutter mills using fully coupled 2D direct numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, J. M.; Desjardin, P. E.

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional, fully coupled direct numerical simulations (DNS) are conducted to examine the local energy dynamics of a flexible cantilevered plate in the wake of a two-dimensional circular cylinder. The motion of the cantilevered plate is described using a finite element formulation and a fully compressible, finite volume Navier Stokes solver is used to compute the flow field. A sharp interface level set method is employed in conjunction with a ghost fluid method to describe the immersed boundaries of the bluff body and flexible plate. DNS is first conducted to validate the numerical methodology and compared with previous studies of flexible cantilevered plates and flow over bluff bodies; excellent agreement with previous results is observed. A newly defined power production/loss geometry metric is introduced based on surface curvature and plate velocity. The metric is found to be useful for determining which sections of the plate will produce energy based on curvature and deflection rate. Scatter plots and probability measures are presented showing a high correlation between the direction of energy transfer (i.e., to or from the plate) and the sign of the newly defined curvature-deflection-rate metric. The findings from this study suggest that a simple local geometry/kinematic based metric can be devised to aid in the development and design of flexible wind energy harvesting flutter mills.

  17. Bluff-body stabilized flame dynamics of lean premixed syngas combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hong G.; Kim, Yu Jeong; Lee, Bok Jik; Kaust Team

    2015-11-01

    Recently, syngas combustion has been actively investigated for the potential application to integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While lean premixed combustion is attractive for both reduced emission and enhanced efficiency, flame instability becomes often an issue. Bluff-bodies have been adopted as effective flame holders for practical application of premixed flames. In the present study, high-fidelity direct numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the dynamics of lean premixed syngas flames stabilized on a bluff-body, in particular at the near blow-off regime of the flame. A two-dimensional domain of 4 mm height and 20 mm length with a flame holder of a 1 mm-by-1 mm square geometry is used. For a syngas mixture with the equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the CO:H2 ratio of 1, several distinct flame modes are identified as the inflow velocity approaches to the blowoff limit. The sequences of extinction pathway and combustion characteristics are discussed.

  18. Structure of turbulent flows over two-dimensional bluff bodies inspired by a pickup truck geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Locations and sizes of the vortices did not change beyond half of bluff body height. • Vorticity and vortex sizes increased with the back plate height. • The reverse velocity in the wake increased with the cavity depth to a maximum of 17%. • The bulk of turbulence was produced close to the test models and transported away. • Similarity in symmetry suggests “pairing” of the 1st and 2nd POD modes. - Abstract: An experimental investigation of turbulent flow over complex two-dimensional bluff bodies using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique is reported. The study obtained extensive data sets and documented the salient features of these complex flows using the mean flow and turbulent quantities as well as proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis. The results indicate that all the turbulent quantities increased with downstream distance and test model distance from the test section floor as well as cavity depth but no significant increase in turbulence with the cavity length. The triple velocity correlations indicate that there is negative transport of turbulence kinetic energy in the streamwise direction close to the test section floor but positive transport away. The bulk of turbulence was produced close to the test models and transported away. The POD modes with the same symmetry appeared to be similar in shape, but shifted in the streamwise direction. This similarity in symmetry suggests “pairing” between the first and second POD modes

  19. Experimental Study of Flow Control on Bluff Body using Piezoelectric Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Tounsi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active flow control is experimentally investigated on a car-type bluff body. The actuation is based on a synthetic jet actuator placed at the top of the Ahmed body rear window. In the present paper, a synthetic jet characterization is presented, the frequencies and the optimal amplitudes with regard to the spatial evolution are analyzed. All the measurements are carried out in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers based on the body length between 106 and 106. The bluff body shows a maximum drag reduction of 10% when optimal control is applied. Independent effect of the reduced frequency and the momentum coefficient actuation parameters on the drag reduction are also detailed in the present paper. This reduction induces changes in the flow field due to the piezoelectric actuation. The flow topology modification is investigated via particle image velocimetry measurements in order to estimate the flow response to a local excitation and to understand the mechanism involved in the aerodynamic drag control.

  20. Flow-induced noise control behind bluff bodies with various leading edges using the surface perturbation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z. B.; Halim, D.; Cheng, L.

    2016-05-01

    The present paper is devoted to an investigation on the flow-induced noise control downstream of bluff bodies with various leading edges using the surface perturbation technique. Four typical leading edges used in various engineering applications were studied in this work: the semi-circular, square, 30° symmetric trapezoid and 30° asymmetric trapezoid leading edges. The surface perturbation was created by piezo-ceramic actuators embedded underneath the surface of a bluff body placed in a cross flow. To suppress the flow-induced noise downstream bluff bodies with those leading edges, the surface perturbation technique was implemented. Based on the experiments, a noise reduction in the duct of more than 14.0 dB has been achieved for all leading-edge cases. These results indicated that the vortex shedding and its flow-induced noise have been successfully suppressed by the proposed control scheme. The flow structure alteration around the bluff bodies and the shear layer shift phenomenon observed on the trailing edges were then investigated for interpreting the control mechanism for this flow-induced noise suppression, which were based on the vortex shedding strength suppression and vortex shedding frequency shift phenomenon. The effective control position for various leading edges was also studied for developing optimal control strategies for practical engineering applications.

  1. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  2. Numerical aerodynamic analysis of bluff bodies at a high Reynolds number with three-dimensional CFD modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, YuGuang; Yang, Kai; Sun, DongKe; Zhang, YuGuang; Kennedy, David; Williams, Fred; Gao, XiaoWei

    2013-02-01

    This paper focuses on numerical simulations of bluff body aerodynamics with three-dimensional CFD (computational fluid dynamics) modeling, where a computational scheme for fluid-structure interactions is implemented. The choice of an appropriate turbulence model for the computational modeling of bluff body aerodynamics using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional CFD numerical simulations is also considered. An efficient mesh control method which employs the mesh deformation technique is proposed to achieve better simulation results. Several long-span deck sections are chosen as examples which were stationary and pitching at a high Reynolds number. With the proposed CFD method and turbulence models, the force coefficients and flutter derivatives thus obtained are compared with the experimental measurement results and computed values completely from commercial software. Finally, a discussion on the effects of oscillation amplitude on the flutter instability of a bluff body is carried out with extended numerical simulations. These numerical analysis results demonstrate that the proposed three-dimensional CFD method, with proper turbulence modeling, has good accuracy and significant benefits for aerodynamic analysis and computational FSI studies of bluff bodies.

  3. Online marketing for book publishers: a case study of Arsenal Pulp Press and Chronicle Books

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    The internet is changing how we go about our personal and professional lives—not only is web use increasing, the type of online tools that are becoming commonplace and the way they are being used is evolving. This paper examines the online marketing and publicity efforts of Arsenal Pulp Press and Chronicle Books, providing an overview of a number of online tools and considering the role of online marketing and publicity for book publishers in the age of web 2.0. Some of the online marketing t...

  4. FUTEBOL AMERICANO NO PAÍS DO FUTEBOL: O CASO DO CUIABÁ ARSENAL

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Xavier Freire Rodrigues; Neuza Cristina Gomes Costa; Lenara da Costa Pedroso; Joycy Ambrósio da Silva

    2015-01-01

    O estudo aborda o processo de esportivização do futebol americano em Mato Grosso a partir da trajetória do Cuiabá Arsenal. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, exploratória, com delineamento de estudo de caso. Dentre os resultados, verifica-se que a esportivização do Futebol Americano em Cuiabá deu-se por fases: amadorismo, transição, profissional. A equipe inspirou a criação de outras agremiações. Mesmo em época preparativa para Copa do Mundo, com intensa publicidade pelo governo do estado ...

  5. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  6. Phytotoxic evaluation of whole pine tree substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased availability and increased cost of quality substrates are issues facing many horticulture crop producers. Peat moss and pine bark are the most widely used substrate components, yet producers have become more aware of acceptable alternative components. Processed whole pine trees have been i...

  7. The Security of Russia's Nuclear Arsenal: The Human Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, D.Y.

    1999-10-12

    Assertions by the Russian military that all of their nuclear weapons are secure against theft and that nuclear units within the military are somehow insulated from the problems plaguing the Russian military should not be accepted uncritically. Accordingly, we should not give unwarranted credence to the pronouncements of military figures like Cal.-Gen. Igor Valynkin, Chief of the Defense Ministry's 12th Main Directorate, which oversees the country's nuclear arsenal. He contends that ''Russian nuclear weapons are under reliable supervision'' and that ''talk about the unreliability of our control over nuclear weapons has only one pragmatic goal--to convince international society that the country is incapable of maintaining nuclear safety and to introduce international oversight over those weapons, as it is done, for example, in Iraq.'' While the comparison to Iraq is preposterous, many analysts might agree with Valynkin's sanguine appraisal of the security of Russia's nuclear weapons. In contrast, I argue that the numerous difficulties confronting the military as a whole should cause concern in the West over the security of the Russian nuclear arsenal.

  8. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  9. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  10. Effect of damaged pine needles on growth and development of pine caterpillar larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lili; LI Zhenyu; LI Hailin; HAN Ruidong; ZHAO Yongli

    2006-01-01

    Chinese pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis)larvae were fed with pine needles of different degrees of damage to evaluate the effects of pine needles on the growth and development of larvae.The results showed that the nutritional index of the larvae declines after feeding on the damaged pine needlings.The lowest amount of food ingested and voided feces,the lowest nutritional index,slowest development,lightest pupae and most mortality were found in those pine caterpillar larvae fed with pine needles which were 50% damaged.The damaged pine needles significantly affected the population dynamics of Chinese pine caterpillars.The nutritional indices of larvae fed with 25% and 75% damaged pine needles were similar.The nutritional index of the dark morphs was higher than that of the tinted morphs,however,their mortality was lower than that of the tinted morphs.This phenomenon was reversed at the later stage of development when the larvae were fed on 50% damaged pine needles.

  11. High-Speed Linear Raman Spectroscopy for Instability Analysis of a Bluff Body Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun; Fischer, David

    2013-01-01

    We report a high-speed laser diagnostics technique based on point-wise linear Raman spectroscopy for measuring the frequency content of a CH4-air premixed flame stabilized behind a circular bluff body. The technique, which primarily employs a Nd:YLF pulsed laser and a fast image-intensified CCD camera, successfully measures the time evolution of scalar parameters (N2, O2, CH4, and H2O) in the vortex-induced flame instability at a data rate of 1 kHz. Oscillation of the V-shaped flame front is quantified through frequency analysis of the combustion species data and their correlations. This technique promises to be a useful diagnostics tool for combustion instability studies.

  12. Vortex-acoustic lock-on in bluff-body and backward-facing step combustors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R Chakravarthy; R Sivakumar; O J Shreenivasan

    2007-02-01

    Experimental data on acoustic pressure measurements obtained over a wide range of conditions is reported for two simple geometries that are commonly studied for their combustion dynamics behaviour. These geometries are the confined bluff-body and the confined backward-facing steps. The data indicate regimes of flow-acoustic lock-on that signifies the onset of combustion instability, marked by the excitation of high-amplitude discrete tones of sound in the combustor. The highspeed chemiluminescence imaging of the combustion zone indicates heat-release-rate fluctuations occurring at the same frequencies as observed in the acoustic spectra. Attention is then devoted to the data obtained under cold-flow conditions to illustrate distinctly different behaviour than when combustion instability occurs, contrary to the commonly held view that the combustion process does not alter the underlying fluid mechanical processes under low-Mach number conditions.

  13. Numerical study of bluff-body non-premixed flame structures using laminar flamelet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, M.; Malalasekera, W. [Loughborough Univ. (United Kingdom). Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2005-08-15

    A laminar flamelet model is applied for bluff-body stabilized flames to study the flow field, mixing pattern, and the flame structure at two different velocities. The {kappa} - {epsilon} turbulence model is applied for accounting the turbulence fluctuations. It is found that the recirculation zone dominates the near field, while the far field structure is similar to the jet flow. The intermediate neck zone is the intense mixing region. The computation shows that the fuel jet velocity has significant effect on the structure of the flow field, which in turn has significant effect on the combustion characteristics. The laminar flamelet model is found to be adequate for simulating the temperature and the flame composition inside the recirculation zone. The flamelet model has, however, failed to account for the local extinction in the neck zone. Possible limitation of the laminar flamelet model to predict the local extinction is discussed. (author)

  14. Wavelet-based adaptive numerical simulation of unsteady 3D flow around a bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Stefano, Giuliano; Vasilyev, Oleg

    2012-11-01

    The unsteady three-dimensional flow past a two-dimensional bluff body is numerically simulated using a wavelet-based method. The body is modeled by exploiting the Brinkman volume-penalization method, which results in modifying the governing equations with the addition of an appropriate forcing term inside the spatial region occupied by the obstacle. The volume-penalized incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved by means of the adaptive wavelet collocation method, where the non-uniform spatial grid is dynamically adapted to the flow evolution. The combined approach is successfully applied to the simulation of vortex shedding flow behind a stationary prism with square cross-section. The computation is conducted at transitional Reynolds numbers, where fundamental unstable three-dimensional vortical structures exist, by well-predicting the unsteady forces arising from fluid-structure interaction.

  15. Effects of bluff-body burner and coal particle size on NOx emissions and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, L.S.; Cheng, J.F.; Zeng, H.C. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Coal Combustion Lab.

    1999-12-01

    Investigations on air staging have been carried out using various coals with different degrees of fineness and a variety of burners with a 92.9 kw h{sup -1} tunnel furnace burning pulverized coal. It has been observed that using the bluff-body burner can reduce both the unburned carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions in the case of air staging. The experimental results show that air-staging combustion has a more remarkable effect on NOx reduction for higher-volatile coal than for lower-volatile coal. The results also show that there is a strong influence of coal particle size on NOx emissions and unburned carbon in the fly ash in the case of air staging. 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Structures around Cylindrical Bluff Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagmur Sercan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The understanding and quantitative prediction of velocity and pressure fluctuations in turbulent flows around such bluff bodies have been evolving over the years. The main aim of the present work is to investigate experimentally and numerically the flow field in the wake region of different bluff bodies such as circular, square and triangle cross section cylinders placed horizontally perpendicular to the uniform flow. The experimental studies were performed by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV method in an open water channel at Reynolds numbers 5000 and 10000 defined according to the characteristic lengths of the cylinders in the facilities of Selcuk University of Advanced Technology Research and Application Center in Turkey. The experimental results are compared to the numerical results obtained by means of transient simulation with LES turbulence model of ANSYS-Fluent Software. It is shown that the numerical and experimental results have a good agreement in respect of the instantaneous and time-averaged flow field patterns of vorticity, velocity component streamwise direction and streamline topology. In addition, drag coefficient of the geometries were also numerically calculated. For all geometries the wake length in x and y directions and size of the foci of the streamlines are decreasing by increasing Reynolds numbers in time-averaged results. The time-averaged flow patterns of both experimental and numerical results have considerable symmetry with respect to the centerline of each cylinder. Contours of the time-averaged stream wise velocity for Re=10000 demonstrate that the stagnation point around the symmetry plane moves further upstream for all cylinders in accordance with Re=5000. The maximum drag coefficient value was yielded for the square cross-section cylinder as 1.78 due to the sharp-edged geometry.

  17. Modeling flow around bluff bodies and predicting urban dispersion using large eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Heng; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B

    2006-04-15

    Modeling air pollutant transport and dispersion in urban environments is especially challenging due to complex ground topography. In this study, we describe a large eddy simulation (LES) tool including a new dynamic subgrid closure and boundary treatment to model urban dispersion problems. The numerical model is developed, validated, and extended to a realistic urban layout. In such applications fairly coarse grids must be used in which each building can be represented using relatively few grid-points only. By carrying out LES of flow around a square cylinder and of flow over surface-mounted cubes, the coarsest resolution required to resolve the bluff body's cross section while still producing meaningful results is established. Specifically, we perform grid refinement studies showing that at least 6-8 grid points across the bluff body are required for reasonable results. The performance of several subgrid models is also compared. Although effects of the subgrid models on the mean flow are found to be small, dynamic Lagrangian models give a physically more realistic subgrid-scale (SGS) viscosity field. When scale-dependence is taken into consideration, these models lead to more realistic resolved fluctuating velocities and spectra. These results set the minimum grid resolution and subgrid model requirements needed to apply LES in simulations of neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow and scalar transport over a realistic urban geometry. The results also illustrate the advantages of LES over traditional modeling approaches, particularly its ability to take into account the complex boundary details and the unsteady nature of atmospheric boundary layer flow. Thus LES can be used to evaluate probabilities of extreme events (such as probabilities of exceeding threshold pollutant concentrations). Some comments about computer resources required for LES are also included. PMID:16683605

  18. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Structures around Cylindrical Bluff Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmur, Sercan; Dogan, Sercan; Aksoy, Muharrem H.; Canli, Eyub; Ozgoren, Muammer

    2015-05-01

    The understanding and quantitative prediction of velocity and pressure fluctuations in turbulent flows around such bluff bodies have been evolving over the years. The main aim of the present work is to investigate experimentally and numerically the flow field in the wake region of different bluff bodies such as circular, square and triangle cross section cylinders placed horizontally perpendicular to the uniform flow. The experimental studies were performed by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method in an open water channel at Reynolds numbers 5000 and 10000 defined according to the characteristic lengths of the cylinders in the facilities of Selcuk University of Advanced Technology Research and Application Center in Turkey. The experimental results are compared to the numerical results obtained by means of transient simulation with LES turbulence model of ANSYS-Fluent Software. It is shown that the numerical and experimental results have a good agreement in respect of the instantaneous and time-averaged flow field patterns of vorticity, velocity component streamwise direction and streamline topology. In addition, drag coefficient of the geometries were also numerically calculated. For all geometries the wake length in x and y directions and size of the foci of the streamlines are decreasing by increasing Reynolds numbers in time-averaged results. The time-averaged flow patterns of both experimental and numerical results have considerable symmetry with respect to the centerline of each cylinder. Contours of the time-averaged stream wise velocity for Re=10000 demonstrate that the stagnation point around the symmetry plane moves further upstream for all cylinders in accordance with Re=5000. The maximum drag coefficient value was yielded for the square cross-section cylinder as 1.78 due to the sharp-edged geometry.

  19. La salud y la enfermedad en el Real Hospital de la Armada del Arsenal de la Carraca (1756-1821)

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. García-Cubillana de la Cruz

    2015-01-01

    En el primer cuarto del siglo XVIII se crea el Arsenal de la Carraca, considerado como el principal astillero de la Armada Española. La masiva llegada de operarios civiles y militares ante la oferta de trabajo, motivó un problema asistencial sanitario, que se solventó a través de una improvisada enfermería de madera y otros hospitales provisionales instalados en la Isla de León. Finalmente, en 1756 se pudo fundar el «Real Hospital del Arsenal de la Carraca». Este nosocomio tuvo un papel cruci...

  20. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Cantón Francisco R; Ordás Ricardo; Soto Álvaro; Cervera M Teresa; Collada Carmen; Perdiguero Pedro; Guevara M Ángeles; Flores-Monterroso Arantxa; Bautista Rocío; Díaz-Moreno Sara M; Villalobos David P; Guerrero-Fernández Darío; Canales Javier; Fernández-Pozo Noé; Avila Concepción

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), since it...

  1. Numerical investigation on the combustion characteristics of methane/air in a micro-combustor with a hollow hemispherical bluff body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A micro-combustor with a hollow hemisphere bluff body is developed. • Blow-off limit of reactor is expanded 2.5 times by the hollow hemisphere bluff body. • Methane conversion rate of combustor sharply increases at the location of bluff body. • Methane conversion rate is mainly affected by equivalence ratio and inlet velocity. • Recirculation zone expands blow-off limit and increases methane conversion rate. - Abstract: The combustion characteristics of methane in a cube micro-combustor with a hollow hemispherical bluff body were numerically investigated. The blow-off limit, recirculation zone length and methane conversion rate were examined. The results illustrate that the blow-off limit of the micro-combustor with a hollow hemispherical bluff body is 2.5 times higher than that without bluff body, which are 24.5 m/s and 9.5 m/s at the same equivalence ratio (ϕ = 1), respectively. With the use of hollow hemispherical bluff body, methane conversion sharply increases from 0.24% to 17.95% at 3 mm along the inlet-flow direction, where is the location of bluff-body, which is not affected by equivalence ratio and inlet velocity. The recirculation zone size has determined influence on residence time of the mixture gas, which increases with the increase of inlet velocity. Methane conversion rate is determined by equivalence ratio and inlet velocity. Methane conversion rate firstly increases and then decreases when the equivalence ratio and inlet velocity increase, reaching the maximum value (97.84%) at ϕ = 1 and 0.02 m/s. Methane conversion rate sharply increases from 45% to 97.84% when the inlet velocity increases from 0.008 m/s to 0.02 m/s

  2. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression

    OpenAIRE

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M. A.; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Coltman, David W

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids f...

  3. Longleaf Pine Survival, Growth, and Recruitment Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This experiment was to determine mean survivorship, growth rate, and recruitment rate of longleaf pine seedlings planted on different soil types on the refuge. Open...

  4. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  5. Quantification of acetone emission from pine plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Min; (邵敏); Jürgen; Wildt

    2002-01-01

    Acetone emission from pine plants (pinus sylvestris) is measured by continuously stirred tank reactor. Under a constant light intensity, acetone emission rates increase exponentially with leaf temperature. When leaf temperature is kept constant, acetone emission increases with light intensity. And acetone emission in darkness is also detected. Acetone emitted from pine is quickly labeled by 13C when the plants are exposed to air with 630 mg/m3 13CO2. However, no more than 20% of acetone is 13C labeled. Acetone emission from pine may be due to both leaf temperature- controlled process and light intensity-controlled process. Based on these understandings, an algorithm is used to describe the short term acetone emission rates from pine.

  6. FUTEBOL AMERICANO NO PAÍS DO FUTEBOL: O CASO DO CUIABÁ ARSENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Xavier Freire Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo aborda o processo de esportivização do futebol americano em Mato Grosso a partir da trajetória do Cuiabá Arsenal. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, exploratória, com delineamento de estudo de caso. Dentre os resultados, verifica-se que a esportivização do Futebol Americano em Cuiabá deu-se por fases: amadorismo, transição, profissional. A equipe inspirou a criação de outras agremiações. Mesmo em época preparativa para Copa do Mundo, com intensa publicidade pelo governo do estado para divulgar o futebol “brasileiro”, o futebol “americano” é assunto da agenda esportiva midiática e cotidiana. Fato que demonstra como é possível ser esportivo.

  7. The arsenal of pathogens and antivirulence therapeutic strategies for disarming them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, John R; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens deploy an arsenal of virulence factors (VFs) to establish themselves within their infectious niche. The discovery of antimicrobial compounds and their development into therapeutics has made a monumental impact on human and microbial populations. Although humans have used antimicrobials for medicinal and agricultural purposes, microorganism populations have developed and shared resistance mechanisms to persevere in the face of classical antimicrobials. However, a positive substitute is antivirulence therapy; antivirulence therapeutics prevent or interrupt an infection by counteracting a pathogen’s VFs. Their application can reduce the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials and dampen the frequency with which resistant strains emerge. Here, we summarize the contribution of VFs to various acute and chronic infections. In correspondence with this, we provide an overview of the research and development of antivirulence strategies. PMID:27313446

  8. APOLLINAIRE ET LE DÉTOURNEMENT DE L’ARSENAL MILITAIRE : la vitesse comme vecteur amoureux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Cuillé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Apollinaire’s metaphorical appropriation of the military arsenal can be understood in light of F.T. Marinetti’s speculations on speed, an aesthetic notion integral to Italian Futurism. Apollinaire’s regiment employed the gun of ’75, considered to be a technological phenomenon whose velocity would permit a rapid victory over Germany.  This vector of speed became the vehicle of a new poetics.  Certain Calligrammes can be read as devices that the poet-gunner reconfigures in order to subvert the opposition between the ideal feminine and lust, two temptations that Marinetti proposes to exorcise through the magic of speed.Dr. Cuillé would like to thank Webster University for the Faculty Research Grant he received in 2014.

  9. Determination of volatile compounds of pine honeys

    OpenAIRE

    SİLİCİ, Sibel

    2011-01-01

    The volatile compounds of 13 Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) honey samples were characterized by solid phase microextraction (SPME) analysis, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 42 volatile compounds were identified, but volatile compounds such as nonana1, benzene, 4-hexen-3-ol, alpha-pinene, and 2-heptanone were recognized to be specific floral origin markers of the pine honey. The SPME extraction method was proposed as an alternative way to carry o...

  10. Kunagine käsitsi padrunite valmistaja E-Arsenal sõjatöösturite areenil / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Sõjatehasest E-Arsenal saab viie aasta jooksul tuhande töötajaga kõrgtehnoloogiakontsern, rahvusvahelisele turule hakatakse tootma militaartarkvara, isikukaitsevahendeid, roboteid. Kommenteerivad Ingvar Pärnamäe, Priit Alamäe, Andres Taklaja, Tõnu Vaher. Lisa: Arsenali sõjatehas. Diagramm: Tulevikuväljavaatega kahjumifirma

  11. Theoretical analysis and experimental verification on valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segment bluff-body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jing; Zhang, Jianhui; Xia, Qixiao; Wang, Shouyin; Huang, Jun; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2014-05-01

    Existing researches on no-moving part valves in valve-less piezoelectric pumps mainly concentrate on pipeline valves and chamber bottom valves, which leads to the complex structure and manufacturing process of pump channel and chamber bottom. Furthermore, position fixed valves with respect to the inlet and outlet also makes the adjustability and controllability of flow rate worse. In order to overcome these shortcomings, this paper puts forward a novel implantable structure of valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segments in the pump chamber. Based on the theory of flow around bluff-body, the flow resistance on the spherical and round surface of hemisphere-segment is different when fluid flows through, and the macroscopic flow resistance differences thus formed are also different. A novel valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segment bluff-body (HSBB) is presented and designed. HSBB is the no-moving part valve. By the method of volume and momentum comparison, the stress on the bluff-body in the pump chamber is analyzed. The essential reason of unidirectional fluid pumping is expounded, and the flow rate formula is obtained. To verify the theory, a prototype is produced. By using the prototype, experimental research on the relationship between flow rate, pressure difference, voltage, and frequency has been carried out, which proves the correctness of the above theory. This prototype has six hemisphere-segments in the chamber filled with water, and the effective diameter of the piezoelectric bimorph is 30mm. The experiment result shows that the flow rate can reach 0.50 mL/s at the frequency of 6 Hz and the voltage of 110 V. Besides, the pressure difference can reach 26.2 mm H2O at the frequency of 6 Hz and the voltage of 160 V. This research proposes a valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segment bluff-body, and its validity and feasibility is verified through theoretical analysis and experiment.

  12. Severe White Pine Blister Rust Infection in Whitebark Pine Alters Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack Density, Emergence Rate, and Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Edith M; Six, Diana L

    2015-10-01

    Exotic tree pathogens can cause devastating ecological effects on forests that can be exacerbated when infections increase the likelihood of attack by insects. Current high rates of mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) are due to white pine blister rust caused by the exotic fungus, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch, and the native mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). These two mortality agents interact in whitebark pine; mountain pine beetle preferentially selects white pine blister rust-infected whitebark pine over healthy trees, and likelihood of attack has been observed to increase with infection severity. We examined attack and emergence rates, and size and sex ratio of mountain pine beetle in whitebark pines exhibiting varying white pine blister rust infection severities. Mountain pine beetle attack density was lowest on the most severely infected trees, but emergence rates and size of beetles from these trees were greater than those from uninfected and less severely infected trees. Low attack rates on severely infected whitebark pine may indicate these trees have lower defenses and that fewer beetle attacks are needed to kill them. Higher beetle emergence rates from severely infected trees may be due to low intraspecific competition resulting from low attack rates or differences in nutrient quality. PMID:26314009

  13. Response of pine forest to disturbance of pine wood nematode with interpretative structural model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan SHI; Youqing LUO; Xiaosu YAN; Weiping CHEN; Ping JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), originating from North America, causes destructive pine wilt disease. Different pine forest ecosystems have different resistances to B. xylophilus,and after its invasion, the resilience and restoration direction of different ecosystems also varies. In this study, an interpretative structural model was applied for analyzing the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance. The result showed that a five-degree multi-stage hierarchical system affected the response of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance, in which direct affecting factors are resistance and resilience. Furthermore,the analysis to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree factors showed that not only does distribution pattern of plant species and pine's ecological features affect the resistance of pine forests' ecosystem, but removal of attacked trees and other measures also influence the resistance through indirectly affecting the damage degree of Monochamus alternatus and distribution pattern of plant species. As for resilience,it is influenced directly by soil factors, hydrology,surrounding species provenance and biological character-istics of the second and jointly dominant species, and the climate factors can also have a direct or indirect effect on it by affecting the above factors. Among the fifth elements,the elevation, gradient and slope direction, topographical factors, diversity of geographical location and improve-ment of prevention technology all influence the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance.

  14. Large eddy simulation of the flow around bluff body with drag reduction device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anazi, Khalid Qaied

    This thesis focuses on the use of LES to simulate the flow around elliptical bluff body with blunt trailing edge fitted with open base cavity. The main objective of this study is to determine the effects of the cavity on the drag of the body. A secondary but important objective is to demonstrate that LES can provide accurate representation of the flow around this bluff body. Moreover, LES results can complement the available experimental results in order to provide a much better understanding of the flow. The simulations were carried out at a Reynolds number of 2.6×104 based on the height of the body using Spalart-Allmaras RANS model while the LES were performed using Smagorinsky dynamic model. A grid-independence test was conducted using three grids which contain 0.85M, 1.3M and 1.7M cells, respectively. This test shows that the results are grid-independent. The LES results predicted the mean flow field in the near wake with good accuracy as compared to the experimental mean flow field obtained. The base pressure results show that the base pressure coefficient for the base model was around -0.56, which agrees well with the experimental results .By attaching the cavity, the base pressure has increased. The increase in base pressure coefficient was around 44% using 1/3 h cavity and this agrees well with the experimental measurements. The RANS predicted drag coefficient of 0.56 for the base model and 0.471 for the cavity model. This represents a difference of 8% for the base model and 34% for the cavity model when compared with experiment drag coefficients (0.61 for the base model and 0.35 for the cavity model). For the LES, the drag coefficient of the base model was around 0.65 (6.5% difference) and using the cavity, the drag coefficient was reduced to around 0.37 (5.74% difference). Details of the mean velocity components have been compared with experimental data at various locations in the wake region of the flow. Observation on the comparison between LES and

  15. Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Coastal Bluff Erosion near Barrow Alaska over the Past Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, K. B.; Lopez, A. F.; Aguirre, A.; Aiken, Q.; Cody, R. P.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Green, E.; Nelson, L.; Lougheed, V.; Velasco, A. A.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic coastal systems are recognized as being one of the most climate change - vulnerable ecosystems on Earth and represent a complex nexus for examining change at the interface between marine, terrestrial, atmospheric, cryospheric and social systems. Although coastal erosion has received increased attention in the Arctic, few studies have examined the fine scale spatiotemporal dynamics and variability in erosion rates relative to the range of factors that act concomitantly to control erosion (e.g. duration of ice free seas, bathymetry, wave action, sea and air temperature, landscape morphology). This study reports on the spatiotemporal dynamics of annual DGPS surveys of eroding coastal bluffs in northern Alaska near the city of Barrow. Surveys along ca. 11km of the Elson Lagoon coast have been conducted since 2002 and additional surveys along ca. 120km of Elson Lagoon and Chuckhi Sea coast have been conducted since 2013. There has been strong inter-annual spatiotemporal variability in erosion rates with no indication of a long term change in erosion rates over time. Factors controlling wave intensity (e.g. wind run, off shore bathymetry, aspect of the coast relative to prevailing winds) explain most variability in erosion rates over time but during relatively calm periods, landscape history and morphology become more important. These findings highlight the extreme fine scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity in erosion rates along the Arctic Coast, and the importance of incorporating both storm-related climatic events and landscape characteristics when forecasting future environmental states in Arctic coastal landscapes. Case studies outlining new remote sensing technologies and future directions of study will also be outlined including terrestrial and airborne LiDAR, and Kite, UAV, and satellite imagery that is being used to derive and monitor topographic and hydrological change near eroding coastal bluffs; a wireless sensor network of micrometeorological and optical

  16. Biomimetic bluff body drag reduction by self-adaptive porous flaps

    CERN Document Server

    Mazellier, Nicolas; Kourta, Azeddine

    2011-01-01

    The performances of an original passive control system based on a biomimetic approach are assessed by investigating the flow over a bluff-body. This control device consists in a couple of flaps made from the combination of a rigid plastic skeleton coated with a porous fabric mimicking the shaft and the vane of the bird's feathers, respectively. The sides of a square cylinder have been fitted with this system so as to enable the flaps to freely rotate around their leading edge. This feature allows the movable flaps to self-adapt to the flow conditions. Comparing both the uncontrolled and the controlled flow, a significant drag reduction (up to 22%) has been obtained over a broad range of Reynolds number. The investigation of the mean flow reveals a noticeable modification of the flow topology at large scale in the vicinity of the controlled cylinder accounting for the increase of the pressure base in comparison with the natural flow. Meanwhile, the study of the relative motion of both flaps points out that the...

  17. Experimental Study on Turbulent Structure of Humid Air Flame in a Bluff-body Burner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Ge; Shu-Sheng Zang; Pei-qing Guo

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present experimental study is to analyze the turbulent structure in humid air non-premixed flame, and determine the effect of humidity on the flow field and the flame stability limit in turbu-lent non-premixed flame. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to capture the instantaneous appearance of vortex structures and obtain the quantitative velocity field. The distributions of Reynolds shear stress, mean and root-mean squared fluctuating (rms) velocities are examined to get insight into the effect of fuel-to-air velocity ra-tio on velocity flow field. The results show that with steam addition, the air-driven vortex in the bluff-body wake is thinner; the biggest peaks of rms velocity and Reynolds shear stress are lower; the distance between the peaks of rms velocity on the sides of centerline reduces. Besides these, the flame stability is affected. Both central fuel penetration limit and partially quenching limit reduce with steam addition.

  18. PREPARED POTASSIUM SALT OF CARBOXYMETHYL PINE WOOD IN A MICROWAVE

    OpenAIRE

    Вадим Иванович Маркин; Марина Юрьевна Чепрасова; Наталья Григорьевна Базарнова; Евгения Олеговна Фролова

    2013-01-01

    Microwave radiation to intensify the process of carboxymethylation of pine wood without prior separation of the individual components is proposed to use . Carboxymethylated pine wood in the form of the potassium salt obtained by treating the pine potassium hydroxide and monochloroacetic acid in 2-propanol . Composition and properties of the products were investigated . Carboxymethylcellulose isolated from carboxymethylated pine wood. Increasing the power of microwave radiation (210 to 700 W) ...

  19. Supplying the nuclear arsenal: Production reactor technology, management, and policy, 1942--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, R.P.; Zenzen, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This book focuses on the lineage of America`s production reactors, those three at Hanford and their descendants, the reactors behind America`s nuclear weapons. The work will take only occasional sideways glances at the collateral lines of descent, the reactor cousins designed for experimental purposes, ship propulsion, and electric power generation. Over the decades from 1942 through 1992, fourteen American production reactors made enough plutonium to fuel a formidable arsenal of more than twenty thousand weapons. In the last years of that period, planners, nuclear engineers, and managers struggled over designs for the next generation of production reactors. The story of fourteen individual machines and of the planning effort to replace them might appear relatively narrow. Yet these machines lay at the heart of the nation`s nuclear weapons complex. The story of these machines is the story of arming the winning weapon, supplying the nuclear arms race. This book is intended to capture the history of the first fourteen production reactors, and associated design work, in the face of the end of the Cold War.

  20. Production and packaging of a biological arsenal: evolution of centipede venoms under morphological constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undheim, Eivind A B; Hamilton, Brett R; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Bowlay, Greg; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David J; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F; Venter, Deon J

    2015-03-31

    Venom represents one of the most extreme manifestations of a chemical arms race. Venoms are complex biochemical arsenals, often containing hundreds to thousands of unique protein toxins. Despite their utility for prey capture, venoms are energetically expensive commodities, and consequently it is hypothesized that venom complexity is inversely related to the capacity of a venomous animal to physically subdue prey. Centipedes, one of the oldest yet least-studied venomous lineages, appear to defy this rule. Although scutigeromorph centipedes produce less complex venom than those secreted by scolopendrid centipedes, they appear to rely heavily on venom for prey capture. We show that the venom glands are large and well developed in both scutigerid and scolopendrid species, but that scutigerid forcipules lack the adaptations that allow scolopendrids to inflict physical damage on prey and predators. Moreover, we reveal that scolopendrid venom glands have evolved to accommodate a much larger number of secretory cells and, by using imaging mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that toxin production is heterogeneous across these secretory units. We propose that the differences in venom complexity between centipede orders are largely a result of morphological restrictions of the venom gland, and consequently there is a strong correlation between the morphological and biochemical complexity of this unique venom system. The current data add to the growing body of evidence that toxins are not expressed in a spatially homogenous manner within venom glands, and they suggest that the link between ecology and toxin evolution is more complex than previously thought. PMID:25775536

  1. Bison grazing ecology at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, Stephen; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) National Wildlife Refuge reintroduced bison to a small pasture in 2007. Refuge managers needed information on the effects of bison grazing on vegetation communities in the bison pasture as well as information on how bison might affect other management priorities at RMA. In particular, RMA managers were interested in bison grazing effects on vegetation productivity, amount of vegetation utilization by bison, and habitat selection by bison to inform RMA herd managers and for potential expansion of bison range on the refuge. In 2007, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) designed a study to investigate bison grazing effects through measurement of vegetation in the 600-hectare enclosure where the bison are currently pastured. This research was a collaborative effort between USGS and RMA refuge staff and had active field components in 2007 and 2010. We found that the effects and intensity of bison grazing on vegetation in the RMA bison pasture is linked to prairie dog presence. Where both species were present, they were removing a significant amount of biomass compared to areas where only bison were present. Also, prairie dogs appeared to enhance the greater production of native forbs, but we were not able to identify the mechanism for this increased production. We were not able, however, to generate an accurate vegetation map for the bison pasture, and this limited our ability to achieve the level of statistical precision necessary to identify grazing impacts and habitat selection of bison.

  2. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  3. Unsteady Euler/Lagrange simulation of a confined bluff-body gas–solid turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unsteady Euler–Lagrangian approach is adopted to predict the gaseous carrier and disperse phases flow dynamics. The turbulence is captured using two different methods, i.e. the unsteady Reynolds averaging based numerical simulation (URANS) and the large eddy simulation (LES). In the latter one, the dynamic Smagorinsky approach is used to model the sub-grid scale stresses. The time-dependent solid particle and gas phase flow properties of a confined bluff-body turbulent flow including two-way coupling effects are evaluated through comparisons with experimental data. The configuration under study features an important recirculation zone and has a mass loading of 22%. So, collision effects are not considered while tracking the disperse phase that consists of glass beads. A thermodynamically consistent turbulence modulation approach is applied for the determination of the source terms that account for the effect of particles on the turbulence level of the carrier phase. Within the URANS technique the dispersion of particles is captured by the Markov sequence approach; this model is modified by integrating a drift factor term while modeling the pressure gradient. A particular emphasis is put on the disperse phase feedback on the carrier phase and coupling procedure within each Eulerian time step along with an unsteady coupling of both codes, the (Eulerian) FASTEST3D and the (Lagrangian) LAG3D codes. Quantitative results of the disperse phase properties as well as those of the carrier phase are presented at different positions around the recirculation zone. The numerical results using both, the LES and/or the URANS delivered comparable results that agree reasonably with experimental data. However, a slight advantage of LES over URANS could be observed. (paper)

  4. [Draft] Technical Work Plan for revegetation of crested wheatgrass in northeast Section 29 : USFWS Habitat Restoration Plan 29-04 : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge is charged with managing wildlife and wildlife habitat, both during and...

  5. Population status and management of mule and white-tailed deer [at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, FY95-FY97

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary report of the population status and management of white-tailed deer and mule deer at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge for fiscal years...

  6. Record of Decision for the Final Remedial Action for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Offpost Unit in southern Adams County, Commerce City, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) Offpost Operable Unit (OU) in southern Adams County, east of...

  7. Effect of pine mistletoe on radial growth of Crimean pine (Pinus nigra) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Yilmaz; Carus, Serdar

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the influence of infection by pine mistletoe (Viscum album L. subsp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Volmann) on the radial growth of crimean pine (Pinus nigra Amold) in Turkey was investigated. We built local residual tree-ring-width chronologies using dendrochronogical techniques. Tree ring chronologies of uninfected (control) crimean pine were used to estimate potential radial growth characteristics in the "infected" crimean pine (light, moderate and severe infection groups). In 2005, increment cores were collected from 26 infected and 19 control dominant or co-dominant trees and annual radial growth indices from 1930-2005 were calculated for each infection group in a 14 point sampling. We compared radial growth in the uninfected trees with mean regional chronology. We found a strong decrease in radial growth in during the 1998-2005 period. The periodic average radial growth reduction (in %) from 1998 to 2005, respectively, were 0 for control, 26 for light, 39 for moderate and 63 for severe infection groups. It can be especially concluded that a severe degree of pine mistletoe attack has a negative effect on radial growth of the infected crimean pine trees. PMID:22167935

  8. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD. Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1, deciduous woody species (PFT2, herbs (PFT3, and ferns (PFT4. We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  9. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation. PMID:22563499

  10. SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AT PINE RIDGE RESERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pine Ridge Reservation, located in rural South Dakota is plagued with deteriorating infrastructure, poverty, lack of local employment, and high utility bills. Many of the residents, the Oglala Lakota Nation, live in mobile homes or substandard housing and spend nearly 25% of...

  11. Calculations of the flow past bluff bodies, including tilt-rotor wing sections at alpha = 90 deg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, V.; Mccroskey, W. J.; Baeder, J. D.; Van Dalsem, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt was made to model in two dimensions the effects of rotor downwash on the wing of the tilt-rotor aircraft and to compute the drag force on airfoils at - 90 deg angle of attack, using a well-established Navier-Stokes code. However, neither laminar nor turbulent calculations agreed well with drag and base-pressure measurements at high Reynolds numbers. Therefore, further efforts were concentrated on bluff-body flows past various shapes at low Reynolds numbers, where a strong vortex shedding is observed. Good results were obtained for a circular cylinder, but the calculated drag of a slender ellipse at right angles to the freestream was significantly higher than experimental values reported in the literature for flat plates. Similar anomalous results were obtained on the tilt-rotor airfoils, although the qualitative effects of flap deflection agreed with the wind tunnel data. The ensemble of results suggest that there may be fundamental differences in the vortical wakes of circular cylinders and noncircular bluff bodies.

  12. Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  13. NEAR-BLOWOFF DYNAMICS OF BLUFF-BODY-STABILIZED PREMIXED HYDROGEN/AIR FLAMES IN A NARROW CHANNEL

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Bok Jik

    2015-06-07

    The flame stability is known to be significantly enhanced when the flame is attached to a bluff-body. The main interest of this study is on the stability of the flame in a meso-scale channel, considering applications such as combustion-based micro power generators. We investigate the dynamics of lean premixed hydrogen/air flames stabilized behind a square box in a two-dimensional meso-scale channel with high-fidelity numerical simulations. Characteristics of both non-reacting flows and reacting flows over the bluff-body are studied for a range of the mean inflow velocity. The flame stability in reacting flows is investigated by ramping up the mean inflow velocity step by step. As the inlet velocity is increased, the initially stable steady flames undergo a transition to an unsteady mode of regular asymmetric fluctuation. When the inlet velocity is further increased, the flame is eventually blown off. Between the regular fluctuation mode and blowoff limit, there exists a narrow range of the inlet velocity where the flames exhibit periodic local extinction and recovery. Approaching further to blowoff limit, the local extinction and recovery becomes highly transient and a failure of recovery leads blowoff and extinction of the flame kernel.

  14. Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer across a bluff body in a channel flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymaz Imdat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a two-dimensional channel with a built-in bluff body. In this study, a triangular prism is taken as the bluff body. Not only the momentum transport, but also the energy transport is modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is used. For obtaining a higher flexibility on the computational grid, interpolation methods are applied, where the information is transferred from the lattice structure to the computational grid by Lagrange interpolation. The flow is investigated for different Reynolds numbers, while keeping the Prandtl number at the constant value of 0.7. The results show how the presence of a triangular prism effects the flow and heat transfer patterns for the steady-state and unsteady-periodic flow regimes. As an assessment of the accuracy of the developed Lattice Boltzmann code, the results are compared with those obtained by a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code. It is observed that the present Lattice Boltzmann code delivers results that are of similar accuracy to the well-established Computational Fluid Dynamics code, with much smaller computational time for the prediction of the unsteady phenomena.

  15. Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)

  16. Comparison of three techniques to measure unsaturated-zone air permeability at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mira Stone; Tillman, Fred D.; Choi, Jee-Won; Smith, James A.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare three techniques to measure the air permeability of the unsaturated zone at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ and to examine the effects of moisture content and soil heterogeneity on air permeability. Air permeability was measured in three ways: laboratory experiments on intact soil cores, field-scale air pump tests and calibration of air permeability to air pressures measured in the field under natural air pressure conditions using a numerical airflow model. The results obtained from these three methods were compared and found to be similar. Laboratory experiments performed on intact cores measured air permeability values on the order of 10 -14 to 10 -9 m 2. Low-permeability cores were found between land surface and a depth of 0.6 m. The soil core data were divided into two layers with composite vertical permeability values of 1.3×10 -13 m 2 from land surface to a 0.6-m depth and 3.8×10 -10 m 2 for the lower layer. Analyses of the field-scale pump tests were performed for two scenarios: one in which the entire unsaturated zone was open to the atmosphere and one assuming a cap of low permeability extending 0.6 m below land surface. The vertical air permeability values obtained for the open scenario ranged from 1.2×10 -9 to 1.5×10 -9 m 2, and ranged from 3.6×10 -9 to 6.8×10 -9 m 2 in the lower layer, assuming an upper cap permeability of 6.0×10 -14 m 2. The results from the open scenario are much higher than expected and the possible reasons for this ambiguity are discussed. The results from the capped scenario matched closely with those from the other methods and indicated that it is important to have background information on the study site to correctly analyze the pump test data. The optimized fit of the natural subsurface air pressure was achieved with an intrinsic permeability value of 3.3×10 -14 m 2. When the data were refitted to the model assuming two distinct layers of the unsaturated zone, the optimized fit was achieved

  17. Extracting DNA from submerged pine wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M Megan; Williams, Claire G

    2004-10-01

    A DNA extraction protocol for submerged pine logs was developed with the following properties: (i) high molecular weight DNA, (ii) PCR amplification of chloroplast and nuclear sequences, and (iii) high sequence homology to voucher pine specimens. The DNA extraction protocol was modified from a cetyltrimehtylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by adding stringent electrophoretic purification, proteinase K, RNAse, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and Gene Releaser. Chloroplast rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) could be amplified. Nuclear ribosomal sequences had >95% homology to Pinus taeda and Pinus palustris. Microsatellite polymorphism for PtTX2082 matched 2 of 14 known P. taeda alleles. Our results show DNA analysis for submerged conifer wood is feasible. PMID:15499414

  18. Radiocesium in a Danish pine forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, M.

    1994-01-01

    During the autumn of 1991, a Scots pine forest, Tisvilde Hegn, was investigated with respect to the distribution of radiocesium on compartments in the forest ecosystem. The sandy acidic soil is poor, with a approximately 5-cm thick layer of organic soil, and clay content is very low, between 0 and...... included. The concentrations of radiocesium are highest in the endshoots of the pine trees, and lowest in the hardwood. There are indications that the Chernobyl cesium is mainly distributed in the parts of the tres that have been formed since 1986. Observed Ratios (OR) were used to characterize the ability...... 2%. Cesium from Chernobyl is still totally in the upper 5 cm, while almost half of the fallout cesium has penetrated to depths lower than 5 cm. More than 95% of the total amount of Cs-137 is in the soil compartment. The rest is mainly in the trees (3.4%) and vegetation (0.4%), moss and lichen...

  19. Thermal Diffusion in Masson Pine Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xian-jun; Zhang Bi-guang; Li Wen-jun

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze the effects of the temperature gradient on moisture movement during the highly intensive microwave-vacuum drying, thermal diffusion of Masson pine wood was studied. Internal distribution of temperature and moisture in Masson pine samples sealed by epoxy resin and aluminum foil was measured, the magnitude of thermal diffusion was calculated and the influencing factors of thermal diffusion were discussed. Results showed that with the transfer of moisture toward the low temperature in wood, opposite temperature and moisture gradient occurred. The initial moisture content (MC), temperature and time are important factors affecting this process; the thermal diffusion is in proportion to wood temperature, its initial moisture and time. The temperature and distance from hot surface is strongly linearly correlated, and the relationship between MCs at different locations and distance from the hot end surface changes from logarithmically form to exponentially form with the increase in experimental time.

  20. PREPARED POTASSIUM SALT OF CARBOXYMETHYL PINE WOOD IN A MICROWAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вадим Иванович Маркин

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave radiation to intensify the process of carboxymethylation of pine wood without prior separation of the individual components is proposed to use . Carboxymethylated pine wood in the form of the potassium salt obtained by treating the pine potassium hydroxide and monochloroacetic acid in 2-propanol . Composition and properties of the products were investigated . Carboxymethylcellulose isolated from carboxymethylated pine wood. Increasing the power of microwave radiation (210 to 700 W and the duration of the first and second stages of the process of carboxymethylation (20-30 sec increases the content of carboxymethyl groups (18,3-25,6 %. Abnormally low solubility of the potassium salts of carboxymethylated pine wood (10–18% compared to the sodium salt with a comparable content of carboxymethyl groups was detected. Study viscosity of aqueous solutions carboxymethylated pine and carboxymethylcellulose derived from it was performed. It is shown that the samples obtained at microwave power of 210 W have abnormal flow curves.

  1. Extraction of Scots Pine by Polar Solvent

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU, YUANLIN

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study, isolate, and analyze the extractives from pine chips, saw dust, root chips, and root barks by polar solvent such as water, acetone, and ethanol. The methods used in the extraction were boiling flask or rotation reactor. The different extraction time of 2 or 4 hour was also investigated. The obtained extraction solution were analyzed by gas chromatography. In order to understand the experimental work theoretically, the wood chemistry, especially, pheno...

  2. Molar Malocclusions in Pine Voles (Microtus pinetorum)

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Stephen B.; Alworth, Leanne C; Blas-Machado, Uriel

    2009-01-01

    Here we describe 5 cases of molar malocclusions in adult pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) used for behavioral endocrinology studies. This species belongs to the subfamily Microtinae, which possess aradicular hypsodont molars. The abnormal molars identified caused apparent difficulty in mastication, resulting in poor body condition necessitating euthanasia. Postmortem examination of the oral cavity revealed grossly elongated mandibular and maxillary molars with abnormal wear at occlusal surface...

  3. [Testate amoebas of pine forests in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A A; Krasil'nikov, P A

    2011-01-01

    The population of testate amoebas in the soils of pine forests in Mexico has been studied. In total, 68 species, varieties, and types of testate amoebas with cosmopolite distribution were found. The species diversity of the testate population includes hygrophilous species that differ from hygrophilous species with luvisols in higher andosols. Comparative analysis using the results of one available study of soil testate amoebas from Mexico has been carried out [Bonnet, 1977]. PMID:21870497

  4. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.

    2001-11-01

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

  5. Modeling Mortality of Loblolly Pine Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of mortality is an important component of forest growth and yield prediction systems, yet mortality remains one of the least understood components of the system. Whole-stand and individual-tree mortality models were developed for loblolly pine plantations throughout its geographic range in the United States. The model for predicting stand mortality were developed using stand characteristics and biophysical variables. The models were constructed using two modeling approache...

  6. Whitebark Pine Assessment and Restoration in Central Rockies National Parks

    OpenAIRE

    McCloskey, Kelly; Bockino, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    White pine blister rust and mountain pine beetle are having profound effects on the whitebark pine in the National Parks of the Central Rockies. The importance of this species for ecosystem services including water retention at high elevations, slope stabilization, and providing a highly nutritional food source for grizzly bears and other wildlife species, has been recognized by National Park Service managers for several decades. Analysis of monitoring activities conducted from the 1990ís, an...

  7. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Holly K. Ober; Lucas W. DeGroote

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantatio...

  8. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community

  9. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.

    2001-04-30

    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community.

  10. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc; Laura Zăpărţan; Laura Stan; Carmen R. POP; Maria Doiniţa Borş; Ancuţa M. Rotar

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w)] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Se...

  11. The Effect of Water Limitation on Volatile Emission, Tree Defense Response, and Brood Success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in Two Pine Hosts, Lodgepole, and Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L.

    2016-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana) trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavig...

  12. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" – Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Jussi; Yan, Jeff; Modic, David; Laakasuo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars—a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players. PMID:27383472

  13. Influence of the bluff body shear layers on the wake of a square prism in a turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, D. C.; Letchford, C. W.; Amitay, M.; Kopp, G. A.

    2016-08-01

    Despite a substantial body of literature dealing with the effects of free-stream turbulence (FST) on two-dimensional square prism, there remain some open questions regarding the influence of the bluff body shear layer development in a highly perturbed environment and the resulting impact on bluff body flow characteristics. Accordingly, flows with ambient and enhanced FST were studied at ReD=5.0 ×104 using long-duration time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV). The data indicate a narrowing and lengthening of the mean wake and an accompanying rise in base pressure. Using triple decomposition, the underlying dynamics of the wake reveal a streamwise lengthening of the individual von Kármán vortex structures, complementing the increase in mean wake length. Close inspection of the shear layer region, in the presence of FST, indicates a substantial increase in curvature towards the body but no pronounced increase in the growth rate. The loci of maximum turbulent kinetic energy and spanwise vorticity in the shear layer region further reveal that the most pronounced changes occur during the very initial stages follow separation. Inspection of a series of instantaneous PIV fields of Q criterion show that the conventional transition pathway, via the formation and subsequent pairing of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) vortices, is bypassed. The KH vortices are observed to immediately cluster and amalgamate before breaking into smaller random eddies. The bypass transition is followed by shear layer reattachment in some cases. This is considered a primary mechanism responsible for the reported changes in the global flow characteristics and the altered wake dynamics. Furthermore, a quantitative definition of the diffusion length is implemented for the square prism wake and its relationship to the Strouhal number and wake formation length is considered.

  14. Specific features of the structure of a technical and tactical arsenal of Non-Olympic single combats of an impact type and a way of its improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Ashanin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify key differences in technical operations and tactical combat potential ways to implement popular athletes in combat shock type, applying for entry into the Olympic Games. Material and Methods: distinctions of sports technique and tactics in duels in karate, taekwondo, kickboxing and Thai boxing were estimated by the expert group. The arsenal of technical and tactical actions of sportsmen was analyzed at competitions of various levels. Results: essential distinctions in competitive exercises, estimated criteria of refereeing, the structure and the arsenal of the applied sports technique and tactics are revealed in chosen for the research types of impact single combats. Conclusions: essential differences in the technical - tactical arsenal of the studied types of impact single combats which are shown in the topography of zones allowed for drawing, the structure of attacking and protective actions, and also tactical stylistics of carrying out duels.

  15. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  16. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Francisco R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes. As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5% of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: http://www.scbi.uma.es/pindb/. It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including

  17. Rooting Rose Cuttings in Whole Pine Tree Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for alternatives to pine bark (PB) and peat moss (P) has led to extensive research on wood-based substrates, such as processed whole pine trees (WPT), for nursery and greenhouse crop production. Limited information is available on how WPT may perform as a rooting substrate for cutti...

  18. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan P Keville

    Full Text Available Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP (Pinus albicaulis ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺ concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  19. Assessment of Forest Road Network Alternatives for Pine Resin Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budiaman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pine resin, one type of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, is important for Indonesia.   In addition to its high economic value, pine resin also has bright domestic and international market prospects.  Utilization of commercial pine resin has been carried out in Indonesia, but the forest road network required for extracting pine resin has not been specifically planned. To date, the planning and selection of forest road network  in  forest management in Indonesia are intended only for the extraction of  timber products and have not been integrated with the use of NTFPs; also,  they have not considered the economic, ecological, and social aspects a whole. Planning and selection of forest road network have focused more on economic aspects only. This study aimed at planning and assessing the forest road network for extracting pine resin by considering the economic, ecological, and social criteria.  Decision-making method used  to select the best  forest road network was utility analysis.  Indicator used  included road length, road density, a correction factor for manual carrying of pine resin, pine resin carrying distance, road construction cost, and productivity of carrying and extracting pine resin. The result of  the utility analysis indicates that an alternative of forest road network for extracting pine resin has no the whole best indicators, but it has the highest utility value.  This study suggested that the use of the utility analysis help the decision makers to selects process for forest  road network alternative easily and rapidly.Keywords: pine  resin,  forest  road network, utility analysis, non-timber  forest products  (NTFPs

  20. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined. PMID:23346232

  1. Extreme rates of riverbank erosion of the high bluff formed by the ice-rich syngenetic permafrost (yedoma), Itkillik River, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Shur, Y.; Fortier, D.; Jorgenson, T.; Stephani, E.; Strauss, J.

    2013-12-01

    Riverbank erosion in areas underlain by ice-rich permafrost is strongly affected by the processes of thawing of ground ice, which include (1) thermal erosion, and (2) thermal denudation. Thermal erosion is a process of combined thermal and mechanical action of moving water, which results in simultaneous thawing of frozen soil and its removal by water. Thermal erosion can cause block collapse of eroded banks. Thermal denudation is a process of thawing of frozen soils exposed in the bluff due to solar energy and consequent removal of thawed soils by gravity. Studies of riverbank and coastal erosion revealed that the highest rates of erosion are typical of bluffs composed by yedoma (ice- and organic-rich syngenetically frozen silty deposits). Yedoma deposits can be up to 50 m thick, and they contain huge ice wedges up to 10 m wide. Since 2006, we have studied the process of riverbank erosion of the 35 m high exposure of yedoma along the Itkillik River in northern Alaska. Based on five measurements of the areas occupied by wedge ice in panoramic photographs taken in 2006, 2007, 2011, and 2012, the average wedge-ice volume makes 61% of the entire exposed bluff. The total volumetric ground ice content of the Itkillik yedoma, including wedge, segregated and pore ice, is 85%. We detect three main stages of the riverbank erosion for the study site and other similar sites in the areas of ice-rich permafrost: (1) thermal erosion combined with thermal denudation, (2) thermal denudation, and (3) slope stabilization. The first stage includes formation of thermoerosional niches; development of sub-vertical cracks and block-fall collapse of cornices; and thawing and disintegration of blocks of ground ice and frozen soil in the water. All these processes are accompanied by thermal denudation of the exposed bluff. On August 16, 2007, a big portion of the bluff fell down along the crack sub-parallel to the bluff. As a result, the vertical wall more than 65 m long entirely formed by

  2. Reconnaissance of Acid Drainage Sources and Preliminary Evaluation of Remedial Alternatives at the Copper Bluff Mine, Hoopa Valley Reservation, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Hunerlach, Michael P.; Hamlin, Scott N.; Zierenberg, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Acidic drainage from the inactive Copper Bluff mine cascades down a steep embankment into the Trinity River, on the Hoopa Valley Reservation in northern California. The Copper Bluff mine produced about 100,000 tons of sulfide-bearing copper-zinc-gold-silver ore during 1957?1962. This report summarizes the results of a water-resources investigation begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1994 with the overall objective of gathering sufficient geochemical, hydrologic, and geologic information so that a sound remediation strategy for the Copper Bluff mine could be selected and implemented by the Hoopa Valley Tribe. This study had the following specific objectives: (1) monitor the quality and quantity of the mine discharge, (2) determine seasonal variability of metal concentrations and loads, (3) map and sample the underground mine workings to determine sources of flow and suitability of mine plugging options, and (4) analyze the likely consequences of various remediation and treatment options. Analysis of weekly water samples of adit discharge over parts of two wet seasons (January to July 1995 and October 1995 to May 1996) shows that dissolved copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations (in samples filtered with 0.20-micrometer membranes) varied systematically in a seasonal pattern. Metal concentrations increased dramatically in response to the first increase in discharge, or first flush, early in the wet season. The value of Zn/Cu in the adit discharge exhibited systematic seasonal variations; an annual Zn/Cu cycle was observed, beginning with values between 3 and 5 during the main part of the wet season, rising to values between 6 and 10 during the period of lowest discharge late in the dry season, and then dropping dramatically to values less than 3 during the first-flush period. Values of pH were fairly constant in the range of 3.1 to 3.8 throughout the wet season and into the beginning of the dry season, but rose to values between 4.5 and 5.6 during the period of

  3. La salud y la enfermedad en el Real Hospital de la Armada del Arsenal de la Carraca (1756-1821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. García-Cubillana de la Cruz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available En el primer cuarto del siglo XVIII se crea el Arsenal de la Carraca, considerado como el principal astillero de la Armada Española. La masiva llegada de operarios civiles y militares ante la oferta de trabajo, motivó un problema asistencial sanitario, que se solventó a través de una improvisada enfermería de madera y otros hospitales provisionales instalados en la Isla de León. Finalmente, en 1756 se pudo fundar el «Real Hospital del Arsenal de la Carraca». Este nosocomio tuvo un papel crucial en la epidemia de fiebre amarilla de 1800 y en los dos primeros años de la Guerra de la Independencia, hasta que en agosto de 1810 tuvo que ser desalojado ante el riesgo de bombardeo de las baterías francesas apostadas en Puerto Real, siendo reconvertido en un «hospital de sangre». No obstante, en la segunda grave epidemia de fiebre amarilla de 1819, el hospital tuvo que ser reactivado como en sus orígenes. Debido a la restructuración hospitalaria en la bahía de Cádiz, la Armada procedió a su extinción en el año 1821, tal y como muestra el documento que lo acredita encontrado en el Archivo General de Marina «Álvaro de Bazán». En este trabajo se exponen las vicisitudes sanitarias y humanas de este Real Hospital a lo largo de 65 años claves en la historia de España.

  4. 75 FR 23666 - Huron-Manistee National Forests, White Pines Wind Farm Project, Mason County, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Forest Service Huron-Manistee National Forests, White Pines Wind Farm Project, Mason County, MI AGENCY... Pines Wind Farm Project on National Forest System (NFS) lands managed by the Huron-Manistee National... process for the White Pines Wind Farm Project. DATES: The Notice of Intent to prepare the White Pines...

  5. Muusikamaailm : Rostropovitshi suurprojekt. Festival "Arsenal Baroque" Metzis. "UltraSchall" Berliinis. Vermeuleni preemia 2000. Thielemann jääb Berliini. Henri Tomasi ئ 100 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    M. Rostropovitsh tõi publiku ette Shostakovitshi ooperi "Mtsenski maakonna leedi Macbeth". Festivalist Arsenal Baroque" Metzis. Rahvusvahelisest festivalist "UltraSchall" Berliinis. Matthijs Vermeuleni nim. preemia sai tänavu R. Rijnvos. C. Thielemann jääb Deutsche Operi muusikadirektoriks veel aastani 2007. Lühidalt H. Tomasist

  6. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

  7. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  8. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  9. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine. PMID:23955061

  10. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Dang, Sophie; Davis, Corey S.; Cooke, Barry J.; Coltman, David W

    2011-01-01

    The current epidemic of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), an indigenous pest of western North American pine, has resulted in significant losses of lodgepole pine. The leading edge has reached Alberta where forest composition shifts from lodgepole to jack pine through a hybrid zone. The susceptibility of jack pine to MPB is a major concern, but there has been no evidence of host-range expansion, in part due to the difficulty in distinguishing the parentals and their hybrids. We tested the utilit...

  11. Culture independent analysis of microbiota in the gut of pine weevils

    OpenAIRE

    Ölander, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, the pine weevil causes damages for several hundreds of millions kronor annually. The discouraged use of insecticides has resulted in that other methods to prevent pine weevil feeding needs to be found. Antifeedants found in the pine weevil own feces is one such alternative. The source of the most active antifeedants in the feces is probably from bacterial or fungal lignin degrading symbionts in the pine weevil gut. The aim of the project was to analyze the pine weevil gut microbiot...

  12. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate 137Cs and 90Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm3 sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of 137CS and 90Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the 137Cs and I.5% of the 90Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the 137Cs and 4.5% of the 90Sr. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with 137Cs and 90Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store 137Cs and 90Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils

  13. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. J., E-mail: m.sweet@derby.ac.uk [University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences (United Kingdom); Singleton, I. [Newcastle University, School of Biology (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  14. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP

  15. A New Flavonoid in Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-yan; SHI Xiao-feng; WANG Dong-dong; MA Qu-huan; ZHANG Jun-min; LI Chong

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of flavonoids in pine needles of Cedrus deodara.Methods Flavonoids were isolated and purified from ethyl acetate extract of pine needles by chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20.Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence.Results Five flavonoids were isolated and purified.Their structures were identified as cedrusone A(1),myricetin(2),2R,3R-dihydromyricetin(3),quercctin(4),and 2R,3R-dihydroquercetin(5).Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound.Compounds 2-5 are isolated from pine needles of this genus for the first time.

  16. Ultrasound-associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYing; WANGZhen-yu; CHENXiao-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Experiment on ultrasound- associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) was conducted in Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China. The factors affecting extraction yield, such as ultrasonic frequency, extracting temperature, extracting time and the ratio of material to liquid (ratio of Korean pine seed to absolute alcohol), were analyzed under specific condition and the optimal extracting parameters were obtained as the ultrasonic frequency 32 000 Hz, the extracting temperature 80℃, the extracting time 50 rain, and the ratio of material to liquid 1: 30. The study demonstrates that ultrasound is a reliable and great efficiency tool for the fast extraction of Korean pine seed oil。

  17. Aerial radiometric and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, and Tennessee: Dyersburg, Paducah, Poplar Bluff, and Rolla quadrangles, final report. Volume 1 and Volume 2C. Poplar Bluff quadrangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumentation and methods described were used for a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, high-sensitivity, aerial gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of Dyersburg (Kentucky, Missouri, Tennessee); Paducah (Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri); Poplar Bluff (Arkansas, Missouri); and Rolla (Missouri) NTMS, 1:250,000-scale quadrangle. The survey was carried out by Texas Instruments Incorporated under Bendix Field Engineering Corporation Subcontract No. 78-285-L. The objective of the work was to define areas showing surface indications of a generally higher uranium content where detailed exploration for uranium would most likely be successful. A DC-3 aircraft equipped with a high-sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and ancillary geophysical and electronic equipment was employed for each quadrangle. The system was calibratd using the DOE calibration facilities at Grand Junction, Colorado, and Lake Mead, Arizona. Gamma-ray spectrometric data were processed to correct for variations in atmospheric, flight, and instrument conditions and were statistically evaluated to remove the effects of surface geologic variations. The resulting first-priority uranium anomalies (showing simultaneously valid eU, eU/eTh, and eU/K anomalies) were interpreted to evaluate their origin and significance. Results of the interpretation in the form of a preferred-anomaly map, along with significance-factor profile maps, stacked profiles, histograms, and descriptions of the geology and known uranium occurrences are presented in Volume 2 of this final report

  18. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in pine needles from Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlikowska, A.; Falandysz, J.; Bochentin, I. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Univ. of Gdansk (Poland); Hanari, N.; Wyrzykowska, B.; Yamashita, N. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), EMTECH, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are a group of 75 compounds, which have been commercially produced and used in a wide range of industrial applications for the sake of their specific chemical properties. They are recognized as good electrical insulators and also as water and flame resistant materials. Technical PCNs formulations were mainly used as capacitor dielectrics, engine oil additives, electroplating stop-off compounds, in wire insulations and as paper, wood and fabric preservatives. Moreover, they have been formed during production of PCBs formulations. Although recently most countries have stopped synthesis of PCNs, they still are widely distributed in the environment. Nowadays the principal sources of these compounds are municipal solid wastes incineration, metallurgical and chloro-alkali processes. In last years PCNs concentrations in the environment have posed the cynosure of big group of scientists in the whole world. The relatively high concentrations are regarded as an environmental problem. Because they are persistent, toxic and lipophilic they might be bioaccumulated in living organisms and generate the danger for animals and humans. It is essentially to monitor their levels in air, regional transport, as well as estimate specific sources. It is possible by using as a biomonitors pine tree needles. These trees are considered as the very suitable passive indicators for monitoring of PCNs concentrations in the troposphere. This is because the surface wax layer of the needles poses an ability to absorb these lipophilic compounds from the surrounding air. In the current study pine needles were employed as biomonitors of PCNs concentrations in the ambient air of Poland. This country with its past history of production and use of different applications including these compounds, as well as with its location in the centre of Europe, presents the interesting region to these researches.

  19. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  20. A Comparison of the Characteristics of Planar and Axisymmetric Bluff-Body Combustors Operated under Stratified Inlet Mixture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paterakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents comparisons of the flame stabilization characteristics of axisymmetric disk and 2D slender bluff-body burner configurations, operating with inlet mixture stratification, under ultralean conditions. A double cavity propane air premixer formed along three concentric disks, supplied with a radial equivalence ratio gradient the afterbody disk recirculation, where the first flame configuration is stabilized. Planar fuel injection along the center plane of the leading face of a slender square cylinder against the approach cross-flow results in a stratified flame configuration stabilized alongside the wake formation region in the second setup. Measurements of velocities, temperatures, OH∗ and CH∗ chemiluminescence, local extinction criteria, and large-eddy simulations are employed to examine a range of ultralean and close to extinction flame conditions. The variations of the reacting front disposition within these diverse reacting wake topologies, the effect of the successive suppression of heat release on the near flame region characteristics, and the reemergence of large-scale vortical activity on approach to lean blowoff (LBO are investigated. The cross-correlation of the performance of these two popular flame holders that are at the opposite ends of current applications might offer helpful insights into more effective control measures for expanding the operational margin of a wider range of stabilization configurations.

  1. Classification of gas-liquid flow patterns by the norm entropy of wavelet decomposed pressure fluctuations across a bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiqiang; Chen, Yanping; Gong, Hui

    2012-12-01

    Identification of gas-liquid flow patterns remains one of the paramount needs in multiphase flow metering. It is hardly possible to realize accurate measurement and control of parameters in a gas-liquid flow system without a clear understanding of its flow pattern. Here we explore the characterization of gas-liquid flow patterns using the norm entropy extracted from the wavelet decomposed pressure fluctuations across a bluff body. Experiments on air-water two-phase flow at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure are carried out in the bubble, plug, slug and annular flow patterns. On the basis of the experimental results, two original flow-pattern maps are constructed: one is coordinated with the average norm entropy versus the total mass flow rate, and the other is the average norm entropy versus the volumetric void fraction. Verification tests demonstrate that the overall identification rates of the flow-pattern maps developed exceed 95%. This approach provides an effective and simple solution to the classification of gas-liquid flow patterns.

  2. Classification of gas–liquid flow patterns by the norm entropy of wavelet decomposed pressure fluctuations across a bluff body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of gas–liquid flow patterns remains one of the paramount needs in multiphase flow metering. It is hardly possible to realize accurate measurement and control of parameters in a gas–liquid flow system without a clear understanding of its flow pattern. Here we explore the characterization of gas–liquid flow patterns using the norm entropy extracted from the wavelet decomposed pressure fluctuations across a bluff body. Experiments on air–water two-phase flow at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure are carried out in the bubble, plug, slug and annular flow patterns. On the basis of the experimental results, two original flow-pattern maps are constructed: one is coordinated with the average norm entropy versus the total mass flow rate, and the other is the average norm entropy versus the volumetric void fraction. Verification tests demonstrate that the overall identification rates of the flow-pattern maps developed exceed 95%. This approach provides an effective and simple solution to the classification of gas–liquid flow patterns. (paper)

  3. Simulation of vortex shedding behind a bluff body flame stabilizer using a hybrid U-RANS/PDF method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Ming Zhu; Ping-Hui Zhao; Hai-Wen Ge; Yi-Liang Chen

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims at the investigation of the effects of turbulence-chemistry interaction on combustion instabilities using a probability density function (PDF)method. The instantaneous quantities in the flow field were decomposed into the Favre-averaged variables and the stochastic fluctuations,which were calculated by unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (U-RANS) equations and the PDF model,respectively.A joint fluctuating velocityfrequency-composition PDF was used.The governing equations are solved by a consistent hybrid finite volume/MonteCarlo algorithm on triangular unstructured meshes.A nonreacting flow behind a triangular-shaped bluff body flame stabilizer in a rectilinear combustor was simulated by the present method.The results demonstrate the capability of the present method to capture the large-scale coherent structures.The triple decomposition was performed,by dividing the coherent Favre-averaged velocity into time-averaged value and periodical coherent part,to analyze the coherent and incoherent contributions to Reynolds stresses.A simple modification to the coefficients in the turbulent frequency model will help to improve the simulation results.Unsteady flow fields were depicted by streamlines and vorticity contours.Moreover,the association between turbulence production and vorticity saddle points is illustrated.

  4. The Boneyard Episode One: Young Pine and God's Country

    OpenAIRE

    Urdrian Jr, William Allen

    2015-01-01

    The Boneyard Episode One: Young Pine is supernatural crime drama that deals with connection between twins. God's Country is a suspense drama about an undercover agent that must infiltrate a growing militia hell bent sussing from the United States.

  5. Interpopulation variability of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary studies (genetic and phytocoenological of 4 populations of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold were carried out in western and central Serbia. The obtained results gave the same inter-population arrangement in both methods. Dendograms (NTSYS differentiate at the greatest genetic distance the population of Austrian pine in Šargan compared to other populations: Crni Vrh, Goč and Studenica. Using phytocoenological analysis it was determined that population of Austrian pine in Šargan forms a community Erico-Pinetum gocensis, while the other populations form a community Seslerio rigidae-Pinetum gocensis. Multidisciplinary approach that was demonstrated within this paper presents the first studies of Austrian pine that directly link genotype dependence and environmental conditions manifested through the phytocoenological affiliation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31070

  6. Preparation and Properties of HBS Lignin from Masson Pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xian-su; CHEN Wei-jian; CHEN Yun-ping; CHEN Yue-xian; LI Mian-jun; FANG Hua-shu

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish a new method for making cellulose and lignin from Masson pine, a high boiling solvent (HBS) pulping process with an aqueous solvent of 1,4-butanediol was investigated. Masson pine chips were pulped with a 70%-90% aqueous solution of 1,4-butanediol containing a small amount of a catalyst at 200-220 ℃ for 60-180 min. HBS Masson pine cellulose is suitable for making paper. Water-insoluble HBS lignin was separated from the liquor reaction mixture by water precipitation. The recovered high boiling solvent (RHBS) is able to be recycled as a pulping solvent, indicating that the HBS method is a pulping process of Masson pine which is energy saving, resources saving and pollution free. HBS lignin has a better chemical reactivity and a lower ash content than lignin sulfonate.

  7. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  8. Spring diet of the pine marten in Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombardini, M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of a carnivore’s foraging behaviour is essential to understand its ecology. The pine marten Martes martes is commonly defined as an opportunistic generalist predator since its diet in Europe includes mammals, fruits, birds and invertebrates. Based on faecal analyses, we evaluated spring feeding habits and trophic niche breadth of the pine marten in a Mediterranean landscape on the island of Sardinia (Central Italy. The most important source of food for the pine marten was small mammals (mainly Apodemus sylvaticus, Mus musculus and Eliomys quercinus, accounting for 52% of the percent mean volume. Important secondary foods were invertebrates (mainly beetles and insect larvae and birds (almost exclusively passerines, whereas large mammals, lagomorphs, reptiles and fruits made little contribution to the diet. The diet composition and the Levins’ index value suggest that the pine marten in Sardinia behaves as a facultative specialist predator, with a specialization towards small mammals.

  9. PineSAP—sequence alignment and SNP identification pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Jill L Wegrzyn; Lee, Jennifer M.; Liechty, John; Neale, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The Pine Alignment and SNP Identification Pipeline (PineSAP) provides a high-throughput solution to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) prediction using multiple sequence alignments from re-sequencing data. This pipeline integrates a hybrid of customized scripting, existing utilities and machine learning in order to increase the speed and accuracy of SNP calls. The implementation of this pipeline results in significantly improved multiple sequence alignments and SNP identifications ...

  10. Loblolly pine response to drainage and fertilization of hydric soils

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Lisa M.

    1993-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) productivity on wet flats of the lower coastal plain of Virginia is largely affected by the presence of high water tables and infertile soil. Site preparation by bedding and ditching can alleviate high water tables and increase aerated soil rooting volume, enhancing pine productivity. Fertilizing and liming may improve soil fertility by increasing available nutrients and soil pH. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two widely used ...

  11. Interference interactions in experimental pine-hardwood stands

    OpenAIRE

    Fredericksen, Todd Simon

    1991-01-01

    Competition for resources and other interference from non-crop vegetation often limits the productivity of pine and pine-hardwood forest stands in the southern United States. However, forest researchers have yet to fully quantify the effect of this interference on forest tree yield and there is an incomplete understanding of the biological mechanisms of interference. To better quantify the effects of interference interactions and elucidate their mechanisms, a field replacement series experime...

  12. Flows of Chemical Substances in Latvian Pine Forests Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Tērauda, Evija

    2008-01-01

    FLOWS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IN LATVIAN PINE FORESTS ECOSYSTEMS Annotation As a basis of the study, data from integrated monitoring stations of Latvia have been used. The objective of the study is to study turnover of substances in ecosystems of pine forests in the boreo-nemoral zone. The results of the study showed that the mean concentration of studied elements (except Pb) increased in the order: bulk precipitation

  13. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, C. D.; Savage, M.; Falk, D. A.; Suckling, K. F.; Swetnam, T.W.; Schulke, T.; Stacey, P. B.; Morgan, P.; Hoffman, M; Klingel, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote a broad and flexible perspective on ecological restoration of Southwestern (U.S.) ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa pine forests in the region have been radically altered by Euro-American land uses, including livestock grazing, fire suppression, and logging. Dense thickets of young trees now abound, old-growth and biodiversity have declined, and human and ecological communities are increasingly vulnerable to destructive crown fires. A consensus has emer...

  14. Importance of residual trees to birds in regenerating pine plantations

    OpenAIRE

    JC Jones; Demarais S; Hanberry P; Hanberry BB

    2012-01-01

    Pine plantation establishment methods can alter vegetation composition and structure, thus affecting habitat important characteristics for declining early successional bird species. We evaluated eight vegetation characteristics, which varied due to a range of pine plantation establishment methods, to identify vegetation most closely associated with spring bird abundance in the Lower Coastal Plain of southern Mississippi, USA. Presence of residual trees and snags was positively related to rela...

  15. Restoring Ecosystem Health in Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    Covington, W. Wallace; Fule, Peter Z; Moore, Margaret M.; Hart, Stephen C.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Mast, Joy N; Sackett, Stephen S; Wagner, Michael R

    1997-01-01

    Previous research has established that presettlement ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in the southwestern USA were much more open. After Euro-American settlement, heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression, logging and climatic events favored dense pine regeneration. Studies were established within the Fort Valley Experimental Forest, near Flagstaff, Arizona, to determine: how the structure (by biomass component) and nutrient storage changed over the last century of fire exclusion in a...

  16. Localized spatial and temporal attack dynamics of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, B.J.; Powell, J.A.; Logan, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    Colonization of a host tree by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) involves chemical communication that enables a massive aggregation of beetles on a single resource, thereby ensuring host death and subsequent beetle population survival. Beetle populations have evolved a mechanism for termination of colonization on a lodgepole pine tree at optimal beetle densities, with a concomitant switch of attacks to nearby trees. Observations of the daily spatial and temporal attack process of mountain pine beetles (nonepidemic) attacking lodgepole pine suggest that beetles switch attacks to a new host tree before the original focus tree is fully colonized, and that verbenone, an antiaggregating pheromone, may be acting within a tree rather than between trees.

  17. Influence of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels, Foliar Fuel Moisture Content, and Litter and Volatile Terpenes in Whitebark Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Toone, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has caused extensive tree mortality in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm) forests. Previous studies conducted in various conifer forests have shown that fine surface fuels are significantly altered during a bark beetle outbreak. Bark beetle activity in conifer stands has also been shown to alter foliar fuel moisture content and chemistry over the course of the bark beetle rotation.The objective of this study was to evaluate changes ...

  18. Rapid Increases in Forest Understory Diversity and Productivity following a Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Outbreak in Pine Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Pec, Gregory J.; Justine Karst; Sywenky, Alexandra N.; Cigan, Paul W.; Nadir Erbilgin; Simard, Suzanne W.; Cahill, James F.

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks ar...

  19. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  20. Proteomic analysis of the rare Uracoan rattlesnake Crotalus vegrandis venom: Evidence of a broad arsenal of toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viala, Vincent Louis; Hildebrand, Diana; Fucase, Tamara Mieco; Sciani, Juliana Mozer; Prezotto-Neto, José Pedro; Riedner, Maria; Sanches, Leonardo; Nishimura, Paula Juliana; Oguiura, Nancy; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho; Schlüter, Hartmut; Betzel, Christian; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswami; Spencer, Patrick Jack

    2015-12-01

    The investigation of venoms has many clinical, pharmacological, ecological and evolutionary outcomes. The Crotalus spp. venom can cause hemorrhage, neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, coagulopathy and hypotension. Although neurotoxicity and hemorrhage usually does not occur for the same species, the rare Venezuelan species Crotalus vegrandis presents both characteristic. Different from the other species it has a restricted ecological niche and geographical distribution. Nevertheless, it has a raising medical importance as this rattlesnake population is increasing. Few works describe its neurotoxic and hemorrhagic features, but other toxins might play an important role in envenomation. We combined proteomic methods to identify for the first time the main components of it venom: 2D SDS-PAGE and gel-filtration chromatography for protein mixture decomplexation; LC-MS(2) of low molecular mass fractions and tryptic peptides; bioinformatic identification of toxin families and specific protein species based on unique peptide analysis and sequence database enriched with species-specific venom gland transcripts; and finally polyclonal anti-crotamine Western-blotting. Our results point to a broad arsenal of toxins in C. vegrandis venom: PIII and PII metalloproteases, crotoxin subunits, other phospholipases, isoforms of serine proteases and lectins, l-amino-acid oxidase, nerve growth factor, as well as other less abundant toxins. PMID:26403864

  1. The Aristotelian Heritage in Early Naval Architecture. From the Venice Arsenal to the French Navy, 1500-1700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrie David Ferreiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This paper examines the Aristotelian roots of the mechanics of naval architecture, beginning with Mechanical Problems, through its various interpretations by Renaissance mathematicians including Vettor Fausto and Galileo at the Venice Arsenal, and culminating in the first synthetic works of naval architecture by the French navy professor Paul Hoste at the end of the seventeenth century.

  2. REVIVING THE ART OF SOCIABILITY: Madame de Genlis’s Post-Revolutionary Salon at the Arsenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Conroy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Madame de Genlis is famous as a critic of the philosophes thanks largely to her society dialogue of the 1820s, Les dîners du baron d’Holbach (1822. Her portrait of positive sociability, Les soupers chez la maréchale de Luxembourg (1828, is far less famous. The soupers establish Genlis’s ideal of courtly sociability as superior to what she saw as perverse Enlightenment sociability and the incivility of the Revolutionary period. Yet these stylized dialogues are far from straightforward-ly historical representations of high society conversations. Instead, they are practical models for conversation, calculated to serve as a moral tonic for a divided society. Issuing from her experi-ence as a salonnière at the Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, Genlis’s fictionalized dialogues of the 1820s reinvent the idea of eighteenth-century sociability to suit the tastes of the leaders of the nine-teenth century.

  3. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds. PMID:15666752

  4. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet, M. J.; Singleton, I.

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing varia...

  5. Le preferenze degli operatori immobiliari per gli investimenti su beni storici architettonici: un’indagine di Conjoint Choice sul riuso dell’Arsenale di Venezia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alberini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the preferences of real estate developers for investments in an area with highly praised historical heritage: the Old Arsenal of Venice. A Conjoint Choice Analysis survey has been undertaken among 146 operators likely to consider investment in Venice. From the information provided by the respondents emerged that the existence of conservation constraints is far from being the main consideration, while investors consider predominantly, together with cost and location, the full property and the possible uses.

  6. Regional geology of the Pine Creek Geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pine Creek Geosyncline comprises about 14km of chronostratigraphic mainly pelitic and psammitic Lower Proterozoic sediments with interlayered tuff units, resting on granitic late Archaean complexes exposed as three small domes. Sedimentation took place in one basin, and most stratigraphic units are represented throughout the basin. The sediments were regionally deformed and metamorphosed at 1800Ma. Tightly folded greenschist facies strata in the centre grade into isoclinally deformed amphibolite facies metamorphics in the west and northeast. Pre and post-orogenic continental tholeiites, and post-orogenic granite diapirs intrude the Lower Proterozoic metasediments, and the granites are surrounded by hornfels zones up to 10km wide in the greenschist facies terrane. Cover rocks of Carpentarian (Middle Proterozoic) and younger ages rest on all these rocks unconformably and conceal the original basin margins. The Lower Proterozoic metasediments are mainly pelites (about 75 percent) which are commonly carbonaceous, lesser psammites and carbonates (about 10 percent each), and minor rudites (about 5 percent). Volcanic rocks make up about 10 percent of the total sequence. The environment of deposition ranges from shallow-marine to supratidal and fluviatile for most of the sequence, and to flysch in the topmost part. Poor exposure and deep weathering over much of the area hampers correlation of rock units; the correlation preferred by the authors is presented, and possible alternatives are discussed. Regional geological observations pertinent to uranium ore genesis are described. (author)

  7. Analysis on enzymatic browning in pine needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, K.H.; Park, H.J.; Choi, S.S.; Cho, S.H. [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Y.T. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Tyrosinases are related to the enzymatic browning of plants and attract the major scientific interest for the prevention of it. Three tyrosinase isozymes (P{sub 1}, P{sub 2} and P{sub 3}) from pine needles were purified to homogeneity and characterized the factors that affect their activities. The L-ascorbic acid and {beta}-mercaptoethanol notably inhibited the enzymatic activities of the three isozymes. The sodium diethyldithiocarbamate was a competitive inhibitor of isozymes with the K{sub i} values of P{sub 1}(0.30 mM), P{sub 2}(0.015 mM) and P{sub 3}(0.019 mM), respectively. Their enzyme activities were however, increased by the addition of most metal ions. The optimum pH for the three isozymes was 9.0{approx}9.5 and the optimum temperatures ranged from 55 to 60{sup o} C using L-DOPA as substrate. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Estimating slash pine biomass using radar backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Yousif Ali; Reich, Robin M.; Hoffer, Roger M.

    1991-01-01

    L-band HV multiple-incidence-angle aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were analyzed in relation to average stand biomass, basal area, and tree height for 55 slash pine plantations located in northern Florida. This information was used to develop a system of equations to predict average stand biomass as a function of L-band (24.5-cm) radar backscatter. The system of equations developed in this study using three-stage least-squares and combinatorial screening accounted for 97 percent of the variability observed in average stand biomass per hectare. When applied to an independent data set, the biomass equations had an average bias of less than 1 percent with a standard error of approximately 3 percent. These results indicate that future Shuttle Imaging Radar Systems (e.g., SIR-C, which will have cross-polarized radar sensors) should be able to obtain better estimates of forest biomass than were obtained with previous satellite radar missions, which utilized only HH-polarized SAR data.

  9. 三松充气牛轧糖的工艺研制%A Research on the Processing of Pine Needle, Pine Pollen and Pine Nut Nougat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔宁; 王立江

    2015-01-01

    以松针、松花粉、松子为主要原料,按不同配比添加原料中,通过单因素和正交试验,制作的牛轧糖原料添加的最佳配比是:即白糖与糖浆1∶2制成糖液,糖液添加量为70.6%,黄油添加量为11.7%,蛋白添加量为4.1%,松针粉添加量为11.7%,生产的牛轧糖风味、口感和营养价值比较高。%In the present research, pine needle, pine pollen, pine nuare used as the primary materials, and the optimum formula for the nougat was confirmed by the single-factor and orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the amount of sugar solution was 70.6%, which was made of the sugar and syrup———the ratio of the two elements was 1∶2;the amount of butter was 11.7%;the amount of albumen was 4.1%;the amount of pine neelde powder was 11.7%.

  10. Collins pine/BCI biomass to ethanol project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    California has abundant biomass resources and a growing transportation fuels market. These two facts have helped to create an opportunity for biomass to ethanol projects within the state. One such project under development is the Collins Pine/BCI Project. Collins Pine Company and BC International (BCI) have teamed up to develop a forest biomass to ethanol facility to be collocated with Collins Pine's 12 MW, biomass-fueled electric generator in Chester, California. The Collins Pine Company (headquartered in Portland, Oregon) is an environmentally progressive lumber company that has owned and operated timberlands near Chester, California since the turn of the century. Collins manages 100,000 acres of timberland in the immediate area of the project. BCI (Dedham, Massachusetts) holds an exclusive license to a new, patented biotechnological process to convert lignocellulosic materials into ethanol and other specially chemicals with significant cost savings and environmental benefits. The project has received a California Energy Commission PIER program award to continue the developmental work done in the Quincy Library Group's Northeastern California Ethanol Manufacturing Feasibility Study (November 1997). This paper provides (1) a brief overview of the biomass and transportation fuels market in California; (2) the current status of the Collins Pine/BCI biomass ethanol project; and (3) future prospects and hurdles for the project to overcome. (author)

  11. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides. PMID:23297108

  12. IAEA Director General welcomes Russian-U.S. commitments to reduce nuclear arsenals and strengthen non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomes and is greatly encouraged by the Joint Statement of President Medvedev and President Obama, in which they committed themselves through concrete steps to fulfill their obligations under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, to achieve a nuclear-weapon-free world.The Director General believes that the commitment of the two Presidents to pursue new and verifiable reductions of their strategic offensive arsenals; the achievement of the long awaited entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty; the negotiation of a verifiable Treaty to end the production of fissile materials for nuclear weapons and the strengthening of efforts to secure nuclear weapons and material demonstrates leadership and finally moves us beyond the Cold War mentality. The Director General believes that these measures would also contribute to the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime by creating a much needed momentum for the universal adherence to comprehensive safeguards agreements and additional protocols and the enhancement of the safeguards system. The Director General welcomes the commitment of the two Presidents to promote the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy for all countries and their support in that regard for the IAEA's efforts to pursue multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle. The Director General shares the views of the two Presidents on the urgent need for a verifiable denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. He also supports their commitment to pursue a direct and comprehensive diplomatic solution with Iran that would address the international community's concerns while guaranteeing Iran's right to a peaceful nuclear programme. (IAEA)

  13. A 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in response to oxidative stress in the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Li; Qingwen Zhang; Xuguo Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease that has devastated pine forests in Asia. Parasitic nematodes are known to have evolved antioxidant stress responses that defend against host plant defenses. In this study, the infestation of whitebark pine, Pinus bungean, with B. xylophilus led to a significant increase in plant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and salicylic acid levels. Correspondingly, the expression of an antioxidative enzyme, 2-Cysteine ...

  14. Pine as Fast Food: Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Cockatoo in a Forestry Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, William D.; Hugh Finn; Jackson Parker; Ken Dods

    2013-01-01

    Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby's Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby's Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158,025...

  15. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, G.D.; Ryan, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it simulated the smoldering of natural duff, generating temperatures that killed the cambium. The four treatments tested were uninjured tree, heat-injured tree, heat-injured tree treated with verbenone, and heat-injured tree treated with verbenone plus ipsdienol. Treatments were replicated 20 times. Mountain pine beetles were attracted into treatment blocks by placing mountain pine beetle tree baits on metal posts 3 to 5 meters from treated trees. Fisher's Extract Test showed that treatment and beetle infestation were not independent (P < 0.015). Check treatments contained more unattacked and mass-attacked trees, whereas pheromone treatments contained more unsuccessfully attacked trees.

  16. Tritium concentrations in pine needle, litter and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of pine needle, litter and soil samples collected in/around Akita City and Rokkasho Village in 1989 were analyzed for both free water 3H (FWT) and organically-bound 3H (OBT). The FWT concentrations decrease in the order, litter or soil>pine needle. FWT concentrations in soil depend on the moisture content, and tend to increase with decreasing soil moisture content. This relationship is consistent with the observation that FWT in the soil increases with oxidation of atmospheric tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and decreases with rainwater dilution. The OBT concentrations increase in the order pine needle3H concentrations may be reflected as high OBT concentrations in soils of the present. (author)

  17. Modeling of SAR returns from a red pine stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R. H.; Kilic, O.; Chauhan, N. S.; Ranson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Bright P-band radar returns from red pine forests have been observed on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images in Bangor, Maine. A plot of red pine trees was selected for the characterization and modeling to understand the cause of the high P-band returns. The red pine stand under study consisted of mature trees. Diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements were made to determine stand density as a function of tree diameter. Soil moisture and bulk density measurements were taken along with ground rough surface profiles. Detailed biomass measurements of the needles, shoots, branches, and trunks were also taken. These site statistics have been used in a distorted Born approximation model of the forest. Computations indicate that the direct-reflected or the double-bounce contributions from the ground are responsible for the high observed P-band returns for HH polarization.

  18. 75 FR 10457 - Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... density of trees in these stands range from sparse to a dense stocking basal area of 160 square feet per... naturally growing desirable native shortleaf pine, pitch pine, oak, American chestnut and hickory... (BA) of 30-40 ft\\2\\/acre. All oak, hickory, and shortleaf pine would be left where the BA is...

  19. Growth of longleaf and loblolly pine planted on South Carolina Sandhill sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cram, Michelle, M.; Outcalt, Kenneth, W.; Zarnoch, Stanley, J.

    2010-07-01

    Performance of longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) were compared 15–19 years after outplanting on 10 different sites in the sandhillsof South Carolina. The study was established from 1988 to 1992 with bareroot seedlings artificially inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) or naturally inoculated with mycorrhizae in the nursery. A containerized longleaf pine treatment with and without Pt inoculation was added to two sites in 1992. Effects of the Pt nursery treatment were mixed, with a decrease in survival of bareroot longleaf pine on two sites and an increase in survival on another site. The containerized longleaf pine treatment substantially increased survival, which led to greater volume compared with bareroot longleaf pine. Loblolly pine yielded more volume than longleaf pine on all sites but one, where survival was negatively affected by fire. Depth of sandy surface horizon affected mean annual height growth of both loblolly and longleaf pine. Height growth per year decreased with an increase in sand depth for both species. Multiple regression analysis of volume growth(ft3/ac per year) for both species indicated a strong relationship to depth of sandy soil and survival. After 15–19 years, loblolly pine has been more productive than longleaf pine, although longleaf pine productivity may be equal to or greater than that of loblolly pine on the soils with the deepest sandy surface layers over longer rotations.

  20. Resource release in lodgepole pine across a chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, B. H.; Trahan, N. A.; Dynes, E.; Beatty, S. W.; Monson, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade and a half Western North America has experienced a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on a scale not previously recorded. Millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in high elevation forests have been devastated. Although bark beetles are an important part of the endemic disturbance and regeneration regime in this region, the current unprecedented level of tree mortality will have a significant impact on resources and light availability to surviving trees. We established a decade-long chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance, in a lodgepole stand, composed of three age classes: recent, intermediate, and longest (approximately 2-4, 5-7, 8-10 years respectively) time since initial infestation, as well as a control group. The focus of the study was a healthy tree and it's area of influence (1m radius from the bole), each located in a cluster of the respective chronosequence classes. In the 2011 growing season we have looked at rates of photosynthesis, and water potentials for the healthy trees, as well as soil respiration flux and gravimetric moisture in their areas of influence. We are also in the process of analyzing soil extractable dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and inorganic phosphorus, and plan to take hemispherical photographs and analyze tree-ring stable isotopes to determine if there is any reallocation of soil water use by the trees. Our data shows that photosynthetic rates in the youngest infestation class increase 10 percent over the control group and then falls well bellow the control by the oldest class. The mineral soil gravimetric moisture drastically increases between the control and the recent class and then maintains a consistently higher level through the remaining classes. In contrast, moisture in the organic soil significantly declines between the control and recent class before rebounding to pre-infestation levels in the two older classes. Soil

  1. Computational fluid dynamic studies of certain ducted bluff-body flowfields relevant to turbojet combustors. Volume 2: Time-averaged flowfield predictions for a proposed centerbody combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.; Krishnamurthy, L.

    1986-07-01

    The near-wake region in a ducted bluff-body combustor was investigated by finite-difference computations. The numerical predictions are based upon the time-independent, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the k-epsilon turbulence model. The steady-state calculations address both nonreacting and reacting flowfields in a novel configuration to more realistically simulate some of the essential features of the primary zone of a gas turbine combustion chamber. This configuration is characterized by turbulent mixing and combustion in the recirculating near-wake region downstream of an axisymmetric bluff body due to two annular air streams--an outer swirl-free flow and an inner swirling flow--and a central fuel jet. The latter contains propane for reacting flows and carbon dioxide for nonreacting flows. In view of the large number of geometrical and flow parameters involved, the reported results are concerned with only a limited parametric examination with the major emphasis being on nonreacting flows. Questions addressed for a particular set of geometric parameters include the effects of variation of mass flow rates in all three streams and the influence of swirl in the middle stream. Reacting computations investigate the influence of swirl on combustion, as well as that of combustion on the flowfield.

  2. Studies on Solid Wood. IV. Comparison of Nordic Pine Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkmann, Anders

    2002-01-01

    The methods developed previously for measuring stiffness, creep, and axial compression of solid wood have been used for a comparative study of three specimens of pine (Pinus silvestris), collected at different latitudes in Scandinavia (North Sweden, South Finland and Denmark). Axial samples taken...... were obtained. In spite of the distinct differences in morphology, the pine specimens were generally quite similar. The specimens were also studied by other wood scientists, but a combined evaluation with the present results is not really possible without a deeper understanding of the wood...

  3. Ectomycorrhizal communities of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine in the south-central Oregon pumice zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria O; Smith, Jane E; Luoma, Daniel L; Jones, Melanie D

    2016-05-01

    Forest ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest of the USA are changing as a result of climate change. Specifically, rise of global temperatures, decline of winter precipitation, earlier loss of snowpack, and increased summer drought are altering the range of Pinus contorta. Simultaneously, flux in environmental conditions within the historic P. contorta range may facilitate the encroachment of P. ponderosa into P. contorta territory. Furthermore, successful pine species migration may be constrained by the distribution or co-migration of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). Knowledge of the linkages among soil fungal diversity, community structure, and environmental factors is critical to understanding the organization and stability of pine ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to establish a foundational knowledge of the EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in the Deschutes National Forest, OR, USA, and to examine soil characteristics associated with community composition. We examined EMF root tips of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in soil cores and conducted soil chemistry analysis for P. ponderosa cores. Results indicate that Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon salebrosus, and Inocybe flocculosa were dominant in both P. contorta and P. ponderosa soil cores. Rhizopogon spp. were ubiquitous in P. ponderosa cores. There was no significant difference in the species composition of EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta. Ordination analysis of P. ponderosa soils suggested that soil pH, plant-available phosphorus (Bray), total phosphorus (P), carbon (C), mineralizable nitrogen (N), ammonium (NH4), and nitrate (NO3) are driving EMF community composition in P. ponderosa stands. We found a significant linear relationship between EMF species richness and mineralizable N. In conclusion, P. ponderosa and P. contorta, within the Deschutes National Forest, share the same dominant EMF species, which implies that P. ponderosa may be able to successfully establish

  4. Development of merchantable volume equations for natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özçelik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of stem standing volume is very useful for both sustainable management of timber resources and practical purposes in forestry. Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. are important raw material of forest products industry of Turkey. With ever changing market conditions, there is a need to accurately estimate tree volumes utilizing multiple upper stem merchantability limits. This is not currently possible with the existing total stem volume tables for these three species. Nowadays, taper equations are the best way to estimate volume for saw timber and biomass purposes. In this study, variable exponent taper equations evaluated and fitted to data come from 253 destructively sampled trees which were collected in natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir district. For this aim, the taper equations of Lee et al. (2003, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004 were used. A second-order continuous-time autoregressive error structure was used to correct the inherent autocorrelation in the hierarchical data. The proposed models generally performed better for Merchantable tree volume. Results show that the Kozak (2004 taper equation was superior to the other equations in predicting diameter and merchantable height, while The Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model provided the best predictions for merchantable volume than the other models. The one of the important results of this study, the importance of checking fit statistics of taper equations for both diameters and volume estimations.As a results, Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model recommended for estimating diameter at a specific height, height to a specific diameter along the stem, and merchantable volume for brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir analyzed

  5. Effects of thinning on temperature dynamics and mountain pine beetle activity in a lodgepole pine stand. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, D.L.; Booth, G.D.

    1994-12-01

    Temperature measurements were made to better understand the role of microclimate on mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus pondersae Hopkins (Coleoptera:Scolytidae), activity as a result of thinning lodgepole pine stands. Sampling was done over 61 days on the north slope of the Unita Mountain Range in Northeastern Utah. Principal components analysis was applied to all temperature variables. Most of the variation was attributed to two variables, coolest part of the night and hottest part of the day. The thinned stand was approximately 1 deg. C warmer than the unthinned stand.

  6. Flux agreement above a Scots pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Blanford, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    The surface energy exchange of 12m high Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany, was measured with a variety of methods during a 11-day period of fine weather in mid-May 1992. Net radiation and rate of thermal storage were measured with conventional net radiometers, soil heat flux discs and temperature-based storage models. The turbulent fluxes discussed in this report were obtained with an interchanging Bowen ratio energy budget system (BREB, at 14 m), two one-propeller eddy correlation systems (OPEC systems 1 and 2 at 17m), a 1-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 3) at 15 m, all on one “low” tower, and a 3-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 22) at 22 m on the “high” tower that was about 46 m distant. All systems measured sensible and latent heat (H and LE) directly, except for OPEC systems 1 and 2 which estimated LE as a residual term in the surface energy balance. Closure of turbulent fluxes from the two SEC systems was around 80% for daytime and 30% for night, with closure of 1-dimensional SEC system 3 exceeding that of 3-dimensional SEC system 22. The night measurements of turbulent fluxes contained considerable uncertainty, especially with the BREB system where measured gradients often yielded erroneous fluxes due to problems inherent in the method (i.e., computational instability as Bowen's ratio approaches -1). Also, both eddy correlation system designs (OPEC and SEC) appeared to underestimate |H| during stable conditions at night. In addition, both sonic systems (1- and 3-dimensional) underestimated |LE| during stable conditions. The underestimate of |H| at night generated residual estimates of OPEC LE containing a “phantom dew” error that erroneously decreased daily LE totals by about 10 percent. These special night problems are circumvented here by comparing results for daytime periods only, rather than for full days. To summarize, turbulent fluxes on the low tower from OPEC system 2 and the adjacent

  7. Virulence of, and interactions among mountain pine beetle associated blue-stain fungi on two pine species and their hybrids in Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, A V; M.N. Thormann; Langor, D W

    2007-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (MPB) is the most serious pest of lodgepole pine in western Canada, and it is predicted to spread into boreal jack pine within the next few years. Colonization of host trees by MPB-associated blue-stain fungi appears to be required for successful beetle reproduction. Three species of blue-stain fungi, Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffery and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer, and Wingfield (≡ Ophiostoma clavigerum (Robinson-Jeffery and Davidson) Harrington), Ophiostoma montium ...

  8. Influence of resting and pine sawdust application on chemical changes in post-agricultural soil and the ectomycorrhizal community of growing Scots pine saplings

    OpenAIRE

    Małecka Monika; Hilszczańska Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Changes in chemical compounds and in ectomycorrhizal structure were determined for Scots pine growing on post agricultural soil lying fallow for 3, 6 and 15 years, after amendment with pine sawdust. Soil without any amendments was used as the control treatment. Comparing the ectomycorrhizal structure 15 years after the application of pine sawdust revealed no significant differences in abundance or species richness between soil with and without organic enrichment. The results showed that the e...

  9. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, December 1, 1992--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The shallow Cretaceous sands of the Schrader Bluff Reservoir occur between depths of 4,000 and 4,800 feet below surface and are estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. Initial production indicated that primary recovery will fall short of earlier estimates and waterflooding will have to be employed much earlier than expected. A large portion of the oil-in-place thus would still be left behind in this reservoir after primary and secondary recovery methods have been applied. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be needed to recover the additional portion of remaining oil in this huge reservoir and to add significant additional reserves. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader Bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Such studies are essential because the API gravity of the crude in Schrader Bluff reservoir varies significantly from well to well. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the oil recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. This report contains the following: reservoir description; slim tube displacement studies; and coreflood experiments.

  10. Interpopulation genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Serbia was studied in the populations at five localities in western and south-western Serbia. Three groups of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. populations were differentiated based on genetic research (seed protein analysis and plant community research. The first group consists of Scots pine populations on Šargan (FMU “Šargan“ and on Tara (FMU “Kaluderske Bare”, where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and Austrian pine (Pinetum sylvestris-nigrae Pavlovic 1951. The second group covers the localities Stolovi (FMU “Radocelo-Crepuljnik“ and Zlatar (FMU “Zlatar I“, where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and spruce (Piceo abietis-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1960. The third group comprises the Scots pine population on Pešter (FMU “Dubocica-Bare“ which belongs to the community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of seed protein data and showed that there are three groups of Scots pine populations. The three populations coincide with plant communities. The community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963 recorded on Pešter at the locality “Dubocica- Bare“ in the area of FE “Golija“ Ivanjica, is a special Scots pine population displayed at the greatest distance from all other populations in the cluster analysis dendrogram.

  11. Root growth potential and weed control effects on the first year growth of pitch x loblolly pine (Pinus ridiga x P. taeda L.) and loblolly pine

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Andrew D.

    1989-01-01

    The study was initiated to determine the effects of RGP and three levels on weed control: no weed control (control), herbaceous weed control (Oust), and woody and herbaceous weed control (Oust-Garlon) on three pine seedlots: pitch x loblolly pine hybrid (pxL-F2), Virginia Department of Forestry loblolly pine (VDF-Iob), and westvaco loblolly pine (WCO-Iob). Lateral roots had the greatest response to the Oust treatment compared to all other seedling parts. All seedlot and treatment interacti...

  12. Radiation sensitivity of pine wood nematodes in woodchips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation sensitivity of pine wood nematodes has been tested over a range of dose values with a cesium-137 irradiator. Lethal doses were found to lie in a range above 6-8 kGy, too high to make this an economically attractive means of deinfestation for commercial woodchips. (author)

  13. Research at the Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Scott; Bindschadler, Robert; Stanton, Timothy; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Pine Island Glacier (PIG) Research Team: Robert Bindschadler (NASA Emeritus) Timothy Stanton (Naval Postgraduate School) Sridhar Anandakrishnan (Penn State University) Alberto Behar (Arizona State University & JPL) David Holland (New York University) Miles McPhee (McPhee Research Company) Martin Truffer (University of Alaska)

  14. Stem Cutting Propagation in Whole Pine Tree Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood-based substrates have been identified as substitutes for pine bark (PB) and peat moss (P) in container production of ornamental crops. Ideally, these substrates would be used for the propagation and production of such crops. An experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of processe...

  15. Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regenerationIn this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence t

  16. Soil water regime under homogeneous eucalyptus and pine forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of precipitation and monthly soil water content during two consecutive years, in 6-year old plantations of eucalypt and pine, and also in an open plot containing natural herbaceous vegetation, were used to compare the soil water regime of these vegetation covers. Precipitation was measured in the open plot with a recording and a non-recording rain gage. Soil water was assessed by the neutron scattering technique to a depth of 1,80 meters. Results indicate that there was, in general, water available in the soil over the entire period of study in all three vegetation conditions. The annual range of soil water in eucalypt, pine, and in natural herbaceous vegetation was essentially similar. The analysis of the average soil water regime showed that the soil under herbaceous vegetation was, generally, more umid than the soil under eucalypt and pine during the period of soil water recharge (September through February); during the period of soil water depletion, the opposite was true. Collectively, the results permit the conclusion that there were no adverse effects on the soil water regime which could be ascribed to reflorestation with eucalypt or pine, as compared with that observed for the natural herbaceous vegetation

  17. Skin Reactions to Pine Processionary Caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Bonamonte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pine caterpillar, Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff, is a phyto- and xylophagous lepidopteran, responsible for the delay in the growth or the death of various types of pines. Besides nature damage, pine caterpillar causes dermatological reactions in humans by contact with its irritating larvae hairs. Although the dermatitis occurs among outdoor professionals, it is primarily extraprofessional. Contamination generally occurs in pinewoods, rarely in cities. Means of contamination comprise direct contact with the nest or the processional caterpillar and indirect contact with air dispersed hairs. The dermatitis is generally observed in late spring and particularly from April to June, among campers and tourers. The eruption has its onset 1–12 hours after contact with the hairs and presents with intense and continuous itching. Morphologically, it is strophulus-like and consists of papulous, excoriated, and pinkish lesions on an oedematous base. Diagnosis is usually straightforward. The pathogenetic mechanism of the affection is mechanical, pharmacological, and allergic in nature. Besides skin, T. pityocampa Schiff can involve the eyes and rarely the airways. Despite the considerable damages to humans and nature, pine caterpillar infestation is an underestimated problem; medical literature lists few studies, and often relevant information is referred to local media and popular wisdom.

  18. Removing Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions Using Lanthanum Modified Pine Needles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianze Wang

    Full Text Available The renewable pine needles was used as an adsorbent to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. Using batch experiments, pine needles pretreated with alkali-isopropanol (AI failed to effectively remove phosphorus, while pine needles modified with lanthanum hydroxide (LH showed relatively high removal efficiency. LH pine needles were effective at a wide pH ranges, with the highest removal efficiency reaching approximately 85% at a pH of 3. The removal efficiency was kept above 65% using 10 mg/L phosphorus solutions at desired pH values. There was no apparent significant competitive behavior between co-existing anions of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride (SO4(2-, NO3(- and Cl(-; however, CO3(2- exhibited increased interfering behavior as concentrations increased. An intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process occurred in three phases, suggesting that a boundary layer adsorption phenomena slightly affected the adsorption process, and that intraparticle diffusion was dominant. The adsorption process was thermodynamically unfavorable and non-spontaneous; temperature increases improved phosphorus removal. Total organic carbon (TOC assays indicated that chemical modification reduced the release of soluble organic compounds from 135.6 mg/L to 7.76 mg/L. This new information about adsorption performances provides valuable information, and can inform future technological applications designed to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions.

  19. Removing Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions Using Lanthanum Modified Pine Needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianze; Liu, Zhongmou; Liu, Jiancong; Huo, Mingxin; Huo, Hongliang; Yang, Wu

    2015-01-01

    The renewable pine needles was used as an adsorbent to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. Using batch experiments, pine needles pretreated with alkali-isopropanol (AI) failed to effectively remove phosphorus, while pine needles modified with lanthanum hydroxide (LH) showed relatively high removal efficiency. LH pine needles were effective at a wide pH ranges, with the highest removal efficiency reaching approximately 85% at a pH of 3. The removal efficiency was kept above 65% using 10 mg/L phosphorus solutions at desired pH values. There was no apparent significant competitive behavior between co-existing anions of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride (SO42-, NO3- and Cl-); however, CO32- exhibited increased interfering behavior as concentrations increased. An intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process occurred in three phases, suggesting that a boundary layer adsorption phenomena slightly affected the adsorption process, and that intraparticle diffusion was dominant. The adsorption process was thermodynamically unfavorable and non-spontaneous; temperature increases improved phosphorus removal. Total organic carbon (TOC) assays indicated that chemical modification reduced the release of soluble organic compounds from 135.6 mg/L to 7.76 mg/L. This new information about adsorption performances provides valuable information, and can inform future technological applications designed to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. PMID:26630014

  20. Above-ground biomass functions for Scots pine in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miksys, Virgilijus; Varnagiryte-Kabasinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis [Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Liepu 1, Girionys, LT-53101 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Stupak, Inge [Forest and Landscape Denmark, Hoersholm Kongevej 11, DK-2970 Hoersholm (Denmark); Kukkola, Mikko [The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, Vantaa Unit, PL 18, 01301 Vantaa (Finland); Wojcik, Josef [Forest Research Institute, Sekocin-Las, 05-090 Raszyn (Poland)

    2007-10-15

    This study presents biomass functions applicable to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on Arenosols in Lithuania, and exemplifies the potential biomass removal from Scots pine stands during thinnings. Scots pine is the most common tree species on Arenosols in Lithuania. Stands of ages 10, 20, 40, 50 and 65 years were chosen for the biomass study. We sampled 5 Scots pine trees per plot (in total 25 trees) that were stratified according to the basal area. The sampling was performed in April 2003, before the vegetative period. The following components of each tree were sampled for the above-ground biomass measurements: (1) 5 stem discs, (2) 1 branch with needles from each whorl and (3) 1 dead branch per tree. Observed biomasses of above-ground components were examined using a non-linear regression model, using stem diameter (D), tree height (H) and D{sup 2}H as independent variables. For stemwood biomass, the best approximation was D{sup 2}H. However, D{sup 2}H was not the best parameter for crown biomass because it does not allow evaluation of the opposite effects of diameter and height on crown biomass. The calculations at stand level showed that crown biomass changed insignificantly with the increase in stand age. However, the total stand biomass increased with age due to the growth of the stem. The removal of all logging residues from the Scots pine stand over a 100-year rotation could increase extraction of forest fuel by 15-20% compared with conventional harvesting. (author)

  1. Siberian Pine Decline and Mortality in Southern Siberian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Im, S. T.; Oskorbin, P. A.; Petrov, I. A.; Ranson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The causes and resulting spatial patterns of Siberian pine mortality in eastern Kuznetzky Alatau Mountains, Siberia were analyzed based on satellite (Landsat, MODIS) and dendrochronology data. Climate variables studied included temperature, precipitation and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) drought index. Landsat data analysis showed that stand mortality was first detected in the year 2006 at an elevation of 650 m, and extended up to 900 m by the year 2012. Mortality was accompanied by a decrease in MODIS derived vegetation index (EVI).. The area of dead stands and the upper mortality line were correlated with increased drought. The uphill margin of mortality was limited by elevational precipitation gradients. Dead stands (i.e., >75% tree mortality) were located mainly on southern slopes. With respect to slope, mortality was observed within a 7 deg - 20 deg range with greatest mortality occurring on convex terrain. Tree radial incrementmeasurements correlate and were synchronous with SPEI (r sq = 0.37, r(sub s) = 80). Increasing synchrony between tree ring growth and SPEI indicates that drought has reduced the ecological niche of Siberian pine. The results also showed the primary role of drought stress on Siberian pine mortality. A secondary role may be played by bark beetles and root fungi attacks. The observed Siberian pine mortality is part of a broader phenomenon of "dark needle conifers" (DNC, i.e., Siberian pine, fir and spruce) decline and mortality in European Russia, Siberia, and the Russian Far East. All locations of DNC decline coincided with areas of observed drought increase. The results obtained are one of the first observations of drought-induced decline and mortality of DNC at the southern border of boreal forests. Meanwhile if model projections of increased aridity are correct DNC, within the southern part of its range may be replaced by drought-resistant Pinus silvestris and Larix sibirica.

  2. Mechanical trunk in pine wood for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Orlando da Luz Freire Neto

    2012-12-01

    , with exclusive use of wood derived from reforestation of Pinus elliottii 45 years of age, Experiment Station Itapetininga / IF-SMA, where through a partnership with the company "Scales and Trunks Trivelato", and how strategic methodology, this facility will be built as zootechnical technological standard and quality control adopted by the company, which is pioneer in this segment. The raw material studied showed characteristics suitable for structural use (ABNT, good workability, and there is no need to adjust or replace other metal components (screws, nails, gears, hinges, mechanical set of scales, etc.. For its construction who received conventional lacquer finish. Besides adding aesthetic value, the use of pine wood has reduced by 25% the weight of the final product, which consumed 1.4 m3 for its production, a decrease of 40% for the purchase of raw material wood. Of great practical impact on the preservation of natural resources, supported by various public policies, with the primary target audience ranchers familiar with the low investment capacity in traditional husbandry facilities, social and technological innovation that will enable farmers to better adherence to official programs of good practices and animal welfare, increasing levels of public health.

  3. A Field Study of the Fates of Arsenal and Escort Applied on the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harwood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The low organic soils of the Cumberland Plateau, as well as the karst geology of the region, may promote increased transport of herbicides outside of application sites. We have studied the fates of imazapyr and metsulfuron-methyl applied to a privately owned tract on the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee and compared the field results with herbicide fate predicted by the computer model GLEAMS. Approach: The fate of the two herbicides, applied for pine release at a site on the Cumberland Plateau, was monitored over a sixteen month period. Concentrations in soil water were monitored using vacuum soil lysimeters. Grab samples were taken of water in ephemeral streams draining the clearcut area and of a perennial stream which receives water from the study area. Uncut streamside management zones of about 50 m bordered the streams. The field results were compared with those obtained using the GLEAMS computer model. Results: Concentrations of both herbicides in soil water dropped significantly within the first two months after application, imazapyr to less than 50 µg L-1 and metsulfuron methyl to less than 3 µg L-1 and decreased more gradually in the following months. The maximum concentrations observed in soil water were 252 µg L-1 (imazapyr and 13 µg L-1 (metsulfuron methyl. Except on two dates occurring 5 months after application, the herbicides were not detected in the stream samples. GLEAMS predicted that very little herbicide should have been lost from the site in runoff or erosion sediment. The model predicted greater retention of the herbicides by the soil than was found through the field measurements. Conclusion/Recommendation: The rapid transport of imazapyr and metsulfuron we observed indicates that further study is justified at other locations on the Cumberland Plateau. Streamside management zones effectively prohibited contamination of receiving streams by herbicides at the study site.

  4. Fibrates are an essential part of modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal: spotlight on atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2012-10-01

    related to the effects on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Bezafibrate is the only clinically available pan - (alpha, beta, gamma PPAR balanced activator. Bezafibrate decreases blood glucose level, HbA1C, insulin resistance and reduces the incidence of T2DM compared to placebo or other fibrates. Among major fibrates, bezafibrate appears to have the strongest and fenofibrate the weakest effect on HDL-C. Current therapeutic use of statins as monotherapy is still leaving many patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia at high risk for coronary events because even intensive statin therapy does not eliminate the residual cardiovascular risk associated with low HDL and/or high triglycerides. As compared with statin monotherapy (effective mainly on LDL-C levels and plaque stabilization, the association of a statin with a fibrate will also have a major impact on triglycerides, HDL and LDL particle size. Moreover, in the specific case of bezafibrate one could expect neutralizing of the adverse pro-diabetic effect of statins. Though muscle pain and myositis is an issue in statin/fibrate treatment, adverse interaction appears to occur to a significantly greater extent when gemfibrozil is administered. However, bezafibrate and fenofibrate seems to be safer and better tolerated. Combined fibrate/statin therapy is more effective in achieving a comprehensive lipid control and may lead to additional cardiovascular risk reduction, as could be suggested for fenofibrate following ACCORD Lipid study subgroup analysis and for bezafibrate on the basis of one small randomized study and multiple observational data. Therefore, in appropriate patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia fibrates- either as monotherapy or combined with statins – are consistently associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events. Fibrates currently constitute an indispensable part of the modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  5. Preliminary results of hydrologic testing the composite middle sentinel bluffs basalt flow bottom at Borehole RRL-2 (3,247--3,344 feet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents preliminary results and description of hydrologic test activities for the composite Middle Sentinel Bluffs basalt flow bottom (3,247-3,344 feet) at Borehole RRL-2. Hydrologic tests conducted include one constant discharge air-lift and two slug tests. Preliminary results indicate an observed hydraulic head for the test interval of 405.5 feet above mean sea level. Transmissivity values determined from hydrologic tests performed range between 203 and 847 ft2/day, with an assigned best estimate of 770 ft2 day. The best estimate of equivalent hydraulic conductivity, based on an effective test thickness of 77.5 feet, is 9.9 ft/day

  6. [Relationships between summer drought and strong typhoon events and pine wilt disease occurrence in East Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease cause huge losses to Japan, China, and South Korea in East Asia, and have received concerns from many countries. By the methods of field observation and meteorological data analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of the occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease and their relations to the meteorological disaster events. In Japan, China and South Korea, the meteorological extreme events of persistent summer drought and strong typhoon could trigger the occurrence of pine wilt. In extremely dry and hot environment, pine trees often appeared energy metabolism imbalance and entire tree wilt. However, in the years with lower temperature and more rainfall, less or nearly no pine wilt event occurred. It was suggested that before the attack by pine wood nematode and its vectors, the vigor of the pines had already declined, and thus, pine wilt disease could be confined in the areas often hit by summer drought and strong typhoon events. In the areas with suitable natural environment characterized by less summer drought and strong typhoon events and no improperly enlarged pine planting, there would be little possibility of widespread occurrence of pine wilt disease. PMID:22937641

  7. Forced sea-level change in a forearc basin related to subduction of a spreading ridge: the Fossil Bluff Group (Jurassic-Cretaceous), Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, David

    2015-04-01

    During the Mesozoic, the Antarctic Peninsula was the site of an active volcanic arc related to the eastwards subduction of proto-Pacific oceanic crust. Alexander Island is the largest of the many islands that lie on the western (fore-arc) side of the Antarctic Peninsula; it forms one of the best-exposed ancient fore-arcs in the world. The pre-Tertiary rocks can be divided into two main units. The LeMay Group (Jurassic-Tertiary) forms the structural basement to Alexander Island and comprises greenschist-facies metasedimentary rocks. It is interpreted as a Mesozoic accretionary prism. The Fossil Bluff Group unconformably overlies and is faulted against the LeMay Group; it represents the sedimentary fill of a coeval fore-arc basin. Subduction ceased due to a series of Cenozoic ridge-trench collisions which began off Alexander Island at 50 Ma and got progressively younger to the north. However, the approach of the ridge can be inferred from the Mesozoic deposits of the Fossil Bluff Group (Jurassic-Cretaceous) in Alexander Island. In this paper, I will show that the ocean floor being subducted became progressively shallower through Jurassic and Cretaceous time (by at least 1,000 m). The result in the forearc basin was a sudden shallowing in water depths from at least 1,000 m at 125 Ma, to emergent at 100 Ma. This forced shallowing ended sedimentation in the basin and resulted in considerable topography on Alexander Island that persists to the present day.

  8. Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine and Norwegian spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Robert W.

    1993-02-01

    Rates of monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) have been measured at four sites in Sweden with a dynamic flow chamber technique. Forest floor emissions have been made in the pine forest with the static chamber technique. Sampling was done with Tenax TA and analysis and detection by GC and ion trap detection. The compounds Δ3-carene and α-pinene were the predominant terpenes emitted from the crown and floor of the Scots pine forest. Alpha-pinene was the main terpene emitted from Norwegian spruce at the sites in southern and central Sweden, while Δ3-carene was predominant at the northern site. The relative composition of the emission of both species underwent changes in early spring and fall. Emission rates, normalized to temperature, were seen to vary diurnally with a maximum at midday, and seasonally with maxima in early May and October, and a summer maximum in June-July. The possible dependence of the emission rate on needle growth rate and other plant-physiological processes is discussed. A higher emission rate and different relative composition of the emission was seen to occur when the vegetation was wet, as compared to dry vegetation. The emission from the pine forest floor was seen to have a composition different from that of the crown and a seasonality of the rate similar to that of the crown. The ground emission could not be explained by sources in the litter or ground vegetation alone, and it is suggested that the root system of the trees is also an emission source. The emission rate from the pine forest floor was of the order of 30% of the crown emission. The July rate of emission from the crown of Scots pine, normalized to 20°C and averaged over four sites in Sweden, was 0.8 ± 0.4 μg (gdw (grams dry weight) h)-1, and for Norwegian spruce, 0.5 ± 0.7 μg(gdw h)-1. It would seem that previous regional and global estimates of hydrocarbon fluxes to the atmosphere have used emission factors which are

  9. Ocean mixing beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Satoshi; Dutrieux, Pierre; Jenkins, Adrian; Forryan, Alexander; Naveira Garabato, Alberto; Firing, Yvonne

    2016-04-01

    Ice shelves around Antarctica are vulnerable to increase in ocean-driven melting, with the melt rate depending on ocean temperature and strength of sub-ice-shelf-cavity circulations. We present repeated measurements of velocity, temperature, salinity, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and thermal variance dissipation rate beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, collected by CTD, ADCP and turbulence sensors mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The turbulence quantities measured by the AUV outside the ice shelf are in good agreement with ship-based measurements. The highest rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation is found near the grounding line, while its temporal fluctuation over seabed ridge within the cavity corresponds to the tidal fluctuation predicted in the Pine Island Bay to the west. The highest thermal variance dissipation rate is found when the AUV was 0.5 m away from the ice, and the thermal variance dissipation generally increases with decreasing distance between the AUV and ice.

  10. Removal of cationic dye from water by activated pine cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Milan Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of a cationic phenothyazine dye methylene blueonto activated carbon prepared from pine cones was investigated with the variation in parameters of contact time, dye concentration and pH. The kinetic data were found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic modelclosely. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity of 233.1 mg g-1. Adsorption was favored by using a higher solution pH. Textural analysis by nitrogen adsorption was used to determine specific surface area and pore structure of the obtained carbon. Boehm titrations revealed that carboxylic groups are present in the highest degree on the carbon surface. The results indicate that the presented method for activation of pine cones could yield activated carbon with significant porosity, developed surface reactivity and considerable adsorption affinity toward cationic dye methylene blue.

  11. Suggestions on management measures of pine forest ecosystems invaded by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Juan; LUO You-qing; XIA Nai-bin; WU Hai-wei; SONG Ji-ying

    2008-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle is an important invasive alien species in forests of China and has become one of the most destructive forest diseases. In order to improve the resistance and resilience of pine forest ecosystems against B. xylophilus invasion and make the pine forest ecosystem more timely responsive to PWN invasion,we made some recommendations based on five years of intensive observations. We advocate a set of management measures with the theme "Prevention is priority, but integrated with curative techniques and ecological resilience" on the pine forest ecosystem invaded by B. xylophilus; details of accurate measures are proposed. The aim is to discover the underlying problems of present pine forest ecosystems and to take, correspondingly, administrative measures and strategies, which will encourage the pine forest ecosystem to develop in a benign way.

  12. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) bark composition and degradation by fungi: potential substrate for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentín, Lara; Kluczek-Turpeinen, Beata; Willför, Stefan; Hemming, Jarl; Hatakka, Annele; Steffen, Kari; Tuomela, Marja

    2010-04-01

    The composition of Scots pine bark, its degradation, and the production of hydrolytic and ligninolytic enzymes were evaluated during 90 days of incubation with Phanerochaete velutina and Stropharia rugosoannulata. The aim was to evaluate if pine bark can be a suitable fungal substrate for bioremediation applications. The original pine bark contained 45% lignin, 25% cellulose, and 15% hemicellulose. Resin acids were the most predominant lipophilic extractives, followed by sitosterol and unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic and oleic acids. Both fungi degraded all main components of bark, specially cellulose (79% loss by P. velutina). During cultivation on pine bark, fungi also degraded sitosterol, produced malic acid, and oxidated unsaturated fatty acids. The most predominant enzymes produced by both fungi were cellulase and manganese peroxidase. The results indicate that Scots pine bark supports enzyme production and provides nutrients to fungi, thus pine bark may be suitable fungal substrate for bioremediation. PMID:20005699

  13. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring

  14. Pine invasions in treeless environments: dispersal overruns microsite heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Aníbal; Escudero, Adrián; García, Rafael A; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Langdon, Bárbara; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Esquivel, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    Understanding biological invasions patterns and mechanisms is highly needed for forecasting and managing these processes and their negative impacts. At small scales, ecological processes driving plant invasions are expected to produce a spatially explicit pattern driven by propagule pressure and local ground heterogeneity. Our aim was to determine the interplay between the intensity of seed rain, using distance to a mature plantation as a proxy, and microsite heterogeneity in the spreading of Pinus contorta in the treeless Patagonian steppe. Three one-hectare plots were located under different degrees of P. contorta invasion (Coyhaique Alto, 45° 30'S and 71° 42'W). We fitted three types of inhomogeneous Poisson models to each pine plot in an attempt for describing the observed pattern as accurately as possible: the "dispersal" models, "local ground heterogeneity" models, and "combined" models, using both types of covariates. To include the temporal axis in the invasion process, we analyzed both the pattern of young and old recruits and also of all recruits together. As hypothesized, the spatial patterns of recruited pines showed coarse scale heterogeneity. Early pine invasion spatial patterns in our Patagonian steppe site is not different from expectations of inhomogeneous Poisson processes taking into consideration a linear and negative dependency of pine recruit intensity on the distance to afforestations. Models including ground-cover predictors were able to describe the point pattern process only in a couple of cases but never better than dispersal models. This finding concurs with the idea that early invasions depend more on seed pressure than on the biotic and abiotic relationships seed and seedlings establish at the microsite scale. Our results show that without a timely and active management, P. contorta will invade the Patagonian steppe independently of the local ground-cover conditions. PMID:26843929

  15. Exome capture from the spruce and pine giga-genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suren, H; Hodgins, K A; Yeaman, S; Nurkowski, K A; Smets, P; Rieseberg, L H; Aitken, S N; Holliday, J A

    2016-09-01

    Sequence capture is a flexible tool for generating reduced representation libraries, particularly in species with massive genomes. We used an exome capture approach to sequence the gene space of two of the dominant species in Canadian boreal and montane forests - interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmanii) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Transcriptome data generated with RNA-seq were coupled with draft genome sequences to design baits corresponding to 26 824 genes from pine and 28 649 genes from spruce. A total of 579 samples for spruce and 631 samples for pine were included, as well as two pine congeners and six spruce congeners. More than 50% of targeted regions were sequenced at >10× depth in each species, while ~12% captured near-target regions within 500 bp of a bait position were sequenced to a depth >10×. Much of our read data arose from off-target regions, which was likely due to the fragmented and incomplete nature of the draft genome assemblies. Capture in general was successful for the related species, suggesting that baits designed for a single species are likely to successfully capture sequences from congeners. From these data, we called approximately 10 million SNPs and INDELs in each species from coding regions, introns, untranslated and flanking regions, as well as from the intergenic space. Our study demonstrates the utility of sequence capture for resequencing in complex conifer genomes, suggests guidelines for improving capture efficiency and provides a rich resource of genetic variants for studies of selection and local adaptation in these species. PMID:27428061

  16. PLYWOOD MANUFACTURE FROM FIVE SPECIES OF TROPICAL PINE

    OpenAIRE

    Setsuo Iwakiri; Danielle Previdi Olandoski; Gabriela Leonhardt; Martha Andreia Brand

    2010-01-01

    This research was developed aiming at evaluating the feasibility of the use of 5 species of tropical pine to plywood manufacture. The following species were studied: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii and Pinus taeda, being the last used as the referential species. Plywood were manufactured with 5 plies, bonded with urea-formaldheyde and fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of thickness sweeling and recovering were the same for all species st...

  17. Litter decomposition in burned corsican pine stands in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Küçük, Mehmet; Sağlam, Bülent; Dinç, Musa; Duman, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of forest fire on litter decomposition in Corsican pine (P. nigra) stands. The study is located in Vezirkopru Forest area in Samsun, Turkey. We made measurements of litter decomposition in 80 to 100 years old stands subjected to prescribed burning. Measurements were made between November, 2013 and October, 2014. 20x20 cm litter bags were placed on soil surface and collected in July and October. Sampling time had significant effect on litter...

  18. Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hille, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regenerationIn this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence the successional pathways after fire. Fuel load and fuel moisture determine the intensity of forest fire and thus the degree of humus consumption. In a controlled laboratory' experiment humus consum...

  19. Pinon Pine Tree Study, Los Alamos National Laboratory: Source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez; J. D. Huchton; M. A. Mullen; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    One of the dominant tree species growing within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis) tree. Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath the tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) concentrations of radionuclides in PPN collected in 1977 to present data, (3) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (4) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of {sup 3}H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN from LANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 {micro}Sv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables.

  20. Photosynthesis of ground vegetation in boreal Scots pine forests

    OpenAIRE

    Kulmala, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Research on carbon uptake in boreal forests has mainly focused on mature trees, even though ground vegetation species are effective assimilators and can substantially contribute to the CO2 uptake of forests. Here, I examine the photosynthesis of the most common species of ground vegetation in a series of differently aged Scots pine stands, and at two clear-cut sites with substantial differences in fertility. In general, the biomass of evergreen species was highest at poor sites and below cano...

  1. Studies on the blue-staining fungi of pine wood

    OpenAIRE

    Strzelczyk, A; Lamprecht, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this was were to examine associations of bule-staining fungi which occur on pine wood to determine the interactions between fungi and to check the suscebility of these fungi to commonly used fungieides. The stron antagonism of members of the Trichoderma genus against the blue-staining fungi was demonstrated, Members of genera Pullularia, Hormiscium and Hormodendrum were strongy inhibited by stains of Trichoderma Ophiostoma strains were less susceptible to inhibition by this antagon...

  2. Comparison of Methods for Protein Extraction from Pine Needles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of proteins from pine needles for proteomic analysis has long been a challenge for scientists. We compared three different protein extraction methods including sucrose, Tris-HCl and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone (TCA method) to determine their efficiency in separating pine needle proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional PAGE (2D-PAGE). Proteins were then separated by SDS-PAGE. Among three methods the method using sucrose extraction buffer showed the highest efficiency and highest quality in separating proteins. In addition, clearer and more stable strips were detected by SDS-PAGE using sucrose extraction buffer. When the proteins extracted using sucrose extraction buffer were separated by 2D-PAGE, more than 300 protein spots, with isoelectric points (PI) ranging from 4.0 to 7.0 and molecular weights (MW) from 6.5 to 97.4 kD, were observed. This confirmed that the method with sucrose extraction buffer was an efficient and reliable method for extracting proteins from pine needles.

  3. NATURAL DURABILITY AND PHENOLIC CONTENT IN DRIED SCOTS PINE HEARTWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Sehlstedt-Persson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The durability of Scots pine heartwood has previously been shown to be affected by the industrial drying process of sawn lumber. The durability of heartwood from boards dried at temperatures between 20°C-110°C was studied by measuring the mass loss in a decay test with a brown rot fungus (Coniophora puteana, and the concentration of total phenolics was measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC assay. The relation between mass loss and phenolics in dried heartwood showed a weaker negative correlation at lower levels of phenolics as compared to the strong relationship found in a study on heartwood from standing Scots pine trees. Mass loss in dried heartwood showed a weak negative correlation to density. Heating of extractives-rich green sawdust under moist conditions resulted in a reduction of phenolics with temperature up to 180 oC and with increasing time. The concentration of phenolics in heated, green sawdust was higher in extractives-rich pine heartwood than in heartwood with a normal extractives content.

  4. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacteria on pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Dahm

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ecomycorrhizal fungi (Hebelon crustuliniforme(Bull.: Fr. Quél. 5392 and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers. Coker et Couch 5335 and bacteria (Bacillus polymyxa and Azospirillum brasilense. associated with mycorrhizas on the growth of pine seedligs was investigated. In addition the influence of bacteria on fungal biomass production and the relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungi and fungi pathogenic to root of pine seedlings were determined. In general, the shoot/root ratio was higher in plants inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and bacteria than in the control seedlings (grown only under sterile conditions. In non-sterile substrate the root/shoot ratio of the mycorrhizal seedlings was lower as compared to the control. Similar phenomenon was noted in plants inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinetorius. The bacteria used as well as the time of introduction of these organisms into the cultures of mycorrhiza fungi affected the production of fungal biomass. Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Pisolithus tinctorius inhibited the growth of Rizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum fungi pathogenic to pine seedlings.

  5. From biology to management of Savi's pine vole (Microtus savii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchelli, Elisa; Barfknecht, Ralf; Capizzi, Dario; Riga, Francesco; Mazza, Valeria; Dell'Agnello, Filippo; Zaccaroni, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Savi's pine vole (Microtus savii) is a rodent species of the Cricetidae family, inhabiting southern European agroecosystems. It is considered to be the main cause of rodent-attributed damage in Italy. To achieve an effective management, detailed knowledge of this species is needed. However, the available information about this species is fragmentary and incomplete. In this paper, the existing knowledge of Savi's pine vole taxonomy, reproduction, population dynamics, habitat and food preferences is reviewed in order to organise available information and identify priority areas of future research. Some of the changes in farming practices that have occurred in recent decades may have increased the impact of Savi's pine vole populations in crop fields. To manage this pest species effectively, an integrated strategy is recommended (involving habitat management, trapping and, when appropriate, the use of rodenticides). The apparent lack of cyclical population outbreaks and the relatively small litter size and long gestation and interpartum period of this species suggest that it could be more manageable than other vole species, while its strict herbivorous diet, stable population size in open habitats and wide distribution seem to indicate it as an ideal model species for risk assessment studies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26694699

  6. Critical Assessment of Risk Classification Systems for the Mountain Pine Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Bentz, B J; Amman, G D; J. A. Logan

    1993-01-01

    Hazard/risk systems developed for mountain pine beetle management traditionally have attempted to describe the potential for timber loss in pine stands due to outbreak phase populations. A variety of stand and site characteristics, as well as climatic conditions, have been used. In this study, four hazard/risk systems were evaluated using data from 105 stands in northern Montana. None of the systems evaluated were found to predict adequately mountain pine beetle induced mortality which occurr...

  7. The Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Tomsk Region. Problems of Sustainable Forest Use

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. Debkov; A. M. Danchenko

    2014-01-01

    A review of the Siberian stone pine stands' formation near settlements in Tomsk region is given in historical aspect. Their current status is described in detail. Age, tree species, and typological structure, as well as productivity and dynamics of forest inventory indices have been identified. Forest management practices in leased and non-leased Siberian stone pine stands have been analyzed. The ways and procedures for an expansion of the existing Siberian stone pine stands and creation of n...

  8. Characterization of Fungal Pathogens Associated with White Pine Needle Damage (WPND) in Northeastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk Broders; Isabel Munck; Stephen Wyka; Gloria Iriarte; Eric Beaudoin

    2015-01-01

    Eastern white pine is a crucial ecological and economic component of forests in the northern USA and eastern Canada, and is now facing an emerging problem in white pine needle damage (WPND). It is still unclear whether WPND results from one, or the combination of several fungal pathogens. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to characterize the fungi associated with WPND in the northeastern United States and document the damage being done to mature eastern white pine as a result ...

  9. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection of Pine Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla, R. I.; Fitzsimmons, K.

    1988-01-01

    White, Scots, and Austrian 3-year-old pine seedlings were treated with conditions simulating acid rain and inoculated with the white pine specific pathotype of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, VPSt-1. Oleoresin concentration increased slightly and carbohydrate concentration decreased in all seedlings treated with simulated acid rain (SAR). The changes were significantly increased after inoculation of SAR-treated white and Scots pine seedlings with VPSt-1. Wilting was delayed and nematode reproduct...

  10. Influence of Anthropogenic Activity on Vital State and Productivity of Pine Stands

    OpenAIRE

    Torlopova, Nadezhda; Ilchukov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare the data on the vital state and timber volume of primary weakly disturbed pine forests and of secondary pine forests formed under different kinds of anthropogenic impact, such as: selection cutting, clear cutting, aerotechnogenic pollution by wastes of timber, pulp and paper works. Objects were 137 permanent sample plots were launched in pine phytocenosises of different types (lichen, green-mossy) growing in taiga zone of the Komi Republ...

  11. Distribution of Pine Woolly Adelgids Infestation on Pinus merkusii Plantation in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Oemijati Rachmatsyah; Ulfah Juniarti Siregar; Noor Farikhah Haneda; Dodi Nandika; Purnama Hidayat

    2012-01-01

    Pine woolly adelgid is a recently found exotic pest attacking seedling up to grown plants of Pinus merkusii plantations forest. Since its discovery, there were not much information about it.  The objectives of this research were to study pine woolly adelgids distribution, symptoms and indicators, and its scale of infestations on Pinus merkusii plantation in Java, to determine the presence of any specific P. merkusii sites invaded by pine woolly adelgids, considering the pests were native...

  12. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Influencing Nutrient Availability and Plant Growth in a Pine Tree Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Brian Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Pine tree substrate (PTS) produced from freshly harvested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees has potential for replacing or reducing the use of aged pine bark (PB) and peat moss as container substrates for horticulture crop production. The objective of this work was to determine the factors influencing nutrient availability in PTS compared to PB or peat substrates. Chapter two reports data on the response of japanese holly and azalea to fertilizer rate when grown in PTS and PB. This stud...

  13. Modeling Blister Rust Incidence in Whitebark Pine at Northern Rocky Mountain Alpine Treelines: A Geospatial Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Emily Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The status of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a foundation and keystone species and a pioneer establisher at alpine treeline, is threatened by the invasive and exotic fungal pathogen (Cronartium ribicola) that causes white pine blister rust in five-needled pines. Originally thought to be limited to moderate environments, the disease is now found extensively throughout colder and dryer regions east of the Continental Divide, including alpine treeline. My research objective was to determine ...

  14. Investigating Differences in Douglas-fir and Southern Yellow Pine Bonding Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mirabile, Kyle Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Differences in southern yellow pine (represented by Pinus taeda) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mature and juvenile wood were examined in terms of density, chemical composition, surface energy, shear stress, % wood failure, and delamination. Density was measured using a QTRS density scanner. Loblolly pine contained a higher average density. Chemical composition was measured using the NREL standard for identifying the chemical composition of biomass. Southern yellow pine contained a h...

  15. Assessment of post-beetle impacts on natural regeneration of Lodgepole Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Keith N; Arocena, Joselito; Green, Scott; Kennedy, Nabla; Massicotte, Hugues; Scholefield, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The ecological disturbance from wildfire (2004) on ~ 10,000 hectares of forests near the Kenny Dam presented a unique opportunity to study the natural and artificial regeneration in burned mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested stands in north-central British Columbia. Mountain pine beetle (MPB) has been documented as a natural disturbance agent that may precede wildfire in lodgepole pine forests (Pinus contorta var. latifolia). The objectives of this study were to i)...

  16. Can we use shelterwoods in Mediterranean pine forests to promote oak seedling development?

    OpenAIRE

    Prévosto, Bernard; Monnier, Yogan; Ripert, Christian; Fernandez, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The use of shelterwoods to favour the development of natural or underplanted seedlings is common in temperate forests but rare in the pine forests of the Mediterranean area. Our aim was to assess the use of shelterwoods in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) woodlands in southern France to promote the survival and growth of two co-occurring oak species: the deciduous Quercus pubescens and the evergreen Quercus ilex. Twelve Aleppo pine stands were selected and differentially thinned to create a lig...

  17. Hardwood seedling establishment below Aleppo pine depends on thinning intensity in two Mediterranean sites

    OpenAIRE

    Gavinet, J.; Vilagrosa, A.; Chirino, E.; Granados, M.E.; Vallejo, V.R.; Prévosto, B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Developing silvicultural methods to help Mediterranean forests adapt to climate change is of high importance. Introducing resprouting hardwood species below pine stands is expected to promote diversity and resilience of these stands, particularly to forest fires. Aims: To examine how the intensity of pine thinning influences understory micro environment and the establishment of various hardwood seedlings in two Mediterranean sites. Methods: Aleppo pine stands were thinned dow...

  18. Determination of Terpenoid Content in Pine by Organic Solvent Extraction and Fast-GC Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Harman-Ware, Anne E; Sykes, Robert; Gary F. Peter; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and ...

  19. The Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Tomsk Region. Problems of Sustainable Forest Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Debkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of the Siberian stone pine stands' formation near settlements in Tomsk region is given in historical aspect. Their current status is described in detail. Age, tree species, and typological structure, as well as productivity and dynamics of forest inventory indices have been identified. Forest management practices in leased and non-leased Siberian stone pine stands have been analyzed. The ways and procedures for an expansion of the existing Siberian stone pine stands and creation of new Siberian stone pine forests near settlements is proposed.

  20. Impact of alien pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities-evidence from two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazol, Antonio; Zobel, Martin; Cantero, Juan José; Davison, John; Esler, Karen J; Jairus, Teele; Öpik, Maarja; Vasar, Martti; Moora, Mari

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of alien plants can influence biodiversity and ecosystems. However, its consequences for soil microbial communities remain poorly understood. We addressed the impact of alien ectomycorrhizal (EcM) pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities in two regions with contrasting biogeographic histories: in South Africa, where no native EcM plant species are present; and in Argentina, where EcM trees occur naturally. The effect of alien pines on AM fungal communities differed between these regions. In South Africa, plantations of alien EcM pines exhibited lower AM fungal richness and significantly altered community composition, compared with native fynbos. In Argentina, the richness and composition of local AM fungal communities were similar in plantations of alien EcM pines and native forest. However, the presence of alien pines resulted in slight changes to the phylogenetic structure of root AM fungal communities in both regions. In pine clearcut areas in South Africa, the richness and composition of AM fungal communities were intermediate between the native fynbos and the alien pine plantation, which is consistent with natural regeneration of former AM fungal communities following pine removal. We conclude that the response of local AM fungal communities to alien EcM pines differs between biogeographic regions with different histories of species coexistence. PMID:27056916

  1. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown. PMID:25859663

  2. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak in pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  3. Effects of a Severe Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Western Alberta, Canada under Two Forest Management Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used a simulation model to investigate possible effects of a severe mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) epidemic under two management scenarios in Alberta, Canada. Our simulated outbreak was based on the current epidemic in British Columbia, which may kill close to 80% of the province's pine volume. Our two management scenarios were conventional harvest and a pine-reduction strategy modeled on a component of Alberta's Mountain Pine Beetle Management Strategy. The pine strategy seeks to reduce the number of susceptible pine stands by 75% over the next 20 years through targeted harvesting by the forest industry. Our simulations showed that the pine strategy could not be effectively implemented, even if the onset of the beetle outbreak was delayed for 20 years. Even though we increased mill capacity by 20% and directed all harvesting to high volume pine stands during the pine strategy's surge cut, the amount of highly susceptible pine was reduced by only 43%. Additional pine volume remained within mixed stands that were not targeted by the pine strategy. When the outbreak occurred in each scenario, sufficient pine remained on the landscape for the beetle to cause the timber supply to collapse. Alternative management approaches and avenues for future research are discussed.

  4. Effects of a Severe Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Western Alberta, Canada under Two Forest Management Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Farr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a simulation model to investigate possible effects of a severe mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins epidemic under two management scenarios in Alberta, Canada. Our simulated outbreak was based on the current epidemic in British Columbia, which may kill close to 80% of the province's pine volume. Our two management scenarios were conventional harvest and a pine-reduction strategy modeled on a component of Alberta's Mountain Pine Beetle Management Strategy. The pine strategy seeks to reduce the number of susceptible pine stands by 75% over the next 20 years through targeted harvesting by the forest industry. Our simulations showed that the pine strategy could not be effectively implemented, even if the onset of the beetle outbreak was delayed for 20 years. Even though we increased mill capacity by 20% and directed all harvesting to high volume pine stands during the pine strategy's surge cut, the amount of highly susceptible pine was reduced by only 43%. Additional pine volume remained within mixed stands that were not targeted by the pine strategy. When the outbreak occurred in each scenario, sufficient pine remained on the landscape for the beetle to cause the timber supply to collapse. Alternative management approaches and avenues for future research are discussed.

  5. A Field Study of the Fates of Arsenal and Escort Applied on the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harwood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The low organic soils of the Cumberland Plateau, as well as the karst geology of the region, may promote increased transport of herbicides outside of application sites. We have studied the fates of imazapyr and metsulfuron-methyl applied to a privately owned tract on the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee and compared the field results with herbicide fate predicted by the computer model GLEAMS. Approach: The fate of the two herbicides, applied for pine release at a site on the Cumberland Plateau, was monitored over a sixteen month period. Concentrations in soil water were monitored using vacuum soil lysimeters. Grab samples were taken of water in ephemeral streams draining the clearcut area and of a perennial stream which receives water from the study area. Uncut streamside management zones of about 50 m bordered the streams. The field results were compared with those obtained using the GLEAMS computer model. Results: Concentrations of both herbicides in soil water dropped significantly within the first two months after application, imazapyr to less than 50 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso

  6. Evaluating Evapotranspiration of Pine Forest, Switchgrass, and Pine- Switchgrass Intercroppings using Remote Sensing and Ground-based Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, D. M.; Panda, S.; Chescheir, G. M.; Nettles, J. E.; Appelboom, T.; Skaggs, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Vast areas of the land in the Southeastern United States are under pine forests managed primarily for timber and related byproducts. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the major loss in the water balance of this forest ecosystem. A long-term (1988-2008) study to evaluate hydrologic and nutrient balance during a life cycle of a pine stand was just completed. The study used both monitoring and modeling approaches to evaluate hydrologic and water quality effects of silvicultural and water management treatments on three 25 ha experimental watersheds in eastern North Carolina (NC). The research was extended in 2009 to include a dedicated energy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), by adding an adjacent 25 ha watershed. These multiple watersheds are being used to evaluate the hydrologic and water quality effects of switchgrass alone, young pine with natural understory, and young pine with switchgrass intercropping compared to the control (pine stand with a natural understory). The biofuels study has been further expanded to two other southern states, Alabama (AL) and Mississippi (MS). Each has five small watersheds (PVI) will be developed using the R and NIR bands, vegetation density, and background soil reflectance as necessary. Landsat and high resolution aerial imageries of vegetation and soils will be used. IDRISI Taiga software will be used for the indices development. The forested vegetation health will be correlated to the leaf chlorophyll content for determining the vegetation health with a subsequent derivation of available plant water for radiation. Models will be developed to correlate the plant and soil available water to different vegetation indices. Correlation models will also be developed to obtain information on climatic parameters like surface air temperature, net radiation, albedo, soil moisture content, and stomatal water availability from Landsat imageries. On-site weather parameters used for the PET estimates will be combined with other vegetation

  7. Effects of planted European beech on the understory in Scots pine forests of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marozas V

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the planting of non-native species impacts native vegetation is of most importance for forest management, as introduced species may alter environmental conditions with respect to soil composition, light intensity, and species composition. Here, we compared the stand structure, understory vegetation and site properties of a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stand with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. as the second tree layer. We recorded saplings and species and their abundance in the understory vegetation, the thicknesses of organic (O and humus (A soil layers, soil pH and light indexes in nine Scots pine stands with a second tree layer of beech and in nine control pine stands with a second tree layer of spruce. An ordination method was used to analyze all the data together and ANOVA to determine whether there were differences between stands. We found that species diversity in pine stands with planted beech as the second layer was lower than in pine stands with spruce as the second layer. In pine stands with beech as the second tree layer, shrub, herb and moss cover was significantly lower, and the soil humus layer and organic soil layer were thicker and thinner, respectively. Stand parameters such as mean volume and mean annual increment of the second tree layer were significantly higher in pine stands with planted beech as the second tree layer than in pine stand with spruce as the second tree layer. The mean volume and the mean annual increment of the first tree layer dominated by Scots pine did not differ significantly between stands with planted beech and those with natural spruce. Scots pine stands with a beech second layer had negative effects on understory species richness and abundance. This effect was most likely due to the lower light transmittance and poor physical properties of the forest-floor litter in the Scots pine stands with planted beech.

  8. Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis James), a Flexible Generalist of Forest Communities in the Intermountain West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmuller-Campione, Marcella A; Long, James N

    2016-01-01

    As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is an increased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James.), an understudied species of western North America, has been documented to dominate harsh environments and thought to be competitively excluded from mesic environments. An observational study was conducted using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIAD) to test the competitive exclusion hypothesis across a broad elevational and geographic area within the Intermountain West, USA. We anticipated that competitive exclusion would result in limber pine's absence from mid-elevation forest communities, creating a bi-modal distribution. Using the FIAD database, limber pine was observed to occur with 22 different overstory species, which represents a surprising number of the woody, overstory species commonly observed in the Intermountain West. There were no biologically significant relationships between measures of annual precipitation, annual temperature, or climatic indices (i.e. Ombrothermic Index) and limber pine dominance. Limber pine was observed to be a consistent component of forest communities across elevation classes. Of the plots that contained limber pine regeneration, nearly half did not have a live or dead limber pine in the overstory. However, limber pine regeneration was greater in plots with higher limber pine basal area and higher average annual precipitation. Our results suggest limber pine is an important habitat generalist, playing more than one functional role in forest communities. Generalists, like limber pine, may be increasingly important, as managers are challenged to build resistance and resilience to future conditions in western forests. Additional research is needed to understand how different silvicultural systems can be used to maintain multi-species forest communities. PMID:27575596

  9. 7 CFR 160.91 - Meaning of words “pine” and “pine tree.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of words âpineâ and âpine tree.â 160.91...” and “pine tree.” The words “pine” or “pine tree,” when used to designate the source of spirits of..., growing trees, the source of gum spirits of turpentine....

  10. Community Structure, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services in Treeline Whitebark Pine Communities: Potential Impacts from a Non-Native Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Diana F Tomback; Lynn M. Resler; Keane, Robert E.; Elizabeth R. Pansing; Andrew J. Andrade; Aaron C. Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) has the largest and most northerly distribution of any white pine (Subgenus Strobus) in North America, encompassing 18° latitude and 21° longitude in western mountains. Within this broad range, however, whitebark pine occurs within a narrow elevational zone, including upper subalpine and treeline forests, and functions generally as an important keystone and foundation species. In the Rocky Mountains, whitebark pine facilitates the development of krummholz con...

  11. Carbon respiration and nitrogen dynamics in Corsican pine litter amended with aluminium and tannins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kraal; K.G.J. Nierop; J. Kaal; A. Tietema

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the carbon (C) mineralisation and nitrogen (N) dynamics in litter from a Corsican pine forest in response to individual and combined additions of aluminium (M), condensed tannin (extracted from fresh Corsican pine needles) and hydrolysable tannin (commercial tannic acid). Production

  12. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Dang, Sophie; Davis, Corey S; Cooke, Barry J; Coltman, David W

    2011-05-01

    The current epidemic of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), an indigenous pest of western North American pine, has resulted in significant losses of lodgepole pine. The leading edge has reached Alberta where forest composition shifts from lodgepole to jack pine through a hybrid zone. The susceptibility of jack pine to MPB is a major concern, but there has been no evidence of host-range expansion, in part due to the difficulty in distinguishing the parentals and their hybrids. We tested the utility of a panel of microsatellite loci optimized for both species to classify lodgepole pine, jack pine and their hybrids using simulated data. We were able to accurately classify simulated individuals, and hence applied these markers to identify the ancestry of attacked trees. Here we show for the first time successful MPB attack in natural jack pine stands at the leading edge of the epidemic. This once unsuitable habitat is now a novel environment for MPB to exploit, a potential risk which could be exacerbated by further climate change. The consequences of host-range expansion for the vast boreal ecosystem could be significant. PMID:21457381

  13. Factors Influencing Formation of the Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Northern Taiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Sedykh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of formation of seed productive Siberian stone pine stands near settlements, due to the total destruction of the living ground cover and forest litter, providing heat influx in the root-inhabited zone of the Siberian stone pine trees is discussed in the paper.

  14. Pine as fast food: foraging ecology of an endangered cockatoo in a forestry landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D Stock

    Full Text Available Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby's Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby's Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158,025 seeds ha(-1 over a large area (c. 15,000 ha. Carnaby's Cockatoos fed throughout these plantations and removed almost the entire annual crop of pine cones. Peak cockatoo abundance coincided with pine seed maturation. Pine seed had energy and protein contents equivalent to native food sources and, critically, is available in summer when breeding pairs have young offspring to feed. This strong and enduring ecological association clearly suggests that removing pine will have a significant impact on this endangered species unless restoration strategies, to establish alternative food sources, are implemented.

  15. Pine as Fast Food: Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Cockatoo in a Forestry Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, William D.; Finn, Hugh; Parker, Jackson; Dods, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby’s Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158 025 seeds ha−1) over a large area (c. 15 000 ha). Carnaby’s Cockatoos fed throughout these plantations and removed almost the entire annual crop of pine cones. Peak cockatoo abundance coincided with pine seed maturation. Pine seed had energy and protein contents equivalent to native food sources and, critically, is available in summer when breeding pairs have young offspring to feed. This strong and enduring ecological association clearly suggests that removing pine will have a significant impact on this endangered species unless restoration strategies, to establish alternative food sources, are implemented. PMID:23593413

  16. THE DAMAGE, BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF PINE MISTLETOES (Viscum album ssp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollman)

    OpenAIRE

    YÜKSEL, Beşir; AKBULUT, Süleyman; KETEN, Akif

    2009-01-01

    Although mistletoes are known as parasitic plants on coniferous forest of Turkey, their control is still an important problem for Forest Service. In this paper, the information on the characteristics of pine mistletoe (biology, damage, and control methods) were gathered from different sources and observations. Possible control methods and damage ratings of mistletoe were discussed. Keywords: Mistletoes, Parasite plant, Pine

  17. 77 FR 59163 - Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ..., 2010, in FR/Vol. 75, No. 44, on page 10459, in the second column, correct the ``Reforestation... Acres In stands where reforestation by planting is proposed, native shortleaf pine would be planted on a... off-site loblolly pine plantations and restoring native vegetation on portions of the Andrew...

  18. Effect of biomass ash in catalytic fast pyrolysis of pine wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildiz, G.; Ronsse, F.; Venderbosch, R.H.; Duren, van R.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Prins, W.

    2015-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis experiments of pine wood have been performed in a continuously operated mechanically stirred bed reactor at 500 °C. The effects of the pine wood ash were studied by comparing non-catalytic and catalytic experiments (using a ZSM-5 based catalyst) with their ash-added counterparts. To s

  19. Cutting Propagation of Two Perennial Species in While Pine Tree Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood-based materials, such as processed whole pine trees (WPT), have been identified as possible substitutions or replacements for peat moss (P) and pine bark (PB) in container substrates. Although wood-based substrates can be successfully used for crop production, limited information exists for ste...

  20. Pine needle activity and the washing effect as a measure of fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallout and natural radionuclides in pine needles are measured by Ge(Li) detector coupled with a multichannel analyser. Washing effect on pine needle activity is also measured by washing the samples with water and other chemicals. High extents of washing-out of activity were observed in case of running water and hydrochloric acid. (author)

  1. Evaluation of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of forest ecosystem services is a hot topic,both in China and at abroad,but it has not yet obtained a consistency of evaluation indicator systems and evaluation methods.Under the framework of evaluation criteria to be implemented for forest ecosystem services,years of consecutive observation data from Long Term Ecological Research Stations affiliated to Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network(CFERN),forest resource inventory and public data were applied to carry out a detailed and dynamic evaluation on the physical quantity and value of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China.The results showed that the above services had the total value and unit value of 1144.9640 billion(1.1449640×10 12 )RMB and 52.074 thousand RMB per hectare per year,respectively during the 9th Five-year Plan(1996―2000),and of 1190.5461 billion RMB and 52.101 thousand RMB per hectare per year,respectively,during the 10th Five-year Plan(2001―2005).For Chinese pine forests,water conservation was 40.40 hundred million cubic meters annually,soil conservation was 67 million tons and C fixation 9 million tons annually,production of healthful negative ions was 1.96×10 20 , absorption of SO2 was 5.02 hundred million kilograms and dust-catching was 759.10 hundred million kilograms. Among the 15 provinces of China with Chinese pine forests,the biggest beneficiary from ecosystem services was Liaoning Province;while Hunan Province was the smallest beneficiary between the 9th Five-year Plan.

  2. Evaluation of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hao; WANG Bing; MA XiangQian; ZHAO GuangDong; LI ShaoNing

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of forest ecosystem services is a hot topic, both in China and at abroad, but it has not yet obtained a consistency of evaluation indicator systems and evaluation methods. Under the framework of evaluation criteda to be implemented for forest ecosystem services, years of consecutive observation data from Long Term Eco-logical Research Stations affiliated to Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network (CFERN), forest resource inventory and public data were applied to carry out a detailed and dynamic evaluation on the physical quantity and value of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China. The results showed that the above services had the total value and unit value of 1144.9640 billion (1.1449640×1012) RMB and 52.074 thousand RMB per hectare per year, respectively during the 9th Five-year Plan (1996-2000), and of 1190.5461 billion RMB and 52.101 thousand RMB per hectare per year, respectively, during the 10th Five-year Plan (2001-2005). For Chinese pine forests, water conservation was 40.40 hundred million cubic meters annually, soil conservation was 67 million tons and C fixation 9 million tons annually, production of healthful negative ions was 1.96×1020, absorption of SO2 was 5.02 hundred million kilograms and dust-catching was 759.10 hundred million kilograms. Among the 15 provinces of China with Chinese pine forests, the biggest beneficiary from ecosystem services was Liaoning Province; while Hunan Province was the smallest beneficiary between the 9th Five-year Plan.

  3. 77 FR 58979 - Boundary Establishment for the Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine Wild and Scenic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... Forest Service Boundary Establishment for the Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine Wild and... boundary of the Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine Wild and Scenic Rivers to Congress. FOR.... 8756. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine Wild and...

  4. Ethanol Production from SPORL-pretreated Lodgepole Pine: Preliminary Evaluation of Mass Balance and Process Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 liters (73 gallons) per ton of wood or 72% of theoretical. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subject to the sulfite pretreatment to ...

  5. Improvement of real pine (Pinus montezumae Lamb). Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The real pine is an endemic specie of Mexico which is actually in danger of extinction. So the gamma radiation can accelerate the development of some vegetal species, then it is proceeded to find the radiation dose which allows to break the disease condition to diminish the lethargy time of those seeds with a dose range of 1 to 300 Krad of gamma radiation. It is required to realize more tests and observing in a greater period the hipocotile emission to determine the dose which allow to break the condition permanently. (Author)

  6. Biomass accumulation in rapidly growing loblolly pine and sweetgum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Thomas M.; Gresham, Charles A. [Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, P.O. Box 596, Georgetown, SC 29442 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees, growing in International Paper Company's study of intensive management on marginal agricultural land near Bainbridge GA, were destructively sampled at the end of the sixth growing season. All trees were single family blocks of genetically superior trees planted 2.5m apart on sub-soiled rows 3.6m apart and grown with complete competition control. Management treatments were: control, irrigation, irrigation plus fertilization, and irrigation plus fertilization plus pest control. Tree measures were basal diameter, DBH, height of live crown, diameter at base of live crown, and total height. Twenty trees of each species were destructively sampled. Stems were sectioned at 1m intervals, stem diameter determined at each end and sections were weighed green. Branches were removed and height, basal diameter, and length were measured on each branch. Branches were separated into foliated and unfoliated segments and weighed green. A stem disk and branch from each meter were returned to the lab to determine dry weight: green weight ratio. Foliated limb: foliage ratios were also determined from sub-sampled branches. Intensive culture resulted in larger growth differences for sweetgum (most intensive treatment 9.5m tall, 13.1cm DBH; control trees 5.0m tall, 6.3cm DBH) than in pine (most intensive treatment 10.3m tall, 17.7cm DBH; control, 7.6m tall, 13.4cm DBH). The pipe model of tree development explained dimensions of the upper 5m of crown with leaf biomass highly correlated to branch basal area (r{sup 2} from 0.697 to 0.947). There was a constant ratio of leaf biomass to branch basal area (50gm/cm{sup 2} for pine, 30gm/cm{sup 2} for sweetgum). We also found a constant ratio of bole basal area to cumulative branch basal area throughout the crowns. Rapidly growing pines produced about 49Mgha{sup -1} of stem biomass, 11Mgha{sup -1} of dead branch biomass, and 17Mgha{sup -1} of unfoliated branch biomass at

  7. Biomass functions for young scots pine-dominated forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnlund Ulvcrona, K. (Vindeln Experimental Forests, Svartberet Research Station, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Vindeln (Sweden)), e-mail: Kristina.ulvcrona@esf.slu.se; Nilsson, U. (Southern Swedish Forest Research centre, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Alnarp (Sweden)); Lundmark, T. (Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Umeaa (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this study was to develop predictive biomass functions for young stands of Scots pine-dominated forests in northern Sweden. Above ground biomass was destructively sampled, and biomass functions for all tree fractions (e.g. stem including bark, branch and foliage) were developed, based on independent variables. Functions to estimate dry weight of the whole tree were also developed. No significant regressions could be found for the dead branch fraction. DBH for sampled trees in this study was in the range of 11 - 136 mm (Pinus sylvestris), 10 - 121 mm (Picea abies L. Karst) and 9 - 113 mm (Betula spp.)

  8. Forest floor respiration of tuczno scots pine stands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbaniak, M.; Pavelka, Marian; Heronim Chojnicky, B.; Juszczak, R.; Dařenová, Eva; Baran, M.; Danielewska, A.; Ziemblinska, K.; Olejnik, Janusz

    Brno: Global change research centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2013 - (Stojanov, R.; Žalud, Z.; Cudlín, P.; Farda, A.; Urban, O.; Trnka, M.), s. 212-217 ISBN 978-80-904351-8-6. [Global Change and Resilience. Brno (CZ), 22.05.2013-24.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : pine stand * forest floor * tuczno scots Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Germination of pine seed in weightlessness (investigation in Kosmos 782)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonova, R. N.; Parfenov, G. P.; Olkhovenko, V. P.; Karpova, N. I.; Pichugov, M. Y.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the orientation of aboveground and underground organs of pine plants grown from seed in weightlessness. Orientation was found to be caused by the position of the seeds relative to the substrate surface. Normal growth was manifest only for the plants grown from seed oriented with embryo toward the substrate. Differences were noted between experiment and control as to the quantitative content of nucleoli in the meristematic cells of the rootlets and the shape of cells in the cotyledonous leaflets. No complete agreement was found between data obtained in weightlessness and when gravity was compensated (clinostat treatment with horizontal rotation).

  10. Forest rodents provide directed dispersal of Jeffrey pine seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, J.S.; Wall, S.B.V.; Jenkins, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    Some species of animals provide directed dispersal of plant seeds by transporting them nonrandomly to microsites where their chances of producing healthy seedlings are enhanced. We investigated whether this mutualistic interaction occurs between granivorous rodents and Jeffrey pine (Pinus Jeffreyi) in the eastern Sierra Nevada by comparing the effectiveness of random abiotic seed dispersal with the dispersal performed by four species of rodents: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), yellow-pine and long-eared chipmunks (Tamias amoenus and T. quadrimaculatus), and golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis). We conducted two caching studies using radio-labeled seeds, the first with individual animals in field enclosures and the second with a community of rodents in open forest. We used artificial caches to compare the fates of seeds placed at the range of microsites and depths used by animals with the fates of seeds dispersed abiotically. Finally, we examined the distribution and survival of naturally establishing seedlings over an eight-year period. Several lines of evidence suggested that this community of rodents provided directed dispersal. Animals preferred to cache seeds in microsites that were favorable for emergence or survival of seedlings and avoided caching in microsites in which seedlings fared worst. Seeds buried at depths typical of animal caches (5-25 mm) produced at least five times more seedlings than did seeds on the forest floor. The four species of rodents differed in the quality of dispersal they provided. Small, shallow caches made by deer mice most resembled seeds dispersed by abiotic processes, whereas many of the large caches made by ground squirrels were buried too deeply for successful emergence of seedlings. Chipmunks made the greatest number of caches within the range of depths and microsites favorable for establishment of pine seedlings. Directed dispersal is an important element of the population dynamics of Jeffrey pine, a

  11. [Microsporogenesis and pollen formation in Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskova, N E; Tret'iakova, I N; Muratova, E N

    2009-01-01

    The prolongation of a warm season during autumn, typical for the Siberia in recent 5-6 years, caused changes in the terms of reproductive processes in microsporangia of Scotch pine in the Krasnoyarsk region. The meiosis started in the autumn of the year, preceding the pollination, and comes to the end in next spring, whereas usually this process occurs in the spring of the year of pollination. In such conditions the division of microsporocytes accompanied with different abnormalities, causing various anomalies and the incomplete development of pollen grains. PMID:19548623

  12. Autochthonous microbial community associated with pine needle forest litterfall influences its degradation under natural environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rishi; Nikitina, Anna; Litti, Yury; Nozhevnikova, Alla; Goel, Gunjan

    2016-07-01

    The slow natural degradation of chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) needle litterfall and its accumulation on forest floors have been attributed to its lignocellulosic complexities of the biomass. The present study offers a microbiological insight into the role of autochthonous microflora associated with pine needle litterfall in its natural degradation. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting indicated actinomycetes (Saccharomonospora sp., Glycomyces sp., Agrococcus sp., Leifsonia sp., Blastocatella sp., and Microbacterium sp.) as a dominant microbial community associated with pine needle litterfall with the absence of fungal decomposers. On exclusion of associated autochthonous microflora from pine litterfall resulted in colonization by decomposer fungi identified as Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus sp., which otherwise failed to colonize the litterfall under natural conditions. The results, therefore, indicated that the autochthonous microbial community of pine needle litterfall (dominated by actinomycetes) obstructs the colonization of litter-degrading fungi and subsequently hinders the overall process of natural degradation of litterfall. PMID:27317052

  13. Effects and mechanism of ball milling on torrefaction of pine sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunxiao; Huang, Jing; Feng, Chen; Wang, Guanghui; Tabil, Lope; Wang, Decheng

    2016-08-01

    The effects and mechanism of ball milling on the torrefaction process were studied. Ball- and hammer-milled (screen size 1mm) pine sawdust samples were torrefied at three temperatures (230, 260, and 290°C) and two durations (30 and 60min) to investigate into their torrefaction behavior and physicochemical properties. The results showed that, under identical torrefaction conditions, torrefied ball-milled pine sawdust had a higher carbon content and fixed carbon, and lower hydrogen and oxygen contents than torrefied hammer-milled pine sawdust. Torrefied ball-milled pine sawdust produced lower mass and energy yields, but higher heating values than torrefied hammer-milled pine sawdust. Ball milling destroyed the crystalline structure of cellulose and thus reduced the thermal stability of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, causing them to degrade at relatively lower temperatures. In conclusion, biomass pretreated with a combination of ball milling and torrefaction has the potential to produce an alternative fuel to coal. PMID:27136611

  14. Pine transcriptomics — RNA-Seq data analysis of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings subjected to a wounding experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Okeke, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    The stilbene biosynthetic pathway yielding products pinosylvin and pinosylvin monomethyl ether has been implicated in Scots pine’s (Pinus sylvestris) heartwood constitutive resistance to decay. This trait, which is very valuable in forest economies has been suggested to be genetically controlled. The molecular basis for this control is not known. Wounding by drilling in stems of Scots pine seedlings have been suggested to induce production of pinosylvin and pinosylvin monomethyl ether in xy...

  15. Warm summer nights and the growth decline of shore pine in Southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick F.; Mulvey, Robin L.; Brownlee, Annalis H.; Barrett, Tara M.; Pattison, Robert R.

    2015-12-01

    Shore pine, which is a subspecies of lodgepole pine, was a widespread and dominant tree species in Southeast Alaska during the early Holocene. At present, the distribution of shore pine in Alaska is restricted to coastal bogs and fens, likely by competition with Sitka spruce and Western hemlock. Monitoring of permanent plots as part of the United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program identified a recent loss of shore pine biomass in Southeast Alaska. The apparent loss of shore pine is concerning, because its presence adds a vertical dimension to coastal wetlands, which are the richest plant communities of the coastal temperate rainforest in Alaska. In this study, we examined the shore pine tree-ring record from a newly established plot network throughout Southeast Alaska and explored climate-growth relationships. We found a steep decline in shore pine growth from the early 1960s to the present. Random Forest regression revealed a strong correlation between the decline in shore pine growth and the rise in growing season diurnal minimum air temperature. Warm summer nights, cool daytime temperatures and a reduced diurnal temperature range are associated with greater cloud cover in Southeast Alaska. This suite of conditions could lead to unfavorable tree carbon budgets (reduced daytime photosynthesis and greater nighttime respiration) and/or favor infection by foliar pathogens, such as Dothistroma needle blight, which has recently caused widespread tree mortality on lodgepole pine plantations in British Columbia. Further field study that includes experimental manipulation (e.g., fungicide application) will be necessary to identify the proximal cause(s) of the growth decline. In the meantime, we anticipate continuation of the shore pine growth decline in Southeast Alaska.

  16. Countervailing effects on pine and oak leaf litter decomposition in human-altered Mediterranean ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffer, Efrat; Canham, Charles D; Kigel, Jaime; Perevolotsky, Avi

    2015-04-01

    Species affect the dynamics of litter decay through the intrinsic properties of their litter, but also by influencing the environmental conditions imposed by their canopy, roots, and litter layers. We examined how human-induced changes in the relative abundances of two dominant Mediterranean trees-Pinus halepensis and Quercus calliprinos-impact leaf litter decomposition. A reciprocal transplant experiment tested decomposition of pine, oak, and mixed leaf litter in oak woodland and pine forest ecosystems with different relative abundances of pine and oak. Using likelihood methods, we tested the importance and magnitude of the environmental effects of local species abundance, litter layer composition, and soil properties on litter mass loss. Oak litter decomposition was slower than pine, and had an antagonistic effect on mixed litter decay. These results differ from other reported pine-oak associations, and are probably associated with a higher content of tannins and phenols in oak compared to pine litter in our study sites. The environmental effects of the two species were opposite to their litter decomposition dynamics. An increased proportion of pine in the oak woodlands and a higher content of pine needles in the litter layer of pine forests reduced decay rates. The presence of more oak and broadleaf litter in the litter layer accelerated decomposition in pine forests. Our results highlight the importance of considering multidimensional species effects mediated by both chemical and physical properties, and imply that man-made changes in the composition and configuration of plant communities may result in complex unpredicted consequences to ecosystem biogeochemistry. PMID:25680333

  17. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tweedsmuir—Entiako caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd summers in mountainous terrain in the North Tweedsmuir Park area and winters mainly in low elevation forests in the Entiako area of Westcentral British Columbia. During winter, caribou select mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests on poor sites and forage primarily by cratering through snow to obtain terrestrial lichens. These forests are subject to frequent large-scale natural disturbance by fire and forest insects. Fire suppression has been effective in reducing large-scale fires in the Entiako area for the last 40—50 years, resulting in a landscape consisting primarily of older lodgepole pine forests, which are susceptible to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae attack. In 1994, mountain pine beetles were detected in northern Tweedsmuir Park and adjacent managed forests. To date, mountain pine beetles have attacked several hundred thousand hectares of caribou summer and winter range in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park, and Entiako Park and Protected Area. Because an attack of this scale is unprecedented on woodland caribou ranges, there is no information available on the effects of mountain pine beetles on caribou movements, habitat use or terrestrial forage lichen abundance. Implications of the mountain pine beetle epidemic to the Tweedsmuir—Entiako woodland caribou population include effects on terrestrial lichen abundance, effects on caribou movement (reduced snow interception, blowdown, and increased forest harvesting outside protected areas for mountain pine beetle salvage. In 2001 we initiated a study to investigate the effects of mountain pine beetles and forest harvesting on terrestrial caribou forage lichens. Preliminary results suggest that the abundance of Cladina spp. has decreased with a corresponding increase in kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and other herbaceous plants. Additional studies are required to determine caribou movement and

  18. Effects of introgression on the genetic population structure of two ecologically and economically important conifer species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2013-10-01

    Forest trees exhibit a remarkable range of adaptations to their environment, but as a result of frequent and long-distance gene flow, populations are often only weakly differentiated. Lodgepole and jack pine hybridize in western Canada, which adds the opportunity for introgression through hybridization to contribute to population structure and (or) adaptive variation. Access to large sample size, high density SNP datasets for these species would improve our ability to resolve population structure, parameterize introgression, and separate the influence of demography from adaptation. To accomplish this, 454 transcriptome reads for lodgepole and jack pine were assembled using Newbler and MIRA, the assemblies mined for SNPs, and 1536 SNPs were selected for typing on lodgepole pine, jack pine, and their hybrids (N = 536). We identified population structure using both Bayesian clustering and discriminate analysis of principle components. Introgressed SNP loci were identified and their influence on observed population structure was assessed. We found that introgressed loci resulted in increased differentiation both within lodgepole and jack pine populations. These findings are timely given the recent mountain pine beetle population expansion in the hybrid zone, and will facilitate future studies of adaptive traits in these ecologically important species. PMID:24237338

  19. Impact of fixation/drying conditions on fixation rate, leachability and bioefficacy in CCA-C treated red pine and southern pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Red pine (Pinus resinosia Ait) and southern pine (Pinus spp.) sapwood blocks were pressure treated with CCA-C at retention of 6.4, 2.0, 1.5 kg?m-3 followed by fixation using 11 post-treatment schedules ranging from 50-70 °C and 5 different relative humidity conditions. The effect of these post-treatment schedules on fixation rate, chemical leachability and decay resistant once were evaluated to better understand the effects of fixation/drying conditions on leachability and biodeterioration. Southern pine blocks fixes slightly slower than red pine. Fixation of CCA at high temperature high humidity, essential initially fixation at high humidity for fixation/drying schedules, resulted in lower leaching of chromium and arsenic elements than high temperature low humidity or initially fixation at the high temperature low humidity conditions. Copper leaching was indicated no significant difference under 11 fixation/drying conditions for both species. Weight losses for southern pine by Chaetomium globosum was lower than red pine by Gloeophyllom trabeum. There were some different capacities of decay resistance for both species under those post treatment conditions.

  20. Health assessment for Mid-America Tanning Company, Sergeant Bluff, Woodbury County, Iowa, Region 7. CERCLIS No. IAD085824688. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-08

    The Mid-America Tanning Company (MAT) Site is proposed to be listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the National Priorities List (NPL). Mid-America Tanning, now U.S. Tanning, is an animal hide processing plant located on 98.7 acres approximately five miles south of Sergeant Bluff, Woodbury County, Iowa. From June 1978 to the present, use of chromium has been extended to the entire process, which involves the treatment of approximately 1000 hides per day. The process utilizes trivalent chromium and produces waste sludge and liquids that are treated on-site at the company wastewater treatment facility. Based on the available information, this site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the likelihood of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater, surface water and soil. Further environmental characterization and sampling of the site and impacted off-site areas during the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) should be conducted to address the environmental and human exposure pathways discussed above and to further define the extent of contamination at the site.

  1. The complete plastid genome of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhu, Juan; Yang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Jie; He, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. chloroplast genome (cp DNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117 861 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), which were separated by large and small single copy regions (LSC and SSC) of 65 373 and 51 538 bp, respectively. The cpDNA contained 111 genes, including 71 protein-coding genes (71 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (4 rRNA species) and 36 tRNA genes (32 tRNA species). In these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 1 (ycf3) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of Bunge's pine cpDNA is 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 61.9%, 60.2% and 62.5%, respectively. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the maximum parsimony analysis suggested that all the sampled Pinus species clustered a monophyletic clade and have a high bootstrap support, and the cpDNA of P. bungeana is closely related to that of congeneric P. gerardiana. PMID:26122332

  2. Restoring a disappearing ecosystem: the Longleaf Pine Savanna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Timothy B. [USFS; Miller, Karl V. [University of Georgia; Park, Noreen

    2013-05-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) savannas of the southeastern United States contain some of the worlds most diverse plant communities, along with a unique complement of wildlife. Their traditionally open canopy structure and rich understory of grasses and herbs were critical to their vigor. However, a long history of land-use practices such as logging, farming, and fire exclusion have reduced this once-widespread ecosystem to only 3 percent of its original range. At six longleaf pine plantations in South Carolina, Tim Harrington with the Pacific Northwest Research Station and collaborators with the Southern Research Station used various treatments (including prescribed burns, tree thinning, and herbicide applications) to alter the forest structure and tracked how successful each one was in advancing savanna restoration over a 14-year period. They found that typical planting densities for wood production in plantations create dense understory shade that excludes many native herbaceous species important to savannas and associated wildlife. The scientists found that although tree thinning alone did not result in sustained gains, a combination of controlled burning, thinning, and herbicide treatments to reduce woody plants was an effective strategy for recovering the savanna ecosystem. The scientists also found that these efforts must be repeated periodically for enduring benefits.

  3. Limited oxygen index levels of impregnated Scots pine wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Scots pine samples were treated with 4 wood preservatives with various concentrations. • Limited oxygen index level was evaluated both for leached and un-leached samples. • All treatments improved fire retardance of samples despite some chemicals leached out. • Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results. • LOI of samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil was not changed by leaching. - Abstract: In this study, effect of various concentrations of boron powder, mixture of boric acid and borax, fireproof agent based on liquid blend of limestone, and silicon oil on limited oxygen index levels (LOI) of S. pine wood was investigated. Wood samples were first vacuum treated with the preservatives, and then were subjected to leaching procedure. Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results for improving the fire retardancy of wood, furthermore, samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% of the solution did not burn. Leaching did not considerably change the LOI of wood samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil; however, LOI levels of samples treated with the mixture of boric acid and borax and fireproof agent were affected by leaching procedure probably arising those preservatives did not chemically bond to main wood components. All treatments improved fire retardancy of samples despite some amount of preservatives leached out from wood

  4. Modeling mountain pine beetle habitat suitability within Sequoia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew

    Understanding significant changes in climate and their effects on timber resources can help forest managers make better decisions regarding the preservation of natural resources and land management. These changes may to alter natural ecosystems dependent on historical and current climate conditions. Increasing mountain pine beetle (MBP) outbreaks within the southern Sierra Nevada are the result of these alterations. This study better understands MPB behavior within Sequoia National Park (SNP) and model its current and future habitat distribution. Variables contributing to MPB spread are vegetation stress, soil moisture, temperature, precipitation, disturbance, and presence of Ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Lodgepole (Pinus contorta) pine trees. These variables were obtained using various modeled, insitu, and remotely sensed sources. The generalized additive model (GAM) was used to calculate the statistical significance of each variable contributing to MPB spread and also created maps identifying habitat suitability. Results indicate vegetation stress and forest disturbance to be variables most indicative of MPB spread. Additionally, the model was able to detect habitat suitability of MPB with a 45% accuracy concluding that a geospatial driven modeling approach can be used to delineate potential MPB spread within SNP.

  5. Relationships between multipolarized radar backscatter and slash pine stand parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Yousif Ali; Hoffer, Roger M.

    1989-01-01

    Multipolarized L-band (24.5 cm) aircraft radar data was obtained for a primarily forested area in northern Florida. Based on the results of previous studies by Hoffer and Hussin (1989), a swath of medium incidence angle (35-25 deg) data was defined. Three groups of slash pine stands were located in the data: 4- to 17-year-old plantations, 18- to 48-year-old plantations, and 16- to 53-year-old natural stands. Stand data obtained from the forest-products companies operating in the area include age, tree height, diameter-at-breast height, basal area, volume (cords/acre), and density (trees/acre). Each of these stand parameters were compared to each of the four polarizations (HH, VV, VH, and HV) of the radar data for each group of stands. Statistically significant relationships were found between the radar backscatter and the forest stand parameters only for the 4- to 17-year-old slash pine plantation stands. In general, the cross-polarized radar backscatter was more highly correlated with the various stand parameters than the like-polarized backscatter, and the VV-polarized data were more highly correlated than the HH-polarized data.

  6. Contrasting cascades: insectivorous birds increase pine but not parasitic mistletoe growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Kailen A; Linhart, Yan B

    2006-03-01

    1. Intraguild predation occurs when top predators feed upon both intermediate predators and herbivores. Intraguild predators may thus have little net impact on herbivore abundance. Variation among communities in the strength of trophic cascades (the indirect effects of predators on plants) may be due to differing frequencies of intraguild predation. Less is known about the influence of variation within communities in predator-predator interactions upon trophic cascade strength. 2. We compared the effects of a single predator community between two sympatric plants and two herbivore guilds. We excluded insectivorous birds with cages from ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa trees parasitized by dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium vaginatum. For 3 years we monitored caged and control trees for predatory arthropods that moved between the two plants, foliage-feeding caterpillars and sap-feeding hemipterans that were host-specific, and plant damage and growth. 3. Excluding birds increased the abundance of ant-tended aphids on pine and resulted in an 11% reduction in pine woody growth. Mutualist ants protected pine-feeding aphids from predatory arthropods, allowing aphid populations to burgeon in cages even though predatory arthropods also increased in cages. By protecting pine-feeding aphids from predatory arthropods but not birds, mutualist ants created a three-tiered linear food chain where bird effects cascaded to pine growth via aphids. 4. In contrast to the results for tended aphids on pine, bird exclusion had no net effects on untended pine herbivores, the proportion of pine foliage damaged by pine-feeding caterpillars, or the proportion of mistletoe plants damaged by mistletoe-feeding caterpillars. These results suggest that arthropod predators, which were more abundant in cages as compared with control trees, compensated for bird predation of untended pine and mistletoe herbivores. 5. These contrasting effects of bird exclusion support food web theory: where birds were

  7. Differences in arthropod communities between island and inland Masson pine forests infested by pine wilt disease in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-wei; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiao-su; CHEN Wei-ping; JIANG Ping

    2008-01-01

    The invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacks Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests and causes great economic losses in China. In this study, we assessed whether the effect of the invasion of PWN is different between island and inland forests. Arthropods were sampled in Fuyang (inland) and Zhoushan (island) counties in Zhejiang Province with sweep netting and light traps at four plots. During two field periods (May to June 2004 and September to October 2005) a total of 21,916 insects, representing 384 species belonging to 99 families and 15 orders,were collected in the sample plots from the island, whereas, from the inland forest a total of 29,262 insects, representing 308 species belonging to 96 families and 13 orders, were found. A hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and one-way ANOVA, based on the composition of different arthropod guilds, were performed. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the composition of arthropod communities at the family level between inland and island. But these two habitats had a significant effect on the composition of species, individuals, sub-communities and energy class levels. Statistically, the composition of the two orders, Lepidoptera and Diptera, in the two habitats were significantly different.

  8. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  9. [Sensitivity of parameters in net primary productivity model of broadleaf-Korean pine mixed forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun-Hua; Hao, Zhan-Qing; He, Hong-Shi; Zhou, Dan-Hui

    2008-05-01

    PnET-II (photosynthesis and evapotranspiration) model is an ecosystem process model, which requires extensive input parameters, including vegetation parameters, soil parameters and climate parameters, to simulate net primary productivity (NPP). This study estimated the total and wood (stem and branch) NPPs of Korean pine and broadleaf species in Fenglin Natural Reserve, and examined the responses of the NPPs to the variations of the input parameters in PnET-II model. The simulation results indicated that among the vegetation parameters in PnET-II model, the variation of canopy parameters, had greater effects on the simulated NPPs of Korean pine and broadleaf species, and the response of Korean pine's total NPP to vegetation parameters was larger than that of broadleaf species'. The variation of soil water holding capacity (WHC) had smaller effects on the NPPs of Korean pine and broadleaf species, and the response of Korean pine's NPP to the WHC was somewhat smaller than that of broadleaf trees'. In climate scenarios, the variation of air temperature had the greatest effects on the simulated NPP of Korean pine and broadleaf trees, followed by precipitation and radiation. Different climate scenarios had different effects on the predicted results. The total and wood NPPs of Korean pine and broadleaf trees had different responses to the input parameters. PMID:18655573

  10. Complete Chloroplast Genome of the Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis: Structure and Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yee S Yap

    Full Text Available The Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis is a rare Southern conifer with striking morphological similarity to fossil pines. A small population of W. nobilis was discovered in 1994 in a remote canyon system in the Wollemi National Park (near Sydney, Australia. This population contains fewer than 100 individuals and is critically endangered. Previous genetic studies of the Wollemi pine have investigated its evolutionary relationship with other pines in the family Araucariaceae, and have suggested that the Wollemi pine genome contains little or no variation. However, these studies were performed prior to the widespread use of genome sequencing, and their conclusions were based on a limited fraction of the Wollemi pine genome. In this study, we address this problem by determining the entire sequence of the W. nobilis chloroplast genome. A detailed analysis of the structure of the genome is presented, and the evolution of the genome is inferred by comparison with the chloroplast sequences of other members of the Araucariaceae and the related family Podocarpaceae. Pairwise alignments of whole genome sequences, and the presence of unique pseudogenes, gene duplications and insertions in W. nobilis and Araucariaceae, indicate that the W. nobilis chloroplast genome is most similar to that of its sister taxon Agathis. However, the W. nobilis genome contains an unusually high number of repetitive sequences, and these could be used in future studies to investigate and conserve any remnant genetic diversity in the Wollemi pine.

  11. Factors controlling natural VOC emissions in a southeastern US pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jo-Chun

    A one-year field study was conducted to investigate the control factors of the monoterpene emissions from slash and loblolly pine saplings at the Austin Cary Forest site in Florida. The α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, d-limonene, and β-phellandrene were identified in the emission samples collected from native pine trees. The α-pinene was the principal (>60%) monoterpene emitted by both slash and loblolly pine saplings. Terpene emission rates in spring were the highest and most volatile for slash pine trees, possibly due to the influences of bud formation and elongation. Loblolly pine emissions, under a similar environmental temperature range, revealed different seasonal patterns of emissions when compared to those for slash pines. Emission rates of monoterpenes from slash and loblolly pine trees were found to depend on temperature, season's change (e.g., bud emissions), tree age, needle surface wetness, and rough handling. It is suggested that the emission control factors besides the environmental temperature should also be taken into account in assessing regional biogenic emissions for compling a worldwide hydrocarbon emission inventory. It is also found that monoterpene emission rates could easily change over a long period of time (e.g., years), and so it is desirable to analyze the emission data based on the short term (e.g., season, month) for reasonable temperature-emission algorithm.

  12. Modeling the Effects of Climate Change on Whitebark Pine Along the Pacific Crest Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. S.; Nguyen, A.; Gill, N.; Kannan, S.; Patadia, N.; Meyer, M.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific Crest Trail (PCT), one of eight National Scenic Trails, stretches 2,650 miles from Mexico to the Canadian border. At high elevations along this trail, within Inyo and Sierra National Forests, populations of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) have been diminishing due to infestation of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and are threatened due to a changing climate. Understanding the current and future condition of whitebark pine is a primary goal of forest managers due to its high ecological and economic importance, and it is currently a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Using satellite imagery, we analyzed the rate and spatial extent of whitebark pine tree mortality from 1984 to 2011 using the Landsat-based Detection of Trends in Disturbance and Recovery (LandTrendr) program. Climate data, soil properties, and biological features of the whitebark pine were incorporated in the Physiological Principles to Predict Growth (3-PG) model to predict future rates of growth and assess its applicability in modeling natural whitebark pine processes. Finally, the Random Forest algorithm was used with topographic data alongside recent and future climate data from the IPCC A2 and B1 climate scenarios for the years 2030, 2060, and 2090 to model the future distribution of whitebark pine. LandTrendr results indicate beetle related mortality covering 14,940 km2 of forest, 2,880 km2 of which are within whitebark pine forest. By 2090, our results show that under the A2 climate scenario, whitebark pine suitable habitat may be reduced by as much as 99.97% by the year 2090 within our study area. Under the B1 climate scenario, which has decreased CO2 emissions, 13.54% more habitat would be preserved in 2090.

  13. Host selection by the pine processionary moth enhances larval performance: An experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan J.; Soler, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    The development of a phytophagous insect depends on the nutritional characteristics of plants on which it feeds. Offspring from different females, however, may vary in their ability to develop in different host species and therefore females should place their eggs on host plants that result in the highest performance for the insect offspring. Causes underlying the predicted relationships between host selection and offspring performance may be: (1) a genetic association between larval ability to exploit particular hosts and the female insect's host preference; and (2) phenotypic plasticity of larvae that may be due to (a) maternal effects (e.g. differential investment in eggs) or (b) diet. In this work, we analyse the performance (i.e. hatching success and larval size and mortality) of the pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) caterpillar developing in Aleppo (Pinus halepensis) or maritime (Pinus pinaster) pines. Larvae of this moth species do not move from the individual pine selected by the mother for oviposition. By means of cross-fostering experiments of eggs batches and silk nests of larvae between these two pine species, we explored whether phenotypic plasticity of offspring traits or genetic correlations between mother and offspring traits account for variation in developmental characteristics of caterpillars. Our results showed that females preferentially selected Aleppo pine for oviposition. Moreover, the offspring had the highest probability of survival and reached a larger body size in this pine species independently of whether or not batches were experimentally cross-fostered. Notably, the interaction between identity of donor and receiver pine species of larvae nests explained a significant proportion of variance of larval size and mortality, suggesting a role of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity of the hatchlings. These results suggest that both female selection of the more appropriate pine species and phenotypic plasticity of larva explain the

  14. A Targeted DNAzyme-Nanocomposite Probe Equipped with Built-in Zn2+ Arsenal for Combined Treatment of Gene Regulation and Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhi-Mei; Zhang, Peng-Hui; Li, Xin; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2016-01-01

    As catalytic nucleic acids, DNAzymes have been extensively used in the design of sensing platforms. However, their potentials as intelligent drug carriers for responsive drug release in gene therapy and chemotherapy were rarely explored. Herein, we report a dual-functional probe composed of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), catalytic Zn2+-dependent DNAzyme, anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox), targeted AS1411 aptamer and acid-decomposable ZnO quantum dots (ZnO QDs) to achieve intracellular gene regulation and drug delivery in a controlled manner. By means of aptamer-guided targeting and receptor-mediated endocytosis, the probes were specifically internalized into the HeLa cells and trapped in the acidic endo-/lysosomes, where the ZnO QDs as the built-in Zn2+ arsenal were promptly dissolved to offer Zn2+, leading to the activation of DNAzyme to cleave the substrate strands, and subsequent drug release. Meanwhile, as designed, one part of the cleaved substrate, hybridized with the overexpressed miR-21 in the target cells, thereby declining its intracellular level. Taken together, the down-regulation of miR-21 has a synergistic effect with Dox to efficiently eradicate the cancer cells. Thus, the favorable biocompatibility, cancer cell specificity and combined treatment make the probe promising for therapy of multidrug-resistant cancer and in vivo application. PMID:26956167

  15. Mountain Pine Beetle Impact on Stand-level Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J. A.; Woods, S.

    2012-12-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic has disturbed millions of hectares throughout the Rocky Mountain West. The most persistent effects of MPB infestation on the stand-level water balance are likely concomitant with the grey stage of the disturbance cycle. The grey stage occurs within 3 to 5 years of the initial infestation after the needles of an infected tree have turned red and fallen off due to tree death. Large numbers of grey-stage trees in a stand may remain on the landscape for up to 20 years, until windthrow or another disturbance sends them to the forest floor. The greater temporal persistence of the grey stage over antecedent stages suggested that an examination of the grey stage would best capture long-term effects of MPB disturbance on the forest water balance. In this study we hypothesized that changes to the forest canopy associated with MPB disturbance may affect the stand-level water balance. The needle loss and windthrow that follows MPB disturbance is expected to increase the amount of precipitation reaching the forest floor. Additionally, overstory evapotranspiration (ET) demand is expected to decrease as MPB-induced tree mortality increases within disturbed stands. The expected cumulative effect of MPB disturbance on the stand-level water balance is an increase in soil moisture due to increased precipitation inputs and reduced overstory ET. This study was conducted in Lubrecht Experimental Forest and adjacent Bureau of Land Management areas near Missoula, Montana. Sub-canopy measurements of soil moisture, precipitation (rain and snow water equivalent), overstory transpiration and micro-meteorological data (net radiation, temperature, wind speed, etc.) were collected in three 50 x 50 meter plots. The plots consisted of a uniform stand of grey-stage lodgepole pine, a uniform stand of non-infested lodgepole pine, and a recent clear-cut stand, which served as a control unit. Water balances for each stand were constructed using a mass

  16. Optimization of Biosorptive Removal of Dye from Aqueous System by Cone Shell of Calabrian Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Deniz

    2014-01-01

    The biosorption performance of raw cone shell of Calabrian pine for C.I. Basic Red 46 as a model azo dye from aqueous system was optimized using Taguchi experimental design methodology. L9 (33) orthogonal array was used to optimize the dye biosorption by the pine cone shell. The selected factors and their levels were biosorbent particle size, dye concentration, and contact time. The predicted dye biosorption capacity for the pine cone shell from Taguchi design was obtained as 71.770 mg g−1 un...

  17. Cr(VI) Sorption/Desorption on Pine Sawdust and Oak Wood Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino Núñez-Delgado; María José Fernández-Sanjurjo; Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez; Laura Cutillas-Barreiro; JuanCarlos Nóvoa-Muñoz; Manuel Arias-Estévez

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study Cr(VI) sorption/desorption on two by-products from the wood industry: pine sawdust and oak wood ash. The retention/release experiments were carried out using standard batch-type trials. In the sorption-phase experiments, pine sawdust showed 23% sorption when a concentration of 100 mg Cr(VI)L−1 was added, whereas sorption on oak wood ash was 17%. In the desorption-phase, chromium release was clearly higher from pine sawdust than from oak wood ash (98% a...

  18. Observations on the Morphology of the Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Yik, Choi-Pheng; Birchfield, W.

    1981-01-01

    Scans of slash pine wood chips infested with pine wood nematodes showed coiled aggregates of 5-10 nematodes in the axial resin canals, and 1-2 nematodes folded in the radial resin canals. Observations of the pine wood nematode by SEM showed the head to be offset with six labial lobes. A smaller circle of six inner lobes surrounded the stoma. A single labial sensillum was observed on each of the two subventral and two subdorsal lobes. The two opposite lobes, without sensilla, bore a pore-like ...

  19. The use of baited hair traps and genetic analysis to determine the presence of Pine marten

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The pine marten (Martes martes) is one of Ireland’s most elusive mammals. Between July 2003 and July 2005, hair tubes attached to trees with adhesive patches inside, were used to detect presence of marten in Portlaw Woods, County Waterford. Screening tests of potential lures to assess attractiveness and suitability were carried out on a variety of substances on free-living and captive pine marten. The use of chicken as a short-term lure was successful in attracting pine marten to the hair tub...

  20. Medicinal properties, in vitro protocols and secondary metabolite analyses of scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman, Hely; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Niemi, Karoliina; Sarjala, Tytti; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is known as an economically important forest tree with a wide distribution throughout the Northern hemisphere. Recently, the species has also become recognized as a novel source of functional food and bioactive compounds with medicinal properties. The present paper provides up-to-date information on protocols for somatic embryogenesis (i.e., the most promising in vitro method for vegetative propagation of Scots pine). Endophyte protocols cover the topics of endophyte isolation, identification and elimination from in vitro cultures. Moreover, the protocols for secondary metabolite analyses are described in order to emphasize the emerging role of Scots pine as a medicinal plant. PMID:19521833

  1. Habitat quality and recruitment success of cui-ui in the Truckee River downstream of Marble Bluff Dam, Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Rissler, Peter H.; Salgado, J. Antonio; Harry, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    We compared cui-ui (Chasmistes cujus) recruitment from two reaches of the Truckee River with histories of severe erosional downcutting caused by a decline in Pyramid Lake surface elevation. In 1975, Marble Bluff Dam (MBD) was constructed 5 kilometers upstream of the extant mouth of the Truckee River to stabilize the upstream reach of the river; the downstream reach of the river remained unstable and consequently unsuitable for cui-ui recruitment. By the early 2000s, there was a decrease in the Truckee River’s slope from MBD to Pyramid Lake after a series of wet years in the 1990s. This was followed by changes in river morphology and erosion abatement. These changes led to the question as to cui-ui recruitment potential in the Truckee River downstream of MBD. In 2012, more than 7,000 cui-ui spawners were passed upstream of MBD, although an indeterminate number of cui-ui spawned downstream of MBD. In this study, we compared cui-ui recruitment upstream and downstream of MBD during a Truckee River low-flow year (2012). Cui-ui larvae emigration to Pyramid Lake began earlier and ended later downstream of MBD. A greater number of cui-ui larvae was produced downstream of MBD than upstream. This also was true for native Tahoe sucker (Catostomus tahoensis) and Lahontan redside (Richardsonius egregius). The improved Truckee River stability downstream of MBD and concomitant cui-ui recruitment success is attributed to a rise in Pyramid Lake's surface elevation. A decline in lake elevation may lead to a shift in stream morphology and substrate composition to the detriment of cui-ui reproductive success as well as the reproductive success of other native fishes.

  2. Annual cycle of photosynthetically active radiation in maritime pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to model the photosynthesis of an evergreen forest, knowledge of the seasonal variation in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is indispensable. This paper studies the annual cycle of different components of the PAR above and within a maritime pine forest. From measurements of transmitted PAR made on days close to the solstices and the equinoxes, as well as continuous measurements of global and diffuse PAR throughout the year, the annual variation of PAR, within and above the forest was obtained. The relationship between the proportion of diffuse PAR to total PAR was also derived. The PAR reflectance above the canopy varied from 0.035 to 0.07 throughout the year. On clear sky days, roughly 65% of the incident PAR was absorbed by the needles, stems and branches and 20% was reflected; the remaining 15% was absorbed by the understorey. (author)

  3. Responses of Scots pine to waterlogging during growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Tapani; Launiainen, Samuli; Lehto, Tarja; Sutinen, Sirkka; Ruhanen, Hanna; Heiskanen, Juha; Laurén, Ari; Silvennoinen, Raimo; Vapaavuori, Elina; Finér, Leena

    2016-04-01

    For the future management and sustainable use of boreal forests it is crucial to consider the rate and strength of tree responses to an elevated water table and the concurrent oxygen limitations, especially in peatlands. We examined the response dynamics of 7-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings to a five-week waterlogging (WL) during a growing season in a root lab experiment. WL took place after shoot elongation had ended whereas growth of the trunk diameter was still in progress. We monitored shoots and roots before, during and after WL treatment. Relations between the shoot and root responses, the latter being the primary target of the WL stress, will be discussed. We hypothesize that root responses, in terms of growth by minirhizotron imaging, will appear with delay as compared with the first symptoms in physiology of above-ground organs.

  4. Mountain pine beetle impacts on vegetation and carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Caldwell, Megan K.; Stitt, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In the Southern Rocky Mountains, an epidemic outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB) has caused levels of tree mortality unprecedented in recorded history. The impacts of this mortality on vegetation composition, forest structure, and carbon stocks have only recently received attention, although the impacts of other disturbances such as fires and land-use/land-cover change are much better known. This study, initiated in 2010, aims to increase our understanding of MPB outbreaks and their impacts. We have integrated field-collected data with vegetation simulation models to assess and quantify how long-term patterns of vegetation and carbon stocks have and may change in response to MPB outbreaks and other disturbances.

  5. Particle size and shape distributions of hammer milled pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westover, Tyler Lott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Matthews, Austin Colter [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williams, Christopher Luke [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, John Chadron Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Particle size and shape distributions impact particle heating rates and diffusion of volatized gases out of particles during fast pyrolysis conversion, and consequently must be modeled accurately in order for computational pyrolysis models to produce reliable results for bulk solid materials. For this milestone, lodge pole pine chips were ground using a Thomas-Wiley #4 mill using two screen sizes in order to produce two representative materials that are suitable for fast pyrolysis. For the first material, a 6 mm screen was employed in the mill and for the second material, a 3 mm screen was employed in the mill. Both materials were subjected to RoTap sieve analysis, and the distributions of the particle sizes and shapes were determined using digital image analysis. The results of the physical analysis will be fed into computational pyrolysis simulations to create models of materials with realistic particle size and shape distributions. This milestone was met on schedule.

  6. Influence of Metals on Lindane Adsorption onto Pine Bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some persistent pesticides, as organochlorines, are not efficiently removed from usual wastewater treatment plants, unless a tertiary treatment, commonly activated carbon adsorption, is applied. The downside of this practice rests on its high regeneration costs. This fact motivated the research for alternative processes involving the use of natural materials. Pine bark was used in this work, to remove lindane from contaminated waters. The adsorptive capabilities of this material were studied (equilibrium time, adsorption model and saturation of the adsorbent) and the interference of some metals (iron, cadmium, copper, nickel and lead) was also investigated. Results showed an excellent efficiency of adsorption (average 80,65%) and that the presence of the studied metals did not affect both efficiency and the model of the adsorption, within the range of the concentration of the pesticide studied

  7. Endobacteria in some ectomycorrhiza of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-04-01

    The diversity of cultivable endobacteria associated with four different ectomycorrhizal morphotypes (Suillus flavidus, Suillus variegatus, Russula paludosa and Russula sp.) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) was analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling of PCR-amplified rDNA intergenic spacer regions and by sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes. Ectomycorrhizal root tip surface-sterilization methods were developed and assessed for their efficiencies. Bacterial communities from surface-sterilized ectomycorrhizal root tips were different from those of ectomycorrhizal root tips without surface-sterilization for all the morphotypes studied. Endobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Bacillus were isolated from more than one ectomycorrhizal morphotype, whereas species of Rahnella, Janthinobacterium and Rhodococcus were only isolated from the single morphotypes of S. variegatus, R. paludosa and Russula sp., respectively. Some of the isolated endobacteria utilized fungal sugars more readily than typical plant sugars in carbon utilization assays. PMID:16542403

  8. Autothermal fluidized bed pyrolysis of Cuban pine sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, J.; Beaton, P. [University of the Orient, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Zanzi, R.; Grimm, A. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2006-06-15

    Oxidative pyrolysis of Cuban pine sawdust was investigated using an autothermal fluidized bed reactor. Biomass particles were fed continuously (8.13 Kg/h) in a bed, fluidized by air gas. Experiments were conduced at three different dimensionless air factors 1, 1.5, and 2 (defined as ratio of actual air flow rate to stoichiometric air flow rate). The various physical and chemical characteristics of the pyrolysis products acquired in these conditions were identified. The results indicated that (1) the operating temperature can be correlated with the air factor; (2) the higher air factor promotes high temperature and contributes to the secondary reactions, which lead to less liquid; (3) the physicochemical characterization of the pyrolysis products indicated that the air factor, in the range studied, does not have a notable influence in their properties; (4) the liquid and char products obtained may be a potentially valuable source of chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  9. Stennis hosts Gulf Pine Council's NASA Brownie Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Tori Williams, of Brownie Girl Scout Troop 313, builds her own `stomp rocket' with the help of adult chaperone Pamela Cottrell. The two, of Gulfport, participated in NASA Brownie Day on Oct. 13 at Stennis Space Center. They were among nearly 200 members of Brownie Girl Scout Troops within the Gulf Pines Council who took part in the day of educational activities at SSC. Brownie Day used NASA curriculum support materials to teach about the sun and its significance in our solar system. In addition to building and launching their own model rockets, the girls toured the center's portable Starlab planetarium; viewed demonstrations about living and working in space; played games of `Moon Phasers' that teach about the rotation of the moon around the earth; made bracelets with ultraviolet-sensitive beads; and other activities that celebrated Earth's very own star. They also toured StenniSphere and were able to earn their Earth and Sky and Space Explorer `Try-Its.'

  10. Integrating Near-Real Time Hydrologic-Response Monitoring and Modeling for Improved Assessments of Slope Stability Along the Coastal Bluffs of the Puget Sound Rail Corridor, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, B. B.; Baum, R. L.; Stark, B.; Smith, J. B.; Michel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Previous USGS research on landslide potential in hillside areas and coastal bluffs around Puget Sound, WA, has identified rainfall thresholds and antecedent moisture conditions that correlate with heightened probability of shallow landslides. However, physically based assessments of temporal and spatial variability in landslide potential require improved quantitative characterization of the hydrologic controls on landslide initiation in heterogeneous geologic materials. Here we present preliminary steps towards integrating monitoring of hydrologic response with physically based numerical modeling to inform the development of a landslide warning system for a railway corridor along the eastern shore of Puget Sound. We instrumented two sites along the steep coastal bluffs - one active landslide and one currently stable slope with the potential for failure - to monitor rainfall, soil-moisture, and pore-pressure dynamics in near-real time. We applied a distributed model of variably saturated subsurface flow for each site, with heterogeneous hydraulic-property distributions based on our detailed site characterization of the surficial colluvium and the underlying glacial-lacustrine deposits that form the bluffs. We calibrated the model with observed volumetric water content and matric potential time series, then used simulated pore pressures from the calibrated model to calculate the suction stress and the corresponding distribution of the factor of safety against landsliding with the infinite slope approximation. Although the utility of the model is limited by uncertainty in the deeper groundwater flow system, the continuous simulation of near-surface hydrologic response can help to quantify the temporal variations in the potential for shallow slope failures at the two sites. Thus the integration of near-real time monitoring and physically based modeling contributes a useful tool towards mitigating hazards along the Puget Sound railway corridor.

  11. Growth and yield of nine pine species in Angola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristobal Delgado-Matas; Timo Pukkala

    2012-01-01

    A species introduction experiment including several tropical pines and eucalypts was established in 1966/1967 in the Tchianga research station in Angolan Highlands.Despite 27 years of political conflict (1975-2002) and lack of management,the research experiment has remained relatively well conserved.We measured the best conserved plots that were 41 years old in 2007 to obtain information on the growth of different pine species.We calculated stand characteristics including basal area,dominant height,mean diameter,and stand volume for Pinus patula Schiede ex Schiltdl.Et Cham.,Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl.,Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon,Pinus devoniana Lindl.,Pinus chiapensis (Martinez) Andresen,Pinus elliottii Engelm.,Pinus greggii Engelm.Ex ParL,Pinus montezumae Lamb.and Pinus oocarpa Schiede ex Schltdl.The growing stock volume at 41 years was the highest in P.pseudostrobus,1,325 m3·ha-1,followed by P.kesiya with 1,200 m3·ha-1.The widely planted P.patula had a growing stock volume of 892 m3·ha-1.P.oocarpa and P.pseudostrobus had the highest stand basal area,over 80 m2·ha-1.Using increment core analyses we studied the temporal development of stand characteristics.Analysis of the mean annual increment (MAI) showed that rotation lengths of 20-30 years would maximize wood production.With these rotation lengths,the MAI of P.pseudostrobus would be 35 m3·ha-1.Other productive species were P.kesiya,P.oocarpa and P.chiapensis.P.patula had a maximum MAI of 20 m3·ha-1.P.greggii had the lowest mean annual volume production,only about 13 m3·ha-1.

  12. Kinetics of the thermal decomposition of pine needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic study of the pyrolysis process of pine needles was examined using a thermogravimetric analyser. The weight loss was measured in nitrogen atmosphere at a purge flow rate of 100 ml/min. The samples were heated over a range of temperature of 19°C–600°C with a heating rate of 10°C/min. The results obtained from the thermal decomposition process indicate that there are three main stages: dehydration, active and passive pyrolysis. The kinetic parameters for the different samples, such as activation energy and pre-exponential factor, are obtained by the shrinking core model (reaction-controlled regime, the model-free, and the first-order model. Experimental results showed that the shrinking model is in good agreement and can be successfully used to understand degradation mechanism of loose biomass. The result obtained from the reaction-controlled regime represented actual values of kinetic parameters which are the same for the whole pyrolysis process; whereas the model-free method presented apparent values of kinetic parameters, as they are dependent on the unknown function ϕ(C, on the sum of the parameters of the physical processes, and on the chemical reactions that happen simultaneously during pyrolysis. Experimental results showed that values of kinetic constant from the first-order model and the SCM are in good agreement and can be successfully used to understand the behaviour of loose biomass (pine needles in the presence of inert atmosphere. Using TGA results, the simulating pyrolysis can be done, with the help of computer software, to achieve a comprehensive detail of the devolatilization process of different types of biomasses.

  13. Environmental drivers of cambial phenology in Great Basin bristlecone pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaco, Emanuele; Biondi, Franco; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie

    2016-07-01

    The timing of wood formation is crucial to determine how environmental factors affect tree growth. The long-lived bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D. K. Bailey) is a foundation treeline species in the Great Basin of North America reaching stem ages of about 5000 years. We investigated stem cambial phenology and radial size variability to quantify the relative influence of environmental variables on bristlecone pine growth. Repeated cellular measurements and half-hourly dendrometer records were obtained during 2013 and 2014 for two high-elevation stands included in the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network. Daily time series of stem radial variations showed rehydration and expansion starting in late April-early May, prior to the onset of wood formation at breast height. Formation of new xylem started in June and lasted until mid-September. There were no differences in phenological timing between the two stands, or in the air and soil temperature thresholds for the onset of xylogenesis. A multiple logistic regression model highlighted a separate effect of air and soil temperature on xylogenesis, the relevance of which was modulated by the interaction with vapor pressure and soil water content. While air temperature plays a key role in cambial resumption after winter dormancy, soil thermal conditions coupled with snowpack dynamics also influence the onset of wood formation by regulating plant-soil water exchanges. Our results help build a physiological understanding of climate-growth relationships in P. longaeva, the importance of which for dendroclimatic reconstructions can hardly be overstated. In addition, environmental drivers of xylogenesis at the treeline ecotone, by controlling the growth of dominant species, ultimately determine ecosystem responses to climatic change. PMID:26917705

  14. Pine Island glacier ice shelf melt distributed at kilometre scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dutrieux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available By thinning and accelerating, West Antarctic ice streams are contributing about 10% of the observed global sea level rise. Much of this ice loss is from Pine Island Glacier, which has thinned since at least 1992, driven by changes in ocean heat transport beneath its ice shelf and retreat of the grounding line. Details of the processes driving this change, however, remain largely elusive, hampering our ability to predict the future behaviour of this and similar systems. Here, a Lagrangian methodology is developed to measure oceanic melting of such rapidly advecting ice. High-resolution satellite and airborne observations of ice surface velocity and elevation are used to quantify patterns of basal melt under the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf and the associated adjustments to ice flow. At the broad scale, melt rates of up to 100 m yr−1 occur near the grounding line, reducing to 30 m yr−1 just 20 km downstream. Between 2008 and 2011, basal melting was largely compensated by ice advection, allowing us to estimate an average loss of ice to the ocean of 87 km3 yr−1, in close agreement with 2009 oceanographically constrained estimates. At smaller scales, a network of basal channels typically 500 m to 3 km wide is sculpted by concentrated melt, with kilometre-scale anomalies reaching 50% of the broad-scale basal melt. Basal melting enlarges the channels close to the grounding line, but farther downstream melting tends to diminish them. Kilometre-scale variations in melt are a key component of the complex ice–ocean interaction beneath the ice shelf, implying that greater understanding of their effect, or very high resolution models, are required to predict the sea-level contribution of the region.

  15. Pine Island Glacier ice shelf melt distributed at kilometre scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dutrieux

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By thinning and accelerating, West Antarctic ice streams are contributing about 10% of the observed global sea level rise. Much of this ice loss is from Pine Island Glacier, which has thinned since at least 1992, driven by changes in ocean heat transport beneath its ice shelf and retreat of the grounding line. Details of the processes driving this change, however, remain largely elusive, hampering our ability to predict the future behaviour of this and similar systems. Here, a Lagrangian methodology is developed to measure oceanic melting of such rapidly advecting ice. High-resolution satellite and airborne observations of ice surface velocity and elevation are used to quantify patterns of basal melt under the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf and the associated adjustments to ice flow. At the broad scale, melt rates of up to 100 m yr−1 occur near the grounding line, reducing to 30 m yr−1 just 20 km downstream. Between 2008 and 2011, basal melting was largely compensated by ice advection, allowing us to estimate an average loss of ice to the ocean of 87 km3 yr−1, in close agreement with 2009 oceanographically-constrained estimates. At smaller scales, a network of basal channels typically 500 m to 3 km wide is sculpted by concentrated melt, with kilometre-scale anomalies reaching 50% of the broad-scale basal melt. Basal melting enlarges the channels close to the grounding line, but farther downstream melting tends to diminish them. Kilometre-scale variations in melt are a key component of the complex ice-ocean interaction beneath the ice shelf, implying that greater understanding of their effect, or very high resolution models, are required to predict the sea-level contribution of the region.

  16. Simulation of Snow Processes Beneath a Boreal Scots Pine Canopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Weiping; LUO Yong; XIA Kun; LIU Xin

    2008-01-01

    A physically-based multi-layer snow model Snow-Atmosphere-Soil-Transfer scheme (SAST) and a land surface model Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) were employed to investigate how boreal forests influence snow accumulation and ablation under the canopy. Mass balance and energetics of snow beneath a Scots pine canopy in Finland at different stages of the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 snow seasons are analyzed. For the fairly dense Scots pine forest, drop-off of the canopy-intercepted snow contributes, in some cases, twice as much to the underlying snowpack as the direct throughfall of snow. During early winter snow melting, downward turbulent sensible and condensation heat fluxes play a dominant role together with downward net longwave radiation. In the final stage of snow ablation in middle spring, downward net all-wave radiation dominates the snow melting. Although the downward sensible heat flux is comparable to the net solar radiation during this period, evaporative cooling of the melting snow surface makes the turbulent heat flux weaker than net radiation. Sensitivities of snow processes to leaf area index (LAI) indicate that a denser canopy speeds up early winter snowmelt, but also suppresses melting later in the snow season. Higher LAI increases the interception of snowfall, therefore reduces snow accumulation under the canopy during the snow season; this effect and the enhancement of downward longwave radiation by denser foliage outweighs the increased attenuation of solar radiation, resulting in earlier snow ablation under a denser canopy. The difference in sensitivities to LAI in two snow seasons implies that the impact of canopy density on the underlying snowpack is modulated by interannual variations of climate regimes.

  17. Community Structure, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services in Treeline Whitebark Pine Communities: Potential Impacts from a Non-Native Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana F. Tomback

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis has the largest and most northerly distribution of any white pine (Subgenus Strobus in North America, encompassing 18° latitude and 21° longitude in western mountains. Within this broad range, however, whitebark pine occurs within a narrow elevational zone, including upper subalpine and treeline forests, and functions generally as an important keystone and foundation species. In the Rocky Mountains, whitebark pine facilitates the development of krummholz conifer communities in the alpine-treeline ecotone (ATE, and thus potentially provides capacity for critical ecosystem services such as snow retention and soil stabilization. The invasive, exotic pathogen Cronartium ribicola, which causes white pine blister rust, now occurs nearly rangewide in whitebark pine communities, to their northern limits. Here, we synthesize data from 10 studies to document geographic variation in structure, conifer species, and understory plants in whitebark pine treeline communities, and examine the potential role of these communities in snow retention and regulating downstream flows. Whitebark pine mortality is predicted to alter treeline community composition, structure, and function. Whitebark pine losses in the ATE may also alter response to climate warming. Efforts to restore whitebark pine have thus far been limited to subalpine communities, particularly through planting seedlings with potential blister rust resistance. We discuss whether restoration strategies might be appropriate for treeline communities.

  18. Application of the Sea-Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM 6) to Pine Island NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model SLAMM report presents a model for projecting the effects of sealevel rise on coastal marshes and related habitats on Pine...

  19. The arthropod community of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) canopies in Norway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thunes, K. H.; Skartveit, J.; Gjerde, I.; Starý, Josef; Solhoy, T.; Fjellberg, A.; Kobro, S.; Nakahara, S.; zur Strassen, R.; Vierbergen, G.; Szadziewski, R.; Hagan, D. V.; Grogan Jr., W. L.; Jonassen, T.; Aakra, K.; Anonby, J.; Greve, L.; Aukema, B.; Heller, K.; Michelsen, V.; Haenni, J.-P.; Emeljanov, A. F.; Douwes, P.; Berggren, K.; Franzen, J.; Disney, R. H. L.; Prescher, S.; Johanson, K. A.; Mamaev, B.; Podenas, S.; Andersen, S.; Gaimari, S. D.; Nartshuk, E.; Soli, G. E. E.; Papp, L.; Midtgaard, F.; Andersen, A.; von Tschirnhaus, M.; Bächli, G.; Olsen, K. M.; Olsvik, H.; Földvári, M.; Raastad, J. E.; Hansen, L. O.; Djursvoll, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2004), s. 65-90. ISSN 0785-8760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : arthropod community * Scots pine * canopies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2004

  20. Simulation of the biomass dynamics of Masson pine forest under different management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gui-lian; WANG Kai-yun; LIU Xin-wei; PENG Shao-lin

    2006-01-01

    TREE submodel affiliated with TREEDYN was used to simulate biomass dynamics of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest under different managements (including thinning, clear cutting, combining thinning with clear cutting). The purpose was to represent biomass dynamics involved in its development, which can provide scientific arguments for management of Masson pine forest. The results showed the scenario that 10% or 20% of biomass of the previous year was thinned every five years from 15 to 40 years made total biomass of pine forest increase slowly and it took more time to reach a mature community; If clear cutting and thinning were combined, the case C (clear cutting at 20 years of forest age, thinning 50% of remaining biomass at 30 years of forest age, and thinning 50% of remaining biomass again at 40 years of forest age) was the best scenario which can accelerate speed of development of Masson pine forest and gained better economic values.

  1. Dendroclimatic signals deduced from riparian versus upland forest interior pines in North Karelia, Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helama, Samuli; Arentoft, Birgitte W.; Collin-Haubensak, Olivier; Hyslop, Michael D.; Brandstrup, Charlotte K.; Makela, Hanna M.; Tian, QinHua; Wilson, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Radial growth of boreal tree species is only rarely studied in riparian habitats. Here we investigated chronologies of earlywood, latewood, and annual ring widths and blue intensity (BI; a surrogate to latewood density) from riparian lake shore and upland forest interior pines (Pinus sylvestris L.......) growing in boreal forest in eastern Finland. Riparian and upland chronologies were compared to examine differences in the pine growth variability and growth response to climatic variation in the two habitats. It was found that the climatic variables showing statistically significant correlations with the...... tree-ring chronologies were related to snow conditions at the start of the growing season. Deeper snowpack led to reduced upland pine growth, possibly due to delayed snowmelt and thus postponed onset of the growing season. Warm late winters were followed by increased riparian pine growth because of...

  2. Storage of pine agaric by irradiation combined with natural low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop the storage method of pine agaric by irradiation, pine agarics irradiated with 1, 2 and 2.5 kGy stored in natural low temperature storage room (15±2℃, RH: 80±5%) and the physicochemical properties were investigated during the 15 days of storage. Veil opening rate of pine agaric was 97% after 7 days storage in control, whereas only 5% in 2-2.5 kGy irradiated groups. Rotting rate after 7 days storage were 28% in control, 5-8% in 2-2.5 kGy irradiated groups. In comparison of weight loss, texture and appearance, 2-2.5 kGy irradiated groups were better than control. Chemical composition of pine agaric was not remarkably changed by the irradiation and storage period except a slight increase in reducing sugar and a decrease in ascorbic acid by the increase of irradiation dose

  3. Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs for the next 15 years....

  4. Amendment Number 2 - Effects of Commercial Thinning in Slash Pine on Breeding Birds and Their Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A plan to determine the impact on breeding birds and their habitat of thinning by commercial harvest in the slash pine habitat type on St. Vincent Island. This plan...

  5. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: Pine Barrens Treefrog Survey Data Report for 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pine Barrens Treefrog (Hyla andersonii Baird) is listed as a threatened species in need of management in South Carolina. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife...

  6. FOREST AMELIORATION OF SANDY SOILS OF TERSKO-KUMSKOYE INTERFLUVE PLAIN WITH PINE CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surkhayev I. G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the regularities of the growth and development of the plantations of Crimean and Scotch pine on sandy soils of Tersko-Kumskoye interfluve plain, presents the classification of forest suitability, estimates the forest growing efficiency and prospects of the use of pine species when forest amelioration of soils, suggests the technologies for forestations arrangement. During the past century there had been grown over 60 hectares of pine cultures on sands of Tersko-Kumskoye interfluve plain under the strict conditions of transition zone dry steppe-semidesert. The Achikulakskaya NILOS VNIALMI (N. K. Lalymenko, V. I. Kabalaliyev, N. S. Zyuz managed to plant about 60 hectares of Crimean pine and over 5 hectares of Scotch pine cultures in the 70-80-th of the last century, about 50 % of them are still growing. The study of the said forestations led to the following conclusions. On the thick sands (6-8 m of Bazhigansky forest area the stable growth of Scotch pine continues up to 25-30 years, that of Crimean pine – up to 30-35 years. By the age of 40 the productivity of Crimean pine forestations (170-260 m3/ha exceeds visibly the accumulated reserve of Scotch pine forest stand (60-100 m3/ha. The increment in height decreases sharply starting at the age of 15-20 years for Scotch pine and at 25-30 for Crimean pine plantations. On the clay sands with the level of low-mineralized ground water of 2,5-3,0 m and despite high fall the stable growth of Crimean pine continues up to 35-40 years and more. On the monophase sands of Tersky forest area the Crimean pine grows relatively slowly during the first 10-15 years though more evenly year by year. The thick lamellar deposits and monophase sands with the depth of sweet ground water of 3-5 m provide the best conditions for forest growing. The longevity of Scotch pine plantations of 50-55 years and that of Crimean pine of 60-65 years can be achieved by current planting technologies and

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus pini JCM 16418T, Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Pine Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Oshida, Yumi; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2014-01-01

    Paenibacillus pini strain JCM 16418T is a cellulolytic bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of pine trees. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain. This genome information will be useful for studies of rhizosphere bacteria.

  8. Prescribed Burn Plan Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge 1998 Pitch Pine Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fire management plan is for Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge, a pitch pine stand unit 0569 on the south-central section of the refuge. The plan specifies the...

  9. Scientific Opinion on a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode from the bark of pine trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2010-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the appropriateness of a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle......) insufficient evidence on the sampling methodology is provided to determine the reliability of the testing method provided by the Portuguese document to determine freedom from PWN. Although there is potential for development of a composting method as a heat treatment to eliminate PWN from bark of pine trees......, the technical requirements presented in the Portuguese dossier do not adequately demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed composting method as a treatment to ensure freedom of treated pine bark from live PWN...

  10. Biological evaluation of the prototype standing tree debarking system (STDS) used for direct control of mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. FRDA report No. 234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, H.S.; Safranyik, L.; Moulson, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    The standing tree debarking system (STDS) consists of a tree-climbing delimber/debarker machine and a hand-held debarking machine. The tree-climbing machine is powered by a chain saw engine which, through a hydraulic system, operates a delimbing saw on ascent and a debarker on descent. The hand-held machine consists of a debarking head that replaces the cutter on a gasoline-powered brush saw. Prototypes of the STDS have been developed for mechanical removal of bark from standing lodgepole pine trees that have been attacked by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). This paper presents results of work conducted to ascertain the potential effectiveness of the STDS (the degree of bark disruption required to prevent mountain pine beetle from producing increased numbers of new beetles in infested trees of various size), the degree of bark disruption by the STDS, and brood survival in patches of bark remaining after STDS treatment.

  11. Influence of resting and pine sawdust application on chemical changes in post-agricultural soil and the ectomycorrhizal community of growing Scots pine saplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecka Monika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in chemical compounds and in ectomycorrhizal structure were determined for Scots pine growing on post agricultural soil lying fallow for 3, 6 and 15 years, after amendment with pine sawdust. Soil without any amendments was used as the control treatment. Comparing the ectomycorrhizal structure 15 years after the application of pine sawdust revealed no significant differences in abundance or species richness between soil with and without organic enrichment. The results showed that the ectomycorrhizal status depends on soil conditions (soil pH, nitrogen content, which remain unaffected by saw dust application. In all treatments, the most frequently occurring ectomycorrhizae genera were Dermocybe, Hebeloma, Suillus, Tomentella and Tricholoma. Two species (Paxillus involutus, Amanita muscaria were specific to the control plots that lay fallow for 15 years.

  12. Estimation of scots pine defoliation by the common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.) using multi-temporal radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latva-Kayra, Petri T.

    In 1998-2001 Finland suffered the most severe insect outbreak ever recorded, over 500,000 hectares. The outbreak was caused by the common pine sawfly ( Diprion pini L.). The outbreak has continued in the study area, Palokangas, ever since. To find a good method to monitor this type of outbreaks, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of multi-temporal ERS-2 and ENVISAT SAR imagery for estimating Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) defoliation. Three methods were tested: unsupervised k-means clustering, supervised linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression. In addition, I assessed if harvested areas could be differentiated from the defoliated forest using the same methods. Two different speckle filters were used to determine the effect of filtering on the SAR imagery and subsequent results. The logistic regression performed best, producing a classification accuracy of 81.6% (kappa 0.62) with two classes (no defoliation, >20% defoliation). LDA accuracy was with two classes at best 77.7% (kappa 0.54) and k-means 72.8 (0.46). In general, the largest speckle filter, 5 x 5 image window, performed best. When additional classes were added the accuracy was usually degraded on a step-by-step basis. The results were good, but because of the restrictions in the study they should be confirmed with independent data, before full conclusions can be made that results are reliable. The restrictions include the small size field data and, thus, the problems with accuracy assessment (no separate testing data) as well as the lack of meteorological data from the imaging dates.

  13. Multinomial logit estimation of a diameter growth matrix model of two Mediterranean pine species in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Escalante, Ernesto; Pando Fernández, Valentín; Ordóñez, Cristóbal; Bravo Oviedo, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Understanding diameter growth of the Mediterranean pine species is fundamental for evaluating and making appropriate strategic decisions in forest management. A matrix diameter growth model for two Mediterranean pine forest ecosystems in Spain has been developed. Methods Multinomial logistic (MNL) regression was employed to estimate the transition probabilities of a matrix growth model. The model combines individual tree and stand attributes and explores the effects of independent va...

  14. Physiological basis for multiplication of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) using tissue culture

    OpenAIRE

    Andersone-Ozola, Una

    2009-01-01

    Physiological basis for multiplication of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) using tissue culture The aim of the present study was to create the physiological basis for micropropagation of mature Pinus sylvestris L. in tissue culture. The most suitable time for introduction in vitro of mature P. sylvestris bud tissue was from July to late October. Long cold storage of dormant mature Scots pine buds before introduction in vitro increases their morphogenic competence in tissue cult...

  15. Lipid composition of slash pine tissue cultures grown with lunar and earth soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseter, J. L.; Weete, J. D.; Baur, P. S.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lipid analyses were conducted on slash pine tissues grown in culture in the presence of lunar (Apollo 15) and earth soils. Significant reductions in the total lipids, fatty acids, and sterol components were found in the tissues grown in contact with each of the soils employed when compared to the control. Tissues grown with lunar soil showed the greatest reductions. These results are discussed with respect to previous ultrastructural studies on similarly treated slash pine tissues and lipid analyses on tobacco tissue cultures.

  16. Characterization and mapping of QTL used in breeding of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicka, Aleksandra; Ukalska, Joanna; Simińska, Joanna; Szyp-Borowska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the construction a map based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphic DNA (AFLP) in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The main purpose of map construction was its application to quantitative traits loci (QTL) mapping for breeding traits economically important in Scots pine breeding program such as tree height and diameter at breast height, number of needles and their length, width, and area. Genomic DNA of needles and haploid megagamethophytes from seeds originating from a ...

  17. ARSENATE BIOSORPTION BY IRON-MODIFIED PINE SAWDUST IN BATCH SYSTEMS: KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    María Aranzazú López-Leal,; Raúl Cortés-Martínez; Ruth Alfaro-Cuevas-Villanueva,; Héctor Eduardo Martínez-Flores; , Consuelo De Jesús Cortés-Penagos

    2012-01-01

    The biosorption of As(V) from aqueous solutions by pine sawdust chemically modified with iron in batch systems was investigated. The loading process of Fe in this biomaterial was achieved by hydrolysis of two different ferric salts. This modification of sawdust is an attempt to improve As(V) biosorption for practical applications. The kinetics and maximum biosorption capacities of the unmodified and modified pine sawdust were evaluated. It was found that the pseudo-second order model describe...

  18. Distribution of two pine processionary moth species in Turkey evidences a contact zone

    OpenAIRE

    İpekdal, Kahraman; Burban, Christian; Kerdelhue, Carole; ÇAĞLAR, SELİM SÜALP

    2015-01-01

    The pine processionary moths Thaumetopoea pityocampa and T. Wilkinsoni are among the most important Mediterranean pine defoliators. Although recent studies suggest that the two species may coexist in Turkey, the relevant literature lacks precise information on the occurrence and exact distribution of the two species in this country. In particular, whether the two sister taxa form a contact zone is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to reveal the limits of the ranges of the two species in ...

  19. Genetic divergence, range expansion and possible homoploid hybrid speciation among pine species in Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, G-P; Abbott, R J; Zhou, Y-F; Zhang, L-R; Peng, Y-L; Liu, J-Q

    2011-01-01

    Although homoploid hybrid speciation in plants is probably more common than previously realized, there are few well-documented cases of homoploid hybrid origin in conifers. We examined genetic divergence between two currently widespread pines in Northeast China, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and Pinus densiflora, and also whether two narrowly distributed pines in the same region, Pinus funebris and Pinus takahasii, might have originated from the two widespread species by homoploid hybrid sp...

  20. Role of de novo biosynthesis in ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions from a boreal Scots pine forest

    OpenAIRE

    Taipale, R.; Kajos, M. K.; J. Patokoski; Rantala, P.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; J. Rinne

    2010-01-01

    Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine have traditionally been assumed to originate as evaporation from specialized storage pools. More recently, the significance of de novo emissions, originating directly from monoterpene biosynthesis, has been recognized. To study the role of biosynthesis in the ecosystem scale, we measured monoterpene emissions from a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland using the disjunct eddy covariance method combined with proton transfer reaction mass ...

  1. Role of de novo biosynthesis in ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions from a boreal Scots pine forest

    OpenAIRE

    Taipale, R.; Kajos, M. K.; J. Patokoski; Rantala, P.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; J. Rinne

    2011-01-01

    Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine have traditionally been assumed to originate as evaporation from specialized storage pools. More recently, the significance of de novo emissions, originating directly from monoterpene biosynthesis, has been recognized. To study the role of biosynthesis at the ecosystem scale, we measured monoterpene emissions from a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland using the disjunct eddy covariance method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectro...

  2. Genetic Introgression and Species Boundary of Two Geographically Overlapping Pine Species Revealed by Molecular Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Defang; Xia, Tao; Yan, Maomao; Dai, Xiaogang; Xu, Jin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2014-01-01

    Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine tre...

  3. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  4. Resin production in natural Aleppo pine stands in northern Evia, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    K. Spanos; D. Gaitanis; I. Spanos

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the variability in resin yield of Aleppo pines in Evia (Greece) with the aim to exploit this natural resource in a sustainable way. Ten experimental plots were established in natural pine stands for monitoring. Our results revealed significant differences among stands, with high variation among individual trees in each plot. Maximum resin production was achieved in the Livadakia site whereas the minimum was obtained in Kokinomilia. All trees were classified according to their ...

  5. The Bear Facts: Implications of Whitebark Pine Loss for Yellowstone Grizzlies

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Louisa

    2009-01-01

    Whitebark pine is a foundation species, and barometer of the health of high elevation forests ecosystems in the West. It provides food and cover for numerous wildlife species, including the Clark’s nutcracker, crossbill, grosbeak, red squirrel and chipmunk. Whitebark pine is particularly important in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), where it provides an essential food source for the imperiled Yellowstone grizzly bear. We will review the current scientific knowledge about the relations...

  6. Molecular approach to characterize ectomycorrhizae fungi from Mediterranean pine stands in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Ragonezi; A. Teresa Caldeira; M. Rosário Martins; Cátia Salvador; Celeste Santos-Silva; Elsa Ganhão; Krystyna Klimaszewska; Amely Zavattieri

    2013-01-01

    Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.), like other conifers, forms ectomycorrhizas (ECM), which have beneficial impact on plant growth in natural environments and forest ecosystems. An in vitro co-culture of stone pine microshoots with pure mycelia of isolated ECM sporocarps was used to overcome the root growth cessation not only in vitro but also to improve root development during acclimation phase. Pisolithus arhizus (Scop.) Rauschert and Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray fungi, were collecte...

  7. Persistence of ectomycorrhizas by Thelephora terrestris on outplanted Scots pine seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Hilszczańska; Zbigniew Sierota

    2013-01-01

    Thelephora terrestris (Erhr.) Fr. is a very common ectomycorrhizal symbiont (ECM) in conifer trees, however the role of this ubiquitous fungus in nurseries and Scots pine plantations is still unknown. It is described as tolerant of high nitrogen availability and therefore was taken into consideration as an important ECM partner of seedlings, particularly after replanting on post agricultural land. In laboratory the seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were inoculated with T. terrestr...

  8. An interdisciplinary, outcome-based approach to astmospheric CO2 mitigation with planted southern pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.; Fox, T.; Peter, G.; Monroe, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Pine Integrated Network: Education, Mitigation and Adaptation Project ("PINEMAP") was funded by National Institute of Food and Agriculture to produce outcomes of enhanced climate change mitigation and adaptation in planted southern pine ecosystems. The PINEMAP project leverages a strong group of existing networks to produce synergy and cooperation on applied forestry research in the region. Over the last 50 years, cooperative research on planted southern pine management among southeastern U.S. universities, government agencies, and corporate forest landowners has developed and facilitated the widespread implementation of improved genetic and silvicultural technology. The impact of these regional research cooperatives is difficult to overstate, with current members managing 55% of the privately owned planted pine forestland, and producing 95% of the pine seedlings planted each year. The PINEMAP team includes the eight major forestry cooperative research programs, scientists from eleven land grant institutions, the US Forest Service, and climate modeling and adaptation specialists associated with the multi-state SE Climate Consortium and state climate offices. Our goal is to create and disseminate the knowledge that enables landowners to: harness planted pine forest productivity to mitigate atmospheric CO2; more efficiently use nitrogen and other fertilizer inputs; and adapt their forest management to increase resilience in the face of changing climate. We integrate our team's infrastructure and expertise to: 1) develop breeding, genetic deployment and innovative management systems to increase C sequestration and resilience to changing climate of planted southern pine forests ; 2) understand interactive effects of policy, biology, and climate change on sustainable management; 3) transfer new management and genetic technologies to private industrial and non-industrial landowners; and 4) educate a diverse cross-section of the public about the relevance of forests

  9. Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Patterns of Mountain Pine Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Colin Robertson; Michael A. Wulder; Christopher Bone; White, Joanne C.

    2013-01-01

    The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the outbreak continues to spread eastward towards Canada’s boreal and eastern pine forests. Successful mitigation of this outbreak is dependent on understanding how the beetle’s host selection behaviour is influenced by the p...

  10. Understanding developmental and adaptive cues in pine through metabolite profiling and co-expression network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, Rafael A.; Canales, Javier; Muñoz-Hernández, Carmen; Granados, Jose M.; Ávila, Concepción; García-Martín, María L.; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    Conifers include long-lived evergreen trees of great economic and ecological importance, including pines and spruces. During their long lives conifers must respond to seasonal environmental changes, adapt to unpredictable environmental stresses, and co-ordinate their adaptive adjustments with internal developmental programmes. To gain insights into these responses, we examined metabolite and transcriptomic profiles of needles from naturally growing 25-year-old maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L....

  11. Mountain Pine Beetles, Salvage Logging, and Hydrologic Change: Predicting Wet Ground Areas

    OpenAIRE

    John Rex; Stéphane Dubé; Vanessa Foord

    2013-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle epidemic in British Columbia has covered 18.1 million hectares of forest land showing the potential for exceptionally large-scale disturbance to influence watershed hydrology. Pine stands killed by the epidemic can experience reduced levels of evapotranspiration and precipitation interception, which can translate into an increase in soil moisture as observed by some forest practitioners during salvage logging in the epicenter of the outbreak. They reported the replace...

  12. Regeneration of a Coastal Pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) Forest 11 Years after Thinning, Niigata, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaojun Zhu; Yutaka Gonda; Lizhong Yu; Fengqin Li; Qiaoling Yan; Yirong Sun

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of thinning intensity on wind vulnerability and regeneration in a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii) forest, thinning with intensities of 20%, 30% and 50% was conducted in December 1997; there was an unthinned treatment as the control (total 8 stands). We re-measured the permanent sites to assess the regeneration characteristics 11 years after thinning. In the 50% thinned stand, seedlings aged from 2 to 10 years exhibited the highest pine seedling density and growth. The a...

  13. Edaphic characteristics of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forests in the Višegrad area

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Velibor D.; Knežević Milan N.; Košanin Olivera D.; Kapović-Solomun Marijana B.; Lučić Radovan J.; Eremija Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of soil research in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forest communities in the Višegrad area, carried out to determine the basic soil characteristics and eco-production potential of forest habitats as an important basis and framework for the successful management of these forests on the principles of sustainable development. Austrian pine forests in this region are an important and ecologically valuable community. The complex...

  14. The Effect of Restoration Treatments on the Spatial Variability of Soil Processes under Longleaf Pine Trees

    OpenAIRE

    John K. Hiers; Scott Pokswinski; Mack, Michelle C; Martin Lavoie

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize tree-based spatial patterning of soil properties and understory vegetation in frequently burned (“reference state”) and fire-suppressed longleaf pine forests; and (2) determine how restoration treatments affected patterning. To attain these objectives, we used an experimental manipulation of management types implemented 15 years ago in Florida. We randomly located six mature longleaf pine trees in one reference and four restoration treatme...

  15. Identifying and assessing areas for pine woodland regeneration in the lowland savannas of Southern Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Katsigiannis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Lowland savannas occupy almost 10% of the total land area of Belize, comprising landscapes with high ecological and economical value. The most distinctive tree of the Belizean savanna, the Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis), is valuable not only as a timber resource, but also in forming natural habitats for the local endangered species. However, degradation by frequent fires, anthropogenic pressures and climate change often convert gallery pine forests and dense tree savannas (s...

  16. Model Predicts a Future Pine Processionary Moth Risk in Artvin and Adjacent Regions

    OpenAIRE

    İPEKDAL, Kahraman; Beton, Damla

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has been receiving a lot of attention from researchers as it is believed to be proceeding at an extraordinary rate during the last 1,300 years and many studies have attempted to document and predict its environmental effects. Eastern winter pine processionary moth (PPM), Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae), an economically important pest of pines in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, distributed through almost all coastal regions within Turkey. ...

  17. A Risk Assessment Model on Pine Wood Nematode in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, T.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Robinet, C.; Mourits, Monique; van der Werf, Wopke; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Pine wood nematode, B. xylophilus poses a serious threat for the European forest industry. This study applies a quantitative risk assessment to analyze the risk of pine wood nematode in the EU, by estimating the reduction expected within forestry stock available for wood supply and its downstream roundwood market. Spatial analysis is used to join information on climate suitability, host distribution, pest spread and value of assets. Economic impacts are presented spatially on a NUTS-2 scale b...

  18. Influence of copper and formalin on the mycorrhiza of pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon)

    OpenAIRE

    G.D. Sharma; R. R. Mishra; W. R. Lyngdoh

    2014-01-01

    Various concentrations of copper sulphate and formalin were tested for their effect on the efficiency of mycorrhizal functioning in pine seedlings. Low and higher doses of copper applied to the container grown seedling exhibited a less stimulatory effect than nedium doses. When applied in higher concentrations, the formalin caused mortality in young pine seedlings. The seedling yield and phosphate uptake was found maximum in 100 ppm applied concentration of copper. while słów growth and lower...

  19. Fire, fuels, and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, W L; T. T. Veblen; Sherriff, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Forest restoration in ponderosa pine and mixed ponderosa pine–Douglas fir forests in the US Rocky Mountains has been highly influenced by a historical model of frequent, low-severity surface fires developed for the ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern USA. A restoration model, based on this low-severity fire model, focuses on thinning and prescribed burning to restore historical forest structure. However, in the US Rocky Mountains, research on fire history and forest structure, and earl...

  20. Evaluating Nitrogen Containing Controlled Release Fertilizers At Stand Establishment In Loblolly Pine.

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle, Kevin Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Evaluating Nitrogen Containing Controlled Release Fertilizers At Stand Establishment In Loblolly Pine Kevin Hunter Kyle Abstract The response of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) to fertilization and weed control at stand establishment, using various formulations of conventional and controlled release N fertilizers was evaluated in a greenhouse study and at two field trials in the Virginia Piedmont, in 2002 and 2003. The greenhouse study evaluated five fertilizer treatments; 1) ch...

  1. Tree-species diversification in Sub-Mediterranean pine forests: drivers, consequences and management options

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Alcón, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Our results confirm that Sub-Mediterranean pinewoods in the eastern Pyrenees are currently undergoing a process of spontaneous diversification by broadleaved tree species (especially evergreen and marcescent oaks). The establishment of Quercus seedlings under the pine canopy was favored by the current levels of both canopy closure and shrub cover, which in contrast hampered pine recruitment and the established oaks (particularly Q. ilex) to reach more advanced developmental sta...

  2. Evaporation from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) following natural re-colonisation of the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Haria, Atul H.; Price, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, changing land-use practices in the uplands of Scotland have resulted in increased re-colonisation of wet heath moorland by natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) woodland. The simple semi-empirical water use model, HYLUC, was used to determine the change in water balance with increasing natural pine colonisation. The model worked well for 1996. However, values of soil moisture deficit simulated by HYLUC diverged significantly from measurements in 1997 when rainfall ...

  3. Evaporation from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) following natural re-colonisation of the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Haria, Atul H.; Price, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, changing land-use practices in the uplands of Scotland have resulted in increased re-colonisation of wet heath moorland by natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) woodland. The simple semi-empirical water use model, HYLUC, was used to determine the change in water balance with increasing natural pine colonisation. The model worked well for 1996. However, values of soil moisture deficit simulated by HYLUC diverged significantly from measurements in 1997 when rainfall quantity and inten...

  4. Micropropagation of a recalcitrant pine (Pinus pinea L.): An overview of the effects of ectomycorrhizal inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    Ragonezi, C.; Caldeira, A. T.; Martins, M. R.; Teixeira, D.; Dias, L.S.; Miralto, O.; Ganhão, E.; Klimaszewska, K.; Zavattieri, A.

    2013-01-01

    Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) is an economically important forest species in some regions of Iberian Peninsula. Portugal and Spain have nearly 500,000 ha of stone pine stands, representing 85% of worldwide distribution. The main use of this species is for the production of seeds (pinion) for food industry. In addition to its enormous profitability as a producer of seeds, it has beneficial impact on soil protection, dunes fixation and is a pioneer species particularly for cork and holm oaks degr...

  5. Numerical and Functional Responses of Forest Bats to a Major Insect Pest in Pine Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Yohan Charbonnier; Luc Barbaro; Amandine Theillout; Hervé Jactel

    2014-01-01

    Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances.We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumeto...

  6. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle's historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  7. Larvicidal and mosquito repellent activities of Pine (Pinus longifolia, Family: Pinaceae oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ansari, P.K. Mittal, R.K. Razdan & U. Sreehari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Various plant-based products are safe and biodegradable alternatives tosynthetic chemicals for use against mosquitoes. Oil of Pinus longifolia is traditionally used forprotection against mosquitoes in some rural areas but there is no documented report of its use againstmosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the activity of Pine oilagainst mosquitoes.Methods: The oil was procured from the market and its contents were chemically analysed. Larvicidalactivity of oil was tested in laboratory bioassays, while repellent action was studied during wholenight bait collections in field by direct application on the skin and after its impregnation on mats.Results: Results showed varying degree of larvicidal activity of Pine oil against mosquitoes with LC50values ranging between 82 and 112 ppm. The Pine oil had strong repellent action against mosquitoesas it provided 100% protection against Anopheles culicifacies for 11 h and 97% protection againstCulex quinquefasciatus for nine hours respectively. Electrically heated mats prepared from Pine oilprovided, 94 and 88% protection against An. culicifacies and Cx. quinquefasciatus for 10 and sevenhours respectively.Interpretaion & conclusion: Pine oil is effective against mosquito larvae at very higher doses whichare not of any practical utility. However, Pine oil showed strong repellent action against An. culicifacies(malaria vector and Cx. quinquefasciatus (pest mosquito. Thus its use could be popularised asmosquito repellent.

  8. Mutual influences in growth and reproduction between pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and bacteria it carries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Boguang; LIU Yutao; LIN Feng

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between pine wood nematode and three bacterium strains isolated from the nematode,Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,which are two strong pathogenic bacterium strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens GcMS-1A and Pseudomonas putida ZpB1-2A and a weak-pathogenic bacterium strain,Pantoea sp.ZM2C,were studied.The result showed that the strong-pathogenic GcM5-1A strain and ZpB 1-2A strain significantly increased fecundity,reproduction rate,and the body volume of the adult nematode.Meanwhile,pine wood nematodes significantly promoted reproduction of the two strong-pathogenic bacterium strains.However,the weak-pathogenic bacterium strain,ZM2C,completely inhibited reproduction of pine wood nematodes.Aseptic pine wood nematodes significantly inhibited reproduction of the strain ZM2C.The results indicated that mutualistic symbiosis exists between pine wood nematodes and the two pathogenic bacteria it carries.The phenomenon showed that the pathogenic bacteria carried by the nematode were not accidentally contaminated,but rather had existed as symbionts of the nematode with which it had coevoluted over a long period.The role of mutualistic symbiosis in the process of pine wilt disease was also discussed.

  9. A 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in response to oxidative stress in the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Qingwen; Zhou, Xuguo

    2016-01-01

    The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease that has devastated pine forests in Asia. Parasitic nematodes are known to have evolved antioxidant stress responses that defend against host plant defenses. In this study, the infestation of whitebark pine, Pinus bungean, with B. xylophilus led to a significant increase in plant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and salicylic acid levels. Correspondingly, the expression of an antioxidative enzyme, 2-Cysteine peroxiredoxin (BxPrx), was elevated in B. xylophilus following the H2O2 treatments. Recombinant BxPrx, a thermal stabile and pH tolerant enzyme, exhibited high level of antioxidant activity against H2O2, suggesting that it is capable of protecting cells from free radical attacks. Immunohistochemical localization study showed that BxPrx was broadly expressed across different tissues and could be secreted outside the nematode. Finally, the number of BxPrx homologs in both dauer-like and fungi-feeding B. xylophilus were comparable based on bioinformatics analysis of existing EST libraries, indicating a potential role of BxPrx in both propagative and dispersal nematodes. These combined results suggest that BxPrx is a key genetic factor facilitating the infestation and distribution of B. xylophilus within pine hosts, and consequently the spread of pine wilt disease. PMID:27271000

  10. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  11. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Modolo, Debora M.; Martinez, Patricia; Piero, Edson A. di; Bigide, Priscila; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  12. Distribution of Pine Woolly Adelgids Infestation on Pinus merkusii Plantation in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oemijati Rachmatsyah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pine woolly adelgid is a recently found exotic pest attacking seedling up to grown plants of Pinus merkusii plantations forest. Since its discovery, there were not much information about it.  The objectives of this research were to study pine woolly adelgids distribution, symptoms and indicators, and its scale of infestations on Pinus merkusii plantation in Java, to determine the presence of any specific P. merkusii sites invaded by pine woolly adelgids, considering the pests were native to boreal and temperate areas.  Hypothesis was pine woolly adelgids infestation on P. merkusii in Java is consistent with their native distribution.  There were 9 Forest Management Unit (KPH with infested P. merkusii plantations which were located at altitude between 900 to 1,700 m asl. with temperature ranging 16-22 ˚C and air humidity 80-90%. This indicated that Pine Woolly Adelgids required low temperature to survive, which was consistent with their original distribution. Host preference with regard to scale of infestation was closely related to temperature, altitude, and number of trees per hectare. The scale of infestation varied among regions, from light to heavy infested/death of trees.Keywords: pine woolly adelgid, Pinus merkusii, scale of infestation, host preferences

  13. Edible species of the fungal genus hebeloma and two neotropical pines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico has one of the largest diversities of pines and ectomycorrhizal fungi known world-wide. Therefore, describingnative ectomycorrizal species from the country associated with pines is important because of their biotechnological potential in the forestry and food sectors. Worldwide, Hebeloma has generally been considered a genus of poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, interestingly, in central Mexico there is a complex of under-studied Hebeloma species which are used as food in large quantities and have a great economic and social importance. Three edible species of Hebeloma widely marketed in the country were identified: Hebeloma alpinum, H. mesophaeum and H. leucosarx with scanning electron microscopy on the basis of different ornamentation patterns in the spores of these species. Synthesis was carried out by inoculating two Neotropical pines with sporomes of the three described Hebeloma species. To achieve this, inoculated pines were kept in greenhouse conditions during one year. A characteristic morphotype for each fungal species was observed and it is described here. The first known description of the morphotype of Hebeloma alpinum with pines is presented. This seminal work gives a tool to identify the morphotypes produced by the main edible ectomycorrhizal species of Hebeloma marketed in Mexico, with biotechnological potential to inoculate pines used in reforestation programmes in Neotropical areas. (author)

  14. Harmful effects of atmospheric nitrous acid on the physiological status of Scots pine trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An open top chamber experiment was carried out in the summer of 2003 to examine the effect of nitrous acid (HONO) gas on the physiological status of Scots pine saplings (Pinus sylvestris). Four-year-old pine trees were exposed to two different levels of HONO gas (at ca. 2.5 ppb and 5.0 ppb) and a control (filtered air) from early evening to early morning (18:00-6:00), in duplicate open top chambers. Significant decreases in the ratios of chlorophylls a to b, an increase in the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and a reduction of maximum yield of PS II (F v/F m) in pine needles were also observed after the 2 months' fumigation. Cation contents of pine needles were also decreased by the fumigation with HONO gas. The results could be explained by the harmful effects of OH radicals, generated from photolysis of HONO gas, and/or aqueous phase HONO (NO2-/HONO), on the photosynthetic capacity of pine needles. - Exposure to HONO affects photosynthesis and nutrient status of pine trees

  15. Harmful effects of atmospheric nitrous acid on the physiological status of Scots pine trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan)]. E-mail: hsakuga@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Cape, J. Neil [Edinburgh Research Station, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jnc@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-06-15

    An open top chamber experiment was carried out in the summer of 2003 to examine the effect of nitrous acid (HONO) gas on the physiological status of Scots pine saplings (Pinus sylvestris). Four-year-old pine trees were exposed to two different levels of HONO gas (at ca. 2.5 ppb and 5.0 ppb) and a control (filtered air) from early evening to early morning (18:00-6:00), in duplicate open top chambers. Significant decreases in the ratios of chlorophylls a to b, an increase in the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and a reduction of maximum yield of PS II (F {sub v}/F {sub m}) in pine needles were also observed after the 2 months' fumigation. Cation contents of pine needles were also decreased by the fumigation with HONO gas. The results could be explained by the harmful effects of OH radicals, generated from photolysis of HONO gas, and/or aqueous phase HONO (NO{sub 2} {sup -}/HONO), on the photosynthetic capacity of pine needles. - Exposure to HONO affects photosynthesis and nutrient status of pine trees.

  16. Infection Trace of Pine Wilt Disease Based on Terahertz Spectroscopic Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jiang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the terahertz spectroscopic features of pine needle infected by pine wilt disease during different infection stages by applying terahertz spectroscopic techniques. We measure the absorption variation of the pine needle samples with infection time by Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS. The absorption intensity in the frequency region of 0-2.5 THz increases gradually with infection time. While the pine wood is infected above four months, the absorption intensity reaches to maximum. However, the calculated relative refractive index compared with the reference signal of PET powder reduces with infection time. The higher frequency measurement by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR doesn’t show the absorption variation of the samples due to huge signal attenuation in the transmission path of the samples. This study demonstrates that the relation of absorption intensity and refractive index of the pine needle sample with the infection time. We can trace the infection extent of the pine wood by measuring its terahertz spectroscopic property

  17. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the former Watertown arsenal property, Site 34 and Site 41, Watertown, Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the MED/AEC era, work involving radioactive materials was conducted at various sites within the arsenal complex. Building 34 housed a uranium machine shop, and a portion of Building 41 contained a foundry that was used for uranium work. Information provided by site personnel indicated that only depleted uranium was used in these buildings. Results of radiological analyses of contaminated material found at these sites indicated depleted uranium with uranium-236. Both buildings have been razed. The remnants still in place consist of the concrete floor slabs, access drives, and underground utility service trenches. This area is currently under the control of the Watertown Redevelopment Authority of Watertown, Massachusetts. During the period from June 25 through July 1, 1981, the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Occupational Health and Safety Division (OHS) Radiological Survey Group (RSG), conducted a radiological survey of Building Sites 34 and 41 at the direction of the US Department of Energy. Significant levels of contamination were found at 33 locations on the pad of Site 34 and in 5 out of 15 soild corings from the perimeter of the pad. No contamination was found on the pad of Site 41; however, two-thirds of this pad was covered with soil up to 4 ft thick. One of the 14 soil corings taken adjacent to the pad of Site 41 had elevated levels of uranium. Levels of contamination in excess of criteria, as identified in ANSI 13.12 and NRC Guidelines, were found at this site. The analyses of the samples from the sewer access points also revealed uranium and radium-226 anomalies. Therefore, according to NRC guidelines dated July 1982, it must be concluded that they are contaminated

  18. Sensitive and specific detection of pine nut (Pinus spp.) by real-time PCR in complex food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Arlorio, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Pine nuts are a known source of food allergens and several cases of adverse immunological reaction after ingestion have been reported. To protect allergic consumers, methods to unequivocally detect the presence of pine nuts in complex matrices must be developed. A Taqman-based real time PCR method for the detection of Pinus spp. was set up. A homemade pesto spiked at known concentration of pine nut powder was used as model food. Moreover, DNA was purified from commercial foods declaring or not the presence of pine nuts. The method displayed a very high efficiency and specificity for the genus Pinus. The intrinsic LOD was 1pg of DNA, while the practical LOD evaluated on model foods was 0.1ppm of pine nuts powder, the lowest ever registered for the detection of food allergens via real-time PCR. Finally, the declared presence/absence of pine nut in commercial foods was confirmed. PMID:26471643

  19. Large-scale asymmetric introgression of cytoplasmic DNA reveals Holocene range displacement in a North American boreal pine complex

    OpenAIRE

    Godbout, Julie; Yeh, Francis C.; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) are two North American boreal hard pines that hybridize in their zone of contact in western Canada. The main objective of this study was to characterize their patterns of introgression resulting from past and recent gene flow, using cytoplasmic markers having maternal or paternal inheritance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was assessed in allopatric populations of each species and i...

  20. Clark's Nutcracker Seed Harvest Patterns in Glacier National Park and a Novel Method for Monitoring Whitebark Pine Cones

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Monika E.

    2012-01-01

    Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) is the primary seed disperser of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), which is in decline throughout its range. There is concern that a decline in whitebark pine will lead to a subsequent decline in local populations of Clark's Nutcracker. Because natural regeneration depends on the presence of Clark's Nutcracker, the process of harvesting whitebark pine seeds needs to be fully understood. In addition, resource managers need a cost-effective method for ...

  1. Effects of Restoration Techniques on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Florida Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Sandhill Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Lavoie; Mack, Michelle C; John K. Hiers; Scott Pokswinski; Analie Barnett; Louis Provencher

    2014-01-01

    Historic fire suppression and intensive forest management in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) sandhill forests has resulted in hardwood encroachment and degradation of this fire-dependent ecosystem. Active management is now required to restore native community structure and composition, but little is known about the long-term impacts of typical restoration techniques on ecosystem properties. In 1994, the Longleaf Pine Restoration Project (LPRP) was established in fire-excluded longleaf pine sa...

  2. Effects of Afforestation with Pines on Collembola Diversity in the Limestone hills of Szárhalom (West Hungary)

    OpenAIRE

    TÓTH, Viktória; WINKLER, Dániel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the responses of collembolan communities to pine afforestation in an area formerly characterized by a mosaic of autochthonous downy oak woodland and steppe meadows. Study sites were selected in mixed stands of black pine and Scots pine and control samples were taken from downy oak stands and open steppe meadows. A total of 1884 Collembola specimens belonging to 66 species were collected. Three species, namely Protaphorura pannonica (Onychiuridae), Tomocerus mixtus (Tomoceridae...

  3. Mediterranean pine and oak distribution in southern Spain: Is there a mismatch between regeneration and adult distribution?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Urbieta, Itzíar; Luis V. García; Zavala, Miguel A.; Marañón, Teodoro

    2011-01-01

    Questions: What is the current distribution of pine and oak species along environmental gradients in southern Spain? Do pine and oak regeneration niches differ from the environmental niches of adults? Is oak species regeneration favoured under the canopy of pine forests? Location: Forest areas of Andalusia ( 87 600km2, southern Spain). Methods: We compiled extensive forest inventory data to explore differences in abundance (basal area, m2 ha 1) patterns of adults (dbh 47.4 c...

  4. On the role of bulk properties and fuel species on the burning dynamics of pine forest litters

    OpenAIRE

    SIMEONI, A.; Bartoli, P.; Torero, J L; Santoni, P.-A.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to characterize pine needles as a fuel for a better understanding of the burning dynamics of forest floor fuels in wildland fires. Three Mediterranean species of pine have been studied: Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus laricio. These species have been chosen because they present close but slightly different physical and chemical properties. The study focuses on the influence of the bulk and particle properties on the burning dynamics of pine needles litters. The perme...

  5. Operation of neat pine oil biofuel in a diesel engine by providing ignition assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Operational feasibility of neat pine oil biofuel has been examined. • Pine oil suffers lower cetane number, which mandates for necessary ignition assistance. • Ignition support is provided by preheating the inlet air and incorporating a glow plug. • At an inlet air temperature of 60 °C, the BTE for pine oil was found to be in par with diesel. • CO and smoke emissions were reduced by 13.2% and 16.8%, respectively, for neat pine oil. - Abstract: The notion to provide ignition support for the effective operation of lower cetane fuels in a diesel engine has been ably adopted in the present study for the sole fuel operation of pine oil biofuel. Having noted that the lower cetane number and higher self-ignition temperature of pine oil biofuel would inhibit its direct use in a diesel engine, combined ignition support in the form of preheating the inlet air and installing a glow plug in the cylinder head has been provided to improve the auto-ignition of pine oil. While, an air preheater, installed in the inlet manifold of the engine, preheated the inlet air so as to provide ignition assistance partially, the incorporation of glow plug in the cylinder head imparted the further required ignition support appropriately. Subsequently, the operational feasibility of neat pine oil biofuel has been examined in a single cylinder diesel engine and the engine test results were analyzed. From the experimental investigation, though the engine performance and emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke were noted to be better for pine oil with an inlet air temperature of 40 °C, the engine suffered the setback of knocking due to delayed SOC (start of combustion). However, with the ignition support through glow plug and preheating of inlet air, the engine knocking was prevented and the normal operation of the engine was ensured. Categorically, at an inlet air temperature of 60 °C, BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was found to be in par with diesel, while

  6. Running Title: C and N Allocation in Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J. Timothy

    1996-12-01

    uptake, and the dynamics of nutrient use were all seen to be influenced by the interplay between previous N supply, previous C supply, and the concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The data suggest that in an elevated CO{sub 2} atmosphere ponderosa pine seedlings will have higher root biomass and be likely to capture more N compared to seedlings today. Further, the combined growth and allocation responses of Ponderosa pine at elevated CO{sub 2} resulted in higher growth per unit N (nitrogen productivity) and lower N per gram of tissue (all tissues not just leaves) when nitrogen was not in abundant supply.

  7. Effect of Pine Oil on Antihyperglycemic and Some Biochemical Parameters in serum of Streptozotocin Induced Tip-2 Diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ersin DEMİR; Yilmaz, Ökkeş

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of pine oil on hyperglycemia and some biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced type- 2 diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three groups: control (C) diabetes (STZ-DM), diabetes+pine oil (STZ-DM+PO) grups. Diabetes induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). 1 ml/kg the dose pine oil was intraperitoneally injected twice in a week to the diabetes+pine oil (STZ-DM+PO), plus 1 g/L dose of pure ...

  8. Laser-induced fluorescence of pine (needles) growing in the conditions of pollution with radionuclides of Chernobyl origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a long-term research of the spectra of laser-induced fluorescence (hereafter-SF) of pine (needles) growing in the conditions of Chernobyl origin radionuclides pollution are presented. A complex analysis of fluorescent, biometric and radiological biochemical parameters of pine needles has been performed. Changes in the impact of incorporated radionuclides '137Cs and 90Sr on certain zones of pine SF needles have been detected. It has been shown that the analysis of different-age pine SF needles can be used as a test-method for detection of pollution with 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides

  9. Effect of post treatment temperature and humidity conditions on fixation performance of CCA-C treated red pine and southern pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Rates of fixation in chromated copper arsenate (CCA-C) treated red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and southern pine (Pinus spp) sapwood specimens using retention of 1.5, 2.0, 6.4 kg·m-3 are compared at temperature (T) ranging from 70 ℃ to 50 ℃ and 5 different relative humidity (RH) conditions. The samples were investigated using the expressate method to follow chromium fixation. Red pine fixes faster than southern pine under all 11 post treatment schedules. The fixation rates for both species are not significantly different while the blocks were fixed under 6 fixation/drying schedules that differed only in the order of T/RH conditions applied. The rate of fixation of all samples in any fixation stage were reduced when the blocks were fixed under lower humidity conditions in spite of no change in chamber temperature. Some of this influence can be attributed to the effect of humidity on heat transfer into the wood and cooling of the wood surface.

  10. Effects of artificial defoliation of pines on the structure and physiology of the soil fungal community of a mixed pine-spruce forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Ken; Raleigh, Christopher; New, Michael H.; Henson, Joan

    2005-01-01

    Loss of photosynthetic area can affect soil microbial communities by altering the availability of fixed carbon. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Biolog filamentous-fungus plates to determine the effects of artificial defoliation of pines in a mixed pine-spruce forest on the composition of the fungal community in a forest soil. As measured by DGGE, two fungal species were affected significantly by the defoliation of pines (P soil fungus increased. The decrease in the amount of Cenococcum organisms may have occurred because of the formation of extensive hyphal networks by species of this genus, which require more of the carbon fixed by their host, or because this fungus is dependent upon quantitative differences in spruce root exudates. The defoliation of pines did not affect the overall composition of the soil fungal community or fungal-species richness (number of species per core). Biolog filamentous-fungus plate assays indicated a significant increase (P soil fungi and the rate at which these substrates were used, which could indicate an increase in fungal-species richness. Thus, either small changes in the soil fungal community give rise to significant increases in physiological capabilities or PCR bias limits the reliability of the DGGE results. These data indicate that combined genetic and physiological assessments of the soil fungal community are needed to accurately assess the effect of disturbance on indigenous microbial systems.

  11. Whitebark pine stand condition, tree abundance, and cone production as predictors of visitation by Clark's nutcracker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Barringer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurately quantifying key interactions between species is important for developing effective recovery strategies for threatened and endangered species. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, depends on Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana for seed dispersal. As whitebark pine succumbs to exotic disease and mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae, cone production declines, and nutcrackers visit stands less frequently, reducing the probability of seed dispersal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified whitebark pine forest structure, health metrics, and the frequency of nutcracker occurrence in national parks within the Northern and Central Rocky Mountains in 2008 and 2009. Forest health characteristics varied between the two regions, with the northern region in overall poorer health. Using these data, we show that a previously published model consistently under-predicts the proportion of survey hours resulting in nutcracker observations at all cone density levels. We present a new statistical model of the relationship between whitebark pine cone production and the probability of Clark's nutcracker occurrence based on combining data from this study and the previous study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our model clarified earlier findings and suggested a lower cone production threshold value for predicting likely visitation by nutcrackers: Although nutcrackers do visit whitebark pine stands with few cones, the probability of visitation increases with increased cone production. We use information theoretics to show that beta regression is a more appropriate statistical framework for modeling the relationship between cone density and proportion of survey time resulting in nutcracker observations. We illustrate how resource managers may apply this model in the process of prioritizing areas for whitebark pine restoration.

  12. Ammonia, Total Reduced Sulfides, and Greenhouse Gases of Pine Chip and Corn Stover Bedding Packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E

    2016-03-01

    Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. Our objective in this study was to compare headspace concentrations of ammonia (NH), total reduced sulfides (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH), and nitrous oxide (NO) when pine wood chips ( spp.) and corn stover ( L.) were mixed in various ratios (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, and 100% pine chips) and used as bedding with manure. Air samples were collected from the headspace of laboratory-scaled bedded manure packs weekly for 42 d. Ammonia concentrations were highest for bedded packs containing 0, 10, and 20% pine chips (equivalent to 501.7, 502.3, and 502.3 mg m, respectively) in the bedding mixture and were lowest when at least 80% pine chips were used as bedding (447.3 and 431.0 mg m, respectively for 80 and 100% pine chip bedding). The highest NH concentrations were observed at Day 28. The highest concentration of TRS was observed when 100% pine chips were used as bedding (11.4 µg m), with high concentrations occurring between Days 7 and 14, and again at Day 35. Greenhouse gases were largely unaffected by bedding material but CH and CO concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged and NO concentrations were highly variable throughout the incubation. We conclude that a mixture of bedding material that contains 30 to 40% pine chips may be the ideal combination to reduce both NH and TRS emissions. All gas concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged, suggesting that frequent cleaning of facilities would improve air quality in the barn, regardless of bedding materials used. PMID:27065410

  13. Nitrogen balance of a boreal Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. J. Korhonen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of boreal forests is considered to be limited by low nitrogen (N availability. Increased atmospheric N deposition has altered the functioning and N cycling of these N-sensitive ecosystems. The most important components of N pools and fluxes were measured in a boreal Scots pine stand in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. The measurement at the site allowed direct estimations of nutrient pools in the soil and biomass, inputs from the atmosphere and outputs as drainage flow and gaseous losses from two micro-catchments. N was accumulating to the system with a rate of 7 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Nitrogen input as atmospheric deposition was 7.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Dry deposition and organic N in wet deposition contributed over half of the input in deposition. Total outputs were 0.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1, the most important outputs being N2O emission to the atmosphere and organic N flux in drainage flow. Nitrogen uptake and retranslocation were as important sources of N for plant growth. Most of the uptaken N originated from decomposition of organic matter, and the fraction of N that could originate directly from deposition was about 30%. In conclusion, atmospheric N deposition fertilizes the site considerably.

  14. Quaternized pine sawdust in the treatment of mining wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keränen, Anni; Leiviskä, Tiina; Zinicovscaia, Inga; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Hormi, Osmo; Tanskanen, Juha

    2016-06-01

    Mining wastewater was treated using quaternized pine sawdust (QPSD) anion exchanger. The wastewater contained heavy metals (e.g. Sb, As, Co, Cr, Ni, V, U), NO3(-), among others, and a high concentration of SO4(2-). A series of column cycles imitating a real treatment process was conducted (three sorption/desorption cycles, a maintenance cycle with HCl and two sorption/desorption cycles). The effects of contact time and temperature (5°C and 23°C) were studied to assess the applicability of QPSD in the treatment of cold mining effluents. At 5°C, 85% of nickel was removed but the sorption was slower than at 23°C (initial Ni concentration was about 39 µg/l). Nickel was also removed in column efficiently (85-100% reduction). Treatment with HCl during the maintenance cycles did not hinder nickel sorption. Nickel was desorbed with both NaCl and HCl. Contrary to expectations, nitrate was not sorbed. QPSD showed selectivity towards nickel. However, uptake of uranium and cobalt was detected in column. Neutron activation analysis was used to detect metals sorbed onto the QPSD, and uptake of several metals was confirmed. PMID:26585709

  15. Carbon and water vapor balance in a subtropical pine plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posse G

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation has been proposed as an effective tool for protecting primary and/or secondary forests and for mitigating atmospheric CO2. However, the dynamics of primary productivity differs between plantations and natural forests. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential for carbon storage of a commercial pine plantation by determining its carbon balance. Measurements started when trees were aged 6 and ended when they were older than 8 years. We measured CO2 and water vapor concentrations using the Eddy covariance method. Gross primary productivity in 2010 and 2011 was 4290 ± 473 g C m-2 and 4015 ± 485 g C m-2, respectively. Ecosystem respiration ranged between 7 and 20 g C m-2 d-1, reaching peaks in all Februaries. Of the 30 months monitored, the plantation acted as carbon source for 21 months and as carbon sink for 6 months, while values close to neutrality were obtained during 3 months. The positive balance representing CO2 loss by the system was most likely due to the cut branches left on the ground following pruning activities. The plantation was subjected to pruning in January and September 2008 and to sanitary pruning in October 2010. In all cases, cut branches were not removed but remained on the ground. Residue management seems to have a very important impact on carbon balance.

  16. Spatial and temporal ecology of Scots pine ectomycorrhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Brian J; Genney, David R; Potts, Jacqueline M; Lennon, Jack J; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J

    2010-05-01

    Spatial analysis was used to explore the distribution of individual species in an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community to address: whether mycorrhizas of individual ECM fungal species were patchily distributed, and at what scale; and what the causes of this patchiness might be. Ectomycorrhizas were extracted from spatially explicit samples of the surface organic horizons of a pine plantation. The number of mycorrhizas of each ECM fungal species was recorded using morphotyping combined with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Semivariograms, kriging and cluster analyses were used to determine both the extent and scale of spatial autocorrelation in species abundances, potential interactions between species, and change over time. The mycorrhizas of some, but not all, ECM fungal species were patchily distributed and the size of patches differed between species. The relative abundance of individual ECM fungal species and the position of patches of ectomycorrhizas changed between years. Spatial and temporal analysis revealed a dynamic ECM fungal community with many interspecific interactions taking place, despite the homogeneity of the host community. The spatial pattern of mycorrhizas was influenced by the underlying distribution of fine roots, but local root density was in turn influenced by the presence of specific fungal species. PMID:20202132

  17. Stimulation of granulocytic cell iodination by pine cone antitumor substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antitumor substances (Fractions VI and VII) prepared from the NaOH extract of pine cone significantly stimulated the iodination (incorporation of radioactive iodine into an acid-insoluble fraction) of human peripheral blood adherent mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), and human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells. In contrast, these fractions did not significantly increase the iodination of nonadherent mononuclear cells, red blood cells, other human leukemic cell lines (U-937, THP-1, K-562), human diploid fibroblast (UT20Lu), or mouse cell lines (L-929, J774.1). Iodination of HL-60 cells, which were induced to differentiate by treatment with either retinoic acid or tumor necrosis factor, were stimulated less than untreated cells. The stimulation of iodination of both PMN and HL-60 cells required the continuous presence of these fractions and was almost completely abolished by the presence of myeloperoxidase inhibitors. The stimulation activity of these fractions was generally higher than that of various other immunopotentiators. Possible mechanisms of extract stimulation of myeloperoxidase-containing cell iodination are discussed

  18. Ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia turnover in a longleaf pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Joseph J; Mitchell, Robert J; Kuehn, Kevin A; Pecot, Stephen D

    2016-03-01

    Elucidation of the patterns and controls of carbon (C) flow and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests has been hindered by a poor understanding of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia (EFM) dynamics. In this study, EFM standing biomass (based on soil ergosterol concentrations), production (based on ergosterol accrual in ingrowth cores), and turnover rate (the quotient of annual production and average standing biomass estimates) were assessed in a 25-yr-old longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) plantation where C flow was manipulated by foliar scorching and N fertilization for 5 yr before study initiation. In the controls, EFM standing biomass was 30 ± 7 g m(-2) , production was 279 ± 63 g m(-2)  yr(-1) , and turnover rate was 10 ± 3 times yr(-1) . The scorched × fertilized treatment had significantly higher EFM standing biomass (38 ± 8 g m(-2) ), significantly lower production (205 ± 28 g m(-2)  yr(-1) ), and a trend of decreased turnover rate (6 ± 1 times yr(-1) ). The EFM turnover estimates, which are among the first reported for natural systems, indicate that EFM are a dynamic component of ecosystems, and that conventional assessments have probably underestimated the role of EFM in C flow and nutrient cycling. PMID:26537020

  19. Pinon Pine power project nears start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatar, G.A. [Sierra Pacific Power Co., Reno, NV (United States); Gonzalez, M. [Foster Wheeler USA Corp., Clinton, NJ (United States); Mathur, G.K. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The IGCC facility being built by Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPCo) at their Tracy Station in Nevada is one of three IGCC facilities being cost-shared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under their Clean Coal Technology Program. The specific technology to be demonstrated in SPPCo`s Round Four Project, known as the Pinon Pine IGCC Project, includes the KRW air blown pressurized fluidized bed gasification process with hot gas cleanup coupled with a combined cycle facility based on a new GE 6FA gas turbine. Construction of the 100 MW IGCC facility began in February 1995 and the first firing of the gas turbine occurred as scheduled on August 15, 1996 with natural gas. Mechanical completion of the gasifier and other outstanding work is due in January 1997. Following the startup of the plant, the project will enter a 42 month operating and testing period during which low sulfur western and high sulfur eastern or midwestern coals will be processed.

  20. Performance and value of CAD-deficient pine- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailian Li; Houmin Chang; Hasan Jameel

    2007-02-28

    The southern US produces 58% of the nation's timber, much of it grown in intensively managed plantations of genetically improved loblolly pine. One of the fastest-growing loblolly pine selections made by the NCSU-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program, whose progeny are widely planted, is also the only known natural carrier of a rare gene, cadn1. This allele codes for deficiency in an enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of lignin precursors. This study is to characterize this candidate gene for marker-assisted selection and deployment in the breeding program. This research will enhance the sustainability of forest production in the South, where land-use pressures will limit the total area available in the future for intensively managed plantations. Furthermore, this research will provide information to establish higher-value plantation forests with more desirable wood/fiber quality traits. A rare mutant allele (cad-n1) of the cad gene in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) causes a deficiency in the production of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). The effects of this allele were examined by comparing wood density and growth traits of cad-n1 heterozygous trees with those of wild-type trees in a 10-year-old open-pollinated family trial growing under two levels of fertilization in Scotland County, North Carolina. In all, 200 trees were sampled with 100 trees for each treatment. Wood density measurements were collected from wood cores at breast height using x-ray densitometry. We found that the substitution of cad-n1 for a wild-type allele (Cad) was associated with a significant effect on wood density. The cad-n1 heterozygotes had a significantly higher wood density (+2.6%) compared to wild-type trees. The higher density was apparently due to the higher percentage of latewood in the heterozygotes. The fertilization effect was highly significant for both growth and wood density traits. While no cad genotype

  1. PLYWOOD MANUFACTURE FROM FIVE SPECIES OF TROPICAL PINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed aiming at evaluating the feasibility of the use of 5 species of tropical pine to plywood manufacture. The following species were studied: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii and Pinus taeda, being the last used as the referential species. Plywood were manufactured with 5 plies, bonded with urea-formaldheyde and fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of thickness sweeling and recovering were the same for all species studied, with exception to thickness sweeling for the boards glued with fenol-formaldheyde resin. The boards made from Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa, showed the higher values in modulus of elasticity. The boards  of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa and Pinus taeda, glued with fenol-formaldheyde resin, resulted in higher values of the modulus of rupture, in comparison to other species. For the glue line strength, the boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda and Pinus chiapensis, showed the better results. Based on the general results of this research it, could be said that the Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa present the high potentiality to plywood manufacture.

  2. Modeling Crown Biomass for Four Pine Species in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tao Zou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the main variables affecting crown biomass, we measured crown biomass and a number of variables describing tree size, such as stem diameter at breast height (D, tree height (H, crown width (Cw and crown length (Cl, from 754 sample trees of four pine species in China, specifically, Pinus massoniana, P. yunnanensis, P. tabulaeformis and P. elliottii. In addition, we developed individual tree crown biomass equations and compatible branch and needle biomass equations based on one-, two- and multi-variable models using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling and error-in-variable simultaneous equations. The results showed that: (i crown biomass was strongly correlated to D and H, and the new combined variables (D4/H and (D2/H were suitable for modeling two- and multi-variable crown biomass equations, respectively; (ii the four species were ranked as P. yunnanensis, P. massoniana, P. elliottii and P. tabulaeformis from small to large based on estimates from crown biomass equations, and the crown biomass estimate of P. tabulaeformis was about 60% greater than that of P. yunnanensis; (iii the ratio of branch to crown biomass increased with increasing D, and the four species were ranked as P. elliottii, P. tabulaeformis, P. massoniana and P. yunnanensis from small to large by the proportion of the branch to crown biomass; (iv the mean prediction errors (MPE’s of the crown biomass equations for the four species were less than 10%, which could meet precision needs for biomass estimation.

  3. Atmospheric drivers of storage water use in Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Verbeeck

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we determined the microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and – storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May–18 October.

    Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation was the main driver of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed, mainly driven by vapour pressure deficit (VPD. During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD storage water use was reduced. This reduction was disproportionally higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought.

    A third important factor was the tree water deficit. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water deficit.

  4. Earth system consequences of a Pine Island Glacier collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mattias; Schmittner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    An intermediate complexity climate model is used to simulate the impact of an accelerated Pine Island Glacier mass loss on the large-scale ocean circulation and climate. Simulations are performed for pre-industrial conditions using hosing levels consistent with present day observation of 3,000 m3 s‑1, at an accelerated rate of 6,000 m3 s‑1, and at a total collapse rate of 100,000 m3 s‑1, and in all experiments the hosing lasted 100 years. It is shown that even a modest input of meltwater from the glacier can introduce an initial cooling over the upper part of the Southern Ocean due to increased stratification and ice cover leading to a reduced upward heat flux from Circumpolar Deep Water. This causes global ocean heat content to increase and global surface air temperatures to decrease. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) increases, presumably due to changes in the density difference between Antarctic Intermediate Water and North Atlantic Deep Water. Simulations with a simultaneous hosing and increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations show smaller effects of the hosing on global surface air temperature and ocean heat content, which we attribute to the melting of Southern Ocean sea ice. The sensitivity of the AMOC to the hosing is also reduced as the warming by the atmosphere completely dominates the perturbations. Further consequences for oceanic biogeochemical cycles in realistic future warming scenarios are discussed.

  5. Optimum nutrition and nitrogen saturation in Scots pine stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, C.O.; Aronsson, Aron; Flower-Ellis, Jeremy [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. for Production Ecology; Popovic, Budimir [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1999-07-01

    Long-term field experiments are described, in which nitrogen and other plant nutrients were added regularly to young Scots pine stands at two sites in Sweden, Lisselbo (1969-1988) and Norrliden (1971-1989; some treatments still in progress). A main aim was to establish a range of needle nitrogen concentration levels, as stable as possible, and to study the effects of these and of other factors (other than nutrients, soil acidity changes, irrigation) on tree growth and tree nutrient status. The results confirmed previous experience that nitrogen supply normally is a growth-limiting factor in boreal forest, but showed that regular nitrogen additions can induce boron and magnesium deficiency, and low internal concentrations in the trees, e.g. of potassium and phosphorus. Other aspects of ecosystem functioning at varied nitrogen supply - biomass production, nutrient balances for several elements, vegetation changes, soil acidity changes, nitrification, studied by ourselves or by cooperating research groups - are reviewed. The importance of long-term field experiments in the study of urgent environmental problems, such as nitrogen saturation and soil acidification, is discussed.

  6. Emissions of BVOC from lodgepole pine in response to mountain pine beetle attack in high and low mortality forest stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Duhl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this screening study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions from intact branches of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta trees were measured from trees at two forested sites that have been impacted differently by the mountain pine beetle (MPB, with one having higher mortality and the other with lower mortality. Differences in the amounts and chemical diversity of BVOC between the two sites and from apparently healthy trees versus trees in different stages of MPB attack are presented, as well as (for one site observed seasonal variability in emissions. A brief comparison is made of geological and climatic characteristics as well as prior disturbances (both natural and man-made at each site. Trees sampled at the site experiencing high MPB-related tree mortality had lower chemodiversity in terms of monoterpene (MT emission profiles, while profiles were more diverse at the lower-mortality site. Also at the higher-mortality site, MPB-infested trees in various stages of decline had lower emissions of sesquiterpenes (SQTs compared to healthy trees, while at the site with lower mortality, MPB-survivors had significantly higher SQT emissions during part of the growing season when compared to both uninfested and newly infested trees. SQT profiles differed between the two sites and, like monoterpene and oxygenated VOC profiles, varied through the season. For the low-mortality site in which repeated measurements were made over the course of the early summer–late fall, higher chemical diversity was observed in early- compared to late-season measurements for all compound classes investigated (MT, oxygenated VOC, and SQT, with the amount of change appearing to correlate to the MPB status of the trees studied. Emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO had a distinct seasonal signal but were not much different between healthy or infested trees, except in trees with dead needles, from which emissions of this compound were negligible, and in late

  7. Density, heating value, and composition of pellets made from lodgepole pine (Pinus concorta Douglas) infested with mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, P.; Kadla, J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Wood Science; Sokansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div., Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems; Bi, X.; Lim, C.J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Mani, S. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Faculty of Engineering; Melin, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Delta Research Corp., Delta, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    BC is currently experiencing the largest recorded mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in North America that has killed nearly 7 million hectares of pine. The dead trees gradually lose their suitability for dimension lumber and pulp chips due to excessive cracking and spoilage. The economic losses can be partly averted by recovering the killed wood and processing it into pellets for bioenergy and other applications. Currently, Canada exports roughly 750,000 tons of wood pellets to Europe as a fuel for heat and power. The most important physical properties of wood pellets are bulk and pellet density, heating value, moisture content, and durability. In light of the chemical and structural changes reported with MPB attack, it is important to develop engineering data on properties of MPB-affected pine for wood pellets. The objective of this study was to compare chemical composition, density, and heat value of pellets made from MPB-infested wood and to compare these properties with those measured for pellets made from uninfested wood. Chemical analysis showed minor decrease in lignin and sugar contents of pellets made from MPB wood. Pellets made from MPB-infested pine had a mean value for density larger than those made from uninfested pine but the difference was not statistically significant. Heating values of the pellets from MPB-infested wood were similar to those measured for pellets from uninfested wood. A preliminary observation of mold growth did not show any further staining or other decay fungi growth for the pellets made from MPB-infested wood. The pellets made from MPB-infested wood were found to be similar to pellets made from uninfested wood in density, heating value, and most chemical constituents. The overall conclusion was that MBP infested wood can be used to produce comparable pellets to non infested wood pellets. 37 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. A field test of tracer transport and organic contaminant elution in a stratified aquifer at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (Denver, Colorado, U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorbjarnarson, Kathryn W.; Mackay, Douglas M.

    1997-01-01

    A tracer-elution experiment was conducted in a 9-m-thick alluvial sand aquifer at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, Colorado, within an extensive 1,1,1-trichloroethene and trichloroethene plume. The forced-gradient flow field was controlled by an injection well and an extraction well separated by 8.4 m and aligned in the direction of the natural-gradient flow. Upon extraction, the contaminant-laden water was treated by air stripping and reinjected into the injection well. Iodide tracer was added to the injection flow during the initial 27.5 h of the experiment. Tracer transport and organic contaminant elution were monitored by four 0.15-m-screened drive points and a fully penetrating monitoring well. Relative permeabilities, dispersivities and retardation factors were estimated from tracer breakthrough and contaminant elution curves by the moment method and by curve-fitting with an advection-dispersion model. Tracer transport through the four strata sampled by the drive points indicated a permeability variation of three orders of magnitude. Contaminant elution was not observed in the lowest-permeability stratum monitored during the experiment. In all monitored strata, contaminant elution was controlled primarily by permeability effects on water flow and exhibited minimal retardation or desorption effects. The fully penetrating monitoring well exhibited a tracer response primarily from the more permeable strata with the addition of tracer from the less permeable strata producing an increased breakthrough spreading. This increased spreading or dispersion was reflected in a higher longitudinal dispersivity estimate (1.2 m assuming a homogeneous aquifer) than dispersivity estimates from the drive-point sampler tracer curves (ranging from 5 to 21 cm). Contaminant elution curves from the fully penetrating monitoring well exhibited an initial response primarily from the more permeable strata (rapid elution of contaminants) and provided no insight into the elution

  9. Modeling Effects of Climate Change and Fire Management on Western White Pine (Pinus monticola in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Keane

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is projected to profoundly influence vegetation patterns and community compositions, either directly through increased species mortality and shifts in species distributions or indirectly through disturbance dynamics such as increased wildfire activity and extent, shifting fire regimes, and pathogenesis. Mountainous landscapes have been shown to be particularly sensitive to climate changes and are likely to experience significant impacts under predicted future climate regimes. Western white pine (Pinus monticola, a five-needle pine species that forms the most diverse of the white pine forest cover types in the western United States, is vulnerable to an interacting suite of threats that includes climate change, fire suppression, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, and mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae that have already caused major changes in species distribution and abundance. We used the mechanistic simulation model FireBGCv2 to simulate effects of climate change and fire management on western white pines in a mountainous watershed in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Our results suggest that warming temperatures favor increased abundance of western white pine over existing climax and shade tolerant species in the study area, mainly because warmer conditions potentiate fire dynamics, including increased wildfire frequency and extent, which facilitates regeneration. Suppression of wildfires reduced the area dominated by western white pine, but fire suppression was less effective at limiting burned area extent and fire frequency in a warmer and drier climate. Wildfires created canopy gaps that allowed for western white pine regeneration at a high enough rate to escape local extirpation from white pine blister rust. Western white pine appears to be a resilient species even under fairly extreme warming trajectories and shifting fire regimes, and may provide a hedge against vegetation community shifts away

  10. Felling-system and regeneration of pine forests on ecological-genetic-geographical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A conception of the adaptation of Scots pine populations to the natural regeneration on open sites with the mosaic retained stand and mineralized soil surface on the basis of the ecological-genetic-geographical investigations in the forests of the Russia and the theory of petropsammofitness-pyrofitness (Sannikov S. N., 1983 has been substantiated. The methods of clear cuts with the seeding from surrounding forest, seed curtains and sufficiently extent of the substrate preparation for the pine selfsown have been selected and elaborated as a main organization principle of the system «felling-regeneration» in the plains pine forests of the forest zone. High regeneration efficiency of this system with the application of original aggregate for the optimal mineralization of the soil substrate (with its synchronous loosing has been shown on the example of dominating pine forest types in the subzone for-forest-steppe of the Western Siberia. The silvicultural-ecological and reproductive-genetic advantages of retaining seed curtains instead of separate seed trees have been substantiated. The basic parameters of the system «felling-regeneration», which guarantee a sufficient success of the following pine regeneration in the for-forest-steppe subzone, have been determined with the help of the methods of the mathematical imitation modeling of the pine selfsown density depending on the area and localization of seed curtains, surrounding forest and the extent of the substrate mineralization. The zonal differentiated system of the fellings and measures for the regeneration optimization in the climatically substituting pine forest types in the Western Siberia has been elaborated according to the parameters, studied earlier, on the ecological-genetic-geographical basis. The principles of this system in forest zone come to the clear strip-fellings with insemination of cuts from the seed curtains and forest walls, and to the hollow-fellings with the

  11. Genetic diversity in Scots pine populations along a radiation exposure gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A., E-mail: stgeraskin@gmail.com; Volkova, Polina Yu.

    2014-10-15

    Polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes were studied in the endosperm and embryos of seeds from Scots pine populations inhabiting sites in the Bryansk region of Russia radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Chronic radiation exposure at dose rates from 0.8 μGy/h led to a significant increase in the rate of enzymatic loci mutations. The main parameters of genetic variability of the affected Scots pine populations had considerably higher values than those from the reference site. Changes in the genetic makeup of Scots pine populations were observed at dose rates greater than 10.4 μGy/h. However, the higher mutation rate had no effect on the activities of antioxidant enzymes. - Highlights: • Polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes was studied in affected Scots pine populations. • Genetic processes in affected Scots pine populations increase genetic diversity. • Chronic exposure at dose rates from 0.8 μGy/h lead to increasing of mutation rates. • Changes in population genetic structure were observed at dose rates from 10.4 μGy/h. • The higher rate of mutations had no effect on antioxidant enzymes activities.

  12. The 226 Ra, 210 Pb and essential elements bioavailability to pines at Urgeirica uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to correlate the uptake of the natural radionuclides 226Ra and 210Pb with the essential elements, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the pines growing at the 'Urgeirica uranium mill tailings. It can be concluded that the potassium, calcium and magnesium mean concentration ratio values are, about two to three orders of magnitude, higher than the values obtained to 226Ra and 210Pb for pines growing on the Urgeirica uranium mill tailings. The concentration ratio values higher than 1 obtained to the potassium, calcium and magnesium elements indicate that pines are behaving as accumulators to these elements. Contrarily, the 226Ra and 210Pb concentration ratio values lower than 1 indicates that pines are behaving as excluders to these radionuclides. So, it can be concluded that this kind of plants is not suitable to a phyto remediation strategy. In general, a marginally significant correlation was observed between the potassium, calcium and magnesium concentrations, the cation-exchange capacity and the ph in the tailings and the 226Ra and 210Pb pines/tailings concentration ratios. (N.C.)

  13. Comparative Analysis of Pine Needles and Coal for Electricity Generation using Carbon Taxation and Emission Reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitigating global climate change via emission control and taxation is promising for strengthening the economic benefits of bioenergy generation and utilization. This study examines the cost effectiveness of pine needles as an alternative fuel for off-grid electricity generation in India. We first examined the changes of prices in coal for electricity generation due to CO2 emission reductions and taxes using experimental data of gasification plants. The time value of money and depreciation scale were used to find out the real levellized cost of electricity generation of gasification plants. Then, the costs of electricity generation fuelled by pine needles and coal were estimated using the cost analysis method. Our results indicate that pine needles would have more competitive edge than coal if emission had taxed at about an emission tax INR 525.15 Mg-1 of CO2 (US$ 8.4, or higher would be needed for pine needles at a yield of 202.176 dry Mg hm-2 yr. The price of coal used for electricity generation would have significantly increased if global CO2 emission had abridged by 20% or more. However, pine needles were found a much better fuel source with an increasing yield of 5.05 Mg hm-2 yr (with respect to power generation and 2.335 Mg hm-2 yr (with respect to feedstock production.

  14. Ecohydrology of adjacent sagebrush and lodgepole pine ecosystems: the consequences of climate change and disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, John B.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe and lodgepole pine forests are two of the most widespread vegetation types in the western United States and they play crucial roles in the hydrologic cycle of these water-limited regions. We used a process-based ecosystem water model to characterize the potential impact of climate change and disturbance (wildfire and beetle mortality) on water cycling in adjacent sagebrush and lodgepole pine ecosystems. Despite similar climatic and topographic conditions between these ecosystems at the sites examined, lodgepole pine, and sagebrush exhibited consistent differences in water balance, notably more evaporation and drier summer soils in the sagebrush and greater transpiration and less water yield in lodgepole pine. Canopy disturbances (either fire or beetle) have dramatic impacts on water balance and availability: reducing transpiration while increasing evaporation and water yield. Results suggest that climate change may reduce snowpack, increase evaporation and transpiration, and lengthen the duration of dry soil conditions in the summer, but may have uncertain effects on drainage. Changes in the distribution of sagebrush and lodgepole pine ecosystems as a consequence of climate change and/or altered disturbance regimes will likely alter ecosystem water balance.

  15. Water status of bare—root seedlings of Chinese fir and Masson pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUFang-yuan; GUOXin-bao; XUXi-zeng

    2003-01-01

    Water relation parameters of bare-root seedlings of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.)and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.)were measured and changes of root growth potential as well as field survival rate of both species were studied after the bare-root seedlings were exposed in a sunny field condition.the results showed that masson pine had a lower osmotic potential(-2.07Mpa) at turgor loss point and at full turgor(-1.29Mpa),compared with Chinese fir(-1.80Mpa and -1.08Mpa respectively).The parameter Vp/Vo(63.27%) of Masson pine was higher than that of chinese fir (58.03%).This means that Masson pine has a stronger ability to tolerate desiccation,compared to Chinese fir according to analysis of above water relation parameters.Root growth potential and field survival rate decreased with prolonging duration of exposure.The field survival rate of both species was reduced to less than 40% after the seedling being exposed only two hours.Water potentials of -1.60 Mpa and -1.70 Mpa were suggested to be critical values for Chinese fir and Masson pine respectively in successful reforestation.

  16. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krznaric, Erik [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Verbruggen, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Physiologie et de Genetique Moleculaire des Plantes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, CP242, Bd du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wevers, Jan H.L. [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Carleer, Robert [Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Colpaert, Jan V., E-mail: jan.colpaert@uhasselt.b [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2009-05-15

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  17. Contrasting Patterns of Host Adaptation in Two Egg Parasitoids of the Pine Processionary Moth (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Isidoro, Nunzio; Romani, Roberto; Petrucco-Toffolo, Edoardo; Zovi, Daniel; Battisti, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation of parasitoids to their phytophagous host is often mediated by environmental conditions and by the food plant of the phytophagous host. Therefore, the host food plant can indirectly affect the survival and fitness of parasitoids that also attack quiescent host stages, such as eggs, in which the resources available to the immature parasitoid stages are limited. Our aim was to investigate how two egg parasitoid species of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller), respond to variations in egg traits at the extremes of a west-to-east geographic gradient in northern Italy. We considered one specialist [Baryscapus servadeii (Domenichini)] and one generalist [Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet)] parasitoid, which reproduce mainly by thelytokous parthenogenesis and are common throughout the whole range of this pest. The size and shell structure of the pine processionary moth eggs were studied under light microscopy and tested experimentally under controlled conditions. We can conclude that 1) the pine processionary moth egg shell thickness is inversely proportional to the parasitism performance; 2) the larger eggs from the pine processionary moth eastern population produce parasitoid females of a larger size, which have greater realized fecundity; 3) the generalist parasitoid performs successfully with either the "home" or "away" (i.e., from both extremes of the geographic gradient) pine processionary moth eggs, which is not the case for the specialist parasitoid. The implications of these responses in the regulation of phytophagous populations are numerous and should be considered in population dynamics studies and pest management programs. PMID:26313953

  18. Harmful effects of atmospheric nitrous acid on the physiological status of Scots pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Cape, J Neil

    2007-06-01

    An open top chamber experiment was carried out in the summer of 2003 to examine the effect of nitrous acid (HONO) gas on the physiological status of Scots pine saplings (Pinus sylvestris). Four-year-old pine trees were exposed to two different levels of HONO gas (at ca. 2.5 ppb and 5.0 ppb) and a control (filtered air) from early evening to early morning (18:00-6:00), in duplicate open top chambers. Significant decreases in the ratios of chlorophylls a to b, an increase in the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and a reduction of maximum yield of PS II (F(v)/F(m)) in pine needles were also observed after the 2 months' fumigation. Cation contents of pine needles were also decreased by the fumigation with HONO gas. The results could be explained by the harmful effects of OH radicals, generated from photolysis of HONO gas, and/or aqueous phase HONO (NO(2)(-)/HONO), on the photosynthetic capacity of pine needles. PMID:17400347

  19. Genetic diversity in Scots pine populations along a radiation exposure gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes were studied in the endosperm and embryos of seeds from Scots pine populations inhabiting sites in the Bryansk region of Russia radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Chronic radiation exposure at dose rates from 0.8 μGy/h led to a significant increase in the rate of enzymatic loci mutations. The main parameters of genetic variability of the affected Scots pine populations had considerably higher values than those from the reference site. Changes in the genetic makeup of Scots pine populations were observed at dose rates greater than 10.4 μGy/h. However, the higher mutation rate had no effect on the activities of antioxidant enzymes. - Highlights: • Polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes was studied in affected Scots pine populations. • Genetic processes in affected Scots pine populations increase genetic diversity. • Chronic exposure at dose rates from 0.8 μGy/h lead to increasing of mutation rates. • Changes in population genetic structure were observed at dose rates from 10.4 μGy/h. • The higher rate of mutations had no effect on antioxidant enzymes activities

  20. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  1. Landscape pattern and blister rust infection in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) at alpine treeline, Northern Rocky Mountains, U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Lauren Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a foundation and keystone species at alpine treelines of the northern Rocky Mountains and is threatened by the fungus white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). This disease affects all five-needled white pines, but has caused particularly widespread mortality in whitebark pine. Objectives of this research were: 1) to characterize the landscape structure of the treeline study sites at Divide Mountain in Glacier National Park and at Wyoming Creek in th...

  2. Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of Calabrian pine (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn. ssp. laricio (Poiret) Maire) distribution in the Sila mountain range

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolaci A; Travaglini D; Menguzzato G; Nocentini S; Veltri A; Iovino F

    2015-01-01

    The most well-known and vast Calabrian pine forests are in the Sila mountain range, southern Italy. In this paper, present-day distribution of Calabrian pine in the Sila district was analyzed and compared with forest maps dating back to 1935 in order to assess the changes in land use. Main ecological and anthropogenic factors affecting Calabrian pine forest distribution were investigated by logistic regression models to identify the most important predictors of Ca­labrian pine persistence, ex...

  3. Nitrogen balance of a boreal Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. J. Korhonen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of boreal forests is considered to be limited by low nitrogen (N availability. Increased atmospheric N deposition has altered the functioning and N cycling of these N-sensitive ecosystems by increasing the availability of reactive nitrogen. The most important components of N pools and fluxes were measured in a boreal Scots pine stand in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. The measurements at the site allowed direct estimations of nutrient pools in the soil and biomass, inputs from the atmosphere and outputs as drainage flow and gaseous losses from two micro-catchments. N was accumulating in the system, mainly in woody biomass, at a rate of 7 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Nitrogen input as atmospheric deposition was 7.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Dry deposition and organic N in wet deposition contributed over half of the inputs in deposition. Total outputs were 0.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1, the most important outputs being N2O emission to the atmosphere and organic N flux in drainage flow. Nitrogen uptake and retranslocation were equally important sources of N for plant growth. Most of the assimilated N originated from decomposition of organic matter, and the fraction of N that could originate directly from deposition was about 30%. In conclusion, atmospheric N deposition fertilizes the site considerably, but there are no signs of N saturation. Further research is needed to estimate soil N2 fluxes (emission and fixation, which may amount up to several kg N ha−1 yr−1.

  4. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  5. Correlation between infection by ophiostomatoid fungi and the presence of subterranean termites in Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observations of subterranean termites feeding in pine sapwood containing ophiostomatoid fungi prompted a study to investigate the effect of infection by Leptographium fungi on the probability of encountering subterranean termites in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots. Root samples were collected f...

  6. Pine needle abortion in cattle update: Metabolite detection in sera and fetal fluids from abortion case samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle abortions associated with consumption of pine needles during late gestation are a serious poisonous plant problem in the Western US. Most cases of abortion have been associated with consumption of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the causative agent was identified as the labdane diterpen...

  7. Evidence for recombination and segregation of virulence to pine in a hybrid cross between Gibberella circinata and G subglutinans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species associated with the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, G. circinata (the cause of pitch canker in pines), and G. subglutinans (avirulent on pine), were found to have limited interfertility in hybrid crosses. MAT idiomorphs, polymorphisms in the histone H3 gene, vegetative compatibili...

  8. 75 FR 65613 - Withdrawal of Notice for Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement for the Pine Mountain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... September 25, 2009 (74 FR 48934). The River Valley Regional Water District, sponsor of the study, has... Statement for the Pine Mountain Dam & Lake Project, AR AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of...) is withdrawing its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Pine...

  9. 9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. 72.19 Section 72.19 Animals... Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises...

  10. Physico-chemical characterization of pine cone shell and its use as biosorbent and fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, A I; Martín-Lara, M A; Ronda, A; Pérez, A; Blázquez, G; Calero, M

    2015-11-01

    Physico-chemical properties of pine cone shell have been determined. Results of characterization study showed that pine cone shell could be used as biosorbent of nickel from aqueous solutions in a fixed-bed column and later as input material in thermochemical processes. To study the behavior of Ni-loaded pine cone shell as fuel, non-isothermal thermogravimetric tests were performed. These tests showed that, in nitrogen atmosphere, the main decomposition occurs from 200°C to 500°C and, in oxidant atmosphere, the behavior is of type "combustion+pyrolysis" (at higher temperatures there is a clear decomposition of residue formed during the initial steps). Finally, the effect of the presence of Ni was analyzed. Thermogravimetric curves did not change their profile and the total amount of nickel was detected in char-ash fraction and not in flue gases. These results suggest that nickel does not form volatile compounds at considered operational conditions. PMID:26263003

  11. Formulation of Pine Tar Antidandruff Shampoo Assessment and Comparison With Some Commercial Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gharavi

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study a pine tar shampoo as a new antidandruff formulation is presented. Assessment of antidandruff preparations has been hampered by the lack of standardized schedules, and reliable methods of evaluation.Some antidandruff agents such as : Zinc pyri-thione pine tar, selenium sulphide and (sulfure were used in shampoos. Samples were coded as numbers 1,2 formulated by us and 3,4 formulated commercially. The grading scheme based on 10 point scale, and corneocyte count was carried out on 50 selected volunte¬ers. Corneocyte count and fungal study proved that pine tor shampoo is effective against pityrosporum ovale. Draize lest was used for determination of the irritancy potential of the samples. Results showed that samples numbered 1,2 were relatively innocous in comparison with the others. I urthermore,s kin sensitination test on rabbit also confirmed the results obtained by Draize test. Consumer judgments proved that all formulations were acceptable.

  12. Cr(VI Sorption/Desorption on Pine Sawdust and Oak Wood Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino Núñez-Delgado

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study Cr(VI sorption/desorption on two by-products from the wood industry: pine sawdust and oak wood ash. The retention/release experiments were carried out using standard batch-type trials. In the sorption-phase experiments, pine sawdust showed 23% sorption when a concentration of 100 mg Cr(VIŸL−1 was added, whereas sorption on oak wood ash was 17%. In the desorption-phase, chromium release was clearly higher from pine sawdust than from oak wood ash (98% and 66%, respectively. Sorption curves were well fitted to the Freundlich and Lineal models. In view of the results, both materials can be considered of very limited value to remove Cr from polluted soil and water, which can be of relevance regarding its appropriate use as biosorbents and recycled by-products.

  13. Cr(VI) Sorption/Desorption on Pine Sawdust and Oak Wood Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Cutillas-Barreiro, Laura; Nóvoa-Muñoz, JuanCarlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study Cr(VI) sorption/desorption on two by-products from the wood industry: pine sawdust and oak wood ash. The retention/release experiments were carried out using standard batch-type trials. In the sorption-phase experiments, pine sawdust showed 23% sorption when a concentration of 100 mg Cr(VI)ŸL-1 was added, whereas sorption on oak wood ash was 17%. In the desorption-phase, chromium release was clearly higher from pine sawdust than from oak wood ash (98% and 66%, respectively). Sorption curves were well fitted to the Freundlich and Lineal models. In view of the results, both materials can be considered of very limited value to remove Cr from polluted soil and water, which can be of relevance regarding its appropriate use as biosorbents and recycled by-products. PMID:26230705

  14. Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Nautiyal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oak (Quercus leucotichophora and pine (Pinus roxburghii are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potential of oak forest of Gopeshwar was recorded to be 8,713.94 CO2e and of pine forests 3552.95 CO2e.

  15. Influence of copper and formalin on the mycorrhiza of pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Various concentrations of copper sulphate and formalin were tested for their effect on the efficiency of mycorrhizal functioning in pine seedlings. Low and higher doses of copper applied to the container grown seedling exhibited a less stimulatory effect than nedium doses. When applied in higher concentrations, the formalin caused mortality in young pine seedlings. The seedling yield and phosphate uptake was found maximum in 100 ppm applied concentration of copper. while słów growth and lower phosphate concentration was observed in the seedlings not given any copper treatment. Formalin at 50 ppm concentration slightly improved the seedling growth and phosphate uptake in mycorrhizal seedling as compared with untreated ones. Variation in the development and spread of ectomycorrhiza on the surface of roots of pine seedlings was also recorded in responses to copper and formalin treatments.

  16. The role of vanillin and p-coumaric acid in the growth of Scotch pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Michniewicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It was stated that vanillin and p-coumaric acid used at concentrations 10-8-10-5M stimulated the growth of pine seedlings. Most effective were these substances used at concentration 10-7M. Both phenolic compounds stimulated the elongation, fresh and dry weight in very young seedlings (up to 3-4 weeks and increased the fresh and dry weight only in older ones (7 weeks. The stimulation of growth processes in pine seedlings treated with vanillin and p-coumaric acid coincided with the increase of auxins in roots and with the decrease of free gibberellins in these plant organs. Neither vanillin nor p-coumaric acid influenced the level of ABA-like inhibitor both in the shoots and roots of pine seedlings.

  17. Biomass logistics analysis for large scale biofuel production: case study of loblolly pine and switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Withers, Mitch R; Seifkar, Navid; Field, Randall P; Barrett, Steven R H; Herzog, Howard J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the costs, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the biomass supply chain for large scale biofuel production. Two types of energy crop were considered, switchgrass and loblolly pine, as representative of herbaceous and woody biomass. A biomass logistics model has been developed to estimate the feedstock supply system from biomass production through transportation. Biomass in the form of woodchip, bale and pellet was investigated with road, railway and waterway transportation options. Our analysis indicated that the farm or forest gate cost is lowest for loblolly pine whole tree woodchip at $39.7/dry tonne and highest for switchgrass round bale at $72.3/dry tonne. Switchgrass farm gate GHG emissions is approximately 146kgCO2e/dry tonne, about 4 times higher than loblolly pine. The optimum biomass transportation mode and delivered form are determined by the tradeoff between fixed and variable costs for feedstock shipment. PMID:25710677

  18. Growth models and site index table of natural Korean pine forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yuwen; Li Shi; Cui Hong; Li Changsheng; Lju Peng; Zhang Junhua

    1999-01-01

    According to the growth characteristics of natural Korean pine (Pinus Koraiensis) forests, 6 equations such as Chapman-Richards equation, Logistic equation, Power equation, and so on were selected to fit for the growth models for Korean pine forest. The growth models were developed based on 208 random trees and 240 dominant trees. Results show that the Chapman-Richards equation is the best model for estimating tree height by age and DBH, while the Parabola equation is fittest for predicting DBH by age or estimating age from DBH The site index table of Korean pine forest was compiled by using the proportional method with the Chapman-Richards equation as the guide curve and validated by accuracy test.

  19. Functional analysis of the cellulose gene of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, using RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H B; Lu, Q; Liang, J; Zhang, X Y

    2011-01-01

    Cellulases are pathogenic substances suspected to be responsible for the development of the early symptoms of nematode disease. The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Parasitaphelenchidae), is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, which kills millions of pine trees. We used RNA interference (RNAi), a reverse genetic tool, to analyze the function of the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene of B. xylophilus, which causes the most serious forest tree disease in China and the rest of eastern Asia. Silencing of this gene was detected through real-time PCR and cellulase activity assays after soaking for 24 h in dsRNA. The cellulase gene silencing effects differed among various siRNAs. The propagation and dispersal ability of these nematodes decreased when the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene was silenced. It is important to select an effective siRNA before performing an RNAi test. PMID:21948755

  20. Investigation of Radionuclide Concentrations in Pine Needles in Vietnam after the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results of measurements concentrations in pine needles in Vietnam after the Chernobyl accident. Investigations were made since second half of 1986 to 1988. Increasing of concentration radionuclide levels in 1986 was not significant and was ended at the end of 1987. The concentrations of radionuclide Cs-137 in pine needles were compared with those in precipitations. The pine needles can be recommended as a useful and accessible material for supplementary monitoring of radioactive situation in the environment. The results obtained can contribute to the overall picture of studies on the dynamics of radioactive distribution and global fallouts formed by macro scale nuclear accidents. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab