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Sample records for blufensin1 negatively impacts

  1. Negative Impacts of High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarechová, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    High-stakes testing is not a new phenomenon in education. It has become part of the education system in many countries. These tests affect the school systems, teachers, students, politicians and parents, whether that is in a positive or negative sense. High-stakes testing is associated with concepts such as a school's accountability, funding and…

  2. Will Automated Vehicles Negatively Impact Traffic Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Calvert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With low-level vehicle automation already available, there is a necessity to estimate its effects on traffic flow, especially if these could be negative. A long gradual transition will occur from manual driving to automated driving, in which many yet unknown traffic flow dynamics will be present. These effects have the potential to increasingly aid or cripple current road networks. In this contribution, we investigate these effects using an empirically calibrated and validated simulation experiment, backed up with findings from literature. We found that low-level automated vehicles in mixed traffic will initially have a small negative effect on traffic flow and road capacities. The experiment further showed that any improvement in traffic flow will only be seen at penetration rates above 70%. Also, the capacity drop appeared to be slightly higher with the presence of low-level automated vehicles. The experiment further investigated the effect of bottleneck severity and truck shares on traffic flow. Improvements to current traffic models are recommended and should include a greater detail and understanding of driver-vehicle interaction, both in conventional and in mixed traffic flow. Further research into behavioural shifts in driving is also recommended due to limited data and knowledge of these dynamics.

  3. Impact of Negative Sequence Current Injection by Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact from negative sequence current injection by wind power plants in power systems under steady-state and short-term unbalanced conditions, including faults. The separate positive and negative sequence current control capability of the grid-side converters...

  4. Negative Impact of HRM Complementarity on Knowledge Transfer in MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores reasons for negative complementarity among HRM practices. It isbuilt upon the premise that there are certain HRM practices influencing extrinsic andintrinsic motivation of knowledge receivers. If those HRM practices are applied in acomplementary way, their impact on knowledge......-related outcomes will result incrowding effect of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and be negative. Hypothesesderived from these arguments are tested on the data from 92 subsidiaries of Danishmultinational corporations located in 11 countries.Extrinsic/intrinsic motivation, HRM practices, knowledge transfer...

  5. Negative Impact of HRM Complementarity on Knowledge Transfer in MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2005-01-01

    -related outcomes will result incrowding effect of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and be negative. Hypothesesderived from these arguments are tested on the data from 92 subsidiaries of Danishmultinational corporations located in 11 countries.Extrinsic/intrinsic motivation, HRM practices, knowledge transfer......This paper explores reasons for negative complementarity among HRM practices. It isbuilt upon the premise that there are certain HRM practices influencing extrinsic andintrinsic motivation of knowledge receivers. If those HRM practices are applied in acomplementary way, their impact on knowledge...

  6. T100. NICOTINE USE IMPACTS NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS SEVERITY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hianna; Coutinho, Luccas; Higuchi, Cinthia; Noto, Cristiano; Bressan, Rodrigo; Gadelha, Ary

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Nicotine use is higher among patients with schizophrenia (50–98%) than in general population (25–30%). This association can reflect a non-specific liability to substance use or specific effects of tobacco on symptoms severity or side effects. Studies about nicotine use and schizophrenia symptoms dimensions are controversial. Some of them showed a relation between severe nicotine use and higher positive symptoms and others presented a correlation between lower negative symptoms and nicotine use. That is why we aimed to verify whether nicotine use is associated with symptoms dimensions in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Two hundred and seven outpatients were enrolled from the Programa de Esquizofrenia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (PROESQ/UNIFESP). Schizophrenia diagnosis was confirmed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Dimensional psychopathology was assessed with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. The PANSS items were grouped in five dimensions: positive, negative, disorganized/cognitive, mood/depression and excitement/hostility. The total score of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence was the index used for severity in nicotine dependence. We used Wilcoxon-mann- whitney test to compare the means of PANSS dimensions between nicotine users versus non nicotine use. Results The patients mean age was 36.75 (SD 10.648), 69.1% were male, 48.3% reported lifetime tobacco use and 34.3% reported current tobacco use. Lower scores on negative dimension were associated with nicotine use (W = 5642.5, p-value = 0.046, effect size = 0.446). All p-values were corrected by Bonferroni test. Tests that evaluated the relationship between nicotine use and the total PANSS score or other dimensions were not statistically significant. Discussion This study shows that nicotine use impacts negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Increase in hepatic metabolism leading

  7. The impact of positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.; Hiemstra, D.; Voorhees, E.M.; Buckland, L.P.

    2009-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using only relevant

  8. The impact of positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Kamps, Jaap; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using only relevant

  9. Some Positive and Negative Impacts of the City on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, A. Harry

    Cities encompass a variety of environments and children interact with these environments in different ways with different impacts resulting. Such factors as socioeconomic class, race, ethnicity, and recency of in-migration all affect the nature and extent of environmental impact on individuals. Inequalities in housing, economic and educational…

  10. Elaboration of Approaches to Internet Negative Impact Resistance for University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusavitina, Galina Nikolaevna; Zerkina, Natalya Nikolaevna; ?hernova, Elena Vladimirovna; Kolobova, Olga Leonidovna; Nazarova, Olga Borisovna

    2016-01-01

    In the information society Internet technologies provide not only positive information and psychological impact but negative and destructive one either. The lack of attention to the problems of prevention and correction of destructive information impact on young students in higher education institutions negatively affects the development of…

  11. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Ziemba

    Full Text Available Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp. are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding. We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from "non-invaded" and "pheretimoid invaded" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance

  12. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Julie L; Hickerson, Cari-Ann M; Anthony, Carl D

    2016-01-01

    Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp.) are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding). We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from "non-invaded" and "pheretimoid invaded" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance following Asian

  13. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alith, Marcela Batan; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Montealegre, Federico; Fish, James; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Jardim, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years). From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador). The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012); "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups), whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups). In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  14. Robust negative impacts of climate change on African agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, Wolfram; Lobell, David B

    2010-01-01

    There is widespread interest in the impacts of climate change on agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and on the most effective investments to assist adaptation to these changes, yet the scientific basis for estimating production risks and prioritizing investments has been quite limited. Here we show that by combining historical crop production and weather data into a panel analysis, a robust model of yield response to climate change emerges for several key African crops. By mid-century, the mean estimates of aggregate production changes in SSA under our preferred model specification are - 22, - 17, - 17, - 18, and - 8% for maize, sorghum, millet, groundnut, and cassava, respectively. In all cases except cassava, there is a 95% probability that damages exceed 7%, and a 5% probability that they exceed 27%. Moreover, countries with the highest average yields have the largest projected yield losses, suggesting that well-fertilized modern seed varieties are more susceptible to heat related losses.

  15. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauza Lynnette B

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of stress reduction via the Transcendental Meditation program on school rule infractions in adolescents. Methods Forty-five African American adolescents (ages 15–18 years with high normal systolic blood pressure were randomly assigned to either Transcendental Meditation (n = 25 or health education control (n = 20 groups. The meditation group engaged in 15-min sessions at home and at school each day for 4 months. The control group was presented 15-min sessions of health education at school each day for 4 months. Primary outcome measures were changes in absenteeism, school rule infractions and suspension days during the four-month pretest period prior to randomization compared with the four-month intervention period. Results Comparing the pretest and intervention periods, the meditation group exhibited a mean decrease of 6.4 absentee periods compared to an increase of 4.8 in the control group (p Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the Transcendental Meditation program conducted in the school setting has a beneficial impact upon absenteeism, rule infractions, and suspension rates in African American adolescents.

  16. Gonadectomy Negatively Impacts Social Behavior of Adolescent Male Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A. Brent; Morris, Richard W.; Ward, Sarah; Schmitz, Stephanie; Rothmond, Debora A.; Noble, Pam L.; Woodward, Ruth A.; Winslow, James T.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Social behavior changes dramatically during primate adolescence. However, the extent to which testosterone and other gonadal hormones are necessary for adolescent social behavioral development is unknown. In this study, we determined that gonadectomy significantly impairs social dominance in naturalistic settings and changes reactions to social stimuli in experimental settings. Rhesus macaques were castrated (n = 6) or sham operated (n = 6) at age 2.4 years, group-housed for 2 years, and ethograms were collected weekly. During adolescence the gonadally intact monkeys displayed a decrease in subordinate behaviors and an increase in dominant behaviors, which ultimately related to a rise in social status and rank in the dominance hierarchy. We measured monkey’s reactions to emotional faces (fear, threat, neutral) of conspecifics of three ages (adult, peer, infant). Intact monkeys were faster to retrieve a treat in front of a threatening or infant face, while castrated monkeys did not show a differential response to different emotional faces or ages. No group difference in reaction to an innate fear-eliciting object (snake) was found. Approach and proximity responses to familiar versus unfamiliar conspecifics were tested, and intact monkeys spent more time proximal to a novel conspecific as compared to castrates who tended to spend more time with a familiar conspecific. No group differences in time spent with novel or familiar objects were found. Thus, gonadectomy resulted in the emergence of significantly different responses to social stimuli, but not non-social stimuli. Our work suggests that intact gonads, which are needed to produce adolescent increases in circulating testosterone, impact social behavior during adolescences in primates. PMID:19361511

  17. Combined impact of negative lifestyle factors on cardiovascular risk in children: a randomized prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Ursina; Schindler, Christian; Bloesch, Tamara; Schmocker, Eliane; Zahner, Lukas; Puder, Jardena J; Kriemler, Susi

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Negative lifestyle factors are known to be associated with increased cardiovascular risk (CVR) in children, but research on their combined impact on a general population of children is sparse. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the combined impact of easily assessable negative lifestyle factors on the CVR scores of randomly selected children after 4 years. METHODS: Of the 540 randomly selected 6- to 13-year-old children, 502 children participated in a baseline health assessment, and ...

  18. Doing good buffers against feeling bad : prosocial impact compensates for negative task and self-evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Adam M.; Sonnentag, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that negative task and self-evaluations are associated with emotional exhaustion, little research has examined factors that buffer against these affects. We propose that perceived prosocial impact, the experience of helping others, compensates for negative task and self-evaluations by focusing attention on positive outcomes for others. In Study 1, perceived prosocial impact attenuated the associations of low intrinsic motivation and core self-evaluations with emotio...

  19. The Impact of Early Powered Mobility on Parental Stress, Negative Emotions, and Family Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Donita; Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Powered mobility has been found to have positive effects on young children with severe physical disabilities, but the impact on the family has been less well documented. We evaluated the impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, perceived social interactions, and parental satisfaction with wheelchair characteristics…

  20. MECHANISMS TO AMELIORATE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF GLOBALISATION ON HUMAN RESOURCES, INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY AND HUMANITY

    OpenAIRE

    WILFRED I. UKPERE

    2009-01-01

    Capitalist globalisation has produced certain negative consequences for human resources, industrial democracy and humanity, in general. Globalisation is a powerful force that cannot be denied, however, conversely, it has also threatened life, in a broader sense. Globalisation was perceived by globalisers as a worldwide remedy for worldwide problems, but is viewed with great pessimism amongst proletariat (workers). Current globalisation has an enormous negative impact on human resources, indus...

  1. What determines positive, neutral, and negative impacts of Solidago canadensis invasion on native plant species richness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2015-11-17

    Whether plant invasions pose a great threat to native plant diversity is still hotly debated due to conflicting findings. More importantly, we know little about the mechanisms of invasion impacts on native plant richness. We examined how Solidago canadensis invasion influenced native plants using data from 291 pairs of invaded and uninvaded plots covering an entire invaded range, and quantified the relative contributions of climate, recipient communities, and S. canadensis to invasion impacts. There were three types of invasion consequences for native plant species richness (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative impacts). Overall, the relative contributions of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate to invasion impacts were 71.39%, 21.46% and 7.15%, respectively; furthermore, the roles of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate were largely ascribed to plant diversity, density and cover, and precipitation. In terms of direct effects, invasion impacts were negatively linked to temperature and native plant communities, and positively to precipitation and soil microbes. Soil microbes were crucial in the network of indirect effects on invasion impacts. These findings suggest that the characteristics of recipient communities are the most important determinants of invasion impacts and that invasion impacts may be a continuum across an entire invaded range.

  2. Cross-sections for the formation of negative ions by electron impact on silane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Krishnakumar, E.; De A. E Souza, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    Cross-sections and appearance potentials for the production of various negative ion species by electron impact on SiH4 have been measured. They are compared with two previous measurements which widely differ with each other. Hess' law has been applied to predict the various possible channels of dissociation.

  3. The invasive American weed parthenium hysterophorus can negatively impact malaria control in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The direct negative effects of invasive plant species on agriculture and biodiversity are well known, but their indirect effects on human health, and particularly their interactions with disease-transmitting vectors, remains poorly explored. This study sought to investigate the impact of the invasiv...

  4. The impact of negative emotions on self-concept abstraction depends on accessible information processing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Linda M; Rovenpor, Daniel R; Lair, Elicia C

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests that anger promotes global, abstract processing whereas sadness and fear promote local, concrete processing (see Schwarz & Clore, 2007 for a review). Contrary to a large and influential body of work suggesting that specific affective experiences are tethered to specific cognitive outcomes, the affect-as-cognitive-feedback account maintains that affective experiences confer positive or negative value on currently dominant processing styles, and thus can lead to either global or local processing (Huntsinger, Isbell, & Clore, 2014). The current work extends this theoretical perspective by investigating the impact of discrete negative emotions on the self-concept. By experimentally manipulating information processing styles and discrete negative emotions that vary in appraisals of certainty, we demonstrate that the impact of discrete negative emotions on the spontaneous self-concept depends on accessible processing styles. When global processing was accessible, individuals in angry (negative, high certainty) states generated more abstract statements about themselves than individuals in either sad (Experiment 1) or fearful (Experiment 2; negative, low certainty) states. When local processing was made accessible, however, the opposite pattern emerged, whereby individuals in angry states generated fewer abstract statements than individuals in sad or fearful states. Together these studies provide new insights into the mechanisms through which discrete emotions influence cognition. In contrast to theories assuming a dedicated link between emotions and processing styles, these results suggest that discrete emotions provide feedback about accessible ways of thinking, and are consistent with recent evidence suggesting that the impact of affect on cognition is highly context-dependent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Buffering Negative Impacts of Divorce on Children: Evaluating Impact of Divorce Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer K.; Riffe, Jane; Trevisan, Dominic A.; Adesope, Olusola O.

    2014-01-01

    Following the call for more stringent evaluation methodology and recently documented national Extension presence in the field of divorce education for parents and children, the study reported here describes a local multi-level evaluation to capture program impact of a stakeholder-accepted divorce education program. Using a post-then-pre…

  6. Positive and Negative Impacts of Non-Native Bee Species around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Russo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Though they are relatively understudied, non-native bees are ubiquitous and have enormous potential economic and environmental impacts. These impacts may be positive or negative, and are often unquantified. In this manuscript, I review literature on the known distribution and environmental and economic impacts of 80 species of introduced bees. The potential negative impacts of non-native bees include competition with native bees for nesting sites or floral resources, pollination of invasive weeds, co-invasion with pathogens and parasites, genetic introgression, damage to buildings, affecting the pollination of native plant species, and changing the structure of native pollination networks. The potential positive impacts of non-native bees include agricultural pollination, availability for scientific research, rescue of native species, and resilience to human-mediated disturbance and climate change. Most non-native bee species are accidentally introduced and nest in stems, twigs, and cavities in wood. In terms of number of species, the best represented families are Megachilidae and Apidae, and the best represented genus is Megachile. The best studied genera are Apis and Bombus, and most of the species in these genera were deliberately introduced for agricultural pollination. Thus, we know little about the majority of non-native bees, accidentally introduced or spreading beyond their native ranges.

  7. Impact of sleep quality on amygdala reactivity, negative affect, and perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Bogdan, Ryan; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-05-01

    Research demonstrates a negative impact of sleep disturbance on mood and affect; however, the biological mechanisms mediating these links are poorly understood. Amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli has emerged as one potential pathway. Here, we investigate the influence of self-reported sleep quality on associations between threat-related amygdala reactivity and measures of negative affect and perceived stress. Analyses on data from 299 participants (125 men, 50.5% white, mean [standard deviation] age = 19.6 [1.3] years) who completed the Duke Neurogenetics Study were conducted. Participants completed several self-report measures of negative affect and perceived stress. Threat-related (i.e., angry and fearful facial expressions) amygdala reactivity was assayed using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions predicted greater depressive symptoms and higher perceived stress in poor (β values = 0.18-1.86, p values .05). In sex-specific analyses, men reporting poorer global sleep quality showed a significant association between amygdala reactivity and levels of depression and perceived stress (β values = 0.29-0.44, p values sleep quality or in women, irrespective of sleep quality. This study provides novel evidence that self-reported sleep quality moderates the relationships between amygdala reactivity, negative affect, and perceived stress, particularly among men.

  8. Understanding negative impacts of perceived cognitive load on job learning effectiveness: a social capital solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chieh-Peng

    2010-12-01

    This study proposes a model explaining how social capital helps ease excessively required mental effort. Although organizational researchers have studied both social capital and cognitive load, no prior research has critically examined the role of social capital in improving individuals' mental load and effort and consequently enhancing job learning effectiveness. This study surveys participants made up of professionals in Taiwan's information technology industry. It measures the constructs with the use of 5-point Likert-type scale items modified from existing literature. The survey data were analyzed with the use of structural equation modeling. Job learning effectiveness is negatively influenced by role ambiguity and role conflict. Time pressure has a positive influence on role ambiguity and role conflict Although the relationship between task complexity and role ambiguity is insignificant, task complexity has a positive influence on role conflict. Because the relationship between network ties and role conflict is insignificant, trust has a negative influence on role conflict. Last, shared vision has a negative influence on role ambiguity. This study provides an example of how social capital can be applied as a useful remedy to ease the negative impact of perceived cognitive load on job learning effectiveness. The negative relationship between shared vision and role ambiguity suggests that a shared vision helps in disseminating organizationally common goals and directions among employees to alleviate individuals' mental efforts in dealing with the ambiguity of their job roles. A firm's management team should take actions to decrease role conflict by strengthening trust among employees.

  9. Negative and positive impact of internet addiction on young adults: Empericial study in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shah Alam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore and identify the impact of internet addictions of young adults in Malaysia. There are six impacts identified, of which five are negative impacts and one is positive impact.Design/methodology/approach: This study comprised sample of 200 young adults in Malaysia. A cross-sectional research design was used to examine the impact of Internet addiction. Data were gathered based on personal administered questionnaire.Findings and Originality/value: This study results show that five negative impacts of excessive internet usages such as interpersonal problem, behavioural problem, physical problem, psychological problem, and work problem of young adults.The young adults believed that the internet usage can help them to improve their skills for doing their work better. This study also reveals that males have a great impact on working problems, psychological problems, behavioural problems and interpersonal problems than female adults. On the other hand, females are leading with their physical problems by getting Internet addiction.Research limitations/implications: The data for this study are collected by self-administered questionnaire, a method with well-known shortcomings. Secondly, this study done only on young adults from only two universities in Malaysia.Practical implications: An important implication of this research is that the interesting findings give some insight to the Internet users to focus on improving Internet usage habits. Originality/value: The findings are original and unique and are based on the literature from different western researches. The results are based on a sample of young adults in Malaysia. The research findings are useful to academics and heavy Internet users those are hooked with Internet to their everyday life.

  10. Combined impact of negative lifestyle factors on cardiovascular risk in children: a randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ursina; Schindler, Christian; Bloesch, Tamara; Schmocker, Eliane; Zahner, Lukas; Puder, Jardena J; Kriemler, Susi

    2014-12-01

    Negative lifestyle factors are known to be associated with increased cardiovascular risk (CVR) in children, but research on their combined impact on a general population of children is sparse. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the combined impact of easily assessable negative lifestyle factors on the CVR scores of randomly selected children after 4 years. Of the 540 randomly selected 6- to 13-year-old children, 502 children participated in a baseline health assessment, and 64% were assessed again after 4 years. Measures included anthropometry, fasting blood samples, and a health assessment questionnaire. Participants scored one point for each negative lifestyle factor at baseline: overweight; physical inactivity; high media consumption; little outdoor time; skipping breakfast; and having a parent who has ever smoked, is inactive, or overweight. A CVR score at follow-up was constructed by averaging sex- and age-related z-scores of waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, inverted high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. The age-, sex-, pubertal stage-, and social class-adjusted probabilities (95% confidence interval) for being in the highest CVR score tertile at follow-up for children who had at most one (n = 48), two (n = 64), three (n = 56), four (n = 41), or five or more (n = 14) risky lifestyle factors were 15.4% (8.9-25.3), 24.3% (17.4-32.8), 36.0% (28.6-44.2), 49.8% (38.6-61.0), and 63.5% (47.2-77.2), respectively. Even in childhood, an accumulation of negative lifestyle factors is associated with higher CVR scores after 4 years. These negative lifestyle factors are easy to assess in clinical practice and allow early detection and prevention of CVR in childhood. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  12. Impact of the endoscopist's experience on the negative predictive value of capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayos Jiménez, Benito; Alcaide Suárez, Noelia; González Redondo, Guillermo; Fernández Salazar, Luis; Aller de la Fuente, Rocío; Del Olmo Martínez, Lourdes; Ruiz Rebollo, Lourdes; González Hernández, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the accumulated experience of the capsule endoscopy (CE) reader on the accuracy of this test is discussed. To determine whether the negative predictive value of CE findings changes along the learning curve. We reviewed the first 900 CE read by 3 gastroenterologists experienced in endoscopy over 8 years. These 900 CE were divided into 3 groups (300 CE each): group 1 consisted of the sum of the first 100 CE read by each of the 3 endoscopists; group 2, the sum of the second 100 and groups 3, the sum of the third 100. Patients with normal CE were monitored for at least 28 months to estimate the negative predictive value. A total of 54 (18%) CE in group 1, 58 (19.3%) in group 2 and 47 (15.6%) in group 3 were normal, although only 34 patients in group 1, 38 in group 2 and 36 in group 3 with normal CE completed follow up and were eventually studied. The negative predictive value was 88.2% in group 1, 89.5% in group 2 and 97% in group 3 (P>.05). The negative predictive value tended to increase, but remained high and did not change significantly after the first 100 when readers are experienced in conventional endoscopy and have preliminary specific training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of screening-test negative samples not enumerated by MPN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; de Knegt, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In microbiological surveys, false negative results in detection tests precluding the enumeration by MPN may occur. The objective of this study was to illustrate the impact of screening test failure on the probability distribution of Salmonella concentrations in pork using a Bayesian method. A total...... a Bayesian model that uses the number of positive tubes at each dilution in an MPN analysis to estimate the parameters of the concentration distribution. With Salmonella paired data, three data sets were used for each slaughter step: one that includes the positives in the screening test only, a second one...... that includes false negative results from the screening, and a third that considers the entire data set. The relative sensitivity of the screening test was also calculated assuming as gold standard samples with confirmed Salmonella. Salmonella was confirmed by a reference laboratory in 29 samples either...

  14. Impact of facial defect reconstruction on attractiveness and negative facial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Jacob K; Ishii, Masaru; Boahene, Kofi D O; Byrne, Patrick; Ishii, Lisa E

    2015-06-01

    Measure the impact of facial defect reconstruction on observer-graded attractiveness and negative facial perception. Prospective, randomized, controlled experiment. One hundred twenty casual observers viewed images of faces with defects of varying sizes and locations before and after reconstruction as well as normal comparison faces. Observers rated attractiveness, defect severity, and how disfiguring, bothersome, and important to repair they considered each face. Facial defects decreased attractiveness -2.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.45, -2.08) on a 10-point scale. Mixed effects linear regression showed this attractiveness penalty varied with defect size and location, with large and central defects generating the greatest penalty. Reconstructive surgery increased attractiveness 1.33 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.47), an improvement dependent upon size and location, restoring some defect categories to near normal ranges of attractiveness. Iterated principal factor analysis indicated the disfiguring, important to repair, bothersome, and severity variables were highly correlated and measured a common domain; thus, they were combined to create the disfigured, important to repair, bothersome, severity (DIBS) factor score, representing negative facial perception. The DIBS regression showed defect faces have a 1.5 standard deviation increase in negative perception (DIBS: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.61, 1.77) compared to normal faces, which decreased by a similar magnitude after surgery (DIBS: -1.44, 95% CI: -1.49, -1.38). These findings varied with defect size and location. Surgical reconstruction of facial defects increased attractiveness and decreased negative social facial perception, an impact that varied with defect size and location. These new social perception data add to the evidence base demonstrating the value of high-quality reconstructive surgery. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Positive and negative effects of social impact on evolutionary vaccination game in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Kurisaku, Takehiro

    2017-02-01

    Preventing infectious disease like flu from spreading to large communities is one of the most important issues for humans. One effective strategy is voluntary vaccination, however, there is always the temptation for people refusing to be vaccinated because once herd immunity is achieved, infection risk is greatly reduced. In this paper, we study the effect of social impact on the vaccination behavior resulting in preventing infectious disease in networks. The evolutionary simulation results show that the social impact has both positive and negative effects on the vaccination behavior. Especially, in heterogeneous networks, if the vaccination cost is low the behavior is more promoted than the case without social impact. In contrast, if the cost is high, the behavior is reduced compared to the case without social impact. Moreover, the vaccination behavior is effective in heterogeneous networks more than in homogeneous networks. This implies that the social impact puts people at risk in homogeneous networks. We also evaluate the results from the social cost related to the vaccination policy.

  16. Islamic Education: A Principle to Develop Religious Society to Anticipate Negative Impact of Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Solihin Nasrudin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyze how the Islamic education is able to be the principle of inter-religious harmony to  anticipate  negative impact of social media use. Islam as a universal religion has proven its ability  to encourage the development of science and technology. Social media has emerged along with the development of information technology. The social media is able to facilitate  community to communicate and  to exchange information, but at the same time social media may also threat th...

  17. Video-Games Do Not Negatively Impact Adolescent Academic Performance in Science, Mathematics or Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Aaron; Sauer, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and reading. Contrary to claims that increased video-gaming can impair academic performance, differences in academic performance were negligible across the relative frequencies of videogame use. Videogame use had little impact on adolescent academic achievement. PMID:24699536

  18. Video-games do not negatively impact adolescent academic performance in science, mathematics or reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Aaron; Sauer, James D

    2014-01-01

    Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and reading. Contrary to claims that increased video-gaming can impair academic performance, differences in academic performance were negligible across the relative frequencies of videogame use. Videogame use had little impact on adolescent academic achievement.

  19. Video-games do not negatively impact adolescent academic performance in science, mathematics or reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Drummond

    Full Text Available Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and reading. Contrary to claims that increased video-gaming can impair academic performance, differences in academic performance were negligible across the relative frequencies of videogame use. Videogame use had little impact on adolescent academic achievement.

  20. Impact of Sleep Quality on Amygdala Reactivity, Negative Affect, and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A.; Bogdan, Ryan; Ahmad R. Hariri, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Objective Research demonstrates a negative impact of sleep disturbance on mood and affect; however, the biological mechanisms mediating these links are poorly understood. Amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli has emerged as one potential pathway. Here, we investigate the influence of self-reported sleep quality on associations between threat-related amygdala reactivity and measures of negative affect and perceived stress. Methods Analyses on data from 299 participants (125 men, 50.5% white, mean [standard deviation] age = 19.6 [1.3] years) who completed the Duke Neurogenetics Study were conducted. Participants completed several self-report measures of negative affect and perceived stress. Threat-related (i.e., angry and fearful facial expressions) amygdala reactivity was assayed using blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results Amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions predicted greater depressive symptoms and higher perceived stress in poor (β values = 0.18–1.86, p values .05). In sex-specific analyses, men reporting poorer global sleep quality showed a significant association between amygdala reactivity and levels of depression and perceived stress (β values = 0.29–0.44, p values < .05). In contrast, no significant associations were observed in men reporting good global sleep quality or in women, irrespective of sleep quality. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence that self-reported sleep quality moderates the relationships between amygdala reactivity, negative affect, and perceived stress, particularly among men. PMID:23592753

  1. High intelligence prevents the negative impact of anxiety on working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuderski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Using a large sample and the confirmatory factor analysis, the study investigated the relationships between anxiety, working memory (WM) and (fluid) intelligence. The study showed that the negative impact of anxiety on WM functioning diminishes with increasing intelligence, and that anxiety can significantly affect WM only in people below average intelligence. This effect could not be fully explained by the sheer differences in WM capacity (WMC), suggesting the importance of higher-level cognition in coping with anxiety. Although intelligence moderated the impact of anxiety on WM, it was only weakly related to anxiety. In contrast to previous studies, anxiety explained the substantial amount of WMC variance (17.8%) in less intelligent participants, but none of the variance in more intelligent ones. These results can be explained in terms of either increased motivation of intelligent but anxious people to cope with a WM task, or their ability to compensate decrements in WM.

  2. Prognostic impact of anticardiolipin antibodies in women with recurrent miscarriage negative for the lupus anticoagulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are found with increased prevalence in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) but their impact on future pregnancy outcome in lupus anticoagulant (LAC) negative patients needs better quantification. METHODS: The impact of a repeatedly positive...... ACA test on the chance of live birth in the next pregnancy after adjustment for relevant prognostic factors was studied in 147 RM patients who had been included in placebo-controlled trials of immunotherapy. Patients with LAC were excluded and none of the patients received therapy with anticoagulation...... OR for live birth among ACA positive patients was 0.48 (95% CI 0.2-1.1, P = 0.10). Positivity for IgM ACA was found to be much stronger correlated to pregnancy outcome than IgG ACA. CONCLUSIONS: In RM women not receiving anticoagulation or prednisone, the presence of ACA in the absence of LAC most likely...

  3. Negative impacts of climate change on cereal yields: statistical evidence from France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammans, Matthew; Mérel, Pierre; Ortiz-Bobea, Ariel

    2017-05-01

    In several world regions, climate change is predicted to negatively affect crop productivity. The recent statistical yield literature emphasizes the importance of flexibly accounting for the distribution of growing-season temperature to better represent the effects of warming on crop yields. We estimate a flexible statistical yield model using a long panel from France to investigate the impacts of temperature and precipitation changes on wheat and barley yields. Winter varieties appear sensitive to extreme cold after planting. All yields respond negatively to an increase in spring-summer temperatures and are a decreasing function of precipitation about historical precipitation levels. Crop yields are predicted to be negatively affected by climate change under a wide range of climate models and emissions scenarios. Under warming scenario RCP8.5 and holding growing areas and technology constant, our model ensemble predicts a 21.0% decline in winter wheat yield, a 17.3% decline in winter barley yield, and a 33.6% decline in spring barley yield by the end of the century. Uncertainty from climate projections dominates uncertainty from the statistical model. Finally, our model predicts that continuing technology trends would counterbalance most of the effects of climate change.

  4. Decoupling in order to reduce the negative environmental impact from transport logistics. From theory to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, Magnus

    2006-04-01

    This report deals with the issue of decoupling from a bottom-up approach and thereby works as a complementary report to 'A closer Look at Road Freight Transport and Economic Growth in Sweden' published by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The freight transport logistics market is steadily growing in Sweden and the EU. Between 1990 and 2002 the growth in Sweden was 15 % and in EU15 33 %. The increase has primarily occurred within road freight. Economics of scale and low cost for transport logistics services drives centralisation both within trade and manufacturing. This leads to an increase of the transport work. The objective of this report is to describe decoupling from a business perspective. We have therefore focused on industrial sectors that are the largest drivers of transportation demand. In addition we have included the most relevant providers of transport services. In brief this means - Buyers of transport logistics: Clothing, Furniture, Pulp and paper, Oil and energy, Steel, Mechanical industry, Fast moving goods, and Construction. As sellers of transport logistics services we have focused on: Road transport, Rail transport, Sea transport, and Forwarders. During the work we have ended up in a broad perspective when defining decoupling. In general we work with the concept of decoupling defined as 'breaking the connection between the environmentally negative impacts from transport logistics and economic growth'. The negative impacts we include are: Resource use, Climate, Nature, Health, and Accidents. Our focus is a European perspective from a Swedish platform and our time perspective is from relatively narrow to 2020. The business sector raises doubt on the idea of decoupling transport work and GNP. They are however more positive when discussing decoupling economic growth from negative environmental impacts. When analysing the underlying factors for this development we can se a tremendous growth in the global trade. the paper discuses how

  5. Can nanotechnology deliver the promised benefits without negatively impacting soil microbial life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Christian O

    2014-09-01

    Nanotechnology exploits the enhanced reactivity of materials at the atomic scale to improve various applications for humankind. In agriculture, potential nanotechnology applications include crop protection and fertilization. However, such benefits could come with risks for the environment: non-target plants, plant-beneficial soil microbes and other life forms could be impacted if nanoparticles (nanomaterials) contaminate the environment. This review evaluates the impact of the major metallic nanoparticles (Ag, ZnO, CuO, CeO2 , TiO2 , and FeO-based nanoparticles) on soil microbes involved in agricultural processes. The current literature indicate that in addition to population and organismal-scale effects on microbes, other subtle impacts of nanoparticles are seen in the nitrogen cycle, soil enzyme activities, and processes involved in iron metabolism, phytohormone, and antibiotic production. These effects are negative or positive, the outcome being dependent on specific nanoparticles. Collectively, published results suggest that nanotechnology portends considerable, many negative, implications for soil microbes and, thus, agricultural processes that are microbially driven. Nonetheless, the potential of plant and soil microbial processes to mitigate the bioreactivity of nanoparticles also are observed. Whereas the roots of most terrestrial plants are associated with microbes, studies of nanoparticle interactions with plants and microbes are generally conducted separately. The few studies in actual microbe-plant systems found effects of nanoparticles on the functioning of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, nitrogen fixation, as well as on the production of microbial siderophores in the plant rhizosphere. It is suggested that a better understanding of the agro-ecological ramifications of nanoparticles would require more in-depth interactive studies in combined plant-microbe-nanoparticle systems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Widely used marine seismic survey air gun operations negatively impact zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Robert D; Day, Ryan D; Swadling, Kerrie M; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Watson, Reg A; Semmens, Jayson M

    2017-06-22

    Zooplankton underpin the health and productivity of global marine ecosystems. Here we present evidence that suggests seismic surveys cause significant mortality to zooplankton populations. Seismic surveys are used extensively to explore for petroleum resources using intense, low-frequency, acoustic impulse signals. Experimental air gun signal exposure decreased zooplankton abundance when compared with controls, as measured by sonar (~3-4 dB drop within 15-30 min) and net tows (median 64% decrease within 1 h), and caused a two- to threefold increase in dead adult and larval zooplankton. Impacts were observed out to the maximum 1.2 km range sampled, which was more than two orders of magnitude greater than the previously assumed impact range of 10 m. Although no adult krill were present, all larval krill were killed after air gun passage. There is a significant and unacknowledged potential for ocean ecosystem function and productivity to be negatively impacted by present seismic technology.

  7. Positive and negative psychosocial impact of being diagnosed with cancer as an adolescent or young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizzi, Keith M; Smith, Ashley; Schmidt, Steven; Keegan, Theresa H M; Zebrack, Brad; Lynch, Charles F; Deapen, Dennis; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Tompkins, Bradley J; Simon, Michael

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the psychosocial impact of cancer on newly diagnosed adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. This was a population-based, multicenter study of 523 newly diagnosed AYA survivors (ages 15-39 years) of germ cell cancer (n = 204), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 131), Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 142), acute lymphocytic leukemia (n = 21), or sarcoma (n = 25) from 7 National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries. Age at diagnosis was categorized into 3 groups (ages 15-20 years, 21-29 years, and 30-39 years). Respondents (43% response rate), on average (±standard deviation), were aged 29 = 6.7 years, and most patients (80.1%) were not receiving treatment at the time the completed the survey. With modest differences between the age groups, the most prevalent areas of life impacted in a negative way were financial, body image, control over life, work plans, relationship with spouse/significant other, and plans for having children. Endorsement of positive life impact items also was evident across the 3 age groups, particularly with regard to relationships, future plans/goals, and health competence. The current results indicated that there will be future need for interventions targeting financial assistance, body image issues, relationships, and helping AYAs to attain their education objectives. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  8. Information Access Skills in Mothers as Containment of Internet Negative Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Limilia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Media and Information Literacy (MIL skills was one of the skills that must be possessed by netizens. These skills become important in the effort of coping with the negative impact of the internet. The high penetration of the internet is not followed by the high skill of MIL. Therefore, the writers are interested to know the skills of information and media literacy (access skills in mothers. This study uses descriptive quantitative method by using questionnaires as means of data collection. The result of the study shows that mothers tend to have moderate-level information access skills. The skills are reflected in the skills of mothers at moderate level in understanding the role of information, seeking sources of information, accessing information effectively and efficiently, and storing information.

  9. No time to lose: Negative impact on law student wellbeing may begin in year one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Townes O'Brien

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of a pilot study of law students suggest that, during the first year of law study, students may experience changes in thinking styles, stress levels, and satisfaction with life. Although further inquiry into the cause of law student distress is necessary, the authors consider certain assumptions underlying the legal curriculum—particularly the conception of a lawyer as adversarial, emotionally detached, and competitive—to be possible sources of the negative impact on student wellbeing.  It is suggested that legal educators should re-examine their curricula, particularly their conception of what it means to be a lawyer, and think creatively about ways that law schools may encourage healthier approaches to the study of law.

  10. The Sweet and the Bitter: Intertwined Positive and Negative Social Impacts of a Biodiversity Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Bidaud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Major developments, such as mines, will often have unavoidable environmental impacts. In such cases, investors, governments, or even a company's own standards increasingly require implementation of biodiversity offsets (investment in conservation with a measurable outcome with the aim of achieving 'no net loss' or even a 'net gain' of biodiversity. Where conservation is achieved by changing the behaviour of people directly using natural resources, the offset might be expected to have social impacts but such impacts have received very little attention. Using the case study of Ambatovy, a major nickel mine in the eastern rainforests of Madagascar and a company at the vanguard of developing biodiversity offsets, we explore local perceptions of the magnitude and distribution of impacts of the biodiversity offset project on local wellbeing. We used both qualitative (key informant interviews and focus group discussions and quantitative (household survey methods. We found that the biodiversity offsets, which comprise both conservation restrictions and development activities, influenced wellbeing in a mixture of positive and negative ways. However, overall, respondents felt that they had suffered a net cost from the biodiversity offset. It is a matter of concern that benefits from development activities do not compensate for the costs of the conservation restrictions, that those who bear the costs are not the same people as those who benefit, and that there is a mismatch in timing between the immediate restrictions and the associated development activities which take some time to deliver benefits. These issues matter both from the perspective of environmental justice, and for the long-term sustainability of the biodiversity benefits the offset is supposed to deliver.

  11. Neural - hormonal responses to negative affective stimuli: Impact of dysphoric mood and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareckova, K; Holsen, L; Admon, R; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S; Seidman, L J; Buka, S L; Klibanski, A; Goldstein, J M

    2017-11-01

    Maladaptive responses to negative affective stimuli are pervasive, including clinically ill and healthy people, and men and women respond differently at neural and hormonal levels. Inspired by the Research Domain Criteria initiative, we used a transdiagnostic approach to investigate the impact of sex and dysphoric mood on neural-hormonal responses to negative affective stimuli. Participants included 99 individuals with major depressive disorder, psychosis and healthy controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was complemented with real-time acquisition of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and -gonadal (HPG) hormones. fMRI data were analyzed in SPM8 and task-related connectivity was assessed using generalized psychophysiological interaction. Across all participants, elevated cortisol response predicted lower brain activity in orbitofrontal cortex and hypothalamus-amygdala connectivity. In those with worse dysphoric mood, elevated cortisol response predicted lower activity in hypothalamus and hippocampus. In women, elevated cortisol response was associated with lower activity in medial prefrontal cortex and low hypothalamo-hippocampal connectivity. In women with high dysphoric mood, elevated cortisol response was associated with low hypothalamo-hippocampal connectivity. There were no interactions with diagnosis or medication. There was limited power to correct for multiple comparisons across total number of ROIs and connectivity targets; cortisol responses were relatively low. We conclude that the pathophysiology in neural-hormonal responses to negative affective stimuli is shared across healthy and clinical populations and varies as a function of sex and dysphoric mood. Our findings may contribute to the development of hormonal adjunctive therapeutics that are sex-dependent, underscoring the importance of one's sex to precision medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci and Other Germs on Sperm Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lozano-Hernández

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS is part of the microbiota of the male genitourinary tract, sometimes it has been considered as possible pathogenic microorganism. In the 5th version of sperm manual (WHO, 2010 sperm morphology criterion is very restricted to 4% of normal heads whereas David’s criterion evaluates several spermatic forms. The abnormalities of sperm forms were evaluated according to criteria of spermatic morphology: WHO and David in semen samples with bacterial concentrations ≤ 103, 104 and ≥ 105 CFU/mL of CoNS as of other bacteria. Spermogram, sperm culture and antibodies anti-Chlamydia trachomatis IgA detection in 281 semen samples men were performed. CoNS was the most frequent germ isolated in pure culture (9.25%. Semen samples with CoNS showed higher round cells and microcephalus forms by means of David’s criterion. CoNS in higher concentrations than 104 CFU/mL may have a negative impact on sperm cellularity, sperm head and probably on fertility.

  13. Education attenuates the negative impact of traumatic brain injury on cognitive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Krch, Denise; Paxton, Jessica; Deluca, John

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether the cognitive reserve hypothesis helps to explain differential cognitive impairment among survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI), whereby survivors with greater intellectual enrichment (estimated with education) are less vulnerable to cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional study. Medical rehabilitation research center. Survivors of moderate or severe TBI (n=44) and healthy controls (n=36). Not applicable. Intellectual enrichment was estimated with educational attainment. Group was defined as TBI or healthy control. Current cognitive status (processing speed, working memory, episodic memory) was evaluated with neuropsychological tasks. TBI survivors exhibited worse cognitive status than healthy persons (Peducation was positively correlated with cognitive status in TBI survivors (r=.54, Peducation (R(2) change=.036, P=.004), whereas higher education attenuated the negative impact of TBI on cognitive status. TBI survivors with lower education performed much worse than matched healthy persons, but this TBI-related performance discrepancy was attenuated at higher levels of education. Higher intellectual enrichment (estimated with education) reduces the negative effect of TBI on cognitive outcomes, thereby supporting the cognitive reserve hypothesis in persons with TBI. Future work is necessary to investigate whether intellectual enrichment can build cognitive reserve as a rehabilitative intervention in survivors of TBI. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Opioid Addiction in Pregnancy: Does Depression Negatively Impact Adherence With Prenatal Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Lauren; Sulo, Suela; Kozmic, Sarah; Parilla, Barbara V

    We aimed to evaluate whether depression in pregnancy in women with opioid dependency negatively impacts adherence with prenatal care. This was a retrospective chart analysis of opioid-dependent pregnant women over a 6-year period at 2 large referral and tertiary care centers. The primary outcome was adherence with prenatal care based on the concurrent diagnosis of depression. Adherence was assessed by looking at the number of observed versus expected prenatal visits. Secondary outcomes included neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay, and incidence and severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). A total of 74 patient charts were reviewed. 45/74 (60.8%) of the opioid-dependent pregnant patients were either diagnosed with depression (n = 41), anxiety (n = 2), or scored >10 on the Edinburgh Prenatal Depression Scale (n = 1). Patients with a diagnosis of depression were significantly less adherent with prenatal care; 80% adherent (73% vs 93%; P = 0.03), 90% adherent (62% vs 93%; P = 0.003). A higher number of patients in the depression group had an infant treated for withdrawal (62% vs 38%; P = 0.041), and had longer NICU stays (27% vs 21%; P = 0.018). Analysis of the whole cohort of opioid dependent gravidas revealed Buprenorphine maintenance therapy had the lowest mean NAS score 6.5 ± 4.4, compared with methadone maintenance 10.6 ± 3.6, and no maintenance therapy 9.4 ± 4.0 (P = 0.008). Depression negatively impacts adherence with prenatal care and was significantly associated with a higher incidence of neonatal withdrawal and longer NICU stays. Buprenorphine therapy had the lowest incidence and severity of NAS when compared with methadone and no maintenance therapy.

  15. Patients Negatively Impacted by Discontinuity of Nursing Care During Acute Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakusheva, Olga; Costa, Deena K; Weiss, Marianne

    2017-04-01

    Continuity of nursing care in hospitals remains poor and not prioritized, and we do not know whether discontinuous nursing care is negatively impacting patient outcomes. This study aims to examine nursing care discontinuity and its effect on patient clinical condition over the course of acute hospitalization. Retrospective longitudinal analysis of electronic health records (EHR). Average point-in-time discontinuity was estimated from time of admission to discharge and compared with theoretical predictions for optimal continuity and random nurse assignment. Mixed-effects models estimated within-patient change in clinical condition following a discontinuity. A total of 3892 adult medical-surgical inpatients were admitted to a tertiary academic medical center in the Eastern United States during July 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011. Exposure: discontinuity of nursing care was measured at each nurse assessment entry into a patient's EHR as assignment of the patient to a nurse with no prior assignment to that patient. patient's clinical condition score (Rothman Index) continuously tracked in the EHR. Discontinuity declined from nearly 100% in the first 24 hours to 70% at 36 hours, and to 50% by the 10th postadmission day. Discontinuity was higher than predicted for optimal continuity, but not random. Each instance of discontinuity lead to a 0.12-0.23 point decline in the Rothman Index score, with more pronounced effects for older and high-mortality risk patients. Discontinuity in acute care nurse assignments was high and negatively impacted patient clinical condition. Improved continuity of provider-patient assignment should be advocated to improve patient outcomes in acute care.

  16. The negative impacts of the global economic downturn on funding decentralised energy in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finney, Karen N.; Sharifi, Vida N.; Swithenbank, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, a number of governmental policies have been developed in the UK that offer grants for the installation of distributed energy technologies or financial rewards per unit of electricity/heat generated from renewable and sustainable sources. The current economic climate however has meant that budget cuts have affected almost all government departments; consequently such policies have been adversely impacted. The alterations/modifications to many schemes have resulted in either a reduction in the funding available through these, changes to the eligibility of certain technologies or scales of generation or policy cancellations. The programmes affected include the Feed-In Tariff Scheme, Renewable Heat Incentive and Low Carbon Buildings Programme, among others. The adjustments for these are detailed herein, followed by the impacts these have had on the deployment rates of decentralised energy, especially microgeneration. Since costs are often one of the most significant factors constraining deployment of these technologies, reductions in funding opportunities have made these less financially-viable. Whilst there are still applications for funding under the available schemes, there has been considerably reduced levels of requests for financial support, thus future deployment rates will most likely be negatively affected. The prospects of these technologies in this context are then considered. - Highlights: ► Costs are often a significant barrier limiting distributed energy deployment. ► The economic downturn has reduced funding for policies aiding distributed energy. ► Installing decentralised energy technologies is now less financially-viable. ► This is now starting to negatively affect uptake rates of microgeneration.

  17. Hepatitis B Virus Coinfection Negatively Impacts HIV Outcomes in HIV Seroconverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Mollie P.; Hullsiek, Katherine Huppler; Thio, Chloe L.; Agan, Brian K.; Bradley, William P.; Peel, Sheila A.; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Ganesan, Anuradha; Wortmann, Glenn; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.; Maguire, Jason D.; Landrum, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    (See the editorial commentary by Peters and Marston, on pages 166–8.) Background. Understanding the impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection has been limited by heterogeneity of HIV disease. We evaluated HBV coinfection and HIV-related disease progression in a cohort of HIV seroconverters. Methods. Participants with HIV diagnosis seroconversion window of ≤3 years and serologically confirmed HBV infection (HB) status were classified at baseline into 4 HB groups. The risk of clinical AIDS/death in HIV seroconverters was calculated by HB status. Results. Of 2352 HIV seroconverters, 474 (20%) had resolved HB, 82 (3%) had isolated total antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb), and 64 (3%) had chronic HB. Unadjusted rates (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of clinical AIDS/death for the HB-negative, resolved HB, isolated HBcAb, and chronic HB groups were 2.43 (2.15–2.71); 3.27 (2.71–3.84); 3.75 (2.25–5.25); and 5.41 (3.41–7.42), respectively. The multivariable risk of clinical AIDS/death was significantly higher in the chronic HB group compared to the HB-negative group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.80; 95% CI, 1.20–2.69); while the HRs were increased but nonsignificant for those with resolved HB (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, .94–1.46) and isolated HBcAb (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, .75–1.75). Conclusions. HBV coinfection has a significant impact on HIV outcomes. The hazard for an AIDS or death event is almost double for those with chronic HB compared, with HIV-monoinfected persons. PMID:22147794

  18. The Impact of Negative Life Events on Attempted Suicide in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanzheng; Zhang, Jie

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of negative life events (NLEs) on attempted suicide in a Chinese cultural setting. The sample comprised 791 suicide attempters and an equal number of controls matched on age, sex, and location from selected rural counties in China. Conditional logistic regression model was used to examine the association between NLEs and suicide risk. The impact of NLEs on attempted suicide was further examined using regression-based method to explore its mediation effect. The types of NLEs that were most likely to precede a suicide attempt in rural sample included the events in marriage/love, family/home, and friend/relationship. Rural women were more likely to experience more interpersonal conflicts than rural men. Approximately 75.6% of suicide attempters had experienced at least one NLE, and NLEs were strongly associated with attempted suicide. Total effect (0.676), direct effect (0.501), and the total indirect effect (0.301) of NLEs on suicide attempts were significantly mediated by hopelessness and depression. NLEs play a crucial role in predicting suicidal attempt in rural China, and they are mediated by depression and hopelessness.

  19. Prognostic impact of anticardiolipin antibodies in women with recurrent miscarriage negative for the lupus anticoagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne

    2005-06-01

    Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are found with increased prevalence in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) but their impact on future pregnancy outcome in lupus anticoagulant (LAC) negative patients needs better quantification. The impact of a repeatedly positive ACA test on the chance of live birth in the next pregnancy after adjustment for relevant prognostic factors was studied in 147 RM patients who had been included in placebo-controlled trials of immunotherapy. Patients with LAC were excluded and none of the patients received therapy with anticoagulation or prednisone. 60/147 patients (41%) were repeatedly ACA positive according to cut-off values derived from this study. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for live birth among ACA positive patients was 0.36 (95% CI 0.2-0.7, P = 0.006). Using cut-off values derived from a normal population, the adjusted OR for live birth among ACA positive patients was 0.48 (95% CI 0.2-1.1, P = 0.10). Positivity for IgM ACA was found to be much stronger correlated to pregnancy outcome than IgG ACA. In RM women not receiving anticoagulation or prednisone, the presence of ACA in the absence of LAC most likely reduces the chance of live birth by 36-48% compared with the absence of both ACA and LAC. This reduction is inferior to what has been reported from studies where no adjustments for prognostic variables were undertaken and LAC positive patients were included.

  20. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  1. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won

    2012-01-01

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  2. Impact of maternal negative affectivity on light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Torgersen, Leila; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy.......To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy....

  3. Waddlia chondrophila, a Chlamydia-related bacterium, has a negative impact on human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, D; Vulliemoz, N; Ammerdorffer, A; Gyger, J; Greub, G; Castella, V; Stojanov, M

    2018-01-01

    What is the impact of Waddlia chondrophila, an emerging Chlamydia-related bacterium associated with miscarriage, on human spermatozoa? W. chondrophila had a negative impact on human spermatozoa (decrease in viability and mitochondrial membrane potential) and was not entirely removed from infected samples by density gradient centrifugation. Bacterial infection or colonization might have a deleterious effect on male fertility. Waddlia chondrophila was previously associated with miscarriage, but its impact on male reproductive function has never been studied. An in vitro model of human spermatozoa infection was used to assess the effects of W. chondrophila infection. Controls included Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D and latex beads with similar size to bacteria. Purified motile spermatozoa were infected with W. chondrophila (multiplicity of infection of 1). Immunohistochemistry combined with confocal microscopy was used to evaluate how bacteria interact with spermatozoa. The impact on physiology was assessed by monitoring cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation. Using super-resolution confocal microscopy, bacteria were localized on spermatozoa surface, as well as inside the cytoplasm. Compared to controls, W. chondrophila caused a 20% increase in mortality over 72 h of incubation (P impact of W. chondrophila. Intracellular bacteria, including C. trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma spp., are associated with male infertility. Waddlia chondrophila might represent yet another member of this group, highlighting the need for more rigorous microbiological analysis during investigations for male infertility. This work has been funded by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland, and by the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant nos. 310030-156169/1, 320030-169853/1 and 320030-169853/2 attributed to D.B.). D.B. is also supported by the 'Fondation Leenaards' through the 'Bourse pour la rel

  4. Impact of Negative Quality Inconsistency on Brand Loyalty – Case of Croatian Food Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ferenčić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Attracting and keeping consumers’ loyalty in Fast Moving Consumer Goods segment became the main concern for all producing companies and retailers, too. Many marketing researchers argue that product or service quality perception is one of the key elements in brand loyalty building process. When talking about food market, one has to be aware that food consumption has direct impact on human health and, in that context, process of building brand loyalty for food brands is not possible, or it can be hard, if the product quality of food brands is not on the expected level and according to defined food quality standards. The goal of this paper was to understand aspects of connection between food product quality and brand loyalty process better and to explore how problems with negative quality inconsistency in different food categories can influence brand loyalty. An empirical research (on-line survey was conducted to prove and explain the connection between food product quality and food brand loyalty. The research results shows that the main reasons for being loyal to a certain food brand or product are related mostly to positive brand experience, high and stabile product quality, and recognizable taste. In the context of these research results, it can be concluded that long term consumer satisfaction as a factor in food brand loyalty process depends on stabile product quality, so food manufacturers or food brand owners should be focused on preventing or minimizing the aspect of negative quality issues. Regarding research limitations, the study was conducted only on users from Croatian market; so broadening the survey to other markets should give a clearer view on the connection between food product quality and brand loyalty process.

  5. The negative impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on occupational health in adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Thomas; Haavik, Jan; Drexler, Hans; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Wermelskirchen, Detlef; Prutz, Christin; Schauble, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    To review the negative effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescence and adulthood on work productivity and occupational health. A review of the MEDLINE database was carried out to identify direct and indirect effects of ADHD on work, employment and occupational health. ADHD is associated with higher levels of unemployment versus controls. Adults with ADHD who are employed experience workplace impairment and reduced productivity, as well as behavioural issues such as irritability and low frustration tolerance. Adults with ADHD are also at increased risk of accidents, trauma and workplace injuries, particularly traffic accidents. Indirect effects of ADHD on occupational health include reduced educational achievement and increased rates of substance abuse and criminality. Overall, ADHD in adults has a substantial economic impact as a result of absenteeism and lost productivity. Psychoeducation, combined with stimulant medications if necessary, is recommended as first-line treatment for adults with ADHD. Limited data available suggest that stimulant treatment can improve work productivity and efficacy, and reduce the risks associated with driving, although further studies are necessary. ADHD can affect the ability to gain and maintain employment and to work safely and productively. As ADHD is a treatable condition, patients, employers and physicians have a role to play in ensuring optimal occupational health.

  6. Aortopathy in adults with tetralogy of Fallot has a negative impact on the left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Yumi; Murakami, Tomoaki; Kawamatsu, Naoto; Niwa, Koichiro

    2017-02-01

    Aortic pressure wave reflection is significantly elevated in patients with congenital heart disease, even in children. Excessive aortic pressure wave reflection provokes cardiovascular events. To assess the influences of the enhanced pressure wave reflection on the left ventricle (LV) in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Prospectively, 51 consecutive adults with repaired TOF (35.5±11.6yrs., 25 males) were enrolled and non-invasively assessed the pressure wave reflection using HEM 9000AI. A surrogate maker of the aortic pressure wave reflection, radial augmentation index (rAI) was calculated as reflection wave divided by ejection wave. We also evaluated LV function using echocardiography and magnetic resonance images. Patients were divided into two groups: group A with rAI≧1SD and group B with rAI<1SD. The mean rAI in repaired TOF was 76.9±14.3%. In group A, indexed ascending aortic diameter, LV global longitudinal strain (GLS), LV global circumferential strain (GCS), LV early diastolic strain rate (SR), LV E/A, LV e' were significantly higher than them in group B. The indexed ascending aortic diameter significantly correlated with rAI (r=0.31, P<0.05). On univariate logistic analysis, body surface area, indexed ascending aortic diameter, GLS, GCS, early diastolic SR, LV E/A, LV mass index and creatinine were predictive factors of rAI≧1SD. On multivariate logistic analysis, LV E/A was the most significant predictive factor of rAI≧1SD (Odds ratio 0.044, 95%CI 0.002-0.98 and P<0.05). Aortic pressure wave reflection in adults with repaired TOF has a negative impact on LV function, particularly on diastolic function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mobility limitations negatively impact work outcomes among Medicaid enrollees with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alexis D; Banks, Steven; Clark, Robin; Himmelstein, Jay

    2007-09-01

    Fear of losing health insurance is believed to be a significant work barrier for people with disabilities in the US. We examined the relationship of different types of daily activity limitations to work outcomes among adults with a variety of disabling conditions for whom the risk of losing health insurance has been removed by enrolling in a Medicaid buy-in (MBI) program. 1093 working-age adults with disabilities in the Massachusetts MBI program responded to the MassHealth Employment and Disability Survey, which provided data on the types of disabling conditions and activity limitations members experienced as well as three work outcomes--work status of members; annual earnings above substantial gainful activity of working members; and plans to work in the future of non-working members. Among different types of activity limitations, mobility limitations were generally associated with poorer work outcomes, regardless of disabling condition. Across members in three disability groups--psychiatric; physical; and co-occurring psychiatric and physical--those reporting mobility limitations were significantly less likely to be working or, if non-working, to be planning work than those reporting no or other types of limitations. There was an exception to this pattern with respect earnings among working members. Overall, work outcomes among members with co-occurring psychiatric and physical disabilities were most consistently negatively impacted by mobility limitations. Rehabilitation providers aiming to promote entry into the workforce need to be aware of the varied ways in which mobility limitations may create barriers for people with all types of disabilities.

  8. Impact of Negative Reactance on Definiteness of B-Matrix and Feasibility of DC Power Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Bo, Rui; Yang, Yongheng

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports an essential phenomenon on the existence of “negative reactance” in practical power system models. The negative reactance issue is important, as it could affect the definiteness of the B admittance matrix of power networks and the feasibility of DC power flow. With the graph...... theory, the B matrix can be treated as a Laplacian matrix. Several theorems and corollaries are given with proof to study the definiteness of the Laplacian matrix with negative weights. Based upon these theorems, the exploration in this paper demonstrates that the negative reactance may even result...

  9. Investigation of the Decelerating Field of an Electron Multiplier under Negative Ion Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Kjeldgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of the decelerating field of an electron multiplier towards negative ions was investigated under standard mass spectrometric conditions. Diminishing of this decelerating field by changing of the potential of the electron multiplier increased the overall sensitivity to negative ions...

  10. Client Violence and Its Negative Impacts on Work Attitudes of Child Protection Workers Compared to Community Service Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Junseob

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers…

  11. Evaluating the Impact of Increasing General Education Teachers' Ratio of Positive-to-Negative Interactions on Students' Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Clayton R.; Grady, Erin A.; Long, Anna C.; Renshaw, Tyler; Codding, Robin S.; Fiat, Aria; Larson, Madeline

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and evaluate the impact of increasing teachers' ratios of positive-to-negative interactions with their students. Training teachers on the 5:1 ratio was evaluated using a randomized-block pre-post control design with general education classroom teachers (N = 6) that were characterized by a higher ratio of…

  12. Impact of maternal negative affectivity on light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Torgersen, Leila; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Normann, Per T; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy. Cohort. Norway 1999-2008. The study includes complete information on 66 111 pregnant women and their partners. We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) representing 39% of the pregnant population. Light alcohol use (0.5-2 units one to four times per month) and binge drinking (an intake of 5 alcohol units or more) measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C). For each unit increase in maternal negative affectivity the odds for light alcohol use increased with 27% in the first trimester [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.36], and 28% in the second trimester (95% CI 1.18-1.39). With respect to binge drinking, each unit increase in maternal negative affectivity was associated with 55% higher odds in the first trimester (95% CI 1.44-1.67), and 114% higher odds in the second trimester (95% CI 1.70-2.69). Negative affectivity is associated with both light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy. The mechanisms mediating the relation between negative affectivity and alcohol use in pregnancy should be investigated further. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Modulation of sensorimotor circuits during retrieval of negative Autobiographical Memories: Exploring the impact of personality dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, Ludovico; Concerto, Carmen; Patel, Dhaval; Mayorga, Tyrone; Chusid, Eileen; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Aguglia, Eugenio; Sarraf, Yasmin; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2018-02-01

    Autobiographical Memory (AM) retrieval refers to recollection of experienced past events. Previous Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that presentation of emotional negative stimuli affects human motor cortex excitability resulting in larger motor evoked potentials (MEPs). Up to date no TMS studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of personal memories with negative emotional value on corticospinal excitability. In this study we hypothesized that negative AM retrieval will modulate corticomotor excitability and sensorimotor integration as determined by TMS neurophysiological parameters. Furthermore, we investigated whether TMS responses during retrieval of negative AM are associated with specific personality traits. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to recall either a negative or a neutral AM across two different days in a randomized order. During this memory retrieval, the following TMS parameters were recorded: MEPs; Short- interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and Intracortical facilitation (ICF); Short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) and Long- latency afferent inhibition (LAI). Personality traits were assessed by using the Big Five scale. Statistical analysis was performed using factorial ANOVAs and multiple linear regression models. When compared to retrieval of neutral AM, recollection of negative AM induced a larger increase in MEP amplitude, an increase in ICF, and a decrease in SAI. The neuroticism personality trait was a significant predictor of the MEP amplitude increase during retrieval of negative AM. Altogether these results indicate that cortical excitability and sensorimotor integration are selectively modulated by the valence of AM. These results provide the first TMS evidence that the modulatory effect of the AM retrieval is associated with specific personality traits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of negative childbirth experience on future reproductive decisions: A quantitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Shefaly; Yang, Yen Yen; Ang, Emily

    2018-02-02

    The aim of this study was to systematically retrieve, critique and synthesize available evidence regarding the association between negative childbirth experiences and future reproductive decisions. A child's birth is often a joyous event; however, there is a proportion of women who undergo negative childbirth experiences that have long-term implications on their reproductive decisions. A systematic review of quantitative studies was undertaken using Joanna Briggs Institute's methods. A search was carried out in CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science from January 1996 - July 2016. Studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were assessed by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute's Critical Appraisal Tools. Data were extracted under subheadings adapted from the institute's data extraction forms. Twelve studies, which examined either one or more influences of negative childbirth experiences, were identified. The included studies were either cohort or cross-sectional designs. Five studies observed positive associations between prior negative childbirth experiences and decisions to not have another child, three studies found positive associations between negative childbirth experiences and decisions to delay a subsequent birth and six studies concluded positive associations between negative childbirth experiences and maternal requests for caesarean section in subsequent pregnancies. To receive a holistic understanding on negative childbirth experiences, a suitable definition and validated measuring tools should be used to understand this phenomenon. Future studies or reviews should include a qualitative component and/or the exploration of specific factors such as cultural and regional differences that influence childbirth experiences. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Adding antidepressants to antipsychotics for treatment of subsyndromal depressive symptoms in schizophrenia: Impact on positive and negative symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahia, Ipsit V.; Lanouette, Nicole M.; Golshan, Shahrokh; Fellows, Ian; Mohamed, Somaia; Kasckow, John W.; Zisook, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: It remains unclear how augmenting anti-psychotic medications with anti-depressants impacts primary positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In this study, we used data collected from a randomized trial comparing citalopram to placebo for management of subsyndromal depression (SSD) in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, to assess the effects of antidepressant augmentation on positive and negative symptoms. Materials and Methods: Participants in this study conducted at the University of California, San Diego and the University of Cincinnati, were persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder aged 40 or older and who met study criteria for SSD. Patients were randomly assigned to flexible-dose treatment with citalopram or placebo augmentation of their current anti-psychotic medication. Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes in positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores between treatment groups. We also assessed mediating effects of improvement in depression and moderating effects of multiple factors on positive and negative symptoms. Results: There was significant improvement in PANSS negative symptoms scores in the citalopram group, which was partially mediated by improvement in depressive symptoms. There was no effect on PANSS positive scores. Conclusions: In patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, treating depressive symptoms with citalopram appears to carry the added benefit of improving negative symptoms. PMID:23825848

  16. Positive vs. Negative: The Impact of Question Polarity in Voting Advice Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouwel, André; van de Pol, Jasper; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Online Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) are survey-like instruments that help citizens to shape their political preferences and compare them with those of political parties. Especially in multi-party democracies, their increasing popularity indicates that VAAs play an important role in opinion formation for citizens, as well as in the public debate prior to elections. Hence, the objectivity and transparency of VAAs are crucial. In the design of VAAs, many choices have to be made. Extant research in survey methodology shows that the seemingly arbitrary choice to word questions positively (e.g., ‘The city council should allow cars into the city centre’) or negatively (‘The city council should ban cars from the city centre’) systematically affects the answers. This asymmetry in answers is in line with work on negativity bias in other areas of linguistics and psychology. Building on these findings, this study investigated whether question polarity also affects the answers to VAA statements. In a field experiment (N = 31,112) during the Dutch municipal elections we analysed the effects of polarity for 16 out of 30 VAA statements with a large variety of linguistic contrasts. Analyses show a significant effect of question wording for questions containing a wide range of implicit negations (such as ‘forbid’ vs. ‘allow’), as well as for questions with explicit negations (e.g., ‘not’). These effects of question polarity are found especially for VAA users with lower levels of political sophistication. As these citizens are an important target group for Voting Advice Applications, this stresses the need for VAA builders to be sensitive to wording choices when designing VAAs. This study is the first to show such consistent wording effects not only for political attitude questions with implicit negations in VAAs, but also for political questions containing explicit negations. PMID:27723776

  17. Invasive Impatiens parviflora has negative impact on native vegetation in oak-hornbeam forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Florianová, Anna; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 226, Jan 2017 (2017), s. 10-16 ISSN 0367-2530 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : small balsam * impact of invasive plant on vegetation * removal experiment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2016

  18. Impact of Metacognitive Acceptance on Body Dissatisfaction and Negative Affect: Engagement and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Melissa J.; Wade, Tracey D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate engagement in metacognitive acceptance and subsequent efficacy with respect to decreasing 2 risk factors for disordered eating, body dissatisfaction (BD), and negative affect (NA). Method: In a pilot experiment, 20 female undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 24.35, SD = 9.79) underwent a BD induction procedure, received…

  19. The impact of negative attentional set upon target processing in RSVP : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Dexuan; Zhou, Xiaolin; Martens, Sander

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether the negative attentional set, a form of top-down attentional bias, can be set up on a trial-by-trial basis and impair online target processing in an RSVP (Rapid Serial Visual Presentation) task in which two targets are to be identified. Using the N2pc (N2 posterior

  20. Do Digital Systems and Concept in Modern Public Service Production Have a Negative Impact on Citizens as End-Users?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    Do digital systems and concepts in modern public service production have a negative impact on citizens as end-users? To answer this research question, we shall first present our theoretical framework ‘the institutional logics perspective’ and show how we deploy this on modern public service...... production. Second, we claim that digital systems and concepts develop a new institutional logic within modern public service production: the ‘digital logic’. Third, we analyze and discuss the new logic´s possible impact on citizens as end-users. Fourth, we discuss the ethical dimensions of values and ethics...... in relation to public service production and digitizing....

  1. Do Digital Systems and Concept in Modern Public Service Production Have a Negative Impact on Citizens as End-Users?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    production. Second, we claim that digital systems and concepts develop a new institutional logic within modern public service production: the ‘digital logic’. Third, we analyze and discuss the new logic´s possible impact on citizens as end-users. Fourth, we discuss the ethical dimensions of values and ethics......Do digital systems and concepts in modern public service production have a negative impact on citizens as end-users? To answer this research question, we shall first present our theoretical framework ‘the institutional logics perspective’ and show how we deploy this on modern public service...

  2. Magnitude processing and complex calculation is negatively impacted by mathematics anxiety while retrieval-based simple calculation is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmin; Cho, Soohyun

    2017-01-26

    Mathematics anxiety (MA) refers to the experience of negative affect when engaging in mathematical activity. According to Ashcraft and Kirk (2001), MA selectively affects calculation with high working memory (WM) demand. On the other hand, Maloney, Ansari, and Fugelsang (2011) claim that MA affects all mathematical activities, including even the most basic ones such as magnitude comparison. The two theories make opposing predictions on the negative effect of MA on magnitude processing and simple calculation that make minimal demands on WM. We propose that MA has a selective impact on mathematical problem solving that likely involves processing of magnitude representations. Based on our hypothesis, MA will impinge upon magnitude processing even though it makes minimal demand on WM, but will spare retrieval-based, simple calculation, because it does not require magnitude processing. Our hypothesis can reconcile opposing predictions on the negative effect of MA on magnitude processing and simple calculation. In the present study, we observed a negative relationship between MA and performance on magnitude comparison and calculation with high but not low WM demand. These results demonstrate that MA has an impact on a wide range of mathematical performance, which depends on one's sense of magnitude, but spares over-practiced, retrieval-based calculation. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. The impact of taxing working memory on negative and positive memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris M. Engelhard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Earlier studies have shown that horizontal eye movement (EM during retrieval of a negative memory reduces its vividness and emotionality. This may be due to both tasks competing for working memory (WM resources. This study examined whether playing the computer game “Tetris” also blurs memory. Method: Participants recalled negative and positive memories in three conditions: recall only, recall with concurrent EM, and recall with playing Tetris. Before and after these conditions, vividness, emotionality, and physiological startle responses during recall were measured. Results: A reaction time task showed that EM and Tetris both draw on WM, compared to no dual-task. Compared to recall only, EM and Tetris decreased reported emotionality and startle responses. Conclusions: The effects of EM and Tetris did not differ, even though the tasks differed in the degree of taxing WM. This suggests that taxing WM and its effects on emotional memories may not be linearly related. Potential clinical implications are discussed.

  4. The impact of positive and negative intraoperative surgeons' leadership behaviors on surgical team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, Julian; Akers, Amy; Beiko, Darren

    2018-01-01

    The effects of surgeons' leadership on team performance are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the simultaneous effects of transformational, passive, abusive supervision and over-controlling leadership behaviors by surgeons on surgical team performance. Trained observers attended 150 randomly selected operations at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Observers recorded instances of the four leadership behaviors enacted by the surgeon. Postoperatively, team members completed validated questionnaires rating team cohesion and collective efficacy. Multiple regression analyses were computed. Data were analyzed using the complex modeling function in MPlus. Surgeons' abusive supervision was negatively associated with psychological safety (unstandardized B = -0.352, p leadership (unstandardized B = -0.230, p leadership behaviors on intraoperative team performance. Significant effects only surfaced for negative leadership behaviors; transformational leadership did not positively influence team performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Video-Games Do Not Negatively Impact Adolescent Academic Performance in Science, Mathematics or Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, Aaron; Sauer, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and readi...

  6. The negative impact of sugar-sweetened beverages on children’s health: an update of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara N. Bleich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While sugar sweetened beverage (SSB consumption has declined in the last 15 years, consumption of SSBs is still high among children and adolescents. This research synthesis updates a prior review on this topic and examines the evidence regarding the various health impacts of SSBs on children’s health (overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, dental caries, and caffeine-related effects. We searched PubMed, CAB Abstracts and PAIS International to identify cross-sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies examining the health impacts of SSBs in children published after January 1, 2007. We also searched reference lists of relevant articles. Overall, most studies found consistent evidence for the negative impact of SSBs on children’s health, with the strongest support for overweight/obesity risk and dental caries, and emerging evidence for insulin resistance and caffeine-related effects. The majority of evidence was cross-sectional highlighting the need for more longitudinal and intervention studies to address this research question. There is substantial evidence that SSBs increase the risk of overweight/obesity and dental caries and developing evidence for the negative impact of SSBs on insulin resistance and caffeine-related effects. The vast majority of literature supports the idea that a reduction in SSB consumption would improve children’s health.

  7. Evaluation of negative environmental impacts of electricity generation: Neoclassical and institutional approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang-Hoon Kim [University of Kyoto (Japan). Graduate School of Economics

    2007-01-15

    Neoclassical and institutional economics have developed different theories and methodologies for evaluating environmental and social impacts of electricity generation. The neoclassical approach valuates external costs, and the institutional approach uses social cost valuation and MCDM methods. This paper focuses on three dimensions: theoretical and methodological backgrounds; critical review of specific studies: methodologies, results, and limitations; and discussing their results and implications for environmental policy and further research. The two approaches lead to a common conclusion that fossil fuels and nuclear power show the highest environmental impact. Despite the common conclusion, the conclusion has limited implications for environmental policy because of the weakness of their methodologies. (author)

  8. Evaluation of negative environmental impacts of electricity generation: Neoclassical and institutional approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon [Graduate School of Economics, University of Kyoto, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: shkim7305@hotmail.com

    2007-01-15

    Neoclassical and institutional economics have developed different theories and methodologies for evaluating environmental and social impacts of electricity generation. The neoclassical approach valuates external costs, and the institutional approach uses social cost valuation and MCDM methods. This paper focuses on three dimensions: theoretical and methodological backgrounds; critical review of specific studies: methodologies, results, and limitations; and discussing their results and implications for environmental policy and further research. The two approaches lead to a common conclusion that fossil fuels and nuclear power show the highest environmental impact. Despite the common conclusion, the conclusion has limited implications for environmental policy because of the weakness of their methodologies.

  9. The Moderating Effect of the Negative Impact of Recent Life Events on the Relation between Intrinsic Religiosity and Death Ideation in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R.; Poindexter, Erin K.; Graham, Ryan D.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers tested the hypothesis that the negative impact of recent life events would moderate the relationship between intrinsic religiosity and death ideation in older adults. Participants (n = 272) completed assessments of death ideation, intrinsic religiosity, and negative impact of recent life events. We confirmed the presence of concurrent…

  10. The impact of positive and negative income changes on the height and weight of young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.; Oosterbeek, H.; Plug, E.; Ponce, J.; Rosero, J.

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the impact of changes in unearned income on the height and weight of young children in a developing country. As source of variation we use changes in the eligibility criteria for receipt of an unconditional cash transfer in Ecuador. Two years after families lost the transfer, which they

  11. The impact of positive and negative income changes on the height and weight of young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.; Oosterbeek, H.; Plug, E.; Ponce, J.; Rosero, J.

    2017-01-01

    We estimate the impact of changes in unearned income on the height and weight of young children in a developing country. As source of variation we use changes in the eligibility criteria for receipt of an unconditional cash transfer in Ecuador. Two years after families lost the transfer, which they

  12. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tudor, Jennifer C; Luczak, Vincent G; Hansen, Rolf T; Ferri, Sarah L; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Poplawski, Shane G; Day, Jonathan P; Aton, Sara J; Radwańska, Kasia; Meerlo, Peter; Houslay, Miles D; Baillie, George S; Abel, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Brief periods of sleep loss have long-lasting consequences such as impaired memory consolidation. Structural changes in synaptic connectivity have been proposed as a substrate of memory storage. Here, we examine the impact of brief periods of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure. In mice, we

  13. Measuring the impact of negative demand shocks on car dealer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albuquerque, P.; Bronnenberg, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the behavior of consumers, dealers, and manufacturers in the car sector and present an approach that can be used by managers and policy makers to investigate the impact of significant demand shocks on profits, prices, and dealer networks. More specifically, we

  14. Voice Matters: Buffering the Impact of a Negative Climate for Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Isis H.; Cortina, Lilia M.; Stewart, Abigail J.; Malley, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined whether women scientists' perceptions of voice moderate the impact of poor workplace climates on job satisfaction and whether effective leadership and mentoring promote women's voice. Survey data were collected from 135 faculty women in the natural sciences. The results from multiple regression analyses indicated that…

  15. Phylloplane bacteria increase the negative impact of food limitation on insect fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olson, Grant L.; Myers, Judith H.; Hemerik, Lia; Cory, Jenny S.

    2017-01-01

    1. When populations of herbivorous insects increase in density, they can alter the quantity or quality of their food. The impacts of diet-related stressors on insect fitness have been investigated singly, but not simultaneously. 2. Foliage quantity and quality of red alder, Alnus rubra, were

  16. Clinical impact of delayed catheter removal for patients with central-venous-catheter-related Gram-negative bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y-M; Moon, C; Kim, Y J; Lee, H J; Lee, M S; Park, K-H

    2018-01-10

    Gram-negative bacteria are increasingly the cause of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI), and the prevalence of multi-drug-resistant strains is rising rapidly. This study evaluated the impact of delayed central venous catheter (CVC) removal on clinical outcomes in patients with Gram-negative CRBSI. Between January 2007 and December 2016, patients with Gram-negative bacteraemia and CVC placement, from two tertiary care hospitals, were included retrospectively. Cases with CVC removal more than three days after onset of bacteraemia or without CVC removal were classified as having delayed CVC removal. In total, 112 patients were included. Of these, 78 had CRBSI (43 definite and 35 probable) and 34 had Gram-negative bacteraemia from another source (non-CRBSI). Enterobacteriaceae were less common pathogens in patients with CRBSI than in patients with non-CRBSI (11.5% vs 41.3%; P0.99). Delayed CVC removal [odds ratio (OR) 6.8], multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteraemia (OR 6.3) and chronic renal failure (OR 11.1) were associated with 30-day mortality in patients with CRBSI. The protective effect of early CVC removal on mortality was evident in the MDR group (48.3% vs 18.2%; P=0.03), but not in the non-MDR group (11.1% vs 0%; P=0.43). CVCs should be removed early to improve clinical outcomes in patients with Gram-negative CRBSI, especially in settings where MDR isolates are prevalent. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of bullying victimization on suicide and negative health behaviors among adolescents in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Matthew L; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    To compare the prevalence of bullying victimization, suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts, and negative health behaviors (current tobacco use, recent heavy alcohol use, truancy, involvement in physical fighting, and unprotected sexual intercourse) in five different Latin American countries and determine the association of bullying victimization with these outcomes, exploring both bullying type and frequency. Study data were from Global School-based Student Health Surveys from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Peru, and Uruguay, which covered nationally representative samples of school-going adolescents. The surveys used a two-stage clustered sample design, sampling schools and then classrooms. Logistic regression models were run to determine the statistical significance of associations with bullying. Among the 14 560 school-going adolescents included in this study, the prevalence of any bullying victimization in the past 30 days was 37.8%. Bullying victimization was associated with greater odds of suicidal ideation with planning (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.12; P bullying victimization on suicide outcomes was also observed. Bullying victimization was associated with higher odds of current tobacco use (AOR: 2.14; P bullying victimization varied by country, its association with suicidal ideation and behavior and negative health behaviors remained relatively consistent. Addressing bullying needs to be made a priority in Latin America, and an integrated approach that also includes mental and physical health promotion is needed.

  18. Rethinking a Negative Event: The Affective Impact of Ruminative versus Imagery-Based Processing of Aversive Autobiographical Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Slofstra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRuminative (abstract verbal processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories evokes weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. In the current study, we hypothesized that abstract verbal or concrete verbal processing of an aversive autobiographical memory would result in weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing.MethodsThe affective impact of abstract verbal versus concrete verbal versus imagery-based processing during recall of an aversive autobiographical memory was investigated in a non-clinical sample (n = 99 using both an observational and an experimental design. Observationally, it was examined whether spontaneous use of processing modes (both state and trait measures was associated with impact of aversive autobiographical memory recall on negative and positive affect. Experimentally, the causal relation between processing modes and affective impact was investigated by manipulating the processing mode during retrieval of the same aversive autobiographical memory.ResultsMain findings were that higher levels of trait (but not state measures of both ruminative and imagery-based processing and depressive symptomatology were positively correlated with higher levels of negative affective impact in the observational part of the study. In the experimental part, no main effect of processing modes on affective impact of autobiographical memories was found. However, a significant moderating effect of depressive symptomatology was found. Only for individuals with low levels of depressive symptomatology, concrete verbal (but not abstract verbal processing of the aversive autobiographical memory did result in weaker affective responses, compared to imagery-based processing.DiscussionThese results cast doubt

  19. Rethinking a Negative Event: The Affective Impact of Ruminative versus Imagery-Based Processing of Aversive Autobiographical Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slofstra, Christien; Eisma, Maarten C; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Nauta, Maaike H

    2017-01-01

    Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories evokes weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. In the current study, we hypothesized that abstract verbal or concrete verbal processing of an aversive autobiographical memory would result in weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. The affective impact of abstract verbal versus concrete verbal versus imagery-based processing during recall of an aversive autobiographical memory was investigated in a non-clinical sample ( n  = 99) using both an observational and an experimental design. Observationally, it was examined whether spontaneous use of processing modes (both state and trait measures) was associated with impact of aversive autobiographical memory recall on negative and positive affect. Experimentally, the causal relation between processing modes and affective impact was investigated by manipulating the processing mode during retrieval of the same aversive autobiographical memory. Main findings were that higher levels of trait (but not state) measures of both ruminative and imagery-based processing and depressive symptomatology were positively correlated with higher levels of negative affective impact in the observational part of the study. In the experimental part, no main effect of processing modes on affective impact of autobiographical memories was found. However, a significant moderating effect of depressive symptomatology was found. Only for individuals with low levels of depressive symptomatology, concrete verbal (but not abstract verbal) processing of the aversive autobiographical memory did result in weaker affective responses, compared to imagery-based processing. These results cast doubt on the hypothesis that ruminative processing of

  20. Causes and Predictability of the Negative Indian Ocean Dipole and Its Impact on La Niña During 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H

    2017-10-03

    In the latter half of 2016 Indonesia and Australia experienced extreme wet conditions and East Africa suffered devastating drought, which have largely been attributed to the occurrence of strong negative Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and weak La Niña. Here we examine the causes and predictability of the strong negative IOD and its impact on the development of La Niña in 2016. Analysis on atmosphere and ocean reanalyses and forecast sensitivity experiments using the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's dynamical seasonal forecast system reveals that this strong negative IOD, which peaked in July-September, developed primarily by the Indian Ocean surface and subsurface conditions. The long-term trend over the last 55 years in sea surface and subsurface temperatures, which is characterised by warming of the tropical Indian and western Pacific and cooling in the equatorial eastern Pacific, contributed positively to the extraordinary strength of this IOD. We further show that the strong negative IOD was a key promoter of the weak La Niña of 2016. Without the remote forcing from the IOD, this weak La Niña may have been substantially weaker because of the extraordinarily long-lasting warm surface condition over the dateline from the tail end of strong El Niño of 2015-16.

  1. Effects of a Negative G Strap on Restraint Dynamics and Human Impact Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    experiments. One fracture occurred at a peak acceleration below 20 G, but with a relatively high velocity change of 57 ft/sec ( Lovelace et al 1945...and R. C. Reboulet, October 1978, Photometric Methods for the Analsis of Human Kinematic Responses to Impact Environments, AMRL-TR-78-94 ( ADA -062006...Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Lovelace , R., E. Baldes, and V. Wulff, August 1945, The Ejection Seat for Emergency Escape from High-Speed Aircraft

  2. Negative Impacts of Human Land Use on Dung Beetle Functional Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Barragán, Felipe; Moreno, Claudia E.; Escobar, Federico; Halffter, Gonzalo; Navarrete, Dario

    2011-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity caused by human activity is assumed to alter ecosystem functioning. However our understanding of the magnitude of the effect of these changes on functional diversity and their impact on the dynamics of ecological processes is still limited. We analyzed the functional diversity of copro-necrophagous beetles under different conditions of land use in three Mexican biosphere reserves. In Montes Azules pastures, forest fragments and continuous rainforest were analyzed, in ...

  3. The negative impact of unilateral coercive measures on human rights, development, cooperation, international relations

    OpenAIRE

    ABASHIDZE A.KH.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents abstracts of Prof. Abashidze’s speech at the International Seminar on the Impact of Economic and Financial Sanctions on the Enjoyment of Human Rights (Islamic Republic of Iran, Tehran, 15 December 2014). The main conclusion, made by the author is the following: in frames of globalization, the more interrelatedness and interdependence of States, the unilateral application of coercive measures (sanctions) of economic and financial character by States or group of States and t...

  4. Negative impacts of invasive plants on conservation of sensitive desert wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, K. Kristina; Bowen, Lizabeth; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Berger, Andrew J.; Custer, Nathan; Waters, Shannon C.; Johnson, Jay D.; Miles, A. Keith; Lewison, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat disturbance from development, resource extraction, off-road vehicle use, and energy development ranks highly among threats to desert systems worldwide. In the Mojave Desert, United States, these disturbances have promoted the establishment of nonnative plants, so that native grasses and forbs are now intermixed with, or have been replaced by invasive, nonnative Mediterranean grasses. This shift in plant composition has altered food availability for Mojave Desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), a federally listed species. We hypothesized that this change in forage would negatively influence the physiological ecology, immune competence, and health of neonatal and yearling tortoises. To test this, we monitored the effects of diet on growth, body condition, immunological responses (measured by gene transcription), and survival for 100 captive Mojave tortoises. Tortoises were assigned to one of five diets: native forbs, native grass, invasive grass, and native forbs combined with either the native or invasive grass. Tortoises eating native forbs had better body condition and immune functions, grew more, and had higher survival rates (>95%) than tortoises consuming any other diet. At the end of the experiment, 32% of individuals fed only native grass and 37% fed only invasive grass were found dead or removed from the experiment due to poor body conditions. In contrast, all tortoises fed either the native forb or combined native forb and native grass diets survived and were in good condition. Health and body condition quickly declined for tortoises fed only the native grass (Festuca octoflora) or invasive grass (Bromus rubens) with notable loss of fat and muscle mass and increased muscular atrophy. Bromus rubens seeds were found embedded in the oral mucosa and tongue in most individuals eating that diet, which led to mucosal inflammation. Genes indicative of physiological, immune, and metabolic functions were transcribed at lower levels for individuals fed B

  5. Eyewitness memory: The impact of a negative mood during encoding and/or retrieval upon recall of a non-emotive event.

    OpenAIRE

    Thorley, C.; Dewhurst, S.A.; Abel, J.W.; Knott, L.

    2015-01-01

    The police often appeal for eyewitnesses to events that were unlikely to have been emotive when observed. An eyewitness, however, may be in a negative mood whilst encoding or retrieving such events as mood can be influenced by a range of personal, social, and environmental factors. For example, bad weather can induce a negative mood. This experiment compared the impact of negative and neutral moods during encoding and/or retrieval upon eyewitness recall of a non-emotive event. A negative mood...

  6. [Social representation of pregnancy in adolescence: appraisal of dominant attitudes and others of negative impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufort, Francine; Boucher, Kathleen; Guilbert, Edith; Saint-Laurent, Louise; Fortin-Pellerin, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to gather information on the social representations of teenage pregnancy among adolescents, aged between 15 and 17. Eighteen focus groups were conducted among 150 boys and girls. The data were subjected to a qualitative content analysis. Results show that youths did not form homogeneous groups. The points of view expressed gave rise to 4 dimensions (emotive, reflexive, psychobiological, economic-social) and 4 positions (negative, positive, ambivalent and dynamic). From these dimensions and positions, 4 representations of teenage pregnancy were identified: pregnancy as a problem, pregnancy as a project, pregnancy as a source of tension, and pregnancy as a source of power. This study illustrates the importance of educative strategies such as going beyond alarmist preventive messages, opening dialogue with and between youngsters, and promoting social support and mutual aid.

  7. The negative impact of intentionally introduced Quercus rubra L. on a forest community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Woziwoda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some alien woody species used in commercial forestry become invasive and, as invaders, cause major problems in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the deliberate introduction of aliens can bring unintended negative changes also within areas of their cultivation. This paper presents the effects of the intentional introduction of the North-American Quercus rubra in European mixed Scots pine-Pedunculate oak forests (POFs: Querco roboris-Pinetum (W. Mat. 1981 J. Mat. 1988. Phytosociological data from field research combined with GIS data analysis of the current distribution of Northern Red oak in the studied habitat were used to determine the composition and structure of forest communities in plots with and without Q. rubra participation.  The results show that Q. rubra significantly reduces native species richness and abundance, both in old-growth and in secondary (post-agricultural forests. Not one resident vascular plant benefits from the introduction of Northern Red oak and only a few are able to tolerate its co-occurrence. The natural restocking of all native woody species is also strongly limited by this alien tree.  The introduction of Northern Red oak significantly limits the environmental functions of the POF ecosystem and weakens its economic and social aspects. However, its further cultivation is justified from an economic point of view, as the essential function of the studied forests is commercial timber production, and the introduction of this fast growing alien tree supports the provisioning ecosystem services. A clear description of the level of trade-off between the accepted negative and positive effects of the introduction of Q. rubra on forest ecosystem services requires further interdisciplinary studies.

  8. Impact of BRCA Mutation Status on Survival of Women With Triple-negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Siddhartha; Ladkany, Rand; Yadav, Dhiraj; Alhalabi, Omar; Khaddam, Sinan; Isaac, Daniel; Cardenas, Paola Yumpo; Zakalik, Dana

    2017-12-30

    The effect of germline BRCA mutations on the outcomes of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is not well understood. The present retrospective study included women with newly diagnosed TNBC from January 1, 2004 to December 30, 2013. The demographic and tumor characteristics, genetic testing results, and outcomes were collected by a review of the patients' medical records. The outcomes were compared between the BRCA + and BRCA - women. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted for survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the predictors of recurrence-free survival. A total of 266 TNBC patients who had undergone BRCA testing were included in the final analysis. Of the 266 patients, 72 (27.0%) tested positive for a pathogenic BRCA mutation and 194 (73.0%) tested negative. BRCA + women were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer at a younger age than were the BRCA - women. Mutation carriers were also more likely to undergo bilateral mastectomy and less likely to receive radiation. The 2- and 5-year overall survival in BRCA + women was 97.1% and 83.1% and was 97.3% and 89.7% in the BRCA - women, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found in overall survival between the BRCA + and BRCA - group. No statistically significant difference was noted in the rate of locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, or recurrence-free survival between the BRCA + and BRCA - women. Our study has demonstrated that BRCA mutation carrier status does not affect overall survival or recurrence-free survival in patients with TNBC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of bullying victimization on suicide and negative health behaviors among adolescents in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Romo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To compare the prevalence of bullying victimization, suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts, and negative health behaviors (current tobacco use, recent heavy alcohol use, truancy, involvement in physical fighting, and unprotected sexual intercourse in five different Latin American countries and determine the association of bullying victimization with these outcomes, exploring both bullying type and frequency. Methods Study data were from Global School–based Student Health Surveys from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Peru, and Uruguay, which covered nationally representative samples of school-going adolescents. The surveys used a two-stage clustered sample design, sampling schools and then classrooms. Logistic regression models were run to determine the statistical significance of associations with bullying. Results Among the 14 560 school-going adolescents included in this study, the prevalence of any bullying victimization in the past 30 days was 37.8%. Bullying victimization was associated with greater odds of suicidal ideation with planning (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 3.12; P < 0.0001 and at least one suicide attempt (AOR: 3.07; P < 0.0001. An increasing exposure–response effect of increasing days of bullying victimization on suicide outcomes was also observed. Bullying victimization was associated with higher odds of current tobacco use (AOR: 2.14; P < 0.0001; truancy (AOR: 1.76; P < 0.0001; physical fighting (AOR: 2.40; P < 0.0001; and unprotected sexual intercourse (AOR: 1.77; P < 0.0001. Conclusions Although the prevalence of bullying victimization varied by country, its association with suicidal ideation and behavior and negative health behaviors remained relatively consistent. Addressing bullying needs to be made a priority in Latin America, and an integrated approach that also includes mental and physical health promotion is needed.

  10. Impacts of higher-order dispersions and saturable nonlinearities on modulation instability in negative-refractive metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xian-Qiong; Cheng, Ke; Xiang, An-Ping

    2013-03-01

    On the basis of the standard linear stability analysis and Drude electromagnetic model, the impacts of higher-order dispersions and three kinds of typical saturable nonlinearities on modulation instability (MI) have been analyzed and calculated for negative-refractive metamaterials (MMs). Our results show that the MI gain spectra consist of only one spectral region instead of one or two regions in ordinary materials, which may be close to or far from the zero point. Particularly, the spectrum far from the zero point has a high cut-off frequency but a narrow spectral width, which is obviously beneficial to the generation of high-repetition-rate pulse trains. Moreover, MI characteristics here will vary with the normalized angular frequency which can be modified by adjusting the structures of negative-refractive MMs, signifying the controllability of bistable solitons and MI based applications. The effects of saturable nonlinearities are similar to those in ordinary materials.

  11. Perceived consequences of evolution: College students perceive negative personal and social impact in evolutionary theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Sarah K.; Ranney, Michael; Schindel, Jennifer

    2003-03-01

    Evolutionary science has consequences for individuals and society, ranging from the way we interpret human behavior to our notions of spirituality and the purpose of our existence. Popular portrayals of evolution depict a paradoxical theory, a source of knowledge and human connections, but also a threat to our humanity and freedom. Using quantitative and qualitative methodology, we examined how college-educated adults (n = 135) from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds perceive the impact of evolutionary theory on individuals and society. We identified a continuum of perspectives, ranging from strong creationist to strong evolutionist. Using the model of knowledge as an ecology (Demastes, Good, & Peebles, Science Education, 79, 637-666, 1995; Nardi & O'Day, Information ecologies: Using technology with heart, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999), we examined the relationships among participants' beliefs, their perceptions regarding the social and personal impact of evolutionary theory, their prior exposure to and knowledge of evolutionary theory, and their opinions regarding the teaching of evolution. Evolutionists and creationists differed in their prior exposure to evolutionary theory, and their opinions about some aspects of teaching, but showed striking similarities regarding perceived impact. All groups viewed the consequences of accepting evolutionary principles in a way that might be considered undesirable: increased selfishness and racism, decreased spirituality, and a decreased sense of purpose and self-determination. From a science education perspective, this one-sided interpretation is troublesome because it runs counter to the available evidence and theories in evolutionary science, and we consider ways of fostering more balanced presentation and appraisal of evolutionary theory.

  12. A critical realist perspective on decoupling negative environmental impacts from housing sector growth and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jin

    2012-01-01

    be increased at a rate sufficient to compensate for continual growth in the volume of housing stock. A further elaboration of the topic at an ontological level leads to the conclusion that continual economic growth and long-term environmental sustainability can hardly be combined....... this question from the position of critical realism. An empirical study focusing on the housing sector is conducted, indicating that housing stock growth and economic growth have been, at best, weakly decoupled from environmental impacts. In the long run, it seems implausible that the degree of decoupling can...

  13. Life cycle assessment as a method of limitation of a negative environment impact of castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Casting production constitutes environmental problems going far beyond the foundry plant area. Applying a notion of the life cycle the input (suppliers side and output factors (clients side can be identified. The foundry plant activities for the environment hazard mitigation can be situated on various stages of the casting life cycle. The environment impact of motorisation castings made of different materials – during the whole life cycle of castings – are discussed in the paper. It starts from the charge material production, then follows via the casting process, car assembly, car exploitation and ends at the car breaking up for scrap.

  14. Native bees buffer the negative impact of climate warming on honey bee pollination of watermelon crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Romina; Reilly, James; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Winfree, Rachael

    2013-10-01

    If climate change affects pollinator-dependent crop production, this will have important implications for global food security because insect pollinators contribute to production for 75% of the leading global food crops. We investigate whether climate warming could result in indirect impacts upon crop pollination services via an overlooked mechanism, namely temperature-induced shifts in the diurnal activity patterns of pollinators. Using a large data set on bee pollination of watermelon crops, we predict how pollination services might change under various climate change scenarios. Our results show that under the most extreme IPCC scenario (A1F1), pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline by 14.5%, whereas pollination services provided by most native, wild taxa are predicted to increase, resulting in an estimated aggregate change in pollination services of +4.5% by 2099. We demonstrate the importance of native biodiversity in buffering the impacts of climate change, because crop pollination services would decline more steeply without the native, wild pollinators. More generally, our study provides an important example of how biodiversity can stabilize ecosystem services against environmental change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Impact analyses for negative flexural responses (hogging) in railway prestressed concrete sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewunruen, S.; Ishida, T.; Remennikov, AM

    2016-09-01

    By nature, ballast interacts with railway concrete sleepers in order to provide bearing support to track system. Most train-track dynamic models do not consider the degradation of ballast over time. In fact, the ballast degradation causes differential settlement and impact forces acting on partial and unsupported tracks. Furthermore, localised ballast breakages underneath railseat increase the likelihood of centrebound cracks in concrete sleepers due to the unbalanced support under sleepers. This paper presents a dynamic finite element model of a standard-gauge concrete sleeper in a track system, taking into account the tensionless nature of ballast support. The finite element model was calibrated using static and dynamic responses in the past. In this paper, the effects of centre-bound ballast support on the impact behaviours of sleepers are highlighted. In addition, it is the first to demonstrate the dynamic effects of sleeper length on the dynamic design deficiency in concrete sleepers. The outcome of this study will benefit the rail maintenance criteria of track resurfacing in order to restore ballast profile and appropriate sleeper/ballast interaction.

  16. Impact of negative affectivity and trait forgiveness on aortic blood pressure and coronary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; May, Ross W; Koutnik, Andrew P; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-02-01

    Prior research suggests that negative affectivity (NA) may have a direct adverse effect on coronary circulation, whereas forgiveness may provide cardioprotection. This study examined whether NA and forgiveness were independently related to aortic hemodynamics and the subendocardial viability index (SVI), a marker of coronary perfusion. A sample of 131 adults (M = 21.11 years, SD = 2.52) were evaluated for NA (depression, anxiety, and anger symptoms) and forgiveness (Tendency to Forgive Scale; TTF). Aortic hemodynamic parameters via applanation tonometry were assessed at rest and during sympathostimulation (cold pressor test; CPT). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses of resting values showed that NA was related to higher aortic blood pressure (ABP) and lower SVI. After controlling for demographics and for NA, TTF scores were significantly associated with decreased ABP, but increased SVI. CPT changes from baseline indicated that, after controlling for demographics and NA, TTF scores were significantly associated with SVI. Results indicate that NA significantly predicts ABP and decreased SVI. Conversely, forgiveness seems to provide cardioprotection by evoking decreased ABP while improving SVI. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia moderates the impact of maternal prenatal anxiety on infant negative affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Mikko J; Mäkelä, Tiina; Paavonen, E Juulia; Vierikko, Elina; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Paunio, Tiina; Hietanen, Jari K; Kylliäinen, Anneli

    2017-03-01

    Maternal prenatal anxiety is associated with infants' temperamental negative affectivity (NA), but it is unclear to what extent children vary in their susceptibility to prenatal influences. We tested a hypothesis that infants' respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of parasympathetic vagal tone and a potential marker of differential susceptibility to environmental influences, moderates the effects of maternal prenatal anxiety on the development of infant NA. Prenatal anxiety was assessed during the last trimester of pregnancy in a low-risk community sample. Infant NA, baseline RSA, and maternal postnatal anxiety were assessed at 8-10 months of infant age. Regression analyses were performed to predict infant NA on the basis of prenatal anxiety, infant baseline RSA, and their interaction (N = 173). Maternal prenatal anxiety and infant RSA interactively predicted infant NA at 8-10 months. Among infants with high RSA, a significant positive association between prenatal anxiety and infant NA was observed, whereas prenatal anxiety did not predict infant NA among infants with low RSA. Vagal tone, as indexed by baseline RSA, may provide a promising marker of differential susceptibility to the long-term effects of varying intrauterine conditions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Enhanced interannual precipitation variability increases plant functional diversity that in turn ameliorates negative impact on productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2015-12-01

    Although precipitation interannual variability is projected to increase due to climate change, effects of changes in precipitation variance have received considerable less attention than effects of changes in the mean state of climate. Interannual precipitation variability effects on functional diversity and its consequences for ecosystem functioning are assessed here using a 6-year rainfall manipulation experiment. Five precipitation treatments were switched annually resulting in increased levels of precipitation variability while maintaining average precipitation constant. Functional diversity showed a positive response to increased variability due to increased evenness. Dominant grasses decreased and rare plant functional types increased in abundance because grasses showed a hump-shaped response to precipitation with a maximum around modal precipitation, whereas rare species peaked at high precipitation values. Increased functional diversity ameliorated negative effects of precipitation variability on primary production. Rare species buffered the effect of precipitation variability on the variability in total productivity because their variance decreases with increasing precipitation variance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Prolactin Pro-Differentiation Pathway in Triple Negative Breast Cancer: Impact on Prognosis and Potential Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ozuna, Vanessa M.; Hachim, Ibrahim Y.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques; Ali, Suhad

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease associated with poor clinical outcome and lack of targeted therapy. Here we show that prolactin (PRL) and its signaling pathway serve as a sub-classifier and predictor of pro-differentiation therapy in TNBC. Using immunohistochemistry and various gene expression in silica analyses we observed that prolactin receptor (PRLR) protein and mRNA levels are down regulated in TNBC cases. In addition, examining correlation of PRLR gene expression with metagenes of TNBC subtypes (580 cases), we found that PRLR gene expression sub-classifies TNBC patients into a new subgroup (TNBC-PRLR) characterized by epithelial-luminal differentiation. Importantly, gene expression of PRL signaling pathway components individually (PRL, PRLR, Jak2 and Stat5a), or as a gene signature is able to predict TNBC patients with significantly better survival outcomes. As PRL hormone is a druggable target we determined the biological role of PRL in TNBC biology. Significantly, restoration/activation of PRL pathway in TNBC cells representative of mesenchymal or TNBC-PRLR subgroups led to induction of epithelial phenotype and suppression of tumorigenesis. Altogether, these results offer potential new modalities for TNBC stratification and development of personalized therapy based on PRL pathway activation. PMID:27480353

  20. Negative Impacts of the Neo-liberal Policies on the Banking Sector in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitsa Rangelova Pavlova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 1970s until the last global financial and economic crisis in 2008-2009, neo-liberal ideas guided economic policy development. It is worth noting that the Central and Eastern European countries transformed their economies from centrally planned to а market type at the peak of the liberal policies. Bulgaria offers a particularly interesting example because the country encountered a very difficult transition from one extreme of an economic system organization to another. The paper considers the reforms in the Bulgarian banking sector during the transition period from a centrally planned to a market type economy (from 1989 onward through the implementation of neo-liberal policies. The development of the banking sector and its transformation is analyzed throughout the two main periods: before and after the transition. The latter is divided into two sub-periods (phases beginning with the early 1990s, followed by the financial and bank crisis in the country, the introduction of a currency board regime in 1997, and stabilization, and ending with the global crisis in 2008-2009. This article summarizes that during the transition period, a modern banking system was established to accumulate profit rather than to promote economic growth. Following a chronological order, the negative effects of the liberalization of the Bulgarian banking sector are specified: the exportation of ownership (and control upon banking system assets, unfair asset redistribution, the emergence of the local oligarchy, the weak protection of the taxpayers and others.

  1. Paternal age: Negative impact on sperm genome decays and IVF outcomes after 40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarouch, Ismail; Bouamoud, Nouzha; Madkour, Aicha; Louanjli, Noureddine; Saadani, Brahim; Assou, Said; Aboulmaouahib, Smahane; Amzazi, Saaid; Copin, Henri; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Sefrioui, Omar

    2018-02-02

    This study assessed sperm quality declining on relation to paternal age and its impact on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in order to estimate the APA (Advanced Paternal Age) cutoff. For this, 83 couples undergoing IVF treatment for male factor infertility were enrolled. The women age was ≤39 years, whereas the men were divided in two groups: APA (n = 41; age ≥ 40 years) and young (Y) (n = 42; age age as indicated by the rates of cancelled embryo transfers, clinical pregnancy and miscarriage in the two groups APA and Y (29%, 17%, and 60% vs. 10%, 32%, and 42%). Finally, statistical analysis of the results suggests that the age of 40 should be considered as the APA cutoff during ART attempts. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Negative Impact of Stark Law Exemptions on Graduate Medical Education and Health Care Costs: The Example of Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anscher, Mitchell S.; Anscher, Barbara M.; Bradley, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To survey radiation oncology training programs to determine the impact of ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists on these training programs and to place these findings in a health policy context based on data from the literature. Methods and Materials: A survey was designed and e-mailed to directors of all 81 U.S. radiation oncology training programs in this country. Also, the medical and health economic literature was reviewed to determine the impact that ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists may have on patient care and health care costs. Prostate cancer treatment is used to illustrate the primary findings. Results: Seventy-three percent of the surveyed programs responded. Ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists is a widespread phenomenon. More than 50% of survey respondents reported the existence of these arrangements in their communities, with a resultant reduction in patient volumes 87% of the time. Twenty-seven percent of programs in communities with these business arrangements reported a negative impact on residency training as a result of decreased referrals to their centers. Furthermore, the literature suggests that ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists is associated with both increased utilization and increased costs but is not associated with increased access to services in traditionally underserved areas. Conclusions: Ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists appears to have a negative impact on residency training by shifting patients away from training programs and into community practices. In addition, the literature supports the conclusion that self-referral results in overutilization of expensive services without benefit to patients. As a result of these findings, recommendations are made to study further how physician ownership of radiation oncology facilities influence graduate

  3. Impact of a negative emotional antitobacco mass media campaign on French smokers: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Romain; Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Mons, Ute; Hummel, Karin; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt

    2018-01-13

    Mass media campaigns to encourage smoking cessation have been shown to be effective in a context of comprehensive tobacco control programme. The effectiveness of antismoking ads that evoke negative emotions remains unclear, in particular in countries with high smoking prevalence and among smokers with low perceived susceptibility, low self-efficacy or who are not users of smoking cessation services. To evaluate short-term and long-term effects of a 1-month French national highly emotional media campaign, with a focus on these specific targets. A 6-month longitudinal survey by Internet. A sample of 3000 smokers were interviewed before the media campaign (T0). They were contacted again just after (T1) and 6 months after the campaign (T2). Perceived susceptibility to the risks of smoking, self-efficacy to quit smoking, use of smoking cessation services (quitline and website) and 7-day quitting. The analysis was carried out on 2241 individuals who answered at T1 and T2. Multiple logistic regressions were computed to test the association between the change in each outcome at T1 and T2 and the level of exposure based on self-reported recall. Self-reported recall was associated with an increase in perceived susceptibility and with use of cessation services. Campaign recall was also associated with higher 7-day quitting immediately after the campaign (OR=1.8 (1.0 to 3.2), Pmedia campaigns can be effective in encouraging cessation among smokers in a country with high smoking prevalence (France), but should be accompanied by convincing self-efficacy messages. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-04-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  5. Reducing the negative sensory impact of volatile phenols in red wine with different chitosans: Effect of structure on efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe-Ribeiro, Luís; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M

    2018-03-01

    "Brett character" is a negative sensory attribute acquired by red wines when contaminating Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts produce 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, known as volatile phenols (VPs), from cinnamic acid precursors. In this study, chitins and chitosans with different structural features, namely deacetylation degree (5-91%) and molecular weight (24-466kDa) were used for the reduction of this sensory defect. Chitins and chitosans decreased 7-26% of the headspace abundance of VPs without changing their amounts in wines. The efficiency of reduction increased with the deacetylation degree and applied dose. Reduction of headspace abundance of VPs by chitosans enabled significant decreases in the negative phenolic and bitterness attributes and increased positive fruity and floral attributes. Results show that chitosan with high deacetylation degrees, including fungal chitosan, which is already approved for use in wines, is an efficient approach for reducing the negative sensory impact of VPs in red wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vaccination against yellow fever in French Guiana: The impact of educational level, negative beliefs and attitude towards vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koïvogui, Akoï; Carbunar, Aurel; Imounga, Laure-Manuella; Laruade, Christelle; Laube, Sylvaine

    Analyze the impact of educational level, negative beliefs and negative attitudes on the yellow fever vaccination coverage (YFVC). This analytical study involved a sample of 2763 people from 866 households. Educational status was described in six levels: No level (Respondent had never attended school), level-1 (respondent left before intermediate school), level-2 (Respondent attended intermediate school), level-3 (respondent attended high school), level-4 (Respondent attended university), Other level (When the level could not be determined). The Attitude towards vaccination was described in terms of person's availability to recommend vaccination to third. The relationships were analyzed by multivariate mixed logistic regression. Among the 2763 peoples, 2039 (73.8%) were vaccinated against yellow fever. People who left high school with or without the French baccalaureate were more likely to be vaccinated against YF than people without any diploma (OR = 1.4; p vaccinated among people with negative attitudes was reduced by 40% (OR = 0.6; p vaccination. This deficit is exacerbated in persons with low educational level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Shame and HIV: Strategies for addressing the negative impact shame has on public health and diagnosis and treatment of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Phil; Dhairyawan, Rageshri

    2018-01-01

    There are five ways in which shame might negatively impact upon our attempts to combat and treat HIV. Shame can prevent an individual from disclosing all the relevant facts about their sexual history to the clinician. Shame can be a motivational factor in people living with HIV not engaging with or being retained in care. Shame can prevent individuals from presenting at clinics for STI and HIV testing. Shame can prevent an individual from disclosing their HIV (or STI) status to new sexual partners. Shame can serve to psychologically imprison people, it makes the task of living with HIV a far more negative experience than it should, or needs to, be. Drawing on recent philosophical work on shame, and more broadly on work in the philosophy and psychology of emotion, we (a.) propose a framework for understanding how shame operates upon those who experience the emotion, (b.) propose a strategy for combatting the negative role shame plays in the fight against HIV, and (c) suggest further study so as to identify the tactics that might be employed in pursuing the strategy here proposed. © 2017 The Authors. Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Lifestyle habits of 12,800 IVF patients: Prevalence of negative lifestyle behaviors, and impact of region and insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domar, Alice D; Rooney, Kristin L; Milstein, Melissa; Conboy, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle habits of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment are largely unknown. Therefore, this prospective study aimed to determine the prevalence of negative lifestyle habits in women undergoing IVF and determine if habits are related to the region in the United States and/or by mandated insurance coverage. A total of 12,811 ART patients were surveyed in infertility clinics throughout the US. They took an online questionnaire added to the patient portal of electronic medical record eIVF, a fertility-specific electronic health record. Of the women surveyed, 17-23% of patients drank alcohol, 2-7% smoked, 62-68% drank caffeine, habits (p habits between women who resided in a state with mandated insurance coverage versus those without insurance coverage. This is the first prospective assessment of lifestyle habits across regions in the USA and by insurance coverage. The study concluded that women undergoing IVF engage in behaviors which may negatively impact their cycle. Women in certain parts of the US had significantly worse habits than other regions, but the availability of mandated insurance coverage did not impact health habits.

  9. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  10. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  11. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tudor, Jennifer C; Luczak, Vincent G; Hansen, Rolf T; Ferri, Sarah L; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Poplawski, Shane G; Day, Jonathan P; Aton, Sara J; Radwańska, Kasia; Meerlo, Peter; Houslay, Miles D; Baillie, George S; Abel, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Brief periods of sleep loss have long-lasting consequences such as impaired memory consolidation. Structural changes in synaptic connectivity have been proposed as a substrate of memory storage. Here, we examine the impact of brief periods of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure. In mice, we find that five hours of sleep deprivation decreases dendritic spine numbers selectively in hippocampal area CA1 and increased activity of the filamentous actin severing protein cofilin. Recovery sleep normalizes these structural alterations. Suppression of cofilin function prevents spine loss, deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and impairments in long-term memory caused by sleep deprivation. The elevated cofilin activity is caused by cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase-4A5 (PDE4A5), which hampers cAMP-PKA-LIMK signaling. Attenuating PDE4A5 function prevents changes in cAMP-PKA-LIMK-cofilin signaling and cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation. Our work demonstrates the necessity of an intact cAMP-PDE4-PKA-LIMK-cofilin activation-signaling pathway for sleep deprivation-induced memory disruption and reduction in hippocampal spine density. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13424.001 PMID:27549340

  12. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G; Clougherty, Jane E; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-10

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors-including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)-as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  13. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  14. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions. PMID:26690474

  15. Hepatitis B virus infection on male partner has negative impact on in-vitro fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, H. P.; Halim, B.; Adenin, I.; Rusda, M.; Prasetiawan, E.

    2018-03-01

    It is common to see HBV-infected couple seeking for fertility treatment in reproductive medical centers. The effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on pregnancy outcome after In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) treatment has been a controversy. The study aims this was to evaluate the outcome of in vitro fertilization in couples with the male partner being HBsAg-seropositive. A retrospective analytic study was in HBV-infected and non-HBV infected male partner groups who have been treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) from October 2016 until May 2017 in HFC IVF Center. From 101 couples, 17 (16.83%) male partners were HBV seropositive. They had similar semen parameters compared to thenon-HBV infected group. Couples with the male partner being HBsAg-seropositive had significantly lower fertilized oocytes and cleaved embryos compared to thenon-HBV infected group. We also found lower clinical pregnancy rate in infected male partner group compared to control group (23.52% vs 51% respectively). Statistically, there was a significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate between HBV-infected group and control group (p<0.05). An hbv-infected male partner may lower the clinical pregnancy rate in couple undergoing IVF treatment. Therefore, the mechanism of impact of HBV infection on IVF outcome needs further exploration.

  16. Rice flooding negatively impacts root branching and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, but not fungal viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallino, Marta; Fiorilli, Valentina; Bonfante, Paola

    2014-03-01

    Rice is mostly cultivated in wetlands, where arbuscular mycorrhization (AM) is reported to decrease. The mechanisms regulating such events are largely unknown. Rice uninoculated and inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis were grown in dry and flooded conditions, allowing also for the transfer of plants from one water regime to the other. Roots were sampled at different times, from 7 to 35 d post-inoculation (dpi). The morphological and molecular parameters (root branching, aerenchyma formation, mycorrhizal colonization, AM marker gene expression) were evaluated. Root branching was more pronounced in dry conditions, and such phenotype was enhanced by the fungus. In wetlands, the colonization level was comparable till 21 dpi, when the mycorrhization then decreased, paralleled by an increase in aerenchyma. Expression of the fungal transporters was comparable under the two conditions. The root apparatus, when shifted from one water regime to the other, rapidly adapted to the new condition, revealing a marked plasticity. The reversibility of the AM rice symbiosis was also mirrored by expression changes of plant marker genes. The results demonstrate that the water regime is the driving force that regulates AM colonization under flooding conditions, by directly influencing root architecture and anatomy, but without impacting the basic AM functionality. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tudor, Jennifer C; Luczak, Vincent G; Hansen, Rolf T; Ferri, Sarah L; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Poplawski, Shane G; Day, Jonathan P; Aton, Sara J; Radwańska, Kasia; Meerlo, Peter; Houslay, Miles D; Baillie, George S; Abel, Ted

    2016-08-23

    Brief periods of sleep loss have long-lasting consequences such as impaired memory consolidation. Structural changes in synaptic connectivity have been proposed as a substrate of memory storage. Here, we examine the impact of brief periods of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure. In mice, we find that five hours of sleep deprivation decreases dendritic spine numbers selectively in hippocampal area CA1 and increased activity of the filamentous actin severing protein cofilin. Recovery sleep normalizes these structural alterations. Suppression of cofilin function prevents spine loss, deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and impairments in long-term memory caused by sleep deprivation. The elevated cofilin activity is caused by cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase-4A5 (PDE4A5), which hampers cAMP-PKA-LIMK signaling. Attenuating PDE4A5 function prevents changes in cAMP-PKA-LIMK-cofilin signaling and cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation. Our work demonstrates the necessity of an intact cAMP-PDE4-PKA-LIMK-cofilin activation-signaling pathway for sleep deprivation-induced memory disruption and reduction in hippocampal spine density.

  18. Costly learning: preference for familiar food persists despite negative impact on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thaiany M; Hebets, Eileen A; Melo, Diogo; Willemart, Rodrigo H

    2016-07-01

    Animals often rely on events in their environment that provide information (i.e. experience) to alter their future decision-making in ways that are presumed to be beneficial. Such experience-based learning, however, does not always lead to adaptive decision-making. In this study, we use the omnivorous harvestman Heteromitobates discolor to explore the role of past diet on subsequent food choice and survival. We first tested whether a short-term homogeneous diet (rotten crickets, fresh crickets or dog food) influenced subsequent food choice (rotten cricket versus fresh cricket). We next examine the impact of diet on survival. We found that following experience with a homogeneous cricket diet, adult harvestmen displayed a learned preference for familiar food, regardless of whether it was rotten or fresh crickets; individuals experiencing dog food were equally likely to choose rotten versus fresh crickets. We additionally found that individuals that ate rotten crickets suffered shorter survival than those that ate fresh crickets. Together, our results suggest that the diet an individual experiences can lead to maladaptive food preferences-preferences that ultimately result in reduced longevity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. The creation of special economic zones in China: Positive and negative impacts in its implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Orozco Plascencia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available At the end of seventies, Deng Xioaping, President applied a modernization policy in China, that during more than 30 years allow to reach high economic growth rates above 8% average per year. This reform included the instauration of four Special Economic Zones (SEZ in the southeast of the country, three in Guangdong (Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantao and one in Xiamen, Fujian.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the backgrounds of SEZ, the reasons of Chinese Government to implement its and the positive impacts and barriers to become operational.The conclusion in this article is that sez arise like an experiment of the Chinese central government economic policy to apply capitalist measures in design previous regions, the most important benefit has been the strong attraction of Foreing Direct Investment, explained in a surplus trade balance, sustanaible economic growht and technological transference. However, the most significative operational barrier has been the legal rigidity in the imported overseas products, a change of nacional politicideology system and problem asociated with burocracy and corruption.

  20. Genetically-Improved Tilapia Strains in Africa: Potential Benefits and Negative Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw B. Ansah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two genetically improved tilapia strains (GIFT and Akosombo have been created with Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia, which is native to Africa. In particular, GIFT has been shown to be significantly superior to local African tilapia strains in terms of growth rate. While development economists see the potential for food security and poverty reduction in Africa from culture of these new strains of tilapia, conservationists are wary of potential ecological and genetic impacts on receiving ecosystems and native stocks of tilapia. This study reviews the history of the GIFT technology, and identifies potential environmental and genetic risks of improved and farmed strains and tilapia in general. We also estimate the potential economic gains from the introduction of genetically improved strains in Africa, using Ghana as a case country. Employing a combination of the Economic-Surplus model and Monte Carlo simulation, we found the mean net present value (NPV of the introduction of the GIFT strain in Ghana to be approximately 1% of the country’s gross domestic product. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the difference in growth or yield between the GIFT and locally-available strains has the largest effect on mean NPV. We conclude that improvements in management practices and infrastructure could increase the yield and profitability of the local strains even if genetically-improved strains are not introduced. These improvements also will ensure the realization of the full potential of introduced strains.

  1. Negative impacts of human land use on dung beetle functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, Felipe; Moreno, Claudia E; Escobar, Federico; Halffter, Gonzalo; Navarrete, Dario

    2011-03-23

    The loss of biodiversity caused by human activity is assumed to alter ecosystem functioning. However our understanding of the magnitude of the effect of these changes on functional diversity and their impact on the dynamics of ecological processes is still limited. We analyzed the functional diversity of copro-necrophagous beetles under different conditions of land use in three Mexican biosphere reserves. In Montes Azules pastures, forest fragments and continuous rainforest were analyzed, in Los Tuxtlas rainforest fragments of different sizes were analyzed and in Barranca de Metztitlán two types of xerophile scrub with different degrees of disturbance from grazing were analyzed. We assigned dung beetle species to functional groups based on food relocation, beetle size, daily activity period and food preferences, and as measures of functional diversity we used estimates based on multivariate methods. In Montes Azules functional richness was lower in the pastures than in continuous rainforest and rainforest fragments, but fragments and continuous forest include functionally redundant species. In small rainforest fragments (20 ha). Functional evenness and functional dispersion did not vary among habitat types or fragment size in these reserves. In contrast, in Metztitlán, functional richness and functional dispersion were different among the vegetation types, but differences were not related to the degree of disturbance by grazing. More redundant species were found in submontane than in crassicaule scrub. For the first time, a decrease in the functional diversity in communities of copro-necrophagous beetles resulting from changes in land use is documented, the potential implications for ecosystem functioning are discussed and a series of variables that could improve the evaluation of functional diversity for this biological group is proposed.

  2. Gastrointestinal symptoms negatively impact on sleep quality among obese individuals: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Guy D; Talley, Nicholas J

    2016-03-01

    Reduced sleep quality has been linked to obesity; however, no studies have assessed the impact of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms on sleep quality among obese individuals. This study aims to determine the role of gastrointestinal symptoms on sleep among obese individuals in a community-based sample. A validated questionnaire was sent to 5000 randomly selected subjects in Western Sydney, Australia. Assessed were five GI symptoms that might wake individuals from sleep (abdominal pain, diarrhea, chest pain, acid regurgitation, and heartburn). Sleep quality was measured using the validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Additional measures included socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass index (BMI). The response rate was 60 %. There were 647 (25.13 %) obese individuals. Prevalence estimates for general quality of sleep were reported as very good (18.51 %), fairly good (53.19 %), fairly bad (20.68 %), and very bad (7.62 %). Obese individuals reported less hours of actual sleep than nonobese individuals (OR = 0.87; 95 % CI 0.81-0.94). Quality of sleep was worse for obese compared to nonobese individuals (OR = 1.25; 95 % CI 1.12-1.40). Univariate analysis found that all GI symptoms were more likely to wake obese people from their sleep; however, only two GI symptoms (chest pain: OR = 1.60; 95 % CI 1.25-2.04) and (acid regurgitation: OR = 1.27; 95 % CI 1.05-1.53) were independent predictors of sleep disturbance. Gastrointestinal symptoms did not predict waking in nonobese individuals. Chest pain and acid regurgitation are major GI symptoms associated with waking obese individuals from sleep. Overall, obese individuals have a worse quality of sleep compared to nonobese individuals.

  3. Negative impacts of human land use on dung beetle functional diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Barragán

    Full Text Available The loss of biodiversity caused by human activity is assumed to alter ecosystem functioning. However our understanding of the magnitude of the effect of these changes on functional diversity and their impact on the dynamics of ecological processes is still limited. We analyzed the functional diversity of copro-necrophagous beetles under different conditions of land use in three Mexican biosphere reserves. In Montes Azules pastures, forest fragments and continuous rainforest were analyzed, in Los Tuxtlas rainforest fragments of different sizes were analyzed and in Barranca de Metztitlán two types of xerophile scrub with different degrees of disturbance from grazing were analyzed. We assigned dung beetle species to functional groups based on food relocation, beetle size, daily activity period and food preferences, and as measures of functional diversity we used estimates based on multivariate methods. In Montes Azules functional richness was lower in the pastures than in continuous rainforest and rainforest fragments, but fragments and continuous forest include functionally redundant species. In small rainforest fragments (20 ha. Functional evenness and functional dispersion did not vary among habitat types or fragment size in these reserves. In contrast, in Metztitlán, functional richness and functional dispersion were different among the vegetation types, but differences were not related to the degree of disturbance by grazing. More redundant species were found in submontane than in crassicaule scrub. For the first time, a decrease in the functional diversity in communities of copro-necrophagous beetles resulting from changes in land use is documented, the potential implications for ecosystem functioning are discussed and a series of variables that could improve the evaluation of functional diversity for this biological group is proposed.

  4. High nymphal host density and mortality negatively impact parasitoid complex during an insect herbivore outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Aidan A G; Johnson, Scott N; Cook, James M; Riegler, Markus

    2017-08-26

    Insect herbivore outbreaks frequently occur and this may be due to factors that restrict top-down control by parasitoids, for example, host-parasitoid asynchrony, hyperparasitization, resource limitation and climate. Few studies have examined host-parasitoid density relationships during an insect herbivore outbreak in a natural ecosystem with diverse parasitoids. We studied parasitization patterns of Cardiaspina psyllids during an outbreak in a Eucalyptus woodland. First, we established the trophic roles of the parasitoids through a species-specific multiplex PCR approach on mummies from which parasitoids emerged. Then, we assessed host-parasitoid density relationships across three spatial scales (leaf, tree and site) over one year. We detected four endoparasitoid species of the family Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera); two primary parasitoid and one heteronomous hyperparasitoid Psyllaephagus species (the latter with female development as a primary parasitoid and male development as a hyperparasitoid), and the hyperparasitoid Coccidoctonus psyllae. Parasitoid development was host-synchronized, although synchrony between sites appeared constrained during winter (due to temperature differences). Parasitization was predominantly driven by one primary parasitoid species and was mostly inversely host-density dependent across the spatial scales. Hyperparasitization by C. psyllae was psyllid-density dependent at the site scale, however, this only impacted the rarer primary parasitoid. High larval parasitoid mortality due to density-dependent nymphal psyllid mortality (a consequence of resource limitation) compounded by a summer heat wave was incorporated in the assessment and resulted in density independence of host-parasitoid relationships. As such, high larval parasitoid mortality during insect herbivore outbreaks may contribute to the absence of host density-dependent parasitization during outbreak events. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Wildfire, climate, and invasive grass interactions negatively impact an indicator species by reshaping sagebrush ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S; Ricca, Mark A; Prochazka, Brian G; Brooks, Matthew L; Doherty, Kevin E; Kroger, Travis; Blomberg, Erik J; Hagen, Christian A; Casazza, Michael L

    2016-10-25

    Iconic sagebrush ecosystems of the American West are threatened by larger and more frequent wildfires that can kill sagebrush and facilitate invasion by annual grasses, creating a cycle that alters sagebrush ecosystem recovery post disturbance. Thwarting this accelerated grass-fire cycle is at the forefront of current national conservation efforts, yet its impacts on wildlife populations inhabiting these ecosystems have not been quantified rigorously. Within a Bayesian framework, we modeled 30 y of wildfire and climatic effects on population rates of change of a sagebrush-obligate species, the greater sage-grouse, across the Great Basin of western North America. Importantly, our modeling also accounted for variation in sagebrush recovery time post fire as determined by underlying soil properties that influence ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasion. Our results demonstrate that the cumulative loss of sagebrush to direct and indirect effects of wildfire has contributed strongly to declining sage-grouse populations over the past 30 y at large spatial scales. Moreover, long-lasting effects from wildfire nullified pulses of sage-grouse population growth that typically follow years of higher precipitation. If wildfire trends continue unabated, model projections indicate sage-grouse populations will be reduced to 43% of their current numbers over the next three decades. Our results provide a timely example of how altered fire regimes are disrupting recovery of sagebrush ecosystems and leading to substantial declines of a widespread indicator species. Accordingly, we present scenario-based stochastic projections to inform conservation actions that may help offset the adverse effects of wildfire on sage-grouse and other wildlife populations.

  6. Adaptive response and genomic instability: allosteric response of genome to negative impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masao S.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is an upsurge concern on the unique response of living cells to low dose ionizing radiation for its inconformity to the existing paradigm of the biological action of radiation and its impact on the current understanding of risk evaluation of health effect of radiation in our workplace and environment. For the allosteric response to have significance, the cells must have an excellent sensing mechanism to discriminate tolerable and intolerable signals. In a series of experiments with mammalian, including human, cells, we demonstrated a novel sensing and signaling mechanism in the low-dose irradiated cells that was mediated by a PKCα-p3BMAPK-PLCδ1 feedback regulatory loop. Upon irradiation, PKCα is immediately activated, which in turn activate p38MAPK. The activation of p38MAPK is feedbacked to the activation of PKCα via PLCδ1, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of PtdInsP2 to generate PKCα-directed second messengers DAG and lnsP3. At low doses, the PKCα and p38MAPK continue to be activated for long time through this feedback loop, but when the cells encounter the high dose (>10 cGy or equivalent), the feedback loop is immediately comes to shutdown by deprivation of PKCα protein, known as down-regulation of PKC signaling. Thus, PKCα plays a key role in the long lasting nature of adaptive response to low doses and a binary switch to the genomic instability by too much signals. Tumor suppressor protein, p53, is a downstream effecter

  7. Indexes to anticipate negative impacts of heat waves in urban Mediterranean environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A. M.; Carvalho, C. V.; Velho, S. V.; Sousa, C. S.

    2012-04-01

    This study intention is to understand what might be the better indexes to anticipate health deterioration during temperature extreme events in a urban Mediterranean environment like Porto. To do this we look to the effects of the July 2006 Heat Wave using the Heat Index on the Mortality (All Causes) and Morbidity (All Causes, Respiratory and Circulatory diseases) in general, and in people over 74 years and by Gender, in Porto. The Poisson Generalized Additive Regression model was used in order to estimate the impact of Apparent Temperature (Heat Index) and Daily Mortality and Morbidity during the July 2006 Heat Wave. Daily Mortality, Morbidity and Heat Index was correlated with lags of Apparent Temperature up to 7 days using Pearson correlation. For a 1°C increase in mean Apparent Temperature we observed a 2.7% (95%CI:1.7-3.6%) increase in Mortality (for All Causes), 1.7% (95%CI:0.6-2.9%) in Respiratory Morbidity, 2,2% (95%CI:0.4-4.1%) in Women Respiratory Morbidity, 5,4% (95%CI:1.1-6.6%) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Morbidity and 7,5% (95%CI:1.3-14.1%) in Women Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Morbidity, for the entire population. For people ≥ 75 years, our work showed a 3,3% increase (95%CI:1.7-5.0%) in Respiratory Morbidity, 2,7% (95%CI:0.4-5.1%) in Men Respiratory Morbidity, 3,9% (95%CI:1.6-6.3%) in Women Respiratory Morbidity, 7.0% (95%CI:1.1-13.2%) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and 9.0% (95%CI:0.3-18.5%) in Women Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We conclude that the use of Heat Index in a Mediterranean Tempered Climate enabled the identification of the effects of the July 2006 Heat Wave in Mortality due to All Causes and in Respiratory Morbidity of the General Population, as well as in Respiratory Morbidity of individuals with more than 74 years of age.

  8. Eyewitness memory: The impact of a negative mood during encoding and/or retrieval upon recall of a non-emotive event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Craig; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Abel, Joseph W; Knott, Lauren M

    2016-07-01

    The police often appeal for eyewitnesses to events that were unlikely to have been emotive when observed. An eyewitness, however, may be in a negative mood whilst encoding or retrieving such events as mood can be influenced by a range of personal, social, and environmental factors. For example, bad weather can induce a negative mood. This experiment compared the impact of negative and neutral moods during encoding and/or retrieval upon eyewitness recall of a non-emotive event. A negative mood during encoding had no impact upon the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at retrieval) but a negative mood during retrieval impaired the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at encoding). A negative mood at both time points enhanced the number of correct details recalled, demonstrating a mood-dependent memory enhancement. The forensic implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Extracellular matrix regenerative graft attenuates the negative impact of polypropylene prolapse mesh on vagina in rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rui; Knight, Katrina; Barone, William; Powers, Robert W; Nolfi, Alexis; Palcsey, Stacy; Abramowitch, Steven; Moalli, Pamela A

    2017-02-01

    The use of wide pore lightweight polypropylene mesh to improve anatomical outcomes in the surgical repair of prolapse has been hampered by mesh complications. One of the prototype prolapse meshes has been found to negatively impact the vagina by inducing a decrease in smooth muscle volume and contractility and the degradation of key structural proteins (collagen and elastin), resulting in vaginal degeneration. Recently, bioscaffolds derived from extracellular matrix have been used to mediate tissue regeneration and have been widely adopted in tissue engineering applications. Here we aimed to: (1) define whether augmentation of a polypropylene prolapse mesh with an extracellular matrix regenerative graft in a primate sacrocolpopexy model could mitigate the degenerative changes; and (2) determine the impact of the extracellular matrix graft on vagina when implanted alone. A polypropylene-extracellular matrix composite graft (n = 9) and a 6-layered extracellular matrix graft alone (n = 8) were implanted in 17 middle-aged parous rhesus macaques via sacrocolpopexy and compared to historical data obtained from sham (n = 12) and the polypropylene mesh (n = 12) implanted by the same method. Vaginal function was measured in passive (ball-burst test) and active (smooth muscle contractility) mechanical tests. Vaginal histomorphologic/biochemical assessments included hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome staining, immunofluorescent labeling of α-smooth muscle actin and apoptotic cells, measurement of total collagen, collagen subtypes (ratio III/I), mature elastin, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Statistical analyses included 1-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, and appropriate post-hoc tests. The host inflammatory response in the composite mesh-implanted vagina was reduced compared to that following implantation with the polypropylene mesh alone. The increase in apoptotic cells observed with the polypropylene mesh was blunted in the composite (overall P matrix graft

  10. Mitigation of short-term disturbance negative impacts in the agent-based model of a production companies network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchuk, G. K.; Berg, D. B.; Zvereva, O. M.; Medvedeva, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    This article is devoted to the study of a supply chain disturbance impact on manufacturing volumes in a production system network. Each network agent's product can be used as a resource by other system agents (manufacturers). A supply chain disturbance can lead to operating cease of the entire network. Authors suggest using of short-term partial resources reservation to mitigate negative consequences of such disturbances. An agent-based model with a reservation algorithm compatible with strategies for resource procurement in terms of financial constraints was engineered. This model works in accordance with the static input-output Leontief 's model. The results can be used for choosing the ways of system's stability improving, and protecting it from various disturbances and imbalance.

  11. The impact of bullying on health care administration staff: reduced commitment beyond the influences of negative affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne; Parris, Melissa; Steane, Peter; Noblet, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of workplace bullying in health care settings have tended to focus on nurses or other clinical staff. However, the organizational and power structures enabling bullying in health care are present for all employees, including administrative staff. : The purpose of this study was to specifically focus on health care administration staff and examine the prevalence and consequences of workplace bullying in this occupational group. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on questionnaire data from health care administration staff who work across facilities within a medium to large health care organization in Australia. The questionnaire included measures of bullying, negative affectivity (NA), job satisfaction, organizational commitment, well-being, and psychological distress. The three hypotheses of the study were that (a) workplace bullying will be linked to negative employee outcomes, (b) individual differences on demographic factors will have an impact on these outcomes, and (c) individual differences in NA will be a significant covariate in the analyses. The hypotheses were tested using t tests and analyses of covariances. A total of 150 health care administration staff completed the questionnaire (76% response rate). Significant main effects were found for workplace bullying, with lower organizational commitment and well-being with the effect on commitment remaining over and above NA. Main effects were found for age on job satisfaction and for employment type on psychological distress. A significant interaction between bullying and employment type for psychological distress was also observed. Negative affectivity was a significant covariate for all analyses of covariance. The applications of these results include the need to consider the occupations receiving attention in health care to include administration employees, that bullying is present across health care occupations, and that some employees, particularly part-time staff, may need to be

  12. Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario; Dimitrova, Donka Dimitrova

    2014-01-01

    Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect). This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.

  13. Impact of organic Rankine cycle system installation on light duty vehicle considering both positive and negative aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Yang, Youngmin; Park, Byung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Positive and negative effects of waste heat recovery unit on vehicle were studied. • Organic Rankine cycle based power system for waste heat recovery. • Relationship of ORC unit weight and power was developed. • Impact of added weight, Part load operation and back pressure are presented. • Power enhancement of 5.82% of engine when positive & negative effects considered. - Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system. Both the positive and negative effects of ORC system installation on a light duty vehicle were evaluated. Engine exhaust data for a light duty vehicle was used to design an ORC based system. Optimum cycle design suggests that ORC system installation is feasible. Results presented that for the vehicle operation at 100 km/h, engine power can be enhanced by 10.88% which is 5.92 kW of additional power and at the lower speed of 23.5 km/h, the engine power enhancement was 2.34%. ORC component weight data from manufacturers were used to estimate the weight of the designed system. The performance decline due to added weight is calculated. Effects of added back pressure and performance decline due to the part-load operation of ORC unit were also calculated and an overall effect of waste heat recovery system was evaluated. The results then suggested that maximum power enhancement is 5.82% at the vehicle speed of 100 km/h instead of previously mentioned 10.88% can be achieved if negative effects are also considered. Furthermore, it was concluded that at speeds lower than 48 km/h the waste heat recovery system was not beneficial at all and low-speed operation was in fact not preferable as it results in additional power demand from the engine by 6.39% at 23.5 km/h. The vehicles for city driving cycles are not recommended for ORC installation. Another finding revealed that if exhaust heat recovery heat exchanger is designed for maximum heat recovery, at part load operation, the

  14. Exploring the impact of positive and negative emotions on cooperative behaviour in a Prisoner’s Dilemma Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N.E. Kjell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the influences of discrete positive and negative emotions on cooperation in the context of a social dilemma game.Design. Two controlled studies were undertaken. In Study 1, 69 participants were randomly assigned to an essay emotion manipulation task designed to induce either guilt, joy or no strong emotion. In Study 2, 95 participants were randomly assigned to one of the same three tasks, and the impact of emotional condition on cooperation was explored using a repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game.Results. Study 1 established that the manipulation task was successful in inducing the specified emotions. The analysis from Study 2 revealed no significant main effects for emotions, in contrast to previous research. However, there was a significant effect for participants’ pre-existing tendency to cooperate (social value orientation; SVO.Conclusion. Methodological explanations for the result are explored, including the possible impact of trial-and-error strategies, different cooperation games and endogenous vs exogenous emotions.

  15. Does complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use reduce negative life impact of headaches for chronic migraineurs? A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Bhowmick, Amrita; Wachholtz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling condition that impacts multiple aspects of migraineurs' lives. Although pharmacological treatments can help to treat the pain associated with migraine headache, chronic migraineurs often experience side-effects of pharmacological treatments. Those experiences may contribute to the observed growth in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among migraineurs. Relatively little is known about the patterns of CAM treatment and the characteristics of chronic migraineurs. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the characteristics of chronic migraineurs who use CAM treatment and the relationship among satisfaction with current CAM use, negative life impact, migraine outcomes, and psychiatric comorbidities among chronic migraineurs. 2907 participants were recruited from a well-known online migraine headache resource. All participants were US adults aged 18 years or older. Migraineurs are referred to this website through various routes (e.g., referral from healthcare providers, internet search, obtaining information from research papers, personal invitation from other users, and information shared on social media etc.). Participants completed a 30-min self-report-survey in the spring of 2014. Almost half of the participants reported that they are currently using more than three different CAM treatments even though the majority of the participants reported neutral or dissatisfied with their current CAM treatment. Chronic migraineurs who use CAM treatments were more likely to experience prolonged or frequent migraine headaches (p = .018, η(2) = .0021), and experience greater negative life impact from their headaches (p = .000, η(2) = .0172) compared to non-CAM users. CAM treatment satisfaction was inversely related to the number of psychiatric comorbidities, frequency of migraines, and number of migraine symptoms (p's CAM treatment satisfaction was more strongly correlated with migraine outcomes than

  16. Assessing the Personal Negative Impacts of Hooking Up Experienced by College Students: Gender Differences and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Napper, Lucy E.; Montes, Kevin; Kenney, Shannon R.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Hooking up is a normative behavior among college students that is associated with a range of positive and negative consequences. While previous research has primarily focused on women’s negative experiences of hooking up, the current study explores the relationships among hooking up behaviors, psychological distress, and a broad range of negative effects of hooking up in both male and female college students. Using a multi-site sample of college students, we developed the 14-item Negative Imp...

  17. Neuroanatomical assessment of the impact of negative emotion on implicit memory in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Eui; Yang, Jong-Chul; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2016-08-01

    We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to discriminate the differential brain activation patterns in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls during implicit retrieval tasks with emotionally neutral and unpleasant words. Sixteen patients with OCD (mean age: 31.4±10.1 years) and 16 healthy controls (mean age: 32.6±5.8 years) with no history of neurological or psychiatric illness underwent 3-T fMRI. The stimulation paradigm consisted of the following cycle: rest, encoding of a string of two-syllable words, rest, and retrieval of the previously encoded words with the first consonant omitted. During the implicit retrieval task with emotionally neutral words, no distinct brain activity was observed in either the patients with OCD or healthy controls. On the other hand, during the retrieval task with unpleasant words, the patients with OCD showed predominant activity in the superior/middle temporal pole, medial superior frontal gyrus, and orbitofrontal cortex (uncorrected pmemory tasks with unpleasant words. Our results suggest that the impact of negative emotion on implicit memory task may be associated with the symptomatology of OCD. This finding may be helpful for understanding the neural mechanisms that underlie implicit memory retrieval, particularly the interaction between emotion and cognition, in patients with OCD.

  18. Positive and Negative Impacts of Oil Palm Expansion in Indonesia and the Prospect to Achieve Sustainable Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahputra, M. A.; Zen, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study is to deepen understanding the role of palm oil on Indonesian economy, poverty elevation and to investigate the positive and negative impacts of oil palm expansion, due to the burden of GHG emissions; and prospect to be more sustainable palm oil industry. The statistics show that average rural poverty tends to be lower and Gross Regional Product tends to be higher in provinces which have greater levels of oil palm cultivation. Indonesian oil palm will grow from 10.6 in 2013 to 13.7 million ha by 2020. This will release 135.59 million tons of CO2 if nothing is done to mitigate BAU emissions. Unless there are sustained efforts to redirect development and expansion of oil palm, plantation growth will continue to encroach on intact forest and peat land.. In fact Indonesia has large areas of degraded land, an estimated total 19,144,000 ha is available for planting oil palm and other crops. A large-scale expansion program driven by estate companies needs to be accompanied by effective smallholder development program in order to achieve the best outcome for local farmers and avoid the conflicts.

  19. Embodied mood regulation : the impact of body posture on mood recovery, negative thoughts, and mood-congruent recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Lotte; Schneider, Iris K.; Koole, Sander L.

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has shown that a stooped posture may activate negative mood. Extending this work, the present experiments examine how stooped body posture influences recovery from pre-existing negative mood. In Experiment 1 (n=229), participants were randomly assigned to receive either a negative or

  20. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Investigate Negative Word of Mouth Impact on Customer-Based Brand Equity: Does Attribution Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Yehia Ebeid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a shortage in the research which addresses the relationship between negative word of mouth (WOM communication and customer-based brand equity dilution. This research utilizes attribution theory to demonstrate the negative word-of-mouth impact on the customer-based brand equity. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the proposed effect of negative WOM on brand equity. The study sample consists of 71 post-graduate students, the object of negative WOM was laptops which considered a highly involvement product. Experimental investigation results reveal that customer exposure to negative word-of-mouth increases the brand equity dilution. Results were discussed in the light of casual attribution theory, and practical implications were provided.

  1. Impact of Node Negative Target Volume Delineation on Contralateral Parotid Gland Dose Sparing Using IMRT in Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, William J; Urban, Erich; Bayliss, R Adam; Harari, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    There is considerable practice variation in treatment of the node negative (N0) contralateral neck in patients with head and neck cancer. In this study, we examined the impact of N0 neck target delineation volume on radiation dose to the contralateral parotid gland. Following institutional review board approval, 12 patients with head and neck cancer were studied. All had indications for treatment of the N0 neck, such as midline base of tongue or soft palate extension or advanced ipsilateral nodal disease. The N0 neck volumes were created using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group head and neck contouring atlas. The physician-drawn N0 neck clinical target volume (CTV) was expanded by 25% to 200% to generate volume variation, followed by a 3-mm planning target volume (PTV) expansion. Surrounding organs at risk were contoured and complete intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans were generated for each N0 volume expansion. The median N0 target volume drawn by the radiation oncologist measured 93 cm(3) (range 71-145). Volumetric expansion of the N0 CTV by 25% to 200% increased the resultant mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland by 1.4 to 8.5 Gray (Gy). For example, a 4.1-mm increase in the N0 neck CTV translated to a 2.0-Gy dose increase to the parotid, 7.4 mm to a 4.5 Gy dose increase, and 12.5 mm to an 8.5 Gy dose increase, respectively. The treatment volume designated for the N0 neck has profound impact on resultant dose to the contralateral parotid gland. Variations of up to 15 mm are routine across physicians in target contouring, reflecting individual preference and training expertise. Depending on the availability of immobilization and image guidance techniques, experts commonly recommend 3 to 10 mm margin expansions to generate the PTV. Careful attention to the original volume of the N0 neck CTV, as well as expansion margins, is important in achieving effective contralateral gland sparing to reduce the resultant xerostomia and dysguesia that may ensue

  2. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, William C; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Barsanti, Kelley; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O 3 ) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth System Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O 3 increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM 2.5 increases of up to 2 μg m −3 . We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value. (letter)

  3. Be kind to your eating disorder patients: The impact of positive and negative feedback on the explicit and implicit self-esteem of female patients with eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderlinden, J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Slagmolen, C.J.J.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Pieters, G.; Probst, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lack of self-esteem may play an important role in the development of eating disorders (ED). This study investigated the differential impact of positive and negative feedback on implicit and explicit self-esteem in women with an ED (N=25) as compared to women without an ED (N=29). METHOD:

  4. Be kind to your eating disorder patients: the impact of positive and negative feedback on the explicit and implicit self-esteem of female patients with eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderlinden, J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Slagmolen, C.; Wigboldus, D.; Pieters, G.; Probst, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lack of self-esteem may play an important role in the development of eating disorders (ED). This study investigated the differential impact of positive and negative feedback on implicit and explicit self-esteem in women with an ED (N=25) as compared to women without an ED (N=29). METHOD:

  5. Filter paper inhibits in vitro protocorm-like body formation in hybrid Cymbidium and reduces synseed germination, but buffers the negative impact of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIXEIRA DA SILVA JAIME A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies in the plant tissue culture literature have examined the impact of filter paper on in vitro plant organogenesis. In this study, using a model plant, hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’, the impact of a single or double layer of Advantec #2 or Whatman #1 filter paper on new protocorm-like body (neo-PLB formation on Teixeira Cymbidium (TC medium was examined for half-PLBs (transgenic and non-transgenic, PLB-derived transverse thin cell layers (tTCLs, and PLB synseeds. In addition, the response of half-PLBs or tTCLs to two antibiotics (kanamycin and cefotaxime, commonly used in plant genetic transformation studies was investigated either directly on gelled medium or on filter paper-overlaid medium. Filter paper negatively affected most growth and developmental parameters of all the explants tested, both transgenic and non-transgenic. A double sheet of filter paper had a significantly (P ≤ 0.05 more negative impact than a single sheet, relative to the control values (i.e., no filter paper. Kanamycin inhibited neo-PLB formation on TC medium, the negative impact being greater on a single layer than on a double layer of filter paper, i.e., filter paper buffered the growth-inhibiting characteristics of kanamycin. Up to 100 mg/l, cefotaxime showed no apparent negative effects on neo-PLBs formation and growth, although hyperhydricity was observed when filter paper was not used.

  6. Extreme winter warming events more negatively impact small rather than large soil fauna: shift in community composition explained by traits not taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.; Phoenix, G.K.; Berke, J.W.; Callaghan, T.V.; Huyer-Brugman, F.; Berg, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme weather events can have negative impacts on species survival and community structure when surpassinglethal thresholds. Extreme winter warming events in the Arctic rapidly melt snow and expose ecosystems to unseasonablywarm air (2–10 °C for 2–14 days), but returning to cold winter climate

  7. Extreme winter warming events more negatively impact small rather than large soil fauna: shift in community composition explained by traits not taxa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.F.; Phoenix, G.K.; Bjerke, J.W.; Callaghan, T.V.; Huyer-Brugman, F.A.; Berg, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme weather events can have negative impacts on species survival and community structure when surpassing lethal thresholds. Extreme winter warming events in the Arctic rapidly melt snow and expose ecosystems to unseasonably warm air (2-10 °C for 2-14 days), but returning to cold winter climate

  8. Protecting individuals against the negative impact of big data : The potential and limitations of the privacy and data protection law approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, M.A.A.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis is about the protection of individuals against the negative impact that big data may have on their private lives. Many positive and promising developments result from big data, but the massive collection and use of data also raise a host of issues. In the European Union, the rights to

  9. Does the nutrition profile of vitamins, fatty acids and microelements counteract the negative impact from organohalogen pollutants on bone mineral density in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Beck Jensen, Jens-Erik

    2008-01-01

    There is a great need for understanding the impact from dietary OHCs (organohalogen compounds) on bone mineral composition - and thereby osteoporosis - in especially arctic wildlife such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as well as humans. For that purpose, we measured BMD (bone mineral density...... an impact on BMD using the present time frame and OHC concentrations (threshold levels not reached), or the difference in food composition (mainly vitamins and n3 fatty acids) conceal the potential OHC impact on BMD. Such information is important when evaluating the positive and negative health consequences...

  10. Impact of negative emotion on the neural correlates of long-term recognition in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoria eKalpouzos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have suggested that the memory advantage for negative emotional information over neutral information (negativity effect is reduced in aging. Besides the fact that most findings are based on immediate retrieval, the neural underpinnings of long-term emotional memory in aging have so far not been investigated. To address these issues, we assessed recognition of neutral and negative scenes after one- and 3-week retention intervals in younger and older adults using fMRI. We further used an event-related design in order to disentangle successful, false and true recognition. This study revealed 4 key findings: 1 Increased retention interval induced an increased rate of false recognitions for negative scenes, cancelling out the negativity effect (present for hit rates only on discrimination in both younger and older adults; 2 In younger, but not older, adults, reduced activity of the medial temporal lobe was observed over time for neutral scenes, but not for negative scenes, where stable or increased activity was seen; 3 Engagement of amygdala was observed in older adults after a 3-week delay during successful recognition of negative scenes (hits versus misses in comparison with neutral scenes, which may indicate engagement of automatic processes, but engagement of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was unrelated to amygdala activity and performance; and 4 After 3 weeks, but not after one week, true recognition of negative scenes was characterized by more activity in left hippocampus and lateral occipito-temporal regions (hits versus false alarms. As these regions are known to be related to consolidation mechanisms, the observed pattern may indicate the presence of delayed consolidation of true memories. Nonetheless, older adults’ low performance in discrimination of negative scenes could reflect the fact that overall, after long delays of retention, they rely more on general information rather than on perceptual detail in making

  11. Environmentally relevant concentrations of polyethylene microplastics negatively impact the survival, growth and emergence of sediment-dwelling invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Kumar, Anupama; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2018-05-01

    Microplastics are a widespread environmental pollutant in aquatic ecosystems and have the potential to eventually sink to the sediment, where they may pose a risk to sediment-dwelling organisms. While the impacts of exposure to microplastics have been widely reported for marine biota, the effects of microplastics on freshwater organisms at environmentally realistic concentrations are largely unknown, especially for benthic organisms. Here we examined the effects of a realistic concentration of polyethylene microplastics in sediment on the growth and emergence of a freshwater organism Chironomus tepperi. We also assessed the influence of microplastic size by exposing C. tepperi larvae to four different size ranges of polyethylene microplastics (1-4, 10-27, 43-54 and 100-126 μm). Exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of microplastics, 500 particles/kg sediment , negatively affected the survival, growth (i.e. body length and head capsule) and emergence of C. tepperi. The observed effects were strongly dependent on microplastic size with exposure to particles in the size range of 10-27 μm inducing more pronounced effects. While growth and survival of C. tepperi were not affected by the larger microplastics (100-126 μm), a significant reduction in the number of emerged adults was observed after exposure to the largest microplastics, with the delayed emergence attributed to exposure to a stressor. While scanning electron microscopy showed a significant reduction in the size of the head capsule and antenna of C. tepperi exposed to microplastics in the 10-27 μm size range, no deformities to the external structure of the antenna and mouth parts in organisms exposed to the same size range of microplastics were observed. These results indicate that environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastics in sediment induce harmful effects on the development and emergence of C. tepperi, with effects greatly dependent on particle size. Copyright

  12. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.

  13. The impact of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and their interactions with customer equity drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Yi-Chun; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Customer equity drivers (CEDs) include value, brand, and relationship equity, which have a strong link with loyalty intentions. This study aims to examine the incremental effects of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and to determine whether these emotions moderate the positive link between CEDs and loyalty intentions. We use customer data with 102 leading firms across eighteen services industries in the Netherlands. The results show that (1) positive and negative emotions h...

  14. Diagnostic yield and clinical impact of routine cell culture for respiratory viruses among children with a negative multiplex RT-PCR result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhounaim, M; Xiao, Y; Caya, C; Papenburg, J

    2017-09-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the reference standard for respiratory virus testing. However, cell culture may still have added value in identifying viruses not detected by PCR. We aimed to estimate the yield and clinical impact of routine respiratory virus culture among children with a negative PCR result. A retrospective cohort study was performed from Jan. 2013 to Sept. 2015. Respiratory samples from hospitalized or immunocompromised patients culture monolayers if they tested negative by a PCR assay for 12 respiratory viruses. We studied patients with a respiratory specimen negative by PCR and positive by culture. Duplicates and samples of sold services were excluded. Data on demographics, clinical history, laboratory findings, and patient management were collected from patients' charts. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were performed. Overall, 4638 PCR-negative samples were inoculated in cell culture. Of those, 196 (4.2%) were cell culture positive, and 144 met study inclusion criteria. Most subjects (81.9%) were hospitalized. Mean age was 2.4±3.4years. The viruses most frequently isolated were cytomegalovirus (33.3%) and enteroviruses (19.4%). Cell culture results prompted a change in management in 5 patients (3.5%), all of whom had acyclovir initiated for localized HSV-1 infection. Four of these had skin or mucosal lesions that could be sampled to establish a diagnosis. In children, routine viral culture on respiratory specimens that were negative by PCR has low yield and minimal clinical impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental and economic estimation of negative impact of waterproofing works and materials on environment and ability to live of the person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velichko Evgeniy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article negative influence of waterproofing materials and works on health of people and environmental pollution is analyzed. Complex measures on maintenance of an ecological security, sanitary-and-hygienic requirements, size standards and rules both during works on a waterproof finish are resulted, and at the subsequent upkeep of buildings and premises, and also action for decrease in negative impact at carrying out of waterproofing works on a natural habitat condition, health of the workers occupied in repair-building manufacture and living. The estimation of components of the environmental and economic damage put to environment by manufacture of waterproofing works is given.

  16. Canine Comfort: Pet Affinity Buffers the Negative Impact of Ambivalence over Emotional Expression on Perceived Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jennifer L; Quist, Michelle C; Young, Chelsie M; Steers, Mai-Ly N; Foster, Dawn W; Lu, Qian

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated pet affinity as a buffer between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) and social support. AEE occurs when one desires to express emotions but is reluctant to do so and is related to negative psychological outcomes. Individuals high in AEE may have difficulty receiving social support and thus may not gain accompanying benefits. Social support has been associated with positive health outcomes, and pet support is positively associated with human social support. The present study explores the potential protective effect of pet affinity. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate dog owners completed measures assessing perceived social support, pet affinity, and AEE. AEE was expected to be negatively associated with social support, and pet affinity was expected to buffer the negative effects of AEE on social support. We found that AEE was negatively associated with perceived social support. An interaction between pet affinity and AEE emerged such that the negative association between AEE and social support was weaker among those higher in pet affinity. Thus, at high levels of AEE, those who felt a close connection with their pets reported more perceived social support than those less connected with their pets. Overall, these findings emphasize the potential benefits of pet affinity.

  17. Negative Bystander Behavior in Bullying Dynamics: Assessing the Impact of Social Capital Deprivation and Anti-social Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Caroline B R; Smokowski, Paul R

    2017-02-01

    Bystanders witness bullying, but are not directly involved as a bully or victim; however, they often engage in negative bystander behavior. This study examines how social capital deprivation and anti-social capital are associated with the likelihood of engaging in negative bystander behavior in a sample (N = 5752) of racially/ethnically diverse rural youth. Data were collected using an online, youth self-report; the current study uses cross sectional data. Following multiple imputation, a binary logistic regression with robust standard errors was run. Results partially supported the hypothesis and indicated that social capital deprivation in the form of peer pressure and verbal victimization and anti-social capital in the form of delinquent friends, bullying perpetration, verbal perpetration, and physical perpetration were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in negative bystander behavior. Findings highlight the importance of establishing sources of positive social support for disenfranchised youth.

  18. Prognostic impact of clinicopathologic parameters in stage II/III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and doxorubicin chemotherapy: paradoxical features of the triple negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong-Wan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic factors in locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy differ from those of early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical significance of potential predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods A total of 145 stage II and III breast cancer patients received neoadjuvant docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. We examined the clinical and biological factors (ER, PR, p53, c-erbB2, bcl-2, and Ki-67 by immunohistochemistry. We analyzed clinical outcome and their correlation with clinicopathologic parameters. Results Among the clinicopathologic parameters investigated, none of the marker was correlated with response rate (RR except triple negative phenotype. Patients with triple negative phenotype showed higher RR (83.0% in triple negative vs. 62.2% in non-triple negative, p = 0.012 and pathologic complete RR (17.0% in triple negative vs. 3.1% in non-triple negative, p = 0.005. However, relapse free survival (RFS and overall survival (OS were significantly shorter in triple negative breast cancer patients (p p = 0.021, respectively. Low histologic grade, positive hormone receptors, positive bcl-2 and low level of Ki-67 were associated with prolonged RFS. In addition, positive ER and positive bcl-2 were associated with prolonged OS. In our homogeneous patient population, initial clinical stage reflects RFS and OS more precisely than pathologic stage. In multivariate analysis, initial clinical stage was the only significant independent prognostic factor to impact on OS (hazard ratio 3.597, p = 0.044. Conclusion Several molecular markers provided useful predictive and prognostic information in stage II and III breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy. Triple negative phenotype was associated with shorter survival, even though it was associated

  19. Skeletal metastasis as detected by 18F-FDG PET with negative CT of the PET/CT: Frequency and impact on cancer staging and or management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of our study is to assess the frequency of detection of PET positive CT negative skeletal metastases (SM and determine the impact of such detection on staging and/or management in patients who had FDG PET/CT as part of the cancer work up.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 2000 18F-FDG PET/CT scans of known cancer patients. A log was kept to record cases of suspected SM with or without bone changes from the low-dose non-contrast CT. The presence or absence of SM was evaluated based on available pathological and clinical data. The impact of detection of such lesions on cancer staging and/or management was evaluated by a board certified oncologist.Results: Of the 2000 cases, 18F-FDG PET/CT suggested SM in 146/2000 (7.3%. Of those 146 cases, 105 (72% were positive on both PET and CT. The remaining 41 (28% had PET positive CT negative bone lesions. SM was confirmed in 36/41 (88% PET positive/CT negative cases. This was based on biopsy, imaging or clinical follow-up. The detection of PET positive CT negative SM did not change staging or management in 7/36 (19.4%. However, staging and/or management was affected in 29/36 (80.6%. Conclusions: SM is not uncommon in 18F-FDG PET/CT, as it accounts for 146/2000 (7.3% of cases. PET demonstrated FDG-avid SM without a CT abnormality in at least 36/146 (25%. Patients staging and or management changed in 29/36 (80.5%. We concluded that 18F-FDG PET is sensitive in detection of SM with significant impact on staging & or management. Key words18F-FDG PET/CT, Skeletal metastasis, PET positive, CT negative

  20. Impact on survival of the number of lymph nodes resected in patients with lymph node-negative gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Zhong-Fa

    2015-06-01

    Patients with lymph node-negative gastric cancer show a better overall survival rate than those who have a pathological lymph node-positive gastric cancer. But a large number of patients still develop recurrence. We aimed to explore the significant prognostic factors of lymph node-negative gastric cancer and determine how many lymph nodes should be removed. A total of 3103 patients who underwent radical operation are identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Standard survival methods and restricted multivariable Cox regression models were applied. The overall survival rate was significantly higher with an increasing number of negative lymph node resected. Among the 843 patients who had the exact T stage, the overall survival rate was significantly better in T3-4 group with more than 15 lymph nodes resected (P patients (P = 0.44). A further 25 more lymph nodes resection did not show additional survival benefits. Multivariate analysis of patients demonstrated that age, depth of tumor invasion, and the number of lymph nodes resected were the significant and independent prognostic factors. A lymphadenectomy with more than 15 lymph nodes removal should be performed for T3-4 lymph node-negative gastric cancer. But the survival benefit of a lymphadenectomy with more than 25 lymph nodes removal is disputed. And the further treatment should refer to the prognostic indicators.

  1. The Impact of Negative Affect on Attention Patterns to Threat across the First 2 Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Morales, Santiago; LoBue, Vanessa; Taber-Thomas, Bradley C.; Allen, Elizabeth K.; Brown, Kayla M.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between individual differences in attention to emotion faces and temperamental negative affect across the first 2 years of life. Infant studies have noted a normative pattern of preferential attention to salient cues, particularly angry faces. A parallel literature suggests that elevated attention bias to…

  2. Creativity as an Attribute of Positive Psychology: The Impact of Positive and Negative Affect on the Creative Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyton, Christine; Hutchison, Shannon; Snow, Lindsay; Rahman, Mohammed A.; Elliott, John O.

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology explores how optimism can lead to health, happiness, and creativity. However, questions remain as to how affective states influence creativity. Data on creative personality, optimism, pessimism, positive and negative affect, and current and usual happiness ratings were collected on 161 college students enrolled in an…

  3. The impact of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and their interactions with customer equity drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Yi-Chun; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Customer equity drivers (CEDs) include value, brand, and relationship equity, which have a strong link with loyalty intentions. This study aims to examine the incremental effects of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and to determine whether these emotions moderate the positive

  4. Reactions to perceived fairness: The impact of mortality salience and self-esteem on ratings of negative affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den

    2001-01-01

    In correspondence with terror management theory, the findings of two experiments show that reminders of death lead to stronger effects of perceived fairness on ratings of negative affect. Furthermore, in line with the theory''s self-esteem mechanism, results of Experiment 1 suggest that state

  5. Does the nutrition profile of vitamins, fatty acids and microelements counteract the negative impact from organohalogen pollutants on bone mineral density in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Riget, Frank F.; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2008-01-01

    There is a great need for understanding the impact from dietary OHCs (organohalogen compounds) on bone mineral composition - and thereby osteoporosis - in especially arctic wildlife such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as well as humans. For that purpose, we measured BMD (bone mineral density...... using the present time frame and OHC concentrations (threshold levels not reached), or the difference in food composition (mainly vitamins and n3 fatty acids) conceal the potential OHC impact on BMD. Such information is important when evaluating the positive and negative health consequences from eating...

  6. Spiritual Well-being May Reduce the Negative Impacts of Cancer Symptoms on the Quality of Life and the Desire for Hastened Death in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Chih; Lin, Chia-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality is a central component of the well-being of terminally ill cancer patients. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating or moderating role of spiritual well-being in reducing the impact of cancer-related symptoms on quality of life and the desire for hastened death in terminally ill cancer patients. Eighty-five terminally ill cancer patients were assessed using the Taiwanese version of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Schedule of Attitudes Toward Hastened Death. Spiritual well-being was significantly negatively correlated with symptom severity (r = -0.46, P life (r = -0.54) and positively correlated with hopelessness (r = 0.51, P death (r = 0.61, P life. Spiritual well-being was a partial mediator between symptom severity and the desire for hastened death. The meaning subscale of spiritual well-being was a more significant predictor of the desire for hastened death and quality of life than the faith subscale was. Spiritual well-being may reduce the negative impacts of cancer on quality of life and the desire for hastened death. Appropriate spiritual care may reduce the negative impact of severe cancer symptoms on quality of life and the desire for hastened death in terminally ill cancer patients.

  7. Rethinking a Negative Event : The Affective Impact Of Ruminative versus Imagery-Based Processing Of Aversive Autobiographical Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slofstra, Christien; Eisma, Maarten C; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Nauta, Maaike H

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories

  8. Rethinking a Negative Event : The Affective Impact of Ruminative versus Imagery-Based Processing of Aversive Autobiographical Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slofstra, Christien; Eisma, Maarten C; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Nauta, Maaike H

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories

  9. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  10. The impact of thin idealized media images on body satisfaction: does body appreciation protect women from negative effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma

    2013-09-01

    This article examines whether positive body image can protect women from negative media exposure effects. University women (N=112) were randomly allocated to view advertisements featuring ultra-thin models or control images. Women who reported high levels of body appreciation did not report negative media exposure effects. Furthermore, the protective role of body appreciation was also evident among women known to be vulnerable to media exposure. Women high on thin-ideal internalization and low on body appreciation reported appearance-discrepancies that were more salient and larger when they viewed models compared to the control group. However, women high on thin-ideal internalization and also high on body appreciation rated appearance-discrepancies as less important and no difference in size than the control group. The results support the notion that positive body image protects women from negative environmental appearance messages and suggests that promoting positive body image may be an effective intervention strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic and high alcohol consumption has a negative impact on sleep and sleep-associated consolidation of declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghanns, Klaus; Horbach, Regine; Ehrenthal, Dieter; Blank, Sebastian; Backhaus, Jutta

    2009-05-01

    The importance of sleep for memory consolidation has become a major focus of research. While it is known that abstaining alcohol-dependent patients often have sleep disorders and that there is some cognitive impairment during early abstention a possible interaction of disturbed sleep with overnight memory consolidation has not been addressed in a study as yet. Twenty-four alcohol-dependent patients with a short abstention period (mean 21.9 +/- 7.6 days) were compared with 12 patients with an abstention period of several months (115.7 +/- 43.8 days). Groups did not differ with respect to daily alcohol consumption before treatment, duration of alcohol dependence, and age. Before sleep all patients learned a list of semantically associated word pairs and a face name association task to a fixed criterion (at least 60% of correct recall) and they performed a mirror tracing task. After a polysomnographically registered night the patients were tested for retention of the learned declarative material by cued recall and had to perform the mirror tracing task again. The groups did not differ with respect to sleep parameters or sleep-associated memory consolidation. Across both groups the duration of alcohol dependence correlated negatively with the amount of non-REM sleep and recall in the face name association task correlated negatively with daily alcohol consumption before abstention. Among the longer-term abstainers the duration of abstention correlated with the amount of slow wave sleep. Our data support the hypothesis that chronic and high alcohol consumption negatively affects sleep and declarative memory consolidation during the first months of abstention. Between an abstention period of a few weeks and of several months no change in sleep parameters and nightly memory consolidation could be demonstrated, however.

  12. Countermeasures to Mitigate the Negative Impact of Sensory Deprivation and Social Isolation in Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Katharine Ridgeway OBrien; Otto, Christian; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space flight presents several challenges to the behavioral health of crew members. The environment that they are likely to experience will be isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) and, as such, crew members will experience extreme sensory deprivation and social isolation. The current paper briefly notes the behavioral, cognitive, and affective consequences of psychological stress induced by ICE environments and proposes nine countermeasures aimed at mitigating the negative effects of sensory deprivation and social isolation. Implementation of countermeasures aims to maintain successful crew performance and psychological well-being in a long-duration space flight mission.

  13. Differential impact of IL-10 expression on survival and relapse between HPV16-positive and -negative oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yi Chuang

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is a risk factor in a subset of oropharyngeal cancer; however, the contribution of HPV in the malignancy of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC is not fully understood in Taiwanese. Herein, 61 patients with no risk factors and 117 patients with one or more risk factors were enrolled in this study. HPV16/18 infection rate in non-smokers, non-drinkers and non-betel quid chewers was higher than their counterparts. The development of HPV-infected cancer has been shown to be associated with interleukin-10 (IL-10 expression. To this end, IL-10 mRNA expression in OSCC tumors was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Data showed that HPV-positive patients had higher IL-10 mRNA levels than in HPV-negative patients. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis indicated that the prognostic significance of IL-10 mRNA on overall survival and relapse free survival was only observed in HPV-positive OSCC, but not in HPV-negative OSCC. Mechanistically, the elevation of IL-10 by E6 was responsible for increased colony formation and migration capability in OSCC cells. Therefore, we suggest that IL-10 induced by E6 promotes cell growth and migration capability and consequent poor survival and relapse in HPV-positive OSCC.

  14. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Has a Negative Impact on Quality of Life Compared with Other Comorbidities: An Epidemiological Cross-Sectional Study of 1862 Community-Dwelling Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Otani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS is common in the elderly. However, there have been few reports on its impact on quality of life (QoL in community-dwelling individuals. The purpose of this study was to clarify how symptomatic LSS affects QoL at the community level. A total of 1862 people (697 males and 1165 females, most subjects were between 40 and 85 y.o. agreed to participate and were interviewed. The presence of symptomatic LSS was assessed by a specially designed questionnaire. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 was also administered. In addition, the presence of comorbid conditions that affect QoL, such as osteoarthritis of the knee and hip, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, or respiratory disease, was also analyzed. The prevalence of symptomatic LSS gradually increased with age. Furthermore, the presence of symptomatic LSS had a strong negative effect on all 8 physical and mental domains and the physical component summary (PCS (OR: 1.547–2.544 but not the mental component summary (MCS. In comparison with comorbid conditions, LSS had a much stronger negative impact on health-related QoL (HR-QoL. The current study confirmed that the presence of symptomatic LSS might have a strong negative influence on HR-QoL in the community setting.

  15. Pairing images of unhealthy and healthy foods with images of negative and positive health consequences: Impact on attitudes and food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Gareth J; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-08-01

    To examine the impact of presenting images of foods paired with images of positive and negative health consequences of their consumption on food choice and attitudes. Participants (N = 711) were randomly allocated in a 2 × 3 factorial design (Food Type × Affective Valence) to 1 of 6 conditioning procedures that paired images of either energy-dense snack foods or fruit, with (a) images of negative health outcomes, (b) images of positive health outcomes, or (c) a no image control. The primary outcome was food choice assessed postintervention with a behavioral choice task. Secondary outcomes were implicit attitudes (assessed pre- and postintervention) and explicit attitudes (assessed postintervention). Presenting images of negative health outcomes led to more healthy food choices relative to control and positive image conditions, irrespective of whether they were paired with images of energy-dense snack foods or fruit. This relationship was partially mediated by changes in implicit and explicit attitudes. Images of positive health outcomes did not alter food choices. This study replicates and extends previous research showing that presenting images of negative health consequences increases healthy food choices. Because effects were elicited by manipulating affective valence irrespective of paired food type, these results appear more consistent with an explanation based on priming than on evaluative conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The Negative Impact of Social and Mass Media on People's Behaviors as Reflected in Harvey Kahn's Girl Fight

    OpenAIRE

    PUSPANINGRUM, GALUH WURI

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: media, mass media, social media, Facebook, Youtube, Socio- Psychology, behavior. Media were created to fulfill people's need of communication and information. The variety of media in this modern era makes people consider media as one of their primary need especially in their social lives. Mass media are used as tools to gain information and social media to communicate each other. This study aims to find the impact of media on people's behaviors in film entitled Girl Fight (201...

  17. Broiler health status has a major negative impact on broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaudaite-Lydekaitiene, Viktorija; Serniene, Loreta; Vismantaite, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for Campylobacter infection in broiler flocks in Lithuania. Each broiler flock was tested for the contamination with Campylobacter spp., and various broiler farm, flock and abattoir as well as the weather-associated characteristics were...... analysed using the statistical package SPSS. Study revealed that 59.3% of the examined broiler flocks were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Statistical analysis revealed that broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter was abattoir- and farm-dependent. Among a number of risk factors (e.g. the number...... spp. in broilers. According to our results broiler health status has a major negative effect on broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter. Thus, it needs to be considered when improving control of Campylobacter spp. in broilers....

  18. Positive or negative? The impact of X-ray feedback on the formation of direct collapse black hole seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John A.; Johansson, Peter H.; Wise, John H.

    2016-09-01

    A nearby source of Lyman-Werner (LW) photons is thought to be a central component in dissociating H2 and allowing for the formation of a direct collapse black hole seed. Nearby sources are also expected to produce copious amounts of hydrogen ionizing photons and X-ray photons. We study here the feedback effects of the X-ray photons by including a spectrum due to high-mass X-ray binaries on top of a galaxy with a stellar spectrum. We explicitly trace photon packages emerging from the nearby source and track the radiative and chemical effects of the multifrequency source (Ephoton = 0.76 eV → 7500 eV). We find that X-rays have a strongly negative feedback effect, compared to a stellar only source, when the radiative source is placed at a separation greater than ≳ 1 kpc. The X-rays heat the low and medium density gas in the envelope surrounding the collapsing halo suppressing the mass inflow. The result is a smaller enclosed mass compared to the stellar only case. However, for separations of ≲ 1 kpc, the feedback effects of the X-rays becomes somewhat neutral. The enhanced LW intensity at close separations dissociates more H2 and this gas is heated due to stellar photons alone, the addition of X-rays is then not significant. This distance dependence of X-ray feedback suggests that a Goldilocks zone exists close to a forming galaxy where X-ray photons have a much smaller negative feedback effect and ideal conditions exist for creating massive black hole seeds.

  19. Prosecution of non-disclosure of HIV status: Potential impact on HIV testing and transmission among HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Maya A; Kaul, Rupert; Loutfy, Mona; Myers, Ted; Brunetta, Jason; Remis, Robert S; Gesink, Dionne

    2018-01-01

    Non-disclosure criminal prosecutions among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are increasing, even though transmission risk is low when effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) is used. Reduced HIV testing may reduce the impact of HIV "test and treat" strategies. We aimed to quantify the potential impact of non-disclosure prosecutions on HIV testing and transmission among MSM. MSM attending an HIV and primary care clinic in Toronto completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview questionnaire. HIV-negative participants were asked concern over non-disclosure prosecution altered their likelihood of HIV testing. Responses were characterized using cross-tabulations and bivariate logistic regressions. Flow charts modelled how changes in HIV testing behaviour impacted HIV transmission rates controlling for ART use, condom use and HIV status disclosure. 150 HIV-negative MSM were recruited September 2010 to June 2012. 7% (9/124) were less or much less likely to be tested for HIV due to concern over future prosecution. Bivariate regression showed no obvious socio/sexual demographic characteristics associated with decreased willingness of HIV testing to due concern about prosecution. Subsequent models estimated that this 7% reduction in testing could cause an 18.5% increase in community HIV transmission, 73% of which was driven by the failure of HIV-positive but undiagnosed MSM to access care and reduce HIV transmission risk by using ART. Fear of prosecution over HIV non-disclosure was reported to reduce HIV testing willingness by a minority of HIV-negative MSM in Toronto; however, this reduction has the potential to significantly increase HIV transmission at the community level which has important public health implications.

  20. Does Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Negatively Impact Long-Term Survival and Freedom from Reintervention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad G. Raja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently published evidence has raised concerns about worse late mortality and increasing need for reintervention after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. We undertook this study to assess the impact of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting on survival and freedom from reintervention at 10 years. From January 2002 to December 2002, 307 consecutive patients who had isolated multivessel off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting at our institution were compared to a control group of 397 patients that underwent multivessel on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting during the same period. In addition, univariate and risk-adjusted comparisons between the two groups were performed at 10 years. Kaplan-Meier survival was similar for the two cohorts. After adjusting for clinical covariates, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting did not emerge as a significant independent predictor of long-term mortality (Hazard Ratio 0.91; 95% Confidence Interval 0.70–1.12, readmission to hospital for cardiac cause (Hazard Ratio 0.96; 95% Confidence Interval 0.78–1.10, or the need for reintervention (Hazard Ratio 0.93; 95% Confidence Interval 0.87–1.05. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting does not adversely impact survival or freedom from reintervention at a 10-year follow-up.

  1. Leydig cell number and sperm production decrease induced by chronic ametryn exposure: a negative impact on animal reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, T A; Cancian, G; Neodini, D N R; Mano, D R S; Capucho, C; Predes, F S; Pulz, R Barbieri; Pigoso, A A; Dolder, H; Severi-Aguiar, G D C

    2015-06-01

    Ametryn is an herbicide used to control broadleaf and grass weeds and its acute and chronic toxicity is expected to be low. Since toxicological data on ametryn is scarce, the aim of this study was to evaluate rat reproductive toxicity. Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats (90 days) were divided into three groups: Co (control) and T1 and T2 exposed to 15 and 30 mg/kg/day of ametryn, respectively, for 56 days. Testicular analysis demonstrated that ametryn decreased sperm number per testis, daily sperm production, and Leydig cell number in both treated groups, although little perceptible morphological change has been observed in seminiferous tubule structure. Lipid peroxidation was higher in group T2, catalase activity decreased in T1 group, superoxide dismutase activity diminished, and a smaller number of sulphydryl groups of total proteins were verified in both exposed groups, suggesting oxidative stress. These results showed negative ametryn influence on the testes and can compromise animal reproductive performance and survival.

  2. [Ultrasonography and the Alvarado score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: impact on the negative appendectomy rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzor Ríos, Sixto Javier; Rodríguez Artigas, Juan Miguel; Giménez Maurel, Teresa; Vallejo Bernad, Cristina; Aguirre Prat, Naira; Miguelena Bobadilla, José María

    2016-01-01

    To establish the negative appendectomy rate (NAR) after patients with acute abdomen were evaluated with the Alvarado score and compare it to the NAR in patients evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Cross-sectional, retrospective, descriptive study in patients who underwent emergency surgery for suspected acute appendicitis in a tertiary-care hospital over a period of 1 year. A total of 225 patients were included. The NAR was 7.11% for the series. An Alvarado score of 5 or more had an odds ratio (OR) of 7.46 (P=.0002) for acute appendicitis; sensitivity was 94.2%. Ultrasound findings consistent with acute appendicitis had an OR of 3.58 (P=.0125) for the diagnosis; the NAR was 5%. The high sensitivity of an Alvarado score of 5 or more supports using this tool to evaluate all patients who come to the emergency department with pain in the right iliac fossa. With scores of 7 or more the NAR falls to 3%. Abdominal ultrasound is a rapid, inexpensive diagnostic procedure associated with a low NAR.

  3. Double impact: what sibling data can tell us about the long-term negative effects of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfinger, Nicholas H; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Smith, Ken R

    2003-01-01

    Most prior research on the adverse consequences of parental divorce has analyzed only one child per family. As a result, it is not known whether the same divorce affects siblings differently. We address this issue by analyzing paired sibling data from the 1994 General Social Survey (GSS) and 1994 Survey of American Families (SAF). Both seemingly unrelated regressions and random effects models are used to study the effect of family background on offspring's educational attainment and marital stability. Parental divorce adversely affects the educational attainment and the probability of divorce of both children within a sibship; in other words, siblings tend to experience the same divorce the same way. However, family structure of origin only accounts for a trivial portion of the shared variance in offspring's educational attainment and marital stability, so parental divorce is only one of many factors determining how offspring fare. These findings were unchanged when controlling for a number of differences both between and within sibships. Also, the negative effects of parental divorce largely do not vary according to respondent characteristics.

  4. The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-05-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed.

  5. Prevalence and prognostic impact of allelic imbalances associated with leukemic transformation of Philadelphia chromosome–negative myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Utz O.; Lee, Dhong Hyun Tony; Kawamata, Norihiko; Iwanski, Gabriela B.; Lasho, Terra; Weiss, Tamara; Nowak, Daniel; Koren-Michowitz, Maya; Kato, Motohiro; Sanada, Masashi; Shih, Lee-Yung; Nagler, Arnon; Raynaud, Sophie D.; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Mesa, Ruben; Haferlach, Torsten; Gilliland, D. Gary; Tefferi, Ayalew; Ogawa, Seishi; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Philadelphia chromosome–negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis show an inherent tendency for transformation into leukemia (MPN-blast phase), which is hypothesized to be accompanied by acquisition of additional genomic lesions. We, therefore, examined chromosomal abnormalities by high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in 88 MPN patients, as well as 71 cases with MPN-blast phase, and correlated these findings with their clinical parameters. Frequent genomic alterations were found in MPN after leukemic transformation with up to 3-fold more genomic changes per sample compared with samples in chronic phase (P disease progression including not only established targets (ETV6, TP53, and RUNX1) but also new candidate genes on 7q, 16q, 19p, and 21q. Moreover, trisomy 8 or amplification of 8q24 (MYC) was almost exclusively detected in JAK2V617F− cases with MPN-blast phase. Remarkably, copy number–neutral loss of heterozygosity (CNN-LOH) on either 7q or 9p including homozygous JAK2V617F was related to decreased survival after leukemic transformation (P = .01 and P = .016, respectively). Our high-density SNP-array analysis of MPN genomes in the chronic compared with leukemic stage identified novel target genes and provided prognostic insights associated with the evolution to leukemia. PMID:20068225

  6. Auditory Scene Analysis and sonified visual images. Does consonance negatively impact on object formation when using complex sonified stimuli?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Brown

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener. However, we don’t yet know what role the auditory system plays in the object integration stage and whether the principles of auditory scene analysis apply. Here we used coarse sonified images in a two-tone discrimination task to test whether auditory feature-based representations of visual objects would be confounded when their features conflicted with the principles of auditory consonance. We found that listeners (N = 36 performed worse in an object recognition task when the auditory feature-based representation was harmonically consonant. We also found that this conflict was not negated with the provision of congruent audio-visual information. The findings suggest that early auditory processes of harmonic grouping dominate the object formation process and that the complexity of the signal, and additional sensory information have limited effect on this.

  7. Negative ... concord?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  8. Negative impacts of high temperatures on growth of black spruce forests intensify with the anticipated climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, Martin P; Hogg, Edward H; Bernier, Pierre Y; Kurz, Werner A; Guo, Xiao Jing; Cyr, Guillaume

    2016-02-01

    An increasing number of studies conclude that water limitations and heat stress may hinder the capacity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) trees, a dominant species of Canada's boreal forests, to grow and assimilate atmospheric carbon. However, there is currently no scientific consensus on the future of these forests over the next century in the context of widespread climate warming. The large spatial extent of black spruce forests across the Canadian boreal forest and associated variability in climate, demography, and site conditions pose challenges for projecting future climate change responses. Here we provide an evaluation of the impacts of climate warming and drying, as well as increasing [CO2 ], on the aboveground productivity of black spruce forests across Canada south of 60°N for the period 1971 to 2100. We use a new extensive network of tree-ring data obtained from Canada's National Forest Inventory, spatially explicit simulations of net primary productivity (NPP) and its drivers, and multivariate statistical modeling. We found that soil water availability is a significant driver of black spruce interannual variability in productivity across broad areas of the western to eastern Canadian boreal forest. Interannual variability in productivity was also found to be driven by autotrophic respiration in the warmest regions. In most regions, the impacts of soil water availability and respiration on interannual variability in productivity occurred during the phase of carbohydrate accumulation the year preceding tree-ring formation. Results from projections suggest an increase in the importance of soil water availability and respiration as limiting factors on NPP over the next century due to warming, but this response may vary to the extent that other factors such as carbon dioxide fertilization, and respiration acclimation to high temperature, contribute to dampening these limitations. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Reproduced with

  9. Impact of lower- vs. upper-hemifield presentation on automatic colour-deviance detection: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dagmar; Roeber, Urte; Winkler, István; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson; Czigler, István; Schröger, Erich

    2012-09-07

    The automatic processing of deviances from the temporal context of the visual environment has become an important topic in visual cognitive sciences, which is often investigated using the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN). This event-related potential (ERP) component is elicited by an irregular stimulus (e.g., a red disc) presented in a series of stimuli (e.g., green discs) comprising a temporal regularity (e.g., colour repetition). We determined the influence of lower- vs. upper-hemifield presentation of the irregular stimulus on the vMMN while using whole-field stimulus displays controlling for sustained shifts in spatial attention. Deviances presented in the lower hemifield elicited a larger vMMN than the ones presented in the upper hemifield at a latency of 200-280ms. However, this asymmetry was preceded by deviance-related hemifield effects already emerging at an earlier latency (110-150ms), where upper-hemifield deviances elicited a positive potential but lower-hemifield deviances did not. With variable resolution electromagnetic tomography (VARETA) early deviance-related activity was localised to retinotopically organised regions of the visual cortex (BA 17/18) and vMMN-sources were localised to the middle/superior occipital gyrus, to higher areas along the temporal visual stream, but also to BA 17/18. We argue that the upper/lower-hemifield vMMN asymmetry relies at least partially on the hemifield-dependent differential sensitivity of early deviance-related activity generated in retinotopically organised regions of the visual cortex. However, a superior automatic processing of deviances presented in the lower visual hemifield may also contribute to the effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid warming and drought negatively impact population size and reproductive dynamics of an avian predator in the arid southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-McDonnell, Kirsten K; Wolf, Blair O

    2016-01-01

    Avian communities of arid ecosystems may be particularly vulnerable to global climate change due to the magnitude of projected change for desert regions and the inherent challenges for species residing in resource limited ecosystems. How arid-zone birds will be affected by rapid increases in air temperature and increased drought frequency and severity is poorly understood because avian responses to climate change have primarily been studied in the relatively mesic northern temperate regions. We studied the effects of increasing air temperature and aridity on a Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) population in the southwestern United States from 1998 to 2013. Over 16 years, the breeding population declined 98.1%, from 52 pairs to 1 pair, and nest success and fledgling output also declined significantly. These trends were strongly associated with the combined effects of decreased precipitation and increased air temperature. Arrival on the breeding grounds, pair formation, nest initiation, and hatch dates all showed significant delays ranging from 9.4 to 25.1 days over 9 years, which have negative effects on reproduction. Adult and juvenile body mass decreased significantly over time, with a loss of 7.9% mass in adult males and 10.9% mass in adult females over 16 years, and a loss of 20.0% mass in nestlings over 8 years. Taken together, these population and reproductive trends have serious implications for local population persistence. The southwestern United States has been identified as a climate change hotspot, with projections of warmer temperatures, less winter precipitation, and an increase in frequency and severity of extreme events including drought and heat waves. An increasingly warm and dry climate may contribute to this species' decline and may already be a driving force of their apparent decline in the desert southwest. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Flow cytometric evaluation of physico-chemical impact on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje eFröhling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since heat sensitivity of fruits and vegetables limits the application of thermal inactivation processes, new emerging inactivation technologies have to be established to fulfil the requirements of food safety without affecting the produce quality. The efficiency of inactivation treatments has to be ensured and monitored. Monitoring of inactivation effects is commonly performed using traditional cultivation methods which have the disadvantage of the time span needed to obtain results.The aim of this study was to compare the inactivation effects of peracetic acid (PAA, ozonated water (O3 and cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using flow cytometric methods. E. coli cells were completely depolarized after treatment (15 s with 0.25 % PAA at 10 °C, and after treatment (10 s with 3.8 mg l-1 O3 at 12°C. The membrane potential of CAPP treated cells remained almost constant at an operating power of 20 W over a time period of 3 min, and subsequently decreased within 30 s of further treatment. Complete membrane permeabilization was observed after 10 s O3 treatment, but treatment with PAA and CAPP did not completely permeabilize the cells within 2 min and 4 min, respectively. Similar results were obtained for esterase activity. O3 inactivates cellular esterase but esterase activity was detected after 4 min CAPP treatment and 2 min PAA treatment. L. innocua cells and P. carotovorum cells were also permeabilized instantaneously by O3 treatment at concentrations of 3.8 ± 1 mg l-1. However, higher membrane permeabilization of L. innocua and P. carotovorum than of E. coli was observed at CAPP treatment of 20 W. The degree of bacterial damage due to the inactivation processes is highly dependent on treatment parameters as well as on treated bacteria. Important information regarding the inactivation mechanisms can be obtained by flow cytometric measurements and this enables the definition of critical process

  12. The presence of corpus luteum may have a negative impact on in vitro developmental competency of bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajarian, Hadi; Shahsavari, Mohammad H; Karami-shabankareh, Hamed; Dashtizad, Mojtaba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of the presence or absence of corpus luteum (CL) on in vitro developmental competence of bovine oocytes. In experiment 1, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries and divided according to the presence (CL(+) oocytes) or absence (CL(-) oocytes) of a CL in the ovary. Control oocytes (C group) were obtained from ovaries which were not selected toward the presence or absence of CL. All oocytes were submitted to in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture. In experiment 2, the oocytes from the CL(+) and CL(-) ovaries were divided into grown (BCB(+)) and growing (BCB(-)) categories by means of the brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test. The oocytes from all groups (CL(+)/BCB(+), CL(-)/BCB(+), CL(+)/BCB(-), CL(-)/BCB(-) and control oocytes) were subjected to in vitro embryo production. In experiment 1, the cleavage and blastocyst rates of CL(-) oocytes were higher than those of CL(+) oocytes (83.9% and 43% vs. 69.3% and 22.5%, respectively). In experiment 2, there was less BCB(+) oocytes (more competent oocytes) in the group of CL(+) oocytes than in the group of CL(-) oocytes. Furthermore, developmental competence of all CL(+) oocytes (CL(+)/BCB(+) and CL(+)/BCB(-)) was lower than that of all CL(-) oocytes (CL(-)/BCB(+) and CL(-)/BCB(-)). Thus, the presence of a corpus luteum in the ovary may have negative effects on developmental competence of ipsilateral oocytes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived discrimination amongst young people in socio-economically disadvantaged communities: Parental support and community identity buffer (some) negative impacts of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Daragh; Jay, Sarah; McNamara, Namh; Stevenson, Clifford; Muldoon, Orla T

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing acceptance that children are not unaware of when they are targets of discrimination. However, discrimination as a consequence of socio-economic disadvantage remains understudied. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of perceived discrimination on well-being, perceptions of safety and school integration amongst children growing up within socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Limerick, Ireland. Mediation analysis was used to explore these relationships and to examine the potential role of parental support and community identity in boys and girls in the 6th to 9th year of compulsory education (N = 199). Results indicate perceived discrimination contributed to negative outcomes in terms of school integration, perceptions of safety and levels of well-being. Age and gender differences were observed which disadvantaged boys and younger children. All negative outcomes were buffered by parental support. Community identity also protected young people in terms of feelings of school integration and risk but not in terms of psychological well-being. Findings are discussed in terms of the different role of family and community supports for children negotiating negative social representations of their community. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Impact of HBV genotype and mutations on HBV DNA and qHBsAg levels in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnhenn, L; Jiang, B; Kubesch, A; Vermehren, J; Knop, V; Susser, S; Dietz, J; Carra, G; Finkelmeier, F; Grammatikos, G; Zeuzem, S; Sarrazin, C; Hildt, E; Peiffer, K-H

    2018-04-10

    HBV DNA and quantitative (q)HBsAg levels as prognostic markers for HBV-related disease are mostly validated in Asia and their significance in Western populations is uncertain. To analyse the impact of the HBV genotype and frequent mutations in precore (PC), basal core promoter (BCP) and preS on HBV DNA and qHBsAg levels. HBV DNA and qHBsAg serum levels of 465 patients with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection were correlated with the HBV genotype and mutations in PC, BCP and preS. For a detailed analysis of the molecular virology, genotype A2 genomes harbouring these mutations were analysed for replication efficacy and HBsAg release in cell culture. While no impact of the HBV genotype on HBV DNA levels was observed, qHBsAg levels differed up to 1.4 log among the genotypes (P HBV DNA levels (P HBV genome harbouring a preS deletion. In contrast, a perinuclear HBsAg accumulation was detected for the PC and BCP-variants, reflecting an impaired HBsAg release. qHBsAg serum levels depend on the HBV genotype and together with HBV DNA levels on frequent mutations in PC, BCP and preS in HBeAg-negative patients. qHBsAg cut-offs when used as prognostic markers require genotype-dependent validation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Patent foramen ovale does not have a negative impact on early outcomes in patients undergoing liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Ana Carolina; Verocai Flaman, F; Granton, J; Delgado, D H

    2011-01-01

    To identify the impact of the presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Twenty-seven pre-liver transplant patients who had a PFO (PFO group) were identified and compared with 61 patients without PFO (NoPFO group). Patients were matched according to age, gender and cause of liver disease. The diagnosis of PFO was made by transthoracic echocardiography prior to liver transplantation. Patient baseline characteristics and complications during the early post-transplant period were analyzed. The mean age in the PFO group was 47 ± 14 (range 18-68) yr and 50 ± 11 (range 12-65) yr in the NoPFO group. The PFO group had a mean model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 15 ± 10 whereas in the NoPFO group the MELD score was 19 ± 10 (p = 0.08). There were non-significant differences in echocardiographic parameters between groups. Duration of mechanical ventilation and the incidence of neurological complications were similar. Thirty-day mortality rate was similar in both groups; only one patient in the NoPFO group died within the first 30 days post-transplantation. The presence of PFO in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation does not appear to affect patient outcomes during the peri-operative period. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. In-role perceptions buffer the negative impact of low LMX on helping and enhance the positive impact of high LMX on voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyne, Linn; Kamdar, Dishan; Joireman, Jeffrey

    2008-11-01

    In 2 field studies, we demonstrated that the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is moderated by employee role perceptions--the extent to which employees view specific types of OCB as in-role behavior (IRB) versus extra-role behavior (ERB). In addition, we predicted and demonstrated that the form of these interactions differs on the basis of the type of OCB. For helping (aimed at the supervisor or the organization), results show a substitute effect in which viewing helping as IRB buffers the negative effect of low-quality LMX on helping. In contrast, for voice (aimed at the supervisor or the organization), results demonstrate an enhancer effect in which viewing voice as IRB amplifies the positive effect of high-quality LMX on voice. We discuss theoretical and practical implications with an emphasis on how conceptual differences in types of OCB influence the interactive effects of role perceptions on LMX-OCB relationships.

  17. Retinoic Acid Negatively Impacts Proliferation and MCTC Specific Attributes of Human Skin Derived Mast Cells, but Reinforces Allergic Stimulability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Babina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Vitamin-A-metabolite retinoic acid (RA acts as a master regulator of cellular programs. Mast cells (MCs are primary effector cells of type-I-allergic reactions. We recently uncovered that human cutaneous MCs are enriched with RA network components over other skin cells. Yet, direct experimental evidence on the significance of the RA-MC axis is limited. Here, skin-derived cultured MCs were exposed to RA for seven days and investigated by flow-cytometry (BrdU incorporation, Annexin/PI, FcεRI, microscopy, RT-qPCR, histamine quantitation, protease activity, and degranulation assays. We found that while MC size and granularity remained unchanged, RA potently interfered with MC proliferation. Conversely, a modest survival-promoting effect from RA was noted. The granule constituents, histamine and tryptase, remained unaffected, while RA had a striking impact on MC chymase, whose expression dropped by gene and by peptidase activity. The newly uncovered MRGPRX2 performed similarly to chymase. Intriguingly, RA fostered allergic MC degranulation, in a way completely uncoupled from FcεRI expression, but it simultaneously restricted MRGPRX2-triggered histamine release in agreement with the reduced receptor expression. Vitamin-A-derived hormones thus re-shape skin-derived MCs numerically, phenotypically, and functionally. A general theme emerges, implying RA to skew MCs towards processes associated with (allergic inflammation, while driving them away from the skin-imprinted MCTC (“MCs containing tryptase and chymase” signature (chymase, MRGPRX2. Collectively, MCs are substantial targets of the skin retinoid network.

  18. Actual issues of introduction of continuous emission monitoring systems for control of negative impact of TPP to atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrateva, O. E.; Roslyakov, P. V.; Borovkova, A. M.; Loktionov, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    Over the past 3 years there have been significant changes in Russian environmental legislation related to the transition to technological regulation based on the principles of the best available technologies (BAT). These changes also imply control and accounting of the harmful impact of industrial enterprises on the environment. Therefore, a mandatory requirement for equipping automatic continuous emission monitoring systems (ACEMS) is established for all large TPPs. For a successful practical solution of the problem of introducing such systems in the whole country there is an urgent need to develop the governing regulatory document for the design and operation of systems for continuous monitoring of TPP emissions into the air, allowing within reasonable limits to unify these systems for their work with the state data fund of state environmental monitoring and make easier the process of their implementation at operating facilities for industrial enterprises. Based on the large amount of research in the field of creation of ACEMS, which conducted in National Research University “MPEI”, a draft guidance document was developed, which includes the following regulatory provisions: goals and objectives of ACEMS, the stages of their introduction rules of carrying out preliminary inspection of energy facilities, requirements to develop technical specifications, general requirements for the operation of ACEMS, requirements to the structure and elements of ACEMS, recommendations on selection of places of measuring equipment installation, rules for execution, commissioning and acceptance testing, continuous measurement method, method for determination of the current gross and specific emissions. The draft guidance document, developed by the National Research University “MPEI”, formed the basis of the Preliminary national standards PNST 187-2017 “Automatic systems for continuous control and metering of contaminants emissions from thermal electric power stations into

  19. Fertilization of sea urchin eggs and sperm motility are negatively impacted under low hypergravitational forces significant to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, J. S.; Kim, S.; Schuber, M.; Seibt, D.; Kinsey, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm and other flagellates swim faster in microgravity (microG) than in 1 G, raising the question of whether fertilization is altered under conditions of space travel. Such alterations have implications for reproduction of plant and animal food and for long-term space habitation by man. We previously demonstrated that microG accelerates protein phosphorylation during initiation of sperm motility but delays the sperm response to the egg chemotactic factor, speract. Thus sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force. New experiments using the NiZeMi centrifugal microscope examined whether low hypergravity (hyperG) causes effects opposite to microG on sperm motility, signal transduction, and fertilization. Sperm % motility and straight-line velocity were significantly inhibited by as little as 1.3 G. The phosphorylation states of FP130, an axonemal phosphoprotein, and FP160, a cAMP-dependent salt-extractable flagellar protein, both coupled to motility activation, showed a more rapid decline in hyperG. Most critically, hyperG caused an approximately 50% reduction in both the rate of sperm-egg binding and fertilization. The similar extent of inhibition of both fertilization parameters in hyperG suggests that the primary effect is on sperm rather than eggs. These results not only support our earlier microG data demonstrating that sperm are sensitive to small changes in gravitational forces but more importantly now show that this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs. Thus, more detailed studies on the impact of space flight on development should include studies of sperm function and fertilization.

  20. The Impact of Efflux Pump Inhibitors on the Activity of Selected Non-Antibiotic Medicinal Products against Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka E. Laudy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of non-antibiotic medicinal products in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has recently been investigated. It is highly likely that the presence of efflux pumps may be one of the reasons for the weak activity of non-antibiotics, as in the case of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, against Gram-negative rods. The activity of eight drugs of potential non-antibiotic activity, active substance standards, and relevant medicinal products were analysed with and without of efflux pump inhibitors against 180 strains of five Gram-negative rod species by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value determination in the presence of 1 mM MgSO4. Furthermore, the influence of non-antibiotics on the susceptibility of clinical strains to quinolones with or without PAβN (Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide was investigated. The impacts of PAβN on the susceptibility of bacteria to non-antibiotics suggests that amitriptyline, alendronate, nicergoline, and ticlopidine are substrates of efflux pumps in Gram-negative rods. Amitriptyline/Amitriptylinum showed the highest direct antibacterial activity, with MICs ranging 100–800 mg/L against all studied species. Significant decreases in the MIC values of other active substances (acyclovir, atorvastatin, and famotidine tested with pump inhibitors were not observed. The investigated non-antibiotic medicinal products did not alter the MICs of quinolones in the absence and in the presence of PAβN to the studied clinical strains of five groups of species.

  1. The impact of early parenting bonding on young adults' internet addiction, through the mediation effects of negative relating to others and sadness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzaki, Argyroula E; Birtchnell, John

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study is the investigation of the potential role of negative relating to others, perceived loneliness, sadness, and anxiety, as mediators of the association between early parental bonding and adult Internet Addiction (IA). The factorial structure of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the prevalence rates of it in a Greek sample will also be investigated. A total of 774 participants were recruited from a Technological Education Institute (mean age=20.2, SD=2.8) and from high school technical schools (mean age=19.9, SD=7.4). The IAT was used to measure the degree of problematic Internet use behaviors; the Parental Bonding Instrument was used to assess one's recalled parenting experiences during the first 16years of life; the shortened Person's Relating to Others Questionnaire was used to assess one's negative (i.e. maladaptive) relating to others (NRO). Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the three-factor structure of the IAT. Only 1.0% of the sample was severely addicted to the Internet. The mediated effects of only the NRO and sadness were confirmed. Negative relating to others was found to fully mediate the effect of both the father's optimal parenting and affectionless control on IA, whereas sadness was found to fully mediate the effect of the mother's optimal parenting on IA. Overall, the results suggest that parenting style has an indirect impact on IA, through the mediating role of negative relating to others or sadness in later life. Both family-based and individual-based prevention and intervention efforts may reduce the incidence of IA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of positive, negative and neutral stimuli in a virtual reality cognitive-motor rehabilitation task: a pilot study with stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameirão, Mónica S; Faria, Ana Lúcia; Paulino, Teresa; Alves, Júlio; Bermúdez I Badia, Sergi

    2016-08-09

    Virtual Reality (VR) based methods for stroke rehabilitation have mainly focused on motor rehabilitation, but there is increasing interest in integrating motor and cognitive training to increase similarity to real-world settings. Unfortunately, more research is needed for the definition of which type of content should be used in the design of these tools. One possibility is the use of emotional stimuli, which are known to enhance attentional processes. According to the Socioemotional Selectivity Theory, as people age, the emotional salience arises for positive and neutral, but not for negative stimuli. For this study we developed a cognitive-motor VR task involving attention and short-term memory, and we investigated the impact of using emotional images of varying valence. The task consisted of finding a target image, shown for only two seconds, among fourteen neutral distractors, and selecting it through arm movements. After performing the VR task, a recall task took place and the patients had to identify the target images among a valence-matched number of distractors. Ten stroke patients participated in a within-subjects experiment with three conditions based on the valence of the images: positive, negative and neutral. Eye movements were recorded during VR task performance with an eye tracking system. Our results show decreased attention for negative stimuli in the VR task performance when compared to neutral stimuli. The recall task shows significantly more wrongly identified images (false memories) for negative stimuli than for neutral. Regression and correlation analyses with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Geriatric Depression Scale revealed differential effects of cognitive function and depressive symptomatology in the encoding and recall of positive, negative and neutral images. Further, eye movement data shows reduced search patterns for wrongly selected stimuli containing emotional content. The results of this study suggest that it is feasible

  3. The impact of students with left-behind experiences on childhood: The relationship between negative life events and depression among college students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Zhao, Sheng-Yu; Pan, Xuan-Ying; Liao, Chuan-Jing

    2018-02-01

    The number of left-behind children in rural China has increased dramatically over the last decade. It is reported that about 21.88% of child population with an estimated number of 61 million are left-behind children whose parents leave them to work in cities. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the impacts of left-behind experience (LBE) on college students' depression and other influencing factors. This study discusses the mediation effect of self-esteem together with psychological resilience on college students with depression and negative life events of left-behind. The study also discusses the regulation effect of LBE. A total of 788 college students were selected from three universities in Sichuan and Chongqing (367 with LBEs, 421 without LBEs). Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Resilience Scale of Chinese Adolescent (RSCA) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to measure the negative life events, self-esteem, psychological resilience and depression, respectively. Bootstrap program was used to test the mediation effect, and multiple-group analysis was used to examine the regulation effect for LBE. Scores of ASLEC for the college students with LBEs were higher than those without LBEs (8.59 ± 3.57) vs (7.06 ± 3.38), p college students with LBEs ( r = .21 to .29, p college students' self-esteem and psychological resilience between negative life events and depression was significant (mediating effect = .08, .13, .07; p college students' self-esteem and psychological resilience on negative life events had strong mediation effect on depression. The test of Bootstrap showed that the mediation effect of self-esteem and psychological resilience was significant (95% confidence interval (CI) = [0.04-0.76]). The LBE had regulation effect on college students' self-esteem and psychological resilience. (The constraint model fitting degree of variation is Δχ 2  = 2

  4. Elevated temperatures and long drought periods have a negative impact on survival and fitness of strongylid third stage larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp-Lawitzke, Friederike; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina

    2016-04-01

    In grazing cattle, infections with gastrointestinal nematodes pose some of the most important health threats and subclinical infections result in considerable production losses. While there is little doubt that climate change will affect grazing ruminants directly, mean temperature increases of ∼ 3°C and longer drought stress periods in summer may also influence the free-living stages of parasitic nematodes. Hostile climatic conditions reduce the number of L3s on pasture and therefore the refugium, which is expected to result in a higher selection pressure, accelerating development of resistance against anthelmintic drugs. The aim of the current experiments was to investigate the effects of drought stress and different temperature/humidity ranges over time on the survival and fitness of Cooperia oncophora L3s and their distribution in grass and soil under controlled conditions using a climate chamber. Grass containers inoculated with L3s were analysed after 1-6weeks using descriptive statistics as well as linear models. A large proportion of L3s was recovered from soil where fitness was also better preserved than on grass. Numbers and fitness of recovered L3s declined with duration in the climate chamber under both temperature profiles. However, the results of the linear models confirmed that higher temperatures (20-33°C versus 17-22.6°C) significantly impaired survival, distribution and fitness of L3s. Application of drought stress, known as another important factor, had a surprisingly smaller impact than its duration or higher temperatures. The climate chamber enabled exclusion of confounding factors and therefore accurate interpretation of the investigated climatic aspects. The obtained results highlight the relative importance of those factors, and will help to design better models for the population dynamics of L3s on pasture in the future. Additionally, the outcomes of these investigations may offer explanations regarding interdependencies of development

  5. Coaching to vision versus coaching to improvement needs: a preliminary investigation on the differential impacts of fostering positive and negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Anita R

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on intentional change theory (ICT; Boyatzis, 2006), this study examined the differential impact of inducing coaching recipients' vision/positive emotion versus improvement needs/negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions. A core aim of the study was to empirically test two central ICT propositions on the effects of using the coached person's Positive Emotional Attractor (vision/PEA) versus Negative Emotional Attractor (improvement needs/NEA) as the anchoring framework of a onetime, one-on-one coaching session on appraisal of 360° feedback and discussion of possible change goals. Eighteen coaching recipients were randomly assigned to two coaching conditions, the coaching to vision/PEA condition and the coaching to improvement needs/NEA condition. Two main hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis1 predicted that participants in the vision/PEA condition would show higher levels of expressed positive emotion during appraisal of 360° feedback results and discussion of change goals than recipients in the improvement needs/NEA condition. Hypothesis2 predicted that vision/PEA participants would show lower levels of stress immediately after the coaching session than improvement needs/NEA participants. Findings showed that coaching to vision/the PEA fostered significantly lower levels of expressed negative emotion and anger during appraisal of 360° feedback results as compared to coaching to improvements needs/the NEA. Vision-focused coaching also fostered significantly greater exploration of personal passions and future desires, and more positive engagement during 360° feedback appraisal. No significant differences between the two conditions were found in emotional processing during discussion of change goals or levels of stress immediately after the coaching session. Current findings suggest that vision/PEA arousal versus improvement needs/NEA arousal impact the coaching process in quite different ways; that the coach's initial framing of the

  6. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives......We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...

  7. Does High-Quality Financial Reporting Mitigate the Negative Impact of Global Financial Crises on Firm Performance? Evidence from the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior literature has claimed that accounting plays a negative role in a financial crisis. The current study sought to determine whether this effect is dependent on the quality of financial reporting. Specifically, this study examined the impact of the quality of financial reporting (as measured via earnings quality on liquidity (measured by the bid-ask spread in the equity market during the 2008–2009 global financial crisis in the United Kingdom. We found, as expected, that market liquidity was much lower during the crisis than prior to the crisis; however, firms with high-quality financial reporting suffered fewer negative effects as a result of the financial crisis. The results were robust after controlling for other influences, such as return volatility, loss making, market value of equity, and other potential endogeneity problems. In addition, adopting alternative models for earnings quality did not alter our inferences. Our results support the notion that high-quality accounting information can reduce information asymmetry and hence enhance investor confidence during a financial crisis. The results suggest that a stable financial reporting system is an important part of that overall economic fabric. Our findings will help build a framework on which an overall financial crisis risk-management strategy can be developed to avoid future crises.

  8. Are People Emotionally Predisposed to Experience Lower Quality of Life? The Impact of Negative Affectivity on Quality of Life in Patients Recovering from Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony J.; Benos, Alexis; Maes, Stan

    2006-01-01

    Negative affectivity has been defined as a predisposition to experience intense states of negative emotions. As a trait concept it is a dimension that reflects stable and pervasive differences in negative mood and self-concept. There has been systematic evidence linking negative affectivity to anxiety, depression, psychosomatic complaints, pain…

  9. Budget impact analysis of everolimus for the treatment of hormone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jipan; Diener, Melissa; De, Gourab; Yang, Hongbo; Wu, Eric Q; Namjoshi, Madhav

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the budget impact of everolimus as the first and second treatment option after letrozole or anastrozole (L/A) failure for post-menopausal women with hormone receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC). Pharmacy and medical budget impacts (2011 USD) were estimated over the first year of everolimus use in HR+, HER2- ABC from a US payer perspective. Epidemiology data were used to estimate target population size. Pre-everolimus entry treatment options included exemestane, fulvestrant, and tamoxifen. Pre- and post-everolimus entry market shares were estimated based on market research and assumptions. Drug costs were based on wholesale acquisition cost. Patients were assumed to be on treatment until progression or death. Annual medical costs were calculated as the average of pre- and post-progression medical costs weighted by the time in each period, adjusted for survival. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the model robustness. In a hypothetical 1,000,000 member plan, 72 and 159 patients were expected to be candidates for everolimus treatment as first and second treatment option, respectively, after L/A failure. The total budget impact for the first year post-everolimus entry was $0.044 per member per month [PMPM] (pharmacy budget: $0.058 PMPM; medical budget: -$0.014 PMPM), assuming 10% of the target population would receive everolimus. The total budget impacts for the first and second treatment options after L/A failure were $0.014 PMPM (pharmacy budget: $0.018; medical budget: -$0.004) and $0.030 PMPM (pharmacy budget: $0.040; medical budget: -$0.010), respectively. Results remained robust in sensitivity analyses. Assumptions about some model input parameters were necessary and may impact results. Increased pharmacy costs for HR+, HER2- ABC following everolimus entry are expected to be partially offset by reduced medical service costs. Pharmacy and total

  10. Development of a Comprehensive Programme to Prevent and Reduce the Negative Impact of Railway Fatalities, Injuries and Close Calls on Railway Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardon, Cécile; Mishara, Brian L

    2015-09-01

    This article presents a strategy to prevent trauma, support and care for railway personnel who experience critical incidents (CI) on the job, usually fatalities by accident or suicide. We reviewed all publications on CI management, support and care practices in the railway industry, as well as practices in place in Canada (unpublished protocols). Semi structured interviews were conducted with 40 train engineers and conductors involved in CIs and the content was coded and analysed quantitatively. Employees' satisfaction with the help received after the incident varies according to the behaviour of the local manager, company officers and police, the level of compliance with existing company protocols to help them, the presence of unmet expectations for support and care, their perceived competency of clinicians they consulted and the level of trust toward their employers. On the basis of the interview results, the review of existing railway practices and discussions with railway stakeholders, a model protocol was developed for a comprehensive workplace prevention, support and care protocol to reduce the negative impact of railway critical incidents on employees. This protocol includes preventive actions before traumatic events occur, immediate responses at the site of incident, interventions within the first few days after the incident and longer term support and interventions provided by the company and by outsourced experts.

  11. High self-assessment of disability and the surgeon's recommendation against surgical intervention may negatively impact satisfaction scores in patients with spinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Marcus D; McEvoy, Sara; Schmidt, Meic H; Bisson, Erica F

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Patient satisfaction scores have become a common metric for health care quality. Because satisfaction scores are right-skewed, even small differences in mean scores can have a large impact. Little information, however, is available on the specific factors that play a role in satisfaction in patients with spinal disorders. The authors investigated whether disability severity and the surgeon's recommendation for or against surgical intervention were associated with patient satisfaction scores. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study involving adult patients who were referred to a spine surgeon for an outpatient evaluation of back pain. Patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before their clinic appointment and a Press Ganey patient satisfaction survey after their visit. Patients were grouped by self-assessed disability severity: mild to moderate (ODI disability self-assessment. The authors also investigated whether the surgeon's recommendation against surgery negatively affected patient satisfaction. RESULTS One hundred thirty patients completed the ODI questionnaire before and satisfaction surveys after seeing a spine surgeon for a new outpatient back pain consultation. Of these, 68 patients had severe disability, 62 had mild to moderate disability, 67 received a recommendation for surgery, and 63 received a recommendation against surgery. Composite satisfaction scores were lower among patients who had severe disability than among those with mild to moderate disability (median [interquartile range]: 91.7 [83.7-96.4] vs 95.8 [91.0-99.3], respectively; p = 0.0040). Patients who received a recommendation against surgery reported lower satisfaction scores than those who received a recommendation for surgery (91.7 [83.5-95.8] vs 95.8 [88.5-99.8]; p = 0.0059). CONCLUSIONS High self-assessment of disability and a surgeon's recommendation against surgical intervention are associated with lower satisfaction scores in patients with

  12. Prognostic impact of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT staging and of pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, D.; Merlet, P. [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris Cedex 10 (France); University of Paris VII, B2T Doctoral School, Institut Universitaire d' Hematologie, Paris (France); Giacchetti, S.; Hamy, A.S.; Espie, M. [Saint-Louis Hospital, Breast Diseases Unit, Department of Medical Oncology, Paris (France); Delord, M. [Institut Universitaire d' Hematologie, Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Paris (France); Roquancourt, A. de [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Hindie, E. [University of Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haut-Leveque Hospital, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-11-29

    Mortality is high in patients with locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), especially in those with residual tumour after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The aim of this study was to determine if pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT staging and pathological findings after NAC could together allow stratification of patients into prognostic groups. Initial staging with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was performed prospectively in 85 consecutive patients with stage II/III TNBC. Correlations between PET findings and disease-specific survival (DSS) were examined. In patients without distant metastases on PET staging, the impact of pathological response to NAC on DSS was examined. Patterns of recurrence were also analysed. {sup 18}F-DG PET/CT revealed distant metastases in 11 of 85 patients (12.9 %). Among 74 M0 patients, 23 (31.1 %) showed a pathological complete response (pCR) at surgery, while 51 had residual invasive disease (no pCR). DSS differed considerably among the three groups of patients (log-rank P <.001): among patients with occult metastases on baseline PET/CT, 2-year DSS was 18.2 %, and among patients without initial metastases on PET/CT, 5-year DSS was 61.3 % in patients without pCR after NAC and 95.2 % in those with pCR. Of the 51 patients who did not achieve pCR, 21 relapsed (17 developed distant metastases). The sites of distant recurrence were: lung/pleura (nine patients), brain (eight patients), liver (six patients), distant lymph nodes (six patients) and bone (five patients). In patients with clinical stage II/III TNBC, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT findings at initial staging and pathological response at the end of NAC allow three groups of patients with quite different prognoses to be defined. Extraskeletal recurrences predominated. Specific follow-up strategies in patients with TNBC who do not achieve pCR deserve investigation. (orig.)

  13. Impact of some types of mass gatherings on current suicide risk in an urban population: statistical and negative binominal regression analysis of time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, Vasiliy S; Svirin, Sergey N; Shchekaturov, Yan N; Ponarin, Eduard D

    2014-04-04

    Many studies have investigated the impact of a wide range of social events on suicide-related behaviour. However, these studies have predominantly examined national events. The aim of this study is to provide a statistical evaluation of the relationship between mass gatherings in some relatively small urban sub-populations and the general suicide rates of a major city. The data were gathered in the Ukrainian city of Dnipropetrovsk, with a population of 1 million people, in 2005-2010. Suicide attempts, suicides, and the total amount of suicide-related behaviours were registered daily for each sex. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis, including negative binomial regression, were applied to assess the risk of suicide-related behaviour in the city's general population for 7 days before and after 427 mass gatherings, such as concerts, football games, and non-regular mass events organized by the Orthodox Church and new religious movements. The bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses found significant changes in some suicide-related behaviour rates in the city's population after certain kinds of mass gatherings. In particular, we observed an increased relative risk (RR) of male suicide-related behaviour after a home defeat of the local football team (RR = 1.32, p = 0.047; regression coefficient beta = 0.371, p = 0.002), and an increased risk of male suicides (RR = 1.29, p = 0.006; beta =0.255, p = 0.002), male suicide-related behaviour (RR = 1.25, p = 0.019; beta =0.251, p football games and mass events organized by new religious movements involved a relatively small part of an urban population (1.6 and 0.3%, respectively), we observed a significant increase of the some suicide-related behaviour rates in the whole population. It is likely that the observed effect on suicide-related behaviour is related to one's personal presence at the event rather than to its broadcast. Our findings can be explained largely in

  14. Exposure to stressful events during a peacekeeping mission may have a price: The impact on trait of negative and positive affect and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares, Roberta Sonia Rodrigues; Mendonça-de-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Duarte, Antônio Fernando Araujo; Gameiro, Thaís Medeiros; Fischer, Nastassja Lopes; Souza, Wanderson Fernandes; Coutinho, Evandro da Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Volchan, Eliane; Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the participants' negative affect, positive affect, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression symptoms before and after a peacekeeping mission. Depression symptoms and positive affect after mission were significantly associated with exposure to stressful events during the mission, controlled by the respective characteristics before mission. Negative affect and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after mission had a tendency to be associated with exposure to stressful events during the mission, controlled by the respective characteristics before mission. In conclusion, even in healthy and physically active male peacekeepers, those more exposed to stressful events could be more vulnerable to present negative outcomes.

  15. Minimal and mild endometriosis negatively impact on pregnancy outcome Endometriose mínima e leve e seu impacto negativo sobre a gravidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Pina Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis, a highly prevalent gynecological disease, can lead to infertility in moderate to severe cases. Whether minimal stages are associated with infertility is still unclear. The purpose of this systematic review is to present studies regarding the association between pregnancy rates and the presence of early stages of endometriosis. Studies regarding infertility, minimal (stage I, American Society of Reproductive Medicine [ASRM] and mild (stage II, ASRM endometriosis were identified by searching on the MEDLINE database from 1985 to September 2011 using the following MESH terms: endometriosis; infertility; minimal; mild endometriosis; pregnancy rate. 1188 articles published between January of 1985 and November of 2011 were retrieved; based on their titles, 1038 citations were excluded. Finally, after inclusion and exclusion criteria, 16 articles were selected to be part of this systematic review. Several reasons have been discussed in the literature to explain the impact of minimal endometriosis on fertility outcome, such as: ovulatory dysfunction, impaired folliculogenesis, defective implantation, decrease embryo quality, abnormal immunological peritoneal environment, and luteal phase problems. Despite the controversy involving the topic, the largest randomized control trial, published by Marcoux et al. in 1997 found a statistically different pregnancy rate after resection of superficial endometrial lesions. Earlier stages of endometriosis play a critical role in infertility, and most likely negatively impact pregnancy outcomes. Further studies into stage I endometriosis, especially randomized controlled trials, still need to be conducted.RESUMO O objetivo desta revisão sistemática é apresentar estudos sobre a associação entre as taxas de gravidez e a presença de fases iniciais de endometriose. Estudos relacionados com a infertilidade e estágios mínimos e leves (estágios I,II, American Society of Reproductive Medicine [ASRM

  16. The impact of maternal negative affectivity on dietary patterns of 18-month-old children in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ystrom, Eivind; Niegel, Susan; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2009-07-01

    Early dietary habits are formative for dietary habits later in life. Maternal personality might be an important factor in unhealthy feeding of children. The current study aims to assess the degree to which the personality trait of negative affectivity in mothers predicts their child's diet at age 18 months. This study is a part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. A total of 27 763 mothers completed 3 repeated assessments of negative affectivity before and after childbirth and of the child's diet when the child was 18 months old. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the dietary patterns, and structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationship with negative affectivity adjusted for socio-demographical variables. Exploratory factor analysis of a foods frequency questionnaire revealed two dietary patterns in the child, labeled unhealthy diet and wholesome diet. The unhealthy diet comprised foods rich in sugar and fat; the wholesome diet comprised foods rich in fibre, vitamins and minerals. Mothers high in negative affectivity were more inclined to feed their child an unhealthy diet. The results were adjusted for maternal age, years of education, relative income, marital status, number of children, having the child in daycare, maternal smoking, maternal body mass index, and child gender. This study shows that a maternal personality trait, negative affectivity, is related to feeding the child an unhealthy diet after controlling for key socio-demographic variables.

  17. A high-fat, high-protein diet attenuates the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Lu; Zhao, Yu-Yun; Zhu, Wei-Jie

    2017-10-01

    RNA and protein levels of the StAR and 3β-HSD in group HFPD+CS were both higher than those of in group ND+CS. These results indicated that Kunming male mice with high-fat, high-protein diet and casein injection for 8weeks can be used to establish a diet-induced obesity and chronic systemic inflammation. The sperm parameters in groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI decreased accompanied by pathological changes of testicular tissue. This resultant effect of reduced serum testosterone levels was associated with the overproduction of TNF-α and IL-10 and down-regulation of StAR and CYP11A1. Under the same casein-induced chronic inflammation condition, the mice with high-fat, high-protein diet had better testicular steroidogenesis activity and sperm parameters compared with the mice in normal diet, indicating that the mice with casein-induced inflammatory injury consuming a high-fat, high-protein diet gained weight normally, reduced serum adiponectin level and increased testosterone production by an upregulation of 3β-HSD expression. High-fat, high-protein diet attenuated the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevent the blue, be true to you: Authenticity buffers the negative impact of loneliness on alcohol-related problems, physical symptoms, and depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jennifer L; Baker, Zachary G; Tou, Reese Yw

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated authenticity as a moderator of the association between loneliness and depressive symptoms, anxiety, physical symptoms, and alcohol-related problems. It was expected that loneliness and health outcomes would be negatively related and that relationship would be weaker among those higher in authenticity. Significant interactions emerged between authenticity and loneliness for each outcome such that authenticity mitigated the relationship between higher loneliness and negative health outcomes. Results suggest that authenticity may be an underutilized resource for lonely individuals and warrants future investigation. The potential implications are diverse and could be incorporated in college adjustment and health promotion programs.

  19. Advertising/public relations campaign to combat the negative economic impact caused by the nuclear mishap at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through the Department of Commerce, conducted a media advertising campaign to offset the negative implications and effects of the Three Mile Island incident. The emphasis of the campaign has been directed toward a friendly, all-clear image for Pennsylvania. The travel industry of the entire Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the chief beneficiary of the proposed project

  20. Advertising/public relations campaign to combat the negative economic impact caused by the nuclear mishap at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through the Department of Commerce, conducted a media advertising campaign to offset the negative implications and effects of the Three Mile Island incident. The emphasis of the campaign has been directed toward a friendly, all-clear image for Pennsylvania. The travel industry of the entire Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the chief beneficiary of the proposed project.

  1. Impact of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder on the Neural Dynamics of Cognitive Reappraisal of Negative Self-Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Hahn, Kevin; Heimberg, Richard; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for social anxiety disorder is thought to enhance cognitive reappraisal in patients with social anxiety disorder. Such improvements should be evident in cognitive reappraisal-related prefrontal cortex responses. Objective To determine whether Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for social anxiety disorder modifies cognitive reappraisal-related prefrontal cortex neural signal magnitude and timing when implementing cognitive reappraisal with negative self-beliefs. Design Randomized controlled trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for social anxiety disorder versus waitlist control group. Setting Psychology department. Participants Seventy-five patients with generalized social anxiety disorder randomly assigned to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or waitlist. Intervention Sixteen sessions of individual-Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for social anxiety disorder during a study that enrolled patients from 2007 to 2010. Main Outcome Measures Negative emotion ratings and functional magnetic resonance blood oxygen-level dependent signal when reacting to and cognitively reappraising negative self-beliefs embedded in autobiographical social anxiety situations. Results During reactivity trials, compared to waitlist, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy produced (a) greater reduction in negative emotion ratings and (b) greater blood oxygen-level dependent signal magnitude in medial prefrontal cortex. During cognitive reappraisal trials, compared to waitlist, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy produced (c) greater reduction in negative emotion ratings, (d) greater blood oxygen-level dependent signal magnitude in dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, (e) earlier temporal onset of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activity, and (f) greater dorsomedial prefrontal cortex-amygdala inverse functional connectivity. Conclusions and Relevance Modulation of cognitive reappraisal-related brain responses, timing and functional connectivity may be important brain changes

  2. Negative Reactance Impacts on the Eigenvalues of the Jacobian Matrix in Power Flow and Type-1 Low-Voltage Power-Flow Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Li, Cheng; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    It was usually considered in power systems that power flow equations had multiple solutions and all the eigenvalues of Jacobian ma-trix at the high-voltage operable solution should have negative real parts. Accordingly, type-1 low-voltage power flow solutions are defined in the case...... solution may be positive and also the type-1 low-voltage solutions could have more than one positive real-part eigen-values, being a major challenge. Therefore, in this paper, the recognition of the type-1 low-voltage power flow solutions is re-examined with the presence of negative reactance. Selected......-voltage operable solution as well as the number of positive real-part eigenvalues at the type-1 low-voltage power flow solutions....

  3. "Disorganized in time": impact of bottom-up and top-down negative emotion generation on memory formation among healthy and traumatized adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Clochon, Patrice; Giffard, Bénédicte; Viard, Armelle; Egler, Pierre-Jean; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Eustache, Francis; Dayan, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    "Travelling in time," a central feature of episodic memory is severely affected among individuals with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with two opposite effects: vivid traumatic memories are unorganized in temporality (bottom-up processes), non-traumatic personal memories tend to lack spatio-temporal details and false recognitions occur more frequently that in the general population (top-down processes). To test the effect of these two types of processes (i.e. bottom-up and top-down) on emotional memory, we conducted two studies in healthy and traumatized adolescents, a period of life in which vulnerability to emotion is particularly high. Using negative and neutral images selected from the international affective picture system (IAPS), stimuli were divided into perceptual images (emotion generated by perceptual details) and conceptual images (emotion generated by the general meaning of the material). Both categories of stimuli were then used, along with neutral pictures, in a memory task with two phases (encoding and recognition). In both populations, we reported a differential effect of the emotional material on encoding and recognition. Negative perceptual scenes induced an attentional capture effect during encoding and enhanced the recollective distinctiveness. Conversely, the encoding of conceptual scenes was similar to neutral ones, but the conceptual relatedness induced false memories at retrieval. However, among individuals with PTSD, two subgroups of patients were identified. The first subgroup processed the scenes faster than controls, except for the perceptual scenes, and obtained similar performances to controls in the recognition task. The second subgroup group desmonstrated an attentional deficit in the encoding task with no benefit from the distinctiveness associated with negative perceptual scenes on memory performances. These findings provide a new perspective on how negative emotional information may have opposite influences on memory in

  4. Three-dimensional modeling of a negative ion source with a magnetic filter: impact of biasing the plasma electrode on the plasma asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fubiani, G.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2015-10-01

    The effect on the plasma characteristics of biasing positively the plasma electrode (PE) in negative ion sources with a magnetic filter is analysed using a 3D particle-in-cell model with Monte-Carlo collisions (PIC-MCC). We specialize to the one driver (i.e. one inductively coupled radio-frequency discharge) BATMAN negative ion source and the 4-drivers (large volume) ELISE device. Both are ITER prototype high power tandem-type negative ion sources developed for the neutral beam injector (NBI) system. The plasma is generated in the driver and diffuses inside the second chamber which is magnetized. Asymmetric plasma profiles originate from the formation of an electric field transverse to the electron current flowing through the magnetic filter (Hall effect). The model shows that the importance of the asymmetry increases with the PE bias potential, i.e. with the electron flow from the driver to the extraction region and depends on the shape of the magnetic filter field. We find that although the plasma density and potential profiles may be more or less asymmetric depending on the filter field configuration, the electron current to the plasma grid is always strongly asymmetric.

  5. Two Sides of the Same Coin: The Positive and Negative Impact of Spiritual Religious Coping on Quality of Life and Depression in Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Luciano Magalhães; Soares, Renata de Castro E Santos; Santos, Ana Eliza Oliveira; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Cortez, Paulo José Oliveira; Lucchetti, Giancarlo

    2017-08-01

    Studies have shown that spiritual/religious beliefs are associated with mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, few studies evaluated how spiritual/religious coping (SRC) could affect hemodialysis patients. The present study investigated the role of SRC behaviors on HRQoL and depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients. This was cross-sectional study with 184 patients. Patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Brief SRC Scale, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and a Sociodemographic and Health Characterization Questionnaire. From 218 patients, 184 (84.4%) were included (53.8% male with a median age of 55.9 years). Negative SRC, but not positive SRC, was associated with depressive symptoms. Positive SRC presented significant effects in SF-36 pain and physical and social functioning. On the other hand, negative SRC exhibited significant effects in SF-36 role emotional, energy/fatigue, pain, and physical functioning. SRC influences the mental health and HRQoL in Brazilian hemodialysis patients in two distinct ways. If used positively, it may have positive outcomes. However, if used negatively, it may lead to dysfunctional consequences such as greater depressive symptomatology and affect HRQoL. Health professionals must be aware of these "two sides of the same coin."

  6. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically......, the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  7. Prognostic Value of Molecular Subtypes, Ki67 Expression and Impact of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selz, Jessica, E-mail: chaumontjessica@yahoo.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Stevens, Denise; Jouanneau, Ludivine [Department of Medical Statistics, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Labib, Alain [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Le Scodan, Romuald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Prive Saint Gregoire, Saint Gregoire (France)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether Ki67 expression and breast cancer subtypes could predict locoregional recurrence (LRR) and influence the postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) decision in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic negative lymph nodes (pN0) after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: A total of 699 BC patients with pN0 status after MRM, treated between 2001 and 2008, were identified from a prospective database in a single institution. Tumors were classified by intrinsic molecular subtype as luminal A or B, HER2+, and triple-negative (TN) using estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. Multivariate Cox analysis was used to determine the risk of LRR associated with intrinsic subtypes and Ki67 expression, adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results: At a median follow-up of 56 months, 17 patients developed LRR. Five-year LRR-free survival and overall survival in the entire population were 97%, and 94.7%, respectively, with no difference between the PMRT (n=191) and no-PMRT (n=508) subgroups. No constructed subtype was associated with an increased risk of LRR. Ki67 >20% was the only independent prognostic factor associated with increased LRR (hazard ratio, 4.18; 95% CI, 1.11-15.77; P<.0215). However, PMRT was not associated with better locoregional control in patients with proliferative tumors. Conclusions: Ki67 expression but not molecular subtypes are predictors of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes after MRM. The benefit of adjuvant RT in patients with proliferative tumors should be further investigated in prospective studies.

  8. The impact of family policy and career interruptions on women's perceptions of negative occupational consequences of full-time home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Anders

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of family policy in shaping mothers' choice between work and care and the perceived occupational consequences of that choice. A central question concerns how parental/maternal leave and childcare policies affect the occupational consequences for mothers who spend time...... on full-time caring. Using comparative data from the second round of the 2004/05 European Social Survey, the analysis shows that the duration of career interruption due to care-giving and different care policies influence mothers' subjective feelings about caring for children having negative consequences...

  9. Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) gene mutations in women diagnosed with unexplained infertility and endometriosis have a negative impact on the IVF outcome a pilot study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Z.; Křižan, Jiří; Šíma, R.; Šíma, Petr; Uher, P.; Zech, N.; Huttelová, R.; Baborová, P.; Ulčová-Gallová, Z.; Šubrt, I.; Ulmanová, E.; Houdek, Z.; Rokyta, Z.; Babuška, V.; Králíčková, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2009), s. 92-97 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : leukaemia inhibitory factor * infertility * mutation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2009

  10. Potential negative impacts and low effectiveness in the use of African annual killifish in the biocontrol of aquatic mosquito larvae in temporary water bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Watters, B. R.; Wildekamp, R. H.; Sonnenberg, R.; Nagy, B.; Polačik, Matej; Valdesalici, S.; Cellerino, A.; Cooper, B. J.; Hengstler, H.; Rosenstock, J.; Sainthouse, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2010), s. 89 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Project s: GA ČR GA206/09/0815 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : heterospecific males * sheepshead minnow * sexual selection * hybridization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.130, year: 2010 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/3/1/89

  11. The negative effect of decreasing the level of activity in coping with pain in rheumatoid arthritis: An increase in psychological distress and disease impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Näring, G.W.B.; Pad Bosch, P. van 't; Putte, L.B.A. van de

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of coping with pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on subsequent changes in psychological distress and disease impact. A sample of 109 randomly selected RA patients was asked to participate in a longitudinal study. Patients were measured at

  12. 'Judging a book by its cover': An experimental study of the negative impact of a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder on clinicians' judgements of uncomplicated panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Danny C K; Salkovskis, Paul M; Hogg, Lorna I

    2016-09-01

    Diagnosis is ubiquitous in Psychiatry, and whilst it does bring benefits; adverse effects of 'labelling' may also be possible. This study aimed to evaluate experimentally whether clinicians' judgements about a patient with panic disorder were influenced by an inappropriately suggested diagnosis of comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD). An experimental design was used to evaluate clinician's judgements when the nature of the information they were given was varied to imply BPD comorbidity. Two hundred and sixty-five clinicians watched a video-recorded assessment of a woman describing her experience of uncomplicated 'panic disorder' and then rated her present problems and likely prognosis. Prior to watching the video recording, participants were randomly allocated to one of three conditions with written information including the following: (1) her personal details and general background; (2) the addition of a behavioural description consistent with BPD; and (3) the further addition of a 'label' (past BPD diagnosis). The BPD label was associated with more negative ratings of the woman's problems and her prognosis than both information alone and a behavioural description of BPD 'symptoms'. Regardless of potential actuarial value of such diagnoses, it is concluded that clinicians can be overly influenced by past diagnostic labels in the context of an apparent current comorbid problem, although such biases appear to be less likely if a description of the relevant behaviours is used instead. Thus, the label, rather than the behaviour it denotes, may be stigmatizing in mental health professionals. Diagnostic labels can have an inappropriately negative effect on clinicians' judgements not only of treatment variables such as engagement and response but also risk issues and interpersonal effectiveness. Diagnostic labels can have a greater effect on clinicians' judgements than a behavioural description or clinical presentation. Clinicians should therefore be cautious

  13. The Negative Impact of Combining Retinoic Acid (ATRA) and Mold Spores on F344 Rat Lung and Improvement of Tissue Pathology by Citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O; Holt-Gray, Carlene; Cameron, Joseph A; Tucci, Michelle; Cason, Zelma; Benghuzzi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) and Mold spores (MLD) in the development of lung pathology and in vivo tissue remodeling have not been well established in the literature. In addition, the role of citral (inhibitor of retinoid function) in the improvement of lung pathology has not been ascertained in animal studies. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ATRA and Mold (MLD) exposure will sensitize lung tissues leading to lung tissue pathology and that Citrals (C1 and C2) will reverse, ameliorate or improve the associated pathological damage to lung tissues. The study used an IACUC approved between-subject in vivo randomized split plot factorial design (F344 rat model; N=40). Animals were exposed to eight different treatments including vehicle, MLD, ATRA, Citrals (C1 and C2) and their MLD combinations (MLD+ ATRA, MLD+ C1, and MLD+ C2) by intra-peritoneal route. Rat weight and blood data were collected on Days 1 and 21, all animals were sacrificed on day 21, and lung tissues were processed for histopathology. Results from weight and blood data (ANOVA and Duncan) as well as from histopathological analyses supported the findings that exposure of F344 rats to MLD combinations with ATRA and Citrals showed various levels of lung tissue damage that were impacted by either C1 or C2. This promising study showed impressive responses on the interaction of MLD, Citrals, and ATRA as related to their impact on associated lung tissue pathologies.

  14. Does leaching of naturally occurring radionuclides from roadway pavements stabilised with coal fly ash have negative impacts on groundwater quality and human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahayni, T; Vanhoudt, N

    2018-05-05

    We assessed the potential impact of using coal fly ash to stabilise roadway pavements on groundwater quality and human health. The leaching potential of naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) typically present in the fly ash was assessed with the HYDRUS-1D code and data representative of a segment of the Wisconsin State Trunk Highway 60 as a case study. Our assessment suggests that the impact would be mainly from the chemical toxicity of uranium (U). In our particular case study, U concentration in the leachate exceeded the maximum contaminant level for this element (MCL = 30 μg L -1 ) in almost all the scenarios. In the groundwater, the MCL was only exceeded under conditions of high leaching and low dilution in the aquifer. The radiological toxicity from the consumption of the contaminated groundwater by a hypothetical adult, however, was at maximum 43% of the individual dose criterion (IDC = 0.1 mSv y -1 ). The results also highlight the need to consider site-specific conditions such as climate and hydrogeology when assessing the environmental impacts of utilising fly ash in roadway construction applications since they could have profound effects on the assessment findings. There is also a pressing need for reliable and representative data to support realistic assessments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Negative Impact of Combining Retinoic Acid (ATRA) and Mold Spores on F344 Rat Lung and Improvement of Tissue Pathology by Citral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O.; Holt-Gray, Carlene; Cameron, Joseph A.; Tucci, Michelle; Cason, Zelma; Benghuzzi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) and Mold spores (MLD) in the development of lung pathology and in vivo tissue remodeling have not been well established in the literature. In addition, the role of citral (inhibitor of retinoid function) in the improvement of lung pathology has not been ascertained in animal studies. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ATRA and Mold (MLD) exposure will sensitize lung tissues leading to lung tissue pathology and that Citrals (C1 and C2) will reverse, ameliorate or improve the associated pathological damage to lung tissues. The study used an IACUC approved between-subject in vivo randomized split plot factorial design (F344 rat model; N=40). Animals were exposed to eight different treatments including vehicle, MLD, ATRA, Citrals (C1 and C2) and their MLD combinations (MLD+ ATRA, MLD+ C1, and MLD+ C2) by intra-peritoneal route. Rat weight and blood data were collected on Days 1 and 21, all animals were sacrificed on day 21, and lung tissues were processed for histopathology. Results from weight and blood data (ANOVA and Duncan) as well as from histopathological analyses supported the findings that exposure of F344 rats to MLD combinations with ATRA and Citrals showed various levels of lung tissue damage that were impacted by either C1 or C2. This promising study showed impressive responses on the interaction of MLD, Citrals, and ATRA as related to their impact on associated lung tissue pathologies PMID:25996741

  16. Revisited study of fluorine implantation impact on negative bias temperature instability for input/output device of automotive micro controller unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Keiichi; Tsuda, Shibun; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Ogasawara, Makoto; Aono, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the effect of fluorine implanted in the polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) gate and source/drain (S/D) region on negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) improvement. It is found that there is a trade-off implantation energy dependence of NBTI between fluorine in the poly-Si gate and that in the S/D region. Fluorine implanted in the poly-Si gate contributes to NBTI improvement under low energy implantation. On the other hand, NBTI is improved by fluorine implanted in the S/D region under high energy. We propose that the two-step implantation process with high and low energy is the optimum condition for NBTI improvement.

  17. Impact of Donor Activating KIR Genes on HSCT Outcome in C1-Ligand Negative Myeloid Disease Patients Transplanted with Unrelated Donors-A Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Neuchel

    Full Text Available Natural Killer cells (NK are lymphocytes with the potential to recognize and lyse cells which escaped T-cell mediated lysis due to their aberrant HLA expression profiles. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR influence NK-cell activity by mediation of activating or inhibitory signals upon interaction with HLA-C (C1, C2 ligands. Therefore, absence of ligands for donor inhibitory KIRs following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT may have an influence on its outcome. Previous studies showed that C1 negative patients have a decreased HSCT outcome. Our study, based on a cohort of 200 C1-negative patients, confirmed these findings for the endpoints: overall survival (OS: HR = 1.41, CI = 1.14-1.74, p = 0.0012, disease free survival (DFS: HR = 1.27, CI = 1.05-1.53, p = 0.015, treatment related mortality (TRM: HR = 1.41, CI = 1.01-1.96, p = 0.04, and relapse incidence (RI: HR = 1.33, CI = 1.01-1.75, p = 0.04 all being inferior when compared to C1-positive patients (n = 1246. Subsequent analysis showed that these findings applied for patients with myeloid malignancies but not for patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (OS: myeloid: HR = 1.51, CI = 1.15-1.99, p = 0.003; lymphoblastic: HR = 1.26, CI = 0.91-1.75, p = 0.16; DFS: myeloid: HR = 1.31, CI = 1.01-1.70, p = 0.04; lymphoblastic: HR = 1.21, CI = 0.90-1.61, p = 0.21; RI: myeloid: HR = 1.31, CI = 1.01-1.70, p = 0.04; lymphoblastic: HR = 1.21, CI = 0.90-1.61, p = 0.21. Interestingly, within the C1-negative patient group, transplantation with KIR2DS2 resulted in better OS (9/10 matched: HR = 0.24, CI = 0.08-0.67, p = 0.007 as well as DFS (9/10 matched: HR = 0,26, CI = 0.11-0.60, p = 0.002, and transplantation with KIR2DS1 positive donors was associated with a decreased RI (HR = 0.30, CI = 0.13-0.69, p = 0.005. TRM was increased when the donor was positive for KIR2DS1 (HR = 2.61, CI = 1.26-5.41, p = 0.001. Our findings suggest that inclusion of KIR2DS1/2/5 and KIR3DS1-genotyping in

  18. Impact of Donor Activating KIR Genes on HSCT Outcome in C1-Ligand Negative Myeloid Disease Patients Transplanted with Unrelated Donors—A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuchel, Christine; Fürst, Daniel; Niederwieser, Dietger; Tsamadou, Chrysanthi; Wulf, Gerald; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Wagner, Eva; Stuhler, Gernot; Einsele, Hermann; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Mytilineos, Joannis

    2017-01-01

    Natural Killer cells (NK) are lymphocytes with the potential to recognize and lyse cells which escaped T-cell mediated lysis due to their aberrant HLA expression profiles. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) influence NK-cell activity by mediation of activating or inhibitory signals upon interaction with HLA-C (C1, C2) ligands. Therefore, absence of ligands for donor inhibitory KIRs following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may have an influence on its outcome. Previous studies showed that C1 negative patients have a decreased HSCT outcome. Our study, based on a cohort of 200 C1-negative patients, confirmed these findings for the endpoints: overall survival (OS: HR = 1.41, CI = 1.14–1.74, p = 0.0012), disease free survival (DFS: HR = 1.27, CI = 1.05–1.53, p = 0.015), treatment related mortality (TRM: HR = 1.41, CI = 1.01–1.96, p = 0.04), and relapse incidence (RI: HR = 1.33, CI = 1.01–1.75, p = 0.04) all being inferior when compared to C1-positive patients (n = 1246). Subsequent analysis showed that these findings applied for patients with myeloid malignancies but not for patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (OS: myeloid: HR = 1.51, CI = 1.15–1.99, p = 0.003; lymphoblastic: HR = 1.26, CI = 0.91–1.75, p = 0.16; DFS: myeloid: HR = 1.31, CI = 1.01–1.70, p = 0.04; lymphoblastic: HR = 1.21, CI = 0.90–1.61, p = 0.21; RI: myeloid: HR = 1.31, CI = 1.01–1.70, p = 0.04; lymphoblastic: HR = 1.21, CI = 0.90–1.61, p = 0.21). Interestingly, within the C1-negative patient group, transplantation with KIR2DS2 resulted in better OS (9/10 matched: HR = 0.24, CI = 0.08–0.67, p = 0.007) as well as DFS (9/10 matched: HR = 0,26, CI = 0.11–0.60, p = 0.002), and transplantation with KIR2DS1 positive donors was associated with a decreased RI (HR = 0.30, CI = 0.13–0.69, p = 0.005). TRM was increased when the donor was positive for KIR2DS1 (HR = 2.61, CI = 1.26–5.41, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that inclusion of KIR2DS1/2/5 and

  19. The impacts of biomass properties on pyrolysis yields, economic and environmental performance of the pyrolysis-bioenergy-biochar platform to carbon negative energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenqin; Dang, Qi; Brown, Robert C; Laird, David; Wright, Mark M

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of biomass properties on the pyrolysis product yields, economic and environmental performance for the pyrolysis-biochar-bioenergy platform. We developed and applied a fast pyrolysis, feedstock-sensitive, regression-based chemical process model to 346 different feedstocks, which were grouped into five types: woody, stalk/cob/ear, grass/plant, organic residue/product and husk/shell/pit. The results show that biomass ash content of 0.3-7.7wt% increases biochar yield from 0.13 to 0.16kg/kg of biomass, and decreases biofuel yields from 87.3 to 40.7 gallons per tonne. Higher O/C ratio (0.88-1.12) in biomass decreases biochar yield and increases biofuel yields within the same ash content level. Higher ash content of biomass increases minimum fuel selling price (MFSP), while higher O/C ratio of biomass decreases MFSP within the same ash content level. The impact of ash and O/C ratio of biomass on GHG emissions are not consistent for all feedstocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Literature Review of Efficacy, Cost Effectiveness, and Impact on Patients' Quality of Life in Chronic Wound Management and Its Implementation in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaa Othman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a paper reviewing the National Health Service (NHS agenda in relation to the use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT in chronic wound management and assesses the evidence behind it, its cost effectiveness and the outcome it has on patients’ satisfaction and life style. Multiple studies over the last 10 years looking at clinical efficacy of NPWT with its cost effectiveness and the implementation of this service in the UK were reviewed. NPWT has showed a reasonable body of evidence to support its usage in chronic wounds with potential positive outcomes on finance and patients’ satisfaction. However, the NHS system shows significant variations in the availability and implementation of this useful tool, depending on care providers and resources availabilities. The paper concluded that the NPWT can be a useful source of cutting down costs of chronic wound managements and saving money by its effect on expediting wound healing, which can address a part of the financial crises facing the NHS, however, has to be considered according to specific case needs. There should also be a national standard for the availability and indication of this tool to assure equal opportunities for different patients in different areas in the country.

  1. Negative pressure wound therapy literature review of efficacy, cost effectiveness, and impact on patients' quality of life in chronic wound management and its implementation in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Diaa

    2012-01-01

    This is a paper reviewing the National Health Service (NHS) agenda in relation to the use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) in chronic wound management and assesses the evidence behind it, its cost effectiveness and the outcome it has on patients' satisfaction and life style. Multiple studies over the last 10 years looking at clinical efficacy of NPWT with its cost effectiveness and the implementation of this service in the UK were reviewed. NPWT has showed a reasonable body of evidence to support its usage in chronic wounds with potential positive outcomes on finance and patients' satisfaction. However, the NHS system shows significant variations in the availability and implementation of this useful tool, depending on care providers and resources availabilities. The paper concluded that the NPWT can be a useful source of cutting down costs of chronic wound managements and saving money by its effect on expediting wound healing, which can address a part of the financial crises facing the NHS, however, has to be considered according to specific case needs. There should also be a national standard for the availability and indication of this tool to assure equal opportunities for different patients in different areas in the country.

  2. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Literature Review of Efficacy, Cost Effectiveness, and Impact on Patients' Quality of Life in Chronic Wound Management and Its Implementation in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Diaa

    2012-01-01

    This is a paper reviewing the National Health Service (NHS) agenda in relation to the use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) in chronic wound management and assesses the evidence behind it, its cost effectiveness and the outcome it has on patients' satisfaction and life style. Multiple studies over the last 10 years looking at clinical efficacy of NPWT with its cost effectiveness and the implementation of this service in the UK were reviewed. NPWT has showed a reasonable body of evidence to support its usage in chronic wounds with potential positive outcomes on finance and patients' satisfaction. However, the NHS system shows significant variations in the availability and implementation of this useful tool, depending on care providers and resources availabilities. The paper concluded that the NPWT can be a useful source of cutting down costs of chronic wound managements and saving money by its effect on expediting wound healing, which can address a part of the financial crises facing the NHS, however, has to be considered according to specific case needs. There should also be a national standard for the availability and indication of this tool to assure equal opportunities for different patients in different areas in the country. PMID:22701169

  3. Low-frequency brain stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex increases the negative impact of social exclusion among those high in personal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Bernadette Mary; Kirkovski, Melissa; Bailey, Neil Wayne; Thomson, Richard Hilton; Eisenberger, Naomi; Enticott, Peter Gregory; Fitzgerald, Paul Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to play a key role in the cognitive control of emotion and has therefore, unsurprisingly, been implicated in the regulation of physical pain perception. This brain region may also influence the experience of social pain, which has been shown to activate similar neural networks as seen in response to physical pain. Here, we applied sham or active low-frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC, previously shown to exert bilateral effects in pain perception, in healthy participants. Following stimulation, participants played the "Cyberball Task"; an online ball-tossing game in which the subject participant is included or excluded. Compared to sham, rTMS did not modulate behavioural response to social exclusion. However, within the active rTMS group only, greater trait personal distress was related to enhanced negative outcomes to social exclusion. These results add further support to the notion that the effect of brain stimulation is not homogenous across individuals, and indicates the need to consider baseline individual differences when assessing response to brain stimulation. This seems particularly relevant in social neuroscience investigations, where trait factors may have a meaningful effect.

  4. Prognostic impact of alternative splicing-derived hMENA isoforms in resected, node-negative, non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bria, Emilio; Di Modugno, Francesca; Sperduti, Isabella; Iapicca, Pierluigi; Visca, Paolo; Alessandrini, Gabriele; Antoniani, Barbara; Pilotto, Sara; Ludovini, Vienna; Vannucci, Jacopo; Bellezza, Guido; Sidoni, Angelo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Radisky, Derek C; Crinò, Lucio; Cognetti, Francesco; Facciolo, Francesco; Mottolese, Marcella; Milella, Michele; Nisticò, Paola

    2014-11-30

    Risk assessment and treatment choice remain a challenge in early non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Alternative splicing is an emerging source for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tools. Here, we investigated the prognostic value of the actin cytoskeleton regulator hMENA and its isoforms, hMENA11a and hMENAΔv6, in early NSCLC. The epithelial hMENA11a isoform was expressed in NSCLC lines expressing E-CADHERIN and was alternatively expressed with hMENAΔv6. Enforced expression of hMENAΔv6 or hMENA11a increased or decreased the invasive ability of A549 cells, respectively. hMENA isoform expression was evaluated in 248 node-negative NSCLC. High pan-hMENA and low hMENA11a were the only independent predictors of shorter disease-free and cancer-specific survival, and low hMENA11a was an independent predictor of shorter overall survival, at multivariate analysis. Patients with low pan-hMENA/high hMENA11a expression fared significantly better (P≤0.0015) than any other subgroup. Such hybrid variable was incorporated with T-size and number of resected lymph nodes into a 3-class-risk stratification model, which strikingly discriminated between different risks of relapse, cancer-related death, and death. The model was externally validated in an independent dataset of 133 patients. Relative expression of hMENA splice isoforms is a powerful prognostic factor in early NSCLC, complementing clinical parameters to accurately predict individual patient risk.

  5. Dissecting the regulatory microenvironment of a large animal model of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: evidence of a negative prognostic impact of FOXP3+ T cells in canine B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Dammy; Chang, Yu-Mei; Bryant, Hannah; Szladovits, Balazs; Dalessandri, Tim; Davison, Lucy J; Yallop, Elizabeth; Mills, Emily; Leo, Chiara; Lara, Ana; Stell, Anneliese; Polton, Gerry; Garden, Oliver A

    2014-01-01

    The cancer microenvironment plays a pivotal role in oncogenesis, containing a number of regulatory cells that attenuate the anti-neoplastic immune response. While the negative prognostic impact of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the context of most solid tissue tumors is well established, their role in lymphoid malignancies remains unclear. T cells expressing FOXP3 and Helios were documented in the fine needle aspirates of affected lymph nodes of dogs with spontaneous multicentric B cell lymphoma (BCL), proposed to be a model for human non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Multivariable analysis revealed that the frequency of lymph node FOXP3(+) T cells was an independent negative prognostic factor, impacting both progression-free survival (hazard ratio 1.10; p = 0.01) and overall survival (hazard ratio 1.61; p = 0.01) when comparing dogs showing higher than the median FOXP3 expression with those showing the median value of FOXP3 expression or less. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a population of Tregs operational in canine multicentric BCL that resembles thymic Tregs, which we speculate are co-opted by the tumor from the periphery. We suggest that canine multicentric BCL represents a robust large animal model of human diffuse large BCL, showing clinical, cytological and immunophenotypic similarities with the disease in man, allowing comparative studies of immunoregulatory mechanisms.

  6. Forecasting Winter Storms in the Sierra: A Social Science Perspective in Keeping the Public Safe without Negatively Impacting the Local Tourism Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, R.; Wallmann, J.; Myrick, D. T.

    2010-12-01

    The National Weather Service Office in Reno is responsible for issuing Blizzard Warnings, Winter Storm Warnings, and Winter Weather Advisories for the Sierra, including the Lake Tahoe Basin and heavily traveled routes such as Interstate 80, Highway 395 and Highway 50. These forecast products prepare motorists for harsh travel conditions as well as those venturing into the backcountry, which are essential to the NWS mission of saving lives and property. During the winter season, millions of people from around the world visit the numerous world class ski resorts in the Sierra and the Lake Tahoe Basin, which is vital to the local economy. This situation creates a challenging decision for the forecasters to provide appropriate wording in winter statements to keep the public safe, without significantly impacting the local tourism-based economy. Numerous text and graphical products, including online weather briefings, are utilized by NWS Reno to highlight hazards in ensuring the public, businesses, and other government agencies are prepared for winter storms and take appropriate safety measures. The effectiveness of these product types will be explored, with past snowstorms used as examples to show how forecasters determine which type of text or graphical product is most appropriate to convey the hazardous weather threats.

  7. Examination of Negative Peer Contagion in a Residential Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huefner, Jonathan C.; Ringle, Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    There has been ongoing concern about the negative impact of residential treatment on youth in care. Research examining the impact of negative peer influence in juvenile justice, education, and residential care settings is reviewed. A study was conducted to examine the impact of negative peer contagion on the level of problem behavior in a…

  8. Dietary Supplementation of Chromium Can Alleviate Negative Impacts of Heat Stress on Performance, Carcass Yield, and Some Blood Hematology and Chemistry Indices of Growing Japanese Quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kholy, Mohamed Soliman; El-Hindawy, Mohamed Mohamed; Alagawany, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed Ezzat; El-Sayed, Sabry Abd El-Gawad Abd El-Halim

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the impact of dietary chromium supplementation on growth indices, carcass yield, and some hematological and biochemical blood parameters of growing Japanese quails subjected to heat stress. A total of 360 unsexed 2-week-old Japanese quail chicks were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement that had two ambient temperatures (23 ± 2 and 33 ± 2 °C) and three dietary chromium (0.00, 500, and 1000 μg Cr/kg diet as chromium picolinate). For induction of heat stress, the room temperature was set at 33 ± 2 °C from 2 to 6 weeks of age. Results showed that body weight, body weight gain, and feed intake were decreased for birds subjected to heat stress condition during 2 to 4 and 2 to 6 weeks of age. Feed conversion was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by high ambient temperature throughout the experiment. Carcass, dressing, liver, and heart percentages were not influenced by the ambient temperature or dietary chromium or their combinations. Significant temperature × chromium combinations were observed for hemoglobin value (P = 0.025) and packed cell volume (P = 0.001). Cholesterol and glucose in plasma were increased (P = 0.004 or 0.022) in quails subjected to heat stress condition. Plasma measurements of total proteins, albumin, globulin, lipids, glucose, and A/G ratio of quail chicks were not influenced (P > 0.05) by chromium, while cholesterol was increased with increasing chromium level (P = 0.033). High ambient temperature or dietary chromium levels or their interactions did not (P > 0.05) affect plasma levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), or T3/T4 ratio of growing quails. From these observations, it can be concluded that dietary chromium supplementation of growing Japanese quail subjected to heat stress condition could beneficially affect growth performance and carcasses, as well as modulate the hematological

  9. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    an (aboutness-)topic. The negation of a verum predicate explains why preposed negation—like other constructions with verum-focus—fails to license strong negative polarity items and fails to rule out positive ones. The lack of a topic explains why preposed negation is preferred with non-referential subjects...

  10. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  11. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 323-355 ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  13. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive negations to be more...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...

  14. The strategic significance of negative externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Negative externalities have competitive relevance in a market when they have selective impacts as, for : example, when a product in use imposes greater costs on consumers of rival products than on other people. : Because managers have discretion ...

  15. Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Berleant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.

  16. The Positive Impact of Negative Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    leadership theory for accurate measures of leadership behavior. Accordingly, this effort will employ a leadership behavior survey based on Bass’ (1985...full range of leadership model, which is a well- respected contemporary leadership theory . Additionally, this research will employ survey items...feedback and managerial effectiveness. He first studied 2,056 managers enrolled in leadership development programs (Fleenor, McCauley, & Brutus, 1996

  17. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  18. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  19. Impact of chemotherapy relative dose intensity on cause-specific and overall survival for stage I-III breast cancer: ER+/PR+, HER2- vs. triple-negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Yu, Qingzhao; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Loch, Michelle; Chen, Vivien W; Fontham, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Tekeda

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the impact of chemotherapy relative dose intensity (RDI) on cause-specific and overall survival for stage I-III breast cancer: estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor positive, human epidermal-growth factor receptor negative (ER+/PR+ and HER2-) vs. triple-negative (TNBC) and to identify the optimal RDI cut-off points in these two patient populations. Data were collected by the Louisiana Tumor Registry for two CDC-funded projects. Women diagnosed with stage I-III ER+/PR+, HER2- breast cancer, or TNBC in 2011 with complete information on RDI were included. Five RDI cut-off points (95, 90, 85, 80, and 75%) were evaluated on cause-specific and overall survival, adjusting for multiple demographic variables, tumor characteristics, comorbidity, use of granulocyte-growth factor/cytokines, chemotherapy delay, chemotherapy regimens, and use of hormone therapy. Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were estimated and adjusted by stabilized inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) of propensity score. Of 494 ER+/PR+, HER2- patients and 180 TNBC patients, RDI PR+, HER2- patients, 85% was the only cut-off point at which the low RDI was significantly associated with worse overall survival (HR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.09-3.40). Among TNBC patients, 75% was the cut-off point at which the high RDI was associated with better cause-specific (HR = 2.64; 95% CI 1.09, 6.38) and overall survival (HR = 2.39; 95% CI 1.04-5.51). Higher RDI of chemotherapy is associated with better survival for ER+/PR+, HER2- patients and TNBC patients. To optimize survival benefits, RDI should be maintained ≥ 85% in ER+/PR+, HER2- patients, and ≥ 75% in TNBC patients.

  20. A longitudinal cohort study of HIV 'treatment as prevention' in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men: the Treatment with Antiretrovirals and their Impact on Positive And Negative men (TAIPAN) study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, D; Stoové, M; Carr, A; Hoy, J F; Petoumenos, K; Hellard, M; Elliot, J; Templeton, D J; Liaw, S; Wilson, D P; Grulich, A; Cooper, D A; Pedrana, A; Donovan, B; McMahon, J; Prestage, G; Holt, M; Fairley, C K; McKellar-Stewart, N; Ruth, S; Asselin, J; Keen, P; Cooper, C; Allan, B; Kaldor, J M; Guy, R

    2016-12-12

    Australia has increased coverage of antiretroviral treatment (ART) over the past decade, reaching 73% uptake in 2014. While ART reduces AIDS-related deaths, accumulating evidence suggests that it could also bolster prevention efforts by reducing the risk of HIV transmission ('treatment as prevention'). While promising, evidence of community-level impact of treatment as prevention on reducing HIV incidence among gay and bisexual men is limited. We describe a study protocol that aims to determine if scale up of testing and treatment for HIV leads to a reduction in community viraemia and, in turn, if this reduction is temporally associated with a reduction in HIV incidence among gay and bisexual men in Australia's two most populous states. Over the period 2009 to 2017, we will establish two cohorts making use of clinical and laboratory data electronically extracted retrospectively and prospectively from 73 health services and laboratories in the states of New South Wales and Victoria. The 'positive cohort' will consist of approximately 13,000 gay and bisexual men (>90% of all people living with HIV). The 'negative cohort' will consist of at least 40,000 HIV-negative gay and bisexual men (approximately half of the total population). Within the negative cohort we will use standard repeat-testing methods to calculate annual HIV incidence. Community prevalence of viraemia will be defined as the proportion of men with a viral load ≥200RNA copies/mm 3 , which will combine viral load data from the positive cohort and viraemia estimates among those with an undiagnosed HIV infection. Using regression analyses and adjusting for behavioural and demographic factors associated with infection, we will assess the temporal association between the community prevalence of viraemia and the incidence of HIV infection. Further analyses will make use of these cohorts to assess incidence and predictors of treatment initiation, repeat HIV testing, and viral suppression. This study will

  1. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  2. Negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, G D; Bruno, J A O; Barron, T H K; Allan, N L

    2005-01-01

    There has been substantial renewed interest in negative thermal expansion following the discovery that cubic ZrW 2 O 8 contracts over a temperature range in excess of 1000 K. Substances of many different kinds show negative thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In this article we review the underlying thermodynamics, emphasizing the roles of thermal stress and elasticity. We also discuss vibrational and non-vibrational mechanisms operating on the atomic scale that are responsible for negative expansion, both isotropic and anisotropic, in a wide range of materials. (topical review)

  3. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  4. Impact of communicative head movements on the quality of functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals: negligible effects for affirmative and negative gestures and consistent artifacts related to raising eyebrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balardin, Joana Bisol; Morais, Guilherme Augusto Zimeo; Furucho, Rogério Akira; Trambaiolli, Lucas Romualdo; Sato, João Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is currently one of the most promising tools in the neuroscientific research to study brain hemodynamics during naturalistic social communication. The application of fNIRS by studies in this field of knowledge has been widely justified by its strong resilience to motion artifacts, including those that might be generated by communicative head and facial movements. Previous studies have focused on the identification and correction of these artifacts, but a quantification of the differential contribution of common communicative movements on the quality of fNIRS signals is still missing. We assessed the impact of four movements (nodding head up and down, reading aloud, nodding head sideways, and raising eyebrows) performed during rest and task conditions on two metrics of signal quality control: an estimative of signal-to-noise performance and the negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb). Channel-wise group analysis confirmed the robustness of the fNIRS technique to head nodding movements but showed a large effect of raising eyebrows in both signal quality control metrics, both during task and rest conditions. Reading aloud did not disrupt the expected anticorrelation between oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb but had a relatively large effect on signal-to-noise performance. These findings may have implications to the interpretation of fNIRS studies examining communicative processes.

  5. Impact of communicative head movements on the quality of functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals: negligible effects for affirmative and negative gestures and consistent artifacts related to raising eyebrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balardin, Joana Bisol; Zimeo Morais, Guilherme Augusto; Furucho, Rogério Akira; Trambaiolli, Lucas Romualdo; Sato, João Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is currently one of the most promising tools in the neuroscientific research to study brain hemodynamics during naturalistic social communication. The application of fNIRS by studies in this field of knowledge has been widely justified by its strong resilience to motion artifacts, including those that might be generated by communicative head and facial movements. Previous studies have focused on the identification and correction of these artifacts, but a quantification of the differential contribution of common communicative movements on the quality of fNIRS signals is still missing. We assessed the impact of four movements (nodding head up and down, reading aloud, nodding head sideways, and raising eyebrows) performed during rest and task conditions on two metrics of signal quality control: an estimative of signal-to-noise performance and the negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb). Channel-wise group analysis confirmed the robustness of the fNIRS technique to head nodding movements but showed a large effect of raising eyebrows in both signal quality control metrics, both during task and rest conditions. Reading aloud did not disrupt the expected anticorrelation between oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb but had a relatively large effect on signal-to-noise performance. These findings may have implications to the interpretation of fNIRS studies examining communicative processes.

  6. IMPACTS !

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  7. NEGATION AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Subandowo -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech.  The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.

  8. Nedtrykt af negative nyheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Søberg, Pernille Frantz

    2016-01-01

    I adskillige år er det blevet debatteret, hvorvidt nyhedernes negative fokus har konsekvenser for borgerne, og om det i sid-ste ende får flere til at vende ryggen til nyhederne. Vores viden om effekterne af positive og negative nyheder er dog begrænset, og derfor undersøges det i denne artikel......, hvordan henholdsvis positive og negative tv-nyheder påvirker seernes humør, hukom-melse af information fra indslaget og lyst til at se yderligere tv-nyheder. Det gør vi i et survey-eksperiment (N=204), hvor tre grupper så enten et originalt indslag eller det samme indslag klippet med henholdsvis et...

  9. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  10. Negative ion sourcery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, C.F.A. van.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is involved by current research programs in the field of nuclear-fusion. A brief introduction to fusion is given, anticipated problems related to current drive of the fusion plasma are pinpointed and probable suggestions to overcome these problems are described. One probable means for current drive is highlighted; Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). This is based on injecting a 1 MeV neutral hydrogen or deuterium beam into a fusion plasma. Negative ions are needed as primary particles because they can easily be neutralized at 1 MeV. The two current schemes for production of negative ions are described, volume production and negative surface ionization. The latter method is extensively studied in this thesis. (author). 171 refs.; 55 figs.; 7 tabs

  11. Circulating CD4+ T cells that produce IL4 or IL17 when stimulated by melan-A but not by NY-ESO-1 have negative impacts on survival of patients with stage IV melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelba, Henning; Weide, Benjamin; Martens, Alexander; Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Bailur, Jithendra Kini; Kyzirakos, Christina; Pflugfelder, Annette; Eigentler, Thomas K; Di Giacomo, Anna Maria; Maio, Michele; Aarntzen, Erik H J G; de Vries, Jolanda; Sucker, Antje; Schadendorf, Dirk; Büttner, Petra; Garbe, Claus; Pawelec, Graham

    2014-08-15

    We initially observed that the presence of circulating NY-ESO-1- and/or Melan-A-specific T cells in patients with stage IV melanoma was significantly associated with prolonged survival. Here, we report the ways in which the phenotypes and functions of these T cells differentially affect survival in patients preselected for NY-ESO-1 and/or Melan-A reactivity. We assayed functional antigen-reactive T cells recognizing NY-ESO-1 and/or Melan-A after in vitro stimulation using overlapping peptide pools. After restimulation, we assayed six cytokines simultaneously by intracellular cytokine staining. This allowed us to analyze the functional antigen response of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells at the single-cell level. We observed that NY-ESO-1 stimulated mainly CD4(+) T cells, whereas Melan-A more often stimulated CD8(+) T cells. NY-ESO-1 reactivity was not associated with an additional impact on survival, whether CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, or both types of T cells were responding. In contrast, recognition of Melan-A by CD4(+) T cells was associated with reduced survival in our cohort of patients preselected for NY-ESO-1 and/or Melan-A reactivity (that is, in patients with exceptionally long survival). We further observed a negative effect on survival in patients with CD4(+) T cells producing IL4 and IL17 upon Melan-A stimulation. Their prognosis was comparable to patients without any Melan-A reactivity. The nature and prognostic impact of specific T-cell responses is different according to targeted antigen. Independent from phenotype and functional aspects, NY-ESO-1 reactivity is associated with good prognosis. In terms of Melan-A, antigen-specific CD8(+) but not CD4(+) responses are associated with prolonged survival. Clin Cancer Res; 20(16); 4390-9. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adámek Vítězslav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of non-stationary vibration of an elastic beam caused by a transverse impact loading is studied in this work. In particular, two different approaches to the derivation of analytical solution of the problem are compared. The first one is based on the Timoshenko beam theory, the latter one follows the exact two-dimensional theory. Both mentioned methods are used for finding the response of an infinite homogeneous isotropic beam. The obtained analytical results are then compared and their agreement is discussed in relation to main factors, i.e. the beam geometry, the character of loading and times and points at which the beams responses are studied.

  13. Differential impact of parental region of birth on negative parenting behavior and its effects on child mental health: Results from a large sample of 6 to 11 year old school children in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Husky, Mathilde; Pitrou, Isabelle; Fermanian, Christophe; Shojaei, Taraneh; Chee, Christine Chan; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Beiser, Morton

    2016-05-04

    In France, one in 10 residents has immigrated mainly from North Africa, West Africa or the Caribbean including the French West Indies. However little is known about how parents from these regions behave when they migrate to countries that have different cultural norms. It is therefore important to determine how ethno-cultural background affects parental behavior and subsequent child mental health in the context of immigration. The objectives are: 1) to compare negative parenting behaviors of French residents from diverse ethno-cultural backgrounds 2) to examine the relationship between parental region of origin and child mental health, and 3) to investigate the extent to which ethno-cultural context moderates the effect of parenting styles on child mental health. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2005 in 100 schools in South-East France. The Dominic Interactive and the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to assess child psychopathology. The Parent Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire was used to assess parenting styles. The final sample included data on 1,106 mother and child dyads. Caring and punitive attitudes were significantly different across mothers as a function of region of origin. This association was stronger for punitive attitudes with the highest prevalence in the Caribbean/African group, while mothers from Maghreb were more similar to French natives. Differences in caring behaviors were similar though less pronounced. Among children of Maghrebian descent, punitive parenting was associated with an increased risk of internalizing disorders while this association was weaker among children of African and Afro-Caribbean descent. Parental region of origin is an important component of both parenting styles and their effect on child mental health. Interventions on parenting should consider both the region of origin and the differential impact of origin on the effect of parenting styles, thus allowing for a finer

  14. Depressionens negative spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen formidler resultater fra en longitudinel undersøgelse af det selvforstærkende, negative samspil imellem udvikling og vedligeholdelse af alderdomsdepression via primære miljøbelastninger og via  den deprimerede ældre som belastning for miljøet, som i sin tur "svarer negativt" på lidelsen og...

  15. Quantum logic without negation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapatrin, R.R. (Dept. of Mathematics, SPb UEF, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1994-05-01

    The algebraic tools based on generating semigroups are suggested to describe property lattices possessing the relation of exclusivity rather than the operation of negation. The reduction to standard situation of orthocomplemented and orthomodular lattices is described. As an example of non-orthocomplementable property lattice that of a hypothetical ''topologymeter'' is studied. (orig.)

  16. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  17. Do negative interest rates make banks less safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nucera, Federico; Lucas, André; Schaumburg, Julia; Schwaab, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    We study the impact of increasingly negative central bank policy rates on banks’ propensity to become undercapitalized in a financial crisis (‘SRisk’). We find that the risk impact of negative rates depends on banks’ business models: Large banks with diversified income streams are perceived as less

  18. Negative hyperconjugation of some fluorine containing groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Otto; Böhm, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 8 (2008), s. 1449-1453 ISSN 1144-0546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : negative hyperconjugation * fluor ine containing groups * DFT Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2008

  19. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  20. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  1. [Negative pressure therapy: NPT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, H

    2015-01-01

    Negative pressure therapy or treatment (NPT) is used very frequently in hospitals in both surgical and medical departments. NPT consists of maintaining the wound surface at a pressure below ambient atmospheric pressure by means of a specially designed dressing attached to a depressurisation device as well as a system to drain exudate. NPT has been shown to be beneficial in increasing blood flow, thanks to feedback resulting from the decreased oxygen pressure, angiogenesis and reduction of the wound surface area. The French Health Authority (HAS) has issued recommendations for good use in a specific and limited series of applications. NPT may be used in post-traumatic or post-surgical wounds, burns, and in chronic wounds, such as bedsores and ulcers. It is also effective as an adjuvant treatment for infected wounds. In recent years, various different NPT devices have become commercially available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Negative Ion Sources: Magnetron and Penning

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    The history of the magnetron and Penning electrode geometry is briefly outlined. Plasma generation by electrical discharge-driven electron impact ionization is described and the basic physics of plasma and electrodes relevant to magnetron and Penning discharges are explained. Negative ions and their applications are introduced, along with their production mechanisms. Caesium and surface production of negative ions are detailed. Technical details of how to build magnetron and Penning surface plasma sources are given, along with examples of specific sources from around the world. Failure modes are listed and lifetimes compared.

  3. [Negative hallucination, self-onsciousness and ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazif-Thomas, C; Stephan, F; Walter, M; Thomas, P

    2015-04-01

    Negative hallucinations are characterized by a defect in perception of an object or a person, or a denial of the existence of their perception. Negative hallucinations create blank spaces, due to both an impossible representation and an incapability of investment in reality. They have a close relationship with Cotard's syndrome, delusional theme of organ denial observed in melancholic syndromes in the elderly. Phenomenological approach. The phenomenology of negative hallucinations provides quite an amount of information on the origin of the psychotic symptoms when one is rather old. The connections between hallucinations, mood disorders and negative symptoms are often difficult to live with for the nearest and dearest. Negative hallucinations require a strict approach to identify their expression that is crucial because a wide heterogeneity exists within the pathological pictures, as in Cotard's syndrome. Although the negative hallucination has an anti traumatic function in elderly people fighting against mental pain, it still represents a deficiency in symbolization. The prevalence of this symptom is without doubt underestimated, although its presence often underlines thymic suffering that is more striking. These hallucinatory symptoms have an important impact on the patients' daily life, and they appear to be prisoners of a suffering, which cannot be revealed. We propose in this article to review the clinical symptoms of negative hallucinations in the elderly and the way to manage them. The medicinal approaches are not always effective. A greater place must be given to what is in connection with the body, aiming at a strong impact and thus to offer non-pharmacological approaches, such as somatic ones, which can be either invasive (electroconvulsive therapy) or not (transcranial magnetic stimulation). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  5. Microdosimetry of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amols, H.I.; Dicello, J.F.; Lane, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation quality of negative and positive pions of initial momentum 168MeV/c has been determined at eight different depths in a liquid phantom. The measurements were made with a 2.5cm diameter spherical proportional counter with Shonka A-150 neutron tissue equivalent plastic walls. The gas pressure in the sensitive volume was chosen to stimulate a diameter of 2μm in unit density material. Dose distributions as a function of lineal energy change slowly in the entrance and plateau regions with a dose mean lineal energy of 6-8keV/μm. Less than 3% of the dose is delivered in excess of 50keV/μm in this region. In the Bragg peak region the distributions change rapidly as a function of depth with the dose mean lineal energy increasing to 38keV/μm at the peak and to 57keV/μm just beyond the peak. On the basis of these microdosimetric data predictions of RBE and OER have been made with the use of both the theory of dual radiation action and also the delta ray theory of cell survival. The former has been used to predict biological response at low doses and the latter at high doses. A comparison is made between the two theories at intermediate doses. The results of these calculations are not inconsistant with recent biological data

  6. The Negative Influence of the Technical Means on Children's Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Luparenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of the technical means (computer, TV on children's development is characterized. This negative impact means damage of physical and mental health; lack of positive moral-ethic influence, forming a soulless, spiritless person; children's detachment from real life and their impossibility to realize themselves; increased aggressiveness; disappearance of the components of children subculture; availability (in virtual world of the information which can influence child's development negatively; children's dependence on computer games, Internet-addiction, etc. The recommendations for parents to reduce the negative influence of technical means on children are given.

  7. Meaning of the negative impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conciauro, G.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-06-01

    It is shown that the negative real part of an input impedance does not mean instability of the related circuit. A negative real part of the input impedance means only that the concerned circuit is active.

  8. Meaning of the negative impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conciauro, G.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-06-01

    It is shown that the negative real part of an input impedance does not mean instability of the related circuit. A negative real part of the input impedance means only that the concerned circuit is active

  9. Negative index in chiral metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.; Plum, E.; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.; Zheludev, N.; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that planar metamaterial lacking of mirror symmetry shows asymmetric transmission of terahertz waves and bands of positive, negative and zero phase and group velocities indicating a polarization sensitive negative index and slow-light media.

  10. Positive and Negative Peer Influence in Residential Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huefner, Jonathan C; Smith, Gail L; Stevens, Amy L

    2017-10-13

    The potential for negative peer influence has been well established in research, and there is a growing interest in how positive peer influence also impacts youth. No research, however, has concurrently examined positive and negative peer influence in the context of residential care. Clinical records for 886 residential care youth were used in a Hierarchical Linear Model analysis to examine the impact of negative and positive peer influence on naturally occurring patterns of serious problem behavior over time. Negative peer influence, where the majority of youth in a home manifested above the average number of serious behavior problems, occurred 13.7% of the time. Positive peer influence, where the majority of youth manifested no serious problem behaviors for the month, occurred 47.7% of the time. Overall, youth problem behavior improved over time. There were significantly lower rates of serious problem behavior in target youth during positive peer influence months. Conversely, there were significantly higher rates of serious problem behaviors in target youth during negative peer influence months. Negative peer influence had a relatively greater impact on target peers' serious behavior problems than did positive peer influence. Caregiver experience significantly reduced the impact of negative peer influence, but did not significantly augment positive peer influence. Months where negative peer influence was combined with inexperienced caregivers produced the highest rates of serious problem behavior. Our results support the view that residential programs for troubled youth need to create circumstances that promote positive and control for negative peer influence.

  11. Negative dimensional integrals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, I.G.; Ricotta, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    We propose a new method of evaluating integrals based on negative dimensional integration. We compute Feynman graphs by considering analytic extensions. Propagators are raised to negative integer powers and integrated over negative integer dimensions. We are left with the problem of computing polynomial integrals and summing finite series. (orig.)

  12. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  13. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  14. HLA-B*57:01 allele prevalence in HIV-infected North American subjects and the impact of allele testing on the incidence of abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction in HLA-B*57:01-negative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Catherine Butkus; Margolis, David A; Shaefer, Mark S; Ross, Lisa L

    2017-04-11

    The presence of the HLA-B*57:01 allele in HIV-infected subjects is associated with a higher risk of abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction (ABC HSR). HLA-B*57:01 allele prevalence varies in different populations, but HLA-B*57:01 testing with immunological confirmation has had a negative predictive value for ABC HSR between 97 and 100%. In the ASSURE study (EPZ113734), the HLA-B*57:01 prevalence in virologically suppressed, antiretroviral treatment-experienced, HIV-infected subjects from the United States, including Puerto Rico, was assessed. Three hundred eighty-five subjects were screened; 13 were HLA-B*57:01 positive and 372 were negative. Only HLA-B*57:01-negative, abacavir-naive subjects were eligible to enroll into the ASSURE trial. Eleven of the 13 subjects who possessed the HLA-B*57:01 allele were white, the other 2 were African-American. There was no geographic clustering of HLA-B*57:01-positive subjects, and the incidence correlated roughly with those states with the greatest numbers of subjects screened. Similarly, there was no statistically significant correlation between subjects who possessed or lacked the allele and age, gender, ethnicity or CD4+ T-cell numbers. The incidence of ABC HSR following abacavir initiation was also evaluated. Only 1 of 199 HLA-B*57:01-negative subjects (an African-American male) randomized to receive abacavir-containing treatment developed symptoms consistent with suspected ABC HSR; ABC HSR was not immunologically confirmed. These findings confirm the utility of HLA-B*57:01 allele testing to reduce the frequency of ABC HSR. The prevalence of HLA-B*57:01 positivity was higher in white than in African-American subjects. In HLA-B*57:01-negative subjects, suspected ABC HSR is very rare, but should lead to discontinuation of abacavir when ABC HSR cannot be definitively excluded from the differential diagnosis. The ASSURE (EPZ113734) study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov registration on April 8th 2010 and the

  15. The case for negative senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W; Baudisch, Annette; Dölling, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Negative senescence is characterized by a decline in mortality with age after reproductive maturity, generally accompanied by an increase in fecundity. Hamilton (1966) ruled out negative senescence: we adumbrate the deficiencies of his model. We review empirical studies of various plants and some...... kinds of animals that may experience negative senescence and conclude that negative senescence may be widespread, especially in indeterminate-growth species for which size and fertility increase with age. We develop optimization models of life-history strategies that demonstrate that negative senescence...

  16. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs

  17. The Negative Influence of the Technical Means on Children's Development

    OpenAIRE

    S. Luparenko

    2014-01-01

    The negative impact of the technical means (computer, TV) on children's development is characterized. This negative impact means damage of physical and mental health; lack of positive moral-ethic influence, forming a soulless, spiritless person; children's detachment from real life and their impossibility to realize themselves; increased aggressiveness; disappearance of the components of children subculture; availability (in virtual world) of the information which can influence child's develo...

  18. Impact of mothers' negative affectivity, parental locus of control and child-feeding practices on dietary patterns of 3-year-old children: the MoBa Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ystrom, Eivind; Barker, Mary; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to (1) identify dietary patterns in 3-year-old children; (2) investigate the extent to which negative affectivity, external parental locus of control and control-oriented child-feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) relate to these dietary patterns; and (3) to examine to what extent external parental locus of control and control-oriented child-feeding practices serve as mediators for these effects. This study was part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising 14,122 mothers completing assessments at 6 months, 18 months and 3 years post-partum. Factor analysis of the children's diet identified two weakly correlated dietary patterns, labeled 'unhealthy' and 'wholesome'. Mothers high in negative affectivity perceived they had little control over their child's behaviour, which in turn was associated with both pressuring their child to eat and restricting the child's food intake and a less wholesome and a more unhealthy diet in the child. Pressuring the child to eat was independently associated with a less wholesome and a more unhealthy diet. Restricting the child's diet was associated with a more wholesome and a less unhealthy diet. These findings held after controlling for maternal smoking, education, age, body mass index, marital status, homemaker status and child gender. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  20. On Negation as Mitigation: The Case of Negative Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Fein, Ofer; Ganzi, Jonathan; Levi, Natalie Alkeslassy; Sabah, Hadas

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments support the view of negation as mitigation (Giora, Balaban, Fein, & Alkabets, 2004). They show that when irony involves some sizable gap between what is said and what is criticized (He is exceptionally bright said of an idiot), it is rated as highly ironic (Giora, 1995). A negated version of that overstatement (He is not…

  1. Reducing the volume, exposure and negative impacts of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children: A systematic review of the evidence from statutory and self-regulatory actions and educational measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie A; Freeman, Ruth; Anderson, Annie S; MacGillivray, Steve

    2015-06-01

    To identify and review evidence on 1) the effectiveness of statutory and self-regulatory actions to reduce the volume, exposure or wider impact of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children, and 2) the role of educational measures. A systematic review of three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and grey literature was carried out. Relevant evidence included studies evaluating advertising bans and restrictions, advertising literacy programmes and parental communication styles. Relevant media included TV, internet, radio, magazines and newspaper advertising. No studies were excluded based on language or publication date. Forty-seven publications were included: 19 provided evidence for the results of statutory regulation, 25 for self-regulation, and six for educational approaches. Outcome measures varied in approach, quality and results. Findings suggested statutory regulation could reduce the volume of and children's exposure to advertising for foods HFSS, and had potential to impact more widely. Self-regulatory approaches showed varied results in reducing children's exposure. There was some limited support for educational measures. Consistency in measures from evaluations over time would assist the development and interpretation of the evidence base on successful actions and measures to reduce the volume, exposure and impact of advertising for foods HFSS to children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intense negative heavy ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Takagi, Akira; Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Akira; Fukumoto, Sadayoshi

    1990-08-01

    Negative ion sources based on plasma-surface interactions (BLAKE ion source) have been developed at KEK for producing negative heavy ions. The first negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-II) was developed by modifying the ordinary negative hydrogen ion source with converter (BLAKE-I) placed into the plasma. It generates various species of negative heavy ions with intense beam currents. For example, a more than 10 mA Au- ion beam was obtained from the ion source. Recently, the large scaled negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-III) has been developed and in the preliminary test experiment, more than 100 mA Cu- ion beam has been stably obtained with a 10% duty factor in pulsed operation. The BLAKE-II ion source was attached to the BNL 15 MV and Tsukuba University TANDEM accelerators and large current negative heavy ion beams were successfully accelerated in pulsed mode operation. Also, it was found that the space charge effect should be carefully considered for such a large current acceleration in a tandem accelerator, especially at the injection beam line and low energy end. In order to examine the negative ion formation process fundamentally, negative ion production probability related on sputtered particle velocity was measured and the results showed exponential dependence of the production probability on particle velocity as Norskov and Lindquist's theory predicted.

  3. Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Silverman

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.

  4. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, LG.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules are discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to hot molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules (electron affinity), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies

  5. Impact of experimental endogenous gram-negative peritonitis on the pancreas of the rat as evaluated by cationic trypsin-like immunoreactivity in peritoneal fluid and serum and by electron microscopy of pancreatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florholmen, J.; Almdahl, S.M.; Myklebust, R.; Burhol, P.G.; Malm, D.; Riepl, R.; Giercksky, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Endogenous gram-negative peritonitis leading to septic shock was induced in rats by a defined perforation of the coecum. Cationic trypsin-like immunoreactivity (CTLI) was measured in peritoneal fluid and serum by a radioimmunoassay method. 5, 10 and 15 h after the coecal perforation, CTLI in peritoneal fluid was significantly higher than before the coecal perforation and also higher than in the corresponding control rats. Moreover, CTLI in serum was under the same conditions significantly higher 10 and 15 h after the induction of peritonitis. Gel chromatography of peritoneal fluid and serum during peritonitis showed free CTLI and CTLI bound to both alpha-1-antitrypsin and alpha-2-macroglobulin, wheras only free CTLI could be detected in serum from control rats. These findings were accompanied by local ultrastructural changes in the acinar cells as evaluated by electron microscopy. The pathophysiologic implications of the findings are discussed

  6. Double-Negative Mechanical Metamaterials Displaying Simultaneous Negative Stiffness and Negative Poisson’s Ratio Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hewage, Trishan A.M.; Alderson, Kim L; Alderson, Andrew; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Intuitively, materials become both shorter and wider when compressed along their length. Here we show how a composite material or structure can display a simultaneous reversal in the direction of deformation for both the axial and transverse dimensions, corresponding to negative values of effective stiffness and effective Poisson’s ratio, respectively. A negative Poisson’s ratio[1] (NPR or auxetic[2]) host assembly stabilising (otherwise unstable) embedded negative stiffness[3] (NS) elements ...

  7. Negative supervisionsoplevelser og deres konsekvenser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    in evaluation. First part of the paper explores negative experience in supervision in general. The second part, focusing on negative experience in supervision caused by evaluation, is explored and discussed in relation to the key concept of supervisory alliance (Bordin, 1983), perceiving evaluation...

  8. Research priorities for negative emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuss, S.; Jones, C. D.; Kraxner, F.; Peters, G. P.; Smith, P.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Canadell, J. G.; Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Moreira, J. R.; Nakicenovic, N.; Sharifi, A.; Yamagata, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere (CDR) - also known as 'negative emissions' - features prominently in most 2 °C scenarios and has been under increased scrutiny by scientists, citizens, and policymakers. Critics argue that 'negative emission technologies' (NETs) are insufficiently mature to

  9. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  10. Question tags and sentential negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasoveanu, A.; De Clercq, K.; Farkas, D.; Roelofsen, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment that is designed to quantify the negativity of sentences with different types of negative operators (n-words like never and downward entailing operators like rarely) in different syntactic positions (adverb, subject, and direct object). In the experiment,

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative pathogens isolated from patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections in South African hospitals (SMART Study 2004-2009): impact of the new carbapenem breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Adrian J; Botha, Roelof F; Poswa, Xoliswa; Senekal, Marthinus; Badal, Robert E; Grolman, David C; Richards, Guy A; Feldman, Charles; Boffard, Kenneth D; Veller, Martin; Joubert, Ivan; Pretorius, Jan

    2012-02-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) follows trends in resistance among aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) in patients around the world. During 2004-2009, three centralized clinical microbiology laboratories serving 59 private hospitals in three large South African cities collected 1,218 GNB from complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) and tested them for susceptibility to 12 antibiotics according to the 2011 Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 83.7% of the isolates. Escherichia coli was the species isolated most commonly (46.4%), and 7.6% of these were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive. The highest ESBL rate was documented for Klebsiella pneumoniae (41.2%). Overall, ertapenem was the antibiotic most active against susceptible species for which it has breakpoints (94.6%) followed by amikacin (91.9%), piperacillin-tazobactam (89.3%), and imipenem-cilastatin (87.1%), whereas rates of resistance to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin were documented to be 29.7%, 28.7%, 22.5%, and 21.1%, respectively. Multi-drug resistance (MDR), defined as resistance to three or more antibiotic classes, was significantly more common in K. pneumoniae (27.9%) than in E. coli (4.9%; p<0.0001) or Proteus mirabilis (4.1%; p<0.05). Applying the new CLSI breakpoints for carbapenems, susceptibility to ertapenem was reduced significantly in ESBL-positive E. coli compared with ESBL-negative isolates (91% vs. 98%; p<0.05), but this did not apply to imipenem-cilastatin (95% vs. 99%; p=0.0928). A large disparity between imipenem-cilastatin and ertapenem susceptibility in P. mirabilis and Morganella morganii was documented (24% vs. 96% and 15% vs. 92%, respectively), as most isolates of these two species had imipenem-cilastatin minimum inhibitory concentrations in the 2-4 mcg/mL range, which

  12. Clonal chromosomal aberrations in Philadelphia negative cells such as monosomy 7 and trisomy 8 may persist for years with no impact on the long term outcome in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Ewa M; Panasiuk, Barbara; Gniot, Michał; Sawicka, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Kłoczko, Janusz; Midro, Alina T

    2017-10-01

    The appearance of clonal chromosomal aberrations in Philadelphia negative cells (CCA/Ph-) during the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was recently confirmed. Importance of these findings has not been clearly defined. We present data on the time of appearance, persistence, size of the CCA/Ph- clone in terms of drugs used and hematological, cytogenetic and molecular response rates. The focus was on the peripheral blood cytopenias and myelodysplastic changes in the bone marrow microscopic evaluation. In 5 out of 155 (3,2%) CML patients, the persistent presence (up to nine years) of CCA/Ph- was found (monosomy 7 and trisomy 8 in unrelated clones in two patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors; trisomy 8 in two patients on imatinib; trisomy 21 in one patient on interferon alfa treatment). Aberrations were present in median 24% Ph- cells in 3-15 subsequent analyses at different cytogenetic and molecular response time points. No evident myelodysplastic changes nor transformation to MDS/AML occurred in patients with CCA/Ph-. All the patients achieved major molecular response (MMR). It seems that CCA/Ph- presence does not affect the long term outcome in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Further complex monitoring of the CML patients with CCA/Ph- is still needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  14. Mazindol treatment of negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, W T; Breier, A; Buchanan, R W; Kirkpatrick, B; Shepard, P; Weiner, E

    2000-10-01

    Hypodopaminergic and hyponoradrenergic pathophysiology may be a basis for primary and/or secondary negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The hypothesis that enhanced neurotransmission in these systems would be therapeutic for negative symptoms was tested by comparing mazindol and placebo in a double-blind, cross-over design trial. Outcome following mazindol supplementation was comparable to placebo supplementation (F(1,30) = 0.9; p = .57). Results for deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia subjects were similar, and were not affected by whether concurrent the antipsychotic drug treatment was clozapine, fluphenazine, or haloperidol. The efficacy hypothesis was not supported for either primary or secondary negative symptoms.

  15. [APPLICATION OF NEGATIVE PRESSURE THERAPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laginja, S; Marinović, M

    2016-01-01

    Negative pressure therapy is gradually taking an increasingly important role in the treatment of chronic wound healing because of its simple application in hospital or outpatient setting and good comfort with no pain for the patient. Chronic wound healing is accelerated in comparison with other conservative treatments. The level of negative pressure is between 40 and 125 mm Hg below ambient. Direct and indirect effect of the negative pressure therapy helps in wound healing and provides good preparation for definitive surgical management of wounds.

  16. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1 adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2 although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3 negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  17. Fuzzy Logics with an Additional Involutive Negation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Klement, E.P.; Mesiar, R.; Navara, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 3 (2010), s. 390-411 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100300502; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Grant - others:Grantová agentura SR(SK) VEGA1/4209/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : triangular norm * triangular conorm * involutive negation * mathematical fuzzy logic * lattice of varieties * compactness * computational complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.875, year: 2010

  18. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  19. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  20. Use of Negation in Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    as of May 2010, produced a large number of images of Volkswagen Beetles as shown in Figure 8. After indicating they were ready to proceed... Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW -car 1 beetle –car - Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW - Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW -car - Volkswagen 1 black beetle Not within first 30...that had many Volkswagen Beetles in the results, why did you choose not to use negation?] 9. [Do you think that negation would have been useful in

  1. [Negative symptoms and cerebral imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladjian, A; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    A number of neuroanatomical and neurofonctional abnormalities have been evidenced by cerebral imaging studies in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Nevertheless, those specifically associated with the negative symptoms of this disease are still insufficiently known. This work is a review of selected studies that have assessed the brain correlates of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Approaches using structural imaging have highlighted reduction of gray matter density or cortical thickness associated with negative symptoms, which is rather sparsely distributed within the frontal and temporal regions, localized nevertheless more particularly in the frontal medial and orbitofrontal areas, as well as the amygdalo-hippocampic complex. These deficits are concurrent with a loss of integrity of the principal paths of white matter tracts between frontal and limbic regions. On the other hand, neurofonctional abnormalities associated with negative symptoms involve especially the frontal areas and limbic striatum. A disturbed functioning within the fronto-striatal loops, related to a striatal dopaminergic deficit, may represent a potential explanatory hypothesis of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as suggested by studies using Positron Emission Tomography on this topic or neuroimaging studies on the effects of antipsychotics. A better identification of the cerebral abnormalities associated with the negative dimension of schizophrenia, with regard to the lateralization of these abnormalities or to their changes during the course of the disease, could offer new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of this dimension which, until now, remains few responsive to conventional pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. SM-1 negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenjun; Wang Jianzhen

    1987-01-01

    The working principle and characteristics of SM-1 Negative Ion Source is mainly introduced. In the instrument, there is a device to remove O 3 . This instrument can keep high density of negative ions which is generated by the electrical coronas setting out electricity at negative high voltage and can remove the O 3 component which is harmful to the human body. The density of negative ions is higher than 2.5 x 10 6 p./cm 3 while that of O 3 components is less than 1 ppb at the distance of 50 cm from the panel of the instrument. The instrument sprays negative ions automatically without the help of electric fan, so it works noiselessly. It is widely used in national defence, industry, agriculture, forestry, stock raising, sidelines and in the places with an equipment of low density of negative ion or high concentration of O 3 components. Besides, the instrument may also be used to treat diseases, to prevent against rot, to arrest bacteria, to purify air and so on

  3. Paradoxical Relationship between the Amount of Negative eWOM Messages and Positive Consumer Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Mai Kikumori; Akinori Ono

    2013-01-01

    Most research has shown that positive electric word-of-mouth (e-WOM) has positive effects, while negative e-WOM has negative effects on consumer attitude towards a product. However, negative e-WOM may have positive impacts rather than negative impacts. Using ANOVA in three experiments, this study found that negative e-WOM can have a positive impact on consumer attitude under some conditions, including when the e-WOM is in regard to hedonic products, when expert consumers read attribute-centri...

  4. Virus-induced gene silencing of the two squalene synthase isoforms of apple tree (Malus × domestica L.) negatively impacts phytosterol biosynthesis, plastid pigmentation and leaf growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Gallón, Sandra M; Elejalde-Palmett, Carolina; Daudu, Dimitri; Liesecke, Franziska; Jullien, Frédéric; Papon, Nicolas; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Courdavault, Vincent; Lanoue, Arnaud; Oudin, Audrey; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Pichon, Olivier; Clastre, Marc; St-Pierre, Benoit; Atehortùa, Lucia; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Besseau, Sébastien

    2017-07-01

    The use of a VIGS approach to silence the newly characterized apple tree SQS isoforms points out the biological function of phytosterols in plastid pigmentation and leaf development. Triterpenoids are beneficial health compounds highly accumulated in apple; however, their metabolic regulation is poorly understood. Squalene synthase (SQS) is a key branch point enzyme involved in both phytosterol and triterpene biosynthesis. In this study, two SQS isoforms were identified in apple tree genome. Both isoforms are located at the endoplasmic reticulum surface and were demonstrated to be functional SQS enzymes using an in vitro activity assay. MdSQS1 and MdSQS2 display specificities in their expression profiles with respect to plant organs and environmental constraints. This indicates a possible preferential involvement of each isoform in phytosterol and/or triterpene metabolic pathways as further argued using RNAseq meta-transcriptomic analyses. Finally, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to silence MdSQS1 and MdSQS2. The concomitant down-regulation of both MdSQS isoforms strongly affected phytosterol synthesis without alteration in triterpene accumulation, since triterpene-specific oxidosqualene synthases were found to be up-regulated to compensate metabolic flux reduction. Phytosterol deficiencies in silenced plants clearly disturbed chloroplast pigmentation and led to abnormal development impacting leaf division rather than elongation or differentiation. In conclusion, beyond the characterization of two SQS isoforms in apple tree, this work brings clues for a specific involvement of each isoform in phytosterol and triterpene pathways and emphasizes the biological function of phytosterols in development and chloroplast integrity. Our report also opens the door to metabolism studies in Malus domestica using the apple latent spherical virus-based VIGS method.

  5. Sjögren’s syndrome is associated with negatively variable impacts on domains of health-related quality of life: evidence from Short Form 36 questionnaire and a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Qiuxiang Zhang,1,2 Xulin Wang,3 Haoyang Chen,1,2 Biyu Shen1 1Department of Nursing, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 2School of Nursing, Nantong University, 3Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature to identify the impact of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS on specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL domains.Methods: A meta-analysis was performed, and the related articles were searched in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biology Medicine, and Web of Science databases and in reference lists of articles and systematic reviews. Score of the Short Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire was used as the outcome measurement, and mean differences (MD with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated.Results: Seven studies were included, comprising 521 patients with pSS and 9,916 healthy controls. The SF-36 questionnaire score of each domain (physical function, role physical [RP] function, emotional role function, vitality, mental health, social function, body pain, general health, physical component scale, mental component scale was lower in patients with pSS than in healthy controls, especially the score in the dimension of RP function.Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed that patients had lower pSS score in each dimension of the SF-36, mostly in the RP function. This demonstrated that targeted interventions should be carried out to improve the HRQoL of pSS patients. Keywords: primary Sjögren’s syndrome, quality of life, SF-36, meta-analysis

  6. Negative urgency, distress tolerance, and substance abuse among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Alison J; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R; Charnigo, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Negative affect has been consistently linked with substance use/problems in prior research. The present study sought to build upon these findings by exploring how an individual's characteristic responding to negative affect impacts substance abuse risk. Trait negative affect was examined in relation to substance abuse outcomes along with two variables tapping into response to negative affect: distress tolerance, an individual's perceived ability to tolerate negative affect, and negative urgency, the tendency to act rashly while experiencing distress. Participants were 525 first-year college students (48.1% male, 81.1% Caucasian), who completed self-report measures assessing personality traits and alcohol-related problems, and a structured interview assessing past and current substance use. Relations were tested using zero-inflated negative binomial regression models, and each of the personality variables was tested in a model on its own, and in a model where all three traits were accounted for. Negative urgency emerged as the best predictor, relating to every one of the substance use outcome variables even when trait negative affect and distress tolerance were accounted for. These findings suggest that negative urgency is an important factor to consider in developing prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing substance use and problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana; Birke-Sorensen, Hanne; Kruse, Marie

    Aim: Postoperative wound complications make many surgical procedures unnecessarily complex, particularly in high-risk patients. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy is well recognized in the management of open wounds. In recent years, it has been introduced as well in the management of closed surgical...... incisions to reduce postoperative wound complications, though the evidence base to support this intervention is limited. The aim of this study was to assess if Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) reduces postoperative complications when applied on closed surgical incisions. Method: A systematic review...

  8. Negative Attitudes, Networks and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper theoretically and empirically assesses the potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking. The paper considers that two these parameters may influence high and uneducated...... workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper finds suggestive evidence rejecting the theoretical case where negative attitudes decrease 1st generation immigrant education...... and indications that quality of networks seems to matter more for immigrants than the quantity of individuals in a potential network....

  9. Negative symptoms and social cognition: identifying targets for psychological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Rief, Winfried

    2011-09-01

    How to improve treatment for negative symptoms is a continuing topic of debate. Suggestions have been made to advance psychological understanding of negative symptoms by focusing on the social cognitive processes involved in symptom formation and maintenance. Following the recommendations by the National Institute of Mental Health workshop on social cognition in schizophrenia, this study investigated associations between negative symptoms and various aspects of social cognition including Theory of Mind (ToM), attribution, empathy, self-esteem, and interpersonal self-concepts in 75 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 75 healthy controls. Negative symptoms were significantly associated with difficulties in ToM, less readiness to be empathic, lower self-esteem, less self-serving bias, negative self-concepts related to interpersonal abilities, and dysfunctional acceptance beliefs. Different aspects of social cognition were mildly to moderately correlated and interacted in their impact on negative symptoms: Difficulties in ToM were associated with negative symptoms in persons with low but not in persons with medium or high levels of self-esteem. Taken together, the social cognition variables and their hypothesized interaction explained 39% of the variance in negative symptoms after controlling for neurocognition and depression. The results highlight the relevance of self-concepts related to social abilities, dysfunctional beliefs, and global self-worth alone and in interaction with ToM deficits for negative symptoms and thereby provide a helpful basis for advancing psychosocial interventions.

  10. Production of negative helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, A.S. de; Sala, O.

    1977-01-01

    A negative helium ion source using potassium charge exchange vapor has been developed to be used as an injector for the Pelletron accelerator. 3 He and α beam currents of up to 2μA have been extracted with 75% particle transmission through the machine [pt

  11. Sleep deprivation affects reactivity to positive but not negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Callan, Christina; Posey, J Laura

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the effects of partial and total sleep deprivation on emotional reactivity. Twenty-eight partially sleep-deprived participants and 31 totally sleep-deprived participants rated their valence and arousal responses to positive and negative pictures across four testing sessions during the day following partial sleep deprivation or during the night under total sleep deprivation. The results suggest that valence and arousal ratings decreased under both sleep deprivation conditions. In addition, partial and total sleep deprivation had a greater negative effect on positive events than negative events. These results suggest that sleep-deprived persons are more likely to respond less to positive events than negative events. One explanation for the current findings is that negative events could elicit more attentive behavior and thus stable responding under sleep deprivation conditions. As such, sleep deprivation could impact reactivity to emotional stimuli through automated attentional and self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Negative Advertisements and Voter Turnout: The Evidence from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor A. Hernández-Huerta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite abundant research in the field of negative campaigns, there is still inconclusive evidence about their effects on voter turnout. Additionally, the extant literature has focused mostly on the United States and more research is needed to understand the effects of negative campaigns in other contexts. In 2007, Mexican political parties amended the Constitution and banned the use of negative advertisements as a measure to avoid a “further damage to electoral participation,” despite arguments that this measure might impair freedom of speech. In this article, I hypothesize that the effects of negative advertisements on turnout are negligible in the Mexican case because it can be characterized as a fairly institutionalized multiparty system. Using a post-electoral survey of the 2006 presidential election in Mexico, I find that negative advertisements do not seem to have had an impact on turnout.

  13. Unimode metamaterials exhibiting negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, Krzysztof K; Attard, Daphne; Caruana-Gauci, Roberto; Grima, Joseph N; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W

    2016-01-01

    Unimode metamaterials made from rotating rigid triangles are analysed mathematically for their mechanical and thermal expansion properties. It is shown that these unimode systems exhibit positive Poisson’s ratios irrespective of size, shape and angle of aperture, with the Poisson’s ratio exhibiting giant values for certain conformations. When the Poisson’s ratio in one loading direction is larger than +1, the systems were found to exhibit the anomalous property of negative linear compressibility along this direction, that is, the systems expand in this direction when hydrostatically compressed. Also discussed are the thermal expansion properties of these systems under the assumption that the units exhibit increased rotational agitation once subjected to an increase in temperature. The effect of the geometric parameters on the aforementioned thermo-mechanical properties of the system, are discussed, with the aim of identifying negative behaviour. (paper)

  14. Proclus’ View about Negative Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimiyan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative theology is a modern theological approach that idiomatically implies those theological doctrines which are based on the negative premises and concepts for describing God. Among Greeks, this approach was on its climax in Neo-Platonism. Proclus is one of the Neo-Platonists who lived in fifth century (A.D and was in charge of Athena academy for years. He was the most important Neo-Platonist after Plotinus. In his philosophical system, on the one hand, it is impossible to recognize the first source and, on the other hand, the existence of some principles like the relationship between the creator and the universe, reversion and the way of emanation receiving, requires the knowledge of the first source. It seems that such paradox can be resolved by separating the stages of existence order.

  15. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  16. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1992-10-01

    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  17. A Semantic Analysis of Negative Concord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouden van der, Ton; Zwarts, Frans

    1993-01-01

    It is not uncommon in natural languages that negation seems to behave in an illogical manner. The general term for the many cases where multiple occurrences of morphologically negative constituents express a single semantic negation is negative concord (Labov 1979). Negative concord may take either

  18. Research priorities for negative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, S.; Jones, C. D.; Kraxner, F.; Peters, G. P.; Smith, P.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Canadell, J. G.; Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Moreira, J. R.; Nakicenovic, N.; Sharifi, A.; Yamagata, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere (CDR)—also known as ‘negative emissions’—features prominently in most 2 °C scenarios and has been under increased scrutiny by scientists, citizens, and policymakers. Critics argue that ‘negative emission technologies’ (NETs) are insufficiently mature to rely on them for climate stabilization. Some even argue that 2 °C is no longer feasible or might have unacceptable social and environmental costs. Nonetheless, the Paris Agreement endorsed an aspirational goal of limiting global warming to even lower levels, arguing that climate impacts—especially for vulnerable nations such as small island states—will be unacceptably severe in a 2 °C world. While there are few pathways to 2 °C that do not rely on negative emissions, 1.5 °C scenarios are barely conceivable without them. Building on previous assessments of NETs, we identify some urgent research needs to provide a more complete picture for reaching ambitious climate targets, and the role that NETs can play in reaching them.

  19. Negative Reflecting Meta-Mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Li, Dong; Gao, Dongxing; Zhang, Aofang; Hu, Bowei; Yang, Pei; Lei, Zhenya; Li, Jiacheng

    2017-07-18

    Using the gradient phase discontinuities that meta-mirrors provide, we show that the incident wave can be reflected anomalously with a broad angle range of negative reflections. Such reversed behaviors promote the immediate applications for the planar meta-mirrors to steer the signals more arbitrarily and the convex meta-mirrors to focus and collimate electromagnetic fields. We practically implement these negative reflecting meta-mirrors through an arrangement of subwavelength ring patches and generate the desired phase distribution by also considering the incident angle. Finally, the experiments are carried out to verify the functionality of the convex meta-mirror firstly, and the performances of the planar meta-mirror are also tested by further building up a dual reflector system with the demonstration of obtaining the plane wave from the convex meta-mirror and then having the well collimated beam negative reflected by the planar meta-mirror. The proposed design should be readily applicable to a wide range of electromagnetic problems, especially for devising smart planar illusion devices, and highly directive antennas mounting on convex surfaces of various platforms.

  20. Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Mallar; Kallet, Richard H; Ware, Lorraine B; Matthay, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) or postobstructive pulmonary edema is a well-described cause of acute respiratory failure that occurs after intense inspiratory effort against an obstructed airway, usually from upper airway infection, tumor, or laryngospasm. Patients with NPPE generate very negative airway pressures, which augment transvascular fluid filtration and precipitate interstitial and alveolar edema. Pulmonary edema fluid collected from most patients with NPPE has a low protein concentration, suggesting hydrostatic forces as the primary mechanism for the pathogenesis of NPPE. Supportive care should be directed at relieving the upper airway obstruction by endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy, institution of lung-protective positive-pressure ventilation, and diuresis unless the patient is in shock. Resolution of the pulmonary edema is usually rapid, in part because alveolar fluid clearance mechanisms are intact. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management of negative-pressure or postobstructive pulmonary edema. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Two negations for the price of one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind Thornton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard English is typically described as a double negation language. In double negation ­languages, each negative marker contributes independent semantic force. Two negations in the same clause usually cancel each other out, resulting in an affirmative sentence. Other dialects of English permit negative concord. In negative concord sentences, the two negative markers yield a single semantic negation. This paper explores how English-speaking children interpret sentences with more than one negative element, in order to assess whether their early grammar allows negative concord. According to Zeijlstra’s (2004 typological generalization, if a language has a negative syntactic head, it will be a negative concord language. Since Standard English is often analysed as having a negative head, it represents an apparent exception to Zeijlstra’s ­generalization. This raises the intriguing possibility that initially, children recognize that English has a negative head (i.e., 'n’t' and, therefore, assign negative concord interpretations to sentences with two negations, despite the absence of evidence for this interpretation in the adult input. The present study investigated this possibility in a comprehension study with 20 3- to 5-year-old ­children and a control group of 15 adults. The test sentences were presented in contexts that made them amenable to either a double negation or a negative concord interpretation. As expected, the adult participants assigned the double negation interpretation of the test sentences the majority of the time. In contrast, the child participants assigned the alternative, negative concord interpretation the majority of the time. Children must jettison the negative concord interpretation of sentences with two negative markers, and acquire a double negation interpretation. We propose that the requisite positive evidence is the appearance of negative expressions like 'nothing 'in object position. Because such

  2. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural production of liquid biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural production of liquid biofuels can have positive effects. It can decrease dependence on fossil fuels and increase farmers’ incomes. Agricultural production of mixed perennial biofuel crops may increase pollinator and avian richness. Most types of agricultural crop-based liquid biofuel

  3. Negative Impact of Article 98 Sanctions in the Western Hemisphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruiz, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    ... (SAOs) have been established; countries not signing an Article 98 agreement are subject to security assistance sanctions, to include the loss of International Military Education and Training (IMET...

  4. Age-related neuroinflammatory changes negatively impact on neuronal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Lynch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammatory changes, characterized by an increase in microglial activation and often accompanied by upregulation of inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1β (IL-1β, are common to many, if not all, neurodegenerative diseases. Similar, though less dramatic neuroinflammatory changes are also known to occur with age. Among the consequences of these changes is an impairment in synaptic function and the evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokines may be the primary contributory factor responsible for the deficits in synaptic plasticity which have been identified in aged rodents. Specifically a decrease in the ability of aged rats to sustain long-term potentiation (LTP in perforant path-granule cells of the hippocampus is associated with increased microglial activation. This review considers the evidence which suggests a causal relationship between these changes and the factors which contribute to the age-related microglial activation, and reflects on data which demonstrate that agents which inhibit microglial activation also improve ability of rats to sustain LTP.

  5. A Computational Analysis of the Negative Impact of Cigarette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-01

    Aug 1, 2012 ... In 1612, six years after the settlement of. Jamestown, John Rolfe was credited as the first settler to successfully .... Orthodox Christian churches. Smoking in the Americas probably had its origins in the ... traditions such as weddings, funerals and was expressed in architecture, clothing, literature and poetry ...

  6. The negative impact of structural adjustment programme on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . AA Lawal. Abstract. No Abstract. The Nigerian Journal of Economic History Vol. 4 2001: 61-69. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  7. Adults Matter: Protecting Children from the Negative Impacts of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Johnson, Danya L.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; McKelvey, Lorraine; Gargus, Regina A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the degree to which support from parents and teachers buffers the level of depression for four groups of children involved in bullying (victim, bully, bully-victims, or not involved children). Nine hundred and seventy-seven 5th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade students in the rural South completed questionnaires on bullying, social…

  8. Climate change policy positive or negative economic impact? Why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupers, R.T.L.; Mangalagiu, D.

    2010-01-01

    ECF initiates and performs high-class research on climate change in close interaction with stakeholders. We provide a pluralistic communication platform in the emerging global field of researchers, governments, local authorities, businesses, and social movements. This field lies beyond the

  9. Negative Impact of Article 98 Sanctions in the Western Hemisphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruiz, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Congress enacted the American Servicemembers' Protection Act (ASPA) on 2 August 2002 in response to the newly implemented 1998 Rome Treaty, which established the International Criminal Court (ICC...

  10. Youth sport: positive and negative impact on young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkel DL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Donna L Merkel Bryn Mawr Rehabilitation Hospital, Main Line Health System, Exton, PA, USA Abstract: Organized youth sports are highly popular for youth and their families, with approximately 45 million children and adolescent participants in the US. Seventy five percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports. On the surface, it appears that US children are healthy and happy as they engage in this traditional pastime, and families report higher levels of satisfaction if their children participate. However, statistics demonstrate a childhood obesity epidemic, with one of three children now being overweight, with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle for most children and teenagers. Increasing sports-related injuries, with 2.6 million emergency room visits a year for those aged 5–24 years, a 70%–80% attrition rate by the time a child is 15 years of age, and programs overemphasizing winning are problems encountered in youth sport. The challenges faced by adults who are involved in youth sports, from parents, to coaches, to sports medicine providers, are multiple, complex, and varied across ethnic cultures, gender, communities, and socioeconomic levels. It appears that an emphasis on fun while establishing a balance between physical fitness, psychologic well-being, and lifelong lessons for a healthy and active lifestyle are paramount for success. Keywords: youth sports, injuries, benefits, risks, prevention, specialization

  11. The negative impact of technological accidents on the consumers behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demedardi, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    After the accidental release in the Tricastin site, the wine producers of this region where grows a vineyard with a protected designation of origin (A.O.C. in French legislation) noticed a consistent decrease of their sales. This consumers behavior is not rational because the vineyard is far from the area concerned by this accidental pollution. Face to an open market, the consumer has a freedom of choice that allows him to reject a product on which a sanitary suspicion presses. That is what shows an inquiry made by students in France. The consequences of an accident are not only linked to the sanitary safety or environmental stakes but depends on economical mechanisms such image or attractiveness loss. (N.C.)

  12. A Computational Analysis of the Negative Impact of Cigarette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smoking is a practice in which a substance most commonly called Tobacco or Cannabis is burnt and the smoke tasted or inhaled. Recognition of the consequences of cigarette smoking and abuse on physical and mental health as well as socio-occupational life are necessary steps for initiating appropriate action to reduce ...

  13. [Alexithymia in negative symptom and non-negative symptom schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkam, I; Langlois-Thery, S; Dollfus, S; Petit, M

    1997-01-01

    Coined by Sifneos in 1972, alexithymia refers to a relative narrowing in emotional functioning, an inability to find appropriate words to describe their emotions and, a poverty of fantasy life. Although initially described in the context of psychosomatic illness, alexithymic characteristics may be observed in patients with a wide range of medical and psychiatric disorders: Parkinson disease, depression, anxiety, substance abuse and eating disorders. Flattening of affect and poverty of speech, major negative symptoms, referred to chronic schizophrenia: there is a lack of outward display of emotion. Accordingly, some disturbances of alexithymia's scores would be expected in schizophrenic patients. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of alexithymia in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia. The term "deficit symptoms" may be used as Carpenter, to refer specifically to those negative symptoms that are not considered secondary. The influence of patients' symptoms has also been studied on alexithymia scores: negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, anhedonia and effects of neuroleptics. Twenty-five patients, meeting DSM III-R criteria for schizophrenia have been studied. All of them treated by neuroleptics, were in a stable clinical status for at least one month. The patients have been categorized into deficit (n = 12) and non-deficit (n = 13) subgroups by one trained psychiatrist (SD), using the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. The subjects have been assessed by the same rater (IN), blind to deficit status, using six rating scales: Beth Israel Questionnaire (BIQ) and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) for alexithymia, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and finally, Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS). Using TAS, alexithymic characteristics were more prevalent in the deficit subgroup as compared to

  14. Improving Universal Suicide Prevention Screening in Primary Care by Reducing False Negatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    screening methods by reducing false negative rates; and (c) to systematically quantify false negative rates across various patient subgroups (e.g., gender ...do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? ...................... 6 4. IMPACT ...6 4.1. What was the impact on the development of the principal

  15. NEGATIVE EFFECT OF METALLOID STRESS ON WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marína Maglovski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As belongs to heavy metals and its accumulation in plants, besides damaging the organism itself, represents a potential health risk to animal and human consumers. Therefore, contamination of soils and waters with this compound is a serious environmental problem. In this work we focused on investigating a negative impact of As on selected parameters of growth of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Genoveva grown in hydropony. In the stage of first assimilation leaves we applied a solution of heavy metal (1 mg.kg-1 As3+ on wheat plants. For plants grown under hydropony conditions we observed different plant parameters such as length, weight, amount of fresh and dry biomass. Further we analyzed accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and products membrane lipid peroxidation as indicators of oxidative stress. In addition to these we also measured the content of photosynthetic pigments, maximal quantum yield and proline in plant tissue. Our data indicate reduction of the biomass of shoots forthcoming as a result of exposure of stressed plants to As. Decline of biomass accumulation was accompanied by increase of hydrogen peroxide in plant tissue. In contrast, level of lipid peroxidation was suppressed in stressed shoots. Contents of photosynthetic pigments soundly decreased. Interestingly, fluorescence (Fp=Fm in stressed wheat shoots increased. Similarly in tested shoots the content of proline was increased. The results indicate that the applied dose of As has a negative impact on the growth and photosynthetic performance of stressed plants. A better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for As resistance and toxicity in plants requires further investigation.

  16. EFFECTS OF MEDICAL DISPUTES ON INTERNET COMMUNICATIONS OF NEGATIVE EMOTIONS AND NEGATIVE ONLINE WORD-OF-MOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chih; Wu, Wei-Li

    2015-08-01

    Emotions play an important role in human behavior. Negative emotions resulting from medical disputes are problems for medical personnel to solve but also have a significant impact on a hospital's reputation and people's trust in the hospital. One medical dispute case was chosen from an Internet news source to assess the correlation between people's negative emotions and negative online word-of-mouth. Convenience sampling was used in school faculties and university students who had shared their medical treatment experiences online were the research participants. A total of 221 Taiwanese participants volunteered (158 women, 63 men; ages: 26.7% under 19, 22.6% 20-29, 30.8% 30-39,19.9% over 40). Four negative emotions were measured using rating scales: uncertainty, anger, disappointment, and sadness. Four negative online word-of-mouth measures were: venting, advice search, helping receiver, and revenge. A modeled relationship was assessed by partial least square method (PLS). Then, people's positive emotions were further analyzed to assess changes after spreading negative word-of-mouth. The results showed that uncertainty had a positive effect on venting and advice search. People who felt anger or regret spread word-of-mouth in order to help the receiver. Disappointment may trigger the revenge behavior of negative word-of-mouth. Negative emotions could be relieved after engaging in the behavior of helping the receiver.

  17. Nanocharacterization of the negative stiffness of ferroelectric materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skandani, A.A.; Čtvrtlík, Radim; Al-Haik, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 8 (2014), "082906-1"-"082906-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA03010743 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectric materials * negative stiffness * thermomechanical environments Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  18. Negative index of refraction in anisotropic nonmagnetic materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Vladimír; Kužel, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 338, - (2006), s. 195-203 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET300100401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : anisotropic dielectric * negative refractive index * surface modes * guided modes Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2006

  19. Positive and negative emotional responses to work- related trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-10

    Oct 10, 2010 ... Life Scale: Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Subscales' en die 'Silencing Response Scale' ingevorder en ... hazards and have a negative impact on the quality of life and the psychological health of the nurse, as well as .... of caregivers to pay attention to the stories or experiences of their patients and ...

  20. The opportunity cost of negative screening in socially responsible investing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinks, Pieter Jan; Scholtens, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of negative screening on the investment universe as well as on financial performance. We come up with a novel identification process and as such depart from mainstream Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) literature by concentrating on individual firms’ conduct and

  1. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  2. Imagery mismatch negativity in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise.

  3. Negative grouting consequences on karst environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, O.; Roje-Bonacci, T.; Gottstein, S.

    2009-04-01

    Grouting is a procedure by means of which grout is injected into different kinds of karst spaces (cracks, fissures, conduits and caves). It has a wide application in modern civil engineering, especially in karst terrains. It started nearly 200 years ago. In most cases the ingredients for the preparation of mortars and grouting suspensions are: cement, bentonite, clay and fillers, additives for stability and water. In practice the composition of grouting suspension is not standardized. A suspension injected under pressure will circulate in the karst spaces like a more or less viscous fluid until some of the larger suspended particles are blocked where the karst voids get narrower than the size of injected grains. The injection of materials into karst groundwater, i.e. the construction of grouting curtains, definitely could be the cause of unpredictable negative consequences on karst groundwater environments. The building of dams in karst areas always go along the construction of grouting curtains. During the construction of most dams in karst all over the world millions tons of injection mass have been injected in karst underground. It may impact water quantity in vadose zone and in karstic aquifer causing water table lowering and spring desiccation. In such cases the negative impact on local karst environment could be very dangerous. Physically as well as chemically this mass voraciously and quickly destroyed underground habitats and killed an enormous number of endangered and endemic species. Very often this is extremely expensive procedure and in many cases not very successful from the engineering point of view. From the ecological point of view it could causes catastrophic consequences. The greatest problem is that until now neither engineers nor ecologists took care of these great and massive negative influences on underground karst environments. In this paper few examples of different consequences of grouting on the hydrogeological as well as ecological regime

  4. The negation phenomenon. Aquiring French negation by Romanian native speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana-Sonia IONESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper sets out some guidelines for a strategy based on the comparison ofRomanian and French and outlines some ways of learning the French negation by the nativespeakers of Romanian; the paper also points out a number of difficulties they face in assimilatingnegation in French. By highlighting some difficulties in assimilating the new language, based on thecontrastive analysis, these must be taken into consideration and ameliorated, to prevent theoccurrence of the default errors.The process of mastering a language is highly conditioned by the practicing of the studiedlanguage, i.e. a system of applications / structural exercises based on similarity and oppositionwithin a language, to allow the formation of spontaneous speech and understanding skills.

  5. Optimization of negative ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have started to study negative ion extraction and acceleration systems in view of designing a 1 MeV D - accelerator. This study is being made with a two-Dimensional code that has been specifically developed in our laboratory and validated by comparison to three sets of experimental data. We believe that the criteria for negative ion accelerator design optimization should be: (i) to provide the best optics; (ii) to reduce the power load on the extraction grid; (iii) to allow operation with low electric fields in order to reduce the problem of breakdowns. We show some results of optics calculations performed for two systems that will be operational in the next months: the CEA-JAERI collaboration at Cadarache and the european DRAGON experiment at Culham. Extrapolations to higher energies of 500 to 1100 keV have also been conducted. All results indicate that the overall accelerator length, whatever be the number of gaps, is constrained by space charge effects (Child-Langmuir). We have combined this constraint with high-voltage hold-off empirical laws. As a result, it appears that accelerating 10 mA/cm 2 of D - at 1 MeV with good optics, as required for NET or ITER, is close to the expected limit of high-voltage hold-off

  6. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  7. Serotonin, inhibition, and negative mood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian predictions of future aversive outcomes lead to behavioral inhibition, suppression, and withdrawal. There is considerable evidence for the involvement of serotonin in both the learning of these predictions and the inhibitory consequences that ensue, although less for a causal relationship between the two. In the context of a highly simplified model of chains of affectively charged thoughts, we interpret the combined effects of serotonin in terms of pruning a tree of possible decisions, (i.e., eliminating those choices that have low or negative expected outcomes. We show how a drop in behavioral inhibition, putatively resulting from an experimentally or psychiatrically influenced drop in serotonin, could result in unexpectedly large negative prediction errors and a significant aversive shift in reinforcement statistics. We suggest an interpretation of this finding that helps dissolve the apparent contradiction between the fact that inhibition of serotonin reuptake is the first-line treatment of depression, although serotonin itself is most strongly linked with aversive rather than appetitive outcomes and predictions.

  8. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  9. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity and Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro, E-mail: sugumi.kanno@ehu.es, E-mail: jonathan.shock@uct.ac.za, E-mail: jiro@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  10. Congenital nystagmus and negative electroretinography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussi M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirella Roussi, Hélène Dalens, Jean Jacques Marcellier, Franck BacinDepartment of Ophthalmology, Clermont-Ferrand University, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceAbstract: Congenital nystagmus is a pathologic oculomotor state appearing at about three to four months of age. The precise diagnosis requires detailed clinical examination and electrophysiological findings. This case report presents two male patients with congenital nystagmus examined longitudinally from the age of six months until 17-18 years of age. Clinical and electrophysiological protocols were detailed. The first results showed electronegative electroretinography in the two cases and examination combined with electroretinographic findings helped us to make the diagnosis of Congenital Night Stationary Blindness (CSNB. This diagnosis was confirmed by genetic studies. CSNB is interesting to study because through electrophysiological findings, it enables a better understanding of the physiology of neural transmission in the outer part of the retina.Keywords: Congenital nystagmus, negative electroretinography, congenital night stationary blindness

  11. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana

    a randomised controlled trial in two tertiary and three teaching hospitals in three regions of Denmark, the Happy Belly Study, investigating the effectiveness of iNPWT in a population of obese women after caesarean section. The Happy Belly Study has demonstrated that prophylactic iNPWT significantly reduced......-risk population of obese women giving birth by caesarean section. The Happy Belly Study is ongoing and thus this thesis presents preliminary results based on data from the first two-thirds of the scheduled study participants. Nonetheless, the results in this thesis are convincing. Accordingly, i......Women with a pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 giving birth by caesarean section are at high risk of surgical wound infection compared with women with a BMI below 30 kg/m2. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (iNPWT) is one strategy to reduce the rate of surgical wound...

  12. Negative screenings in Liouville theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schnittger, Jens

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate how negative powers of screenings arise as a nonperturbative effect within the operator approach to Liouville theory. This explains the origin of the corresponding poles in the exact Liouville three point function proposed by Dorn/Otto and (\\hbox{Zamolodchikov })^2 (DOZZ) and leads to a consistent extension of the operator approach to arbitrary integer numbers of screenings of both types. The general Liouville three point function in this setting is computed without any analytic continuation procedure, and found to support the DOZZ conjecture. We point out the importance of the concept of free field expansions with adjustable monodromies - recently advocated by Petersen, Rasmussen and Yu - in the present context, and show that it provides a unifying interpretation for two types of previously constructed local observables.

  13. Mondialization: The negation of territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present some weaknesses and inconsistence of the mondialization/globalization concept, especially regarding obvious negation of territoriality as a principle and a crude reality of uneven spatial distribution of resources, wealth and population on global scale. The domination of the globalism and neo-liberalism in the spheres of economy, society, culture and even language leads toward greater differences, in such intensity that some authors describe it as a "clash of civilizations". Loosing territoriality means loosing "raison d’etre" of spatial planning. Some efforts to introduce participation as a planning solution for the beginning of the new century is actually a Trojan horse and a step in the wrong direction.

  14. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  15. The doubly negative matrix completion problem

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, C. Mendes; Torregrosa, Juan R.; Urbano, Ana M.

    2005-01-01

    An $n\\times n$ matrix over the field of real numbers is a doubly negative matrix if it is symmetric, negative definite and entry-wise negative. In this paper, we are interested in the doubly negative matrix completion problem, that is when does a partial matrix have a doubly negative matrix completion. In general, we cannot guarantee the existence of such a completion. In this paper, we prove that every partial doubly negative matrix whose associated graph is a $p$-chorda...

  16. Negative ion sources for tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke

    1980-08-01

    Four kinds of negative ion sources (direct extraction Duoplasmatron ion source, radial extraction Penniing ion source, lithium charge exchange ion source and Middleton-type sputter ion source) have been installed in the JAERI tandem accelerator. The ion sources can generate many negative ions ranging from Hydrogen to Uranium with the exception of Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Discussions presented in this report include mechanisms of negative ion formation, electron affinity and stability of negative ions, performance of the ion sources and materials used for negative ion production. Finally, the author will discuss difficult problems to be overcome in order to get any negative ion sufficiently. (author)

  17. Negative caregiving effects among caregivers of veterans with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, David M; Judge, Katherine S; Snow, A Lynn; Wilson, Nancy L; Looman, Wendy J; McCarthy, Catherine; Morgan, Robert; Ablorh-Odjidja, Clair; Kunik, Mark E

    2012-03-01

    : This investigation was guided by the stress process model and had two objectives: first, to describe the extent of negative caregiving effects for family caregivers of veterans with dementia, and second, to identify salient predictors of negative caregiving effects. : Data were obtained from baseline, structured telephone interviews with family caregivers of veterans enrolled in "Partners in Dementia Care," a clinical trial testing a care coordination intervention. : The study included 486 family caregivers of veterans with dementia who received primary care from the Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare system and lived at home. : Six negative caregiving effects were described as follows: unmet needs, four role and intrapsychic strains, and depression. Predictive factors included the following: cognitive impairment, behavior problems, personal care dependency, number of chronic conditions, and characteristics of the caregiving context. : Sizeable portions of caregivers experienced negative caregiving effects; most common were unmet needs, social isolation, and depression. Cognitive, behavioral, and functional symptoms of dementia and other coexisting chronic conditions explained significant variation in all negative caregiving effects. Caregiving context had little impact. Behavior problems were the most consistent predictor; personal care dependency and other chronic conditions were also important. : Family caregivers, the foundation of long-term care for veterans with dementia who live at home, experience a variety of negative caregiving effects. Negative effects are greater when veterans exhibit behavior problems, require extensive assistance with personal care, and have a greater number of coexisting chronic conditions. Negative caregiving effects are an important target for interventions that support family caregivers and promote continued care at home.

  18. 14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23... Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of an engine, an auxiliary power unit approved for use in... the airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in § 23...

  19. 14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No... the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in § 25.333. This must be shown for...

  20. On multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    There is a recent interest to solve multiphase negative flash problems where the phase amounts can be negative for normal positive feed composition. Solving such a negative flash problem using successive substitution needs an inner loop for phase distribution calculation at constant fugacity...

  1. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative...

  2. Emphatic multiple negative expressions in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijlstra, H.

    2010-01-01

    Double Negation languages like Dutch and German still exhibit constructions, such as Dutch 'niemand niet' ‘nobody not’ or 'nooit geen' ‘nothing no’, that seem to have a Negative Concord reading. Since these constructions normally have an emphatic reading, they are called Emphatic Multiple Negative

  3. Negative creep in nickel base superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    Negative creep describes the time dependent contraction of a material as opposed to the elongation seen for a material experiencing normal creep behavior. Negative creep occurs because of solid state transformations that results in lattice contractions. For most applications negative creep will h...

  4. Recollecting positive and negative autobiographical memories disrupts working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard J; Schaefer, Alexandre; Falcon, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The present article reports two experiments examining the impact of recollecting emotionally valenced autobiographical memories on subsequent working memory (WM) task performance. Experiment 1 found that negatively valenced recollection significantly disrupted performance on a supra-span spatial WM task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these findings to a verbal WM task (digit recall), and found that both negative and positive autobiographical recollections had a detrimental effect on verbal WM. In addition, we observed that these disruptive effects were more apparent on early trials, immediately following autobiographical recollection. Overall, these findings show that both positive and negative affect can disrupt WM when the mood-eliciting context is based on autobiographical memories. Furthermore, these results indicate that the emotional disruption of WM can take place across different modalities of WM (verbal and visuo-spatial). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Negative and Positive Outflow-Feedback in Nearby (ULIRGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cazzoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The starburst-AGN coexistence in local (ULIRGs makes these galaxies excellent laboratories for the study of stellar and AGN outflows and feedback. Outflows regulate star formation and AGN activity, redistributing gas, dust and metals over large scales in the interstellar and intergalactic media (negative feedback being also considered to be able to undergo vigorous star formation (positive feedback. In this contribution, I will summarize the results from a search for outflows in a sample of nearby 38 local (ULIRG systems observed with VIMOS/VLT integral field unit. For two galaxies of the sample I will detail the outflow properties and discuss the observational evidence for negative and positive outflow-feedback. The assessment of both negative and positive feedback effects represent a novel approach toward a comprehensive understanding of the impact of outflow feedback in the galaxy evolution.

  6. Negative perceptions of aging predict longitudinal decline in cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Deirdre A; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2016-02-01

    Perceptions of aging have been shown to impact the psychological and physical health of older adults. Experimental studies have found that priming older adults with negative attitudes toward aging results in immediate declines in psychological, physical and cognitive functions. Longitudinal studies have supported this work illustrating the longer term impact of negative and positive perceptions of aging on psychological and physical health. However, it is surprising that there are a limited number of studies that have investigated the longitudinal association between perceptions of aging and cognitive function. The aim of this article is therefore to explore the association between perceptions of aging and cognitive function across a number of domains in a population representative sample of adults aged 50 and older. The sample was assessed twice over 2 years. Negative perceptions of aging at baseline were independently associated with longitudinal decline in verbal fluency and self-rated memory over a 2-year period after adjustment for physical and mental health. These findings suggest that negative perceptions of aging may play a role in cognitive decline in the older population. Furthermore, aging perceptions may be a modifiable factor to target for future interventions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. AMBIGUITY, NEGATION, AND C-COMMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson Cavalcante de Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze negative scope ambiguity in sentences with cause, temporal and purpose adjuncts, in which negation can take scope either over the predicate or over the adjunct. I discuss Huang (1982, Takubo (1985 and Johnston’s (1994 analyses, which propose that the ambiguity is derived from different c-command relations between negation and adjunct, due to an optionality of adjunction to VP or IP. Against this view, I show a set of facts which are problematic for any analysis based only in c-command, i.e., several syntactic contexts where negation should c-command the adjunct, but where the ambiguity surprisingly still holds. Based on this, I argue that c-command is a necessary, but not sufficient condition to establish negative scope. And I suggest that the availability of predicate negation and adjunct negation results from an optionality of the operation of Labeling in adjunction, according Hornstein and Nunes (2008.

  8. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, A. L.; Chen, J. E. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H{sup +} beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H{sup −} ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  9. Negative mobility of a Brownian particle: Strong damping regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słapik, A.; Łuczka, J.; Spiechowicz, J.

    2018-02-01

    We study impact of inertia on directed transport of a Brownian particle under non-equilibrium conditions: the particle moves in a one-dimensional periodic and symmetric potential, is driven by both an unbiased time-periodic force and a constant force, and is coupled to a thermostat of temperature T. Within selected parameter regimes this system exhibits negative mobility, which means that the particle moves in the direction opposite to the direction of the constant force. It is known that in such a setup the inertial term is essential for the emergence of negative mobility and it cannot be detected in the limiting case of overdamped dynamics. We analyse inertial effects and show that negative mobility can be observed even in the strong damping regime. We determine the optimal dimensionless mass for the presence of negative mobility and reveal three mechanisms standing behind this anomaly: deterministic chaotic, thermal noise induced and deterministic non-chaotic. The last origin has never been reported. It may provide guidance to the possibility of observation of negative mobility for strongly damped dynamics which is of fundamental importance from the point of view of biological systems, all of which in situ operate in fluctuating environments.

  10. Negative emotion boosts quality of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-08-01

    Negative emotion impacts a variety of cognitive processes, including working memory (WM). The present study investigated whether negative emotion modulated WM capacity (quantity) or resolution (quality), 2 independent limits on WM storage. In Experiment 1, observers tried to remember several colors over 1-s delay and then recalled the color of a randomly picked memory item by clicking a best-matching color on a continuous color wheel. On each trial, before the visual WM task, 1 of 3 emotion conditions (negative, neutral, or positive) was induced by having observers to rate the valence of an International Affective Picture System image. Visual WM under negative emotion showed enhanced resolution compared with neutral and positive conditions, whereas the number of retained representations was comparable across the 3 emotion conditions. These effects were generalized to closed-contour shapes in Experiment 2. To isolate the locus of these effects, Experiment 3 adopted an iconic memory version of the color recall task by eliminating the 1-s retention interval. No significant change in the quantity or quality of iconic memory was observed, suggesting that the resolution effects in the first 2 experiments were critically dependent on the need to retain memory representations over a short period of time. Taken together, these results suggest that negative emotion selectively boosts visual WM quality, supporting the dissociable nature quantitative and qualitative aspects of visual WM representation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Social anxiety and negative early life events in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binelli, Cynthia; Ortiz, Ana; Muñiz, Armando; Gelabert, Estel; Ferraz, Liliana; S Filho, Alaor; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Nardi, Antonio E; Subirà, Susana; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2012-06-01

    There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i) the loss of someone close, (ii) emotional abuse, (iii) physical abuse, (iv) family violence, and (v) sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Mean (SD) age was 21 (4.5), 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22), 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03). None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05). University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.

  12. The Effectiveness of Peer Mediation on Reducing Middle School Violence and Negative Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigainero, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of peer mediation on reducing violence and negative behaviors in middle school students. Negative behaviors included various ways students disrupt learning and included tardiness, absenteeism and truancy as well as classroom distractions of all forms. Three middle schools all in the same school…

  13. Negative Plant-Soil Feedback and Positive Species Interaction in a Herbaceous Plant Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanomi, G.; Rietkerk, M.; Dekker, S.C.; Mazzoleni, S.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that facilitative interaction and negative plant¿soil feedback are driving factors of plant population dynamics and community processes. We studied the intensity and the relative impact of negative feedback on clonal growth and seed germination of Scirpus holoschoenus, a

  14. Negative Plant–Soil Feedback and Positive Species Interaction in a Herbaceous Plant Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanomi, G.; Rietkerk, M.G.; Dekker, S.C.; Mazzoleni, S.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that facilitative interaction and negative plant–soil feedback are driving factors of plant population dynamics and community processes. We studied the intensity and the relative impact of negative feedback on clonal growth and seed germination of Scirpus holoschoenus, a

  15. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Maxillofacial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Mellott

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure wound therapy has greatly advanced the field of wound healing for nearly two decades, by providing a robust surgical adjunct technique for accelerating wound closure in acute and chronic wounds. However, the application of negative pressure wound therapy in maxillofacial applications has been relatively under utilized as a result of the physical articulations and contours of the head and neck that make it challenging to obtain an airtight seal for different negative pressure wound therapy systems. Adapting negative pressure wound therapies for maxillofacial applications could yield significant enhancement of wound closure in maxillofacial applications. The current review summarizes the basic science underlying negative pressure wound therapy, as well as specific maxillofacial procedures that could benefit from negative pressure wound therapy.

  16. Zero-truncated negative binomial - Erlang distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodhisuwan, Winai; Pudprommarat, Chookait; Bodhisuwan, Rujira; Saothayanun, Luckhana

    2017-11-01

    The zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution is introduced. It is developed from negative binomial-Erlang distribution. In this work, the probability mass function is derived and some properties are included. The parameters of the zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution are estimated by using the maximum likelihood estimation. Finally, the proposed distribution is applied to real data, the number of methamphetamine in the Bangkok, Thailand. Based on the results, it shows that the zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution provided a better fit than the zero-truncated Poisson, zero-truncated negative binomial, zero-truncated generalized negative-binomial and zero-truncated Poisson-Lindley distributions for this data.

  17. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  18. Negative creep in nickel base superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    Negative creep describes the time dependent contraction of a material as opposed to the elongation seen for a material experiencing normal creep behavior. Negative creep occurs because of solid state transformations that results in lattice contractions. For most applications negative creep...... will have no practical implications but under certain conditions it may become critical. For bolts and fasteners, which are highly constrained during service, negative creep may lead to dramatically increased stresses and eventually to failure. The article was inspired by a recent failure of Nimonic 80A...

  19. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to carbon capture and storage and afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Brilliant but Cruel: Perceptions of Negative Evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    Two studies examined the hypothesis that negative evaluators will be perceived as more intelligent than positive evalutors. Two types of stimuli were used: excerpts from actual negative and positive book reviews, and versions of those excerpts that were edited so that the balance of the reviews varied but the content did not. The results strongly…

  1. Bootstrapping Visual Categorization with Relevant Negatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Learning classifiers for many visual concepts are important for image categorization and retrieval. As a classifier tends to misclassify negative examples which are visually similar to positive ones, inclusion of such misclassified and thus relevant negatives should be stressed during learning.

  2. A Negative Permeability Material at Red Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hsiao-Kuan; Chettiar, Uday K.; Cai, Wenshan

    2007-01-01

    A negative permeability in a periodic array of pairs of thin silver strips is demonstrated experimentally for two distinct samples. The effect of the strip surface roughness on negative permeability is evaluated. The first sample, Sample A, is fabricated of thinner strips with a root mean square ...

  3. Negative Automaintenance Omission Training Is Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Federico; Sitomer, Matthew T.; Killeen, Peter R.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve pigeons were exposed to negative automaintenance contingencies for 17-27 sessions immediately after brief (14-16 sessions) or extended (168-237 sessions) exposure to positive automaintenance contingencies, or after 4-10 sessions of instrumental training. In all conditions, negative automaintenance contingencies virtually eliminated…

  4. Aspects of Negation in Classical Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J.

    1972-01-01

    Traditional grammars are criticized as having obscured or omitted many significant features of negation patterns in classical Greek. The author demonstrates that negation in Greek extensively involves semantic and syntactic factors. Certain of the factors are thoroughly embedded in the traditional approach to grammar, while others are derived from…

  5. Negative social effects of global business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović-Golubović Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper wants to prove that negative social effects of global business are reasons for growing social welfare. Negative social effects of global business are reflected through the rise of unemployment, fall of life standard and decrease of life quality and culture, particularly in less developed societies.

  6. Criticism and the Ethics of Negative Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to work through my own angst at a negative review of my "Education, Philosophy and Politics," reviewed recently by Ian Stronach for the "British Educational Research Journal," and to provide a therapeutic reading of the ethics of negative reviews. What of "shots in the dark" and should there…

  7. Negative appendicectomy: evaluation of ultrasonography and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High negative appendicectomy rates are no longer acceptable with improvements in imaging techniques and clinical prediction rules. The use of ultrasound and CT scan in addition to clinical assessment and blood investigations has greatly reduced the negative appendicectomy rate to less than 10%.

  8. Chat-Line Interaction and Negative Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Junko; Oliver, Rhonda

    2003-01-01

    Examines communicative interactions between native speakers (NSs) and nonnative speakers (NNSs) of Japanese on Internet relay chat, with a special focus on implicit negative feedback in the interactions. Reports that NSs of Japanese gave implicit negative feedback to their NNS partners and NNSs used the feedback in their subsequent production, but…

  9. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  10. Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehring, T.; Watkins, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    The current paper provides an updated review of repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. It is shown that elevated levels of repetitive negative thinking are present across a large range of Axis I disorders and appear to be causally involved in the maintenance of emotional

  11. Appendicitis: A Study of Negative Appendicectomies | Kpolugbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-operative complications were noted in 3% of the negative appendicectomy group but in the positive appendicectomy group complications were much more common particularly when the appendix was ruptured. (Key Words: Negative appendicectomy, perforated appendix and postoperative complications.) Sahel Med.

  12. Veillonella, Firmicutes: Microbes disguised as Gram negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Ozen, Asli; Andersen, Sandra Christine

    2013-01-01

    related to Gram-negative species. Though the Negativicutes stain Gram-negative and possess two membranes, the genome and proteome analysis presented here confirm their place within the (mainly) Gram positive phylum of the Firmicutes. Further studies are required to unveil the evolutionary history...

  13. Ionization phenomena and sources of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion source technology has rapidly advanced during the past several years as a direct consequence of the discovery of Krohn that negative ion yields can be greatly enhanced by sputtering in the presence of Group IA elements. Today, most negative ion sources use this discovery directly or the principles implied to effect negative ion formation through surface ionization. As a consequence, the more traditional direct extraction plasma and charge exchange sources are being used less frequently. However, the charge exchange generation mechanism appears to be as universal, is very competitive in terms of efficiency and has the advantage in terms of metastable ion formation. In this review, an attempt has been made to briefly describe the principal processes involved in negative ion formation and sources which are representative of a particular principle. The reader is referred to the literature for specific details concerning the operational characteristics, emittances, brightnesses, species and intensity capabilities of particular sources. 100 references

  14. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Shahid, E-mail: shussain2@qinetiq.com

    2017-04-15

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies. - Highlights: • Negative permeability from random particle composites is

  15. Do cognitive deficits predict negative emotionality and aggression in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Anthony O; Richardson, Jenae; Buckner, Alex; Romanoff, Sabrina; Feder, Michelle; Oragunye, Njideka; Ilnicki, Andriana; Bhat, Ishrat; Hoptman, Matthew J; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with an elevated risk of aggression. Cognitive deficits have been associated with inpatient aggression and future violence. The relationship between cognitive deficits and violent behavior has however been inconsistent across studies. In addition, studies have failed to inform how cognitive deficits may contribute to aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined the association of cognitive deficits with schizophrenia-related aggression and violent offending. It also explored the putative mediating role of negative emotionality on the impact of cognitive deficits on aggression. People with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (N = 78) were recruited from a state hospital. Participants were classified based on their history of violent offending. Participants completed measures of cognition, symptoms, and aggression. Deficits in working memory, reasoning/problem-solving, and verbal learning were the most prioritized for the prediction of violent offender status. Violent offenders demonstrated greater impairments in most cognitive domains especially working memory and verbal learning. Offenders also demonstrated greater negative emotionality, excitement/agitation, and incidents of verbal and physical aggression. Negative emotionality and excitement/agitation fully transmitted the effect of cognitive deficits on impulsive aggression in meditational models. Cognitive deficits increase the risk of impulsive aggression in schizophrenia via inefficient regulation of negative affective states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Negative affect varying in motivational intensity influences scope of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threadgill, A Hunter; Gable, Philip A

    2018-04-06

    Emotions influence cognitive processes involved in memory. While some research has suggested that cognitive scope is determined by affective valence, recent models of emotion-cognition interactions suggest that motivational intensity, rather than valence, influences these processes. The present research was designed to clarify how negative affects differing in motivational intensity impact memory for centrally or peripherally presented information. Experiments 1 & 2 found that, relative to a neutral condition, high intensity negative affect (anger) enhances memory for centrally presented information. Experiment 3 replicated this effect using another high intensity negative affect (threat). Experiment 4 extended this by finding that, relative to a neutral condition, low intensity negative affect (sadness) enhanced memory for peripherally presented information. Finally, in Experiment 5, the effects of sadness and threat on scope of memory were directly compared, finding that threat narrowed scope of memory, while sadness broadened scope of memory. Together, these results provide additional support for the motivational dimensional model of cognitive scope, in that high intensity emotions narrow cognitive scope, while low intensity emotions broaden cognitive scope.

  17. Negative ratings play a positive role in information filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The explosive growth of information asks for advanced information filtering techniques to solve the so-called information overload problem. A promising way is the recommender system which analyzes the historical records of users’ activities and accordingly provides personalized recommendations. Most recommender systems can be represented by user-object bipartite networks where users can evaluate and vote for objects, and ratings such as “dislike” and “I hate it” are treated straightforwardly as negative factors or are completely ignored in traditional approaches. Applying a local diffusion algorithm on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, our study arrives at a very surprising result, namely the negative ratings may play a positive role especially for very sparse data sets. In-depth analysis at the microscopic level indicates that the negative ratings from less active users to less popular objects could probably have positive impacts on the recommendations, while the ones connecting active users and popular objects mostly should be treated negatively. We finally outline the significant relevance of our results to the two long-term challenges in information filtering: the sparsity problem and the cold-start problem.

  18. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Raheel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST, and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event

  19. Information Filtering Based on Users' Negative Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Li, Yang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The process of heat conduction (HC) has recently found application in the information filtering [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 154301 (2007)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. The classical HC model predicts users' potential interested objects based on their interesting objects regardless to the negative opinions. In terms of the users' rating scores, we present an improved user-based HC (UHC) information model by taking into account users' positive and negative opinions. Firstly, the objects rated by users are divided into positive and negative categories, then the predicted interesting and dislike object lists are generated by the UHC model. Finally, the recommendation lists are constructed by filtering out the dislike objects from the interesting lists. By implementing the new model based on nine similarity measures, the experimental results for MovieLens and Netflix datasets show that the new model considering negative opinions could greatly enhance the accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, from 0.049 to 0.036 for Netflix and from 0.1025 to 0.0570 for Movielens dataset, reduced by 26.53% and 44.39%, respectively. Since users prefer to give positive ratings rather than negative ones, the negative opinions contain much more information than the positive ones, the negative opinions, therefore, are very important for understanding users' online collective behaviors and improving the performance of HC model.

  20. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  1. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...... matrix of a finite metric space is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points....

  2. Does Negative Type Characterize the Round Sphere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the measure theoretic metric invariants extent, mean distance and symmetry ratio and their relation to the concept of negative type of a metric space. A conjecture stating that a compact Riemannian manifold with symmetry ratio 1 must be a round sphere, was put forward in a previous paper....... We resolve this conjecture in the class of Riemannian symmetric spaces by showing, that a Riemannian manifold with symmetry ratio 1 must be of negative type and that the only compact Riemannian symmetric spaces of negative type are the round spheres....

  3. The chameleonic nature of French ni : negative coordination in a negative concord language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doetjes, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to defend the claim that ni, the French counterpart of neither and nor is always a negative conjunction which takes part in the negative concord system of French. The interpretation one seems to get for this negative concord ni varies depending on the environment where

  4. Perceived Social Competence, Negative Social Interactions, and Negative Cognitive Style Predict Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined whether negative interactions with parents and peers would mediate the longitudinal association between perceived social competence and depressive symptoms and whether a negative cognitive style would moderate the longitudinal association between negative interactions with parents and increases in depressive symptoms.…

  5. Production of negatively charged radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D. W.; Stora, T.

    2017-08-01

    Beams of short-lived radioactive nuclei are needed for frontier experimental research in nuclear structure, reactions, and astrophysics. Negatively charged radioactive ion beams have unique advantages and allow for the use of a tandem accelerator for post-acceleration, which can provide the highest beam quality and continuously variable energies. Negative ion beams can be obtained with high intensity and some unique beam purification techniques based on differences in electronegativity and chemical reactivity can be used to provide beams with high purity. This article describes the production of negative radioactive ion beams at the former holifield radioactive ion beam facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the CERN ISOLDE facility with emphasis on the development of the negative ion sources employed at these two facilities. ).

  6. 40 CFR 52.222 - Negative declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... County Air Pollution Control District. (i) Industrial Wastewater, Plastic Parts Coating: Business... Pollution Control District. (i) Aerospace Coatings; Industrial Waste Water Treatment; Plastic Parts Coating... following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound...

  7. Negative power spectra in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Wu, Chun-Hsien; Ford, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the spatial power spectra associated with fluctuations of quadratic operators in field theory, such as quantum stress tensor components. We show that the power spectrum can be negative, in contrast to most fluctuation phenomena where the Wiener-Khinchin theorem requires a positive power spectrum. We show why the usual argument for positivity fails in this case, and discuss the physical interpretation of negative power spectra. Possible applications to cosmology are discussed. -- Highlights: → Wiener-Khinchin theorem usually implies a positive power spectrum of fluctuations. → We show this is not always the case in quantum field theory. → Quantum stress tensor fluctuations can have a negative power spectrum. → Negative power interchanges correlations and anticorrelations.

  8. Doped Chiral Polymer Negative Index Materials (DCPNIM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer-Negative Index Materials (DCP-NIM) with tunable resonance frequencies are developed by adding various plasmonic nanoinclusions into chiral...

  9. Negative ion formation processes: A general review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    The principal negative ion formation processes will be briefly reviewed. Primary emphasis will be placed on the more efficient and universal processes of charge transfer and secondary ion formation through non-thermodynamic surface ionization. 86 refs., 20 figs.

  10. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid

    2017-04-01

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies.

  11. Negative ion formation and neutralization processes, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    This review has been made preliminary for the purpose of contribute to the plasma heating by ''negative ion based neutral beam injection'' in the magnetic confinement fusion reactor. A compilation includes the survey of the general processes of negative ion formation, the data of the cross section of H - ion formation and the neutralization of H - ion, and some of new processes of H - ion formation. The data of cross section are mainly experimental, but partly include the results of theoretical calculation. (author)

  12. Negative thermal expansion in framework compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... We have studied negative thermal expansion (NTE) compounds with chemi- cal compositions of NX2O8 and NX2O7 (N=Zr, Hf and X=W, Mo, V) and M2O (M=Cu, Ag) using the techniques of inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics. There is a large variation in the negative thermal expansion ...

  13. Negative pressure pulmonary oedema after septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Hombre, Alina M; Cuffini, Alejandro; Bonadeo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary oedema (NPPO) is an anaesthetic complication due to acute obstruction of the upper airway, whose main cause is laryngospasm. The pathophysiology involves a strong negative intrapleural pressure during inspiration against a closed glottis, which triggers excessive pressure in the pulmonary microvasculature. Although its diagnosis can be difficult, its recognition helps to minimise morbidity and mortality. This article presents a case of NPPO due to postextubation laryngospasm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Negative capacitance in multidomain ferroelectric superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Pavlo; Wojdeł, Jacek C; Hadjimichael, Marios; Fernandez-Pena, Stéphanie; Sené, Anaïs; Luk'yanchuk, Igor; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Íñiguez, Jorge

    2016-06-23

    The stability of spontaneous electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is fundamental to many of their current applications, which range from the simple electric cigarette lighter to non-volatile random access memories. Research on nanoscale ferroelectrics reveals that their behaviour is profoundly different from that in bulk ferroelectrics, which could lead to new phenomena with potential for future devices. As ferroelectrics become thinner, maintaining a stable polarization becomes increasingly challenging. On the other hand, intentionally destabilizing this polarization can cause the effective electric permittivity of a ferroelectric to become negative, enabling it to behave as a negative capacitance when integrated in a heterostructure. Negative capacitance has been proposed as a way of overcoming fundamental limitations on the power consumption of field-effect transistors. However, experimental demonstrations of this phenomenon remain contentious. The prevalent interpretations based on homogeneous polarization models are difficult to reconcile with the expected strong tendency for domain formation, but the effect of domains on negative capacitance has received little attention. Here we report negative capacitance in a model system of multidomain ferroelectric-dielectric superlattices across a wide range of temperatures, in both the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Using a phenomenological model, we show that domain-wall motion not only gives rise to negative permittivity, but can also enhance, rather than limit, its temperature range. Our first-principles-based atomistic simulations provide detailed microscopic insight into the origin of this phenomenon, identifying the dominant contribution of near-interface layers and paving the way for its future exploitation.

  15. The Peculiar Negative Greenhouse Effect Over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejas, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Cai, M.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gases warm the climate system by reducing the energy loss to space through the greenhouse effect. Thus, a common way to measure the strength of the greenhouse effect is by taking the difference between the surface longwave (LW) emission and the outgoing LW radiation. Based on this definition, a paradoxical negative greenhouse effect is found over the Antarctic Plateau, which suprisingly indicates that greenhouse gases enhance energy loss to space. Using 13 years of NASA satellite observations, we verify the existence of the negative greenhouse effect and find that the magnitude and sign of the greenhouse effect varies seasonally and spectrally. A previous explanation attributes the negative greenhouse effect solely to stratospheric CO2 and warmer than surface stratospheric temperatures. However, we surprisingly find that the negative greenhouse effect is predominantly caused by tropospheric water vapor. A novel principle-based explanation provides the first complete account of the Antarctic Plateau's negative greenhouse effect indicating that it is controlled by the vertical variation of temperature and greenhouse gas absorption strength. Our findings indicate that the strong surface-based temperature inversion and scarcity of free tropospheric water vapor over the Antarctic Plateau cause the negative greenhouse effect. These are climatological features uniquely found in the Antarctic Plateau region, explaining why the greenhouse effect is positive everywhere else.

  16. Sensitivity of negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects to age and associative memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; Donley, Brian E; Rugg, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    The present fMRI experiment employed associative recognition to investigate the relationships between age and encoding-related negative subsequent memory effects and task-negative effects. Young, middle-aged and older adults (total n=136) were scanned while they made relational judgments on visually presented word pairs. In a later memory test, the participants made associative recognition judgments on studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new pairs. Several regions, mostly localized to the default mode network, demonstrated negative subsequent memory effects in an across age-group analysis. All but one of these regions also demonstrated task-negative effects, although there was no correlation between the size of the respective effects. Whereas negative subsequent memory effects demonstrated a graded attenuation with age, task-negative effects declined markedly between the young and the middle-aged group, but showed no further reduction in the older group. Negative subsequent memory effects did not correlate with memory performance within any age group. By contrast, in the older group only, task-negative effects predicted later memory performance. The findings demonstrate that negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects depend on dissociable neural mechanisms and likely reflect distinct cognitive processes. The relationship between task-negative effects and memory performance in the older group might reflect the sensitivity of these effects to variations in amount of age-related neuropathology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Coagulase negative staphylococci - a fast emerging threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Mahwish; Usman, Javaid; Gilani, Mehreen; Munir, Tehmina; Mushtaq, Maria; Anjum, Rabia

    2015-03-01

    To determine the frequency of isolation of coagulase-negative staphylococci and their resistance to methicillin over a period of time. The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from June 2009 to May 2012, and comprised clinical samples mostly from patients admitted to the intensive care unit. They were inoculated onto appropriate culture media depending upon the specimen. After 24-hour incubation at 35°C, coagulase-negative staphylococci were identified on the basis of colony morphology, gram staining, a positive catalase and a negative tube coagulase test.Methicillin resistance among the isolated staphylococci was determined using a 30µg Cefoxitin disc as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocol. Number of coagulase-negative staphylococci for each year and their methicillin resistance rates were calculated. A comparison was made with methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus) isolated during the same period. Of the total 1331 specimens studies over three years, 581(43.65%) were coagulase-negative staphylococci. The rate of coagulase-negative staphylococci and methicillin resistance was higher each year; 110(26.6%) in May 2009-Jun 2010, 134(36.5%) in 2011, and 337(61%) in 2012. Methicillin resistance rates also increased from 25(22.7%) to 46(34.3%) and then to 201(59.6%) in 2012.Maximum isolated specimens came from blood 311(53.5%), followed by pus/swabs 204(35.1%). The frequency of isolation of coagulase-negative staphylococci and its methicillin resistance among hospitalised patients is on the rise.

  18. Impact factor distribution revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2017-09-01

    We explore the consistency of a new type of frequency distribution, where the corresponding rank distribution is Lavalette distribution. Empirical data of journal impact factors can be well described. This distribution is distinct from Poisson distribution and negative binomial distribution, which were suggested by previous study. By a log transformation, we obtain a bell-shaped distribution, which is then compared to Gaussian and catenary curves. Possible mechanisms behind the shape of impact factor distribution are suggested.

  19. Exclusion of identification by negative superposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takač Šandor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the first report of negative superposition in our country. Photo of randomly selected young, living woman was superimposed on the previously discovered female skull. Computer program Adobe Photoshop 7.0 was used in work. Digitilized photographs of the skull and face, after uploaded to computer, were superimposed on each other and displayed on the monitor in order to assess their possible similarities or differences. Special attention was payed to matching the same anthropometrical points of the skull and face, as well as following their contours. The process of fitting the skull and the photograph is usually started by setting eyes in correct position relative to the orbits. In this case, lower jaw gonions go beyond the face contour and gnathion is highly placed. By positioning the chin, mouth and nose their correct anatomical position cannot be achieved. All the difficulties associated with the superposition were recorded, with special emphasis on critical evaluation of work results in a negative superposition. Negative superposition has greater probative value (exclusion of identification than positive (possible identification. 100% negative superposition is easily achieved, but 100% positive - almost never. 'Each skull is unique and viewed from different perspectives is always a new challenge'. From this point of view, identification can be negative or of high probability.

  20. Positive rights, negative rights and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.

  1. Structural stability of interaction networks against negative external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2018-04-01

    We explore structural stability of weighted and unweighted networks of positively interacting agents against a negative external field. We study how the agents support the activity of each other to confront the negative field, which suppresses the activity of agents and can lead to collapse of the whole network. The competition between the interactions and the field shape the structure of stable states of the system. In unweighted networks (uniform interactions) the stable states have the structure of k -cores of the interaction network. The interplay between the topology and the distribution of weights (heterogeneous interactions) impacts strongly the structural stability against a negative field, especially in the case of fat-tailed distributions of weights. We show that apart from critical slowing down there is also a critical change in the system structure that precedes the network collapse. The change can serve as an early warning of the critical transition. To characterize changes of network structure we develop a method based on statistical analysis of the k -core organization and so-called "corona" clusters belonging to the k -cores.

  2. Maternal Lifetime Trauma Exposure, Prenatal Cortisol, and Infant Negative Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Devick, Katrina L; Brunst, Kelly J; Lipton, Lianna R; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-01-01

    Little research has examined the impact of maternal lifetime trauma exposure on infant temperament. We examined associations between maternal trauma history and infant negative affectivity and modification by prenatal cortisol exposure in a sociodemographically diverse sample of mother-infant dyads. During pregnancy, mothers completed measures of lifetime trauma exposure and current stressors. Third-trimester cortisol output was assessed from maternal hair. When infants were 6 months old, mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. In analyses that controlled for infant sex and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and stress during pregnancy, greater maternal trauma exposure was associated with increased infant distress to limitations and sadness. Higher and lower prenatal cortisol exposure modified the magnitude and direction of association between maternal trauma history and infant rate of recovery from arousal. The association between maternal trauma history and infant distress to limitations was somewhat stronger among infants exposed to higher levels of prenatal cortisol. The analyses suggested that maternal lifetime trauma exposure is associated with several domains of infant negative affectivity independently of maternal stress exposures during pregnancy and that some of these associations may be modified by prenatal cortisol exposure. The findings have implications for understanding the intergenerational impact of trauma exposure on child developmental outcomes.

  3. Negative capacitance in a ferroelectric capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif Islam; Chatterjee, Korok; Wang, Brian; Drapcho, Steven; You, Long; Serrao, Claudy; Bakaul, Saidur Rahman; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-02-01

    The Boltzmann distribution of electrons poses a fundamental barrier to lowering energy dissipation in conventional electronics, often termed as Boltzmann Tyranny. Negative capacitance in ferroelectric materials, which stems from the stored energy of a phase transition, could provide a solution, but a direct measurement of negative capacitance has so far been elusive. Here, we report the observation of negative capacitance in a thin, epitaxial ferroelectric film. When a voltage pulse is applied, the voltage across the ferroelectric capacitor is found to be decreasing with time--in exactly the opposite direction to which voltage for a regular capacitor should change. Analysis of this 'inductance'-like behaviour from a capacitor presents an unprecedented insight into the intrinsic energy profile of the ferroelectric material and could pave the way for completely new applications.

  4. Animal Reasoning: Negation and Representations of Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Ladrón de Guevara, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I reject the possibility that animal reasoning, negation in particular, necessarily involves the representation of Absence, as suggested by José Luis Bermúdez, since this would still work as a logical negation (unavailable for non-linguistic creatures. False belief, pretense, and communication experiments show that non-human animals (at least some primates have difficulties representing absent entities or properties. I offer an alternative account resorting to the sub-symbolic similarity judgments proposed by Vigo & Allen and I introduce the notion of expectation: animal proto-negation takes place through the incompatibility between an expected and the actual representation. Finally, I propose that the paradigm of expectations can be extrapolated to other experiments in cognitive psychology (both with pre-linguistic children and animals in order to design “fair” experiments which test other minds considering their true abilities.

  5. Goffman, Parsons, and the Negational Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Chriss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erving Goffman’s emphasis on impression management in everyday life means that for the most part persons offer only partial or incomplete glimpses of themselves. Indeed, under specifiable conditions self-presentations may take the form of a negational self. If negational selves exist at the person or individual level, then they must also exist at the collective level (that is, if we are to take seriously such notions as the social mind, collective representations, or even culture. Understandings of how this negational self appears and is produced at various analytical levels (micro, meso, and macro can be anchored via a conceptual schema which merges Goffman’s own identity typology with the three-world model of Jürgen Habermas by way of Talcott Parsons.

  6. Classical fluids of negative heat capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsberg, P.T. [Southampton Univ., (United Kingdom). Faculty of Mathematical Studies; Woodard, R.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-06-01

    It is shown that new parameters X can be defined such that the heat capacity C{sub X} {equivalent_to} T({partial_derivative}S/{partial_derivative}T)X is negative, even when the canonical ensemble (i.e. at fixed T = ({partial_derivative}U/{partial_derivative}S) and Y {ne} X) is stable. As examples we treat black body radiation and general gas systems with nonsingular {kappa}{sub T}. For the case of a simple ideal gas we even exhibit an apparatus which enforces a constraint X(p,V) = const. that makes C{sub X} < 0. Since it is possible to invent constraints for which canonically stable systems have negative heat capacity we speculate that it may also be possible to infer the statistical mechanics of canonically unstable systems - for which even the traditional heat capacities are negative - by imposing constraints that stabilize the associated, inoncanonical ensembles.

  7. Classical fluids of negative heat capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsberg, P.T. (Southampton Univ., (United Kingdom). Faculty of Mathematical Studies); Woodard, R.P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-06-01

    It is shown that new parameters X can be defined such that the heat capacity C{sub X} {equivalent to} T({partial derivative}S/{partial derivative}T)X is negative, even when the canonical ensemble (i.e. at fixed T = ({partial derivative}U/{partial derivative}S) and Y {ne} X) is stable. As examples we treat black body radiation and general gas systems with nonsingular {kappa}{sub T}. For the case of a simple ideal gas we even exhibit an apparatus which enforces a constraint X(p,V) = const. that makes C{sub X} < 0. Since it is possible to invent constraints for which canonically stable systems have negative heat capacity we speculate that it may also be possible to infer the statistical mechanics of canonically unstable systems - for which even the traditional heat capacities are negative - by imposing constraints that stabilize the associated, inoncanonical ensembles.

  8. Emotionally negative pictures enhance gist memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2017-02-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are caused by valence and which are caused by arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling revealed that negative valence (a) reduced erroneous suppression of true memories and (b) increased the familiarity of the semantic content of both true and false memories. Overall, negative valence impaired the verbatim side of episodic memory but enhanced the gist side, and these effects persisted even after a week-long delay. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...... by describing essential characteristics of negatives, which must be passed on to the copies, and the required metadata and technical imaging specifications. Next the paper discusses strategies for preservation and makes an analysis with the LIFE2 Costing Model. The paper concludes that the most beneficial...... and cost-effective preservation solution for large format negatives is to keep the preservation copies as digital files. However, it also acknowledges that it is important to revisit such strategies regularly to monitor changes in user expectations, technologies and costs....

  10. Conspecific negative density dependence and forest diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel J; Beaulieu, Wesley T; Bever, James D; Clay, Keith

    2012-05-18

    Conspecific negative density-dependent establishment, in which local abundance negatively affects establishment of conspecific seedlings through host-specific enemies, can influence species diversity of plant communities, but the generality of this process is not well understood. We tested the strength of density dependence using the United States Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis database containing 151 species from more than 200,000 forest plots spanning 4,000,000 square kilometers. We found that most species experienced conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD), but there was little effect of heterospecific density. Additionally, abundant species exhibited weaker CNDD than rarer species, and species-rich regions exhibited stronger CNDD than species-poor regions. Collectively, our results provide evidence that CNDD is a pervasive mechanism driving diversity across a gradient from boreal to subtropical forests.

  11. Backscattering and negative polarization of agglomerate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Hart, Matthew; Eversole, Jay; Videen, Gorden

    2003-09-01

    We used the discrete dipole approximation to study the backscattering of agglomerate particles consisting of oblong monomers. We varied the aspect ratio of the monomers from approximately 1 (sphere) to 4, while we kept the total particle volume equivalent to that of an x = 10 sphere for m = 1.59 + i0 and 1.50 + i0 and considered two values of agglomerate packing density: rho = 0.25 and rho = 0.1. We found that these particles do not display a prominent brightness opposition effect but do produce significant negative polarization over a range of near-backscattering angles. Increasing the monomers' aspect ratio can make the negative polarization much more prominent. We have noted also that decreasing m and p can reduce the amplitude of the negative polarization for these particles.

  12. News Media Framing of Negative Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2014-01-01

    News media coverage of election campaigns is often characterized by use of the strategic game frame and a focus on politicians’ use of negative campaigning. However, the exact relationship between these two characteristics of news coverage is largely unexplored. This article theorizes that consumer...... demand and norms of journalistic independence might induce the news media outlets to cover negative campaigning with a strategic game frame. A comprehensive content analysis based on several newspaper types, several election campaigns, and several different measurements of media framing confirms...... that news coverage of negative campaigning does apply the strategic game frame to a significantly larger degree than articles covering positive campaigning. This finding has significant implications for campaigning politicians and for scholars studying campaign and media effects....

  13. Positive and negative symptom behaviors and caregiver burden in the relatives of persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, H L; Mueser, K T

    1997-07-25

    The relationships of perceived severity and responsibility attribution for positive and negative symptom behaviors to caregiver burden were investigated. Two types of burden were studied: objective burden (i.e., negative consequences such as physical problems, financial difficulties, and household tension), and subjective burden (i.e., emotional distress about disturbing behaviors). Self-report measures were completed by 70 primary caregivers of persons with schizophrenia. Subjective burden was related to both the severity of positive and negative symptom behaviors, whereas objective burden was related only to the severity of negative symptom behaviors. Responsibility attribution for negative symptom behaviors was related only to objective burden. Caregivers who perceived patients as being less responsible for their negative symptom behaviors reported higher levels of objective burden. The relationship between responsibility attribution for negative symptom behaviors and objective burden remained significant, even after controlling for the severity of negative symptom behaviors. Caregivers' perceptions of patients' responsibility for positive symptom behaviors were not related to objective burden. As expected, perceived severity of negative symptom behaviors was related to objective caregiver burden, whereas severity of positive symptom behaviors was not. These findings suggest that negative symptoms may have a greater impact on role functioning that positive symptoms, leading to greater burden. However, contrary to expectations, less responsibility attribution for negative symptom behaviors was related to higher levels of objective caregiver burden. Caregivers who perceive patients as incapable of altering their negative symptom behaviors and meeting certain role obligations may assume extra responsibilities, leading to higher levels of objective burden. The results indicate that there may be disadvantages for caregivers associated with assuming that patients have

  14. Giant negative thermal expansion in magnetic nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X G; Kubozono, H; Yamada, H; Kato, K; Ishiwata, Y; Xu, C N

    2008-12-01

    Most solids expand when they are heated, but a property known as negative thermal expansion has been observed in a number of materials, including the oxide ZrW2O8 (ref. 1) and the framework material ZnxCd1-x(CN)2 (refs 2,3). This unusual behaviour can be understood in terms of low-energy phonons, while the colossal values of both positive and negative thermal expansion recently observed in another framework material, Ag3[Co(CN)6], have been explained in terms of the geometric flexibility of its metal-cyanide-metal linkages. Thermal expansion can also be stopped in some magnetic transition metal alloys below their magnetic ordering temperature, a phenomenon known as the Invar effect, and the possibility of exploiting materials with tuneable positive or negative thermal expansion in industrial applications has led to intense interest in both the Invar effect and negative thermal expansion. Here we report the results of thermal expansion experiments on three magnetic nanocrystals-CuO, MnF2 and NiO-and find evidence for negative thermal expansion in both CuO and MnF2 below their magnetic ordering temperatures, but not in NiO. Larger particles of CuO and MnF2 also show prominent magnetostriction (that is, they change shape in response to an applied magnetic field), which results in significantly reduced thermal expansion below their magnetic ordering temperatures; this behaviour is not observed in NiO. We propose that the negative thermal expansion effect in CuO (which is four times larger than that observed in ZrW2O8) and MnF2 is a general property of nanoparticles in which there is strong coupling between magnetism and the crystal lattice.

  15. Xenoestrogens diethylstilbestrol and zearalenone negatively influence pubertal rat's testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Eliza; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Oszukowska, Elzbieta; Guminska, Anna; Marchlewska, Katarzyna; Kula, Krzysztof; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of xenoestrogens: diethylstilbestrol (DES) and zearalenone (ZEA) on rat's pubertal testis and to compare it with the effect of natural estrogen - 17beta-estradiol (E). Male Wistar rats were daily, subcutaneously injected at 5th-15th postnatal days (p.d.) with E (1.25 or 12.5 mug) or DES (1.25 or 12.5 mug) or ZEA (4 or 40 mug) or vehicle. At 16th p.d. testes were dissected, weighted, and paraffin embedded. Following parameters were assessed: diameter and length of seminiferous tubule, numbers of spermatogonia A+intermediate+B (A/In/B), preleptotene spermatocytes (PL), leptotene+zygotene+pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA) and Sertoli cells per testis. Testes weight, seminiferous tubule diameter and length were decreased by both doses of E, DES and ZEA. DES effect was the strongest, but its influence on testis weight and seminiferous tubule length, on the contrary to E and ZEA, was not dose-dependent. Similarly, DES in both doses had the most severe negative impact on the number of germ and Sertoli cells. The negative influence of E on germ cells was less pronounced. The negative effect of ZEA was seen only after administration of the higher dose on spermatogonia number, while DES and E decreased A/In/B number more evidently. Sertoli cell number were decreased after both doses of E. ZEA40 decreased Sertoli cell number while ZEA4 had no effect. exposure of prepubertal male rat to DES has the strongest detrimental effect on the developing testis in comparison to E and ZEA. Both, E and DES, decreased number of germ and Sertoli cells, diminished seminiferous tubule diameter, length and testis weight. ZEA had much more weaker effect than the potent estrogens.

  16. Xenoestrogens diethylstilbestrol and zearalenone negatively influence pubertal rat's testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Marchlewska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of xenoestrogens: diethylstilbestrol (DES and zearalenone (ZEA on rat's pubertal testis and to compare it with the effect of natural estrogen - 17beta-estradiol (E. Male Wistar rats were daily, subcutaneously injected at 5th-15th postnatal days (p.d. with E (1.25 or 12.5 mug or DES (1.25 or 12.5 mug or ZEA (4 or 40 mug or vehicle. At 16th p.d. testes were dissected, weighted, and paraffin embedded. Following parameters were assessed: diameter and length of seminiferous tubule, numbers of spermatogonia A+intermediate+B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene+zygotene+pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis. Testes weight, seminiferous tubule diameter and length were decreased by both doses of E, DES and ZEA. DES effect was the strongest, but its influence on testis weight and seminiferous tubule length, on the contrary to E and ZEA, was not dose-dependent. Similarly, DES in both doses had the most severe negative impact on the number of germ and Sertoli cells. The negative influence of E on germ cells was less pronounced. The negative effect of ZEA was seen only after administration of the higher dose on spermatogonia number, while DES and E decreased A/In/B number more evidently. Sertoli cell number were decreased after both doses of E. ZEA40 decreased Sertoli cell number while ZEA4 had no effect. Conclusion: exposure of prepubertal male rat to DES has the strongest detrimental effect on the developing testis in comparison to E and ZEA. Both, E and DES, decreased number of germ and Sertoli cells, diminished seminiferous tubule diameter, length and testis weight. ZEA had much more weaker effect than the potent estrogens.

  17. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  18. Generalized Cherry oscillators and negative energy waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.

    1990-02-01

    In 1925 Cherry discussed two oscillators of positive and negative energy that are nonlinearly coupled in a special way, and presented exact solutions of the nonlinear equations showing explosive instabilities independent of the strength of the nonlinearity and the initial amplitudes. In this paper Cherry's Hamiltonian is transformed into a form which allows a simple physical interpretation. The new Hamiltonian is generalized to three nonlinearly coupled oscillators; it corresponds to three-wave interaction in a continuum theory, like the Vlasov-Maxwell theory, if there exist linear negative energy waves. (orig.)

  19. Are All Negative Consequences Truly Negative? Assessing Variations Among College Students’ Perceptions of Alcohol Related Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Bachrach, Rachel L.; Turrisi, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Brief feedback sessions have been shown to reduce alcohol consumption in college student samples. However, these feedback sessions show mixed results in reducing negative consequences of alcohol consumption. Because the discussion of alcohol consequences is a component of feedback sessions, it was seen as important to evaluate the degree to which college students perceive these consequences as negative. The present study assessed college students’ perceptions of positivity-negativity of alcoh...

  20. The Impact of Exclusionary Discipline on Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Goodram, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The impact of exclusionary discipline on students is clear and negative as we report herein. The impacts of exclusionary discipline have been negatively linked to the academic and social development of disciplined students. We argue that this discipline form has been disproportionately used among certain groups, particularly those students of…

  1. Negative factors of beliefs toward advertising on Facebook and their effect on attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Hilda Bongazana Dondolo

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has studied the effects of materialism, value corruption and falsity, which were identified by Pollay and Mittal (1993) as negatively impacting the beliefs about advertising. Few, if any, assessed negative beliefs about Facebook advertising. This paper assesses such beliefs and how these beliefs influence attitudes toward advertising on Facebook. To meet the objectives of the study, 269 undergraduate students completed the questionnaire. Regression analysis was used to exami...

  2. Ecological momentary assessment of stressful events and negative affect in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Lavender, Jason M; Peterson, Carol B; Crow, Scott J; Cao, Li; Mitchell, James E

    2014-02-01

    Negative affect precedes binge eating and purging in bulimia nervosa (BN), but little is known about factors that precipitate negative affect in relation to these behaviors. We aimed to assess the temporal relation among stressful events, negative affect, and bulimic events in the natural environment using ecological momentary assessment. A total of 133 women with current BN recorded their mood, eating behavior, and the occurrence of stressful events every day for 2 weeks. Multilevel structural equation mediation models evaluated the relations among Time 1 stress measures (i.e., interpersonal stressors, work/environment stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal), Time 2 negative affect, and Time 2 binge eating and purging, controlling for Time 1 negative affect. Increases in negative affect from Time 1 to Time 2 significantly mediated the relations between Time 1 interpersonal stressors, work/environment stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal and Time 2 binge eating and purging. When modeled simultaneously, confidence intervals for interpersonal stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal did not overlap, suggesting that each had a distinct impact on negative affect in relation to binge eating and purging. Our findings indicate that stress precedes the occurrence of bulimic behaviors and that increases in negative affect following stressful events mediate this relation. Results suggest that stress and subsequent negative affect may function as maintenance factors for bulimic behaviors and should be targeted in treatment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Negative Refractive Index in Artificial Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorenko, A. N.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss optical constants in artificial metamaterials showing negative magnetic permeability and electric permittivity. Using effective field theory, we calculate effective permeability of nanofabricated media composed of pairs of identical gold nano-pillars with magnetic response in the visible spectrum.

  4. Entanglement versus negative domains of Wigner functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Mack, H.; Wolf, A.

    2006-01-01

    We show that s waves, that is wave functions that only depend on a hyperradius, are entangled if and only if the corresponding Wigner functions exhibit negative domains. We illustrate this feature using a special class of s waves which allows us to perform the calculations analytically. This clas...

  5. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    We prove that, if a finite metric space is of strictly negative type, then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by the infinite extender (load vector). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all spaces on two, three, or four points, all trees, and all finite subspaces of Eu...

  6. Negative autobiographical memories in social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    OToole, Mia Skytte; Watson, Lynn Ann; Rosenberg, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Empirical interest in mental imagery in social anxiety disorder (SAD) has grown over the past years but still little is known about the specificity to SAD. The present study therefore examines negative autobiographical memories in participants with social anxiety disorder...

  7. Discriminant projective non-negative matrix factorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiyang Guan

    Full Text Available Projective non-negative matrix factorization (PNMF projects high-dimensional non-negative examples X onto a lower-dimensional subspace spanned by a non-negative basis W and considers W(T X as their coefficients, i.e., X≈WW(T X. Since PNMF learns the natural parts-based representation Wof X, it has been widely used in many fields such as pattern recognition and computer vision. However, PNMF does not perform well in classification tasks because it completely ignores the label information of the dataset. This paper proposes a Discriminant PNMF method (DPNMF to overcome this deficiency. In particular, DPNMF exploits Fisher's criterion to PNMF for utilizing the label information. Similar to PNMF, DPNMF learns a single non-negative basis matrix and needs less computational burden than NMF. In contrast to PNMF, DPNMF maximizes the distance between centers of any two classes of examples meanwhile minimizes the distance between any two examples of the same class in the lower-dimensional subspace and thus has more discriminant power. We develop a multiplicative update rule to solve DPNMF and prove its convergence. Experimental results on four popular face image datasets confirm its effectiveness comparing with the representative NMF and PNMF algorithms.

  8. Estimating the Probability of Negative Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Adam J. L.; Corner, Adam; Hahn, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    How well we are attuned to the statistics of our environment is a fundamental question in understanding human behaviour. It seems particularly important to be able to provide accurate assessments of the probability with which negative events occur so as to guide rational choice of preventative actions. One question that arises here is whether or…

  9. Active Intracystic Negative Pressure Could Induce Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2018-02-23

    Based on previous findings, the author introduces the term "sugosteogenesis," a biological phenomenon that occurs by using the Evocyst, a device that exerts active intracystic negative pressure. The term "sugosteogenesis" comes from the Latin word "sugo-," meaning "suck," and Greek words "osteo-," meaning "bone," and genesis, "origin."

  10. Exploring the Psychological Influence of Perceived Negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically examined the psychological influence of perceived negative foreign factors which were those obstacles brought to Nigeria and Nigerians since our first contact with the European colonialists. The obstacles have constituted formidable barriers to indigenous organisational performance and national ...

  11. The Contrast Theory of negative input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, M

    1997-02-01

    Beliefs about whether or not children receive corrective input for grammatical errors depend crucially on how one defines the concept of correction. Arguably, previous conceptualizations do not provide a viable basis for empirical research (Gold, 1967; Brown & Hanlon, 1970; Hirsh-Pasek, Treiman & Schneiderman, 1984). Within the Contrast Theory of negative input, an alternative definition of negative evidence is offered, based on the idea that the unique discourse structure created in the juxtaposition of child error and adult correct form can reveal to the child the contrast, or conflict, between the two forms, and hence provide a basis for rejecting the erroneous form. A within-subjects experimental design was implemented for 36 children (mean age 5;0), in order to compare the immediate effects of negative evidence with those of positive input, on the acquisition of six novel irregular past tense forms. Children reproduced the correct irregular model more often, and persisted with fewer errors, following negative evidence rather than positive input.

  12. Negative Life Events Scale for Students (NLESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Cromett, Cristina E.; Post, Maria C.; Landis, Anna Marie; Alliegro, Marissa C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale is presented for the derivation of a new measure of stressful life events for use with students [Negative Life Events Scale for Students (NLESS)]. Ten stressful life events questionnaires were reviewed, and the more than 600 items mentioned in these scales were culled based on the following criteria: (a) only long-term and unpleasant…

  13. Abortion Rights: Anatomy of a Negative Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes a highly successful negative public relations campaign carried on by major pro-choice organizations from October 1985 through March 1987. Explores the effectiveness of this campaign (much of it carried on in the media), and questions the ethics of such a campaign. (NKA)

  14. Revisiting the gram-negative lipoprotein paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The processing of lipoproteins (lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered to be an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein n-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted...

  15. On affine non-negative matrix factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Hans; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    We generalize the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) generative model to incorporate an explicit offset. Multiplicative estimation algorithms are provided for the resulting sparse affine NMF model. We show that the affine model has improved uniqueness properties and leads to more accurate...

  16. Negative freedom and the liberal paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    In their game-theoretic formulations, the liberal paradoxes of Amartya Sm and Alan Gibbard show a tension between freedom on the one hand, and Pareto optimality and stability on the other. This article examines what happens to the liberal paradoxes if a negative conception of freedom is used. Given

  17. Performance characteristics of positive and negative delayed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The chaotic dynamics of directly modulated semiconductor lasers with de- layed optoelectronic feedback is studied numerically. The effects of positive and negative delayed optoelectronic feedback in producing chaotic outputs from such lasers with nonlin- ear gain reduction in its optimum value range is ...

  18. Performance characteristics of positive and negative delayed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chaotic dynamics of directly modulated semiconductor lasers with delayed optoelectronic feedback is studied numerically. The effects of positive and negative delayed optoelectronic feedback in producing chaotic outputs from such lasers with nonlinear gain reduction in its optimum value range is investigated using ...

  19. Negative thermal expansion in framework compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electron microscopy, EXAFS and differential scanning calorimetry have been used to study structural properties as a function of temperature for these compounds. In this paper we report the results obtained from our study [14–20] of negative thermal expansion (NTE) compounds with chemical compositions of NX2O8 and.

  20. Quantum Heat Engine and Negative Boltzmann Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jing-Yi; Quan, Hai-Tao

    2017-09-01

    To clarify the ambiguity on negative Boltzmann temperature in literature, we study the Carnot and the Otto cycle with one of the heat reservoirs at the negative Boltzmann temperature based on a canonical ensemble description. The work extraction, entropy production and the efficiency of these cycles are explored. Conditions for constructing and properties of these thermodynamic cycles are elucidated. We find that the apparent “violation” of the second law of thermodynamics in these cycles are due to the fact that the traditional definition of thermodynamic efficiency is inappropriate in this situation. When properly understanding the efficiency and the adiabatic processes, in which the system crosses over “absolute ZERO” in a limit sense, the Carnot cycle with one of the heat reservoirs at a negative Boltzmann temperature can be understood straightforwardly, and it contradicts neither the second nor the third law of thermodynamics. Hence, negative Boltzmann temperature is a consistent concept in thermodynamics. We use a two-level system and an Ising spin system to illustrate our central results. Support from the National Science Foundation of China under Grants Nos. 11375012, 11534002, and The Recruitment Program of Global Youth Experts of China