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Sample records for blufensin1 negatively impacts

  1. The positive impact of negative role models

    OpenAIRE

    Al Khalidi, Marwa; Barton, John,; Gentile, Niko; Gosztonyi, Susanne; Ronchi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The attitude of teachers towards students can vary substantially in relation to different factors, such as educational background, pedagogical training, teaching methods, etc. In this paper, we explore the impact of negative role-models on future teaching. In particular, past experiences of teachers as students as well as the contextual influence of other teachers on their future teaching has been explored. The scope of this paper is to assess the possible impact that negative role-models may...

  2. Negative emotions impact on mental physical health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oblitas, Luis Armando

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fear, sadness, anger and disgust are considered affective states, that when they become frequent and intense, adversely affect the quality of life. Consequently, negative emotions are regarded as one of the key risk factors in physical and mental illness. Firstly, this article aims to define precisely concepts and key features of each emotion. The second objective of this paper is to show a synthesis of scientific findings supporting the influence of emotional factors, especially classic negative emotions in the process of health and disease. These psychophysiological phenomena have been associated with mental and physical illness as influencing variables in its initiation, development and maintenance. Therefore, the paper reviews some of the links between these four negative emotions and mental disorders. It also reviews the evidence supporting the influence of negative emotions in the development of risk behaviors to physical health. Finally, we describe some data supporting the impact of psychophysiological activation of emotions in organic systems, such as, for instance, immunity, tumor processes and so on

  3. Exploring Impact: Negative Effects of Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Egbert, Henrik; Sedlarski, Teodor

    2011-01-01

    he sociological literature on social networks emphasizes by and large positive network effects. Negative effects of such networks are discussed rather rarely. This paper tackles negative effects by applying economic theory, particularly neoclassical theory, new institutional theory and the results from experimental economics to the concept of social networks. In the paper it is assumed that social networks are exclusive and since exclusiveness affects the allocation of resources, negative ext...

  4. Positive and Negative Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Vezmar, Stanislav; Spajić, Anton; Topić, Danijel; Šljivac, Damir; JOZSA, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, positive and negative impacts of renewable energy sources are presented. Impacts of solar power, biomass power, fuel cells, hydro power, wind power and geothermal power are described. Ecological, social and political impacts of different renewable energy sources are described. Impacts of power plants using different renewable energy sources on the power grid are also described.

  5. Negative Impacts of High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarechová, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    High-stakes testing is not a new phenomenon in education. It has become part of the education system in many countries. These tests affect the school systems, teachers, students, politicians and parents, whether that is in a positive or negative sense. High-stakes testing is associated with concepts such as a school's accountability, funding…

  6. Negative emotions impact on mental physical health

    OpenAIRE

    Oblitas, Luis Armando; Piqueras, José Antonio; Martínez, Agustín Ernesto; Ramos, Victoriano

    2009-01-01

    Fear, sadness, anger and disgust are considered affective states, that when they become frequent and intense, adversely affect the quality of life. Consequently, negative emotions are regarded as one of the key risk factors in physical and mental illness. Firstly, this article aims to define precisely concepts and key features of each emotion. The second objective of this paper is to show a synthesis of scientific findings supporting the influence of emotional factors, especially classic nega...

  7. Impact of Negative Sequence Current Injection by Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact from negative sequence current injection by wind power plants in power systems under steady-state and short-term unbalanced conditions, including faults. The separate positive and negative sequence current control capability of the grid-side converters...

  8. Negative Impact of HRM Complementarity on Knowledge Transfer in MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores reasons for negative complementarity among HRM practices. It isbuilt upon the premise that there are certain HRM practices influencing extrinsic andintrinsic motivation of knowledge receivers. If those HRM practices are applied in acomplementary way, their impact on knowledge......-related outcomes will result incrowding effect of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and be negative. Hypothesesderived from these arguments are tested on the data from 92 subsidiaries of Danishmultinational corporations located in 11 countries.Extrinsic/intrinsic motivation, HRM practices, knowledge transfer...

  9. Predator cannibalism can intensify negative impacts on heterospecific prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, Kunio; Kishida, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    of hatching can strengthen predatory effects on heterospecific prey and can have impacts on various, traits of both predator and prey. Because animals commonly broaden their diet as they grow, such negative impacts of predator cannibalism on the heterospecific prey may be common in interactions between predators and prey species of similar size. PMID:26378311

  10. Prognostic impact of anticardiolipin antibodies in women with recurrent miscarriage negative for the lupus anticoagulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are found with increased prevalence in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) but their impact on future pregnancy outcome in lupus anticoagulant (LAC) negative patients needs better quantification. METHODS: The impact of a repeatedly positive...

  11. Negative and positive impact of internet addiction on young adults: empericial study in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Shah Alam; Nik Mohd Hazrul Nik Hashim; Maisarah Ahmad; Che Aniza Che Wel; Sallehuddin Mohd Nor; Nor Asiah Omar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore and identify the impact of Internet addictions on young adults in Malaysia. There are six impacts identified, of which five are negative impacts and one is a positive impact. Design/methodology/approach: This study comprised a sample of 200 young adults in Malaysia. A cross-sectional research design was used to examine the impact of Internet addiction. Data were gathered based on personal administered questionnaires. Findings: Mann-Whitney U te...

  12. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Ziemba

    Full Text Available Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp. are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding. We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from "non-invaded" and "pheretimoid invaded" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance

  13. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Julie L; Hickerson, Cari-Ann M; Anthony, Carl D

    2016-01-01

    Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp.) are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding). We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from "non-invaded" and "pheretimoid invaded" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance following Asian

  14. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Batan Alith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years. Methods: From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador. The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. Results: The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012; "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p < 0.001; "Have you discontinued your asthma relief or control medication in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.008. In addition, 30.2% of the patients in the 12- to 17-year age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups, whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups. Conclusions: In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  15. The negative impact of organizational cynicism on physicians and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Rebecca L; Mohammed, Susan; Hopkins, Margaret; Shapiro, Daniel; Dellasega, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potentially severe consequences that might result, there is a paucity of research on organizational cynicism within US health care providers. In response, this study investigated the effect of cynicism on organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and interest in leaving the hospital for another job in a sample of 205 physicians and 842 nurses. Three types of cynicism were investigated: trait (dispositional), global (directed toward the hospital), and local (directed toward a specific unit or department). Findings indicate that all 3 types of cynicism were negatively related to affective organizational commitment and job satisfaction, but positively related to interest in leaving. In both nurse and physician samples, cynicism explained about half of the variance in job satisfaction and affective commitment, which is the type of commitment managers are most eager to promote. Cynicism accounted for about a quarter and a third of the variance in interest in leaving the hospital for nurses and physicians, respectively. Trait, global, and local cynicism each accounted for unique variance in affective commitment, job satisfaction, and interest in leaving, with global cynicism exerting the largest influence on each outcome. The implications for managers are that activities aimed at decreasing organizational cynicism are likely to increase affective organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and organizational tenure. PMID:25350015

  16. THE IMPACT OF SIGNIFICANT NEGATIVE NEWS ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR TOWARDS FAVORITE BRANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Brad Sago; Craig Hinnenkamp

    2014-01-01

    This research examines how negative corporate news in the form of a significant product related crisis impacts consumer behavior towards the company’s brand. This study analyzed changes in consumer behavior towards favorite brands after a significant product related news event happened to the makers of those brands. The research found that negative corporate news had some adverse impact on aspects of consumer affinity towards favorite brands, as well as other consumer behavior variables inc...

  17. The Impact of Early Powered Mobility on Parental Stress, Negative Emotions, and Family Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Donita; Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Powered mobility has been found to have positive effects on young children with severe physical disabilities, but the impact on the family has been less well documented. We evaluated the impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, perceived social interactions, and parental satisfaction with wheelchair characteristics…

  18. Precipitations in the II region Antofagasta-Chile and their negative impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research has the purpose to acknowledge a diagnosis in relation to rainfalls motivated by the action of a frontal system and its negative impacts in the second Region-Antofagasta taken place on Tuesday 18 of June In 1991. The study looks at the synoptic situation that prevails in the Region, historical rainfalls period 1904-1991, floods caused by the effect of rain, the atmospheric situation that has affected the region on days June 17 and 18, lessons, education and propositions, in order to diminish in the future the negative impacts, human danger, technology-housing-located in the zones of high risks

  19. Cross-sections for the formation of negative ions by electron impact on silane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Krishnakumar, E.; De A. E Souza, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    Cross-sections and appearance potentials for the production of various negative ion species by electron impact on SiH4 have been measured. They are compared with two previous measurements which widely differ with each other. Hess' law has been applied to predict the various possible channels of dissociation.

  20. New Sails for the Recruitment, Retention, and Learning Ship: Repairing the Negative Impacts of Enrollment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Keith

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the creation of enrollment management organizations separate from traditional student affairs and academic affairs divisions have caused negative impacts on student learning. A relatively new organizational structure that first appeared in the mid-1970s, enrollment management has its roots in…

  1. Mothers' perceptions of the negative impact on TV food ads on children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jay Hyunjae

    2012-10-01

    This exploratory study investigates the opinions of mothers who have at least one child between the ages of 7 and 12 in terms of the impact of TV food advertising on their children. This research also examines whether there is any third person effect active in mothers' opinions of TV food advertising aimed at children by asking them about both the impact on their own children, and the children of strangers. The results reveal that most mothers in the study have generally negative attitudes toward TV food advertising aimed at children, but they believe that the children of strangers are more negatively impacted by exposure to the ads than their own children. PMID:22641145

  2. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Emmanuel P.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents who were administered diagnostic and life stress interviews at ages 15 and 20. Participants’ appraisals of the negative impact of LEs reported at age ...

  3. The impact of negative emotions on self-concept abstraction depends on accessible information processing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Linda M; Rovenpor, Daniel R; Lair, Elicia C

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests that anger promotes global, abstract processing whereas sadness and fear promote local, concrete processing (see Schwarz & Clore, 2007 for a review). Contrary to a large and influential body of work suggesting that specific affective experiences are tethered to specific cognitive outcomes, the affect-as-cognitive-feedback account maintains that affective experiences confer positive or negative value on currently dominant processing styles, and thus can lead to either global or local processing (Huntsinger, Isbell, & Clore, 2014). The current work extends this theoretical perspective by investigating the impact of discrete negative emotions on the self-concept. By experimentally manipulating information processing styles and discrete negative emotions that vary in appraisals of certainty, we demonstrate that the impact of discrete negative emotions on the spontaneous self-concept depends on accessible processing styles. When global processing was accessible, individuals in angry (negative, high certainty) states generated more abstract statements about themselves than individuals in either sad (Experiment 1) or fearful (Experiment 2; negative, low certainty) states. When local processing was made accessible, however, the opposite pattern emerged, whereby individuals in angry states generated fewer abstract statements than individuals in sad or fearful states. Together these studies provide new insights into the mechanisms through which discrete emotions influence cognition. In contrast to theories assuming a dedicated link between emotions and processing styles, these results suggest that discrete emotions provide feedback about accessible ways of thinking, and are consistent with recent evidence suggesting that the impact of affect on cognition is highly context-dependent. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27685154

  4. Buffering Negative Impacts of Divorce on Children: Evaluating Impact of Divorce Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer K.; Riffe, Jane; Trevisan, Dominic A.; Adesope, Olusola O.

    2014-01-01

    Following the call for more stringent evaluation methodology and recently documented national Extension presence in the field of divorce education for parents and children, the study reported here describes a local multi-level evaluation to capture program impact of a stakeholder-accepted divorce education program. Using a post-then-pre…

  5. The goal of forming accurate impressions during social interactions: attenuating the impact of negative expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, S L

    1989-03-01

    Investigated the idea that impression formation goals may regulate the impact that perceiver expectancies have on social interactions. In simulated interviews, interviewers Ss were given a negative expectancy about one applicant S and no expectancy about another. Half the interviewers were encouraged to form accurate impressions; the others were not. As predicted, no-goal interviewers exhibited a postinteraction impression bias against the negative-expectancy applicants, whereas the accuracy-goal interviewers did not. Moreover, the ability of the accuracy goal to reduce this bias was apparently mediated by more extensive and less biased interviewer information-gathering, which in turn elicited an improvement in negative-expectancy applicants' performances. These findings stress the theoretical and practical importance of considering the motivational context within which expectancy-tinged social interactions occur.

  6. The goal of forming accurate impressions during social interactions: attenuating the impact of negative expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, S L

    1989-03-01

    Investigated the idea that impression formation goals may regulate the impact that perceiver expectancies have on social interactions. In simulated interviews, interviewers Ss were given a negative expectancy about one applicant S and no expectancy about another. Half the interviewers were encouraged to form accurate impressions; the others were not. As predicted, no-goal interviewers exhibited a postinteraction impression bias against the negative-expectancy applicants, whereas the accuracy-goal interviewers did not. Moreover, the ability of the accuracy goal to reduce this bias was apparently mediated by more extensive and less biased interviewer information-gathering, which in turn elicited an improvement in negative-expectancy applicants' performances. These findings stress the theoretical and practical importance of considering the motivational context within which expectancy-tinged social interactions occur. PMID:2926635

  7. Prognostic Impact of the Signet Ring Cell Type in Node-Negative Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pengfei Kong; Ruiyan Wu; Chenlu Yang; Qirong Geng; Jianjun Liu; Shangxiang Chen; Xuechao Liu; Minting Ye; Wenzhuo He; Qiong Yang; Liangping Xia; Dazhi Xu

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prognostic impact of the signet ring cell (SRC) histotype on negative lymph nodes (LNs) in gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we aimed to investigate the differences between SRC and non-SRC GC patients without LN metastasis. The medical records of patients with GC who underwent gastrectomy at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Centre from 1996 to 2012 were reviewed to analyse the clinicopathologic characteristics associated with survival. A total of 480 cases of GC p...

  8. Negative and positive impact of internet addiction on young adults: Empericial study in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shah Alam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore and identify the impact of internet addictions of young adults in Malaysia. There are six impacts identified, of which five are negative impacts and one is positive impact.Design/methodology/approach: This study comprised sample of 200 young adults in Malaysia. A cross-sectional research design was used to examine the impact of Internet addiction. Data were gathered based on personal administered questionnaire.Findings and Originality/value: This study results show that five negative impacts of excessive internet usages such as interpersonal problem, behavioural problem, physical problem, psychological problem, and work problem of young adults.The young adults believed that the internet usage can help them to improve their skills for doing their work better. This study also reveals that males have a great impact on working problems, psychological problems, behavioural problems and interpersonal problems than female adults. On the other hand, females are leading with their physical problems by getting Internet addiction.Research limitations/implications: The data for this study are collected by self-administered questionnaire, a method with well-known shortcomings. Secondly, this study done only on young adults from only two universities in Malaysia.Practical implications: An important implication of this research is that the interesting findings give some insight to the Internet users to focus on improving Internet usage habits. Originality/value: The findings are original and unique and are based on the literature from different western researches. The results are based on a sample of young adults in Malaysia. The research findings are useful to academics and heavy Internet users those are hooked with Internet to their everyday life.

  9. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  10. The Role of the Teacher in Helping Learners Overcome the Negative Impact of Child Sexual Abuse: A South African Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasha, Tlakale Nareadi

    2008-01-01

    Current literature suggesting the negative impact of childhood experiences of sexual abuse on school functioning makes it imperative to consider the role of the teacher in helping survivors overcome the negative impact of such experiences. Schools cannot ignore the reason why some learners cannot learn. This article presents the findings of a…

  11. Mindfulness during romantic conflict moderates the impact of negative partner behaviors on cortisol responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Hertz, Robin; Nelson, Benjamin; Laurent, Sean M

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to test whether romantic partners' mindfulness-present moment, nonjudgmental awareness-during a conflict discussion could buffer the effects of negative partner behaviors on neuroendocrine stress responses. Heterosexual couples (n=88 dyads) provided 5 saliva samples for cortisol assay during a laboratory session involving a conflict discussion task. Conflict behaviors were coded by outside observers using the System for Coding Interactions in Dyads, and partners rated their mindfulness during the task using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Interactions tested using multilevel modeling revealed that participants with higher levels of mindfulness during the conflict showed either quicker cortisol recovery or an absence of slowed recovery in the presence of more negative partner behaviors. Whereas the attitudinal component of mindfulness (curiosity) moderated effects of negative partner engagement in the conflict (i.e., attempts to control, coerciveness, negativity and conflict), the attentional component of mindfulness (decentering) moderated the effect of partner disengagement (i.e., withdrawal). These findings lend support to the idea that mindfulness during a stressful interaction can mitigate the physiological impacts of negative behaviors.

  12. The impact of screening-test negative samples not enumerated by MPN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; de Knegt, Leonardo;

    2015-01-01

    In microbiological surveys, false negative results in detection tests precluding the enumeration by MPN may occur. The objective of this study was to illustrate the impact of screening test failure on the probability distribution of Salmonella concentrations in pork using a Bayesian method. A total...... a Bayesian model that uses the number of positive tubes at each dilution in an MPN analysis to estimate the parameters of the concentration distribution. With Salmonella paired data, three data sets were used for each slaughter step: one that includes the positives in the screening test only, a second one...... that includes false negative results from the screening, and a third that considers the entire data set. The relative sensitivity of the screening test was also calculated assuming as gold standard samples with confirmed Salmonella. Salmonella was confirmed by a reference laboratory in 29 samples either...

  13. Video-games do not negatively impact adolescent academic performance in science, mathematics or reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Aaron; Sauer, James D

    2014-01-01

    Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and reading. Contrary to claims that increased video-gaming can impair academic performance, differences in academic performance were negligible across the relative frequencies of videogame use. Videogame use had little impact on adolescent academic achievement. PMID:24699536

  14. Video-games do not negatively impact adolescent academic performance in science, mathematics or reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Drummond

    Full Text Available Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and reading. Contrary to claims that increased video-gaming can impair academic performance, differences in academic performance were negligible across the relative frequencies of videogame use. Videogame use had little impact on adolescent academic achievement.

  15. Video-games do not negatively impact adolescent academic performance in science, mathematics or reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Aaron; Sauer, James D

    2014-01-01

    Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and reading. Contrary to claims that increased video-gaming can impair academic performance, differences in academic performance were negligible across the relative frequencies of videogame use. Videogame use had little impact on adolescent academic achievement.

  16. A critical realist perspective on decoupling negative environmental impacts from housing sector growth and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jin

    2012-01-01

    The question that motivates this article has been a matter of dispute: Is it possible to combine perpetual economic growth and longterm environmental sustainability based on the premise that economic growth can be fully decoupled from negative environmental impacts? The article addresses this...... be increased at a rate sufficient to compensate for continual growth in the volume of housing stock. A further elaboration of the topic at an ontological level leads to the conclusion that continual economic growth and long-term environmental sustainability can hardly be combined....... question from the position of critical realism. An empirical study focusing on the housing sector is conducted, indicating that housing stock growth and economic growth have been, at best, weakly decoupled from environmental impacts. In the long run, it seems implausible that the degree of decoupling can...

  17. Decoupling in order to reduce the negative environmental impact from transport logistics. From theory to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the issue of decoupling from a bottom-up approach and thereby works as a complementary report to 'A closer Look at Road Freight Transport and Economic Growth in Sweden' published by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The freight transport logistics market is steadily growing in Sweden and the EU. Between 1990 and 2002 the growth in Sweden was 15 % and in EU15 33 %. The increase has primarily occurred within road freight. Economics of scale and low cost for transport logistics services drives centralisation both within trade and manufacturing. This leads to an increase of the transport work. The objective of this report is to describe decoupling from a business perspective. We have therefore focused on industrial sectors that are the largest drivers of transportation demand. In addition we have included the most relevant providers of transport services. In brief this means - Buyers of transport logistics: Clothing, Furniture, Pulp and paper, Oil and energy, Steel, Mechanical industry, Fast moving goods, and Construction. As sellers of transport logistics services we have focused on: Road transport, Rail transport, Sea transport, and Forwarders. During the work we have ended up in a broad perspective when defining decoupling. In general we work with the concept of decoupling defined as 'breaking the connection between the environmentally negative impacts from transport logistics and economic growth'. The negative impacts we include are: Resource use, Climate, Nature, Health, and Accidents. Our focus is a European perspective from a Swedish platform and our time perspective is from relatively narrow to 2020. The business sector raises doubt on the idea of decoupling transport work and GNP. They are however more positive when discussing decoupling economic growth from negative environmental impacts. When analysing the underlying factors for this development we can se a tremendous growth in the global trade. the paper discuses how

  18. Can nanotechnology deliver the promised benefits without negatively impacting soil microbial life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Christian O

    2014-09-01

    Nanotechnology exploits the enhanced reactivity of materials at the atomic scale to improve various applications for humankind. In agriculture, potential nanotechnology applications include crop protection and fertilization. However, such benefits could come with risks for the environment: non-target plants, plant-beneficial soil microbes and other life forms could be impacted if nanoparticles (nanomaterials) contaminate the environment. This review evaluates the impact of the major metallic nanoparticles (Ag, ZnO, CuO, CeO2 , TiO2 , and FeO-based nanoparticles) on soil microbes involved in agricultural processes. The current literature indicate that in addition to population and organismal-scale effects on microbes, other subtle impacts of nanoparticles are seen in the nitrogen cycle, soil enzyme activities, and processes involved in iron metabolism, phytohormone, and antibiotic production. These effects are negative or positive, the outcome being dependent on specific nanoparticles. Collectively, published results suggest that nanotechnology portends considerable, many negative, implications for soil microbes and, thus, agricultural processes that are microbially driven. Nonetheless, the potential of plant and soil microbial processes to mitigate the bioreactivity of nanoparticles also are observed. Whereas the roots of most terrestrial plants are associated with microbes, studies of nanoparticle interactions with plants and microbes are generally conducted separately. The few studies in actual microbe-plant systems found effects of nanoparticles on the functioning of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, nitrogen fixation, as well as on the production of microbial siderophores in the plant rhizosphere. It is suggested that a better understanding of the agro-ecological ramifications of nanoparticles would require more in-depth interactive studies in combined plant-microbe-nanoparticle systems.

  19. Assessing the Personal Negative Impacts of Hooking Up Experienced by College Students: Gender Differences and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Lucy E; Montes, Kevin S; Kenney, Shannon R; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2016-09-01

    Hooking up is a normative behavior among college students that is associated with a range of positive and negative consequences. While previous research has primarily focused on women's negative experiences of hooking up, the current study explored the relationships among hooking up behaviors, psychological distress, and a broad range of negative effects of hooking up in both male and female college students. Using a multisite sample of college students, we developed the 14-item Negative Impact of Hookups Inventory (NIHI) to assess negative health outcomes, emotional responses, and social consequences associated with hooking up. Unprotected sex and having more hookup partners were associated with greater negative experiences of hooking up. Contrary to expectations, there were no gender differences in the total number of negative hookup effects, although men reported more frequent hookups. In addition, negative impacts of hooking up were positively associated with psychological distress regardless of gender. The NIHI may offer a useful tool to assess the negative impacts of hooking up. Understanding students' hookup experiences is an important step toward developing targeted health interventions related to hooking up behavior in young adult populations. PMID:26445346

  20. No time to lose: Negative impact on law student wellbeing may begin in year one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Townes O'Brien

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of a pilot study of law students suggest that, during the first year of law study, students may experience changes in thinking styles, stress levels, and satisfaction with life. Although further inquiry into the cause of law student distress is necessary, the authors consider certain assumptions underlying the legal curriculum—particularly the conception of a lawyer as adversarial, emotionally detached, and competitive—to be possible sources of the negative impact on student wellbeing.  It is suggested that legal educators should re-examine their curricula, particularly their conception of what it means to be a lawyer, and think creatively about ways that law schools may encourage healthier approaches to the study of law.

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Usage in Skin Diseases and the Positive and Negative Impacts on Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Tükenmez Demirci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our purpose was to compare the sosciodemographical differences between Complementary and Alternative medicine (CAM users and non users with skin diseases and to investigate the positive and negative impacts of CAM among patients. Methods: The patients with dermatological conditions attending the dermatology outpatient clinic were enrolled to the study randomly. The sociodemographical properties, diagnosis of the skin diseases, duration of the disease, CAM usage and duration of usage and the positive and negative impacts of the treatments were recorded. Results: A total of 522 (302 female, 220 male, median age 34.8±16.7 patients were enrolled in the study. Eighty-eight patients (16.8% were found to have used a CAM method. The mean age of CAM users (28.2±14.3 were statistically lower than non users (36.0±16.9 (p=0.000 <0.05. The disease duration of CAM users (4.3±5.5 year was statistically longer than non-users (2.8±5.2 year. The CAM methods were mostly preferred in acne vulgaris disease (31.8%, and the mostly used CAM method was herbal therapies (59.1%. We found that 16 (18.2% out of 88 CAM users had side effects from CAM treatment while nine patients (10.3% improved. Conclusion: Complementary and alternative medicine usage is not frequent among skin diseases. The patients with longer disease duration are more prone to use CAM. The side effects rarely occur due to CAM use and we ascertain that very rarely do patients benefit from CAM methods.

  2. The negative prognostic impact of bone metastasis with a tumor mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Yücel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:Typically, bone metastasis causes osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions resulting from the interactions of tumor cells with osteoclasts and osteoblasts. In addition to these interactions, tumor tissues may grow inside bones and cause mass lesions. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the negative impact of a tumor mass in a large cohort of patients with bone metastatic cancer.METHODS:Data from 335 patients with bone metastases were retrospectively reviewed. For the analysis, all patients were divided into three subgroups with respect to the type of bone metastasis: osteolytic, osteoblastic, or mixed. The patients were subsequently categorized as having bone metastasis with or without a tumor mass, and statistically significant differences in median survival and 2-year overall survival were observed between these patients (the median survival and 2-year overall survival were respectively 3 months and 16% in patients with a tumor mass and 11 months and 26% in patients without a tumor mass; p<0.001.RESULTS:According to multivariate analysis, the presence of bone metastasis with a tumor mass was found to be an independent prognostic factor (p=0.011, hazard ratio: 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.11–1.76. Bone metastasis with a tumor mass was more strongly associated with osteolytic lesions, other primary diseases (except for primary breast and prostate cancers, and spinal cord compression.CONCLUSION:Bone metastasis with a tumor mass is a strong and independent negative prognostic factor for survival in cancer patients.

  3. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  4. Activation of PPAR by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR activation decreased serum testosterone (T in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2 in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR. It is not clear if PPAR modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats treated with the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione. Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR activation. PPAR activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

  5. The Effects of Positive versus Negative Impact Reflection on Change in Job Performance and Work-Life Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa eCardador

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on task significance and relational job design suggests that information from beneficiaries of one’s work fosters perceptions of impact, and thus improved work outcomes. This paper presents results from a longitudinal field experiment examining the effect of another strategy for fostering perceptions of impact – engaging employees in regular reflection about how their work benefits others. With a sample of professionals from multiple organizations, this longitudinal study examined the effect on job performance and work-life conflict of both positive and negative impact reflection. Results show that negative impact reflection had a pronounced negative effect on job performance, but no effect on work-life conflict. Positive impact reflection had a weak positive effect on work-life conflict, but no significant effect on job performance. The direction of effects seen in the no intervention condition mirrored that of the negative impact reflection condition, suggesting a possible buffering effect for positive impact reflection. This research provides empirical and theoretical contributions to the literatures on relational job design and task significance.

  6. Impact of maternal negative affectivity on light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Torgersen, Leila; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy.......To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy....

  7. Impact of Negative Quality Inconsistency on Brand Loyalty – Case of Croatian Food Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ferenčić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Attracting and keeping consumers’ loyalty in Fast Moving Consumer Goods segment became the main concern for all producing companies and retailers, too. Many marketing researchers argue that product or service quality perception is one of the key elements in brand loyalty building process. When talking about food market, one has to be aware that food consumption has direct impact on human health and, in that context, process of building brand loyalty for food brands is not possible, or it can be hard, if the product quality of food brands is not on the expected level and according to defined food quality standards. The goal of this paper was to understand aspects of connection between food product quality and brand loyalty process better and to explore how problems with negative quality inconsistency in different food categories can influence brand loyalty. An empirical research (on-line survey was conducted to prove and explain the connection between food product quality and food brand loyalty. The research results shows that the main reasons for being loyal to a certain food brand or product are related mostly to positive brand experience, high and stabile product quality, and recognizable taste. In the context of these research results, it can be concluded that long term consumer satisfaction as a factor in food brand loyalty process depends on stabile product quality, so food manufacturers or food brand owners should be focused on preventing or minimizing the aspect of negative quality issues. Regarding research limitations, the study was conducted only on users from Croatian market; so broadening the survey to other markets should give a clearer view on the connection between food product quality and brand loyalty process.

  8. The Impact of Parental Modeling and Permissibility on Alcohol Use and Experienced Negative Drinking Consequences in College

    OpenAIRE

    Abar, Caitlin; Abar, Beau; Turrisi, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of parental modeled behavior and permissibility of alcohol use in late high school on the alcohol use and experienced negative drinking consequences of college students. Two-hundred ninety college freshmen at a large university were assessed for perceptions of their parents’ permissibility of alcohol use, parents’ alcohol-related behavior, and own experienced negative consequences associated with alcohol use. Results indicate that parental permissibility of alco...

  9. Recreational Physical Activity Ameliorates Some of the Negative Impact of Major Depression on Health-Related Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    ScottBurtonPatten

    2013-01-01

    Background: Major depressive episodes (MDEs) have a negative effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The objective of this study was to determine whether recreational physical activity can ameliorate some of this negative impact. Methods: The data source for the study was the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). The NPHS is a longitudinal study that has collected data from a representative cohort of 15,254 community residents. Sixteen years of follow-up data are ...

  10. Positive and Negative Impacts of Cross-border M&A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴长洪; 林江

    2007-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions of Chinese enterprises by foreign investors have moved onto the public radar in recent years.To date,the M&A frenzy has drawn widespread attention,with a mixed reaction from proponents and opponents.Proponents consider such mergers and acquisitions conducive to realizing strategic readjustment of the national economic structure,optimizing resource allocation and improving the corporate governance structure.Opponents,however,are concerned that foreign mergers and acquisitions may jeopardize China’s industrial security and erode the executive power of the central government in undertaking industrial development planning.Are the benefits of M&A outweighed by the costs,or vice versa? The focus column of this edition features two articles which debate this issue from opposing viewpoints.In the article"Positive and Negative Impacts of Cross-border M&A",the authors consider foreign M(?)A to be a new way of boosting the level of foreign investment utilization,and advocate China taking full advantage of this approach.The authors of the article"Self-Improvement Or Self-Mutilation",meanwhile,hold foreign M&A to blame for state-owned asset erosion,and insist that China should oppose mergers and acquisitions of key state- owned enterprises by foreign investors at fire-sale prices.

  11. The impact of surgical site occurrences and the role of closed incision negative pressure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Christian; Engelhardt, Michael; Stichling, Marcus; Grauhan, Onnen

    2016-09-01

    Surgical site occurrences are observed in up to 60% of inpatient surgical procedures in industrialised countries. The most relevant postoperative complication is surgical site infection (SSI) because of its impact on patient outcomes and enormous treatment costs. Literature reviews ('SSI', 'deep sternal wound infections' (DSWI), 'closed incision negative pressure wound therapy' (ciNPT) were performed by electronically searching MEDLINE (PubMed) and subsequently using a 'snowball' method of continued searches of the references in the identified publications. Search criteria included publications in all languages, various study types and publication in a peer-reviewed journal. The SSI literature search identified 1325, the DSWI search 590 and the ciNPT search 103 publications that fulfilled the search criteria. Patient-related SSI risk factors (diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, hypertension, female gender) and operation-related SSI risk factors (re-exploration, emergency operations, prolonged ventilation, prolonged operation duration) exist. We found that patient- and operation-related SSI risk factors were often different for each speciality and/or operative procedure. Based on the evidence, we found that high-risk incisions (sternotomy and incisions in extremities after high-energy open trauma) are principally recommended for ciNPT use. In 'lower'-risk incisions, the addition of patient-related or operation-related risk factors justifies the application of ciNPT. PMID:27547962

  12. Climate warming mediates negative impacts of rapid pond drying for three amphibian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, Sacha M; Palen, Wendy J; Anderson, Sean C

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will present both opportunities and challenges for pool-breeding amphibians. Increased water temperature and accelerated drying may directly affect larval growth, development, and survival, yet the combined effects of these processes on larvae with future climate change remain poorly understood. Increased surface temperatures are projected to warm water and decrease water inputs, leading to earlier and faster wetland drying. So it is often assumed that larvae will experience negative synergistic impacts with combined warming and drying. However, an alternative hypothesis is that warming-induced increases in metabolic rate and aquatic resource availability might compensate for faster drying rates, generating antagonistic larval responses. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to test the individual and interactive effects of pool permanency (permanent vs. temporary) and water temperature (ambient vs. (+) -3 degrees C) on three anurans with fast-to-slow larval development rates (Great Basin spadefoot [Spea intermontana], Pacific chorus frog [Pseudacris regilla], and northern red-legged frog [Rana aurora]). We found that although tadpoles in warmed pools reached metamorphosis 15-17 days earlier, they did so with little cost (amphibians. However, they also demonstrate that antagonistic responses are difficult to predict, which poses a challenge to proactive conservation and management. Our study highlights the importance of considering the nature of multiple stressor interactions as amphibians are exposed to an increasing number of anthropogenic threats. PMID:24933805

  13. Negative impact of laws regarding biosecurity and bioterrorism on real diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, N; Grobusch, M P; Raoult, D

    2014-06-01

    Research on highly pathogenic microorganisms in biosafety level 3 and 4 laboratories is very important for human public health, as it provides opportunities for the development of vaccines and novel therapeutics as well as diagnostic methods to prevent epidemics. However, in recent years, after the anthrax and World Trade Center attacks in 2001 in the USA, the threat of bioterrorism has grown for both the public and the authorities. As a result, technical and physical containment measures and biosafety and biosecurity practices have been implemented in laboratories handling these dangerous pathogens. Working with selected biological agents and toxins is now highly regulated, owing to their potential to pose a threat to public health and safety, despite the fact that the anthrax attack was found to be the result of a lack of security at a US Army laboratory. Thus, these added regulations have been associated with a large amount of fruitless investment. Herein, we describe the limitations of research in these facilities, and the multiple consequences of the increased regulations. These limitations have seriously negatively impacted on the number of collaborations, the size of research projects, and, more generally, scientific research on microbial pathogens. Clearly, the actual number of known victims and fatalities caused by the intentional use of microorganisms has been negligible as compared with those caused by naturally acquired human infections.

  14. The Invasive American Weed Parthenium hysterophorus Can Negatively Impact Malaria Control in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent O Nyasembe

    Full Text Available The direct negative effects of invasive plant species on agriculture and biodiversity are well known, but their indirect effects on human health, and particularly their interactions with disease-transmitting vectors, remains poorly explored. This study sought to investigate the impact of the invasive Neotropical weed Parthenium hysterophorus and its toxins on the survival and energy reserves of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. In this study, we compared the fitness of An. gambiae fed on three differentially attractive mosquito host plants and their major toxins; the highly aggressive invasive Neotropical weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae in East Africa and two other adapted weeds, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae. Our results showed that female An. gambiae fitness varied with host plants as females survived better and accumulated substantial energy reserves when fed on P. hysterophorus and R. communis compared to B. pilosa. Females tolerated parthenin and 1-phenylhepta-1, 3, 5-triyne, the toxins produced by P. hysterophorus and B. pilosa, respectively, but not ricinine produced by R. communis. Given that invasive plants like P. hysterophorus can suppress or even replace less competitive species that might be less suitable host-plants for arthropod disease vectors, the spread of invasive plants could lead to higher disease transmission. Parthenium hysterophorus represents a possible indirect effect of invasive plants on human health, which underpins the need to include an additional health dimension in risk-analysis modelling for invasive plants.

  15. Client Violence and Its Negative Impacts on Work Attitudes of Child Protection Workers Compared to Community Service Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Junseob

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers…

  16. Asymmetric impact of the physiological effect of carbon dioxide on hydrological responses to instantaneous negative and positive CO2 forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Manabu; Shiogama, Hideo; Yokohata, Tokuta; Emori, Seita; Nozawa, Toru

    2015-10-01

    We conducted sensitivity experiments using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to examine the asymmetry between the hydrological responses to instantaneous positive and negative CO2 forcing and the impact of the CO2 physiological effects (CDPEs) on these responses. This study focuses on the fast response occurring on time scales shorter than 1 year after imposing CO2 forcing. Experiments investigating the CO2 physiological effect show that the fast response of precipitation to positive CO2 forcing is a decrease in the global and annual mean, whereas that of negative forcing is an increase the global and annual mean precipitation. The fast global precipitation response to negative forcing is stronger than the response to positive forcing. In contrast, the experiments without the CDPE reveal similar magnitudes of the fast global precipitation responses to negative and positive CO2 forcing. Significant differences in the magnitudes of the fast precipitation response due to the CDPE are found in tropical regions such as the Amazon Basin, the Maritime Continents, and tropical Africa, where C3-type plants are common. The stomatal conductance of plant leaves is decreased by both positive and negative CO2 forcing, which suppress the transpiration from the leaves. Consequently, the CDPE enhances the asymmetry of the fast precipitation responses to positive and negative CO2 forcing. The asymmetric impact of CDPE requires a careful evaluation of future hydrological changes which is constrained by paleoclimate evidence.

  17. Investigation of the Decelerating Field of an Electron Multiplier under Negative Ion Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Kjeldgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of the decelerating field of an electron multiplier towards negative ions was investigated under standard mass spectrometric conditions. Diminishing of this decelerating field by changing of the potential of the electron multiplier increased the overall sensitivity to negative ions...... by a factor of 100. The secondary electron emission coefficient for the negative halogen ions relative to I− were measured on CuBe at the kinetic energies 1.0 and 1.5 keV....

  18. ERP Study of Affirmative and Negative Sentences' Impact on Self-Positivity Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhui; Jiang, Zhongqing; Liu, Ying; Dan, Fei

    2016-08-01

    To explore how the sentence contexts affect self-positivity bias, we presented the participants with negation and affirmation sentences. Each sentence was ended with an adjective word describing human being's personality. The participants were asked to judge whether the sentences correctly described their own personalities. In affirmation sentences, the behavioral data showed that self-positivity bias occurred when participants considered the sentences to be in accordance with their personality; the ERP data showed that P200 amplitude was consistent with this behavioral result. In negation sentences, behavioral data showed self-positivity bias, regardless of whether the sentences were in accordance with participants' personality or not. However, the self-positivity bias was not observed in the ERP results from negation sentence. In summary, sentence type modulated the effect of self-positivity bias. The reason could be that processing affirmation and negation sentences requires different amount of cognitive resources. PMID:25980970

  19. Do Digital Systems and Concepts in Modern Public Service Production Have a Negative Impact on Citizens as End-users?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Storm Pedersen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Do digital systems and concepts in modern public service production have a negative impact on citizens as end-users? To answer this research question, we shall first present our theoretical framework ‘the institutional logics perspective’ and show how we deploy this on modern public service production. Second, we claim that digital systems and concepts develop a new institutional logic within modern public service production: the ‘digital logic’. Third, we analyze and discuss the new logic´s possible impact on citizens as end-users. Fourth, we discuss the ethical dimensions of values and ethics in relation to public service production and digitizing.

  20. Do Digital Systems and Concept in Modern Public Service Production Have a Negative Impact on Citizens as End-Users?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    Do digital systems and concepts in modern public service production have a negative impact on citizens as end-users? To answer this research question, we shall first present our theoretical framework ‘the institutional logics perspective’ and show how we deploy this on modern public service...... production. Second, we claim that digital systems and concepts develop a new institutional logic within modern public service production: the ‘digital logic’. Third, we analyze and discuss the new logic´s possible impact on citizens as end-users. Fourth, we discuss the ethical dimensions of values and ethics...... in relation to public service production and digitizing....

  1. POSITIVE ATTITUDES AND NEGATIVE OF THE STUDENTS IN THE LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS, ITS IMPACT ON THE REPROACH AND TERMINAL EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislao Romero–Bojórquez; Alejandra Utrilla–Quiroz; Victor Manuel Utrilla–Quiroz

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to problematize "the positive and negative attitudes of students in learning mathematics, their impact on disapproval index and terminal efficiency." It was held in the Academic Unit "Rubén Jaramillo" of the Autonomous University of Sinaloa. Participants are students in the group 2 -01 to 2 -08 of the third semester of the morning session of the academic year 2009-2010. We analyze and interpret the attitudes that students have towards learning mathematics. From...

  2. Positive vs. Negative: The Impact of Question Polarity in Voting Advice Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouwel, André; van de Pol, Jasper; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Online Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) are survey-like instruments that help citizens to shape their political preferences and compare them with those of political parties. Especially in multi-party democracies, their increasing popularity indicates that VAAs play an important role in opinion formation for citizens, as well as in the public debate prior to elections. Hence, the objectivity and transparency of VAAs are crucial. In the design of VAAs, many choices have to be made. Extant research in survey methodology shows that the seemingly arbitrary choice to word questions positively (e.g., ‘The city council should allow cars into the city centre’) or negatively (‘The city council should ban cars from the city centre’) systematically affects the answers. This asymmetry in answers is in line with work on negativity bias in other areas of linguistics and psychology. Building on these findings, this study investigated whether question polarity also affects the answers to VAA statements. In a field experiment (N = 31,112) during the Dutch municipal elections we analysed the effects of polarity for 16 out of 30 VAA statements with a large variety of linguistic contrasts. Analyses show a significant effect of question wording for questions containing a wide range of implicit negations (such as ‘forbid’ vs. ‘allow’), as well as for questions with explicit negations (e.g., ‘not’). These effects of question polarity are found especially for VAA users with lower levels of political sophistication. As these citizens are an important target group for Voting Advice Applications, this stresses the need for VAA builders to be sensitive to wording choices when designing VAAs. This study is the first to show such consistent wording effects not only for political attitude questions with implicit negations in VAAs, but also for political questions containing explicit negations. PMID:27723776

  3. Collective Oriented Culture and Its Negative Impact upon Oral English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春艳; 约翰·史密斯

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most distinguished features of Chinese Culture, collective oriented cul-ture is the deep structure of Chinese cultural psychology which has shaped Chinese character and inlfuenced their behavior. As a result of it, Chinese students suffer this negative effect from collective orientated culture when acquiring English, especially in oral English acquisition. TEFL teachers should be aware of cultural psychology and try their best to minimize its negative effect instead of neglecting or even en-larging it during oral English teaching.

  4. No negative effects of bone impaction grafting with bone and ceramic mixtures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.J.C.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Welten, M.L.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Schreurs, B.W.; Buma, P.

    2005-01-01

    Reconstructing large loaded bone defects with ceramic bone graft extenders is tempting considering the expected future donor bone shortage. However, whether there are negative effects is unknown. Standardized large defects in the acetabulum of goats were created and subsequently reconstructed with m

  5. The impact of negatively reciprocal inclinations on worker behavior: Evidence from a retrenchment of pension rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montizaan, R.M.; de Grip, A.; Cörvers, F.; Dohmen, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    We document that the strength of negatively reciprocal inclinations affects workers’ reaction to unfair treatment. We exploit unique matched survey and administrative data on male public sector employees in the Netherlands and compare the job motivation of employees born in 1950, who faced a substan

  6. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackman, Jessica E; Pollak, Seth D

    2014-11-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children's allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders.

  7. The impact of negative attentional set upon target processing in RSVP : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Dexuan; Zhou, Xiaolin; Martens, Sander

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether the negative attentional set, a form of top-down attentional bias, can be set up on a trial-by-trial basis and impair online target processing in an RSVP (Rapid Serial Visual Presentation) task in which two targets are to be identified. Using the N2pc (N2 posterior co

  8. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackman, Jessica E; Pollak, Seth D

    2014-11-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children's allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders. PMID:24914736

  9. Impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programme on Carbapenem Resistance in Gram Negative Isolates in an Indian Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Jaggi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increasing Antimicrobial resistance in the World is constantly becoming a Global threat and there is an urgent need to prevent its spread. Various studies of last decade have shown reduced trends of antimicrobial resistance in the pathogens as an outcome of the Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. In view of this, the present four years’ study was carried out to analyse the impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs on carbapenem resistance in Gram negative isolates in a Tertiary care hospital in India. It involved a retrospective analysis of carbapenem resistance in Gram negatives for one year (July 2007 to June 2008, followed by prospective evaluation of the impact of stewardship interventions on resistance patterns (July 2008 to Jun 2011. Approach: Our study was staged into four parts: (1 July 2007 to June 2008: Resistance patterns of Gram negative isolates-E.coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter baumannii towards carbapenems were studied. (2 July 2008: Phase I intervention programme Implementation of an antibiotic policy in the hospital. (3 July 2008 to June 2010: The Impact of Phase I intervention programme was assessed subsequently. (4 July 2010 to June 2011: Phase II intervention programme: Formation and effective functioning of the antimicrobial stewardship committee. Results: The percentage resistance towards carbapenems in E.coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and A. baumannii from July 2007-June 2008 was 1.07, 13.1, 21.3 and 12.5% respectively. Phase I intervention programme was initiated in July 2008 and Phase II in July 2010 and a subsequent reduction of 4.03% was observed in the carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas in the last stage of study period following the interventions. However the resistance in the other Gram negatives (E. coli, Klebsiella and A. baumannii rose and then stabilized. Conclusion: An antimicrobial stewardship programme with sustained and multifaceted efforts is essential to control the

  10. The impact of taxing working memory on negative and positive memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris M. Engelhard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Earlier studies have shown that horizontal eye movement (EM during retrieval of a negative memory reduces its vividness and emotionality. This may be due to both tasks competing for working memory (WM resources. This study examined whether playing the computer game “Tetris” also blurs memory. Method: Participants recalled negative and positive memories in three conditions: recall only, recall with concurrent EM, and recall with playing Tetris. Before and after these conditions, vividness, emotionality, and physiological startle responses during recall were measured. Results: A reaction time task showed that EM and Tetris both draw on WM, compared to no dual-task. Compared to recall only, EM and Tetris decreased reported emotionality and startle responses. Conclusions: The effects of EM and Tetris did not differ, even though the tasks differed in the degree of taxing WM. This suggests that taxing WM and its effects on emotional memories may not be linearly related. Potential clinical implications are discussed.

  11. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all...

  12. Video-Games Do Not Negatively Impact Adolescent Academic Performance in Science, Mathematics or Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron Drummond; James D Sauer

    2014-01-01

    Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and readi...

  13. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Shackman, Jessica E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2014-01-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention all...

  14. Show me the Money: the impact of actual rewards and losses on the feedback negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Anna; Riesel, Anja; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2014-06-01

    The feedback negativity (FN) is an event-related potential component which is typically conceptualized as a negativity in response to losses that is absent in response to gains. However, there is also evidence that variation in the FN reflects the neural response to gains. The present study sought to explore these possibilities by manipulating the context in which loss and gain feedback was presented in a straightforward gambling task. In half the blocks, participants could win or lose money (Value condition), and in half the blocks, participants could not win or lose any money (No Value condition). The degree to which losses and gains were differentiated from one another (i.e., the ΔFN) was greater in the Value condition than in the No Value condition. Furthermore, though the responses to loss feedback and gain feedback were each enhanced in the Value condition relative to the No-Value condition, the effect of the monetary manipulation was substantially larger for the positivity to gains than the negativity to losses. This is consistent with the notion that the FN might reflect two independent processes, but that variation in the FN depends more upon the response to rewards than losses. PMID:24735733

  15. Moderately high intake of folic acid has a negative impact on mouse embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of neural tube defects has diminished considerably since the implementation of food fortification with folic acid (FA). However, the impact of excess FA intake, particularly during pregnancy, requires investigation. In a recent study, we reported that a diet supplemented with 20-fold h...

  16. Similar negative impacts of temperature on global wheat yield estimated by three independent methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential impact of global temperature change on global wheat production has recently been assessed with different methods, scaling and aggregation approaches. Here we show that grid-based simulations, point-based simulations, and statistical regressions produce similar estimates of temperature ...

  17. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tudor, Jennifer C; Luczak, Vincent G; Hansen, Rolf T; Ferri, Sarah L; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Poplawski, Shane G; Day, Jonathan P; Aton, Sara J; Radwańska, Kasia; Meerlo, Peter; Houslay, Miles D; Baillie, George S; Abel, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Brief periods of sleep loss have long-lasting consequences such as impaired memory consolidation. Structural changes in synaptic connectivity have been proposed as a substrate of memory storage. Here, we examine the impact of brief periods of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure. In mice, we fin

  18. Peer Victimisation and Depressive Symptoms: Can Specific Coping Strategies Buffer the Negative Impact of Cybervictimisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmutow, Katja; Perren, Sonja; Sticca, Fabio; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether cybervictimisation is an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms over and beyond traditional victimisation in adolescents. Furthermore, it explored whether certain coping strategies moderate the impact of cybervictimisation on depressive symptoms. A total of 765 Swiss seventh graders (mean age at…

  19. Using signal detection theory to test the impact of negative emotion on sub-clinical paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Stefan; Lincoln, Tania M

    2010-06-01

    A novel experimental paradigm for measuring state paranoia by means of signal detection theory was evaluated. A liberal response bias, indicating the tendency to recognize facial expressions as threatening, was expected to reflect paranoia. Against theoretical expectations, heightened paranoia questionnaire scores were associated with a non-liberal bias, which was not affected by negative emotion per se. However, subsequent analyses revealed that, if anxious, participants with heightened paranoia adopted a comparatively more liberal response bias. These findings corroborate the eminent role of anxiety in paranoia and demonstrate that state paranoia can be captured with the presented paradigm.

  20. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all depicting social interactions. The task consisted in identifying whether the two pictures depicted the same emotion. Results showed that the processing of negative pictures was impermeable to attachment style, while the processing of positive pictures was significantly influenced by individual differences in insecure attachment. The groups highly avoidant regarding to attachment (dismissing and fearful) showed reduced accuracy, suggesting a higher threshold for recognizing positive emotions compared to the secure group. The groups with higher attachment anxiety (preoccupied and fearful) showed differences in automatic capture of attention, in particular an increased delay preceding the first fixation to a picture of positive emotional valence. Despite lenient statistical thresholds induced by the limited sample size of some groups (p emotions is affected by attachment styles. These results are discussed within a broader evolutionary framework. PMID:25693911

  1. Prognostic impact of dissected lymph node count on patients with node-negative gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Ming Huang; Jian-Xian Lin; Chao-Hui Zheng; Ping Li; Jian-Wei Xie; Bi-Juan Lin; Hui-Shan Lu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the long-term effect of the number of resected lymph nodes (LNs) on the prognosis of patients with node-negative gastric cancer. METHODS: Clinical data of 211 patients with gastric cancer, without nodal involvement, were analyzed retrospectively after D2 radical operation. We analyzed the relationship between the number of resected LNs with the 5-year survival, the recurrence rate and the post-operative complication rate.RESULTS: The 5-year survival of the entire cohort was 82.2%. The total number of dissected LNs was one of the independent prognostic factors. Among patients with comparable depth of invasion, the larger the number of resected LNs, the better the survival ( P 0.05).CONCLUSION: For node-negative gastric cancer,sufficient number of dissected LNs is recommended during D2 lymphadenectomy, to improve the long-term survival and reduce the recurrence. Suitable increments of the dissected LN count would not increase the postoperative complication rate.

  2. Nostalgia buffers the negative impact of low procedural injustice on cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dijke, M.; Wildschut, Tim; Leunissen, J.M.; Sedikides, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    This research integrates the discrete emotion of nostalgia (a sentimental longing for the past) with relational models of procedural justice. An organizational survey and four experiments demonstrated that nostalgia buffers (i.e., weakens) the deleterious impact of low (compared to high) procedural justice on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and cooperation with authorities. Low procedural justice undermined social connectedness with authorities, and nostalgia’s buffering role derive...

  3. Impact of Negative Quality Inconsistency on Brand Loyalty – Case of Croatian Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Ferenčić; Ana Wölfling

    2015-01-01

    Attracting and keeping consumers’ loyalty in Fast Moving Consumer Goods segment became the main concern for all producing companies and retailers, too. Many marketing researchers argue that product or service quality perception is one of the key elements in brand loyalty building process. When talking about food market, one has to be aware that food consumption has direct impact on human health and, in that context, process of building brand loyalty for food brands is not possible, or it can ...

  4. Impact of electric field on Hofmeister effects in aggregation of negatively charged colloidal minerals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ying Tang; Hang Li; Hualing Zhu; Rui Tian; Xiaodan Gao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the aggregation kinetics of negatively charged colloidal minerals in Na+, K+, NH+4 , Mg2+, Ca2+ and Cu2+ solutions were measured and Hofmeister effects therein were estimated through total average aggregation (TAA) rates and critical coagulation concentration (CCC). Hofmeister effects of TAA rates increased exponentially with the increase in electric field strength, which cannot be explained by the classical theories (i.e., ionic size, hydration and dispersion forces), indicating strong electric field at colloidal surface was an indispensable factor in studying Hofmeister effects. Meanwhile, Hofmeister series of CCC values Na+ > K+ > NH+4 > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Cu2+ show fine correlation with the polarization of various cations, implying that onic polarization in strong electric field would be responsible for Hofmeister effects in aggregation of colloidal minerals, and the deduction was confirmed by the calculated results of electrostatic interactions between colloidal minerals.

  5. Enhanced interannual precipitation variability increases plant functional diversity that in turn ameliorates negative impact on productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2015-12-01

    Although precipitation interannual variability is projected to increase due to climate change, effects of changes in precipitation variance have received considerable less attention than effects of changes in the mean state of climate. Interannual precipitation variability effects on functional diversity and its consequences for ecosystem functioning are assessed here using a 6-year rainfall manipulation experiment. Five precipitation treatments were switched annually resulting in increased levels of precipitation variability while maintaining average precipitation constant. Functional diversity showed a positive response to increased variability due to increased evenness. Dominant grasses decreased and rare plant functional types increased in abundance because grasses showed a hump-shaped response to precipitation with a maximum around modal precipitation, whereas rare species peaked at high precipitation values. Increased functional diversity ameliorated negative effects of precipitation variability on primary production. Rare species buffered the effect of precipitation variability on the variability in total productivity because their variance decreases with increasing precipitation variance. PMID:26437913

  6. The negative impact of intentionally introduced Quercus rubra L. on a forest community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Woziwoda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some alien woody species used in commercial forestry become invasive and, as invaders, cause major problems in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the deliberate introduction of aliens can bring unintended negative changes also within areas of their cultivation. This paper presents the effects of the intentional introduction of the North-American Quercus rubra in European mixed Scots pine-Pedunculate oak forests (POFs: Querco roboris-Pinetum (W. Mat. 1981 J. Mat. 1988. Phytosociological data from field research combined with GIS data analysis of the current distribution of Northern Red oak in the studied habitat were used to determine the composition and structure of forest communities in plots with and without Q. rubra participation.  The results show that Q. rubra significantly reduces native species richness and abundance, both in old-growth and in secondary (post-agricultural forests. Not one resident vascular plant benefits from the introduction of Northern Red oak and only a few are able to tolerate its co-occurrence. The natural restocking of all native woody species is also strongly limited by this alien tree.  The introduction of Northern Red oak significantly limits the environmental functions of the POF ecosystem and weakens its economic and social aspects. However, its further cultivation is justified from an economic point of view, as the essential function of the studied forests is commercial timber production, and the introduction of this fast growing alien tree supports the provisioning ecosystem services. A clear description of the level of trade-off between the accepted negative and positive effects of the introduction of Q. rubra on forest ecosystem services requires further interdisciplinary studies.

  7. The Negative Impact of Stark Law Exemptions on Graduate Medical Education and Health Care Costs: The Example of Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To survey radiation oncology training programs to determine the impact of ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists on these training programs and to place these findings in a health policy context based on data from the literature. Methods and Materials: A survey was designed and e-mailed to directors of all 81 U.S. radiation oncology training programs in this country. Also, the medical and health economic literature was reviewed to determine the impact that ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists may have on patient care and health care costs. Prostate cancer treatment is used to illustrate the primary findings. Results: Seventy-three percent of the surveyed programs responded. Ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists is a widespread phenomenon. More than 50% of survey respondents reported the existence of these arrangements in their communities, with a resultant reduction in patient volumes 87% of the time. Twenty-seven percent of programs in communities with these business arrangements reported a negative impact on residency training as a result of decreased referrals to their centers. Furthermore, the literature suggests that ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists is associated with both increased utilization and increased costs but is not associated with increased access to services in traditionally underserved areas. Conclusions: Ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists appears to have a negative impact on residency training by shifting patients away from training programs and into community practices. In addition, the literature supports the conclusion that self-referral results in overutilization of expensive services without benefit to patients. As a result of these findings, recommendations are made to study further how physician ownership of radiation oncology facilities influence graduate

  8. Perceived consequences of evolution: College students perceive negative personal and social impact in evolutionary theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Sarah K.; Ranney, Michael; Schindel, Jennifer

    2003-03-01

    Evolutionary science has consequences for individuals and society, ranging from the way we interpret human behavior to our notions of spirituality and the purpose of our existence. Popular portrayals of evolution depict a paradoxical theory, a source of knowledge and human connections, but also a threat to our humanity and freedom. Using quantitative and qualitative methodology, we examined how college-educated adults (n = 135) from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds perceive the impact of evolutionary theory on individuals and society. We identified a continuum of perspectives, ranging from strong creationist to strong evolutionist. Using the model of knowledge as an ecology (Demastes, Good, & Peebles, Science Education, 79, 637-666, 1995; Nardi & O'Day, Information ecologies: Using technology with heart, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999), we examined the relationships among participants' beliefs, their perceptions regarding the social and personal impact of evolutionary theory, their prior exposure to and knowledge of evolutionary theory, and their opinions regarding the teaching of evolution. Evolutionists and creationists differed in their prior exposure to evolutionary theory, and their opinions about some aspects of teaching, but showed striking similarities regarding perceived impact. All groups viewed the consequences of accepting evolutionary principles in a way that might be considered undesirable: increased selfishness and racism, decreased spirituality, and a decreased sense of purpose and self-determination. From a science education perspective, this one-sided interpretation is troublesome because it runs counter to the available evidence and theories in evolutionary science, and we consider ways of fostering more balanced presentation and appraisal of evolutionary theory.

  9. Life cycle assessment as a method of limitation of a negative environment impact of castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Casting production constitutes environmental problems going far beyond the foundry plant area. Applying a notion of the life cycle the input (suppliers side and output factors (clients side can be identified. The foundry plant activities for the environment hazard mitigation can be situated on various stages of the casting life cycle. The environment impact of motorisation castings made of different materials – during the whole life cycle of castings – are discussed in the paper. It starts from the charge material production, then follows via the casting process, car assembly, car exploitation and ends at the car breaking up for scrap.

  10. Swedish Upper Secondary School Students’ Conceptions of Negative Environmental Impact and Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Lundholm

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores relationships between upper secondary school students’ understanding of prices and environmental impacts. The study uses responses from 110 students to problems in which they were asked to explain differences in prices and also to express and justify opinions on what should be the difference in prices. Very few students expressed an environmental dimension in their understanding of price. A few students suggested that environmental impact influenced price by raising demand for “Environmentally friendly products”. A few students suggested that ‘environmentally friendly products’ had higher prices because they were more costly to produce. We found no examples of students combining both lines of explanation. However, nearly half of the students believed that prices should reflect environmental effects, and this reasoning was divided between cases where the point was justified by a broad environmental motivation and cases where the point was justified in relation to incentives–to get consumers to act in a more environmentally friendly way.

  11. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C; Stewart, Barbara A

    2016-04-28

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  12. Impacts of motivational valence on the error-related negativity elicited by full and partial errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Yuya; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    Affect and motivation influence the error-related negativity (ERN) elicited by full errors; however, it is unknown whether they also influence ERNs to correct responses accompanied by covert incorrect response activation (partial errors). Here we compared a neutral condition with conditions, where correct responses were rewarded or where incorrect responses were punished with gains and losses of small amounts of money, respectively. Data analysis distinguished ERNs elicited by full and partial errors. In the reward and punishment conditions, ERN amplitudes to both full and partial errors were larger than in the neutral condition, confirming participants' sensitivity to the significance of errors. We also investigated the relationships between ERN amplitudes and the behavioral inhibition and activation systems (BIS/BAS). Regardless of reward/punishment condition, participants scoring higher on BAS showed smaller ERN amplitudes in full error trials. These findings provide further evidence that the ERN is related to motivational valence and that similar relationships hold for both full and partial errors. PMID:26747414

  13. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-1B Negatively Impacts Host Defense against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lei; Xie, Zhongping; Li, Hua; Pang, Zheng; Junkins, Robert D; Tremblay, Michel L; Chen, Xiaochun; Lin, Tong-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic pathogen in immune-compromised individuals. Mechanisms governing immune responses to P. aeruginosa infection remain incompletely defined. Herein, we demonstrate that protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) is a critical negative regulator in P. aeruginosa infection. PTP1B-deficient mice display greatly enhanced bacterial clearance and reduced disease scores, which are accompanied by increased neutrophil infiltration and cytokine production. Interestingly, PTP1B deficiency mainly up-regulates the production of interferon-stimulated response elements-regulated cytokines and chemokines, including chemokine ligand 5 (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted), CXCL10 (interferon γ-inducible protein 10), and interferon-β production. Further studies reveal that PTP1B deficiency leads to increased interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) expression and activation. These findings demonstrate a novel regulatory mechanism of the immune response to P. aeruginosa infection through PTP1B-IRF7 interaction. This novel PTP1B-IRF7-interferon-stimulated response elements pathway may have broader implications in Toll-like receptor-mediated innate immunity. PMID:27105736

  14. Impact of Triple-Negative Phenotype on Prognosis of Patients With Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhiyuan [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Schlesinger, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Toulmin, Sushila [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Rich, Tyvin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Sheehan, Jason, E-mail: jps2f@virginia.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To elucidate survival times and identify potential prognostic factors in patients with triple-negative (TN) phenotype who harbored brain metastases arising from breast cancer and who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: A total of 103 breast cancer patients with brain metastases were treated with SRS and then studied retrospectively. Twenty-four patients (23.3%) were TN. Survival times were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with a log-rank test computing the survival time difference between groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses to predict potential prognostic factors were performed using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: The presence of TN phenotype was associated with worse survival times, including overall survival after the diagnosis of primary breast cancer (43 months vs. 82 months), neurologic survival after the diagnosis of intracranial metastases, and radiosurgical survival after SRS, with median survival times being 13 months vs. 25 months and 6 months vs. 16 months, respectively (p < 0.002 in all three comparisons). On multivariate analysis, radiosurgical survival benefit was associated with non-TN status and lower recursive partitioning analysis class at the initial SRS. Conclusion: The TN phenotype represents a significant adverse prognostic factor with respect to overall survival, neurologic survival, and radiosurgical survival in breast cancer patients with intracranial metastasis. Recursive partitioning analysis class also served as an important and independent prognostic factor.

  15. Negative Impacts of the Neo-liberal Policies on the Banking Sector in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitsa Rangelova Pavlova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 1970s until the last global financial and economic crisis in 2008-2009, neo-liberal ideas guided economic policy development. It is worth noting that the Central and Eastern European countries transformed their economies from centrally planned to а market type at the peak of the liberal policies. Bulgaria offers a particularly interesting example because the country encountered a very difficult transition from one extreme of an economic system organization to another. The paper considers the reforms in the Bulgarian banking sector during the transition period from a centrally planned to a market type economy (from 1989 onward through the implementation of neo-liberal policies. The development of the banking sector and its transformation is analyzed throughout the two main periods: before and after the transition. The latter is divided into two sub-periods (phases beginning with the early 1990s, followed by the financial and bank crisis in the country, the introduction of a currency board regime in 1997, and stabilization, and ending with the global crisis in 2008-2009. This article summarizes that during the transition period, a modern banking system was established to accumulate profit rather than to promote economic growth. Following a chronological order, the negative effects of the liberalization of the Bulgarian banking sector are specified: the exportation of ownership (and control upon banking system assets, unfair asset redistribution, the emergence of the local oligarchy, the weak protection of the taxpayers and others.

  16. Negative Impact of Skeletal Muscle Loss after Systemic Chemotherapy in Patients with Unresectable Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Miyamoto

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle depletion (sarcopenia is closely associated with limited physical ability and high mortality. This study evaluated the prognostic significance of skeletal muscle status before and after chemotherapy in patients with unresectable colorectal cancer (CRC.We conducted a retrospective analysis of 215 consecutive patients with unresectable CRC who underwent systemic chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle cross-sectional area was measured by computed tomography. We evaluated the prognostic value of skeletal muscle mass before chemotherapy and the rate of skeletal muscle change in cross-sectional area after chemotherapy.One-hundred-eighty-two patients met our inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences in progression-free survival (PFS or overall survival (OS associated with skeletal muscle mass before chemotherapy. However, 22 patients with skeletal muscle loss (>5% after chemotherapy showed significantly shorter PFS and OS compared with those without skeletal muscle loss (PFS, log-rank p = 0.029; OS, log-rank p = 0.009. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that skeletal muscle loss after chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 2.079; 95% confidence interval, 1.194-3.619; p = 0.010 was independently associated with OS.Skeletal muscle loss after chemotherapy was an independent, negative prognostic factor in unresectable CRC.

  17. Behavioral Symptoms in Motor Neuron Disease and Their Negative Impact on Caregiver Burden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Cui; Li-Ying Cui; Ming-Sheng Liu; Xiao-Guang Li; Jun-Fang Ma; Jia Fang; Qing-Yun Ding

    2015-01-01

    Background:The spectrum of abnormal behaviors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) has been described,but its practical meaning,namely its impact on caregiver burden,has not been clearly documented in Chinese population.This study aimed to assess the distribution of abnormal behaviors in Chinese population,and to analyze the relationship between behavior changes and caregiver burden.Methods:Sixty-five patients with ALS/MND have been consecutively enrolled into registry platform of Peking Union Medical College Hospital.An investigation was performed to these patients and their caregivers using the revised ALS function rating scale,Frontal Behavioral Inventory-ALS version,the Frontal Assessment Battery,and the Caregiver Burden Inventory.Results:Twenty-eight (43.1%) patients displayed abnormal behaviors of varying degrees,with one fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of frontotemporal lobe degeneration.Irritability,logopenia,and inflexibility ranked top 3 of abnormal behavior list.Correlation analysis revealed that the degree of behavioral change and frontal cognitive status were significantly associated with caregiver burden,with more extensive impact from disinhibitive behaviors.Analysis of covariance analysis showed that after associated factors were corrected,caregivers of patients with moderate to severe behavior change reported significantly heavier developmental burden,physical burden,and total burden than those with no behavioral change.Conclusions:Neurobehavioral symptoms could present in around 40% of Chinese patients with ALS/MND,and the distribution of these behaviors was also unique.Besides,abnormal behaviors were highly related to caregivers' burden.

  18. Lack of maintenance of shortwave diathermy equipment has a negative impact on power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus; Guirro, Elaine Caldeira de Oliveira; Alves de Sousa, Natanael Teixeira

    2014-04-01

    Although shortwave diathermy has been widely used by physiotherapists, there are a few studies assessing the performance of the equipment in use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the procedures adopted by physiotherapists as users of shortwave diathermy continuous (CSWD), as well as to measure the power output and frequency of CSWD equipment. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three physical therapists were interviewed and 23 CSWD equipment were evaluated. Admeasurement was carried out by using a standard phantom to simulate the electrode-skin distance, which ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 cm. Data analysis was performed by using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and a post-hoc Tukey's test or Pearson's correlation coefficient. [Results] The questionnaires showed that 48% of the interviewees use the correct electrode-skin distance, 70% use a single electrical outlet, and 35% use a grounded electrical outlet, and that 48% of the physiotherapy tables and 61% of the plinths were made of wood. However, only 13% of the interviewees perform yearly preventive maintenance. The highest power (95.56 W) was achieved at electrode-skin distances ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 cm, with distances of 2.5 cm and 3.0 cm being null in four and eight equipment, respectively. There was a negative correlation between power output and electrode-skin distance as well as between power output and purchase date. [Conclusion] The physiotherapists involved in this study had inadequate knowledge about the correct use of CSWD equipment, which may adversely affect its performance and patient safety. PMID:24764633

  19. Eyewitness memory: The impact of a negative mood during encoding and/or retrieval upon recall of a non-emotive event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Craig; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Abel, Joseph W; Knott, Lauren M

    2016-07-01

    The police often appeal for eyewitnesses to events that were unlikely to have been emotive when observed. An eyewitness, however, may be in a negative mood whilst encoding or retrieving such events as mood can be influenced by a range of personal, social, and environmental factors. For example, bad weather can induce a negative mood. This experiment compared the impact of negative and neutral moods during encoding and/or retrieval upon eyewitness recall of a non-emotive event. A negative mood during encoding had no impact upon the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at retrieval) but a negative mood during retrieval impaired the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at encoding). A negative mood at both time points enhanced the number of correct details recalled, demonstrating a mood-dependent memory enhancement. The forensic implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Genetically-Improved Tilapia Strains in Africa: Potential Benefits and Negative Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw B. Ansah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two genetically improved tilapia strains (GIFT and Akosombo have been created with Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia, which is native to Africa. In particular, GIFT has been shown to be significantly superior to local African tilapia strains in terms of growth rate. While development economists see the potential for food security and poverty reduction in Africa from culture of these new strains of tilapia, conservationists are wary of potential ecological and genetic impacts on receiving ecosystems and native stocks of tilapia. This study reviews the history of the GIFT technology, and identifies potential environmental and genetic risks of improved and farmed strains and tilapia in general. We also estimate the potential economic gains from the introduction of genetically improved strains in Africa, using Ghana as a case country. Employing a combination of the Economic-Surplus model and Monte Carlo simulation, we found the mean net present value (NPV of the introduction of the GIFT strain in Ghana to be approximately 1% of the country’s gross domestic product. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the difference in growth or yield between the GIFT and locally-available strains has the largest effect on mean NPV. We conclude that improvements in management practices and infrastructure could increase the yield and profitability of the local strains even if genetically-improved strains are not introduced. These improvements also will ensure the realization of the full potential of introduced strains.

  1. Costly learning: preference for familiar food persists despite negative impact on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thaiany M; Hebets, Eileen A; Melo, Diogo; Willemart, Rodrigo H

    2016-07-01

    Animals often rely on events in their environment that provide information (i.e. experience) to alter their future decision-making in ways that are presumed to be beneficial. Such experience-based learning, however, does not always lead to adaptive decision-making. In this study, we use the omnivorous harvestman Heteromitobates discolor to explore the role of past diet on subsequent food choice and survival. We first tested whether a short-term homogeneous diet (rotten crickets, fresh crickets or dog food) influenced subsequent food choice (rotten cricket versus fresh cricket). We next examine the impact of diet on survival. We found that following experience with a homogeneous cricket diet, adult harvestmen displayed a learned preference for familiar food, regardless of whether it was rotten or fresh crickets; individuals experiencing dog food were equally likely to choose rotten versus fresh crickets. We additionally found that individuals that ate rotten crickets suffered shorter survival than those that ate fresh crickets. Together, our results suggest that the diet an individual experiences can lead to maladaptive food preferences-preferences that ultimately result in reduced longevity. PMID:27405381

  2. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

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    Szabolcs Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  3. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G; Clougherty, Jane E; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors-including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)-as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  4. How electromagnetic fields can influence adult stem cells: positive and negative impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziarz, Aleksandra; Kocan, Beata; Bester, Mariusz; Budzik, Sylwia; Cholewa, Marian; Ochiya, Takahiro; Banas, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) has a great impact on our body. It has been successfully used in physiotherapy for the treatment of bone disorders and osteoarthritis, as well as for cartilage regeneration or pain reduction. Recently, EMFs have also been applied in in vitro experiments on cell/stem cell cultures. Stem cells reside in almost all tissues within the human body, where they exhibit various potential. These cells are of great importance because they control homeostasis, regeneration, and healing. Nevertheless, stem cells when become cancer stem cells, may influence the pathological condition. In this article we review the current knowledge on the effects of EMFs on human adult stem cell biology, such as proliferation, the cell cycle, or differentiation. We present the characteristics of the EMFs used in miscellaneous assays. Most research has so far been performed during osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. It has been demonstrated that the effects of EMF stimulation depend on the intensity and frequency of the EMF and the time of exposure to it. However, other factors may affect these processes, such as growth factors, reactive oxygen species, and so forth. Exploration of this research area may enhance the development of EMF-based technologies used in medical applications and thereby improve stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:27086866

  5. The negative impacts of human activities in the eastern African region: an international waters perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Rolph; Obura, David

    2004-02-01

    The complex interactions between human activities and the environment at the interface of land and water is analyzed with a focus on the Somali Current (East Africa), and Indian Ocean Island States, subregions of the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA). These 2 subregions contain some of the world's richest ecosystems, including the high biodiversity forests of Madagascar and the diverse coastal habitats of the eastern African coast. These ecosystems support local communities and national and regional economies. Current and future degradation of these systems, from water basins to continental shelves, affects the livelihoods and sustainability of the countries in the region, and long-term efforts to reduce poverty. The assessments determined that pollution and climate change are the primary environmental and social concerns in the Islands of the Indian Ocean, while freshwater shortage and unsustainable exploitation of fisheries and other living resources are the primary environmental and social concerns in East Africa. The GIWA approach, through assessing root causes of environmental concerns, enables the development of policy approaches for mitigating environmental degradation. This paper explores policy frameworks for mitigating the impacts, and reducing the drivers, of 3 environmental concerns--freshwater shortage; solid waste pollution; and climate change--addressing social and institutional causes and effects, and linking the subregions to broad international frameworks. The common theme in all 3 case studies is the need to develop integrated ecosystem and international waters policies, and mechanisms to manage conflicting interests and to limit threats to natural processes. PMID:15083647

  6. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tudor, Jennifer C; Luczak, Vincent G; Hansen, Rolf T; Ferri, Sarah L; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Poplawski, Shane G; Day, Jonathan P; Aton, Sara J; Radwańska, Kasia; Meerlo, Peter; Houslay, Miles D; Baillie, George S; Abel, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Brief periods of sleep loss have long-lasting consequences such as impaired memory consolidation. Structural changes in synaptic connectivity have been proposed as a substrate of memory storage. Here, we examine the impact of brief periods of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure. In mice, we find that five hours of sleep deprivation decreases dendritic spine numbers selectively in hippocampal area CA1 and increased activity of the filamentous actin severing protein cofilin. Recovery sleep normalizes these structural alterations. Suppression of cofilin function prevents spine loss, deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and impairments in long-term memory caused by sleep deprivation. The elevated cofilin activity is caused by cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase-4A5 (PDE4A5), which hampers cAMP-PKA-LIMK signaling. Attenuating PDE4A5 function prevents changes in cAMP-PKA-LIMK-cofilin signaling and cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation. Our work demonstrates the necessity of an intact cAMP-PDE4-PKA-LIMK-cofilin activation-signaling pathway for sleep deprivation-induced memory disruption and reduction in hippocampal spine density. PMID:27549340

  7. The creation of special economic zones in China: Positive and negative impacts in its implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Orozco Plascencia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available At the end of seventies, Deng Xioaping, President applied a modernization policy in China, that during more than 30 years allow to reach high economic growth rates above 8% average per year. This reform included the instauration of four Special Economic Zones (SEZ in the southeast of the country, three in Guangdong (Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantao and one in Xiamen, Fujian.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the backgrounds of SEZ, the reasons of Chinese Government to implement its and the positive impacts and barriers to become operational.The conclusion in this article is that sez arise like an experiment of the Chinese central government economic policy to apply capitalist measures in design previous regions, the most important benefit has been the strong attraction of Foreing Direct Investment, explained in a surplus trade balance, sustanaible economic growht and technological transference. However, the most significative operational barrier has been the legal rigidity in the imported overseas products, a change of nacional politicideology system and problem asociated with burocracy and corruption.

  8. Codon optimization of the adenoviral fiber negatively impacts structural protein expression and viral fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Eneko; Martí-Solano, Maria; Fillat, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Codon usage adaptation of lytic viruses to their hosts is determinant for viral fitness. In this work, we analyzed the codon usage of adenoviral proteins by principal component analysis and assessed their codon adaptation to the host. We observed a general clustering of adenoviral proteins according to their function. However, there was a significant variation in the codon preference between the host-interacting fiber protein and the rest of structural late phase proteins, with a non-optimal codon usage of the fiber. To understand the impact of codon bias in the fiber, we optimized the Adenovirus-5 fiber to the codon usage of the hexon structural protein. The optimized fiber displayed increased expression in a non-viral context. However, infection with adenoviruses containing the optimized fiber resulted in decreased expression of the fiber and of wild-type structural proteins. Consequently, this led to a drastic reduction in viral release. The insertion of an exogenous optimized protein as a late gene in the adenovirus with the optimized fiber further interfered with viral fitness. These results highlight the importance of balancing codon usage in viral proteins to adequately exploit cellular resources for efficient infection and open new opportunities to regulate viral fitness for virotherapy and vaccine development.

  9. Negative impacts of human land use on dung beetle functional diversity.

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    Felipe Barragán

    Full Text Available The loss of biodiversity caused by human activity is assumed to alter ecosystem functioning. However our understanding of the magnitude of the effect of these changes on functional diversity and their impact on the dynamics of ecological processes is still limited. We analyzed the functional diversity of copro-necrophagous beetles under different conditions of land use in three Mexican biosphere reserves. In Montes Azules pastures, forest fragments and continuous rainforest were analyzed, in Los Tuxtlas rainforest fragments of different sizes were analyzed and in Barranca de Metztitlán two types of xerophile scrub with different degrees of disturbance from grazing were analyzed. We assigned dung beetle species to functional groups based on food relocation, beetle size, daily activity period and food preferences, and as measures of functional diversity we used estimates based on multivariate methods. In Montes Azules functional richness was lower in the pastures than in continuous rainforest and rainforest fragments, but fragments and continuous forest include functionally redundant species. In small rainforest fragments (20 ha. Functional evenness and functional dispersion did not vary among habitat types or fragment size in these reserves. In contrast, in Metztitlán, functional richness and functional dispersion were different among the vegetation types, but differences were not related to the degree of disturbance by grazing. More redundant species were found in submontane than in crassicaule scrub. For the first time, a decrease in the functional diversity in communities of copro-necrophagous beetles resulting from changes in land use is documented, the potential implications for ecosystem functioning are discussed and a series of variables that could improve the evaluation of functional diversity for this biological group is proposed.

  10. Urban green spaces′ effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Mario Dzhambov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect. This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.

  11. Strategies to Mitigate the Negative and Accentuate the Positive Impacts of International Service-Learning on Host Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari Galiardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available International service-learning can have a transformative effect on student participants, but little research has been done on the impact of these experiences on host communities. The authors make the case that an emphasis on intentional personal, cultural, and group preparation is imperative to have the best possible impact on both the student and host community. Overarching strategies include: 1 preparing students for their experience prior to departure from both an individual and group development perspective; 2 designing reflection activities and discussions that include members of the host community; 3 facilitating open conversations about equitable relationships, international perspectives of Americans, and potential negative effects the group could have on the host community; 4 providing opportunities for post-travel dialogue and personal action plans for re-engaging with the local community upon return. The authors draw from both theoretical frameworks and many years of experience traveling abroad with students to underpin the strategies outlined in this article. KEYWORDSservice-learning; group development; international

  12. Negative impact of prolonged cold storage time before machine perfusion preservation in donation after circulatory death kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloyo, Siegfredo; Sageshima, Junichiro; Gaynor, Jeffrey J; Chen, Linda; Ciancio, Gaetano; Burke, George W

    2016-10-01

    Kidney grafts are often preserved initially in static cold storage (CS) and subsequently on hypothermic machine perfusion (MP). However, the impact of CS/MP time on transplant outcome remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of prolonged CS/MP time in a single-center retrospective cohort of 59 donation after circulatory death (DCD) and 177 matched donation after brain death (DBD) kidney-alone transplant recipients. With mean overall CS/MP times of 6.0 h/30.0 h, overall incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) was higher in DCD transplants (30.5%) than DBD transplants (7.3%, P time (P = 0.0002), male recipient (P = 0.02), and longer MP time (P = 0.08) were associated with higher DGF incidence. In evaluating the joint effects of donor type (DBD vs. DCD), CS time (time (time ≥36 h (P = 0.003) across each donor type and CS time stratum, whereas the unfavorable effect of CS time ≥6 h (P = 0.01) is primarily seen among DCD recipients. Prolonged cold ischemia time had no unfavorable effect on renal function or graft survival at 12mo post-transplant. Long CS/MP time detrimentally affects early DCD/DBD kidney transplant outcome when grafts were mainly preserved by MP; prolonged CS time before MP has a particularly negative impact in DCD kidney transplantation.

  13. Organizational Justice and Perceived Organizational Support: Impact on Negative Work-Home Interference and Well-being Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Babic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that negative work-home interference (NegWHI impacts upon several work attitudes and behaviors. In the interests of both organizational effectiveness and employee well-being, it is important to identify concepts related to NegWHI and investigate their effects on well-being outcomes. This study examines the mediating role of (1 perceived organizational support (POS in the relationship between organizational justice (OJ and NegWHI; and (2 NegWHI in the relationships between POS and four well-being outcomes. A total of 509 employees of a Belgian hospital were surveyed. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and the bootstrapping method. Results showed that POS partially mediates the relationships between distributive and passive procedural justice and NegWHI, and fully mediates the relationship between the other justice dimensions and NegWHI. NegWHI partially mediates the relationships between POS and both job satisfaction and intention to quit, and fully mediates the relationship between POS and job strain. Furthermore, POS is positively related to job engagement. This study showed that organizations can help employees to better manage their work and family lives and reduce the impact of NegWHI by enhancing employees’ feeling that they are supported by their organization. In order to increase POS, organizations need to promote justice in the workplace.

  14. Recreational Physical Activity Ameliorates Some of the Negative Impact of Major Depression on Health-Related Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burton Patten

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major depressive episodes (MDEs have a negative effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The objective of this study was to determine whether recreational physical activity can ameliorate some of this negative impact. Methods: The data source for the study was the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS. The NPHS is a longitudinal study that has collected data from a representative cohort of 15,254 community residents. Sixteen years of follow-up data are available. The NPHS included: an instrument to assess MDE (the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form for Major Depression, an inventory of recreational activities (each associated with hours of participation and estimated metabolic expenditures and a HRQoL instrument (the Health Utility Index, Mark 3 or HUI3. Proportional hazard and linear regression models were used in this study to determine whether MDE-related declines in HRQoL were lessened by participation in an active recreational lifestyle. Results: Consistent with expectation, major depression was associated with a significant decline in HRQoL over time. While no statistical interactions were observed, the risk of diminished HRQoL in association with MDE was reduced by physical activity. In a proportional hazards model, the hazard ratio for transition to poor HRQoL was 0.7 (95% CI: 0.6 – 0.8, p < 0.0001. In linear regression models, physical activity was significantly associated with more positive HRQoL (β = 0.019, 95% CI 0.004 to – 0.034, p =0.02.Conclusions: Recreational physical activity appears to ameliorate some of the decline in HRQoL seen in association with MDE. Physical activity may be an effective tertiary preventive strategy for this condition.

  15. Impact of microbiology cascade reporting on antibiotic de-escalation in cefazolin-susceptible Gram-negative bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L S; Patel, D; King, E A; Maslow, J N

    2016-07-01

    Cascade reporting (CR) involves reporting the susceptibilities of broad-spectrum agents only when the organism is resistant to more narrow-spectrum agents. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of CR on antibiotic de-escalation practices and to characterize the impact of CR on clinical outcomes. CR rules were implemented in the microbiology laboratory at Atlantic Health System (AHS) in June 2013. A retrospective chart review was conducted at two community teaching hospitals in adult patients who had a blood culture positive for a Gram-negative organism susceptible to cefazolin and who were empirically treated with broad-spectrum beta-lactam (BSBL) antibiotics. De-escalation practices were compared in the pre-CR (July 2012-December 2012) and post-CR (July 2013-December 2013) periods. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients whose BSBL agent was de-escalated to agents listed on the post-CR antibiotic susceptibility report within 48 h of the final report. Secondary endpoints include the difference in pre-CR and post-CR periods in terms of hospital length of stay, in-hospital mortality, 30-day readmission, Clostridium difficile infections, and re-initiation of a BSBL agent within 7 days. A total of 73 patients were included; 31 in the pre-CR and 42 in the post-CR period. Patients had similar baseline characteristics. Therapy was de-escalated in 48 % of pre-CR vs 71 % of post-CR patients (p = 0.043). No significant differences were observed in secondary endpoints between patients in the pre-CR and post-CR periods. CR resulted in significant improvements in de-escalation practices without affecting safety outcomes. PMID:27130036

  16. Coaching to vision versus coaching to improvement needs: a preliminary investigation on the differential impacts of fostering positive and negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Anita R.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on intentional change theory (ICT; Boyatzis, 2006), this study examined the differential impact of inducing coaching recipients’ vision/positive emotion versus improvement needs/negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions. A core aim of the study was to empirically test two central ICT propositions on the effects of using the coached person’s Positive Emotional Attractor (vision/PEA) versus Negative Emotional Attractor (improvement needs/NEA) as the anchoring framewo...

  17. Using Modified Sorbents for Reducing Negative Impact of Oil-Containing Industrial Wastes on Natural and Artificial Waterways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljudmila Anatolievna Marchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at developing and using co-precipitated hydroxides (CPH of aluminum and magnesium as sorbents, in order to reduce the negative impact of oil-containing industrial wastes on natural and artificial waterways. A new method of synthesizing a modified sorbent has been developed, featuring high sorption capacity to a wide range of pollutants in low-acid, neutral, and low-alkaline environments, able to extract complex compounds. A possibility to use this sorbent has been shown, and its sorption capacity has been studied. Sorption parameters have been defined. It has been shown that the value of the maximum achievable concentration efficiency in extracting the said ions on a co-precipitated sorbent is about ten times higher than the corresponding values that characterize sorption on analogous sorbents. In performing analytical studies, standard methods were used, as well as modern methods of physical and chemical analysis: x-ray phase, x-ray fluorescent, atomic absorption, spectral, chemical, thin layer chromatography, and chromato-mass-spectrometry. The specific surface of the samples was defined by the temperature of nitrogen absorption, using the chromatographic method, followed by processing the obtained results using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Porosity was defined using mercury porometry. The performed research has made it possible to obtain new highly efficient sorbents and assess their economic efficiency. The performed research will make it possible to resolve ecological and social problems by preventing the damage caused by environmental pollution with anthropogenous wastes.

  18. The negative impact of the disturb of the use and abuse of the alcohol in the family coexistence

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    Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de Miranda

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The use and abuse of the alcohol progress in a slow and insidious way developing for chronic disease carting immeasurable problems in the individual's process health-disease and of the family all over the world. The present research study analyzed the negative impact in the family coexistence related to the upset of the use and alcohol abuse. It is treated of a field research with qualitative approach centered in the relatives' relieves uttered spontaneously in the act of the admission of a service of psychiatric urgency in the metropolitan area of Natal City/RN. The technician-methodological instrument of the data collection was based on the active listening research. Starting from the explanatory models where the relieves were contained, prevailing the morals associated to the ethical-legal. The discoveries reveal that the model explanatory morals of the use and abuse of alcohol is better explained by the relatives, although the moralize sense is also captured in the speeches that illustrate the other models. We verified one it refuses in accepting the patient condition, even if the relief of the current tensions of taking care of the alcoholic is the hospital. Many are the explanatory and therapeutic proposals for the problem, though we cannot lose of view the need to promote permanent educational actions that guarantee to the bearers and family a larger understanding of the lived problems and a better adaptation of the years lived adjusted the lost capacity by virtue of all the alterations happened in the continuation of the use and abuse of the alcohol in your process health-disease.

  19. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth System Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O3 increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM2.5 increases of up to 2 μg m−3. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value. (letter)

  20. STAT5B mutations in heterozygous state have negative impact on height: another clue in human stature heritability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Renata C; Hwa, Vivian; Domené, Horacio M.; Jasper, Héctor G.; Belgorosky, Alicia; Marino, Roxana; Pereira, Alberto M.; Tonelli, Carlos A.; Wit, Jan M.; Rosenfeld, Ron G.; Jorge, Alexander A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Context and objective Growth hormone insensitivity with immune dysfunction caused by signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B (STAT5B) mutations is an autosomal recessive condition. Heterozygous mutations in other genes involved in growth regulation were previously associated with a mild height reduction. Our objective was to assess for the first time the phenotype of heterozygous STAT5B mutations. Methods We genotyped and performed clinical and laboratorial evaluations in 52 relatives of 2 previously described Brazilian brothers with homozygous STAT5B c.424_427del mutation (21 heterozygous). Additionally, we obtained height data and genotype from 1,104 adult control individuals from the same region in Brazil and identified 5 additional families harboring the same mutation (18 individuals, 11 heterozygous). Furthermore, we gathered the available height data from first-degree relatives of patients with homozygous STAT5B mutations (17 individuals from 7 families). Data from heterozygous individuals and non-carriers were compared. Results Individuals carrying heterozygous STAT5B c.424_427del mutation were 0.6 SDS shorter than their non-carrier relatives (p= 0.009). Heterozygous subjects also had significantly lower SDS for serum concentrations of IGF-1 (p=0.028) and IGFBP-3 (p=0.02) than their non-carrier relatives. The 17 heterozygous first-degree relatives of patients carrying homozygous STAT5B mutations had an average height SDS of −1.4 ± 0.8 when compared with population-matched controls (p < 0.001). Conclusions STAT5B mutations in heterozygous state have a significant negative impact on height (approximately 3.9 cm). This effect is milder than the effect seen in the homozygous state, with height usually within the normal range. Our results support the hypothesis that heterozygosity of rare pathogenic variants contributes to normal height heritability. PMID:26034074

  1. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-01

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth System Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O3 increases of 5-27 ppb in India, 1-9 ppb in China, and 1-6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM2.5 increases of up to 2 μg m-3. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10-100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.

  2. Be kind to your eating disorder patients: The impact of positive and negative feedback on the explicit and implicit self-esteem of female patients with eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J. van der; Kamphuis, J.H.; Slagmolen, C.J.J.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Pieters, G.; Probst, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lack of self-esteem may play an important role in the development of eating disorders (ED). This study investigated the differential impact of positive and negative feedback on implicit and explicit self-esteem in women with an ED (N=25) as compared to women without an ED (N=29). METHOD:

  3. Filter paper inhibits in vitro protocorm-like body formation in hybrid Cymbidium and reduces synseed germination, but buffers the negative impact of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIXEIRA DA SILVA JAIME A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies in the plant tissue culture literature have examined the impact of filter paper on in vitro plant organogenesis. In this study, using a model plant, hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’, the impact of a single or double layer of Advantec #2 or Whatman #1 filter paper on new protocorm-like body (neo-PLB formation on Teixeira Cymbidium (TC medium was examined for half-PLBs (transgenic and non-transgenic, PLB-derived transverse thin cell layers (tTCLs, and PLB synseeds. In addition, the response of half-PLBs or tTCLs to two antibiotics (kanamycin and cefotaxime, commonly used in plant genetic transformation studies was investigated either directly on gelled medium or on filter paper-overlaid medium. Filter paper negatively affected most growth and developmental parameters of all the explants tested, both transgenic and non-transgenic. A double sheet of filter paper had a significantly (P ≤ 0.05 more negative impact than a single sheet, relative to the control values (i.e., no filter paper. Kanamycin inhibited neo-PLB formation on TC medium, the negative impact being greater on a single layer than on a double layer of filter paper, i.e., filter paper buffered the growth-inhibiting characteristics of kanamycin. Up to 100 mg/l, cefotaxime showed no apparent negative effects on neo-PLBs formation and growth, although hyperhydricity was observed when filter paper was not used.

  4. Impact of negative emotion on the neural correlates of long-term recognition in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoria eKalpouzos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have suggested that the memory advantage for negative emotional information over neutral information (negativity effect is reduced in aging. Besides the fact that most findings are based on immediate retrieval, the neural underpinnings of long-term emotional memory in aging have so far not been investigated. To address these issues, we assessed recognition of neutral and negative scenes after one- and 3-week retention intervals in younger and older adults using fMRI. We further used an event-related design in order to disentangle successful, false and true recognition. This study revealed 4 key findings: 1 Increased retention interval induced an increased rate of false recognitions for negative scenes, cancelling out the negativity effect (present for hit rates only on discrimination in both younger and older adults; 2 In younger, but not older, adults, reduced activity of the medial temporal lobe was observed over time for neutral scenes, but not for negative scenes, where stable or increased activity was seen; 3 Engagement of amygdala was observed in older adults after a 3-week delay during successful recognition of negative scenes (hits versus misses in comparison with neutral scenes, which may indicate engagement of automatic processes, but engagement of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was unrelated to amygdala activity and performance; and 4 After 3 weeks, but not after one week, true recognition of negative scenes was characterized by more activity in left hippocampus and lateral occipito-temporal regions (hits versus false alarms. As these regions are known to be related to consolidation mechanisms, the observed pattern may indicate the presence of delayed consolidation of true memories. Nonetheless, older adults’ low performance in discrimination of negative scenes could reflect the fact that overall, after long delays of retention, they rely more on general information rather than on perceptual detail in making

  5. Understanding of a negative bowel screening result and potential impact on future symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, Karen N; Weller, David; Smith, Steve;

    2016-01-01

    ) emotional response to a negative FOBt, (ii) understanding the limitations of FOBt screening, (iii) symptom knowledge and interpretation and (iv) over-reassurance from a negative FOBt. Participants were reassured by a negative FOBt, but there was variability in the extent to which the result was interpreted...... could lead to a short-term delay in help-seeking if symptoms developed. Screening programmes should seek to emphasize the importance of the temporal nature of FOBt results with key messages about symptom recognition and prompt help-seeking behaviour....

  6. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Co

  7. 母语负迁移对英语教学的影响及应对策略%Impact of Negative Transfer to English Teaching and Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭妍

    2014-01-01

    Negative transfer exists in students' English learning process, and has played a negative impact to some extent. In this paper, pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, three levels of analysis of the causes and forms of negative migration, and ultimately come to effective coping strategies.%母语负迁移时刻存在于学生英语学习过程中,并且一定程度上起到消极的影响。本文针对语音、词汇、语法三个层面分析了母语负迁移的成因和形式,并最终得出行之有效的应对策略。

  8. Evaluation of Ertapenem use with Impact Assessment on Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) Production and Gram-Negative resistance in Singapore General Hospital (SGH)

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Cheryl Li-Ling; Lee, Winnie; Lee, Amanda Ling-Chiu; Liew, Lisa Ting-Ting; Nah, Szu Chin; Wan, Choon Nam; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr; Kwa, Andrea Lay-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Background Ertapenem (preferred choice for ESBL-producing organisms) use exhibited an increasing trend from 2006 to 2008. As extensive use of ertapenem might induce the mutation of resistant bacteria strains to ertapenem, we aimed to assess the appropriateness and impact of ertapenem-use, on ESBL production, the trends of gram-negative bacterial resistance and on the utilization of other antibiotics in our institution. Methods Inpatients who received a dose of ertapenem during 1 January 2006 ...

  9. The impact of thin idealized media images on body satisfaction: does body appreciation protect women from negative effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma

    2013-09-01

    This article examines whether positive body image can protect women from negative media exposure effects. University women (N=112) were randomly allocated to view advertisements featuring ultra-thin models or control images. Women who reported high levels of body appreciation did not report negative media exposure effects. Furthermore, the protective role of body appreciation was also evident among women known to be vulnerable to media exposure. Women high on thin-ideal internalization and low on body appreciation reported appearance-discrepancies that were more salient and larger when they viewed models compared to the control group. However, women high on thin-ideal internalization and also high on body appreciation rated appearance-discrepancies as less important and no difference in size than the control group. The results support the notion that positive body image protects women from negative environmental appearance messages and suggests that promoting positive body image may be an effective intervention strategy.

  10. Creativity as an Attribute of Positive Psychology: The Impact of Positive and Negative Affect on the Creative Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyton, Christine; Hutchison, Shannon; Snow, Lindsay; Rahman, Mohammed A.; Elliott, John O.

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology explores how optimism can lead to health, happiness, and creativity. However, questions remain as to how affective states influence creativity. Data on creative personality, optimism, pessimism, positive and negative affect, and current and usual happiness ratings were collected on 161 college students enrolled in an…

  11. Reactions to perceived fairness: The impact of mortality salience and self-esteem on ratings of negative affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den

    2001-01-01

    In correspondence with terror management theory, the findings of two experiments show that reminders of death lead to stronger effects of perceived fairness on ratings of negative affect. Furthermore, in line with the theory''s self-esteem mechanism, results of Experiment 1 suggest that state self-e

  12. The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

  13. The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attac...

  14. Strategies to Mitigate the Negative and Accentuate the Positive Impacts of International Service-Learning on Host Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Shari Galiardi; Jenny Koehn

    2012-01-01

    International service-learning can have a transformative effect on student participants, but little research has been done on the impact of these experiences on host communities. The authors make the case that an emphasis on intentional personal, cultural, and group preparation is imperative to have the best possible impact on both the student and host community. Overarching strategies include: 1) preparing students for their experience prior to departure from both an individual and group dev...

  15. Does the nutrition profile of vitamins, fatty acids and microelements counteract the negative impact from organohalogen pollutants on bone mineral density in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Beck Jensen, Jens-Erik;

    2008-01-01

    There is a great need for understanding the impact from dietary OHCs (organohalogen compounds) on bone mineral composition - and thereby osteoporosis - in especially arctic wildlife such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as well as humans. For that purpose, we measured BMD (bone mineral density......) by DXA scanning (g/cm(-2)) in 15 age and weight normalized sledge dog (Canis familiaris) bitches and their 26 pups divided into a control group (n=26) given 50-200 g/day clean pork (Suis scrofa) fat and a treated group (n=15) given 50-200 g/day OHC polluted minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata...... an impact on BMD using the present time frame and OHC concentrations (threshold levels not reached), or the difference in food composition (mainly vitamins and n3 fatty acids) conceal the potential OHC impact on BMD. Such information is important when evaluating the positive and negative health consequences...

  16. Impact of restriction of cefepime use on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacilli related to healthcare-associated infections in an orthopedic hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Priscila R Oliveira1, Adriana P Paula1, Karine Dal-Paz1, Cassia S Felix1, Flavia Rossi2, Jorge S Silva1, Ana Lucia M Lima11Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department, 2Pathology Department, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilIntroduction: In recent decades, antimicrobial resistance has become a public health problem, particularly in cases of healthcare-associated infections. Interaction between antibiotic consumption and resistance development is of particular interest regarding Gram-negative bacilli, whose growing resistance has represented a great challenge.Objective: Assess the impact of restriction of cefepime use on antimicrobial susceptibility among the Gram-negative bacilli (GNB most frequently involved in healthcare-associated infections (HAI.Methods: Data relating to hospital occupancy and mortality rates, incidence of HAI, incidence of GNB as causative agents of HAI, antimicrobial consumption at the hospital and antimicrobial susceptibility of GNB related to HAI were compared between two periods: a 24-month period preceding restriction of cefepime use and a 24-month period subsequent to this restriction.Results: There was a significant drop in cefepime consumption after its restriction. Susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumanii improved relating to gentamicin, but it worsened in relation to imipenem, subsequent to this restriction. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, there was no change in antimicrobial susceptibility. For Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp, there were improvements in susceptibility relating to ciprofloxacin.Conclusion: Restriction of cefepime use had a positive impact on K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp, given that after this restriction, their susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin improved. However, for A. baumanii, the impact was negative, given the worsening of susceptibility to imipenem.Keywords: ecological studies, cross infection, drug resistance, microbial, Gram-negative bacilli, cefepime

  17. The warmer the weather, the more gram-negative bacteria - impact of temperature on clinical isolates in intensive care units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Schwab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the relationship between average monthly temperature and the most common clinical pathogens causing infections in intensive care patients. METHODS: A prospective unit-based study in 73 German intensive care units located in 41 different hospitals and 31 different cities with total 188,949 pathogen isolates (102,377 Gram-positives and 86,572 Gram-negatives from 2001 to 2012. We estimated the relationship between the number of clinical pathogens per month and the average temperature in the month of isolation and in the month prior to isolation while adjusting for confounders and long-term trends using time series analysis. Adjusted incidence rate ratios for temperature parameters were estimated based on generalized estimating equation models which account for clustering effects. RESULTS: The incidence density of Gram-negative pathogens was 15% (IRR 1.15, 95%CI 1.10-1.21 higher at temperatures ≥ 20°C than at temperatures below 5°C. E. cloacae occurred 43% (IRR=1.43; 95%CI 1.31-1.56 more frequently at high temperatures, A. baumannii 37% (IRR=1.37; 95%CI 1.11-1.69, S. maltophilia 32% (IRR=1.32; 95%CI 1.12-1.57, K. pneumoniae 26% (IRR=1.26; 95%CI 1.13-1.39, Citrobacter spp. 19% (IRR=1.19; 95%CI 0.99-1.44 and coagulase-negative staphylococci 13% (IRR=1.13; 95%CI 1.04-1.22. By contrast, S. pneumoniae 35% (IRR=0.65; 95%CI 0.50-0.84 less frequently isolated at high temperatures. For each 5°C increase, we observed a 3% (IRR=1.03; 95%CI 1.02-1.04 increase of Gram-negative pathogens. This increase was highest for A. baumannii with 8% (IRR=1.08; 95%CI 1.05-1.12 followed by K. pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. and E. cloacae with 7%. CONCLUSION: Clinical pathogens vary by incidence density with temperature. Significant higher incidence densities of Gram-negative pathogens were observed during summer whereas S. pneumoniae peaked in winter. There is increasing evidence that different seasonality due to physiologic changes underlies

  18. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Has a Negative Impact on Quality of Life Compared with Other Comorbidities: An Epidemiological Cross-Sectional Study of 1862 Community-Dwelling Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Otani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS is common in the elderly. However, there have been few reports on its impact on quality of life (QoL in community-dwelling individuals. The purpose of this study was to clarify how symptomatic LSS affects QoL at the community level. A total of 1862 people (697 males and 1165 females, most subjects were between 40 and 85 y.o. agreed to participate and were interviewed. The presence of symptomatic LSS was assessed by a specially designed questionnaire. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 was also administered. In addition, the presence of comorbid conditions that affect QoL, such as osteoarthritis of the knee and hip, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, or respiratory disease, was also analyzed. The prevalence of symptomatic LSS gradually increased with age. Furthermore, the presence of symptomatic LSS had a strong negative effect on all 8 physical and mental domains and the physical component summary (PCS (OR: 1.547–2.544 but not the mental component summary (MCS. In comparison with comorbid conditions, LSS had a much stronger negative impact on health-related QoL (HR-QoL. The current study confirmed that the presence of symptomatic LSS might have a strong negative influence on HR-QoL in the community setting.

  19. Multimorbidity in older women: the negative impact of specific combinations of chronic conditions on self-rated health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, H.M.M.; Bor, H.H.; Rangelrooij-Minkels, M.J.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic diseases are considered major threats to self-rated health (SRH). In many elderly people multimorbidity is present, in elderly women more than in elderly men. This study aims at establishing the impact of multimorbidity and specific disease combinations on SRH in elderly women. O

  20. Focusing on Teacher-Student Interactions Eliminates the Negative Impact of Students' Disruptive Behavior on Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Christopher A.; Ruzek, Erik A.; Gregory, Anne; Allen, Joseph P.; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the impact of a randomly assigned professional development coaching intervention (MyTeachingPartner-Secondary; MTP-S) on teacher projections of their students' educational attainment. Results indicate that students who report more behavior problems in the Fall of the academic year are projected by teachers to have lower future…

  1. Negative impacts of a vertebrate predator on insect pollinator visitation and seed output in Chuquiraga oppositifolia, a high Andean shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Alejandro A; Arroyo, Mary T K

    2004-01-01

    Studies on plant-pollinator interactions have largely neglected the potential negative effects of the predators of pollinators on seed output, even though anti-predatory behaviour of pollinators may affect visitation patterns, pollen transfer, and therefore potentially, plant reproductive output. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of lizards and insectivorous birds, by reducing pollinator visitation, can have significant negative effects on seed output in the insect-pollinated, genetically self-incompatible lower alpine Andean shrub, Chuquiraga oppositifolia (Asteraceae). The lower alpine belt supports a high density of territorial Liolaemus (Tropiduridae) lizards and low shrubs interspersed among rocks of varying sizes, the latter inhabited by lizards and commonly used by flycatchers Muscisaxicola (Tyrannidae) as perching sites. In a 2x2 factorial predator-exclusion experiment, visitation rates of the most frequent pollinators of C. oppositifolia (the satyrid butterfly Cosmosatyrus chilensis and the syrphid fly Scaeva melanostoma), the duration of pollinator visits, and seed output, were 2-4 times greater when lizards were excluded, while birds had no effect. In a natural experiment, visits by S. melanostoma were 9 times shorter, and pollinator visitation rates of C. chilensis and S. melanostoma, and C. oppositifolia seed output were 2-3 times lower on shrubs growing adjacent to lizard-occupied rocks compared to those growing distant from rocks. Our results, verified for additional Andean sites, suggest that lizard predators can alter the behaviour of pollinators and elicit strong top-down indirect negative effects on seed output. Such effects may be especially important in high alpine plant communities, where pollinator activity can be low and erratic, and pollen limitation has been reported. PMID:14551828

  2. Impact on regional recurrence and survival of axillary surgery in women with node-negative primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, C K; Düring, M; Christiansen, P M;

    2009-01-01

    -negative primary breast cancer treated solely by surgery. Median follow-up was 9 years. RESULTS: The number of lymph nodes removed correlated with a reduction in the rate of subsequent axillary recurrence (from 2.1 to 0.4 per cent; P = 0.037), local recurrence (from 7.4 to 3.8 per cent; P < 0.001) distant......BACKGROUND: This study examined whether axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) with removal of many normal lymph nodes resulted in a reduced rate of axillary recurrence and better survival, as reported in recent studies. METHODS: The follow-up analyses were based on 8657 patients with node...

  3. Countermeasures to Mitigate the Negative Impact of Sensory Deprivation and Social Isolation in Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Katharine Ridgeway OBrien; Otto, Christian; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space flight presents several challenges to the behavioral health of crew members. The environment that they are likely to experience will be isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) and, as such, crew members will experience extreme sensory deprivation and social isolation. The current paper briefly notes the behavioral, cognitive, and affective consequences of psychological stress induced by ICE environments and proposes nine countermeasures aimed at mitigating the negative effects of sensory deprivation and social isolation. Implementation of countermeasures aims to maintain successful crew performance and psychological well-being in a long-duration space flight mission.

  4. Differential impact of IL-10 expression on survival and relapse between HPV16-positive and -negative oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yi Chuang

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is a risk factor in a subset of oropharyngeal cancer; however, the contribution of HPV in the malignancy of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC is not fully understood in Taiwanese. Herein, 61 patients with no risk factors and 117 patients with one or more risk factors were enrolled in this study. HPV16/18 infection rate in non-smokers, non-drinkers and non-betel quid chewers was higher than their counterparts. The development of HPV-infected cancer has been shown to be associated with interleukin-10 (IL-10 expression. To this end, IL-10 mRNA expression in OSCC tumors was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Data showed that HPV-positive patients had higher IL-10 mRNA levels than in HPV-negative patients. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis indicated that the prognostic significance of IL-10 mRNA on overall survival and relapse free survival was only observed in HPV-positive OSCC, but not in HPV-negative OSCC. Mechanistically, the elevation of IL-10 by E6 was responsible for increased colony formation and migration capability in OSCC cells. Therefore, we suggest that IL-10 induced by E6 promotes cell growth and migration capability and consequent poor survival and relapse in HPV-positive OSCC.

  5. Clinical Impact of Laboratory Implementation of Verigene BC-GN Microarray-Based Assay for Detection of Gram-Negative Bacteria in Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tamar; Dumadag, Sandrea; Lee, Christine Jiyoun; Lee, Seung Heon; Bender, Jeffrey M; Cupo Abbott, Jennifer; She, Rosemary C

    2016-07-01

    Gram-negative bacteremia is highly fatal, and hospitalizations due to sepsis have been increasing worldwide. Molecular tests that supplement Gram stain results from positive blood cultures provide specific organism information to potentially guide therapy, but more clinical data on their real-world impact are still needed. We retrospectively reviewed cases of Gram-negative bacteremia in hospitalized patients over a 6-month period before (n = 98) and over a 6-month period after (n = 97) the implementation of a microarray-based early identification and resistance marker detection system (Verigene BC-GN; Nanosphere) while antimicrobial stewardship practices remained constant. Patient demographics, time to organism identification, time to effective antimicrobial therapy, and other key clinical parameters were compared. The two groups did not differ statistically with regard to comorbid conditions, sources of bacteremia, or numbers of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, active use of immunosuppressive therapy, neutropenia, or bacteremia due to multidrug-resistant organisms. The BC-GN panel yielded an identification in 87% of Gram-negative cultures and was accurate in 95/97 (98%) of the cases compared to results using conventional culture. Organism identifications were achieved more quickly post-microarray implementation (mean, 10.9 h versus 37.9 h; P < 0.001). Length of ICU stay, 30-day mortality, and mortality associated with multidrug-resistant organisms were significantly lower in the postintervention group (P < 0.05). More rapid implementation of effective therapy was statistically significant for postintervention cases of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms (P = 0.049) but not overall (P = 0.12). The Verigene BC-GN assay is a valuable addition for the early identification of Gram-negative organisms that cause bloodstream infections and can significantly impact patient care, particularly when resistance markers are detected. PMID:27098961

  6. Prolonged length of stay associated with air leak following pulmonary resection has a negative impact on hospital margin

    OpenAIRE

    Wood,, J.S.; Lauer LM; Layton A; Tong KB

    2016-01-01

    Douglas E Wood,1 Lisa M Lauer,2 Andrew Layton,3 Kuo B Tong3 1Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, 2Spiration Inc., Redmond, WA, 3Quorum Consulting, Inc., San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Protracted hospitalizations due to air leaks following lung resections are a significant source of morbidity and prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS), with potentially significant impact on hospital margins. This study aimed to evaluate the relation...

  7. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe;

    We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...

  8. Smoking has a negative impact upon health related quality of life after treatment for head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Grau, Cai

    2006-01-01

    To examine the influence of smoking on observer based morbidity scores and patient assessed health related quality of life after treatment for head and neck cancer. The results of EORTC C30 and H&N35 questionnaires and DAHANCA morbidity scores were studied according to smoking status in 114...... recurrence free head and neck cancer patients. In contrast to observer based toxicity scoring, smoking had a significantly negative influence on 20 of the 33 quality of life scales. Previous smokers had quality of life scores in between never smokers and continuous smokers. Smoking after treatment of head...... and neck cancer adversely influenced a wide range of quality of life endpoints. Quitters had better quality of life than patients who continued to smoke after treatment, suggesting that smoking cessation may improve quality of life in addition to reducing the risk of new cancer. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb...

  9. Does the nutrition profile of vitamins, fatty acids and microelements counteract the negative impact from organohalogen pollutants on bone mineral density in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Riget, Frank F.; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck;

    2008-01-01

    There is a great need for understanding the impact from dietary OHCs (organohalogen compounds) on bone mineral composition - and thereby osteoporosis - in especially arctic wildlife such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as well as humans. For that purpose, we measured BMD (bone mineral density......) by DXA scanning (g/cm(-2)) in 15 age and weight normalized sledge dog (Canis familiaris) bitches and their 26 pups divided into a control group (n = 26) given 50-200 g/day clean pork (Suis scrofa) fat and a treated group (n = 15) given 50-200 g/day OHC polluted minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata...... using the present time frame and OHC concentrations (threshold levels not reached), or the difference in food composition (mainly vitamins and n3 fatty acids) conceal the potential OHC impact on BMD. Such information is important when evaluating the positive and negative health consequences from eating...

  10. Positive or negative? The impact of X-ray feedback on the formation of direct collapse black hole seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John A.; Johansson, Peter H.; Wise, John H.

    2016-09-01

    A nearby source of Lyman-Werner (LW) photons is thought to be a central component in dissociating H2 and allowing for the formation of a direct collapse black hole seed. Nearby sources are also expected to produce copious amounts of hydrogen ionizing photons and X-ray photons. We study here the feedback effects of the X-ray photons by including a spectrum due to high-mass X-ray binaries on top of a galaxy with a stellar spectrum. We explicitly trace photon packages emerging from the nearby source and track the radiative and chemical effects of the multifrequency source (Ephoton = 0.76 eV → 7500 eV). We find that X-rays have a strongly negative feedback effect, compared to a stellar only source, when the radiative source is placed at a separation greater than ≳ 1 kpc. The X-rays heat the low and medium density gas in the envelope surrounding the collapsing halo suppressing the mass inflow. The result is a smaller enclosed mass compared to the stellar only case. However, for separations of ≲ 1 kpc, the feedback effects of the X-rays becomes somewhat neutral. The enhanced LW intensity at close separations dissociates more H2 and this gas is heated due to stellar photons alone, the addition of X-rays is then not significant. This distance dependence of X-ray feedback suggests that a Goldilocks zone exists close to a forming galaxy where X-ray photons have a much smaller negative feedback effect and ideal conditions exist for creating massive black hole seeds.

  11. Does Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Negatively Impact Long-Term Survival and Freedom from Reintervention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad G. Raja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently published evidence has raised concerns about worse late mortality and increasing need for reintervention after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. We undertook this study to assess the impact of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting on survival and freedom from reintervention at 10 years. From January 2002 to December 2002, 307 consecutive patients who had isolated multivessel off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting at our institution were compared to a control group of 397 patients that underwent multivessel on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting during the same period. In addition, univariate and risk-adjusted comparisons between the two groups were performed at 10 years. Kaplan-Meier survival was similar for the two cohorts. After adjusting for clinical covariates, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting did not emerge as a significant independent predictor of long-term mortality (Hazard Ratio 0.91; 95% Confidence Interval 0.70–1.12, readmission to hospital for cardiac cause (Hazard Ratio 0.96; 95% Confidence Interval 0.78–1.10, or the need for reintervention (Hazard Ratio 0.93; 95% Confidence Interval 0.87–1.05. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting does not adversely impact survival or freedom from reintervention at a 10-year follow-up.

  12. Does Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Negatively Impact Long-Term Survival and Freedom from Reintervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Shahzad G.; Husain, Mubassher; Popescu, Florentina L.; Chudasama, Dimple; Daley, Siobhan; Amrani, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Recently published evidence has raised concerns about worse late mortality and increasing need for reintervention after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. We undertook this study to assess the impact of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting on survival and freedom from reintervention at 10 years. From January 2002 to December 2002, 307 consecutive patients who had isolated multivessel off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting at our institution were compared to a control group of 397 patients that underwent multivessel on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting during the same period. In addition, univariate and risk-adjusted comparisons between the two groups were performed at 10 years. Kaplan-Meier survival was similar for the two cohorts. After adjusting for clinical covariates, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting did not emerge as a significant independent predictor of long-term mortality (Hazard Ratio 0.91; 95% Confidence Interval 0.70–1.12), readmission to hospital for cardiac cause (Hazard Ratio 0.96; 95% Confidence Interval 0.78–1.10), or the need for reintervention (Hazard Ratio 0.93; 95% Confidence Interval 0.87–1.05). Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting does not adversely impact survival or freedom from reintervention at a 10-year follow-up. PMID:24106710

  13. The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-05-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed. PMID:20587476

  14. Auditory Scene Analysis and sonified visual images. Does consonance negatively impact on object formation when using complex sonified stimuli?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Brown

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener. However, we don’t yet know what role the auditory system plays in the object integration stage and whether the principles of auditory scene analysis apply. Here we used coarse sonified images in a two-tone discrimination task to test whether auditory feature-based representations of visual objects would be confounded when their features conflicted with the principles of auditory consonance. We found that listeners (N = 36 performed worse in an object recognition task when the auditory feature-based representation was harmonically consonant. We also found that this conflict was not negated with the provision of congruent audio-visual information. The findings suggest that early auditory processes of harmonic grouping dominate the object formation process and that the complexity of the signal, and additional sensory information have limited effect on this.

  15. Double impact: what sibling data can tell us about the long-term negative effects of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfinger, Nicholas H; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Smith, Ken R

    2003-01-01

    Most prior research on the adverse consequences of parental divorce has analyzed only one child per family. As a result, it is not known whether the same divorce affects siblings differently. We address this issue by analyzing paired sibling data from the 1994 General Social Survey (GSS) and 1994 Survey of American Families (SAF). Both seemingly unrelated regressions and random effects models are used to study the effect of family background on offspring's educational attainment and marital stability. Parental divorce adversely affects the educational attainment and the probability of divorce of both children within a sibship; in other words, siblings tend to experience the same divorce the same way. However, family structure of origin only accounts for a trivial portion of the shared variance in offspring's educational attainment and marital stability, so parental divorce is only one of many factors determining how offspring fare. These findings were unchanged when controlling for a number of differences both between and within sibships. Also, the negative effects of parental divorce largely do not vary according to respondent characteristics.

  16. Positive or Negative? The Impact of X-ray Feedback on the Formation of Direct Collapse Black Hole Seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Regan, John A; Wise, John H

    2016-01-01

    A nearby source of Lyman-Werner (LW) photons is thought to be a central component in dissociating H$_2$ and allowing for the formation of a direct collapse black hole seed. Nearby sources are also expected to produce copious amounts of hydrogen ionising photons and X-ray photons. We study here the feedback effects of the X-ray photons by including a spectrum due to high-mass X-ray binaries on top of a galaxy with a stellar spectrum. We explicitly trace photon packages emerging from the nearby source and track the radiative and chemical effects of the multi-frequency source $(E_{\\rm photon} = \\rm{0.76\\ eV \\rightarrow 7500\\ eV}$). We find that X-rays have a strongly negative feedback effect, compared to a stellar only source, when the radiative source is placed at a separation greater than $\\gtrsim 1 \\ \\rm kpc$. The X-rays heat the low and medium density gas in the envelope surrounding the collapsing halo suppressing the mass inflow. The result is a smaller enclosed mass compared to the stellar only case. Howev...

  17. Psychosocial Burdens Negatively Impact HIV Antiretroviral Adherence in Gay, Bisexual, and other MSM Ages 50 and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkitis, Perry N.; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael Eduardo; Carreiro, Timothy; Kingdon, Molly J.; Kupprat, Sandra A.; Eddy, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    We sought to characterize HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and psychosocial correlates of adherence in a sample of gay, bisexual, and other non-gay or –bisexual identified MSM ages 50 and over. As part of a cross-sectional study we recruited a community-based sample of 199 men and assessed adherence to current ART medications along four domains: 1) missing doses in the past 4 days, 2) taking doses on the specified schedule in the past 4 days, 3) following instructions about how to take the medications (e.g. to take medications with food), and 4) missing doses in the last weekend. A total adherence score was also computed. Bivariable analyses indicated negative associations between depression, sexual compulsivity, and HIV-related stigma with each of the individual adherence variables and the composite adherence score, while an older age was found to be protective. In multivariable analyses, controlling for age and educational attainment, a higher likelihood of missing doses and failing to follow instructions were related to higher levels of HIV-related stigma, while dosing off-schedule was associated with higher levels of sexual compulsivity. These results indicate that psychosocial burdens undermine the adherence behaviors of older HIV-positive sexual minority men. Programming and services to address this compromising health behavior must embrace a holistic approach to health as informed by syndemics theory, while attending to the developmental and age-specific needs of older men. PMID:24865599

  18. The presence of corpus luteum may have a negative impact on in vitro developmental competency of bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajarian, Hadi; Shahsavari, Mohammad H; Karami-shabankareh, Hamed; Dashtizad, Mojtaba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of the presence or absence of corpus luteum (CL) on in vitro developmental competence of bovine oocytes. In experiment 1, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries and divided according to the presence (CL(+) oocytes) or absence (CL(-) oocytes) of a CL in the ovary. Control oocytes (C group) were obtained from ovaries which were not selected toward the presence or absence of CL. All oocytes were submitted to in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture. In experiment 2, the oocytes from the CL(+) and CL(-) ovaries were divided into grown (BCB(+)) and growing (BCB(-)) categories by means of the brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test. The oocytes from all groups (CL(+)/BCB(+), CL(-)/BCB(+), CL(+)/BCB(-), CL(-)/BCB(-) and control oocytes) were subjected to in vitro embryo production. In experiment 1, the cleavage and blastocyst rates of CL(-) oocytes were higher than those of CL(+) oocytes (83.9% and 43% vs. 69.3% and 22.5%, respectively). In experiment 2, there was less BCB(+) oocytes (more competent oocytes) in the group of CL(+) oocytes than in the group of CL(-) oocytes. Furthermore, developmental competence of all CL(+) oocytes (CL(+)/BCB(+) and CL(+)/BCB(-)) was lower than that of all CL(-) oocytes (CL(-)/BCB(+) and CL(-)/BCB(-)). Thus, the presence of a corpus luteum in the ovary may have negative effects on developmental competence of ipsilateral oocytes. PMID:26952753

  19. Negative impacts of high temperatures on growth of black spruce forests intensify with the anticipated climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, Martin P; Hogg, Edward H; Bernier, Pierre Y; Kurz, Werner A; Guo, Xiao Jing; Cyr, Guillaume

    2016-02-01

    An increasing number of studies conclude that water limitations and heat stress may hinder the capacity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) trees, a dominant species of Canada's boreal forests, to grow and assimilate atmospheric carbon. However, there is currently no scientific consensus on the future of these forests over the next century in the context of widespread climate warming. The large spatial extent of black spruce forests across the Canadian boreal forest and associated variability in climate, demography, and site conditions pose challenges for projecting future climate change responses. Here we provide an evaluation of the impacts of climate warming and drying, as well as increasing [CO2 ], on the aboveground productivity of black spruce forests across Canada south of 60°N for the period 1971 to 2100. We use a new extensive network of tree-ring data obtained from Canada's National Forest Inventory, spatially explicit simulations of net primary productivity (NPP) and its drivers, and multivariate statistical modeling. We found that soil water availability is a significant driver of black spruce interannual variability in productivity across broad areas of the western to eastern Canadian boreal forest. Interannual variability in productivity was also found to be driven by autotrophic respiration in the warmest regions. In most regions, the impacts of soil water availability and respiration on interannual variability in productivity occurred during the phase of carbohydrate accumulation the year preceding tree-ring formation. Results from projections suggest an increase in the importance of soil water availability and respiration as limiting factors on NPP over the next century due to warming, but this response may vary to the extent that other factors such as carbon dioxide fertilization, and respiration acclimation to high temperature, contribute to dampening these limitations.

  20. Accumulation of Peptidoglycan O-Acetylation Leads to Altered Cell Wall Biochemistry and Negatively Impacts Pathogenesis Factors of Campylobacter jejuni*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Reuben; Frirdich, Emilisa; Sychantha, David; Biboy, Jacob; Taveirne, Michael E.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.; DiRita, Victor J.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Clarke, Anthony J.; Gaynor, Erin C.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite its prevalence, its mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. Peptidoglycan (PG) is important for helical shape, colonization, and host-pathogen interactions in C. jejuni. Therefore, changes in PG greatly impact the physiology of this organism. O-acetylation of peptidoglycan (OAP) is a bacterial phenomenon proposed to be important for proper cell growth, characterized by acetylation of the C6 hydroxyl group of N-acetylmuramic acid in the PG glycan backbone. The OAP gene cluster consists of a PG O-acetyltransferase A (patA) for translocation of acetate into the periplasm, a PG O-acetyltransferase B (patB) for O-acetylation, and an O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase (ape1) for de-O-acetylation. In this study, reduced OAP in ΔpatA and ΔpatB had minimal impact on C. jejuni growth and fitness under the conditions tested. However, accumulation of OAP in Δape1 resulted in marked differences in PG biochemistry, including O-acetylation, anhydromuropeptide levels, and changes not expected to result directly from Ape1 activity. This suggests that OAP may be a form of substrate level regulation in PG biosynthesis. Ape1 acetylesterase activity was confirmed in vitro using p-nitrophenyl acetate and O-acetylated PG as substrates. In addition, Δape1 exhibited defects in pathogenesis-associated phenotypes, including cell shape, motility, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and sodium deoxycholate sensitivity. Δape1 was also impaired for chick colonization and adhesion, invasion, intracellular survival, and induction of IL-8 production in INT407 cells in vitro. The importance of Ape1 in C. jejuni biology makes it a good candidate as an antimicrobial target. PMID:27474744

  1. Negative impacts of high temperatures on growth of black spruce forests intensify with the anticipated climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, Martin P; Hogg, Edward H; Bernier, Pierre Y; Kurz, Werner A; Guo, Xiao Jing; Cyr, Guillaume

    2016-02-01

    An increasing number of studies conclude that water limitations and heat stress may hinder the capacity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) trees, a dominant species of Canada's boreal forests, to grow and assimilate atmospheric carbon. However, there is currently no scientific consensus on the future of these forests over the next century in the context of widespread climate warming. The large spatial extent of black spruce forests across the Canadian boreal forest and associated variability in climate, demography, and site conditions pose challenges for projecting future climate change responses. Here we provide an evaluation of the impacts of climate warming and drying, as well as increasing [CO2 ], on the aboveground productivity of black spruce forests across Canada south of 60°N for the period 1971 to 2100. We use a new extensive network of tree-ring data obtained from Canada's National Forest Inventory, spatially explicit simulations of net primary productivity (NPP) and its drivers, and multivariate statistical modeling. We found that soil water availability is a significant driver of black spruce interannual variability in productivity across broad areas of the western to eastern Canadian boreal forest. Interannual variability in productivity was also found to be driven by autotrophic respiration in the warmest regions. In most regions, the impacts of soil water availability and respiration on interannual variability in productivity occurred during the phase of carbohydrate accumulation the year preceding tree-ring formation. Results from projections suggest an increase in the importance of soil water availability and respiration as limiting factors on NPP over the next century due to warming, but this response may vary to the extent that other factors such as carbon dioxide fertilization, and respiration acclimation to high temperature, contribute to dampening these limitations. PMID:26507106

  2. Negative impacts of high temperatures on growth of black spruce forests intensify with the anticipated climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, M. P.; Hogg, T.; Kurz, W.; Bernier, P. Y.; Guo, X. J.; Cyr, G.

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of studies conclude that water limitations and heat stress may hinder the capacity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) trees, a dominant species of Canada's boreal forests, to grow and assimilate atmospheric carbon. However, there is currently no scientific consensus on the future of these forests over the next century in the context of widespread climate warming. The large spatial extent of black spruce forests across the Canadian boreal forest and associated variability in climate, demography and site conditions pose challenges for projecting future climate change responses. Here we provide an evaluation of the impacts of climate warming and drying, as well as increasing [CO2], on the aboveground productivity of black spruce forests across Canada south of 60ºN for the period 1971 to 2100. We use a new extensive network of tree-ring data obtained from Canada's National Forest Inventory, spatially-explicit simulations of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and its drivers, and multivariate statistical modelling. We found that soil water availability is a significant driver of black spruce inter-annual variability in productivity across broad areas of the western to eastern Canadian boreal forest. Inter-annual variability in productivity was also found to be driven by autotrophic respiration in the warmest regions. In most regions, the impacts of soil water availability and respiration on inter-annual variability in productivity occurred during the phase of carbohydrate accumulation the year preceding tree ring formation. Results from projections suggest an increase in the importance of soil water availability and respiration as limiting factors on NPP over the next century due to warming, but this response may vary to the extent that other factors such as carbon dioxide fertilization, and respiration acclimation to high temperature, contribute to dampening these limitations.

  3. Rapid warming and drought negatively impact population size and reproductive dynamics of an avian predator in the arid southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-McDonnell, Kirsten K; Wolf, Blair O

    2016-01-01

    Avian communities of arid ecosystems may be particularly vulnerable to global climate change due to the magnitude of projected change for desert regions and the inherent challenges for species residing in resource limited ecosystems. How arid-zone birds will be affected by rapid increases in air temperature and increased drought frequency and severity is poorly understood because avian responses to climate change have primarily been studied in the relatively mesic northern temperate regions. We studied the effects of increasing air temperature and aridity on a Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) population in the southwestern United States from 1998 to 2013. Over 16 years, the breeding population declined 98.1%, from 52 pairs to 1 pair, and nest success and fledgling output also declined significantly. These trends were strongly associated with the combined effects of decreased precipitation and increased air temperature. Arrival on the breeding grounds, pair formation, nest initiation, and hatch dates all showed significant delays ranging from 9.4 to 25.1 days over 9 years, which have negative effects on reproduction. Adult and juvenile body mass decreased significantly over time, with a loss of 7.9% mass in adult males and 10.9% mass in adult females over 16 years, and a loss of 20.0% mass in nestlings over 8 years. Taken together, these population and reproductive trends have serious implications for local population persistence. The southwestern United States has been identified as a climate change hotspot, with projections of warmer temperatures, less winter precipitation, and an increase in frequency and severity of extreme events including drought and heat waves. An increasingly warm and dry climate may contribute to this species' decline and may already be a driving force of their apparent decline in the desert southwest. PMID:26367541

  4. Flow cytometric evaluation of physico-chemical impact on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje eFröhling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since heat sensitivity of fruits and vegetables limits the application of thermal inactivation processes, new emerging inactivation technologies have to be established to fulfil the requirements of food safety without affecting the produce quality. The efficiency of inactivation treatments has to be ensured and monitored. Monitoring of inactivation effects is commonly performed using traditional cultivation methods which have the disadvantage of the time span needed to obtain results.The aim of this study was to compare the inactivation effects of peracetic acid (PAA, ozonated water (O3 and cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using flow cytometric methods. E. coli cells were completely depolarized after treatment (15 s with 0.25 % PAA at 10 °C, and after treatment (10 s with 3.8 mg l-1 O3 at 12°C. The membrane potential of CAPP treated cells remained almost constant at an operating power of 20 W over a time period of 3 min, and subsequently decreased within 30 s of further treatment. Complete membrane permeabilization was observed after 10 s O3 treatment, but treatment with PAA and CAPP did not completely permeabilize the cells within 2 min and 4 min, respectively. Similar results were obtained for esterase activity. O3 inactivates cellular esterase but esterase activity was detected after 4 min CAPP treatment and 2 min PAA treatment. L. innocua cells and P. carotovorum cells were also permeabilized instantaneously by O3 treatment at concentrations of 3.8 ± 1 mg l-1. However, higher membrane permeabilization of L. innocua and P. carotovorum than of E. coli was observed at CAPP treatment of 20 W. The degree of bacterial damage due to the inactivation processes is highly dependent on treatment parameters as well as on treated bacteria. Important information regarding the inactivation mechanisms can be obtained by flow cytometric measurements and this enables the definition of critical process

  5. Silviculture and economic benefits of producing wood energy from conventional forestry systems and measures to mitigate negative impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity ''Forest Energy Production'' focused on the development and evaluation, in the context of conventional forestry systems, silvicultural and forest management practices which optimise productivity for traditional products and wood for energy, while safeguarding the forest ecosystem. A series of meetings, workshops, and review papers involving the three participating countries of Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom were planned and completed. An additional workshop in Switzerland was also held. Increasing production of biomass for energy is generally found to be positive, from silvicultural, economic, and environmental perspectives. Eight specific forest management systems were investigated and/or reported: five conventional systems involving multiple products in softwood and mixed wood, and three hardwood systems emphasising production of biomass for energy. Modifications in silvercultural practice to also produce biomass for energy included increased opportunities for thinnings, intermediate cuttings, and stand and site rehabilitation as well as more flexible and efficient harvesting systems. Economic benefits accrued from increased investment in harvesting and burning technology, improvements in stand quality and site utilisation, and substitution for more expensive fuels, especially if all costs are considered. Environmental effects were found to be generally positive, but negative effects of nutrient and organic matter removal on the overall sustainability of specific systems are possible. These need to be addressed. Harvest and management guidelines are being designed and put into practice. Social, institutional, and technical barriers to the increased use of biomass for energy are being addressed by specific strategies and initiatives involving programs and incentives for production, market development, research and education. Net positive effects indicate increased use of forest biomass for energy, in the short and long term. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. The impact of early parenting bonding on young adults' internet addiction, through the mediation effects of negative relating to others and sadness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzaki, Argyroula E; Birtchnell, John

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study is the investigation of the potential role of negative relating to others, perceived loneliness, sadness, and anxiety, as mediators of the association between early parental bonding and adult Internet Addiction (IA). The factorial structure of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the prevalence rates of it in a Greek sample will also be investigated. A total of 774 participants were recruited from a Technological Education Institute (mean age=20.2, SD=2.8) and from high school technical schools (mean age=19.9, SD=7.4). The IAT was used to measure the degree of problematic Internet use behaviors; the Parental Bonding Instrument was used to assess one's recalled parenting experiences during the first 16years of life; the shortened Person's Relating to Others Questionnaire was used to assess one's negative (i.e. maladaptive) relating to others (NRO). Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the three-factor structure of the IAT. Only 1.0% of the sample was severely addicted to the Internet. The mediated effects of only the NRO and sadness were confirmed. Negative relating to others was found to fully mediate the effect of both the father's optimal parenting and affectionless control on IA, whereas sadness was found to fully mediate the effect of the mother's optimal parenting on IA. Overall, the results suggest that parenting style has an indirect impact on IA, through the mediating role of negative relating to others or sadness in later life. Both family-based and individual-based prevention and intervention efforts may reduce the incidence of IA. PMID:24368006

  7. Coaching to vision versus coaching to improvement needs: a preliminary investigation on the differential impacts of fostering positive and negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Anita R

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on intentional change theory (ICT; Boyatzis, 2006), this study examined the differential impact of inducing coaching recipients' vision/positive emotion versus improvement needs/negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions. A core aim of the study was to empirically test two central ICT propositions on the effects of using the coached person's Positive Emotional Attractor (vision/PEA) versus Negative Emotional Attractor (improvement needs/NEA) as the anchoring framework of a onetime, one-on-one coaching session on appraisal of 360° feedback and discussion of possible change goals. Eighteen coaching recipients were randomly assigned to two coaching conditions, the coaching to vision/PEA condition and the coaching to improvement needs/NEA condition. Two main hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis1 predicted that participants in the vision/PEA condition would show higher levels of expressed positive emotion during appraisal of 360° feedback results and discussion of change goals than recipients in the improvement needs/NEA condition. Hypothesis2 predicted that vision/PEA participants would show lower levels of stress immediately after the coaching session than improvement needs/NEA participants. Findings showed that coaching to vision/the PEA fostered significantly lower levels of expressed negative emotion and anger during appraisal of 360° feedback results as compared to coaching to improvements needs/the NEA. Vision-focused coaching also fostered significantly greater exploration of personal passions and future desires, and more positive engagement during 360° feedback appraisal. No significant differences between the two conditions were found in emotional processing during discussion of change goals or levels of stress immediately after the coaching session. Current findings suggest that vision/PEA arousal versus improvement needs/NEA arousal impact the coaching process in quite different ways; that the coach's initial framing of the

  8. Simulated leakage of high pCO2 water negatively impacts bivalve dominated infaunal communities from the Western Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Hanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Guilini, Katja; Meyer, Stefanie; Gorb, Stanislav N; Abele, Doris; Vanreusel, Ann; Melzner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is promoted as a mitigation method counteracting the increase of atmospheric CO2 levels. However, at this stage, environmental consequences of potential CO2 leakage from sub-seabed storage sites are still largely unknown. In a 3-month-long mesocosm experiment, this study assessed the impact of elevated pCO2 levels (1,500 to 24,400 μatm) on Cerastoderma edule dominated benthic communities from the Baltic Sea. Mortality of C. edule was significantly increased in the highest treatment (24,400 μatm) and exceeded 50%. Furthermore, mortality of small size classes (0-1 cm) was significantly increased in treatment levels ≥6,600 μatm. First signs of external shell dissolution became visible at ≥1,500 μatm, holes were observed at >6,600 μatm. C. edule body condition decreased significantly at all treatment levels (1,500-24,400 μatm). Dominant meiofauna taxa remained unaffected in abundance. Densities of calcifying meiofauna taxa (i.e. Gastropoda and Ostracoda) decreased in high CO2 treatments (>6,600 μatm), while the non - calcifying Gastrotricha significantly increased in abundance at 24,400 μatm. In addition, microbial community composition was altered at the highest pCO2 level. We conclude that strong CO2 leakage can alter benthic infauna community composition at multiple trophic levels, likely due to high mortality of the dominant macrofauna species C. edule. PMID:27538361

  9. Simulated leakage of high pCO2 water negatively impacts bivalve dominated infaunal communities from the Western Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Hanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Guilini, Katja; Meyer, Stefanie; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Abele, Doris; Vanreusel, Ann; Melzner, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Carbon capture and storage is promoted as a mitigation method counteracting the increase of atmospheric CO2 levels. However, at this stage, environmental consequences of potential CO2 leakage from sub-seabed storage sites are still largely unknown. In a 3-month-long mesocosm experiment, this study assessed the impact of elevated pCO2 levels (1,500 to 24,400 μatm) on Cerastoderma edule dominated benthic communities from the Baltic Sea. Mortality of C. edule was significantly increased in the highest treatment (24,400 μatm) and exceeded 50%. Furthermore, mortality of small size classes (0-1 cm) was significantly increased in treatment levels ≥6,600 μatm. First signs of external shell dissolution became visible at ≥1,500 μatm, holes were observed at >6,600 μatm. C. edule body condition decreased significantly at all treatment levels (1,500-24,400 μatm). Dominant meiofauna taxa remained unaffected in abundance. Densities of calcifying meiofauna taxa (i.e. Gastropoda and Ostracoda) decreased in high CO2 treatments (>6,600 μatm), while the non - calcifying Gastrotricha significantly increased in abundance at 24,400 μatm. In addition, microbial community composition was altered at the highest pCO2 level. We conclude that strong CO2 leakage can alter benthic infauna community composition at multiple trophic levels, likely due to high mortality of the dominant macrofauna species C. edule.

  10. Elevated temperatures and long drought periods have a negative impact on survival and fitness of strongylid third stage larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp-Lawitzke, Friederike; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina

    2016-04-01

    In grazing cattle, infections with gastrointestinal nematodes pose some of the most important health threats and subclinical infections result in considerable production losses. While there is little doubt that climate change will affect grazing ruminants directly, mean temperature increases of ∼ 3°C and longer drought stress periods in summer may also influence the free-living stages of parasitic nematodes. Hostile climatic conditions reduce the number of L3s on pasture and therefore the refugium, which is expected to result in a higher selection pressure, accelerating development of resistance against anthelmintic drugs. The aim of the current experiments was to investigate the effects of drought stress and different temperature/humidity ranges over time on the survival and fitness of Cooperia oncophora L3s and their distribution in grass and soil under controlled conditions using a climate chamber. Grass containers inoculated with L3s were analysed after 1-6weeks using descriptive statistics as well as linear models. A large proportion of L3s was recovered from soil where fitness was also better preserved than on grass. Numbers and fitness of recovered L3s declined with duration in the climate chamber under both temperature profiles. However, the results of the linear models confirmed that higher temperatures (20-33°C versus 17-22.6°C) significantly impaired survival, distribution and fitness of L3s. Application of drought stress, known as another important factor, had a surprisingly smaller impact than its duration or higher temperatures. The climate chamber enabled exclusion of confounding factors and therefore accurate interpretation of the investigated climatic aspects. The obtained results highlight the relative importance of those factors, and will help to design better models for the population dynamics of L3s on pasture in the future. Additionally, the outcomes of these investigations may offer explanations regarding interdependencies of development

  11. Simulated leakage of high pCO2 water negatively impacts bivalve dominated infaunal communities from the Western Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Hanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Guilini, Katja; Meyer, Stefanie; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Abele, Doris; Vanreusel, Ann; Melzner, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Carbon capture and storage is promoted as a mitigation method counteracting the increase of atmospheric CO2 levels. However, at this stage, environmental consequences of potential CO2 leakage from sub-seabed storage sites are still largely unknown. In a 3-month-long mesocosm experiment, this study assessed the impact of elevated pCO2 levels (1,500 to 24,400 μatm) on Cerastoderma edule dominated benthic communities from the Baltic Sea. Mortality of C. edule was significantly increased in the highest treatment (24,400 μatm) and exceeded 50%. Furthermore, mortality of small size classes (0–1 cm) was significantly increased in treatment levels ≥6,600 μatm. First signs of external shell dissolution became visible at ≥1,500 μatm, holes were observed at >6,600 μatm. C. edule body condition decreased significantly at all treatment levels (1,500–24,400 μatm). Dominant meiofauna taxa remained unaffected in abundance. Densities of calcifying meiofauna taxa (i.e. Gastropoda and Ostracoda) decreased in high CO2 treatments (>6,600 μatm), while the non - calcifying Gastrotricha significantly increased in abundance at 24,400 μatm. In addition, microbial community composition was altered at the highest pCO2 level. We conclude that strong CO2 leakage can alter benthic infauna community composition at multiple trophic levels, likely due to high mortality of the dominant macrofauna species C. edule.

  12. Phytochrome Signaling in Green Arabidopsis Seedlings: Impact Assessment of a Mutually Negative phyB-PIF Feedback Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pablo Leivar; Elena Monte; Megan M. Cohn; Peter H. Quail

    2012-01-01

    The reversibly red (R)/far-red (FR)-Iight-responsive phytoch rome (phy) photosensory system initiates both the deetiolation process in dark-germinated seedlings upon first exposure to light,and the shade-avoidance process in fully deetiolated seedlings upon exposure to vegetational shade.The intracellular signaling pathway from the light-activated photoreceptor conformer (Pfr) to the transcriptional network that drives these responses involves direct,physical interaction of Pfr with a small subfamily of bHLH transcription factors,termed Phy-lnteracting Factors (PIFs),which induces rapid PIF proteolytic degradation.In addition,there is evidence of further complexity in light-grown seedlings,whereby phyB-PIF interaction reciprocally induces phyB degradation,in a mutually-negative,feedback-loop configuration.Here,to assess the relative contributions of these antagonistic activities to the net phenotypic readout in light-grown seedlings,we have examined the magnitude of the light- and simulated-shade-induced responses of a pentuple phyBpif1pif3pif4pif5 (phyBpifq) mutant and various multiple pif-mutant combinations.The data (1) reaffirm that phyB is the predominant,if not exclusive,photoreceptor imposing the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in deetiolating seedlings in response to prolonged continuous R irradiation and (2) show that the PIF quartet (PIF1,PIF3,PIF4,and PIF5) retain and exert a dual capacity to modulate hypocotyl elongation under these conditions,by concomitantly promoting cell elongation through intrinsic transcriptional-regulatory activity,and reducing phyB-inhibitory capacity through feedback-loop-induced phyB degradation.In shade-exposed seedlings,immunoblot analysis shows that the shade-imposed reduction in Pfr levels induces increases in the abundance of PIF3,and mutant analysis indicates that PIF3 acts,in conjunction with PIF4 and PIF5,to promote the known shade-induced acceleration of hypocotyl elongation.Conversely,although the quadruple pifq

  13. Negative Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Barkman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I will compare the philosophies of the Buddha and Epicurus. Unusual? Yes. But my intention herein is not a general comparison; rather, I want to explore to what extent these two men accepted what I call “negative happiness.” What is negative, and by extension, positive, happiness? I think we can prepare ourselves for this distinction with two analogous distinctions: (1) the distinction between positive and negative freedom, wherein positive freedom sees true freedom as interna...

  14. Prolonged length of stay associated with air leak following pulmonary resection has a negative impact on hospital margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood DE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Douglas E Wood,1 Lisa M Lauer,2 Andrew Layton,3 Kuo B Tong3 1Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, 2Spiration Inc., Redmond, WA, 3Quorum Consulting, Inc., San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Protracted hospitalizations due to air leaks following lung resections are a significant source of morbidity and prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS, with potentially significant impact on hospital margins. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between air leaks, LOS, and financial outcomes among discharges following lung resections.Materials and methods: The Medicare Provider Analysis and Review file for fiscal year 2012 was utilized to identify inpatient hospital discharges that recorded International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 procedure codes for lobectomy, segmentectomy, and lung volume reduction surgery (n=21,717. Discharges coded with postoperative air leaks (ICD-9-CM codes 512.2 and 512.84 were defined as the air leak diagnosis group (n=2,947, then subcategorized by LOS: 1 <7 days; 2 7–10 days; and 3 ≥11 days. Median hospital charges, costs, payments, and payment-to-cost ratios were compared between non-air leak and air leak groups, and across LOS subcategories.Results: For identified patients, hospital charges, costs, and payments were significantly greater among patients with air leak diagnoses compared to patients without (P<0.001. Hospital charges and costs increased substantially with prolonged LOS, but were not matched by a proportionate increase in hospital payments. Patients with LOS <7, 7–10, and ≥11 days had median hospital charges of US $57,129, $73,572, and $115,623, and costs of $17,594, $21,711, and $33,786, respectively. Hospital payment increases were substantially lower at $16,494, $16,307, and $19,337, respectively. The payment-to-cost ratio significantly lowered with each LOS increase (P<0.001. Higher inpatient hospital mortality was observed among the

  15. Fractal negations

    OpenAIRE

    Mayor Forteza, Gaspar; Calvo Sánchez, Tomasa

    1994-01-01

    From the concept of attractor of a family of contractive affine transformations in the Euclidean plane R², we study the fractality property of the De Rham function and other singular functions wich derive from it. In particular, we show as fractals the strong negations called k-negations.

  16. Does High-Quality Financial Reporting Mitigate the Negative Impact of Global Financial Crises on Firm Performance? Evidence from the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior literature has claimed that accounting plays a negative role in a financial crisis. The current study sought to determine whether this effect is dependent on the quality of financial reporting. Specifically, this study examined the impact of the quality of financial reporting (as measured via earnings quality on liquidity (measured by the bid-ask spread in the equity market during the 2008–2009 global financial crisis in the United Kingdom. We found, as expected, that market liquidity was much lower during the crisis than prior to the crisis; however, firms with high-quality financial reporting suffered fewer negative effects as a result of the financial crisis. The results were robust after controlling for other influences, such as return volatility, loss making, market value of equity, and other potential endogeneity problems. In addition, adopting alternative models for earnings quality did not alter our inferences. Our results support the notion that high-quality accounting information can reduce information asymmetry and hence enhance investor confidence during a financial crisis. The results suggest that a stable financial reporting system is an important part of that overall economic fabric. Our findings will help build a framework on which an overall financial crisis risk-management strategy can be developed to avoid future crises.

  17. 大学生手机上网负面影响的对策%Countermeasures of Negative Impact Caused by College Students' Mobile Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素娜

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of mobile phone networks to the students bring endless fun and convenience, but also for the students themselves and the surrounding students, classroom, ideological and political education has brought many nega-tive effects. College students how to solve the negative impact of the mobile Internet is a system that works. This requires a policy-oriented education administrative departments, also need the correct guidance of the media, but also need to improve and enrich the school rules and regulations of the campus culture, the ultimate end result is a positive effort to have the tea-chers and the students themselves actively cooperate.%迅猛发展的手机网络在给大学生带来无尽乐趣与便利的同时,也对学生自身及周边同学、课堂、高校思想政治教育等带来了诸多负面影响。如何解决大学生手机上网产生的负面影响是一个系统的工程。这需要教育行政部门的政策导向,也需要媒体的正确引导,更需要学校规章制度的完善与校园文化的丰富,最终的落脚点是要有教师的积极努力以及学生自身的积极配合。

  18. 灌注负压与标准负压创面治疗的疗效比较%The impact of negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation compared with standard negative-pressure wound therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范伟锋; 区健毅; 陈衍尧; 李锦塘; 朱秋贤; 叶家键

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWTi) compared with standard NPWT. Methods: A total of 142 patients with wound infection were enrolled between 2010 and 2014. Patients were divided into three groups: NPWT group, NPWTi with 6 min dwell time and 20 min dwell time group. The clinical differences among three groups were compared. Results: One hundred forty-two patients (NPWT, n=74; NPWTi, 6-minute dwell time, n=34; and NPWTi, 20-minute dwell time, n=34) were included in the analysis. Number of operative visits was significantly lower for the 6- minute and 20-minute dwell time groups [(2.4 ± 0.9) and (2.6 ± 0.9), respectively] compared with the no-instillation group (P≤0.05). Hospital stay was significantly shorter for the 20-minute dwell time group (11.4 ± 5.1) days compared with the no-instillation group (14.92 ± 9.23) days (P≤0.05). Time to final surgical procedure was significantly shorter for the 6- minute and 20-minute dwell time groups (7.8 ± 5.2 and 7.5 ± 3.1 days, respectively) compared with the no-instillation group (9.23 ± 5.2) days (P<0.05). Percentage of wounds closed before discharge and culture improvement for gram-positive bacteria was significantly higher for the 6-minute dwell time group compared with the no-instillation group (94% vs. 62%, and 90% vs. 63%, P<0.05, respectively). Conclusion: Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation (6-minute or 20-minute dwell time) is more beneficial than standard negative-pressure wound therapy for the adjunctive treatment of acutely and chronically infected wounds that require hospital admission.%目的:探讨灌注式负压创面治疗与标准负压创面治疗的疗效比较情况。方法:回顾性分析2010年2月-2014年7月因伤口感染就诊于我院的142例患者。详细记录患者的病史及基线等资料,将患者分为灌注式负压治疗组和标准负压治疗组,其中灌注式负压分为6min 和20min 两组

  19. Prognostic impact of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT staging and of pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, D.; Merlet, P. [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris Cedex 10 (France); University of Paris VII, B2T Doctoral School, Institut Universitaire d' Hematologie, Paris (France); Giacchetti, S.; Hamy, A.S.; Espie, M. [Saint-Louis Hospital, Breast Diseases Unit, Department of Medical Oncology, Paris (France); Delord, M. [Institut Universitaire d' Hematologie, Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Paris (France); Roquancourt, A. de [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Hindie, E. [University of Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haut-Leveque Hospital, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-11-29

    Mortality is high in patients with locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), especially in those with residual tumour after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The aim of this study was to determine if pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT staging and pathological findings after NAC could together allow stratification of patients into prognostic groups. Initial staging with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was performed prospectively in 85 consecutive patients with stage II/III TNBC. Correlations between PET findings and disease-specific survival (DSS) were examined. In patients without distant metastases on PET staging, the impact of pathological response to NAC on DSS was examined. Patterns of recurrence were also analysed. {sup 18}F-DG PET/CT revealed distant metastases in 11 of 85 patients (12.9 %). Among 74 M0 patients, 23 (31.1 %) showed a pathological complete response (pCR) at surgery, while 51 had residual invasive disease (no pCR). DSS differed considerably among the three groups of patients (log-rank P <.001): among patients with occult metastases on baseline PET/CT, 2-year DSS was 18.2 %, and among patients without initial metastases on PET/CT, 5-year DSS was 61.3 % in patients without pCR after NAC and 95.2 % in those with pCR. Of the 51 patients who did not achieve pCR, 21 relapsed (17 developed distant metastases). The sites of distant recurrence were: lung/pleura (nine patients), brain (eight patients), liver (six patients), distant lymph nodes (six patients) and bone (five patients). In patients with clinical stage II/III TNBC, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT findings at initial staging and pathological response at the end of NAC allow three groups of patients with quite different prognoses to be defined. Extraskeletal recurrences predominated. Specific follow-up strategies in patients with TNBC who do not achieve pCR deserve investigation. (orig.)

  20. Negative impact of oxygen molecular activation on Cr(VI) removal with core–shell Fe@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Yi; Wu, Hao; Ai, Zhihui, E-mail: jennifer.ai@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The presence of oxygen inhibited Cr(VI) removal efficiency with nZVI by near 3 times. • Cr(VI) removal with nZVI was related to adsorption, reduction, co-precipitation, and adsorption reactions. • Molecular oxygen activation competed donor electrons from Fe{sup 0} core and surface bound Fe(II) of nZVI. • Thicker Cr(III)/Fe(III)/Cr(VI) oxyhydroxides shell of nZVI leaded to the electron transfer inhibition. - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrate that the presence of oxygen molecule can inhibit Cr(VI) removal with core–shell Fe@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires at neutral pH of 6.1. 100% of Cr(VI) removal was achieved by the Fe@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires within 60 min in the anoxic condition, in contrast, only 81.2% of Cr(VI) was sequestrated in the oxic condition. Removal kinetics analysis indicated that the presence of oxygen could inhibit the Cr(VI) removal efficiency by near 3 times. XRD, SEM, and XPS analysis revealed that either the anoxic or oxic Cr(VI) removal was involved with adsorption, reduction, co-precipitation, and re-adsorption processes. More Cr(VI) was bound in a reduced state of Cr(III) in the anoxic process, while a thicker Cr(III)/Fe(III)/Cr(VI) oxyhydroxides shell, leading to inhibiting the electron transfer, was found under the oxic process. The negative impact of oxygen molecule was attributed to the oxygen molecular activation which competed with Cr(VI) adsorbed for the consumption of donor electrons from Fe{sup 0} core and ferrous ions bound on the iron oxides surface under the oxic condition. This study sheds light on the understanding of the fate and transport of Cr(VI) in oxic and anoxic environment, as well provides helpful guide for optimizing Cr(VI) removal conditions in real applications.

  1. One day at a time: The impact of daily satisfaction with spouse responses on pain, negative affect and catastrophizing among individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Susan; Delongis, Anita

    2007-09-01

    The majority of research on pain catastrophizing has focused on its negative consequences for adjustment to chronic pain, with few investigations of factors that influence catastrophizing or its detrimental effects. Using a daily process methodology, the current study examined, first, the extent to which a supportive social environment plays a role in reduced catastrophizing, and second, the extent to which support might protect against the detrimental effects of catastrophizing on well-being. Sixty-nine married individuals with rheumatoid arthritis took part in an initial background interview, followed by twice daily telephone interviews (regarding pain intensity, negative affect, catastrophizing and satisfaction with spouse responses) for 1 week. Multi-level modeling indicated several pathways through which satisfaction with spouse responses disrupts the vicious cycle of pain, negative affect and catastrophizing. Consistent with past research, catastrophizing was associated with increases in pain and negative affect. However, when individuals reported increases in satisfaction with spouse responses they were less likely to experience increases in negative affect due to catastrophizing. Satisfaction with spouse responses also reduced the likelihood of feeling overwhelmed and helpless in dealing with daily pain. The relationship between pain and catastrophizing was attenuated in the context of increases in satisfaction with spouse responses. Negative affect was associated with increases in catastrophizing, but only when individuals reported decreases in satisfaction with spouse responses. Overall, findings were consistent with a model in which satisfaction with spouse responses serves as a coping resource, and suggests the importance of involving close others in treatments to reduce pain and catastrophizing.

  2. Advertising/public relations campaign to combat the negative economic impact caused by the nuclear mishap at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through the Department of Commerce, conducted a media advertising campaign to offset the negative implications and effects of the Three Mile Island incident. The emphasis of the campaign has been directed toward a friendly, all-clear image for Pennsylvania. The travel industry of the entire Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the chief beneficiary of the proposed project.

  3. Advertising/public relations campaign to combat the negative economic impact caused by the nuclear mishap at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through the Department of Commerce, conducted a media advertising campaign to offset the negative implications and effects of the Three Mile Island incident. The emphasis of the campaign has been directed toward a friendly, all-clear image for Pennsylvania. The travel industry of the entire Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the chief beneficiary of the proposed project

  4. Cognitive Defusion versus Thought Distraction: A Clinical Rationale, Training, and Experiential Exercise in Altering Psychological Impacts of Negative Self-Referential Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Wendell, Johanna W.; Sheehan, Shawn T.

    2010-01-01

    Using two modes of intervention delivery, the present study compared the effects of a cognitive defusion strategy with a thought distraction strategy on the emotional discomfort and believability of negative self-referential thoughts. One mode of intervention delivery consisted of a clinical rationale and training (i.e., Partial condition). The…

  5. The Impact of Positive and Negative Ecstasy-Related Information on Ecstasy Use among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To: (1) estimate the proportion of students exposed to specific types of information regarding the positive and negative effects of ecstasy, (2) test models that quantified the relationship between exposure to these messages and subsequent ecstasy use, controlling for peer drug use and sensation-seeking. Methods: As part of the College Life…

  6. Negativity in Massive Online Open Courses: Impacts on Learning and Teaching and How Instructional Teams May Be Able to Address It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Denise; Baker, Ryan; Wang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    There are many positive aspects of teaching and learning in Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs), for both instructors and students. However, there is also a considerable amount of negativity in MOOCs, emerging from learners on discussion forums and through peer assessment, from disciplinary colleagues and from public discourse around MOOCs.…

  7. The impact of CBT training and supervision on burnout, confidence and negative beliefs in a staff group working with homeless people

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, N.; Grellier, B.; Clayton, K.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the outcomes of providing training and regular clinical supervision in basic cognitive-behavioural formulation and intervention techniques for frontline homelessness workers. Results indicated that confidence increased and negative beliefs decreased at the end of the training, and continued to decrease as a result of the supervision package. Burnout significantly decreased after the training and supervision package.

  8. "Disorganized in time": impact of bottom-up and top-down negative emotion generation on memory formation among healthy and traumatized adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Clochon, Patrice; Giffard, Bénédicte; Viard, Armelle; Egler, Pierre-Jean; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Eustache, Francis; Dayan, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    "Travelling in time," a central feature of episodic memory is severely affected among individuals with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with two opposite effects: vivid traumatic memories are unorganized in temporality (bottom-up processes), non-traumatic personal memories tend to lack spatio-temporal details and false recognitions occur more frequently that in the general population (top-down processes). To test the effect of these two types of processes (i.e. bottom-up and top-down) on emotional memory, we conducted two studies in healthy and traumatized adolescents, a period of life in which vulnerability to emotion is particularly high. Using negative and neutral images selected from the international affective picture system (IAPS), stimuli were divided into perceptual images (emotion generated by perceptual details) and conceptual images (emotion generated by the general meaning of the material). Both categories of stimuli were then used, along with neutral pictures, in a memory task with two phases (encoding and recognition). In both populations, we reported a differential effect of the emotional material on encoding and recognition. Negative perceptual scenes induced an attentional capture effect during encoding and enhanced the recollective distinctiveness. Conversely, the encoding of conceptual scenes was similar to neutral ones, but the conceptual relatedness induced false memories at retrieval. However, among individuals with PTSD, two subgroups of patients were identified. The first subgroup processed the scenes faster than controls, except for the perceptual scenes, and obtained similar performances to controls in the recognition task. The second subgroup group desmonstrated an attentional deficit in the encoding task with no benefit from the distinctiveness associated with negative perceptual scenes on memory performances. These findings provide a new perspective on how negative emotional information may have opposite influences on memory in

  9. Negative pressure wound therapy : treatment outcomes and the impact on the patient´s health-related quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerdahl, Ann-Mari

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history wounds have been a cause of great distress to the sufferer and a major burden to society. Especially the slow-healing wounds have been an issue and in order to find healing treatments, complementary methods have been developed. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is one such complementary method. The overall aim of this thesis was to study if NPWT is an effective and safe method for wound treatment and to enhance the knowledge of the patients’ experience of the treatment...

  10. Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, Detlef; Bergmann, Raymond; Mikkelsen, Rene; Zeilstra, Christiaan; Meer, van der Devaraj; Versluis, Michel

    2004-01-01

    A lot of information on impacts of solid bodies on planets has been extracted from remote observations of impact craters on planetary surfaces; experiments however with large enough impact energies as compared to the energy stored in the ground are difficult. We approach this problem by downscaled e

  11. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Patrick; La Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically, the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incen...

  12. Prognostic Value of Molecular Subtypes, Ki67 Expression and Impact of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether Ki67 expression and breast cancer subtypes could predict locoregional recurrence (LRR) and influence the postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) decision in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic negative lymph nodes (pN0) after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: A total of 699 BC patients with pN0 status after MRM, treated between 2001 and 2008, were identified from a prospective database in a single institution. Tumors were classified by intrinsic molecular subtype as luminal A or B, HER2+, and triple-negative (TN) using estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. Multivariate Cox analysis was used to determine the risk of LRR associated with intrinsic subtypes and Ki67 expression, adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results: At a median follow-up of 56 months, 17 patients developed LRR. Five-year LRR-free survival and overall survival in the entire population were 97%, and 94.7%, respectively, with no difference between the PMRT (n=191) and no-PMRT (n=508) subgroups. No constructed subtype was associated with an increased risk of LRR. Ki67 >20% was the only independent prognostic factor associated with increased LRR (hazard ratio, 4.18; 95% CI, 1.11-15.77; P<.0215). However, PMRT was not associated with better locoregional control in patients with proliferative tumors. Conclusions: Ki67 expression but not molecular subtypes are predictors of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes after MRM. The benefit of adjuvant RT in patients with proliferative tumors should be further investigated in prospective studies.

  13. Prognostic Value of Molecular Subtypes, Ki67 Expression and Impact of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selz, Jessica, E-mail: chaumontjessica@yahoo.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Stevens, Denise; Jouanneau, Ludivine [Department of Medical Statistics, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Labib, Alain [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Le Scodan, Romuald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Prive Saint Gregoire, Saint Gregoire (France)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether Ki67 expression and breast cancer subtypes could predict locoregional recurrence (LRR) and influence the postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) decision in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic negative lymph nodes (pN0) after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: A total of 699 BC patients with pN0 status after MRM, treated between 2001 and 2008, were identified from a prospective database in a single institution. Tumors were classified by intrinsic molecular subtype as luminal A or B, HER2+, and triple-negative (TN) using estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. Multivariate Cox analysis was used to determine the risk of LRR associated with intrinsic subtypes and Ki67 expression, adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results: At a median follow-up of 56 months, 17 patients developed LRR. Five-year LRR-free survival and overall survival in the entire population were 97%, and 94.7%, respectively, with no difference between the PMRT (n=191) and no-PMRT (n=508) subgroups. No constructed subtype was associated with an increased risk of LRR. Ki67 >20% was the only independent prognostic factor associated with increased LRR (hazard ratio, 4.18; 95% CI, 1.11-15.77; P<.0215). However, PMRT was not associated with better locoregional control in patients with proliferative tumors. Conclusions: Ki67 expression but not molecular subtypes are predictors of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes after MRM. The benefit of adjuvant RT in patients with proliferative tumors should be further investigated in prospective studies.

  14. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe;

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically, the...... impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  15. Impact of suppression of tumorigenicity 14 (ST14)/serine protease 14 (Prss14) expression analysis on the prognosis and management of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sauryang; Yang, Jae Woong; Kim, Chungho; Kim, Moon Gyo

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate the role of a type II transmembrane serine protease, ST14/Prss14, during breast cancer progression, we utilized publically accessible databases including TCGA, GEO, NCI-60, and CCLE. Survival of breast cancer patients with high ST14/Prss14 expression is significantly poor in estrogen receptor (ER) negative populations regardless of the ratios of ST14/Prss14 to its inhibitors, SPINT1 or SPINT2. In a clustering of 1085 selected EMT signature genes, ST14/Prss14 is located in the same cluster with CDH3, and closer to post-EMT markers, CDH2, VIM, and FN1 than to the pre-EMT marker, CDH1. Coexpression analyses of known ST14/Prss14 substrates and transcription factors revealed context dependent action. In cell lines, paradoxically, ST14/Prss14 expression is higher in the ER positive group and located closer to CDH1 in clustering. This apparent contradiction is not likely due to ST14/Prss14 expression in a cancer microenvironment, nor due to negative regulation by ER. Genes consistently coexpressed with ST14/Prss14 include transcription factors, ELF5, GRHL1, VGLL1, suggesting currently unknown mechanisms for regulation. Here, we report that ST14/Prss14 is an emerging therapeutic target for breast cancer where HER2 is not applicable. In addition we suggest that careful conclusions should be drawn not exclusively from the cell line studies for target development.

  16. Media and technology use predicts ill-being among children, preteens and teenagers independent of the negative health impacts of exercise and eating habits

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, L.D.; Lim, A.F.; Felt, J.; Carrier, L.M.; Cheever, N.A.; Lara-Ruiz, J.M.; Mendoza, J.S.; Rokkum, J.

    2014-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no screen time for children under the age of 2 and limited screen time for all children. However, no such guidelines have been proposed for preteens and teenagers. Further, research shows that children, preteens, and teenagers are using massive amounts of media and those with more screen time have been shown to have increased obesity, reduced physical activity, and decreased health. This study examined the impact of technology on four areas of ill...

  17. On French negation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Zeijlstra

    2009-01-01

    Two main characteristics of French negation are (i) that the language is a so-called Negative Concord (NC) language; and (ii) that French exhibits so-called embracing negation. NC refers to the phenomenon where multiple negative expressions yield only one negation. Embracing negation means that the

  18. 高校就业工作中同龄人压力的负面影响及对策研究%Research on the Negative Impact of Peer Pressure on Graduate Employment and Related Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢家荣; 耿佃梅

    2014-01-01

    群体性是高校大学生的显著特点。通过引入同龄人压力这一心理学概念,分析同龄人压力对高校毕业生就业工作带来的负面影响,并提出解决对策。%Group collectivism is a distinctive feature of college students. By introducing the psychological concept of peer pressure, the article analyzes its negative impact on college students in their job seeking process and proposes related countermeasures.

  19. 旅行社“零负团费”产生机制及影响探析%Analysis of the“Zero or negative tour fee”Generation mechanism and Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余尧

    2014-01-01

    The promulgation and implementation of new"tourism law", means that The biggest factor--"zero negative tour fee“of hazarding China tourism order has been curbed. But the author holds a dif erent opinion, thinking that the phenomenon of"zero negative tour fee"has promoted the development of tourism in a certain extent. Firstly this paper summarizes the contemporary progress of the study of “Zero or negative tour fee” and points out dif erent opinions about it; Then tentatively analyses the most essential reason of the phenomenon of“Zero or negative tour fee”;Lastly this paper discusses the impact of“Tourism law”banning“zero or negative tour fee”.%新《旅游法》的颁布与实施,意味着在法律层面上遏制了危害中国旅游业秩序的最大因素--“零负团费”。但是作者对此持有不同看法,认为“零负团费”现象在一定程度上促进了旅游业的发展。本文首先对以前学者关于“零负团费”现象成因的分析进行归纳和总结,并提出了自己不同的见解;然后试探性的分析了“零负团费”现象的本质;最后就《旅游法》取缔“零负团费”现象的影响做了探讨。

  20. Dissecting the regulatory microenvironment of a large animal model of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: evidence of a negative prognostic impact of FOXP3+ T cells in canine B cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dammy Pinheiro

    Full Text Available The cancer microenvironment plays a pivotal role in oncogenesis, containing a number of regulatory cells that attenuate the anti-neoplastic immune response. While the negative prognostic impact of regulatory T cells (Tregs in the context of most solid tissue tumors is well established, their role in lymphoid malignancies remains unclear. T cells expressing FOXP3 and Helios were documented in the fine needle aspirates of affected lymph nodes of dogs with spontaneous multicentric B cell lymphoma (BCL, proposed to be a model for human non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Multivariable analysis revealed that the frequency of lymph node FOXP3(+ T cells was an independent negative prognostic factor, impacting both progression-free survival (hazard ratio 1.10; p = 0.01 and overall survival (hazard ratio 1.61; p = 0.01 when comparing dogs showing higher than the median FOXP3 expression with those showing the median value of FOXP3 expression or less. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a population of Tregs operational in canine multicentric BCL that resembles thymic Tregs, which we speculate are co-opted by the tumor from the periphery. We suggest that canine multicentric BCL represents a robust large animal model of human diffuse large BCL, showing clinical, cytological and immunophenotypic similarities with the disease in man, allowing comparative studies of immunoregulatory mechanisms.

  1. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Literature Review of Efficacy, Cost Effectiveness, and Impact on Patients' Quality of Life in Chronic Wound Management and Its Implementation in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaa Othman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a paper reviewing the National Health Service (NHS agenda in relation to the use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT in chronic wound management and assesses the evidence behind it, its cost effectiveness and the outcome it has on patients’ satisfaction and life style. Multiple studies over the last 10 years looking at clinical efficacy of NPWT with its cost effectiveness and the implementation of this service in the UK were reviewed. NPWT has showed a reasonable body of evidence to support its usage in chronic wounds with potential positive outcomes on finance and patients’ satisfaction. However, the NHS system shows significant variations in the availability and implementation of this useful tool, depending on care providers and resources availabilities. The paper concluded that the NPWT can be a useful source of cutting down costs of chronic wound managements and saving money by its effect on expediting wound healing, which can address a part of the financial crises facing the NHS, however, has to be considered according to specific case needs. There should also be a national standard for the availability and indication of this tool to assure equal opportunities for different patients in different areas in the country.

  2. Do you get where I'm coming from?: Perceived understanding buffers against the negative impact of conflict on relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Amie M; Chen, Serena

    2016-02-01

    Conflict can have damaging effects on relationship health. But is all conflict detrimental? Across 7 studies, we tested the overarching hypothesis that conflict in close relationships is only detrimental when people do not feel their thoughts, feelings, and point of view are understood by their relationship partners. Supporting this, conflict was negatively associated with relationship satisfaction among participants who perceived their romantic partner as less understanding, but not among those who felt more understood by their partners. This was true cross-sectionally (Study 1), experimentally (Studies 2, 3, 6a, and 6b), in daily life (Study 4), and for both members of couples pre- to postconflict conversation in the laboratory (Study 5). The buffering effects of feeling understood could not be explained by people who felt more understood being more understanding themselves, having more general positive perceptions of their partners, fighting about less important or different types of issues, engaging in more pleasant conflict conversations, or being more satisfied with their relationships before the conflict. Perceived understanding was positively associated with conflict resolution, but this did not explain the benefits of feeling understood. Evidence from Studies 6a and 6b suggests that feeling understood during conflict may buffer against reduced relationship satisfaction in part because it strengthens the relationship and signals that one's partner is invested. Overall, these studies suggest that perceived understanding may be a critical buffer against the potentially detrimental effects of relationship conflict.

  3. Prognostic impact of alternative splicing-derived hMENA isoforms in resected, node-negative, non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperduti, Isabella; Iapicca, Pierluigi; Visca, Paolo; Alessandrini, Gabriele; Antoniani, Barbara; Pilotto, Sara; Ludovini, Vienna; Vannucci, Jacopo; Bellezza, Guido; Sidoni, Angelo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Radisky, Derek C.; Crinò, Lucio; Cognetti, Francesco; Facciolo, Francesco; Mottolese, Marcella

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment and treatment choice remain a challenge in early non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Alternative splicing is an emerging source for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tools. Here, we investigated the prognostic value of the actin cytoskeleton regulator hMENA and its isoforms, hMENA11a and hMENAΔv6, in early NSCLC. The epithelial hMENA11a isoform was expressed in NSCLC lines expressing E-CADHERIN and was alternatively expressed with hMENAΔv6. Enforced expression of hMENAΔv6 or hMENA11a increased or decreased the invasive ability of A549 cells, respectively. hMENA isoform expression was evaluated in 248 node-negative NSCLC. High pan-hMENA and low hMENA11a were the only independent predictors of shorter disease-free and cancer-specific survival, and low hMENA11a was an independent predictor of shorter overall survival, at multivariate analysis. Patients with low pan-hMENA/high hMENA11a expression fared significantly better (P≤0.0015) than any other subgroup. Such hybrid variable was incorporated with T-size and number of resected lymph nodes into a 3-class-risk stratification model, which strikingly discriminated between different risks of relapse, cancer-related death, and death. The model was externally validated in an independent dataset of 133 patients. Relative expression of hMENA splice isoforms is a powerful prognostic factor in early NSCLC, complementing clinical parameters to accurately predict individual patient risk. PMID:25373410

  4. Health Technology Assessment of the Negative Pressure Wound Therapy for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds: efficacy, safety, cost effectiveness, organizational and ethical impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Giorgi Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: the aim of the study was to assess the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of negative Pressure wound therapy (nPT for people with chronic and acute wounds.

    Methods: the scope and the final draft of the report have been submitted to the stakeholders (producers, payers and patients. safety issues were addressed through a systematic review of the meta-literature. efficacy was addressed through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (rcTs comparing nPT and other standard therapies in patients with chronic or acute lesions. cost-consequence was analyzed through a systematic review of the existing studies.

    Results: we retrieved 19 studies, 13 of which were included in the meta-analysis. Many studies had biases that may have resulted in a better performance for nPT. nPT showed: a slightly shorter healing time (-10.4 days, p=0.001, with no heterogeneity, apart from one small study with very positive results, and 40% more patients healed (p=0.002, no heterogeneity.We identified 15 original research papers on nPT costs and cost per outcome. The costs-per-patient- treated varied from +29% to -60%, with several studies reporting savings for nPT.

    Conclusions: despite serious methodological flaws, the body of evidence available was sufficient to prove some clinical benefit of nPT in severe chronic and acute wound treatment. There is a need for independent and contextualized cost analyses....

  5. Impact of Consolidation Radiation Therapy in Stage III-IV Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma With Negative Post-Chemotherapy Radiologic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorth, Jennifer A., E-mail: jennifer.dorth@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Prosnitz, Leonard R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Broadwater, Gloria [Cancer Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Diehl, Louis F.; Beaven, Anne W. [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Coleman, R. Edward [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: While consolidation radiation therapy (i.e., RT administered after chemotherapy) is routine treatment for patients with early-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the role of consolidation RT in stage III-IV DLBCL is controversial. Methods and Materials: Cases of patients with stage III-IV DLBCL treated from 1991 to 2009 at Duke University, who achieved a complete response to chemotherapy were reviewed. Clinical outcomes were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared between patients who did and did not receive RT, using the log-rank test. A multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Seventy-nine patients were identified. Chemotherapy (median, 6 cycles) consisted of anti-CD20 antibody rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP; 65%); cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP; 22%); or other (13%). Post-chemotherapy imaging consisted of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) (73%); gallium with CT (14%); or CT only (13%). Consolidation RT (median, 25 Gy) was given to involved sites of disease in 38 (48%) patients. Receipt of consolidation RT was associated with improved in-field control (92% vs. 69%, respectively, p = 0.028) and event-free survival (85% vs. 65%, respectively, p = 0.014) but no difference in overall survival (85% vs. 78%, respectively, p = 0.15) when compared to patients who did not receive consolidation RT. On multivariate analysis, no RT was predictive of increased risk of in-field failure (hazard ratio [HR], 8.01, p = 0.014) and worse event-free survival (HR, 4.3, p = 0.014). Conclusions: Patients with stage III-IV DLBCL who achieve negative post-chemotherapy imaging have improved in-field control and event-free survival with low-dose consolidation RT.

  6. Personality, Negativity, and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Weinschenk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have recently started to integrate personality traits into models of political participation. In this paper, we present the results of a survey experiment (N = 724 designed to test whether negative political messages differentially impact people with different personality traits. We found evidence that individuals with high scores on agreeableness were less likely, and individuals with high scores on extraversion were more likely, to report intending to participate in politics than their counterparts after being exposed to negative political messages. Agreeableness and extraversion also interacted with negative messages to influence specific intentions to make a political donation, attend a meeting, rally, or event, and volunteer for a political campaign. We also found suggestive evidence that agreeableness interacted with negativity to influence turnout intentions. The results of this study have important implications for the study of political engagement, the ways in which people interact with political information, and the practice of democratic politics.

  7. Forecasting Winter Storms in the Sierra: A Social Science Perspective in Keeping the Public Safe without Negatively Impacting the Local Tourism Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, R.; Wallmann, J.; Myrick, D. T.

    2010-12-01

    The National Weather Service Office in Reno is responsible for issuing Blizzard Warnings, Winter Storm Warnings, and Winter Weather Advisories for the Sierra, including the Lake Tahoe Basin and heavily traveled routes such as Interstate 80, Highway 395 and Highway 50. These forecast products prepare motorists for harsh travel conditions as well as those venturing into the backcountry, which are essential to the NWS mission of saving lives and property. During the winter season, millions of people from around the world visit the numerous world class ski resorts in the Sierra and the Lake Tahoe Basin, which is vital to the local economy. This situation creates a challenging decision for the forecasters to provide appropriate wording in winter statements to keep the public safe, without significantly impacting the local tourism-based economy. Numerous text and graphical products, including online weather briefings, are utilized by NWS Reno to highlight hazards in ensuring the public, businesses, and other government agencies are prepared for winter storms and take appropriate safety measures. The effectiveness of these product types will be explored, with past snowstorms used as examples to show how forecasters determine which type of text or graphical product is most appropriate to convey the hazardous weather threats.

  8. Negative impact of β-arrestin-1 on post-myocardial infarction heart failure via cardiac and adrenal-dependent neurohormonal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate-Siryk, Ashley; Dabul, Samalia; Pandya, Krunal; Walklett, Karlee; Rengo, Giuseppe; Cannavo, Alessandro; De Lucia, Claudio; Liccardo, Daniela; Gao, Erhe; Leosco, Dario; Koch, Walter J; Lymperopoulos, Anastasios

    2014-02-01

    β-Arrestin (βarr)-1 and β-arrestin-2 (βarrs) are universal G-protein-coupled receptor adapter proteins that negatively regulate cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) function via βAR desensitization and downregulation. In addition, they mediate G-protein-independent βAR signaling, which might be beneficial, for example, antiapoptotic, for the heart. However, the specific role(s) of each βarr isoform in cardiac βAR dysfunction, the molecular hallmark of chronic heart failure (HF), remains unknown. Furthermore, adrenal βarr1 exacerbates HF by chronically enhancing adrenal production and hence circulating levels of aldosterone and catecholamines. Herein, we sought to delineate specific roles of βarr1 in post-myocardial infarction (MI) HF by testing the effects of βarr1 genetic deletion on normal and post-MI cardiac function and morphology. We studied βarr1 knockout (βarr1KO) mice alongside wild-type controls under normal conditions and after surgical MI. Normal (sham-operated) βarr1KO mice display enhanced βAR-dependent contractility and post-MI βarr1KO mice enhanced overall cardiac function (and βAR-dependent contractility) compared with wild type. Post-MI βarr1KO mice also show increased survival and decreased cardiac infarct size, apoptosis, and adverse remodeling, as well as circulating catecholamines and aldosterone, compared with post-MI wild type. The underlying mechanisms, on one hand, improved cardiac βAR signaling and function, as evidenced by increased βAR density and procontractile signaling, via reduced cardiac βAR desensitization because of cardiac βarr1 absence, and, on the other hand, decreased production leading to lower circulating levels of catecholamines and aldosterone because of adrenal βarr1 absence. Thus, βarr1, via both cardiac and adrenal effects, is detrimental for cardiac structure and function and significantly exacerbates post-MI HF.

  9. Negative impact on growth and photosynthesis in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the presence of the estrogen 17α-ethynylestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Tessa; Falk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that estrogenic compounds affect development of fertilized eggs of many species of birds, fish and amphibians through disrupted activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA). The most potent activity comes from the most commonly occurring synthetic sterol, 17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2). Less is known about the responses of aquatic phytoplankton to these compounds. Here we show for the first time that, in comparision to the control, the addition of 7 µM EE2 reduced the growth rate of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by 68% for cells grown at high CO2. When cells were grown in ambient air (low Ci) with a fully activated carbon concentrating mechanism through the induction of CA activity, the growth rates were reduced by as much as 119%. A reduced growth rate could be observed at EE2 concentrations as low as 10 pM. This was accompanied by a reduced maximum capacity for electron transport in photosystem II as determined by a lower FV/FM for low Ci-grown cells, which indicates the involvement of CAH3, a CA specifically located in the thylakoid lumen involved in proton pumping across the thylakoid membranes. These results were in agreement with an observed reduction in the chloroplastic affinity for Ci as shown by a strong increase in the Michaelis-Menten K0.5 for HCO3-. In itself, a lowering of the growth rate of a green alga by addition of the sterol EE2 warrants further investigation into the potential environmental impact by the release of treated waste water.

  10. Negative impact on growth and photosynthesis in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the presence of the estrogen 17α-ethynylestradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Pocock

    Full Text Available It is well known that estrogenic compounds affect development of fertilized eggs of many species of birds, fish and amphibians through disrupted activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA. The most potent activity comes from the most commonly occurring synthetic sterol, 17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2. Less is known about the responses of aquatic phytoplankton to these compounds. Here we show for the first time that, in comparision to the control, the addition of 7 µM EE2 reduced the growth rate of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by 68% for cells grown at high CO2. When cells were grown in ambient air (low Ci with a fully activated carbon concentrating mechanism through the induction of CA activity, the growth rates were reduced by as much as 119%. A reduced growth rate could be observed at EE2 concentrations as low as 10 pM. This was accompanied by a reduced maximum capacity for electron transport in photosystem II as determined by a lower FV/FM for low Ci-grown cells, which indicates the involvement of CAH3, a CA specifically located in the thylakoid lumen involved in proton pumping across the thylakoid membranes. These results were in agreement with an observed reduction in the chloroplastic affinity for Ci as shown by a strong increase in the Michaelis-Menten K0.5 for HCO3-. In itself, a lowering of the growth rate of a green alga by addition of the sterol EE2 warrants further investigation into the potential environmental impact by the release of treated waste water.

  11. What Negative Impact does Wind have on the Deadline of a Construction Project? Mathematical Modeling for the Measurement and Optimization of Wind Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Hafidi Alaoui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In regard to economic phenomena such as the expansion of trade, the interactions between markets encouraging companies to cross borders, the research for market in new areas should be accompanied by sufficient knowledge of their own environment and especially the weather conditions. Indeed, the objectives of a construction project (cost, deadline and quality are affected by a multitude of events, of internal and external origin, such as climate changes when they are severe and abrupt. Certainly, each region is characterized by a specific climate. For some regions, it is rather the wind that remains the most characterizing climate factor. Wind is widely felt in areas exposed to currents such as (trade wind, North wind, Nordet, Harmattan etc…, in other places we underestimate, see, ignore the effects of wind, particularly on a construction site. Yet, the consequences of ignoring this risk factor can be heavy on a construction company (in terms of late penalty law for example; In fact, if bad weather affects particularly on the initial works: earthworks, foundations, slab; wind effects may proclaim during all the duration of the construction site. The wind affect all project’s aspects, quality, cost, safety as well as deadline. Nevertheless there are few studies that were interested in studying relation construction‘s deadline and wind. Tangier, the city located on the Strait of Gibraltar, where the study was conducted, is exposed to wind whose origin is the Anti cyclone of the Azores, in addition to the local winds that are due to the presence of the two seas and imposing mountains, with a wind that might exceed 220km/h. The equation introduced by this study will allow evaluating (measuring the impact of wind on the deadline (expressed Δ, it shall encompass all aspects: - Limiting conditions of equipments existing in construction site (producers’ references - Recommendations of the standard practice - Regulation in terms of work

  12. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  13. IMPACTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  14. Digital Publishing Negative Impact of Personalized Service and Its Control%数字出版个性化服务的负面影响及其控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌

    2013-01-01

    Early development of digital publi shing do always meet consumer demand, readers are considered as the center in the process of content production services, profit is the purpose of the business model, maximizing of freedom and opening up is the objective of construction of self-media platform, these have a certain negative impact on reading depth, grade of cultural consumption and media ecology. From the perspective of construction of the media ecology and publishing culture, research initiatives to control digital publishing negative impact of personalized service, protection authority, civilized and effective information dissemination, maintenance ecology of publishing culture, to avoid the development of digital publishing industry into a “grow first, clean up later” cycle.%数字出版发展初期没有节制地迎合读者消费需求,以读者为中心进行内容生产服务,以营利为目的进行经营模式设计,以追求自由开放最大化为目标进行自媒体平台建设,会对读者阅读深度、文化消费品位和媒介生态产生一定负面影响。从媒介生态构建和出版文化建设角度研究举措,控制数字出版个性化服务的负面影响,保障权威、文明和有效的信息传播,维护出版文化生态,以避免数字出版业的发展陷入“先发展,后治理”的怪圈。

  15. 医保基金风险责任转嫁医疗机构负面影响分析%Analysis of Negative Impact from Health-insurance Funds Shifting Their Risks to Medical Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕庆森

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the negative impact originated from the transfer of cost overrun risks to medical institutions from health-insurance funds. Method: Using literature search and site interviews. Result: It is illegal to pass on the overrun risk to medical institutions; value orientation is wrong; and it will have negative influences on medical institutions, patients and health insurance funds. Conclusion: To lower the risk, one should follow the strategy of structure reform, internal policy adjustment, or risk managing enhancement depending on overall budget; the government should take the responsibility of risk analysis and management.%目的:分析医保基金超支风险责任转嫁医疗机构的负面影响.方法:文献研究与现场访谈法.结果:将风险责任转嫁给医疗机构不符合法律规定;价值取向偏误;对医、患、保三方均有负面影响.结论:风险防范应通过体制改革及内部政策调整、加强风险因素管理等途径,依靠预算来实现;风险责任应由政府承担.

  16. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    In Danish the base position of the negation (and negated quantifier phrases) is between the subject and the finite verb in embedded clauses. However, in embedded clauses introduced by a non-veridical complementizer such as hvis ‘if’ or om ‘whether’, the negation can also appear between the comple......In Danish the base position of the negation (and negated quantifier phrases) is between the subject and the finite verb in embedded clauses. However, in embedded clauses introduced by a non-veridical complementizer such as hvis ‘if’ or om ‘whether’, the negation can also appear between...

  17. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive negations to be more...

  18. Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Berleant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.

  19. Blunting the negative impact of healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Venson; Parrott, Lynne; Simon, John

    2010-09-01

    To prepare for reform, organizations should take the following preventive measures: Create an integrated plan to evaluate the changes under health reform and implement actions for long-term financial success. Plan for lower Medicare payments by negotiating with commercial insurance carriers for contract renewals and implementing cost containment measures. Assess the effectiveness of the charge structure. Improve or establish new procedures to identify and report all charity care services provided. PMID:20830997

  20. The Negative Impacts of Whale-Watching

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, E. C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Whale watching is an international industry worth more than US$2 billion globally and is currently the greatest economic activity reliant upon cetaceans. However, there is concern that whale watching is detrimental to the target species. Numerous studies have shown that cetaceans exhibit behavioral changes in response to whale-watching boat traffic. Some of these behavioral changes involve inhibiting biologically important behaviors such as feeding and resting. There is convincing evidence fo...

  1. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  2. Negative refractive index with negative absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Wuestner, Sebastian; Tsakmakidis, Kosmas L; Hamm, Joachim M; Hess, Ortwin

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of a full-vectorial three-dimensional Maxwell-Bloch approach we investigate the possibility of using gain to overcome losses in a negative refractive index fishnet metamaterial. We show that appropriate placing of optically pumped laser dyes (gain) into the metamaterial structure results in a frequency band where the non-bianisotropic metamaterial becomes amplifying. In that region both the real and the imaginary part of the effective refractive index become simultaneously negative and the figure-of-merit diverges at two distinct frequency points.

  3. 浅析媒体暴力对观众行为态度的正负面影响%Positive and Negative Impacts of Media Violence to Audience Behavior and Attitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄妍

    2011-01-01

    当今社会,媒体暴力对观众行为态度的影响已经俨然成为一个值得讨论的话题。国内外的许多专家学者也都对此做了无数的研究,并通过这些研究肯定了受众的行为态度是会受到媒体暴力所影响的。在本文中,我们基于任何事物都有其两面性的特点,客观的去认识媒体暴力的影响力,并阐述如何去避免其负面影响以及如何把负面影响降到最低,从而促进其积极面的发展。%Today's society,media violence on behavior and attitude of the audience already has become a topic worthy of discus-sion.Many domestic and foreign experts and scholars also have done numerous studies,and through these studies confirmed the audience's behavior and attitude will be affected by media violence.In this paper,we have everything on the characteristics of its two sides,the objective to understand the influence of media violence,and explains how to avoid its negative effects and to mini-mize the negative impact,so as to promote the positive aspects of development.

  4. We Media’s Negative Impact on Public Security’s Image and Countermeasures%自媒体对公安机关形象的消极影响及应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩磊

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the “We Media” industry, the transmission of online information presents a new trend. The characteristics and the unique transmission mode of “We Media” makes lots of negative information of police work be produced and circulated, which has imposed a negative impact on public security’s image, weakened the police authorities, reduced the credibility of law enforcement and impeded the smooth conduct of public security work. Therefore, in order to handle the police image crisis timely and effectively, restore the damaged image and serve people better, public security organs should strengthen their own construction by enhancing cyberspace supervision, guiding the public opinion well and so on.%随着自媒体行业的快速发展,网络信息的传播呈现新的传播态势。自媒体自身的特点及其独特的传播方式使大量有关公安工作的负面信息得以滋生和流转,对公安机关的形象产生了消极影响,进而削弱了警察权威,降低了执法公信力,不利于公安工作的顺利开展。对此,公安机关应从抓好自身建设做起,加强网络监管,做好舆论引导,及时有效地处理好公安形象危机问题,重树公安机关良好形象,更好地为人民服务。

  5. Ecological and aromatic impact of two Gram-negative bacteria (Psychrobacter celer and Hafnia alvei) inoculated as part of the whole microbial community of an experimental smear soft cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlinger, Françoise; Yung, Stéphane Ah Yuen In; Sarthou, Anne-Sophie; Delbès-Paus, Céline; Montel, Marie-Christine; Coton, Emmanuel; Coton, Monika; Helinck, Sandra

    2012-02-15

    The impact of the growth of two Gram-negative bacteria, Psychrobacter celer and Hafnia alvei, inoculated at 10(2) and 10(6) cfu/g, on the dynamics of a multispecies community as well as on volatile aroma compound production during cheese ripening was investigated. Results showed that P. celer was able to successfully implant itself in cheese, regardless of its inoculation level. However, when it was inoculated at a high level, the bacterial biodiversity was drastically lowered from day 25 to the end of ripening. Overall, the presence of P. celer led to the higher production of volatile aroma compounds such as aldehydes, ketones and sulfur compounds. Regardless of its inoculation level, H. alvei barely affected the growth of the bacterial community and was subdominant at the end of ripening. It influenced total volatile aroma compound production with volatile sulfur compounds being the most abundant. Overall, these two bacteria were able to implant themselves in a cheese community and significantly contributed to the aromatic properties of the cheese. Their role in flavoring and their interactions with the technological microorganisms must be considered during cheese ripening and should be further investigated.

  6. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana

    the rate of surgical wound infection and wound exudate post-caesarean and that wound infection had a negative impact on quality of life one month after surgery. Alongside the clinical trial, a trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis demonstrated that the treatment is cost-effective in a high......Women with a pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 giving birth by caesarean section are at high risk of surgical wound infection compared with women with a BMI below 30 kg/m2. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (iNPWT) is one strategy to reduce the rate of surgical wound...... infection. However, the treatment is relatively costly compared to standard postoperative dressings and thus it was important to consider the rationale for using iNPWT before introducing the treatment in a clinical setting. This thesis assesses the current evidence of whether iNPWT reduces post...

  7. Negative tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tandem mirror configuration can be created by combining hot electron end cell plasmas with neutral beam pumping. A region of large negative potential formed in each end cell confines electrons in the central cell. The requirement of charge neutrality causes the central cell potential to become negative with respect to ground in order to confine ions as well as electrons. We discuss the method of producing and calculating the desired axial potential profile, and show the calculated axial potential profile and plasma parameters for a negative configuration of TMX-Upgrade

  8. Holographic Quantum Entanglement Negativity

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We propose a holographic prescription to compute the entanglement negativity for conformal field theories at finite temperatures which exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity for (1+1)- dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures dual to (2+1)- dimensional bulk Euclidean BTZ black holes. We observe that the holographic entanglement negativity captures the distillable pure quantum entanglement and is related to the holographic mutual information. The application of our prescription to higher dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures within a $AdS_{d+1}/CFT_{d}$ scenario involving dual bulk $AdS$-Schwarzschild black holes is discussed to elucidate the universality of our conjecture.

  9. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  10. 小学生同伴关系负面影响的对策研究%Study on the countermeasures of the negative impact of the pupils' peer relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王星妮

    2013-01-01

      The pupils' peer relationship is a very important interpersonal relationship in child's life, is the foundation of pupils to establish good interpersonal relationships. It will have far-reaching effects to children, to adapt to the school, the social life, and even the adult interpersonal relationship healthy development. The primary school is the starting point for the development of children's peer relationship, is the germination period of self-consciousness in children. Open and explicit children's psychological development, easy to understand children's real mental activities, is the gold period to become the cultivation of good peer relationship. Domestic and foreign researchers have done a lot of research, but few study on the influence of parents education idea for elementary school students peer relationship. So put forward some corresponding solutions on the negative impact on pupils' peer relationship, based on the analysis of the status quo at home and abroad and peer relationship, the paper put forward a review of the research on the peer relationship; analyzes the important problems for elementary school students peer relationship. Analysis of children's peer relationship and family education, and school education and social education, and put forward the countermeasures to the negative influence.%  小学生的同伴关系是儿童生活中的一种非常重要人际关系,是小学生建立良好的人际关系的基础。它对儿童,适应学校、社会生活,乃至成人后的人际关系的健康成长都会产生深远的影响。小学阶段是儿童同伴关系发展的起点,是儿童自我意识的萌发时期。儿童心理发展的开放性和外显性,便于了解儿童真实的心理活动,是成为培养良好同伴关系黄金期。国内外的研究者们对此做了大量的探索,但父母教育观念对小学生同伴关系的影响的研究却很少。所以对小学生同伴关系的负面影响提出

  11. Covariant holographic entanglement negativity

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a holographic prescription for the covariant entanglement negativity of $d$-dimensional conformal field theories dual to non static bulk $AdS_{d+1}$ gravitational configurations in the framework of the $AdS/CFT$ correspondence. Application of our conjecture to a $AdS_3/CFT_2$ scenario involving bulk rotating BTZ black holes exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity of the corresponding $(1+1)$ dimensional conformal field theories and precisely captures the distillable quantum entanglement. Interestingly our conjecture for the scenario involving dual bulk extremal rotating BTZ black holes also accurately leads to the entanglement negativity for the chiral half of the corresponding $(1+1)$ dimensional conformal field theory at zero temperature.

  12. Tunneling with negative tension

    CERN Document Server

    Marvel, Kate

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new family of thin-wall instantons, with negative tension bubble walls, that mediate tunneling between Minkowski or de Sitter vacua. Some of these instantons can have exponentially enhanced tunneling rates, and would dominate the Euclidean path integral, representing a severe non-perturbative instability in any theory which supports them. We give two constructions of these instantons in theories which are perturbatively stable, but violate the null energy condition. One construction uses a scalar field theory with higher-derivative kinetic term, and is similar to the Coleman-de Luccia positive tension instanton. The other construction employs a negative-tension boundary arising from Z_2 orbifolding: it resembles a "bubble of nothing" which nucleates and grows, consuming the surrounding de Sitter or Minkowski spacetime. We explain how the spectral flow for fluctutations about the thin-wall tunneling solutions automatically protects causality, for both positive and negative tension instantons. We ...

  13. Negative Probabilities and Contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    de Barros, J Acacio; Oas, Gary

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest, both in physics and psychology, in understanding contextuality in experimentally observed quantities. Different approaches have been proposed to deal with contextual systems, and a promising one is contextuality-by-default, put forth by Dzhafarov and Kujala. The goal of this paper is to present a tutorial on a different approach: negative probabilities. We do so by presenting the overall theory of negative probabilities in a way that is consistent with contextuality-by-default and by examining with this theory some simple examples where contextuality appears, both in physics and psychology.

  14. [Chemotherapies of negative schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, M; Dollfus, S

    1991-01-01

    Five years ago, Goldberg claimed that negative symptoms of schizophrenia do respond to neuroleptics. This apparent discovery is, in fact, a very common way of thinking for European schools of psychiatry, specially the French one guided by Delay and Deniker. Initially focused on reserpine and some alerting phenothiazines such as thioproperazine, this opinion has been extended to benzamides in the 1970s. The analysis of the publications devoted to this point indicates that several drugs are actually considered as potent disinhibitors (i.e. active on negative symptoms of schizophrenia): Phenothiazines: As shown in the controlled studies by Itil (1971), Poirier-Littré (1988), fluphenazine and pipotiazine improve the BPRS anergia factor and the SANS score. Butyrophenones: The first description of the "imipramine like" effect of trifluperidol by Janssen (1959) initiated the studies by Gallant (1960), Fox (1963). They compared trifluperidol at low doses versus haloperidol and chlorpromazine at medium and high doses, BPRS anergia factor improved only at low doses. Diphenylbutylpiperidines (DPBP): Meltzer's review (1986) concluded to the efficacy of such drugs on negative symptoms appearing as a specific biochemical relationship effect. A definite analysis about doses leads to a very different interpretation: DPBP low doses and only low doses improved negative symptoms as much as some low doses of phenothiazines. On the opposite, DPBP, phenothiazines and butyrophenones high doses are inefficient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1683624

  15. Depressionens negative spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen formidler resultater fra en longitudinel undersøgelse af det selvforstærkende, negative samspil imellem udvikling og vedligeholdelse af alderdomsdepression via primære miljøbelastninger og via  den deprimerede ældre som belastning for miljøet, som i sin tur "svarer negativt" på lidelsen ...

  16. Negative Mass Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, F.

    Schrödinger's analysis of the Dirac equation gives a hint for the existence of negative masses hidden behind positive masses. But their use for propulsion by reducing the inertia of matter for example, in the limit of macroscopic bodied with zero rest mass, depends on a technical solution to free them from their imprisonment by positive masses. It appears that there are basically two ways this might be achieved: 1. By the application of strong electromagnetic or gravitational fields or by high particle energies. 2. By searching for places in the universe where nature has already done this separation, and from where the negative masses can be mined. The first of these two possibilities is for all practical means excluded, because if possible at all, it would depend on electromagnetic or gravitational fields with strength beyond what is technically attainable, or on extremely large likewise not attainable particle energies. With regard to the 2nd possibility, it has been observed that non-baryonic cold dark matter tends to accumulate near the center of galaxies, or places in the universe which have a large gravitational potential well. Because of the equivalence principle of general relativity, the attraction towards the center of a gravitational potential well, produced by a positive mass, is for negative masses the same as for positive masses, and large amounts of negative masses might have over billions of years been trapped in these gravitational potential wells. Now it just happens that the center of the moon is a potential well, not too deep that it cannot be reached by making a tunnel through the moon, not possible for the deeper potential well of the earth, where the temperature and pressure are too high. Making a tunnel through the moon, provided there is a good supply of negative mass, could revolutionize interstellar space flight. A sequence of thermonuclear shape charges would make such tunnel technically feasible.

  17. Negative magnetoresistivity in holography

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Negative magnetoresistivity is a special magnetotransport property associated with chiral anomaly in four dimensional chiral anomalous systems, which refers to the transport behavior that the DC longitudinal magnetoresistivity decreases with increasing magnetic field. We calculate the longitudinal magnetoconductivity in the presence of backreactions of the magnetic field to gravity in holographic zero charge and axial charge density systems with and without axial charge dissipation. In the absence of axial charge dissipation, we find that the quantum critical conductivity grows with increasing magnetic field when the backreaction strength is larger than a critical value, in contrast to the monotonically decreasing behavior of quantum critical conductivity in the probe limit. With axial charge dissipation, we find the negative magnetoresistivity behavior. The DC longitudinal magnetoconductivity scales as $B$ in the large magnetic field limit, which deviates from the exact $B^2$ scaling of the probe limit resul...

  18. Negative und positive Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Scharpf, F.

    2008-01-01

    Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den Wirkungen der europäischen Integration auf das Grundproblem traditioneller wie moderner Politischer Ökonomie: Die Arbeitsteilung zwischen Staat und Markt. Im Mittelpunkt steht die "negative Integration" und ihr einzigartiger Erfolg bei der Beseitigung der in den Nachkriegsjahrzehnten gewonnenen Kontrolle des Nationalstaates über seine ökonomischen Außengrenzen. Durch die "Konstitutionalisierung" des Wettbewerbsrechts haben die Europäische Kommission ...

  19. Negative agency costs

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Thépot

    2009-01-01

    Managerial opportunism is commonly considered as destructive for the parties involved in an agency relationship. Using a close formulation to Jensen and Meckling’s equity model, we consider an agency relationship between a manager and an investor. The latter is assumed to benefit from a market power through external funding opportunities. For high values of the prevailing rate of interest, we prove that the agency costs can be negative, either when the manager or the investor acts as the lead...

  20. Negative refractive index metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie J. Padilla

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered materials composed of designed inclusions can exhibit exotic and unique electromagnetic properties not inherent in the individual constituent components. These artificially structured composites, known as metamaterials, have the potential to fill critical voids in the electromagnetic spectrum where material response is limited and enable the construction of novel devices. Recently, metamaterials that display negative refractive index – a property not found in any known naturally occurring material – have drawn significant scientific interest, underscoring the remarkable potential of metamaterials to facilitate new developments in electromagnetism.

  1. Negatively buoyant starting jets

    OpenAIRE

    Marugán-Cruz, C.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Martínez-Bazán, C.

    2009-01-01

    The initial development of negatively buoyant jets has been investigated experimentally and numerically, focusing on the role played by gravity in the evolution of the leading vortex ring. Under the experimental conditions considered in this work, the densimetric Froude number, Fr= ρjU²j/[(ρ₀ − ρj) gD] , which represents the ratio between the jet momentum and the buoyancy forces, emerges as the most relevant parameter characterizing the dynamics of the flow. Two different flow regimes h...

  2. Classroom Management and Negative Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Robert T.

    Of the four simple consequences for behavior, none is more misunderstood than negative reinforcement. A Negative Reinforcement Quiz administered to 233 student teachers from two universities revealed that the vast majority of respondents mistakenly viewed negative reinforcement as a synonym for punishment, and believe that negative reinforcement…

  3. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  4. Polarized negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  5. Negative leave balances

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  6. Negative leave balances

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  7. Polarized negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H- and D- beams in excess of 10 μA can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 μA, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized 3He- ions is followed by some concluding remarks

  8. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody 19A2 and a new antigen retrieval technique has prognostic impact in archival paraffin-embedded node-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siitonen, S M; Kallioniemi, O P; Isola, J J

    1993-04-01

    We evaluated whether proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry with antigen retrieval could be used as a measure of cell proliferation in archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues and whether the staining results have long-term prognostic significance in axillary node-negative breast cancer. Primary tumor samples obtained from 109 axillary-node-negative breast cancer cases were used for the study. The best staining results were obtained with the 19A2 antibody after microwave heating in a solution of saturated lead thiocyanate. Using this method, there was a significant correlation (linear regression, r = 0.580, P treatment may offer a useful alternative to DNA flow cytometry for the analysis of cell proliferation activity from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast carcinomas.

  9. Differential impact of parental region of birth on negative parenting behavior and its effects on child mental health: Results from a large sample of 6 to 11 year old school children in France

    OpenAIRE

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Husky, Mathilde; Pitrou, Isabelle; Fermanian, Christophe; Shojaei, Taraneh; Chee, Christine Chan; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Beiser, Morton

    2016-01-01

    Background In France, one in 10 residents has immigrated mainly from North Africa, West Africa or the Caribbean including the French West Indies. However little is known about how parents from these regions behave when they migrate to countries that have different cultural norms. It is therefore important to determine how ethno-cultural background affects parental behavior and subsequent child mental health in the context of immigration. The objectives are: 1) to compare negative parenting be...

  10. Do `negative' temperatures exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1999-06-01

    A modification of the second law is required for a system with a bounded density of states and not the introduction of a `negative' temperature scale. The ascending and descending branches of the entropy versus energy curve describe particle and hole states, having thermal equations of state that are given by the Fermi and logistic distributions, respectively. Conservation of energy requires isentropic states to be isothermal. The effect of adiabatically reversing the field is entirely mechanical because the only difference between the two states is their energies. The laws of large and small numbers, leading to the normal and Poisson approximations, characterize statistically the states of infinite and zero temperatures, respectively. Since the heat capacity also vanishes in the state of maximum disorder, the third law can be generalized in systems with a bounded density of states: the entropy tends to a constant as the temperature tends to either zero or infinity.

  11. Negative Optical Torque

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jun; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C T

    2014-01-01

    Maxwell noted that light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. This was subsequently proved by Beth in 1936. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later enabled by the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have been demonstrated, where the structure is subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis21 if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here a counter-intuitive phenomenon of negative optical torque, meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition. The optimal conditions are explored and explained.

  12. Primitive Virtual Negative Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiyoung

    2008-01-01

    Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

  13. The Impact of Organization-Based Self-Esteem on Employees’ Work Alienation-The Role of Negative Emotion and Traditionality%组织自尊对员工工作疏离感影响的实证研究--消极情绪和传统性的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璇; 陈维政

    2016-01-01

    依据自我一致理论和情感事件理论,文章探讨了组织自尊对员工工作疏离感及其各维度的影响,并检验了消极情绪的中介效应和传统性的调节效应。对448个员工样本的调查问卷进行统计分析,结果显示:(1)组织自尊对员工工作疏离感及其各维度(工作任务疏离感、工作人际疏离感和工作环境疏离感)、消极情绪有显著的负向影响;(2)消极情绪在组织自尊对员工工作疏离感及其各维度的影响中具有部分中介效应;(3)传统性在消极情绪对员工工作疏离感、工作任务疏离感、工作人际疏离感的影响中具有显著调节效应,对工作环境疏离感的影响中不具有显著调节效应。%Based on self‐consistent theory and affective event theory ,the study explored the impact of organiza‐tion‐based self‐esteem on employees’ work alienation and its various dimensions ,and examined the mediating effect of negative emotion and the moderating effect of traditionality .The results of statistical analysis from 448 employees shows that (1) Organization‐based self‐esteem has a significant negative impact on work alienation and its various dimensions(job alienation ,interpersonal alienation and environment alienation) ,and also on negative emotion;(2)Negative emotion plays a partial mediating effect in the impact of organization‐based self‐esteem on work alienation and its various dimensions ,and (3)traditionality plays a significant moderating effect in the impact of organization‐based self‐esteem on negative emotion on work alienation ,job alienation and inter‐personal alienation ,but not on environment alienation .

  14. Negative normal restitution coefficient for nanocluster collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Brilliantov, Nikolai V

    2010-01-01

    The oblique impact of nanoclusters is studied by means of Molecular Dynamics simulation. Using the standard definition of the normal restitution coefficient $e$ we observe a surprising result, that $e$ becomes negative for large incident angles. We show that this effect may be attributed to the reorientation of the contact plane during collisions, which affects $e$. We propose a modified definition of the normal restitution coefficient $\\Tilde{e}$. This, in contrast to the standard definition, characterizes exclusively the normal motion and is always positive. We develop a simple theoretical model of an oblique impact, which explains the observed behavior of the restitution coefficients and agrees well with the numerical data.

  15. The Negative Influence of the Technical Means on Children's Development

    OpenAIRE

    S. Luparenko

    2014-01-01

    The negative impact of the technical means (computer, TV) on children's development is characterized. This negative impact means damage of physical and mental health; lack of positive moral-ethic influence, forming a soulless, spiritless person; children's detachment from real life and their impossibility to realize themselves; increased aggressiveness; disappearance of the components of children subculture; availability (in virtual world) of the information which can influence child's develo...

  16. An Annotated Bibliography of the Literature Dealing with the Impact of Divorce upon the Academic Performance, Emotional Adjustment, Self-Concept, and Behavioral Changes of Children of Divorce and the Diagnosis of and Strategies for Alleviating Negative Symptoms of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Diane M.

    Annotated citations in this bibliography are divided into two sections: (1) statistical studies concerning the impact of divorce on students, and (2) diagnostic studies and suggested strategies for dealing with the issue of marital separation and divorce and their effects in the classroom. A glossary of terms, a summary of findings, conclusions,…

  17. Negative Expertise: Comparing Differently Tenured Elder Care Nurses' Negative Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartmeier, Martin; Lehtinen, Erno; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Negative expertise is conceptualised as the professional's ability to avoid errors during practice due to certain cognitive agencies. In this study, negative knowledge (i.e. knowledge about what is wrong in a certain context and situation) is conceptualised as one such agency. This study compares and investigates the negative knowledge of elder…

  18. Impact of a large negative gain-to-cavity wavelength detuning on the performance of InGaAlAs oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhin, Sergey A.; Bobrov, Mikhail A.; Maleev, Nikolai A.; Kuzmenkov, Alexander G.; Sakharov, Alexey V.; Blokhin, Alexey A.; Moser, Philip; Lott, James A.; Bimberg, Dieter; Ustinov, Viktor M.

    2015-03-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on the InGaAlAs-materials system on GaAs substrates are the key component for short-reach data and computer communications systems. Several different modulation schemes have been developed to realize high data bit rates based on various oxide-confined near-infrared VCSEL designs operated under direct current modulation. However, one open question to resolve is the optimal gain-to-cavity wavelength detuning to employ for temperature-stable high-speed performance. We investigate the static and dynamic characteristics of 850 nm high-speed oxide-confined VCSELs with different negative gain-to-cavity wavelength detunings. Our oxideconfined 850 nm VCSELs with a more common ~10 nm negative gain-to-cavity detuning demonstrate the conventional optical mode behavior with a classical single-resonance frequency response. With a larger (≥ 20 nm) negative detuning, our devices with large oxide-aperture size (>6 μm) show an anomalous start of lasing via higher order modes with a subsequent switching to lasing via the lowest order modes at higher currents. At intermediate currents, co-lasing via two types of transverse modes and a two-resonance modulation response is observed. The increase of operation temperature as well as the reduction in the oxide-aperture area resulted in classical lasing of index-guided VCSELs. The observed optical mode behavior can be attributed to the specific index guiding profile caused by the oxide-apertures, low internal optical losses, and the large gain-to-cavity detuning. Moreover, one can suggest that the complex shape of the modulation response results from the mode competition for the available gain during an interesting co-lasing operating regime.

  19. Negative Emotional Impact of Peptic Ulcer Patients and Nursing Intervention%负性情绪对消化性溃疡的患者的影响及护理干预效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圆媛

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨负性情绪对消化性溃疡患者的影响及护理干预的效果.方法:选取我院2009 年6月至2010 年6月收治的90 例消化性溃疡患者为研究对象,采取医院焦虑自评量表(SAS) 及抑郁自评量表(SDS) 评定患者的心理状态,并随机分为观察组和对照组,对照组采用常规护理,观察组在对照组的基础上采用心理干预,比较两组患者护理干预前后负性情绪变化及疼痛缓解率.结果:该组患者均存在不同程度的焦虑、抑郁情绪,SAS 、SDS 评分均显著高于国内常模,P<0.05.观察组患者的负性情绪改善及疼痛缓解率均显著优于对照组,P<0.05.结论:护理人员要及时评估消化性溃疡患者的负性情绪,并采用恰当的心理干预,改善其不良心理,提高治疗效果.%Objective: To explore the negative emotions of patients with peptic ulcer and nursing intervention effect. Methods: Our hospital from June 2009 to June 2010 were treated 90 cases of peptic ulcer patients in this study, to take the hospital anxiety and self-assessment scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) assessment of the patient's mental state , and randomly divided into two groups and the control group and the control group with conventional care, observation group were based on the use of psychological intervention, were compared before and after patient care intervention change negative emotions and pain relief rate. Results: The patients had varying degrees of anxiety, depression, SAS, SDS scores were significantly higher than the national norm, P<0.05. The patients of the negative emotions and pain relief, improvement were significantly better than the control group, P<0.05. Conclusion: Nurses need to evaluate patients with peptic ulcer negative emotion, and the use of appropriate psychological intervention to improve its adverse psychological, improve the therapeutic effect.

  20. Coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karsten; Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-10-01

    The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  1. 负性生活事件对新疆公务员生存质量的影响%The impact of negative life events on quality of life of civil servants in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 周增桓; 屈荣杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between negative life events and the quality of life of civil servants in Xinjiang. Methods A total of 2695 civil servants in Xinjiang were investigated with SF-36 scale and self-designed negative life events questionnaire. Results 18.33 % of the investigated civil servants had a low quality of life with a score less than 60, and the total average quality-of-life score was 73.16 ± 13.40. The quality-of-life score of civil servants in Xinjiang encountering no , few and many negative events was 76.00 ± 12.71, 71.03 ± 13.23 and 58.47 ± 11.49, respectively, with statistical difference (F = 104.215, P = 0.000). There was a lower negative correlation between the negative life event and the quality-of-life score (r = -0.299, P = 0.000). The multivariate analysis revealed that romance (OR = 2.318) , divorce (OR = 2.767) , family financial problems(OR=2.086) , loss of valuables (OR = 2.447) , housing shortage (OR = 1.370) , satisfaction with job (OR = 1.946), tension between colleagues (OR = 2.126), disharmony with neighbors (OR = 2.447) and emergencies (OR = 2.889) were associated with quality of life. Conclusion Low quality of life of civil servants in Xinjiang was associated with romance, divorce, family financial problems, loss of valuables, housing shortage, satisfaction with job, tension between colleagues and disharmony with neighbors.%目的:探讨负性生活事件与公务员生存质量的关系.方法:应用SF-36量表和自制的负性生活事件量表对2695名新疆公务员进行调查.结果:新疆公务员生存质量总分低于60分占18.33%,总均分为(73.16 ± 13.40)分.无、少和多负性事件组的新疆公务员生存质量总分分别为(76.00 ± 12.71)、(71.03 ± 13.23)和 (58.47 ± 11.49)分,差异有统计学意义(F = 104.215,P = 0.000).负性生活事件得分与生存质量得分呈低度负相关,差异有统计学意义(r = -0.299,P = 0.000).多因素分析显示,失恋(OR = 2.318)

  2. Reducing the volume, exposure and negative impacts of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children: a systematic review of the evidence from statutory and self-regulatory actions and educational measures

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Stephanie; Freeman, Ruth; Anderson, Annie S.; MacGillivray, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and review evidence on 1) the effectiveness of statutory and self-regulatory actions to reduce the volume, exposure or wider impact of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children, and 2) the role of educational measures. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic review of three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and grey literature was carried out. Relevant evidence included studies evaluating advertising bans and restrictions, adve...

  3. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  4. Neural responses to negative feedback are related to negative emotionality in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Diane L.; Bogdan, Ryan; Birk, Jeffrey L.; Goetz, Elena L.; Holmes, Avram J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence suggests that potentiated responses in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), particularly the rostral ACC, may contribute to abnormal responses to negative feedback in individuals with elevated negative affect and depressive symptoms. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) represents an electrophysiological index of ACC-related activation in response to performance feedback. The purpose of the present study was to examine the FRN and underlying ACC activation using low resolution electromagnetic tomography source estimation techniques in relation to negative emotionality (a composite index including negative affect and subclinical depressive symptoms). To this end, 29 healthy adults performed a monetary incentive delay task while 128-channel event-related potentials were recorded. We found that enhanced FRNs and increased rostral ACC activation in response to negative—but not positive—feedback was related to greater negative emotionality. These results indicate that individual differences in negative emotionality—a putative risk factor for emotional disorders—modulate ACC-related processes critically implicated in assessing the motivational impact and/or salience of environmental feedback. PMID:21917847

  5. Factors impacting knowledge and use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods by postpartum HIV positive and negative women in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Credé Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women is a neglected strategy in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Women who want to avoid unintended pregnancies can do this by using a modern contraceptive method. Contraceptive choice, in particular the use of long acting and permanent methods (LAPMs, is poorly understood among HIV-positive women. This study aimed to compare factors that influence women's choice in contraception and women's knowledge and attitudes towards the IUD and female sterilization by HIV-status in a high HIV prevalence setting, Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered questionnaire amongst 265 HIV positive and 273 HIV-negative postpartum women in Cape Town. Contraceptive use, reproductive history and the future fertility intentions of postpartum women were compared using chi-squared tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher's exact tests where appropriate. Women's knowledge and attitudes towards long acting and permanent methods as well as factors that influence women's choice in contraception were examined. Results The majority of women reported that their most recent pregnancy was unplanned (61.6% HIV positive and 63.2% HIV negative. Current use of contraception was high with no difference by HIV status (89.8% HIV positive and 89% HIV negative. Most women were using short acting methods, primarily the 3-monthly injectable (Depo Provera. Method convenience and health care provider recommendations were found to most commonly influence method choice. A small percentage of women (6.44% were using long acting and permanent methods, all of whom were using sterilization; however, it was found that poor knowledge regarding LAPMs is likely to be contributing to the poor uptake of these methods. Conclusions Improving contraceptive counselling to include LAPM and strengthening services for these methods are warranted in this setting

  6. 综合性心理干预对骨科患者负性心理及疼痛的治疗效果观察%Impact of Comprehensive Psychological Intervention on Negative Psychological and Pain of Orthopedics Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林美

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察综合性心理干预对骨科患者负性心理及疼痛的治疗效果。方法采用问卷调查对247例骨科手术患者(常规组134例,干预组113例)入院时和手术后负性心理及疼痛等情况进行评定,问卷包括焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)和视觉模拟评分法(VAS);常规组给予常规治疗和护理,干预组除常规治疗和护理外给予综合性干预措施。结果两组患者在术后12小时SAS、SDS评分均低于入院时,干预组分值下降大于常规组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组组患者的VAS评分在术后随着时间的延后而下降,干预组下降程度大于常规组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。干预组负性心理及疼痛的改善情况优于常规组。结论综合性心理干预是有效的,可以改善患者负性心理和疼痛,促进患者的恢复。%Objective: To observed the effect of comprehensive psychological intervention negative psychological and pain of orthopedics patients. Methods:The patients were divided into normal group and intervention group,questionnaire was adopted to investigate the effect of intervention.Results: The improvement on negative psychological and pain of intervention group was better than the normal group. Conclusion: Effective comprehensive psychological intervention can improve patients' negative psychology and pain, and promote the recovery of patients.

  7. The discussion about the negative impact of television advertising on children's moral education%论电视广告对儿童道德教育的负面影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯石岗; 王立杰; 高怡钧

    2014-01-01

    TV advertising is to promote goods or services, promote the enterprise image, and establish the consumption idea, in order to get consumer recognition, it can use a variety of media exerts a subtle influence on the children's thinking and understanding and value judgment. Television advertising is a double-edged sword, positive advertising motivating, negative ads mislead people, also can bring the enemies we make, can not only promote beauty and goodness and truth lives on for its negative effects on children's moral education are various:will have far-reaching effects on children's growth, the need to attract the attention of the social related groups.%电视广告是为了宣传商品或服务、宣传企业形象和树立消费观念,为了得到消费者的认可,它可以借助多种媒介潜移默化地影响着儿童的思想认识和价值判断。电视广告是一把双刃剑,正面的广告激励人、负面的广告误导人,既可以宣扬真善美,也可以带来假丑恶,其对儿童道德教育的负面影响是多方面的:会对儿童的成长产生深远的不良影响,需要引起社会相关群体的注意。

  8. Economic impacts of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will probably have a limited impact on the economy and human welfare in the 21st century. The initial impacts of climate change may well be positive. In the long run, the negative impacts dominate the positive ones. Negative impacts will be substantially greater in poorer, hotter, and lower-lying countries. Poverty reduction complements greenhouse gas emissions reduction as a means to reduce climate change impacts. Climate change may affect the growth rate of the economy and ma...

  9. Group counseling for nursing students before negative psychological impact on employment%团体心理咨询对实习护生就业前负性心理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖红珍; 卢志坚; 黄萍; 杨素芬; 吴国友; 叶颜凤; 张月嫦

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨团体心理咨询对实习护生就业前负性心理的影响。方法将120名实习护生随机分为观察组和对照组各60名 ,观察组进院实习后应用团体心理咨询的方法进行训练,对照组不进行团体心理咨询训练。两组均采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)和自信心量表(SES)对实习护生在心理咨询前与团体心理咨询训练结束后各测评1次,并进行对比分析。结果观察组实习护生进行团体心理咨询后 SDS 、SAS 测评分值明显低于对照组,出现负性心理(焦虑、抑郁)的例数较对照组明显减少,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05);观察组实习护生自信心测评得分较对照组明显提高,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。结论团体心理咨询能有效减轻实习护生就业前的负性心理(焦虑、抑郁),提高自信心,同时也提高实习护生对未来就业的信心。%Objective To investigate the group counseling on employment in nursing students before negative psy ‐chological effects . Methods Selected of 120 name internship nursing born random is divided into group and con‐trol group ,each 60 name ,group into homes internship hou application groups psychological advisory of method for training ,control group not for groups psychological advisory training ;two group are used depression since assess‐ment volume table (SDS ) ,and anxiety since assessment volume table (SAS ) and self‐confidence volume table (SES) ,on internship nursing born in for groups psychological advisory qian and groups psychological advisory training ended hou each evaluation once ,then for compared analysis . Results Study group after group counseling nursing students SDS and SAS test scores significantly lower than control group ,appeared negative psychological (SDS and SAS) significantly reduced the number of cases compared with the control group ,there was a statistically

  10. On Negation as Mitigation: The Case of Negative Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Fein, Ofer; Ganzi, Jonathan; Levi, Natalie Alkeslassy; Sabah, Hadas

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments support the view of negation as mitigation (Giora, Balaban, Fein, & Alkabets, 2004). They show that when irony involves some sizable gap between what is said and what is criticized (He is exceptionally bright said of an idiot), it is rated as highly ironic (Giora, 1995). A negated version of that overstatement (He is not…

  11. An electromagnetic trinity from "negative permittivity" and "negative permeability"

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtakia, A

    2001-01-01

    An electromagnetic trinity comprising vacuum, anti--vacuum, and nihility is postulated -- after making use of materials with "negative permittivity" and "negative permeability" -- to illuminate the structure of electromagnetic theory, at least insofar as the relationship of phase velocity with Poynting vector is concerned.

  12. Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Silverman

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.

  13. Negative cooperativity in regulatory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzki, A; Koshland, D E

    1969-04-01

    Negative cooperativity has been observed in CTP synthetase, an allosteric enzyme which contains a regulatory site. Thus, the same enzyme exhibits negative cooperativity for GTP (an effector) and glutamine (a substrate) and positive cooperativity for ATP and UTP (both substrates). In the process of the delineation of these phenomena, diagnostic procedures for negative cooperativity were developed. Application of these procedures to other enzymes indicates that negative cooperativity is a characteristic of many of them. These findings add strong support for the sequential model of subunit interactions which postulates that ligand-induced conformational changes are responsible for regulatory and cooperative phenomena in enzymes. PMID:5256410

  14. Assessing climate impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Wohl, Ellen E.; Roger S. Pulwarty; Zhang, Jian Yun

    2000-01-01

    Assessing climate impacts involves identifying sources and characteristics of climate variability, and mitigating potential negative impacts of that variability. Associated research focuses on climate driving mechanisms, biosphere–hydrosphere responses and mediation, and human responses. Examples of climate impacts come from 1998 flooding in the Yangtze River Basin and hurricanes in the Caribbean and Central America. Although we have limited understanding of the fu...

  15. 网络低俗化对大学生负面影响及对策研究%On Network Vulgar Negative Impact on College Students and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯曦鹏; 何云峰; 王静

    2015-01-01

    互联网技术的发展使人类社会生活进入了一个崭新的时代———网络时代。它给我们的生活带来便捷的同时也给人类社会的发展带来挑战和困惑,其中网络低俗化问题已经成为一个不容忽视的问题,其具体表现为网络成瘾现象严重、网络淫秽信息泛滥、网络暴力言论多发、网络诈骗事件频发等,应从“三观”教育、心理健康、行为方式等三个层面了解网络低俗化的负面影响,并从家庭学校教育、社会技术监管、政府法规建设、学生自我主体修养等方面采取相应的对策,以此来营造一个健康的网络环境。%The development of the Internet technology has made the life of human beings into a new brand era --the Internet age. It brings convenience as well as challenges and confusions to our lives.Especially, the network vulgarization problem has become an ignorable serious problem which shows as: the serious Internet addiction; network bawdy information; network speech violence; and frequent network fraud.This essay, from the three levels of the education of"three outlooks, mental health and behavior focuses, ana-lyses the negative effects of network vulgarization, and puts forward the corresponding countermeasures from the family and school edu-cation, social supervision, construction of government regulations, and the student main body self cultivation to create a healthy net-work environment.

  16. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  17. Be Aware of Negative Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio C.

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the concept of negative reinforcement in relation to the maintenance of off-task and disruptive behaviors in classrooms. Suggestions are given for determining whether negative reinforcement (in the form of escape from the instructional task) or teacher attention is maintaining the behavior. Suggestions for making tasks less…

  18. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  19. The case for negative senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W; Baudisch, Annette; Dölling, Martin;

    2004-01-01

    kinds of animals that may experience negative senescence and conclude that negative senescence may be widespread, especially in indeterminate-growth species for which size and fertility increase with age. We develop optimization models of life-history strategies that demonstrate that negative senescence......Negative senescence is characterized by a decline in mortality with age after reproductive maturity, generally accompanied by an increase in fecundity. Hamilton (1966) ruled out negative senescence: we adumbrate the deficiencies of his model. We review empirical studies of various plants and some...... is theoretically possible. More generally, our models contribute to understanding of the evolutionary and demographic forces that mold the age-trajectories of mortality, fertility and growth....

  20. Analysis of Negative Correlation Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yong; Zou Xiu-fen

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes negative correlation learning for designing neural network ensembles. Negative correlation learning has been firstly analysed in terms of minimising mutual information on a regression task. By ninimising the mutual information between variables extracted by two neural networks, they are forced to convey different information about some features of their input. Based on the decision boundaries and correct response sets, negative correlation learning has been further studied on two pattern classification problems. The purpose of examining the decision boundaries and the correct response sets is not only to illustrate the learning behavior of negative correlation learning, but also to cast light on how to design more effective neural network ensembles. The experimental results showed the decision boundary of the trained neural network ensemble by negative correlation learning is almost as good as the optimum decision boundary.

  1. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  2. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age.......We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...

  3. Ten Rules for Dealing with Negative Contributions in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Stránská; Václav Stříteský

    2015-01-01

    Social media is becoming a key part of business communication strategy. Despite all the advantages, social media also poses a threat to business reputation. Dissatisfied customers can reach a large audience and share their negative experiences with others. This paper deals with the impact of social media on the practice of public relations. The goal of the paper is to formulate a set of rules for dealing with negative contributions and generally with crisis communication in social media. It...

  4. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K; Setter, Nava

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones. PMID:27396411

  5. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maki; Utsumi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1) adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2) although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3) negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  6. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  7. Negative effects of positive reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive—those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say t...

  8. Does individualism bring happiness? Negative effects of individualism on interpersonal relationships and happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Yuji eOgihara; Yukiko eUchida

    2014-01-01

    We examined the negative effects of individualism in an East Asian culture. Although individualistic systems decrease interpersonal relationships through competition, individualistic values have prevailed in European American cultures. One reason is because individuals could overcome negativity by actively constructing interpersonal relationships. In contrast, people in East Asian cultures do not have such strategies to overcome the negative impact of individualistic systems, leading to decre...

  9. Input calibration for negative originals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    1995-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the prepress environment consists of controlling the electronic color reproduction process such that a perfect match of any original can be realized. Whether this goal can be reached depends on many factors such as the dynamic range of the input device (scanner, camera), the color gamut of the output device (dye sublimation printer, ink-jet printer, offset), the color management software etc. The characterization of the color behavior of the peripheral devices is therefore very important. Photographs and positive transparents reflect the original scene pretty well; for negative originals, however, there is no obvious link to either the original scene or a particular print of the negative under consideration. In this paper, we establish a method to scan negatives and to convert the scanned data to a calibrated RGB space, which is known colorimetrically. This method is based on the reconstruction of the original exposure conditions (i.e., original scene) which generated the negative. Since the characteristics of negative film are quite diverse, a special calibration is required for each combination of scanner and film type.

  10. Atomic negative-ion resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors attempt to give a comprehensive discussion of observations of atomic negative-ion resonances throughout the periodic table. A review of experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of negative-ion resonances is given together with a consideration of the various schemes that are used for their classification. In addition to providing, where possible, tabulated data for the energies, widths, and symmetries of these states, the authors also attempt to highlight regularities in their behavior both within groups of the periodic table and along isoionic sequences

  11. 应激事件、负性思维和应对方式对研究生抑郁的预测及影响研究%Prediction and impacts of stressful events,negative thoughts and coping styles on depression among graduate students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俐; 张霞; 刘晓雨; 靳灿灿; 刘云波; 王晓霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究应激事件、负性思维和应对方式对高校研究生抑郁的预测及影响,为制定针对性的心理干预措施提供依据。方法采用 SDS 量表、青少年应激事件量表、简易应对方式问卷和自动思维问卷,对659名研究生进行调查。结果抑郁检出率为3.49%(23例),研究生抑郁与应激事件、负性思维和消极应对呈正相关(r =0.235、0.289、0.187,P 值均<0.01),与积极应对呈负相关(r=0.399,P <0.01);多元回归分析显示,应激事件与抑郁无线性关系,负性思维、积极应对和消极应对对抑郁有影响,其中积极应对预测力最强(15.9%)。结论高校研究生存在一定的抑郁人群,应针对性地制定心理干预措施,提高其心理健康水平。%Objective To study prediction and impacts of stressful events,negative thoughts and coping styles on depression among graduate students in colleges;to provide basis for making targeted psychological intervention measures.Methods A to-tal of 659 graduate students were investigated with Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS),Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List,Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire and Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire.Results The depression rate was 3.49%(23 cases).Depression among graduate students was positively correlated with stressful events,negative thoughts and negative coping style(r=0.235,0.289,0.187,all P <0.01);depression correlated negatively with positive coping style(r=0.399,P <0.01).Multivariate regression analysis showed no distinctive linear relationship between depressions and stressful events,depression was influenced by negative thoughts,positive coping style and negative coping style,among which positive coping style was the most powerful variable for depression predication(15.9%).Conclusion Some graduate students in colle-ges were suffered from depression.Targeted psychological interventions should be carried out to

  12. Food Inequality Negatively Impacts Cardiac Health in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Heidary; Mohammad Reza Vaez Mahdavi; Farshad Momeni; Bagher Minaii; Mehrdad Rogani; Nader Fallah; Roghayeh Heidary; Reza Gharebaghi

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with lower socioeconomic status experience higher rates of mortality and are more likely to suffer from numerous diseases. While some studies indicate that humans who suffer from social inequality suffer generally worse health, to our knowledge no controlled experiments of this nature have been done in any species. Lipofuscin is a highly oxidized cross-linked aggregate consisting of oxidized protein and lipid clusters. This eminent terminal oxidation outcome accumulate...

  13. Negative impact of inorganic pollutants transport from landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metals concentrations are evaluated in four sampling stations located in the Almendares river to estimate the influence of the leachate from 100 street landfill. The studied metals were Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn and the determinations were carried out in waters and sediments in March 2004. In the case of the waters the contents of dissolved metals were low, in most of the cases less than the levels recommended in the drinking water guidelines for Cuba. The high organic matter content and pH values of the water (higher to 7) are factors that may contribute to the precipitation of metals. The contents of metals in the river Almendares sediments were high in most of the cases. The highest metals levels were found in the sampling station located near the landfill. A decrease of the metals content was verified in the sediments when the distance of the evaluated polluting source was increased. Taken into account the enrichment factors for Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu y Zn the total content surpass the level for a lithogenous material. Furthermore, it shows the importance of the anthropogenic metals inputs. Using the method of sequential extractions we found that the organic matter in the sediment fulfils an important role in the immobilization of the metals. The results obtained in the investigation indicate that 100 street leachate could constitute an important source of contamination of the river related to heavy metals. That's why it is necessary to implement a solution for the treatment of the leachate or for to avoid the disposition in the river

  14. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural production of liquid biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Reijnders

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural production of liquid biofuels can have positive effects. It can decrease dependence on fossil fuels and increase farmers’ incomes. Agricultural production of mixed perennial biofuel crops may increase pollinator and avian richness. Most types of agricultural crop-based liquid biofuel pr

  15. Adults Matter: Protecting Children from the Negative Impacts of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Johnson, Danya L.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; McKelvey, Lorraine; Gargus, Regina A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the degree to which support from parents and teachers buffers the level of depression for four groups of children involved in bullying (victim, bully, bully-victims, or not involved children). Nine hundred and seventy-seven 5th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade students in the rural South completed questionnaires on bullying, social…

  16. The negative impact of technological accidents on the consumers behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accidental release in the Tricastin site, the wine producers of this region where grows a vineyard with a protected designation of origin (A.O.C. in French legislation) noticed a consistent decrease of their sales. This consumers behavior is not rational because the vineyard is far from the area concerned by this accidental pollution. Face to an open market, the consumer has a freedom of choice that allows him to reject a product on which a sanitary suspicion presses. That is what shows an inquiry made by students in France. The consequences of an accident are not only linked to the sanitary safety or environmental stakes but depends on economical mechanisms such image or attractiveness loss. (N.C.)

  17. Youth sport: positive and negative impact on young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkel DL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Donna L Merkel Bryn Mawr Rehabilitation Hospital, Main Line Health System, Exton, PA, USA Abstract: Organized youth sports are highly popular for youth and their families, with approximately 45 million children and adolescent participants in the US. Seventy five percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports. On the surface, it appears that US children are healthy and happy as they engage in this traditional pastime, and families report higher levels of satisfaction if their children participate. However, statistics demonstrate a childhood obesity epidemic, with one of three children now being overweight, with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle for most children and teenagers. Increasing sports-related injuries, with 2.6 million emergency room visits a year for those aged 5–24 years, a 70%–80% attrition rate by the time a child is 15 years of age, and programs overemphasizing winning are problems encountered in youth sport. The challenges faced by adults who are involved in youth sports, from parents, to coaches, to sports medicine providers, are multiple, complex, and varied across ethnic cultures, gender, communities, and socioeconomic levels. It appears that an emphasis on fun while establishing a balance between physical fitness, psychologic well-being, and lifelong lessons for a healthy and active lifestyle are paramount for success. Keywords: youth sports, injuries, benefits, risks, prevention, specialization

  18. Climate change policy positive or negative economic impact? Why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupers, R.T.L.; Mangalagiu, D.

    2010-01-01

    ECF initiates and performs high-class research on climate change in close interaction with stakeholders. We provide a pluralistic communication platform in the emerging global field of researchers, governments, local authorities, businesses, and social movements. This field lies beyond the tradition

  19. The Negative Impact of Organizational Cynicism on Physicians and Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Volpe, Rebecca L.; Mohammed, Susan; Hopkins, Margaret; Shapiro, Daniel; Dellasega, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potentially severe consequences that could result, there is a paucity of research on organizational cynicism within US healthcare providers. In response, this study investigated the effect of cynicism on organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and interest in leaving the hospital for another job in a sample of 205 physicians and 842 nurses. Three types of cynicism were investigated: trait (dispositional), global (directed toward the hospital), and local (directed toward a spe...

  20. NEGATIVE IMPLANT - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANDESZ, M; WORST, JGF; SIERTSEMA, JV; VANRIJ, G

    1993-01-01

    Implantation of a negative power intraocular lens is one of the options for surgical correction of high myopia. We studied 36 eyes with a Fechner Worst Claw Lens, implanted in Groningen between March 1987 and November 1991. The preoperative myopia ranged from -7.00 to -30.00 diopters. Twentyone eyes

  1. Genome Sequences of Nine Gram-Negative Vaginal Bacterial Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitzler, Grace E.; Ruiz, Maria J.; Lu, Wendy; Weimer, Cory; Park, SoEun; Robinson, Lloyd S.; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Wollam, Aye; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-01-01

    The vagina is home to a wide variety of bacteria that have great potential to impact human health. Here, we announce reference strains (now available through BEI Resources) and draft genome sequences for 9 Gram-negative vaginal isolates from the taxa Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Fusobacterium, Proteus, and Prevotella. PMID:27688330

  2. Genome Sequences of Nine Gram-Negative Vaginal Bacterial Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitzler, Grace E; Ruiz, Maria J; Lu, Wendy; Weimer, Cory; Park, SoEun; Robinson, Lloyd S; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Wollam, Aye; Mitreva, Makedonka; Lewis, Warren G; Lewis, Amanda L

    2016-01-01

    The vagina is home to a wide variety of bacteria that have great potential to impact human health. Here, we announce reference strains (now available through BEI Resources) and draft genome sequences for 9 Gram-negative vaginal isolates from the taxa Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Fusobacterium, Proteus, and Prevotella. PMID:27688330

  3. The opportunity cost of negative screening in socially responsible investing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinks, Pieter Jan; Scholtens, Lambertus

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of negative screening on the investment universe as well as on financial performance. We come up with a novel identification process and as such depart from mainstream Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) literature by concentrating on individual firms’ conduct and

  4. EFFECTS OF MEDICAL DISPUTES ON INTERNET COMMUNICATIONS OF NEGATIVE EMOTIONS AND NEGATIVE ONLINE WORD-OF-MOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chih; Wu, Wei-Li

    2015-08-01

    Emotions play an important role in human behavior. Negative emotions resulting from medical disputes are problems for medical personnel to solve but also have a significant impact on a hospital's reputation and people's trust in the hospital. One medical dispute case was chosen from an Internet news source to assess the correlation between people's negative emotions and negative online word-of-mouth. Convenience sampling was used in school faculties and university students who had shared their medical treatment experiences online were the research participants. A total of 221 Taiwanese participants volunteered (158 women, 63 men; ages: 26.7% under 19, 22.6% 20-29, 30.8% 30-39,19.9% over 40). Four negative emotions were measured using rating scales: uncertainty, anger, disappointment, and sadness. Four negative online word-of-mouth measures were: venting, advice search, helping receiver, and revenge. A modeled relationship was assessed by partial least square method (PLS). Then, people's positive emotions were further analyzed to assess changes after spreading negative word-of-mouth. The results showed that uncertainty had a positive effect on venting and advice search. People who felt anger or regret spread word-of-mouth in order to help the receiver. Disappointment may trigger the revenge behavior of negative word-of-mouth. Negative emotions could be relieved after engaging in the behavior of helping the receiver.

  5. NEGATIVE EFFECT OF METALLOID STRESS ON WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marína Maglovski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As belongs to heavy metals and its accumulation in plants, besides damaging the organism itself, represents a potential health risk to animal and human consumers. Therefore, contamination of soils and waters with this compound is a serious environmental problem. In this work we focused on investigating a negative impact of As on selected parameters of growth of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Genoveva grown in hydropony. In the stage of first assimilation leaves we applied a solution of heavy metal (1 mg.kg-1 As3+ on wheat plants. For plants grown under hydropony conditions we observed different plant parameters such as length, weight, amount of fresh and dry biomass. Further we analyzed accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and products membrane lipid peroxidation as indicators of oxidative stress. In addition to these we also measured the content of photosynthetic pigments, maximal quantum yield and proline in plant tissue. Our data indicate reduction of the biomass of shoots forthcoming as a result of exposure of stressed plants to As. Decline of biomass accumulation was accompanied by increase of hydrogen peroxide in plant tissue. In contrast, level of lipid peroxidation was suppressed in stressed shoots. Contents of photosynthetic pigments soundly decreased. Interestingly, fluorescence (Fp=Fm in stressed wheat shoots increased. Similarly in tested shoots the content of proline was increased. The results indicate that the applied dose of As has a negative impact on the growth and photosynthetic performance of stressed plants. A better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for As resistance and toxicity in plants requires further investigation.

  6. The negative emotional impact of cognitive-behavioral intervention on high school students with chronic hepatitis B virus carriers%认知行为干预对高中生慢性乙型肝炎病毒携带者负性情绪的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静娣; 陈桂凤; 张静

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨认知行为干预对高中生慢性乙型肝炎病毒携带者负性情绪的影响.方法 将120例体检的高中生慢性乙型肝炎病毒携带者随机分为对照组和观察组各60例,对照组按常规的方法进行宣教;观察组在常规的宣教方法基础上采用认知行为干预.分别在干预前及干预后第6周进行焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)评定.结果 干预后2组对象SAS、SDS评分较干预前下降(P<0.05),观察组与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 认知行为干预能改善高中生慢性乙型肝炎病毒携带者负性情绪,帮助其矫正不良认知,重塑健康行为,保持乐观自信的良好个性.%Objective To investigate the negative emotional impact of cognitive-behavioral intervention on high school students with chronic hepatitis B virus carriers. Methods A total of 120 cases of high school students with chronic hepatitis B virus carriers who received physical examination were randomly divided into control group and observation group (60 cases respectively ). The cases in the control group received conventional methods, while those in experiment group received cognitive-behavioral intervention . Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were assessed before and 6 months postintervention between groups. Results The SAS, SDS score were lower after 6 months intervention than before the intervention in two groups ( P < 0. 05 ). The SAS, SDS score reduced much more in experiment group than those in the control group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions Cognitive-behavioral intervention can improve the negative emotions of high school students with chronic hepatitis B virus carriers, help them correct the negative perception, reshape health behavior, self-confident optimism and a good personality.

  7. Proclus’ View about Negative Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimiyan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative theology is a modern theological approach that idiomatically implies those theological doctrines which are based on the negative premises and concepts for describing God. Among Greeks, this approach was on its climax in Neo-Platonism. Proclus is one of the Neo-Platonists who lived in fifth century (A.D and was in charge of Athena academy for years. He was the most important Neo-Platonist after Plotinus. In his philosophical system, on the one hand, it is impossible to recognize the first source and, on the other hand, the existence of some principles like the relationship between the creator and the universe, reversion and the way of emanation receiving, requires the knowledge of the first source. It seems that such paradox can be resolved by separating the stages of existence order.

  8. Cosmology with Negative Absolute Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, J P P; Lewis, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al (2013) has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ($w<-1$) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  9. Dynamically variable negative stiffness structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher B.; Shahan, David W.; Smith, Sloan P.; Keefe, Andrew C.; McKnight, Geoffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Variable stiffness structures that enable a wide range of efficient load-bearing and dexterous activity are ubiquitous in mammalian musculoskeletal systems but are rare in engineered systems because of their complexity, power, and cost. We present a new negative stiffness–based load-bearing structure with dynamically tunable stiffness. Negative stiffness, traditionally used to achieve novel response from passive structures, is a powerful tool to achieve dynamic stiffness changes when configured with an active component. Using relatively simple hardware and low-power, low-frequency actuation, we show an assembly capable of fast (100×) dynamic stiffness control. This approach mitigates limitations of conventional tunable stiffness structures that exhibit either small (humanoid robotic limbs and lightweight adaptive vibration isolators. PMID:26989771

  10. Closed incision negative pressure therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willy, Christian; Agarwal, Animesh; Andersen, Charles A;

    2016-01-01

    Surgical site occurrences (SSOs) affect up to or over 25% of patients undergoing operative procedures, with the subset of surgical site infections (SSIs) being the most common. Commercially available closed incision negative pressure therapy (ciNPT) may offer surgeons an additional option to manage...... of Controlled Trials using key words 'prevention', 'negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT)', 'active incisional management', 'incisional vacuum therapy', 'incisional NPWT', 'incisional wound VAC', 'closed incisional NPWT', 'wound infection', and 'SSIs' identified peer-reviewed studies published from 2000....... A majority presented data supporting ciNPT use. Numerous publications reported SSI risk factors, with the most common including obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) ); diabetes mellitus; tobacco use; or prolonged surgical time. We recommend that the surgeon assess the individual patient's risk factors...

  11. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  12. Negative effects of positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive-those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say the distinction is untenable). When the distinction is made purely in operational terms, experiments reveal that positive reinforcement has aversive functions. On a practical level, positive reinforcement can lead to deleterious effects, and it is implicated in a range of personal and societal problems. These issues challenge us to identify other criteria for judging behavioral procedures.

  13. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana; Birke-Sorensen, Hanne; Kruse, Marie;

    formation (52%) compared to standard care. The reduction in wound dehiscence was not statistically significant. The numbers needed to treat were 3 (seroma), 17 (dehiscence), and 25 (infection). Methodical heterogeneity across studies led to downgrading quality of evidence to moderate for infection......Aim: Postoperative wound complications make many surgical procedures unnecessarily complex, particularly in high-risk patients. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy is well recognized in the management of open wounds. In recent years, it has been introduced as well in the management of closed surgical...... incisions to reduce postoperative wound complications, though the evidence base to support this intervention is limited. The aim of this study was to assess if Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) reduces postoperative complications when applied on closed surgical incisions. Method: A systematic review...

  14. Can wormholes have negative temperatures?

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Soon-Tae; Kim, Sung-Won

    2003-01-01

    We study (3+1) Morris-Thorne wormhole to investigate its higher dimensional embedding structures and thermodynamic properties. It is shown that the wormhole is embedded in (5+2) global embedding Minkowski space. This embedding enables us to construct the wormhole entropy and Hawking temperature by exploiting Unruh effects. We also propose a possibility of negative temperature originated from exotic matter distribution of the wormhole.

  15. Mismatch Negativity: Translating the Potential

    OpenAIRE

    JuanitaTodd

    2013-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential has become a valuable tool in cognitive neuroscience. Its reduced size in persons with schizophrenia is of unknown origin but theories proposed include links to problems in experience-dependent plasticity reliant on N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors. In this review we address the utility of this tool in revealing the nature and time course of problems in perceptual inference in this illness together with it...

  16. In defense of negative temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, J

    2016-03-01

    This pedagogical comment highlights three misconceptions concerning the usefulness of the concept of negative temperature, being derived from the usual, often termed Boltzmann, definition of entropy. First, both the Boltzmann and Gibbs entropies must obey the same thermodynamic consistency relation. Second, the Boltzmann entropy does obey the second law of thermodynamics. Third, there exists an integrating factor of the heat differential with both definitions of entropy. PMID:27078334

  17. Quantum Complexity and Negative Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adam R; Zhao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    As time passes, once simple quantum states tend to become more complex. For strongly coupled k-local Hamiltonians, this growth of computational complexity has been conjectured to follow a distinctive and universal pattern. In this paper we show that the same pattern is exhibited by a much simpler system: classical geodesics on a compact two-dimensional geometry of uniform negative curvature. This striking parallel persists whether the system is allowed to evolve naturally or is perturbed from the outside.

  18. 热态启动负温度匹配对转子应力及寿命影响分析%Impact Analysis of the Negative Temperature Mismatch of Hot Start-up on the Stress and Life of Rotors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 王晓波

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes a certain 330MW power plant turbine rotor as the research object .Choose the governing stage and the first high pressure stage as isolator to build a two-dimensional axisymmetric model .This paper got the thermal shock stress and maximum equivalent stress during start-up procedure under the condition of different temperatures mismatch with the help of the finite element analysis software ANSYS .The low cycle fatigue life consumption in the process of the start-up is calculated .The results show that the small latitude negative steam temperature mismatch will not impact security , thus reducing the fatigue life loss little .%以某电厂330MW汽轮机转子为研究对象,选取调节级及其高压压力级第一级为隔离体,运用ANSYS有限元软件建立二维轴对称模型,得到不同负温度匹配情况下的冲击热应力和启动过程中的最大应力,进而计算出启动过程中低周疲劳寿命损耗。结果表明:小幅度的负温度匹配不会影响启动过程的安全性,由此引起疲劳寿命损耗增加也很小。

  19. Perfect imaging without negative refraction

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively-refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing ma...

  20. Perfect imaging without negative refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively-refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing may also find applications outside of optics, in acoustics, fluid mechanics or quantum physics, wherever waves obey the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation.

  1. [Negative pressure wound therapy dressings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téot, Luc

    2016-01-01

    There are many different forms of negative pressure wound therapy dressings and it is important to distinguish clearly between each type. They enable the treatment to be adapted to the shape and depth of the wound, its degree of exudation and the persistence of the fibrinous areas on the surface. The machine's traction capacity, measured in mm of mercury (Hg), must be controlled to establish the healing profile: the more powerful the machine and the more contact there is between the foam and the wound, the faster the formation of the granulation tissue. There are many different solutions which are implemented in accordance with the clinical assessment of the wound.

  2. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  3. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana; Vinter, Christina Anne; Bille, Camilla;

    Background: Obese women undergoing caesarean section are at increased risk of surgical wound complications, which may lead to delayed recovery, pain, reduced quality of life, and increased health care cost. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of incisional Negative Pressure Wound...... the therapy will be left in situ for five days. In the control group the dressing will be left in situ for at least 24 hours as standard procedure. Follow-up is 30 days. Results: The study is on going. The first 179 participants are about to be analysed. Overall we expect to find a 50% reduction of wound...

  4. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  5. Stability of Negative V'' Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative-V'' systems are more intrinsically stable than shearstabilized systems in that they are completely stable to the pure interchange instability. However, they are unstable to a ballooning mode instability which is essentially a tied interchange localized to a part of a line of force which has adverse curvature. For infinite conductivity this mode leads to a critical value βc of β, the ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures, below which it is stable. This critical value is given by an approximate expression that involves: the relative variation ΔU/U of U = ∫dℓ/B, where the integration is over. the length L of the region of adverse curvature; and L. The variation is that from the axis to the boundary of the plasma at radius a. In its simplest form this formula is βc = g(U/ΔU) (π2a2/L2), where g is a constant of order one. This formula has been justified by a correct stability analysis for the negative-V'' systems of Johnson. If the.resistance of the plasma is nonzero, then the tying of the interchange by the regions of favorable curvature is relaxed and the ballooning mode becomes a resistive-ballooning mode. This mode is always unstable and for β c its growth rate is approximately oR = m2/βc τclass where m is the azimuthal mode number and τclass is the classical diffusion time. If the negative-V'' systems also have a sheared magnetic field, then oR is reduced for large m. Also, it is expected that oR is limited by finite gyration radius effects for large m. On the basis of these considerations it is speculated that the maximum effective value of m is about 10. Thus, βc becomes a figure of merit for the resistive-ballooning mode and must be comparable with one for a successful confinement system. Hence large ΔU/U or large L are unfavorable to stable confinement. (author)

  6. Congenital nystagmus and negative electroretinography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussi M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirella Roussi, Hélène Dalens, Jean Jacques Marcellier, Franck BacinDepartment of Ophthalmology, Clermont-Ferrand University, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceAbstract: Congenital nystagmus is a pathologic oculomotor state appearing at about three to four months of age. The precise diagnosis requires detailed clinical examination and electrophysiological findings. This case report presents two male patients with congenital nystagmus examined longitudinally from the age of six months until 17-18 years of age. Clinical and electrophysiological protocols were detailed. The first results showed electronegative electroretinography in the two cases and examination combined with electroretinographic findings helped us to make the diagnosis of Congenital Night Stationary Blindness (CSNB. This diagnosis was confirmed by genetic studies. CSNB is interesting to study because through electrophysiological findings, it enables a better understanding of the physiology of neural transmission in the outer part of the retina.Keywords: Congenital nystagmus, negative electroretinography, congenital night stationary blindness

  7. Negative Tree Reweighted Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new class of lower bounds on the log partition function of a Markov random field which makes use of a reversed Jensen's inequality. In particular, our method approximates the intractable distribution using a linear combination of spanning trees with negative weights. This technique is a lower-bound counterpart to the tree-reweighted belief propagation algorithm, which uses a convex combination of spanning trees with positive weights to provide corresponding upper bounds. We develop algorithms to optimize and tighten the lower bounds over the non-convex set of valid parameter values. Our algorithm generalizes mean field approaches (including naive and structured mean field approximations), which it includes as a limiting case.

  8. Mondialization: The negation of territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present some weaknesses and inconsistence of the mondialization/globalization concept, especially regarding obvious negation of territoriality as a principle and a crude reality of uneven spatial distribution of resources, wealth and population on global scale. The domination of the globalism and neo-liberalism in the spheres of economy, society, culture and even language leads toward greater differences, in such intensity that some authors describe it as a "clash of civilizations". Loosing territoriality means loosing "raison d’etre" of spatial planning. Some efforts to introduce participation as a planning solution for the beginning of the new century is actually a Trojan horse and a step in the wrong direction.

  9. 收入不平等对经济增长的负面影响机制——近二十年文献综述%Study on the Negative Impact of Income Inequality to Economic Growth——A Literature Review of the Last Twenty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘孟飞

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,the domestic and foreign scholars used all kinds of methodologies to research the relationship of income inequality and economic growth.Most conclusion indicated that the income inequality have negative impact upon economic growth,between each other there exists a complex conduction process through several factors,including human capital accumulation mechanism,political and economic decision-making mechanism,social conflicts mechanism,the mechanism of conduction and demand of other mechanisms.Considered together,these researches have deepened our knowledge on the nature relation and influence of income inequality and economic growth.But the conclusion divergence and research method limitations still exist.It is necessary to make more researches for farther understanding.%近年来,国内外学者运用各种方法探讨了收入不平等与经济增长的关系。大部分研究结论显示,收入差距对经济增长存在间接的负面影响,两者之间存在一个多因素的传导过程,包括人力资本积累机制、政治经济决策机制、社会冲突机制、需求传导机制以及其他传导机制。总的来看,这些研究加深了对于两者关系性质和相互影响的认识,但研究结论的分歧和研究方法的局限性仍然存在,有必要对两者关系进行更深入的研究。

  10. Negative ion sources for tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kinds of negative ion sources (direct extraction Duoplasmatron ion source, radial extraction Penniing ion source, lithium charge exchange ion source and Middleton-type sputter ion source) have been installed in the JAERI tandem accelerator. The ion sources can generate many negative ions ranging from Hydrogen to Uranium with the exception of Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Discussions presented in this report include mechanisms of negative ion formation, electron affinity and stability of negative ions, performance of the ion sources and materials used for negative ion production. Finally, the author will discuss difficult problems to be overcome in order to get any negative ion sufficiently. (author)

  11. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2011-01-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marij...

  12. Job characteristics, ill health and negative work-home interference in the mining industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Oldfield; Karina Mostert

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to test a structural model including job demands, job resources, ill health and negative work-home interference (WHI). Random samples (N = 320) were taken from employees working in the mining industry. The results indicated that job demands and job resources had an impact on ill health, and that ill health was associated with negative WHI. It was also found that job demands had a direct relationship with negative WHI, in addition to the indirect relationship...

  13. The role of multiple negative social relationships in inflammatory cytokine responses to a laboratory stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Sunmi Song; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Corwin, Elizabeth J; Ceballos, Rachel M.; Taylor, Shelley E.; Teresa Seeman; Laura Cousino Klein

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the unique impact of perceived negativity in multiple social relationships on endocrine and inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor. Via hierarchical cluster analysis, those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with a romantic partner, family, and their closest friend had higher mean IL-6 across time and a greater increase in TNF-α from 15 min to 75 min post stress. Those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with...

  14. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy. Therapy Settings and Biological Effects in Peripheral Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Borgquist, Ola

    2013-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) promotes wound healing through several mechanisms, e.g., altered periwound blood flow, mechanical deformation of the wound edge tissue, and drainage of excess fluid and debris. The general aim of this thesis was to study the impact of different levels of negative pressure, different wound filling materials (foam or gauze), and different ways of applying the negative pressure (continuously, intermittently or variably) on the biological effects of NPWT in ...

  15. Negative Plasma Densities Raise Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-26

    Nearly all the matter encountered on Earth is either a solid, liquid, or gas. Yet plasma-the fourth state of matter-comprises more than 99 percent of the visible universe. Understanding the physical characteristics of plasmas is important to many areas of scientific research, such as the development of fusion as a clean, renewable energy source. Lawrence Livermore scientists study the physics of plasmas in their pursuit to create fusion energy, because plasmas are an integral part of that process. When deuterium and tritium are heated to the extreme temperatures needed to achieve and sustain a fusion reaction (about 100 million degrees), the electrons in these light atoms become separated from the nuclei. This process of separation is called ionization, and the resulting collection of negatively charged free electrons and positively charged nuclei is known as a plasma. Although plasmas and gases have many similar properties, plasmas differ from gases in that they are good conductors of electricity and can generate magnetic fields. For the past decade, x-ray laser interferometry has been used in the laboratory for measuring a plasma's index of refraction to determine plasma density. (The index of refraction for a given material is defined as the wavelength of light in a vacuum divided by the wavelength of light traveling through the material.) Until now, plasma physicists expected to find an index of refraction less than one. Researchers from Livermore and Colorado State University recently conducted experiments on aluminum plasmas at the Laboratory's COMET laser facility and observed results in which the index of refraction was greater than one. This surprising result implied a negative electron density. Livermore physicist Joseph Nilsen and his colleagues from Livermore and the University of Notre Dame have performed sophisticated calculations to explain this phenomenon. Previously, researchers believed that only free electrons contributed to the index

  16. Negative Plant-Soil Feedback and Positive Species Interaction in a Herbaceous Plant Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanomi, G.; Rietkerk, M.; Dekker, S.C.; Mazzoleni, S.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that facilitative interaction and negative plant¿soil feedback are driving factors of plant population dynamics and community processes. We studied the intensity and the relative impact of negative feedback on clonal growth and seed germination of Scirpus holoschoenus, a `r

  17. Negative Plant–Soil Feedback and Positive Species Interaction in a Herbaceous Plant Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanomi, G.; Rietkerk, M.G.; Dekker, S.C.; Mazzoleni, S.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that facilitative interaction and negative plant–soil feedback are driving factors of plant population dynamics and community processes. We studied the intensity and the relative impact of negative feedback on clonal growth and seed germination of Scirpus holoschoenus, a ‘r

  18. The Effectiveness of Peer Mediation on Reducing Middle School Violence and Negative Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigainero, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of peer mediation on reducing violence and negative behaviors in middle school students. Negative behaviors included various ways students disrupt learning and included tardiness, absenteeism and truancy as well as classroom distractions of all forms. Three middle schools all in the same school…

  19. Effects of early negative life events on cognitive functioning and risk for suicide in a college sample

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bin

    1995-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the etiology of suicidal behavior from cognitive and developmental perspectives. Given empirical evidence suggesting links between early negative life events and suicidal behavior, between early negative life events and cognitive factors, and between cognitive factors and suicidal behavior, it was hypothesized that early negative life events may impact individuals' suicidal behavior by affecting these individuals' cognitive functioni...

  20. Solitons in negative phase metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, A. D.; Mitchell-Thomas, R. C.; Rapoport, Y. G.; Egan, P.; King, N.

    2008-04-01

    The fundamental approach to a slowly varying amplitude formulation for nonlinear waves in metamaterials will be established. The weakly nonlinear slowly varying amplitude approach will be critically examined and some misunderstandings in the literature will be fully addressed. The extent to which negative phase behaviour has a fundamental influence upon soliton behaviour will be addressed and will include non-paraxiality, self-steepening and nonlinear diffraction. A Lagrangian approach will be presented as a way of developing a clear picture of dynamical behaviour. Exciting examples, involving waveguide and polarization coupling and interferometer systems will illustrate the extent to which non-paraxiality, self-steepening and nonlinear diffraction will be required as part of the soliton behaviour patterns, including coupler systems. In addition, a strongly nonlinear approach will be taken that seeks exact solutions to the nonlinear equations for a metamaterial. The investigations will embrace "optical needles", or autosolitons. A boundary field amplitude approach will be developed that leads to useful and elegant eigenvalue equations that expose in a very clear manner the dependence of wave number upon the optical power density. All the work will be beautifully illustrated with dramatic color-coded outcomes that will also embrace the soliton lens.

  1. Immigration Wage Impacts by Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Bernt Bratsberg; Oddbjørn Raaum; Marianne Røed; Pål Schøne

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the direct partial wage effect for native workers of an immigrant-induced increase in labor supply, using longitudinal records drawn from Norwegian registers and the national skill cell approach of Borjas (2003). Our results show overall negative wage impacts for both men and women. Focusing on differential wage impacts by immigrant origin, we find that immigrant inflows from the neighboring Nordic countries have more negative wage effects than inflows from developing countries. T...

  2. Negative-on source applications (invited)

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, J

    2008-01-01

    In this paper heavy negative-ion sources which we developed and their applications for materials science are reviewed. Heavy negative ions can be effectively produced by the ejection of a sputtered atom through the optimally cesiated surface of target with a low work function. Then, enough continuous negative-ion currents for materials-science applications can be obtained. We developed several kinds of sputter-type heavy negative-ion sources such as neutral- and ionized-alkaline metal bombard...

  3. Negative creep in nickel base superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    Negative creep describes the time dependent contraction of a material as opposed to the elongation seen for a material experiencing normal creep behavior. Negative creep occurs because of solid state transformations that results in lattice contractions. For most applications negative creep will h...

  4. Energy flow in negative index materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lorenzo Bolla; Michele Midrio; Carlo G. Someda

    2004-01-01

    From Maxwell's equations, we compute the speed and the direction of propagation of active power refractedfrom air into a negative index material. We prove, both analytically and numerically that the power mayrefract positively even if phase fronts refract negatively. Considerations on the usage of ray optics inproblems involving negative index materials are drawn.

  5. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A L; Peng, S X; Ren, H T; Zhang, T; Zhang, J F; Xu, Y; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

    2016-02-01

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H(+) beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H(-) beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H(-) ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  6. Issues in the understanding of negative ion extraction for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeuf, J. P.; Fubiani, G.; Garrigues, L.

    2016-08-01

    A number of recent papers have been devoted to the modeling of negative ion extraction using particle simulations but the published results are not entirely satisfactory and not fully consistent with experiments. Issues raised by the simulations concern the saturation of the negative ion current emitted from the caesiated plasma grid surface, its distribution along the surface, the shape of the meniscus formed around each grid aperture, the distribution and depth of the potential in the virtual cathode, and the profile of the extracted beamlet. These are important issues since they have direct impact on the properties of the extracted negative ion beam (intensity, brightness, aberration). In this paper we first summarize recently published model results that are unexpected and counter-intuitive since they predict that negative ions are extracted from regions of the grid that are directly exposed to the large extraction voltage (i.e. as in vacuum and without the need for a neutralizing background plasma). We then illustrate, with results from two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision simulations, some regimes of negative ion extraction that are more consistent with the expected physics.

  7. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A L; Peng, S X; Ren, H T; Zhang, T; Zhang, J F; Xu, Y; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

    2016-02-01

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H(+) beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H(-) beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H(-) ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results. PMID:26932087

  8. Negative emotion boosts quality of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-08-01

    Negative emotion impacts a variety of cognitive processes, including working memory (WM). The present study investigated whether negative emotion modulated WM capacity (quantity) or resolution (quality), 2 independent limits on WM storage. In Experiment 1, observers tried to remember several colors over 1-s delay and then recalled the color of a randomly picked memory item by clicking a best-matching color on a continuous color wheel. On each trial, before the visual WM task, 1 of 3 emotion conditions (negative, neutral, or positive) was induced by having observers to rate the valence of an International Affective Picture System image. Visual WM under negative emotion showed enhanced resolution compared with neutral and positive conditions, whereas the number of retained representations was comparable across the 3 emotion conditions. These effects were generalized to closed-contour shapes in Experiment 2. To isolate the locus of these effects, Experiment 3 adopted an iconic memory version of the color recall task by eliminating the 1-s retention interval. No significant change in the quantity or quality of iconic memory was observed, suggesting that the resolution effects in the first 2 experiments were critically dependent on the need to retain memory representations over a short period of time. Taken together, these results suggest that negative emotion selectively boosts visual WM quality, supporting the dissociable nature quantitative and qualitative aspects of visual WM representation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078744

  9. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, A. L.; Chen, J. E. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H{sup +} beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H{sup −} ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  10. On the Negative Impact of Local Government Financing Platform Loan on Commercial Bank Efficiency in China%地方政府融资平台类贷款对我国商业银行效率的负面影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马若微; 原鹏

    2012-01-01

    Based on the fact that local government financing platform loans affect commercial bank efficiency, in this paper, we use Tobit regression model to make an empirical research of local government financing platform loan's impact on the efficiency of commercial banks. It turns out that during the period from 2005 to 2010, there is a negative correlation between local government finan- cing platform loans and commercial bank efficiency, and efficiency of commercial banks decrease with the expansion of local government financing platform loan scale. It illustrates that the local government financing platform loans could bring profit to commercial banks, but also could squeeze out private loans, restrict bank business diversification, and increase the bank risk management costs, and eventually reduce the overall operation efficiency of commercial banks, it is not beneficial for the further develooment of financial market%若以地方政府融资平台类贷款影响商业银行效率提高作为切入点,并借助Tobit回归模型对地方政府融资平台类贷款影响商业银行效率的问题进行实证研究就可发现:自2005年至2010年期间,地方政府融资平台类贷款与我国主要商业银行效率在总体上呈负相关关系;商业银行效率随着地方政府融资平台类贷款规模的扩大而降低。这说明,地方政府融资平台类贷款虽然可以为商业银行带来较高收入,但同时会挤出私人贷款,制约银行业务多元化,增加银行风险管理成本,最终降低商业银行整体经营效率,不利于金融市场的进一步发展。

  11. The Impact of Exclusionary Discipline on Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Goodram, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The impact of exclusionary discipline on students is clear and negative as we report herein. The impacts of exclusionary discipline have been negatively linked to the academic and social development of disciplined students. We argue that this discipline form has been disproportionately used among certain groups, particularly those students of…

  12. Job characteristics, ill health and negative work-home interference in the mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Oldfield

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to test a structural model including job demands, job resources, ill health and negative work-home interference (WHI. Random samples (N = 320 were taken from employees working in the mining industry. The results indicated that job demands and job resources had an impact on ill health, and that ill health was associated with negative WHI. It was also found that job demands had a direct relationship with negative WHI, in addition to the indirect relationship through ill health. Job resources were not related not negative WHI.

  13. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to capture, enhanced weathering, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage and afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization. PMID:26732128

  14. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization.

  15. Avoiding Negative Probabilities in Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Nyambuya, Golden Gadzirayi

    2013-01-01

    As currently understood since its discovery, the bare Klein-Gordon theory consists of negative quantum probabilities which are considered to be physically meaningless if not outright obsolete. Despite this annoying setback, these negative probabilities are what led the great Paul Dirac in 1928 to the esoteric discovery of the Dirac Equation. The Dirac Equation led to one of the greatest advances in our understanding of the physical world. In this reading, we ask the seemingly senseless question, "Do negative probabilities exist in quantum mechanics?" In an effort to answer this question, we arrive at the conclusion that depending on the choice one makes of the quantum probability current, one will obtain negative probabilities. We thus propose a new quantum probability current of the Klein-Gordon theory. This quantum probability current leads directly to positive definite quantum probabilities. Because these negative probabilities are in the bare Klein-Gordon theory, intrinsically a result of negative energie...

  16. Social Impact Assessment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Lyhne, Ivar;

    2015-01-01

    Social impact assessment (SIA) is applied worldwide to assess social impacts of plans and projects. In Europe, directives on environmental assessment (EA) require attention to social impacts, however, there is a need to investigate the implementation in practise. To this end, we study three Danish...... cases, which are characterised by debates and conflicts on social issues. Analysis of the EA statements shows inclusion of a broad range of social impacts. However, the EAs do not fully match the concerns of the public, and social impacts are not always analysed in depth, mitigation measures are not...... suggested or are postponed and the geographical distribution of impacts assessed is biased towards including negative local impacts. We discuss the scope and handling of social impacts, and possible implications. Based on this, we conclude with the view that EA might do the job of handling social impacts in...

  17. Numerical predictions of the negative phase

    OpenAIRE

    Sielicki, P.W.; Rigby, S. E.; Sumelka, W.

    2015-01-01

    The field of blast protective design emerged in the late 1940s and focussed mainly on large scale (nuclear) explosive loading massive structures. In these situations, positive phase effects were seen to dominate and the negative phase could effectively be ignored. Recently, however, the threat has moved to smaller scale explosives and increasingly lightweight structures. Here, the negative phase becomes important, however despite this the negative phase is often overlooked. This research pres...

  18. Enhanced Negative Feedback Responses in Remitted Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzagalli, Diego; Meites, Tiffany M.; Deveney, Christen M; Holmes, Avram J.; Bogdan, Ryan; Steele, Katherine T.; Santesso, Diane L.

    2008-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD)is characterized by hypersensitivity to negative feedback that might involve frontocingulate dysfunction. MDD patients exhibit enhanced electrophysiological responses to negative internal (errors) and external (feedback) cues. Whether this dysfunction extends to remitted depressed (RD) individuals with a history of MDD is currently unknown. To address this issue, we examined the feedback-related negativity in RD and control participants using a probabilistic pun...

  19. Copper and the negative price of storage

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald Frederick; DEC

    1994-01-01

    Commodities are often stored during periods in which storage returns a negative price. Further, during periods of"backwardation,"the expected revenue from holding inventories will be negative. Since the 1930s, the negative price of storage has been attributed to an offsetting"convenience yield."It has been argued that inventories are a necessary adjunct to business and that increasing inventories from some minimal level reduces overall costs. This theory has always been criticized by proponen...

  20. Negative pressure wound therapy: clinical utility

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoz H

    2015-01-01

    Heidi Sandoz Accelerate CIC, Mile End Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), also known as topical negative pressure therapy, has been increasingly used in health care for the management of a wide variety of wounds over the last 2–3 decades. It is an advanced therapy that can be helpful to accelerate wound healing in both acute and chronic wounds by delivering negative pressure (suction) to the wound bed. More recent advancements in the application o...

  1. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Javaras, Kristin N.; Schaefer, Stacey M.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Bachuber, David R.; Love, Gale; Ryff, Carol D.; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35 - 85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional re...

  2. Negative staining and Cryo-negative Staining of Macromolecules and Viruses for TEM

    OpenAIRE

    De Carlo, Sacha; Harris, J Robin

    2010-01-01

    In this review we cover the technical background to negative staining of biomolecules and viruses, and then expand upon the different possibilities and limitations. Topics range from conventional air-dry negative staining of samples adsorbed to carbon support films, the variant termed the “negative staining-carbon film” technique and negative staining of samples spread across the holes of holey carbon support films, to a consideration of dynamic/time-dependent negative staining. For each of t...

  3. Causality, Non-Locality and Negative Refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Forcella, Davide; Carminati, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    The importance of spatial non-locality in the description of negative refraction in electromagnetic materials has been put forward recently. We develop a theory of negative refraction in homogeneous and isotropic media, based on first principles, and that includes non-locality in its full generality. The theory shows that both dissipation and spatial non-locality are necessary conditions for the existence of negative refraction. It also provides a sufficient condition in materials with weak spatial non-locality. These fundamental results should have broad implications in the theoretical and practical analyses of negative refraction of electromagnetic and other kinds of waves.

  4. Sputter process diagnostics by negative ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuner, Michael; Neumann, Horst; Zalman, Jan; Biederman, Hynek

    1998-05-01

    We measured the energy distributions of negative ions during reactive sputtering of silicon in oxygen. Various oxygen containing negative ions are formed in the cathode sheath or directly at the sputter target, respectively. These negative ions are accelerated away from the cathode by the electrical field, and can be detected using a mass spectrometer facing the sputter magnetron. The origin of each ion can be determined from peak structures in the energy distribution. Additionally the flux of different negative ions provides information on poisoning of the target by oxide films.

  5. Detection of negative energy: 4-dimensional examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the response of switched particle detectors to static negative energy densities and negative energy fluxes. It is demonstrated how the switching leads to excitation even in the vacuum and how negative energy can lead to a suppression of this excitation. We obtain quantum inequalities on the detection similar to those obtained for the energy density by Ford and co-workers and in an 'operational' context by Helfer. We reexamine the question 'Is there a quantum equivalence principle?' in terms of our model. Finally, we briefly address the issue of negative energy and the second law of thermodynamics

  6. Pais-Uhlenbeck Oscillator and Negative Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Pavšič, Matej

    2016-01-01

    We review the occurrence of negative energies in Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator. We point out that in the absence of interactions negative energies are not problematic, neither in the classical nor in the quantized theory. However, in the presence of interactions that couple positive and negative energy degrees of freedom the system is unstable, unless the potential is bounded from bellow and above. We review some approaches in the literature that attempt to avoid the problem of negative energies in the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator.

  7. 40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound source... Operations, Rubber Tire Manufacturing, Polymer Manufacturing, Industrial Wastewater, Ship Building and...

  8. Atlas of Tilted Accretion Disks & Source to Negative Superhumps

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2009-01-01

    Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, we numerically simulate steady state accretion discs for Cataclysmic Variable Dwarf Novae systems that have a secondary-to-primary mass ratio (0.35 \\le q \\le 0.55). After these accretion discs have come to quasi-equilibrium, we rotate each disc out of the orbital plane by (\\delta = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5,) or (20)^{o}) to induce negative superhumps. For accretion discs tilted $5^{o}$, we generate light curves and associated Fourier transforms for an atlas on negative superhumps and retrograde precession. Our simulation results suggest that accretion discs need to be tilted more than three degrees for negative superhumps to be statistically significant. We also show that if the disc is tilted enough such that the gas stream strikes a disc face, then a dense cooling ring is generated near the radius of impact. In addition to the atlas, we study these artificially tilted accretion discs to find the source to negative superhumps. Our results suggest that the source is additional lig...

  9. Positive and negative corona discharges in flowing carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the gas flow rate (10-320 cm3 min-1) on the process of ozone formation in both positive and negative corona discharges has been studied using a coaxial cylindrical system of electrodes fed by dry CO2. The source of ozone is electron impact dissociation of carbon dioxide to liberate oxygen atoms and their subsequent formation of oxygen molecules, which may then form ozone by the well-known Chapman mechanism. Small increases in flow rate were found to cause a major increase in the discharge current measured in the negative corona discharge. This effect was found to correspond to observed changes in the ozone concentration within the discharge and is a consequence of dissociative electron attachment to ozone leading to negative ion formation in the discharge. In contrast no direct effect of ozone on the positive corona discharge current was observed. The observed increase in average positive ion mobility in the positive corona is ascribed to the conversion of O2+ ions into more mobile O2+ ions. Considerably higher ozone concentrations (up to 100 ppm) were found in the negative corona discharge. The effect of the geometry of the system was also explored by using three different stainless steel outer electrodes with diameters of 10, 15 and 27 mm. Ozone concentrations were found to decrease significantly with increasing radius of the outer electrode at the same average input energy density

  10. Negative ratings play a positive role in information filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The explosive growth of information asks for advanced information filtering techniques to solve the so-called information overload problem. A promising way is the recommender system which analyzes the historical records of users’ activities and accordingly provides personalized recommendations. Most recommender systems can be represented by user-object bipartite networks where users can evaluate and vote for objects, and ratings such as “dislike” and “I hate it” are treated straightforwardly as negative factors or are completely ignored in traditional approaches. Applying a local diffusion algorithm on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, our study arrives at a very surprising result, namely the negative ratings may play a positive role especially for very sparse data sets. In-depth analysis at the microscopic level indicates that the negative ratings from less active users to less popular objects could probably have positive impacts on the recommendations, while the ones connecting active users and popular objects mostly should be treated negatively. We finally outline the significant relevance of our results to the two long-term challenges in information filtering: the sparsity problem and the cold-start problem.

  11. Ten Rules for Dealing with Negative Contributions in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Stránská

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media is becoming a key part of business communication strategy. Despite all the advantages, social media also poses a threat to business reputation. Dissatisfied customers can reach a large audience and share their negative experiences with others. This paper deals with the impact of social media on the practice of public relations. The goal of the paper is to formulate a set of rules for dealing with negative contributions and generally with crisis communication in social media. It is based on two surveys. Individual interviews with social media experts are the core part of the analysis. They are complemented by questioning of consumers to get deeper insight into complaining behavior via social media. The defined set of rules provides a useful tool for the social media crisis management.

  12. Negative ion formation in lanthanide atoms: Many-body effects

    CERN Document Server

    Felfli, Z; Sokolovski, D

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of low-energy electron-scattering of the lanthanide atoms Eu, Nd, Tb, Tm demonstrate that electron-correlation effects and core polarization are the dominant fundamental many-body effects responsible for the formation of metastable states of negative ions. Ramsauer Townsend minima, shape resonances and binding energies of the resultant anions are identified and extracted from the elastic total cross sections calculated using the complex angular momentum method. The large discrepancy between the recently measured electron affinity of 0.116 and the previously measured value of 1.053 eV for Eu is resolved. Also, the previously measured electron affinities for Nd, Tb and Tm are reconciled and new values are extracted from the calculated total cross sections. The large electron affinities found here for these atoms, should be useful in negative ion nanocatalysis, including methane conversion to methanol without CO2 emission, with significant environmental impact.. The powerful complex angular moment...

  13. Estimation for entanglement negativity of free fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Christopher P.; Wang, Yihong

    2016-07-01

    In this letter we study the negativity of one dimensional free fermions. We derive the general form of the {{{Z}}N} symmetric term in moments of the partial transposed (reduced) density matrix, which is an algebraic function of the end points of the system. Such a path integral turns out to be a convenient tool for making estimations for the negativity.

  14. Prevalence of rhesus negativity among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezhil Arasi Nagamuthu

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of Rh D negative women is low when compared to Rh D positive women.There is a need for adequate counselling of pregnant women on the importance of Rh D negative factor during the antenatal period in order to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3305-3309

  15. Distress attributed to negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, JP; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine (1) to which negative symptoms schizophrenia patients attribute distress and (2) whether clinical variables can predict the levels of reported distress. With the help of a research assistant, 86 hospitalized patients completed a self-rating scale for negative

  16. The Schrodinger equation and negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, S

    2008-01-01

    We present a nonrelativistic wave equation for the electron in (3+1)-dimensions which includes negative-energy eigenstates. We solve this equation for three well-known instances, reobtaining the corresponding Pauli equation (but including negative-energy eigenstates) in each case.

  17. Negative Knowledge: Understanding Professional Learning and Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartmeier, Martin; Bauer, Johannes; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we critically analyze how the concept of negative knowledge contributes to the understanding of professionals' expert practice and learning. Negative knowledge is experientially acquired knowledge about what is wrong and what is to be avoided during performance in a given work situation. In terms of its theoretical foundation, the…

  18. The Negative Binomial Distribution in Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderholm, Jonas; Inoue, Shuichiro

    2009-06-01

    We give examples of situations where the negative binomial distribution has appeared in quantum physics since its debut in the work of Planck. Several of its properties are reviewed, and Mandel's Q-parameter is shown to play an interesting role. The photon-pair distributions of squeezed vacuum and squeezed single-photon states are identified as negative binomial.

  19. A Characterization of the Negative Binomial Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Nikolay(Department of Physics, University of Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada); Minkova, Leda

    2000-01-01

    Only a few characterizations have been obtained in literatute for the negative binomial distribution (see Johnson et al., Chap. 5, 1992). In this article a characterization of the negative binomial distribution related to random sums is obtained which is motivated by the geometric distribution characterization given by Khalil et al. (1991). An interpretation in terms of an unreliable system is given.

  20. A Negative Permeability Material at Red Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hsiao-Kuan; Chettiar, Uday K.; Cai, Wenshan;

    2007-01-01

    A negative permeability in a periodic array of pairs of thin silver strips is demonstrated experimentally for two distinct samples. The effect of the strip surface roughness on negative permeability is evaluated. The first sample, Sample A, is fabricated of thinner strips with a root mean square ...

  1. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  2. The entanglement negativity in random spin chains

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, Paola; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the logarithmic negativity in strongly-disordered spin chains in the random-singlet phase. We focus on the spin-1/2 random Heisenberg chain and the random XX chain. We find that for two arbitrary intervals the disorder-averaged negativity and the mutual information are proportional to the number of singlets shared between the two intervals. Using the strong-disorder renormalization group (SDRG), we prove that the negativity of two adjacent intervals grows logarithmically with the intervals length. In particular, the scaling behavior is the same as in conformal field theory, but with a different prefactor. For two disjoint intervals the negativity is given by a universal simple function of the cross ratio, reflecting scale invariance. As a function of the distance of the two intervals, the negativity decays algebraically in contrast with the exponential behavior in clean models. We confirm our predictions using a numerical implementation of the SDRG method. Finally, we also implement DMRG simula...

  3. Enhanced Negative Feedback Responses in Remitted Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Diane L.; Steele, Katherine T.; Bogdan, Ryan; Holmes, Avram J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Meites, Tiffany M.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by hypersensitivity to negative feedback that might involve frontocingulate dysfunction. MDD subjects exhibit enhanced electrophysiological responses to negative internal (errors) and external (feedback) cues. Whether this dysfunction extends to remitted depressed (RD) subjects with a history of MDD is currently unknown. To address this issue, we examined the feedback-related negativity (FRN) in RD and control subjects using a probabilistic punishment learning task. Despite equivalent behavioral performance, RD subjects showed larger FRNs to negative feedback relative to controls; group differences remained after accounting for residual anxiety and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that abnormal responses to negative feedback extend to samples at increased risk for depressive episodes in the absence of current symptoms. PMID:18580576

  4. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  5. Universe Models with Negative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Brevik, Iver

    2013-01-01

    The concept of negative temperatures has occasionally been used in connection with quantum systems. A recent example of this sort is reported in the paper of S. Braun et al. [Science 339,52 (2013)], where an attractively interacting ensemble of ultracold atoms is investigated experimentally and found to correspond to a negative-temperature system since the entropy decreases with increasing energy at the high end of the energy spectrum. As the authors suggest, it would be of interest to investigate whether a suitable generalization of standard cosmological theory could be helpful, in order to elucidate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe usually explained in terms of a positive tensile stress (negative pressure). In the present note we take up this basic idea and investigate a generalization of the standard viscous cosmological theory, not by admitting negative temperatures but instead by letting the bulk viscosity take negative values. Evidently, such an approach breaks standard thermodynamics,...

  6. Negative incidental emotions augment fairness sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuizhen; Chai, Jing Wen; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that task-unrelated emotions induced incidentally exert carryover effects on individuals' subsequent decisions in financial negotiations. However, the specificity of these emotion effects are not clear. In three experiments, we systematically investigated the role of seven transiently induced basic emotions (disgust, sadness, anger, fear, happiness, surprise and neutral) on rejection of unfair offers using the ultimatum game. We found that all negative emotions (disgust, sadness, anger and fear), but not happiness or surprise, significantly increased rejection rates, suggesting that the effect of incidental negative emotions on fairness is not specific to the type of negative emotion. Our findings highlight the role of fleeting emotions in biasing decision-making processes and suggest that all incidental negative emotions exert similar effects on fairness sensitivity, possibly by potentiating attention towards negative aspects of the situation. PMID:27101931

  7. How do negative emotions impair self-control? A neural model of negative urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; Lynam, Donald R; Milich, Richard; Powell, David K; Andersen, Anders H; DeWall, C Nathan

    2016-05-15

    Self-control often fails when people experience negative emotions. Negative urgency represents the dispositional tendency to experience such self-control failure in response to negative affect. Neither the neural underpinnings of negative urgency nor the more general phenomenon of self-control failure in response to negative emotions are fully understood. Previous theorizing suggests that an insufficient, inhibitory response from the prefrontal cortex may be the culprit behind such self-control failure. However, we entertained an alternative hypothesis: negative emotions lead to self-control failure because they excessively tax inhibitory regions of the prefrontal cortex. Using fMRI, we compared the neural activity of people high in negative urgency with controls on an emotional, inhibitory Go/No-Go task. While experiencing negative (but not positive or neutral) emotions, participants high in negative urgency showed greater recruitment of inhibitory brain regions than controls. Suggesting a compensatory function, inhibitory accuracy among participants high in negative urgency was associated with greater prefrontal recruitment. Greater activity in the anterior insula on negatively-valenced, inhibitory trials predicted greater substance abuse one month and one year after the MRI scan among individuals high in negative urgency. These results suggest that, among people whose negative emotions often lead to self-control failure, excessive reactivity of the brain's regulatory resources may be the culprit. PMID:26892861

  8. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Raheel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST, and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event

  9. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  10. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  11. Information Filtering Based on Users' Negative Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Li, Yang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The process of heat conduction (HC) has recently found application in the information filtering [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 154301 (2007)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. The classical HC model predicts users' potential interested objects based on their interesting objects regardless to the negative opinions. In terms of the users' rating scores, we present an improved user-based HC (UHC) information model by taking into account users' positive and negative opinions. Firstly, the objects rated by users are divided into positive and negative categories, then the predicted interesting and dislike object lists are generated by the UHC model. Finally, the recommendation lists are constructed by filtering out the dislike objects from the interesting lists. By implementing the new model based on nine similarity measures, the experimental results for MovieLens and Netflix datasets show that the new model considering negative opinions could greatly enhance the accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, from 0.049 to 0.036 for Netflix and from 0.1025 to 0.0570 for Movielens dataset, reduced by 26.53% and 44.39%, respectively. Since users prefer to give positive ratings rather than negative ones, the negative opinions contain much more information than the positive ones, the negative opinions, therefore, are very important for understanding users' online collective behaviors and improving the performance of HC model.

  12. Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Shalaev, V M; Chettiar, U; Yuan, H K; Sarychev, A K; Drachev, V P; Kildishev, A V; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Cai, Wenshan; Chettiar, Uday; Yuan, Hsiao-Kuan; Sarychev, Andrey K.; Drachev, Vladimir P.; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2005-01-01

    An array of pairs of parallel gold nanorods is shown to have a negative refractive index in the optical range, close to a wavelength of 1 micron. Such behavior results from the plasmon resonance in the pairs of nanorods for both the electric and magnetic components of light. The metal rods act as inductive elements whereas the dielectric gaps perform as capacitive elements, forming an optical LC-circuit. Our experiments and simulations demonstrate the resonant behavior for an index of refraction. Above the resonance, the refractive index becomes negative. Paired metal nanorods open new opportunities for developing negative-refraction materials in optics.

  13. Critique of Optical Negative Refraction Superlensing

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, George

    2010-01-01

    Has the ten-year old quest for the optical superlens, based on Veselago's hypothesis of negative refraction, been a chimera? We argue that Pendry's alternative prescription of the silver superlens is nothing more than an application of the natural phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance that occurs in the noble metal films. This phenomenon does not predict the reality of Veselago's negative refractive index materials. We give a simple explanation of how this resonance achieves a field intensity enhancement at the interface of silver and air without involving the concept of negative refraction.

  14. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...... matrix of a finite metric space is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points....

  15. Some dosimetry problems in negative pion radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Baarli, Johan

    1973-01-01

    Momentum beams of negative pions are considered for radiotherapy. It is shown that the measurement of dose in this respect presents problems which are different from those encountered when using the more usual type of radiation. This difference arises principally from the nuclear interaction processes produced when the negative pion comes to rest. These processes, which are superimposed on the Bragg peak of the beam, produce a complex mixture of charged particles together with a beam contamination of muons and electrons. Some experimental studies of depth dose distributions, dose estimates, and other parameters to be considered for radiotherapy of cancer with beams of negative pions are discussed.

  16. Negative temperatures and the definition of entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, Robert H.; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    The concept of negative temperature has recently received renewed interest in the context of debates about the correct definition of the thermodynamic entropy in statistical mechanics. Several researchers have identified the thermodynamic entropy exclusively with the "volume entropy" suggested by Gibbs, and have further concluded that by this definition, negative temperatures violate the principles of thermodynamics. We disagree with these conclusions. We demonstrate that volume entropy is inconsistent with the postulates of thermodynamics for systems with non-monotonic energy densities, while a definition of entropy based on the probability distributions of macroscopic variables does satisfy the postulates of thermodynamics. Our results confirm that negative temperature is a valid extension of thermodynamics.

  17. Measuring positive and negative occupational states at work: A structural and differential item functioning analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Barbier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the structural validation of the Positive and Negative Occupational States Inventory, which measures positive and negative states at work. The first aim was to check for the impact of item wording. The second aim was to check for interactions between items and gender or age. More than 31,000 data collected in 63 Belgian and French companies were used. Results of structural equation show that meaning better represents the tool structure than wording, at least for the negative occupational state. Results of differential item functioning analyses show that gender and age have no impact on workers' answers. It is concluded that future studies should check for the impact of initial NOSI and POSI levels. Future studies should also examine reciprocal relationships between working conditions on the one hand and NOSI and POSI on the other.

  18. Moderators of Post-Binge Eating Negative Emotion in Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    De Young, Kyle P.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol B.; le Grange, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the impact of two variables on post-binge eating negative emotion in a combined sample of women with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 47) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 121). Participants completed two weeks of an ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they provided multiple daily ratings of overall negative affect and guilt and reported eating disorder behaviors including binge eating and self-induced vomiting. The results indicate that both overal...

  19. Unrevealing culture-negative severe sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    de Prost, Nicolas; Razazi, Keyvan; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis involves a wide array of sources and microorganisms, only a fraction of which are microbiologically documented. Culture-negative sepsis poses special diagnostic challenges to both clinicians and microbiologists and further questions the validity of sepsis definitions.

  20. Contingent negative variation of mood disorder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingzhi Lu; Wenbin Zong; Qingtao Ren; Jinyu Pu; Jun Chen; Juan Li; Xingshi Chen; Yong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on brain-evoked potential and contingent negative variation (CNV) in mood disorder remain controversial. To date, no CNV difference between unipolar and bipolar depression has been reported. Brain-evoked potentials were measured in the present study to analyze CNV in three subtypes of mood disorder (mania, unipolar depression, and bipolar depression), and these results were compared with normal controls. In the mania group, CNV amplitude B was greater than in controls, and the depression group exhibited lower CNV amplitude B and smaller A-S'2 area, and prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency. The CNV comparison between unipolar and bipolar depression found that the prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency was only in unipolar depression. These results suggest that prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency is a characteristic of unipolar depression, and CNV amplitude change is a state characteristic of mood disorder patients.

  1. Cannabis use, schizotypy, and negative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertella, Lucy; Le Pelley, Mike E; Copeland, Jan

    2015-08-30

    The present study examined the effects of frequency of cannabis use, schizotypy, and age on cognitive control, as measured using a location-based negative priming task in a sample of 124 Australians aged 15-24 who had ever used cannabis. This study found that the schizotypy dimension of Impulsive Nonconformity had a significant effect on negative priming such that participants with higher scores on this dimension showed reduced negative priming. Also, higher levels of psychological distress were associated with greater negative priming. Finally, there was a significant age by cannabis use interaction indicating that younger, frequent users of cannabis may be more susceptible to its effects on cognitive control and perhaps at greater risk of developing a disorder on the psychosis dimension. PMID:26154815

  2. Negation of the Self in Wuthering Heights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2015-01-01

    Emily Bronte created one of the greatest novels in19th British literary history---Wuthering Heights.Through this works,the writers tries to severely criticize the feature in western civilization:negation of the self.

  3. Negation of the Self in Wuthering Heights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2015-01-01

    Emily Bronte created one of the greatest novels in 19th British literary history---Wuthering Heights.Through this works,the writers tries to severely criticize the feature in western civilization: negation of the self.

  4. 40 CFR 52.222 - Negative declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollution Control District. (i) Aerospace Coatings; Industrial Waste Water Treatment; Plastic Parts Coating... following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound... County Air Pollution Control District. (i) Industrial Wastewater, Plastic Parts Coating:...

  5. Simplifying Negative Goals Using Typed Existence Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Lunjin

    2010-01-01

    A method for extracting positive information from negative goals is proposed. It makes use of typed existence properties between arguments of a predicate to rewrite negative goals in a logic program. A typed existence property is a generalization of functional dependencies in that an input value maps to a fixed number of output values. Types are used to specify the domains of the input and output values. An implementation of the simplification method is presented and its complexity is analyzed. A key algorithm of the implementation checks if an atom in a negative goal can be extracted using a given typed existence property. A digraph links an atom to the quantified variables occurring in the atom and is used to quickly retrieve atoms in the negative goal that may become extractable after some other atom is extracted.

  6. Surfaces of a Constant Negative Curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Gharib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I study the geometric notion of a differential system describing surfaces of a constant negative curvature and describe a family of pseudospherical surfaces for the nonlinear partial differential equations with constant Gaussian curvature .

  7. Bubbles in the negative pressure domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, V. P.

    2015-10-01

    We determine the extension of an ideal liquid by "thermodynamic forces," that is, forces related to entropy growth. We show that the negative pressure corresponds to the case of at most two degrees of freedom.

  8. Impact of Advertisement on Malay Young Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Khurshid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of writing this paper is to explore the understanding of advertisement and its impact on young consumers. Also it was discussed that how this impact if it is negative can be neutralized. It has been identified after conducting in depth interviews that all respondents were of the opinion that advertisement is a source of communication. In addition to this all respondents are agreed that it has positive as well as negative effects on both children and young adults. Negative impacts can be diluted by advertisers, parents, government and neighbours.

  9. Avoiding Negative Probabilities in Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    As currently understood since its discovery, the bare Klein-Gordon theory consists of negative quantum probabilities which are considered to be physically meaningless if not outright obsolete. Despite this annoying setback, these negative probabilities are what led the great Paul Dirac in 1928 to the esoteric discovery of the Dirac Equation. The Dirac Equation led to one of the greatest advances in our understanding of the physical world. In this reading, we ask the seemingly senseless questi...

  10. Classical gravity does not refract negatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Martin W

    2007-03-01

    We appraise recent claims that classical gravitation can induce negative refraction of electromagnetic radiation in vacuum. By recasting the previous literature in covariant notation, we show that the criterion used hitherto for determining negative refraction in vacuum is inappropriate, and can even be satisfied by parametrized transformations in Minkowski spacetime. Using instead a covariantly acceptable definition, we find that in classical vacuum the power flux of a plane electromagnetic wave points in the direction of phase advance. PMID:17359145

  11. Negative Generalization and Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fulford, Daniel; Rosen, Rebecca K.; Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to generalize from a single failure to one's entire self-worth is an important correlate and predictor of depression. Despite conceptual overlap between cognitive biases in anxiety and depression, little research has examined whether negative generalization relates to anxiety symptoms. We examined associations of negative generalization with symptoms of several anxiety disorders, above and beyond its association with lifetime symptoms of depression, among 248 undergraduates. Afte...

  12. Goffman, Parsons, and the Negational Self

    OpenAIRE

    James J. Chriss

    2015-01-01

    Erving Goffman’s emphasis on impression management in everyday life means that for the most part persons offer only partial or incomplete glimpses of themselves. Indeed, under specifiable conditions self-presentations may take the form of a negational self. If negational selves exist at the person or individual level, then they must also exist at the collective level (that is, if we are to take seriously such notions as the social mind, collective representations, or even culture). Understand...

  13. Negative Link Prediction in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jiliang; Chang, Shiyu; Aggarwal, Charu; Liu, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Signed network analysis has attracted increasing attention in recent years. This is in part because research on signed network analysis suggests that negative links have added value in the analytical process. A major impediment in their effective use is that most social media sites do not enable users to specify them explicitly. In other words, a gap exists between the importance of negative links and their availability in real data sets. Therefore, it is natural to explore whether one can pr...

  14. Waves in geomaterials exhibiting negative stiffness behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, Maxim; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Negative stiffness denotes the type of material behaviour when the force applied to the body decreases the body's deformation increases. Some geomaterials, for instance, rocks, demonstrate behaviour of this type at certain loads: during the compression tests the loading curves exhibit descending branch (post-peak softening). One of the possible mechanisms of the negative stiffness appearance in geomaterials is rotation of non-spherical grains. It is important to emphasize that in this case the descending branch may be reversible given that the testing machine is stiff enough (in general case it means an importance of boundary conditions). Existence of geomaterials with a negative modulus associated with rotations may have significant importance. In particular, important is understanding of the wave propagation in such materials. We study the stability of geomaterials with negative stiffness inclusions and wave propagation in it using two approaches: Cosserat continuum and discrete mass-spring models. In both cases we consider the rotational degrees of freedom in addition to the conventional translational ones. We show that despite non positiveness of the energy the materials with negative stiffness elements can be stable if certain conditions are met. In the case of Cosserat continuum the Cosserat shear modulus (the modulus relating the non-symmetrical part of shear stress and internal rotations) is allowed to assume negative values as long as its value does not exceed the value of the standard (positive) shear modulus. In the case of discrete mass-spring systems (with translational and rotational springs) the concentration of negative stiffness springs and the absolute values of negative spring stiffness are limited. The critical concentration when the system loses stability and the amplitude of the oscillations tends to infinity is equal to 1/2 and 3/5 for two- and three-dimensional cases respectively.

  15. Nonparametric Bayesian Negative Binomial Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Mingyuan

    2016-01-01

    A common approach to analyze an attribute-instance count matrix, an element of which represents how many times an attribute appears in an instance, is to factorize it under the Poisson likelihood. We show its limitation in capturing the tendency for an attribute present in an instance to both repeat itself and excite related ones. To address this limitation, we construct negative binomial factor analysis (NBFA) to factorize the matrix under the negative binomial likelihood, and relate it to a...

  16. Negative Binomial States of Quantized Radiation Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Hong-Chen; Sasaki, Ryu

    1996-01-01

    We introduce the negative binomial states with negative binomial distribution as their photon number distribution. They reduce to the ordinary coherent states and Susskind-Glogower phase states in different limits. The ladder and displacement operator formalisms are found and they are essentially the Perelomov's su(1,1) coherent states via its Holstein-Primakoff realisation. These states exhibit strong squeezing effect and they obey the super-Poissonian statistics. A method to generate these ...

  17. Revisiting the Gram-Negative Lipoprotein Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    LoVullo, Eric D.; Wright, Lori F.; Isabella, Vincent; Huntley, Jason F.; Pavelka, Martin S.

    2015-01-01

    The processing of lipoproteins (Lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted by the Lol system, with most Lpps inserted into the outer membrane (OM). We demonstrate here that the lnt gene is not essential to the Gram-negative pathogen Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis str...

  18. Methodological Issues in Negative Symptom Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, Stephen R.; Daniel, David G; Alphs, Larry; Awad, A George; Richard S E Keefe

    2011-01-01

    Individuals from academia, the pharmaceutical industry, and the US Food and Drug Administration used a workshop format to discuss important methodological issues in the design of trials of pharmacological agents for improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The issues addressed included the need for a coprimary functional measure for registration trials; the characteristics of individuals who should enter negative symptom trials; the optimal duration for a proof-of-concept or registration...

  19. Negative radiation in partially ionized gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, W. H.; Kunc, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    A stationary, nonlinear collisional-radiative model for high-temperature atomic oxygen is presented. Populations of negative ions, electrons, positive ions and excited atoms and intensities of spectral, continuum and dielectronic recombination radiation are calculated in a wide range of conditions. Calculated total continuum emission is in good agreement with existing measurements. The contribution of the negative ion emission to the total continuum emission is found to be significant.

  20. Negative Binomial States of Quantized Radiation Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, H C; Fu, Hong-Chen; Sasaki, Ryu

    1996-01-01

    We introduce the negative binomial states with negative binomial distribution as their photon number distribution. They reduce to the ordinary coherent states and Susskind-Glogower phase states in different limits. The ladder and displacement operator formalisms are found and they are essentially the Perelomov's su(1,1) coherent states via its Holstein-Primakoff realisation. These states exhibit strong squeezing effect and they obey the super-Poissonian statistics. A method to generate these states is proposed.

  1. Token reinforcement therapeutic approach is more effective than exercise for controlling negative symptoms of schizophrenic patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gholipour

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Both exercise and token-behavior therapies, along with drug treatment, are very effective in reducing the negative symptoms of schizophrenia; but the impact of token therapy issignificantly higher.

  2. A model for negative ion extraction and comparison of negative ion optics calculations to experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative ion extraction is described by a model which includes electron diffusion across transverse magnetic fields in the sheath. This model allows a 2-Dimensional approximation of the problem to be made. It is used to introduce electron space charge effects in a 2-D particle trajectory code, designed for negative ion optics calculations. Another physical effect, the stripping of negative ions on gas, has also been included in our model; it is found to play an important role in negative ion optics. The comparison with three sets of experimental data from very different negative ion accelerators, show that our model is capable of accurate predictions

  3. A model for negative ion extraction and comparison of negative ion optics calculations to experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative ion extraction is described by a model which includes electron diffusion across transverse magnetic fields in the sheath. This model allows a 2-Dimensional approximation of the problem. It is used to introduce electron space charge effects in a 2-D particle trajectory code, designed for negative ion optics calculations. Another physical effect, the stripping of negative ions on neutral gas atoms, has also been included in our model; it is found to play an important role in negative ion optics. The comparison with three sets of experimental data from very different negative ion accelerators, show that our model is able of accurate predictions

  4. Contrast negation and texture synthesis differentially disrupt natural texture appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Natural textures have characteristic image statistics that make them discriminable from unnatural textures. For example, both contrast negation and texture synthesis alter the appearance of natural textures even though each manipulation preserves some features while disrupting others. Here, we examined the extent to which contrast negation and texture synthesis each introduce or remove critical perceptual features for discriminating unnatural textures from natural textures. We find that both manipulations remove information that observers use for distinguishing natural textures from transformed versions of the same patterns, but do so in different ways. Texture synthesis removes information that is relevant for discrimination in both abstract patterns and ecologically valid textures, and we also observe a category-dependent asymmetry for identifying an "oddball" real texture among synthetic distractors. Contrast negation exhibits no such asymmetry, and also does not impact discrimination performance in abstract patterns. We discuss our results in the context of the visual system's tuning to ecologically relevant patterns and other results describing sensitivity to higher-order statistics in texture patterns.

  5. Transcription dynamics of inducible genes modulated by negative regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Tang, Moxun; Yu, Jianshe

    2015-06-01

    Gene transcription is a stochastic process in single cells, in which genes transit randomly between active and inactive states. Transcription of many inducible genes is also tightly regulated: It is often stimulated by extracellular signals, activated through signal transduction pathways and later repressed by negative regulations. In this work, we study the nonlinear dynamics of the mean transcription level of inducible genes modulated by the interplay of the intrinsic transcriptional randomness and the repression by negative regulations. In our model, we integrate negative regulations into gene activation process, and make the conventional assumption on the production and degradation of transcripts. We show that, whether or not the basal transcription is temporarily terminated when cells are stimulated, the mean transcription level grows in the typical up and down pattern commonly observed in immune response genes. With the help of numerical simulations, we clarify the delicate impact of the system parameters on the transcription dynamics, and demonstrate how our model generates the distinct temporal gene-induction patterns in mouse fibroblasts discerned in recent experiments.

  6. Negative capacitance in multidomain ferroelectric superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Pavlo; Wojdeł, Jacek C.; Hadjimichael, Marios; Fernandez-Pena, Stéphanie; Sené, Anaïs; Luk’Yanchuk, Igor; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Íñiguez, Jorge

    2016-06-01

    The stability of spontaneous electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is fundamental to many of their current applications, which range from the simple electric cigarette lighter to non-volatile random access memories. Research on nanoscale ferroelectrics reveals that their behaviour is profoundly different from that in bulk ferroelectrics, which could lead to new phenomena with potential for future devices. As ferroelectrics become thinner, maintaining a stable polarization becomes increasingly challenging. On the other hand, intentionally destabilizing this polarization can cause the effective electric permittivity of a ferroelectric to become negative, enabling it to behave as a negative capacitance when integrated in a heterostructure. Negative capacitance has been proposed as a way of overcoming fundamental limitations on the power consumption of field-effect transistors. However, experimental demonstrations of this phenomenon remain contentious. The prevalent interpretations based on homogeneous polarization models are difficult to reconcile with the expected strong tendency for domain formation, but the effect of domains on negative capacitance has received little attention. Here we report negative capacitance in a model system of multidomain ferroelectric–dielectric superlattices across a wide range of temperatures, in both the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Using a phenomenological model, we show that domain-wall motion not only gives rise to negative permittivity, but can also enhance, rather than limit, its temperature range. Our first-principles-based atomistic simulations provide detailed microscopic insight into the origin of this phenomenon, identifying the dominant contribution of near-interface layers and paving the way for its future exploitation.

  7. Negative evaluations of negative alcohol consequences lead to subsequent reductions in alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P; Merrill, Jennifer E; Kahler, Christopher W; Colby, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use during young adulthood may reflect a learning process whereby positive and negative alcohol-related experiences and interpretations of those experiences drive subsequent behavior. Understanding the effect of consequences and the evaluation of consequences could be informative for intervention approaches. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which the number of positive and negative alcohol consequences experienced and the evaluation of those consequences predict subsequent alcohol use and consequences in college students. Students at 3 colleges (N = 679) completed biweekly web-based surveys on alcohol use, positive and negative consequences, and consequence evaluations for 2 academic years. Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether consequences and evaluations in a given week predicted changes in alcohol use and consequences at the next assessment. Moderation by gender and class year were also evaluated. Evaluating past-week negative consequences more negatively than one's average resulted in decreases in alcohol use at the next assessment. More negative evaluation of negative consequences was followed in the subsequent observation by a higher number of positive consequences for females but not for males. A higher number of positive consequences in a given week was followed by a higher number of both positive and negative consequences in the subsequent observation. Number of negative consequences experienced and evaluation of positive consequences had no effect on later behavior. Salient negative consequences may drive naturalistic reductions in alcohol use, suggesting the possible efficacy of programs designed to increase the salience of the negative effects of alcohol. PMID:26168225

  8. Negative-permittivity plasma generation in negative-permeability space with high-energy metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Osamu; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Iwai, Akinori; Iio, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Plasma generation by electromagnetic waves in negative-permeability space is analyzed using experimental results and theoretical models. Installation of negative-permeability metamaterials triggers drastic changes to the propagation of electromagnetic waves. Unlike usual cases in which permeability is  +1, negative permeability induces evanescent modes in a space without plasma. However, if permittivity becomes negative due to high-electron-density or overdense plasma, electromagnetic waves can propagate because negative-refractive-index states emerge. In this study, reviewing our previous experimental data, we study the underlying physical processes in plasma generation in terms of wave propagation and parameters of wave media. We confirm nonlinear (transition) processes in the phase of density evolution up to the negative permittivity state and negative-refractive-index states in the quasi-steady phase. We also note that such energetic metamaterials are built up when we use plasma, unlike conventional metamaterials composed of solid-state materials.

  9. English Communication on Migration and Measures to Overcome the Negative Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婉媛

    2016-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, China has more opportunities and European countries, exchanges and cooperation. However, in the process of communication, we may inadvertently ignore each other's culture and customs, the lack of cross-cul-tural communication awareness in local culture to measure the culture of other countries, such behavior is called negative trans-fer culture. Negative Transfer of Culture will have cultural misunderstandings and conflicts between nations and hinder the smooth progress of cross-cultural communication. In order to avoid unnecessary misunderstanding, strengthen the friendship be-tween different countries, we should understand, learn and overcome cultural negative transfer. This will combine theoretical knowledge and examples to explain the culture, language and culture negative relationship between migration and elaborate cul-tural negative transfer of two levels:Negative Transfer negative transfer surface culture and deep culture (including values mi-gration and ethnic psychological aspects), and its negative impact on the English cross-cultural communication. In addition, this paper will propose some strategies and corresponding to the principle of helping people overcome the negative transfer in cross-cultural communication, enhance cross-cultural communication ability, up from psychological acceptance, adaptation, and toler-ance of different cultures.

  10. Does individualism bring happiness? Negative effects of individualism on interpersonal relationships and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Yuji; Uchida, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    We examined the negative effects of individualism in an East Asian culture. Although individualistic systems decrease interpersonal relationships through competition, individualistic values have prevailed in European American cultures. One reason is because individuals could overcome negativity by actively constructing interpersonal relationships. In contrast, people in East Asian cultures do not have such strategies to overcome the negative impact of individualistic systems, leading to decreased well-being. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between individualistic values, number of close friends, and subjective well-being (SWB). Study 1 indicated that individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB for Japanese college students but not for American college students. Moreover, Study 2 showed that even in an individualistic workplace in Japan, individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB. We discuss how cultural change toward increasing individualism might affect interpersonal relationships and well-being. PMID:24634663

  11. Does individualism bring happiness? Negative effects of individualism on interpersonal relationships and happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji eOgihara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the negative effects of individualism in an East Asian culture. Although individualistic systems decrease interpersonal relationships through competition, individualistic values have prevailed in European American cultures. One reason is because individuals could overcome negativity by actively constructing interpersonal relationships. In contrast, people in East Asian cultures do not have such strategies to overcome the negative impact of individualistic systems, leading to decreased well-being. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between individualistic values, number of close friends, and subjective well-being (SWB. Study 1 indicated that individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB for Japanese college students but not for American college students. Moreover, Study 2 showed that even in an individualistic workplace in Japan, individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB. We discuss how cultural change toward increasing individualism might affect interpersonal relationships and well-being.

  12. Towards enhanced CSR impact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper was produced by ECON Analysis in conjunction with the Fridtjof Nansen Institute (FNI) for the Norwegian Research Council's 'Petropol' programme. It is part of a joint project entitled, 'Oil companies and the new petroleum provinces: ethics, business and politics'. This paper examines the possibilities for partnerships between oil companies and multilateral government institutions to address the negative impacts of oil projects that often prevent the resulting revenues leading to social and economic benefits for the host country (author) (ml)

  13. Softening the blow : Company self-disclosure of negative information lessens the damaging effects on consumer judgment and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, Bob M.; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Is self-disclosure of negative information a viable strategy for a company to lessen the damage done to consumer responses? Three experiments assessed whether self-disclosing negative information in itself lessened the damaging impact of this information compared to third-party disclosure of the sam

  14. Softening the Blow : Company Self-Disclosure of Negative Information Lessens Damaging Effects on Consumer Judgment and Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, Bob M.; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Is self-disclosure of negative information a viable strategy for a company to lessen the damage done to consumer responses? Three experiments assessed whether self-disclosing negative information in itself lessened the damaging impact of this information compared to third-party disclosure of the sam

  15. Pharmacological treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Czobor, Pal

    2015-10-01

    Effective treatment of negative symptoms is one of the most important unmet needs in schizophrenic disorders. Because the evidence on current psychopharmacological treatments is unclear, the authors reviewed the findings published to date by searching PubMed with the keywords negative symptoms, antipsychotics, antidepressants, glutamatergic compounds, monotherapy and add-on therapy and identifying additional articles in the reference lists of the resulting publications. The findings presented here predominantly focus on results of meta-analyses. Evidence for efficacy of current psychopharmacological medications is difficult to assess because of methodological problems and inconsistent results. In general, the second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) do not appear to have good efficacy in negative symptoms, although some show better efficacy than first-generation antipsychotics, some of which also demonstrated efficacy in negative symptoms. Specific trials on predominant persistent negative symptoms are rare and have been performed with only a few SGAs. More often, trials on somewhat persistent negative symptoms evaluate add-on strategies to ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Such trials, mostly on modern antidepressants, have demonstrated some efficacy. Several trials with small samples have evaluated add-on treatment with glutamatergic compounds, such as the naturally occurring amino acids glycine and D-serine and new pharmacological compounds. The results are highly inconsistent, although overall efficacy results appear to be positive. The unsatisfactory and inconsistent results can be partially explained by methodological problems. These problems need to be solved in the future, and the authors propose some possible solutions. Further research is required to identify effective treatment for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  16. Pharmacological treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Czobor, Pal

    2015-10-01

    Effective treatment of negative symptoms is one of the most important unmet needs in schizophrenic disorders. Because the evidence on current psychopharmacological treatments is unclear, the authors reviewed the findings published to date by searching PubMed with the keywords negative symptoms, antipsychotics, antidepressants, glutamatergic compounds, monotherapy and add-on therapy and identifying additional articles in the reference lists of the resulting publications. The findings presented here predominantly focus on results of meta-analyses. Evidence for efficacy of current psychopharmacological medications is difficult to assess because of methodological problems and inconsistent results. In general, the second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) do not appear to have good efficacy in negative symptoms, although some show better efficacy than first-generation antipsychotics, some of which also demonstrated efficacy in negative symptoms. Specific trials on predominant persistent negative symptoms are rare and have been performed with only a few SGAs. More often, trials on somewhat persistent negative symptoms evaluate add-on strategies to ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Such trials, mostly on modern antidepressants, have demonstrated some efficacy. Several trials with small samples have evaluated add-on treatment with glutamatergic compounds, such as the naturally occurring amino acids glycine and D-serine and new pharmacological compounds. The results are highly inconsistent, although overall efficacy results appear to be positive. The unsatisfactory and inconsistent results can be partially explained by methodological problems. These problems need to be solved in the future, and the authors propose some possible solutions. Further research is required to identify effective treatment for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25895634

  17. Perceptual Negativity Predicts Greater Reactivity to Negative Events in Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Liu, Tianwei

    2013-11-01

    Reinforcement sensitivity theory includes the idea that people differ in their sensitivity to negative events, but relevant process-based assessments have not been developed. The present studies assessed sensitivity to negative events in terms of the extent to which negative word stimuli were perceived to be larger than neutral word stimuli. There was a general tendency to overestimate the size of negative relative to neutral words, but individuals differed substantially in this form of what is termed perceptual negativity. Of more importance, two studies (total N = 151) found systematic relationships between individual differences in perceptual negativity and reactivity to negative events in daily diary protocols. Study 1 found that within-person variations in the occurrence of daily negative events undermined goal-related optimism to a greater extent at higher, relative to lower, levels of perceptual negativity. Study 2 conceptually replicated this interaction in the context of within-person associations between the occurrence of daily negative events and antisocial behavior. These findings are important in advancing reinforcement sensitivity theory, in operationalizing a particular component of it, and in extending it to reactivity processes in daily life. PMID:24163492

  18. Positive rights, negative rights and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.

  19. UNDERSTANDING THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL-NETWORKING FACEBOOK ON WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNEI, Mohd Aliff MOHD NAWI -; REN, Chua CHY

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of a rapidly growing social networking site, Facebook has started to give a massive impact on the users. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of Facebook for users, especially to the women. This study will apply qualitative methods, through literature review and document analysis of past studies. The results showed that Facebook gives more negative impact, and if it is not properly controlled, it will be exploited for other dreadful purposes. At the end of this pap...

  20. The Economic and Social Impact of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria M. Arroyo; San Buenaventura, Mariano

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and social impact of tourism in Pagsanjan in which tourism development project is located. Results show that the project’s various significant impacts include increases in employment and income and stimulation of political and women’s participation. While its impact on environment and on the people’s social life has been a mixture of positive and negative results, its impact on income distribution has been trifling. To maximize the tourism multiplier, the pape...

  1. Negative Energy Cosmology and the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Prokopec, Tomislav

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that string theories naturally compactify on anti-de Sitter spaces, and yet cosmological observations show no evidence of a negative cosmological constant in the early Universe's evolution. In this letter we present two simple nonlocal modifications of the standard Friedmann cosmology that can lead to observationally viable cosmologies with an initial (negative) cosmological constant. The nonlocal operators we include are toy models for the quantum cosmological backreaction. In Model I an initial quasiperiodic oscillatory epoch is followed by inflation and a late time matter era, representing a dark matter candidate. The backreaction in Model II quickly compensates the negative cosmological term such that the Ricci curvature scalar rapidly approaches zero, and the Universe ends up in a late time radiation era.

  2. WHEN ONE MIGHT EXPECT NEGATIVE DISCOUNT RATE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Palenik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Both in economics and psychology, positive discount rate is usually assumed as an axiom. However, there are circumstances which may lead to negative discount rate. This article presents such a phenomenon. Moreover, author presents particular cases of theories and models which imply preference of receiving lower income in later period of time, rather than higher income in earlier period of time (“less later than more earlier”. The described models are as follows: Life Cycle Hypothesis together with Self Control Theory, Construal Level Theory, Model of Patience Formation and Loewenstein’s Anticipation Model. Authors conclude that there is a need of empirical research verifying implications of these models concerning negative discount rate. Authors believe that the problem of negative discount rate deserves more attention, taking into account that in developed countries interest rates are close to zero and it still does not discourage customers from putting money aside.

  3. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...... by describing essential characteristics of negatives, which must be passed on to the copies, and the required metadata and technical imaging specifications. Next the paper discusses strategies for preservation and makes an analysis with the LIFE2 Costing Model. The paper concludes that the most beneficial...... and cost-effective preservation solution for large format negatives is to keep the preservation copies as digital files. However, it also acknowledges that it is important to revisit such strategies regularly to monitor changes in user expectations, technologies and costs....

  4. News Media Framing of Negative Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2014-01-01

    News media coverage of election campaigns is often characterized by use of the strategic game frame and a focus on politicians’ use of negative campaigning. However, the exact relationship between these two characteristics of news coverage is largely unexplored. This article theorizes that consumer...... demand and norms of journalistic independence might induce the news media outlets to cover negative campaigning with a strategic game frame. A comprehensive content analysis based on several newspaper types, several election campaigns, and several different measurements of media framing confirms...... that news coverage of negative campaigning does apply the strategic game frame to a significantly larger degree than articles covering positive campaigning. This finding has significant implications for campaigning politicians and for scholars studying campaign and media effects....

  5. Negative coupled inductors for polyphase choppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A technique for negatively coupling the outputs of polyphase choppers is disclosed, wherein the output inductance of each phase is divided into two windings, and each winding is negatively coupled to a corresponding winding of a neighboring phase. In a preferred embodiment for a three-phase chopper circuit, the output inductance of phase A is divided into windings 100 and 102, the output inductance of phase B is divided into windings 110 and 112, and the output inductance of phase C is divided into windings 120 and 122. Pairs of windings 100 and 110, 112 and 120, and 102 and 122 are respectively disposed in transformers arranged for negatively coupling the windings of each pair.

  6. A new bivariate negative binomial regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroughi, Pouya; Ismail, Noriszura

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a new form of bivariate negative binomial (BNB-1) regression which can be fitted to bivariate and correlated count data with covariates. The BNB regression discussed in this study can be fitted to bivariate and overdispersed count data with positive, zero or negative correlations. The joint p.m.f. of the BNB1 distribution is derived from the product of two negative binomial marginals with a multiplicative factor parameter. Several testing methods were used to check overdispersion and goodness-of-fit of the model. Application of BNB-1 regression is illustrated on Malaysian motor insurance dataset. The results indicated that BNB-1 regression has better fit than bivariate Poisson and BNB-2 models with regards to Akaike information criterion.

  7. Numerical Simulation of a Negative Impulsive Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ToshiakiSETOGUCHI; ShenYU; 等

    1996-01-01

    A compression wave discharged from an open end of a tube causes positive impulsive noise,Active noise cancellation which is the cancelling of the noise by the addition of an inverse wave is a useful technique for reducing impulsive noise,The main objective of this study is to present the design for a negative impulsive wave generator utilizing unsteady mass influx.In this paper,in order to clarify the relationship between the unsteady mass influx and the negative impulsive wave,numerical and aeroacoustic analyses have been carried out using an unsteady expansion wave discharged from an open end of a shock tube.As a result,the effect of an unsteady expansion wave on a negative impulsive wave was charified.

  8. Conditional negative association for competing urns

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Competing urns refers to the random experiment where m balls are dropped, randomly and independently, into urns 1,...,n. Formally, we have a random map $\\sigma$ from {1,...,m} to {1,...,n} with the $\\sigma(i)$'s i.i.d. With $x_j$ the indicator of the event that at least $t_j$ balls land in urn j (for some threshold $t_j$), we prove conditional negative association for the random variables $x_1,...,x_n$. We mostly deal with the more general situation in which the $\\sigma(i)$'s need not be identically distributed, proving results which imply conditional negative association in the i.i.d. case. Some of the results--particularly Lemma 8 on graph orientations--are thought to be of independent interest. We also give a counterexample to a negative correlation conjecture of D. Welsh, a strong version of a (still open) conjecture of G. Farr.

  9. Impact Velocity and Coefficient of Restitution for a Tennis Ball Impacting a Tennis Racquet

    OpenAIRE

    Mongkol Sukpraprut

    2015-01-01

    The impact and exit velocities of a tennis ball impacting on a fixed tennis racquet were measured with high speed video analysis to determine the coefficient of restitution (COR). It was found that there is a negative linear relationship between the COR and the impact velocity of the ball for velocities between 13 and 36 m/s.

  10. Impact Velocity and Coefficient of Restitution for a Tennis Ball Impacting a Tennis Racquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mongkol Sukpraprut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact and exit velocities of a tennis ball impacting on a fixed tennis racquet were measured with high speed video analysis to determine the coefficient of restitution (COR. It was found that there is a negative linear relationship between the COR and the impact velocity of the ball for velocities between 13 and 36 m/s.

  11. Neural responses to negative feedback are related to negative emotionality in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Santesso, Diane L.; Bogdan, Ryan; Birk, Jeffrey L.; Goetz, Elena L.; Holmes, Avram J.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence suggests that potentiated responses in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), particularly the rostral ACC, may contribute to abnormal responses to negative feedback in individuals with elevated negative affect and depressive symptoms. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) represents an electrophysiological index of ACC-related activation in response to performance feedback. The purpose of the present study was to examine the FRN and underlyi...

  12. Mechanical vs. informational components of price impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyne Farmer, J.; Zamani, N.

    2007-01-01

    We study the problem of what causes prices to change. It is well known that trading impacts prices — orders to buy drive the price up, and orders to sell drive it down. We introduce a means of decomposing the total impact of trading into two components, defining the mechanical impact of a trading order as the change in future prices in the absence of any future changes in decision making, and the informational impact as the remainder of the total impact once mechanical impact is removed. This decomposition is performed using order book data from the London Stock Exchange. The average mechanical impact of a market order decays to zero as a function of time, at an asymptotic rate that is consistent with a power law with an exponent of roughly 1.7. In contrast the average informational impact builds to approach a constant value. Initially the impact is entirely mechanical, and is about half as big as the asymptotic informational impact. The size of the informational impact is positively correlated to mechanical impact. For cases where the mechanical impact is zero for all times, we find that the informational impact is negative, i.e. buy market orders that have no mechanical impact at all generate strong negative price responses.

  13. Genital impacts Genital impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe G Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available I propose to analyze three images of genitalia from three different films that do not have sex as their central subject: (1 Lígia’s (Leona Cavalli’s vulva in Claudio Assis’s Amarelo Manga (Brazil, 2002, (2 Stoffer’s (Jens Albinus’s erect penis in Lars von Trier’s The Idiots (Denmark, 1998, and (3 transsexual Dil’s (Jaye Davidson’s penis in Neil Jordan’s The Crying Game (USA, 1992. All three images are explicit and surprising enough to provoke impact, both in diegetic and extra-diagetic spaces. intend to compare the three images and investigate the nature of their impacts, not directly in terms of morality, but in their relation with two theoretical assumptions: (1 the intense way in which, according to Linda Nicholson (1999, so many cultures insist in interpreting bodies and genitalia as still capable of defining gender characters, and (2 the notion of image, not as representation, but as image itself, as “what it is”, or as “the place of every transformation in the universe”, as suggested first by Bergson (2005, and then by Deleuze (1983-5, Rancière (2001 and Agamben (1995. The Deleuzean retard may indicate the way in which genitalia, as image, turn into enigma, in the very passage from nature to culture. The three shots give back to those clear images of genitalia the property they have always had: their character of central pieces in the game of such passage. The contrast between such simple and clear images and all those complex games corresponds to the nature of the impact I want to investigate. film; genitalia; narrative. I propose to analyze three images of genitalia from three different films that do not have sex as their central subject: (1 Lígia’s (Leona Cavalli’s vulva in Claudio Assis’s Amarelo Manga (Brazil, 2002, (2 Stoffer’s (Jens Albinus’s erect penis in Lars von Trier’s The Idiots (Denmark, 1998, and (3 transsexual Dil’s (Jaye Davidson’s penis in Neil Jordan’s The Crying Game (USA

  14. Osmosis at constant volume. Negative pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Zupanovic, Pasko; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Ales; Juretic, Davor

    2009-01-01

    A thermodynamic state of solvent and solution separated with an elastic semipermeable membrane, in the box with a fixed volume, is considered. It is shown that the minimum of the free energy is accompanied by the compression of the solution and tension of the solvent caused by the transfer of solvent molecules into compartment with solution. The tensile state of the solvent is described in terms of negative pressure. It is found that the negative pressure as well as compression pressure is of the order of osmotic pressure given by van't Hoff equation. It is proposed that this mechanism could be responsible for the water uptake in tall trees.

  15. Experimental study of negative capacitance in LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Lie-feng; WANG Jun; ZHU Chuan-yun; CONG Hong-xia; CHEN Yong; WANG Cun-da

    2005-01-01

    The experimental study on negative capacitance(NC) of various light-emitting diodes(LEDs) is presented.Experimental result shows that all LEDs display the NC phenomenon.The voltage modulated electroluminescence(VMEL) experiment confirms that the reason of negative capacitance is the strong recombination of the injected carriers in the active region of luminescence.The measures also verify that the dependence of NC on voltage and frequency in different LEDs is similar: NC phenomenon is more obvious with higher voltage or lower frequency.

  16. Generalized Cherry oscillators and negative energy waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1925 Cherry discussed two oscillators of positive and negative energy that are nonlinearly coupled in a special way, and presented exact solutions of the nonlinear equations showing explosive instabilities independent of the strength of the nonlinearity and the initial amplitudes. In this paper Cherry's Hamiltonian is transformed into a form which allows a simple physical interpretation. The new Hamiltonian is generalized to three nonlinearly coupled oscillators; it corresponds to three-wave interaction in a continuum theory, like the Vlasov-Maxwell theory, if there exist linear negative energy waves. (orig.)

  17. Elastic properties of water under negative pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, A.D.; Grimsditch, M. (Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)); Bodnar, R.J. (Department of Geological Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Using Brillouin scattering we have investigated the elastic properties of water under negative pressures. The samples were H[sub 2]O liquid--vapor inclusions in [alpha]-quartz which could be heated to their homogenization temperatures (in the range 120--370 [degree]C); on cooling, negative pressures as high as 1000 bars were reached before a vapor bubble nucleated. The velocity of sound results obtained from our Brillouin experiments indicate that nucleation occurs long before reaching the mechanical instability region where the bulk modulus is zero.

  18. Real and imaginary negative binomial states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jing; Wang, Xiaoguang; Wu, Ling-An; Pan, Shao-Hua

    2001-10-01

    The real and imaginary negative binomial states formed by a superposition of the negative binomial states are introduced. The sub-Poissonian statistics, Wigner function and squeezing properties of the real and imaginary states are studied in detail. The oscillatory character of the photon distribution due to the quantum interference between the two components is shown. Moreover, we find that these states are real and imaginary nonlinear Schrödinger cat states and give the corresponding ladder operator formalisms. We also discuss how to generate these general real quantum superposition states based on the intensity-dependent Jaynes-Cummings model.

  19. Numerical simulations of negative-index refraction in a lamellar composite with alternating single negative layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zheng-Gao; Zhu Shi-Ning; Liu Hui

    2006-01-01

    Negative-index refraction is demonstrated in a lamellar composite with epsilon-negative (ENG) and mu-negative (MNG) materials stacked alternatively. Based on the effective medium approximation, simultaneously negative effective permittivity and permeability of such a lamellar composite are obtained theoretically and further proven by full-wave simulations. Consequently, the renowned left-handed metamaterial comprising split ring resonators and wires is interpreted as an analogy of such ENG-MNG layers. In addition, beyond the effective medium approximation, the propagating field squeezed near the ENG/MNG interface is demonstrated to be left-handed surface waves with backward phase velocity.

  20. Genital impacts Genital impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz felipe g. Soares

    2008-01-01

    I propose to analyze three images of genitalia from three different films that do not have sex as their central subject: (1) Lígia’s (Leona Cavalli’s) vulva in Claudio Assis’s Amarelo Manga (Brazil, 2002), (2) Stoffer’s (Jens Albinus’s) erect penis in Lars von Trier’s The Idiots (Denmark, 1998), and (3) transsexual Dil’s (Jaye Davidson’s) penis in Neil Jordan’s The Crying Game (USA, 1992). All three images are explicit and surprising enough to provoke impact, both in diegetic and extra-diaget...

  1. Towards the development of improved tests for negative symptoms of schizophrenia in a validated animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ceren; Doostdar, Nazanin; Neill, Joanna C

    2016-10-01

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. There is no licensed treatment specifically for this debilitating aspect of the disorder and effect sizes of new therapies are too small to make an impact on quality of life and function. Negative symptoms are multifactorial but often considered in terms of two domains, expressive deficit incorporating blunted affect and poverty of speech and avolition incorporating asociality and lack of drive. There is a clear need for improved understanding of the neurobiology of negative symptoms which can be enabled through the use of carefully validated animal models. While there are several tests for assessing sociability in animals, tests for blunted affect in schizophrenia are currently lacking. Two paradigms have recently been developed for assessing negative affect of relevance to depression in rats. Here we assess their utility for studying negative symptoms in schizophrenia using our well validated model for schizophrenia of sub-chronic (sc) treatment with Phencyclidine (PCP) in adult female rats. Results demonstrate that sc PCP treatment produces a significant negative affect bias in response to a high value reward in the optimistic and affective bias tests. Our results are not easily explained by the known cognitive deficits induced by sc PCP and support the hypothesis of a negative affective bias in this model. We suggest that further refinement of these two tests will provide a means to investigate the neurobiological basis of negative affect in schizophrenia, thus supporting the assessment of efficacy of new targets for this currently untreated symptom domain.

  2. Towards the development of improved tests for negative symptoms of schizophrenia in a validated animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ceren; Doostdar, Nazanin; Neill, Joanna C

    2016-10-01

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. There is no licensed treatment specifically for this debilitating aspect of the disorder and effect sizes of new therapies are too small to make an impact on quality of life and function. Negative symptoms are multifactorial but often considered in terms of two domains, expressive deficit incorporating blunted affect and poverty of speech and avolition incorporating asociality and lack of drive. There is a clear need for improved understanding of the neurobiology of negative symptoms which can be enabled through the use of carefully validated animal models. While there are several tests for assessing sociability in animals, tests for blunted affect in schizophrenia are currently lacking. Two paradigms have recently been developed for assessing negative affect of relevance to depression in rats. Here we assess their utility for studying negative symptoms in schizophrenia using our well validated model for schizophrenia of sub-chronic (sc) treatment with Phencyclidine (PCP) in adult female rats. Results demonstrate that sc PCP treatment produces a significant negative affect bias in response to a high value reward in the optimistic and affective bias tests. Our results are not easily explained by the known cognitive deficits induced by sc PCP and support the hypothesis of a negative affective bias in this model. We suggest that further refinement of these two tests will provide a means to investigate the neurobiological basis of negative affect in schizophrenia, thus supporting the assessment of efficacy of new targets for this currently untreated symptom domain. PMID:27312268

  3. Impacts of negative emotions on interpersonal trust:Clues effects based on trust game%消极情绪影响人际信任的线索效应:基于信任博弈范式的检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李常洪; 高培霞; 韩瑞婧; 宋志红

    2014-01-01

    The influence of emotional states on trust has drawn much attention. This research attempted to ex-plain how negative emotions and clues about the trustee influence the trusting behaviors,and compared the differences between the two negative emotions(anger and sadness)by an experiment. In our experiment,the subkects were induced to different negative emotions or neutral feelings with emotional video clips and then turned to the trust game with some clues about the trustees. The results revealed that the subkect’s amounts of trust investment were influenced by the trustworthy clues and the emotions the subkect experienced. Specifical-ly,in case that the available cues promoted trust,people having negative emotions decreased their trust than those experiencing neutral emotions,but the distrust cues rendered no difference. Furthermore,the result shows that,consistent with the theoretical prediction which argues that angry subkects will render more reliance upon the available clues and schemas than sad ones,these two different kinds of negative emotions influence trust in different ways:compared with the sad ones,angry people significantly increased their amounts of trust investment in the case that the trustee clues promoted trust,and decreased their amounts of trust investment when clues promoted distrust. These findings are discussed in terms of emotional effects on cognitive strate-gies;this study can be a valuable complement to the Accommodation-Assimilation Model and have implications for trust development within organizations.%采用信任博弈范式,通过诱发愤怒、悲伤两种消极情绪和中性情绪,考察不同情绪状态的个体进行陌生人初始信任判断是否存在对信任线索的依赖性,即线索效应。研究结果显示当社会线索指向可信时,消极情绪普遍比中性情绪引起的信任水平低,而在社会线索指向不可信时,消极情绪和中性情绪并没有显著差别;同时悲伤和愤怒

  4. Examining the latent structure of negative symptoms: is there a distinct subtype of negative symptom schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Jack J; Horan, William P; Collins, Lindsay M

    2005-09-15

    Negative symptoms have emerged as a replicable factor of symptomatology within schizophrenia. Although rating scales provide assessments along dimensions of severity, categorization into a negative symptom subtype is typically conducted. A categorical view of negative symptoms is best reflected in the proposal that enduring, primary negative symptoms, or deficit symptoms, reflect a distinct subtype of schizophrenia . Despite an accumulation of findings that support a categorical conceptualization, the data are also consistent with a dimensional-only model where negative symptom subtypologies simply reflect an extreme on a continuum of severity. Using taxometric statistical methods , the present study examined whether a taxonic, or latent class, model best describes negative symptoms in a sample of 238 schizophrenia patients. In order to obtain more stable estimates of symptoms, ratings on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms [Andreasen, N.C., 1982. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Definition and reliability. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 39, 784-788.] were averaged across two assessments over a 6-month period. Two taxometric methods, maximum covariance analysis (MAXCOV) and mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC) identified a latent class or taxon with a base rate of approximately 28-36%. Members of the negative symptom taxon differed from the nontaxon class in that taxon members were more likely to be male and demonstrated poorer social functioning. Taxon and nontaxon schizophrenia patients did not differ in psychotic or affective symptoms. The findings converge to provide support for a categorical view of negative symptoms. Further research is required to replicate the present taxonic findings and to examine characteristics (including possible etiological factors) associated with this negative symptom taxon. PMID:15916881

  5. Negative pronouns in Slovene: a minimalist account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašper Ilc

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine Slovene negative pronouns from a cross-linguistic per­spective and propose an account of their observed properties interms of minimalist feature checking theory as developed by Chomsky (1995, 1998, 1999, 2001and modified by Pesetsky & Torrego (2000, 2002 and Hiraiwa (2000.

  6. The Contrast Theory of negative input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, M

    1997-02-01

    Beliefs about whether or not children receive corrective input for grammatical errors depend crucially on how one defines the concept of correction. Arguably, previous conceptualizations do not provide a viable basis for empirical research (Gold, 1967; Brown & Hanlon, 1970; Hirsh-Pasek, Treiman & Schneiderman, 1984). Within the Contrast Theory of negative input, an alternative definition of negative evidence is offered, based on the idea that the unique discourse structure created in the juxtaposition of child error and adult correct form can reveal to the child the contrast, or conflict, between the two forms, and hence provide a basis for rejecting the erroneous form. A within-subjects experimental design was implemented for 36 children (mean age 5;0), in order to compare the immediate effects of negative evidence with those of positive input, on the acquisition of six novel irregular past tense forms. Children reproduced the correct irregular model more often, and persisted with fewer errors, following negative evidence rather than positive input.

  7. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen;

    1998-01-01

    We prove that, if a finite metric space is of strictly negative type, then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by the infinite extender (load vector). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all spaces on two, three, or four points, all trees, and all finite subspaces of Eu...

  8. Abortion Rights: Anatomy of a Negative Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes a highly successful negative public relations campaign carried on by major pro-choice organizations from October 1985 through March 1987. Explores the effectiveness of this campaign (much of it carried on in the media), and questions the ethics of such a campaign. (NKA)

  9. Quorum sensing in gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.J.; Høiby, N.;

    2004-01-01

    molecules. Among Gram-negative bacteria N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL)-dependent quorum sensing systems are particularly widespread. These systems are used to coordinate expression of phenotypes that are fundamental to the interaction of bacteria with each other and with their environment...

  10. Negative pressure wound therapy: clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoz H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heidi Sandoz Accelerate CIC, Mile End Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT, also known as topical negative pressure therapy, has been increasingly used in health care for the management of a wide variety of wounds over the last 2–3 decades. It is an advanced therapy that can be helpful to accelerate wound healing in both acute and chronic wounds by delivering negative pressure (suction to the wound bed. More recent advancements in the application of NPWT have provided clinicians with wider choices of utilization. There are now devices available that can deliver irrigation to the wound bed, be used for closed surgical incisions, or are disposable and highly portable. Systematic reviews considering NPWT have been published previously. These usually focus on one wound group or device and fail to offer practical clinical guidance due to the scrutiny offered to the evidence via a systematic review process. Here, an overview of the history of NPWT, the varieties of device available, their wide clinical application, and the evidence to support its use are explored in a pragmatic way. Keywords: negative pressure, wound, incision, healing, pain 

  11. Revisiting the gram-negative lipoprotein paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The processing of lipoproteins (lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered to be an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein n-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted...

  12. [Psychopathological aspects of negative symptoms in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    During the past ten years, research on schizophrenia has witnessed a clear emphasis on studies based on negative symptoms. This interest can be explained in terms of diagnosis, specific treatment, functional prognosis and outcome issues. However, main current approaches consider negative symptoms from an operationalist view, which implies objective and atheoretical descriptions of clinical criteria, observed from a third person perspective. And the understanding of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, still a crucial issue of mental health, remains only partial. From a different perspective, psychopathology - and notably psychiatric phenomenology -, can provide a conceptual and clinical framework, taking into account subjective experience (first person perspective), based on a global understanding of the clinical situation lived by patients with schizophrenia. In the present review, we give a brief survey on the historical aspects of the description of negative symptoms. Then, we introduce the clinical contributions raised by clinical phenomenology. We principally develop Minkowski's notion of loss of vital contact, and Blankenburg's notion of loss of natural evidence. Then we highlight the current debates which are discussed and explored in contemporary psychopathology. In conclusion, we discuss the possible articulation between objective and subjective approaches, in order to better understand pauci-symptomatic forms of schizophrenia.

  13. Magnetic levitation induced by negative permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Rangelov, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the interaction between a point magnetic dipole and a semi-infinite metamaterial using the method of images. We obtain analytical expressions for the levitation force for an arbitrarily oriented dipole. Surprisingly the maximal levitation force for negative permeability is found to be stronger compared to the case when the dipole is above a superconductor.

  14. On hypergeometric generalized negative binomial distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Ghitany, M. E.; Al-Awadhi, S. A.; S. L. Kalla

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the hypergeometric generalized negative binomial distribution has moments of all positive orders, is overdispersed, skewed to the right, and leptokurtic. Also, a three-term recurrence relation for computing probabilities from the considered distribution is given. Application of the distribution to entomological field data is given and its goodness-of-fit is demonstrated.

  15. On hypergeometric generalized negative binomial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Ghitany

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the hypergeometric generalized negative binomial distribution has moments of all positive orders, is overdispersed, skewed to the right, and leptokurtic. Also, a three-term recurrence relation for computing probabilities from the considered distribution is given. Application of the distribution to entomological field data is given and its goodness-of-fit is demonstrated.

  16. Negative running can prevent eternal inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current data from the Planck satellite and the BICEP2 telescope favor, at around the 2 σ level, negative running of the spectral index of curvature perturbations from inflation. We show that for negative running α < 0, the curvature perturbation amplitude has a maximum on scales larger than our current horizon size. A condition for the absence of eternal inflation is that the curvature perturbation amplitude always remain below unity on superhorizon scales. For current bounds on nS from Planck, this corresponds to an upper bound of the running α < −9 × 10−5, so that even tiny running of the scalar spectral index is sufficient to prevent eternal inflation from occurring, as long as the running remains negative on scales outside the horizon. In single-field inflation models, negative running is associated with a finite duration of inflation: we show that eternal inflation may not occur even in cases where inflation lasts as long as 104 e-folds

  17. Negative Refraction experiments in Photonic Crystal prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodo, Plarenta; Parimi, Patanjali. V.; Lu, Wentao. T.; di Gennaro, Emiliano; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2004-03-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated negative refraction in metallic photonic crystal (PC) prisms [1]. The refracted fields in the parallel plate waveguide (PPW) are measured by an automated dipole antenna, which scans the desired area, while the free space (FS) measurements, performed in a anechoic chamber, are measured by a rectangular X-band horn that swings in an arc in far field area. Both TE and TM excitation modes are used in FS experiments. Numerical calculations of the band structure and equi-frequency surface simulations are used to determine frequency regions of negative refraction of the triangular lattice PC. Angle of refraction determined by theoretical simulations and experimental results, are in exceptional good agreement, yielding the negative refraction index. FS and PPW refraction experimental results agree remarkably with simulations. 1. "Negative Refraction and Left-handed electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals", P.V Parimi, W.T Lu, P.Vodo J. Sokoloff and S.Sridhar, cond-mat/0306109 (2003)

  18. Entanglement versus negative domains of Wigner functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Mack, H.; Wolf, A.;

    2006-01-01

    We show that s waves, that is wave functions that only depend on a hyperradius, are entangled if and only if the corresponding Wigner functions exhibit negative domains. We illustrate this feature using a special class of s waves which allows us to perform the calculations analytically. This class...... includes a Gaussian, a maximally entangled as well as a "shell" state....

  19. On affine non-negative matrix factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Hans; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    We generalize the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) generative model to incorporate an explicit offset. Multiplicative estimation algorithms are provided for the resulting sparse affine NMF model. We show that the affine model has improved uniqueness properties and leads to more accurate...

  20. Rewarding Multitasking: Negative Effects of an Incentive on Problem Solving under Divided Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieth, Mareike B.; Burns, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Research has consistently shown negative effects of multitasking on tasks such as problem solving. This study was designed to investigate the impact of an incentive when solving problems in a multitasking situation. Incentives have generally been shown to increase problem solving (e.g., Wieth & Burns, 2006), however, it is unclear whether an…

  1. Orbit, optics and chromaticity correction for PS2 negative momentum compaction lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaphilippou,Y.; Barranco, J.; Bartmann, W.; Benedikt, M.; Carli, C.; de Maria, R.; Peggs, S.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-05-04

    The effect of magnet misalignments in the beam orbit and linear optics functions are reviewed and correction schemes are applied to the negative momentum compaction lattice of PS2. Chromaticity correction schemes are also proposed and tested with respect to off-momentum optics properties. The impact of the correction schemes in the dynamic aperture of the lattice is finally evaluated.

  2. Negative spiral CT in acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, T.; Olausson, A. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Thoracic Radiology; Johnsson, H. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Nyman, U. [County Hospital, Trelleborg (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology; Aspelin, P. [Huddinge Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-09-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical outcome of non-anticoagulated patients with clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and no symptoms or signs of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) following a negative contrast medium-enhanced spiral CT of the pulmonary arteries (s-CTPA). Material and Methods: During a 24-month period, 739 of 751 patients underwent s-CTPA with acceptable diagnostic quality for clinically suspected acute PE. All patients who had a CT study not positive for PE were followed up with a questionnaire, a telephone interview and review of all medical reports, including autopsies and death certificates for any episodes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during a 3-month period. Results: PE was diagnosed in 158 patients. Of the remaining 581 patients with a negative s-CTPA, 45 patients were lost to follow-up. 88 patients were excluded because of anticoagulation treatment (cardiac disorder n=32, chronic VTE or acute symptomatic DVT n=31, PE diagnosed at pulmonary angiography n=1, thrombus prophylaxis during diagnostic work-up or other reasons than VTE n=24) and 7 patients undergoing lower extremity venous studies because of symptoms of DVT (all negative). Thus, 441 patients with a negative s-CTPA and no DVT symptoms, venous studies or anticoagulant treatment constituted the follow-up cohort. Four of these patients had proven VTE (all PE) during the 3-month follow-up period. Two of the PE episodes contributed to the patient's death. Conclusion: Patients with clinically suspected acute PE, no symptoms or signs of DVT and a negative single slice s-CTPA using 3-5 mm collimation, may safely be left without anticoagulation treatment unless they are critically ill, have a limited cardiopulmonary reserve and/or if a high clinical suspicion remains.

  3. The sputter generation of negative ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of recent progress toward a quantitative understanding of negative ion formation by sputtering from surfaces covered with fractional layers of highly electropositive adsorbates. Practical models developed for estimating changes in work functions Δφ by electropositive adsorbates are described. The secondary negative ion generation process is examined through the use of composite energy/velocity dependent analytical models. These models are used to illustrate the effect of work function on the energy distributions of negative ions sputter ejected from a polycrystalline molybdenum surface covered with fractional layers of cesium. Predictions are also made of the functional dependence of the probability for negative ion formation on cesium coverage. The models predict energy distributions which are in basic disagreement with experimental observations, implying their inappropriateness for describing the sputter negative ion generation process. We have also developed a model for calculating sputter ratios based on the use of simple scaling procedures to bring Sigmund theory into close agreement with experimental observation accounting for the threshold effect. Scaling factors for projectile energies E > 1000 eV are found to be independent of energy while those for projectile energies Eth < E < 1000 eV were found to be energy dependent. In this study, the model and scaling techniques utilized to bring Sigmund theory into agreement with experiment are discussed in detail and several examples provided which illustrate the versatility, accuracy and utility of the model. In the present report, we describe the model and apply it to the case of sputtering a selected number of metals with energetic cesium ions. In particular, we present sputter ratio information for a number of Cs-projectile/metal-target combinations; the targets are bombarded at normal incidence to the surface

  4. Negative spiral CT in acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical outcome of non-anticoagulated patients with clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and no symptoms or signs of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) following a negative contrast medium-enhanced spiral CT of the pulmonary arteries (s-CTPA). Material and Methods: During a 24-month period, 739 of 751 patients underwent s-CTPA with acceptable diagnostic quality for clinically suspected acute PE. All patients who had a CT study not positive for PE were followed up with a questionnaire, a telephone interview and review of all medical reports, including autopsies and death certificates for any episodes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during a 3-month period. Results: PE was diagnosed in 158 patients. Of the remaining 581 patients with a negative s-CTPA, 45 patients were lost to follow-up. 88 patients were excluded because of anticoagulation treatment (cardiac disorder n=32, chronic VTE or acute symptomatic DVT n=31, PE diagnosed at pulmonary angiography n=1, thrombus prophylaxis during diagnostic work-up or other reasons than VTE n=24) and 7 patients undergoing lower extremity venous studies because of symptoms of DVT (all negative). Thus, 441 patients with a negative s-CTPA and no DVT symptoms, venous studies or anticoagulant treatment constituted the follow-up cohort. Four of these patients had proven VTE (all PE) during the 3-month follow-up period. Two of the PE episodes contributed to the patient's death. Conclusion: Patients with clinically suspected acute PE, no symptoms or signs of DVT and a negative single slice s-CTPA using 3-5 mm collimation, may safely be left without anticoagulation treatment unless they are critically ill, have a limited cardiopulmonary reserve and/or if a high clinical suspicion remains

  5. Seeing ghosts: Negative body evaluation predicts overestimation of negative social feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alleva, J.M.; Lange, W.G.; Jansen, A.T.M.; Martijn, C.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether negative body evaluation predicts women's overestimation of negative social feedback related to their own body (i.e., covariation bias). Sixty-five female university students completed a computer task where photos of their own body, of a control woman's body, a

  6. The impact of amisulpride and clozapine on life quality of schizophrenics characterized by negative symptoms%氨磺必利与氯氮平对以阴性症状为主精神分裂症患者生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨氨磺必利与氯氮平对以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症患者临床疗效和生活质量的影响。方法将82例以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,分别口服氨磺必利及氯氮平治疗,观察3个月。治疗前后采用阴性症状量表、简明精神病量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应,生活质量综合评定问卷评定生活质量。结果治疗前两组各量表评分比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。治疗后两组阴性症状量表、简明精神病量表总分均较治疗前显著降低(P<0.05),两者比较差异无显著性(P>0.05);生活质量综合评定问卷的社会功能、心理健康及躯体健康因子分均较治疗前显著升高(P<0.01),氨磺必利组显著高于氯氮平组(P<0.01)。氨磺必利组不良反应发生率显著低于氯氮平组(P<0.01)。结论氨磺必利与氯氮平治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症患者疗效均显著,但氨磺必利改善患者生活质量效果更佳,安全性更高。%Objective To explore the influence of amisulpride and clozapine on life quality of schizophren‐ics characterized by negative symptoms .Methods Eighty‐two schizophrenics characterized by negative symptoms were randomly divided into two groups taking orally amisulpride or clozapine for 3 months .Be‐fore and after treatment efficacies were assessed with the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) ,adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) ,and qualities of life with the Generic Quality of Life Inventory‐74 (GQOLI‐74) . Results There were no significant group differences in all scales scores (P>0 .05) .After treatment the total scores of the SANS and BPRS of both groups lowered more significantly compared with pretreatment (P0 .05);social function ,mental health and somatic health score of the

  7. Negative Reinforcement in Applied Behavior Analysis: An Emerging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes three aspects of negative reinforcement as it relates to applied behavior analysis: behavior acquired or maintained through negative reinforcement, the treatment of negatively reinforced behavior, and negative reinforcement as therapy. Current research suggests the emergence of an applied technology on negative reinforcement.…

  8. Positive words carry less information than negative words

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, David; Schweitzer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We show that the frequency of word use is not only determined by the word length [1] and the average information content [2], but also by its emotional content.We have analysed three established lexica of affective word usage in English, German, and Spanish, to verify that these lexica have a neutral, unbiased, emotional content. Taking into account the frequency of word usage, we find that words with a positive emotional content are more frequently used. This lends support to Pollyanna hypothesis [3] that there should be a positive bias in human expression. We also find that negative words contain more information than positive words, as the informativeness of a word increases uniformly with its valence decrease. Our findings support earlier conjectures about (i) the relation between word frequency and information content, and (ii) the impact of positive emotions on communication and social links.

  9. Assessment of Negative Self-Image and Fear of Negative Evaluation Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agbu Jane-Frances; Ibida Ebele

    2014-01-01

    Concern with real or imagined defect in physical appearance can become a major preoccupation during adolescence and young adult years. This is because, changes of puberty, rapid physical growth, and resulting sexual maturation that characterizes this age can trigger feelings of self-consciousness and awkwardness about body-image perceptions. In addition, the "perfect" body-image as dictated in the social culture could become a measure of self-worth, and this is capable of triggering negative self-image and social anxiety among adolescents. This study seeks to assess the incidence of negative self-image (preoccupation with real or imagined defect in physical appearance) and social anxiety characterized by fear of negative evaluation, among adolescents and young adults. Samples of 329 participants in the age range of 16-25 were drawn from the first and second years students of Federal University Wukari and University of Lagos, Nigeria. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet as well as NSII (Negative Self-Image Inventory) and revalidated version of FNE (Fear of Negative Evaluation). Findings revealed that there is a correlation between negative self-image and fear of negative evaluation; males manifested higher symptoms of negative self-image than females; young adults aged 21-25 presented higher negative self-image that those aged 16-20, adolescents and young adults from Lagos metropolis experience higher manifestation of fear of negative evaluation than those from Wukari axis. This study therefore adds to knowledge in this area.

  10. Targeting Negative Surface Charges of Cancer Cells by Multifunctional Nanoprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingdi; Le, Wenjun; Wang, Yilong; Li, Zhuoquan; Wang, Dong; Ren, Lei; Lin, Ling; Cui, Shaobin; Hu, Jennifer J.; Hu, Yihui; Yang, Pengyuan; Ewing, Rodney C.; Shi, Donglu; Cui, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A set of electrostatically charged, fluorescent, and superparamagnetic nanoprobes was developed for targeting cancer cells without using any molecular biomarkers. The surface electrostatic properties of the established cancer cell lines and primary normal cells were characterized by using these nanoprobes with various electrostatic signs and amplitudes. All twenty two randomly selected cancer cell lines of different organs, but not normal control cells, bound specifically to the positively charged nanoprobes. The relative surface charges of cancer cells could be quantified by the percentage of cells captured magnetically. The activities of glucose metabolism had a profound impact on the surface charge level of cancer cells. The data indicate that an elevated glycolysis in the cancer cells led to a higher level secretion of lactate. The secreted lactate anions are known to remove the positive ions, leaving behind the negative changes on the cell surfaces. This unique metabolic behavior is responsible for generating negative cancer surface charges in a perpetuating fashion. The metabolically active cancer cells are shown to a unique surface electrostatic pattern that can be used for recovering cancer cells from the circulating blood and other solutions. PMID:27570558

  11. Targeting Negative Surface Charges of Cancer Cells by Multifunctional Nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingdi; Le, Wenjun; Wang, Yilong; Li, Zhuoquan; Wang, Dong; Ren, Lei; Lin, Ling; Cui, Shaobin; Hu, Jennifer J; Hu, Yihui; Yang, Pengyuan; Ewing, Rodney C; Shi, Donglu; Cui, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A set of electrostatically charged, fluorescent, and superparamagnetic nanoprobes was developed for targeting cancer cells without using any molecular biomarkers. The surface electrostatic properties of the established cancer cell lines and primary normal cells were characterized by using these nanoprobes with various electrostatic signs and amplitudes. All twenty two randomly selected cancer cell lines of different organs, but not normal control cells, bound specifically to the positively charged nanoprobes. The relative surface charges of cancer cells could be quantified by the percentage of cells captured magnetically. The activities of glucose metabolism had a profound impact on the surface charge level of cancer cells. The data indicate that an elevated glycolysis in the cancer cells led to a higher level secretion of lactate. The secreted lactate anions are known to remove the positive ions, leaving behind the negative changes on the cell surfaces. This unique metabolic behavior is responsible for generating negative cancer surface charges in a perpetuating fashion. The metabolically active cancer cells are shown to a unique surface electrostatic pattern that can be used for recovering cancer cells from the circulating blood and other solutions. PMID:27570558

  12. Negative feedback between stress and erosion: origin of sandstone landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruthans, Jiri; Soukup, Jan; Vaculikova, Jana; Filippi, Michal; Schweigstillova, Jana; Mayo, Alan; Masin, David; Kletetschka, Gunther; Rihosek, Jaroslav

    2015-04-01

    Weathering and erosion of sandstone produces spectacular landforms such as arches, alcoves, pedestal rocks and pillars. The effect of gravity loading stress has been overlooked or assumed to increase the landform's weathering rate. Here we show by physical and numerical modeling, and field observations of locked sands and sandstones that an increase in stress within the landform reduces weathering and erosion. Material with insufficient loading is rapidly removed by weathering process and the remaining load bearing landform structure is protected by the fabric interlocking mechanism. As the landform evolves the increased stress inhibits erosion from raindrop impact, flowing water and slaking, and retards surface retreat caused by salt and frost weathering. Planar discontinuities in sandstone and negative feedback between stress and weathering/erosion processes are sufficient conditions to create above-mentioned landforms. Our experiments are able to reproduce natural shapes including arches, alcoves, pedestal rocks and pillars using landform material and mimicking natural processes. The proposed negative feedback mechanism is supported by a numerical model of stress pattern in landforms. We conclude that stress field is the primary control of the shape evolution of sandstone landforms.

  13. The role of negative and positive memories in fear of dental treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Jøssing, Marit; Krohn, Christina

    2016-01-01

    is influenced by memories of positive and negative childhood experiences with dental care. More specifically, we predicted that the emotional impact, sense of reliving, rehearsal, and belief in the accuracy of a negative treatment memory would be associated with increased dental fear, while positive treatment...... memories would show the opposite relation. Methods One hundred thirty-six young adults leaving childhood dental care responded to a online measures of dental fear, the most negative and most positive memory of dental treatment, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Results Negative memories...... of events that involved pain and dentist behaviors such as impatience or scolding were frequently described and significantly associated with dental fear and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Positive memories were more frequent, but did not show a consistent relationship with dental fear. Conclusions...

  14. An Influence Study of Hydrogen Evolution Characteristics on the Negative Strap Corrosion of Lead Acid Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative strap corrosion is an important reason for the failure of valve regulated lead acid battery. This paper selected the Pb-Sb alloy material and Pb-Sn alloy material, made an investigation on the negative corrosion resistance and hydrogen evolution of these two alloy materials by scanning electron microscope analysis, metallographic analysis, chemical study and linear sweep voltammetry, and discussed the influence of lead alloy hydrogen evolution on the negative strap corrosion. The results showed that the hydrogen evolution reaction rates of the alloys had an impact on the corrosion areas with the maximum thickness of the alloys and the depth of corrosion layers. Greater hydrogen evolution reaction rate can lead to shorter distance between the corrosion area with the maximum thickness and the liquid level; whereas the greater corrosion layer thickness can bring aggravated risk of negative strap corrosion failure.

  15. IBM-JSR 193-nm negative tone resist: polymer design, material properties, and lithographic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kaushal S.; Lawson, Margaret C.; Varanasi, Pushkara Rao; Medeiros, David R.; Wallraff, Gregory M.; Brock, Phillip J.; DiPietro, Richard A.; Nishimura, Yukio; Chiba, Takashi; Slezak, Mark

    2004-05-01

    It has been previously proposed that negative-tone resist process would have an intrinsic advantage for printing narrow trench geometry. To demonstrate this for 193nm lithography, a negative resist with performance comparable to a leading positive resist is required. In this paper we report the joint development of a hexafluoroalcohol containing, 193nm, negative-tone, chemically amplified resist based on the crosslinking approach. Lithographic performance is presented which includes the ability of the negative-tone resist to print 90nm line/space and isolated trenches with standard resist processing. The impact of the fluorinated polymer on etch performance is also quantified. Finally, key resist characteristics and their influence on performance and limiting factors such as microbridging are discussed.

  16. The role of multiple negative social relationships in inflammatory cytokine responses to a laboratory stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmi Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the unique impact of perceived negativity in multiple social relationships on endocrine and inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor. Via hierarchical cluster analysis, those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with a romantic partner, family, and their closest friend had higher mean IL-6 across time and a greater increase in TNF-α from 15 min to 75 min post stress. Those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with roommates, family, and their closest friend showed greater IL-6 responses to stress. Differences in mean IL-6 were accounted for by either depressed mood or hostility, whereas differences in the cytokine stress responses remained significant after controlling for those factors. Overall, this research provides preliminary evidence to suggest that having multiple negative relationships may exacerbate acute inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor independent of hostility and depressed mood.

  17. Clues to diagnosing culture negative Listeria rhombencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Marguerite; Mok, Tzehow; Lefter, Stela; Harrington, Hugh

    2012-09-30

    A previously healthy 35-year-old Caucasian woman developed left body (including facial) hemianaesthesia, asymmetrical lower cranial nerve palsies and cerebellar signs after a 4-day history of headache, nausea and vomiting. Serial blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures returned negative for a culprit organism. CSF examination revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis and an elevated protein count. CSF cytological examination identified plasma cells. MRI of brain showed multiple ring-enhancing 'abscess-like' lesions in the brainstem and upper cervical cord together with abnormal meningeal enhancement. A decision was made to treat her empirically for Listeria rhombencephalitis to which she responded completely. CSF PCR eventually returned positive for Listeria monocytogenes. This case illustrates the utility of clinical features, MRI, CSF cytology and PCR in diagnosis and treatment of culture negative L monocytogenes rhombencephalitis in an immunocompetent individual.

  18. Time Rate Gradient Effects and Negative Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksch, Edmond

    2008-03-01

    The Harvard tower Experiment and tests with accurate atomic clocks show that a clock at a high elevation indicates more elapsed time than a clock at a low elevation, both clocks properly measuring time at their locations. This fact mandates that Newton's first law of motion be rewritten to cite impulse balance rather than force balance. Time rate gradient effects explain how the weight of a precisely vertical and precisely uniform electric field or a precisely vertical and precisely uniform magnetic field is supported in a precisely unidirectional gravitational field. Time rate gradient effects also explain how the weight of a unidirectional gravitational field is reacted. It is confirmed that the mass density of the gravitational field is negative. http://www.TimeRateGradient.com; http://www.Negative-Mass.com; http://www.EinsteinsElevator.com

  19. Magnetic levitation from negative permeability materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, Mark W., E-mail: mcoffey@mines.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2012-09-03

    As left-handed materials and metamaterials are becoming more prevalent, we examine the effect of negative permeability upon levitation force. We first consider two half spaces of differing permeability and a point magnetic source, so that the method of images may be employed. We determine that the resulting force may be larger than for conventional magnetic materials. We then illustrate the inclusion of a finite sample thickness. -- Highlights: ► The effect of negative permeability upon levitation force is considered. ► Such an effect could be realized with metamaterials. ► The resulting force may be larger than with conventional materials. ► The analysis is extended to allow for a finite sample thickness. ► Representative numerical values are given.

  20. Frequency Dependent Negative Resistance-A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Susan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Inductors are bulky and costly but reducing the size of the inductors reduces the quality factor. There is also a fundamental limitation of using inductor that it cannot be suitable for the micro miniature structure and integrated circuits applications. Because of these limitations, inductors cannot be used in most of the analog circuit applications. Hence simulated inductors are used as an alternative. In case the simulated inductor becomes floating some linear transformation is used which results in the formation of a new D element called the Frequency Dependent Negative Resistance (FDNR. This paper presents an overview of the basic circuits of simulating the Frequency Dependent Negative Resistance and its various applications in analog circuits in the place of floating inductor.