WorldWideScience

Sample records for bluegill lepomis macrochirus

  1. Toxicity of 19 adjuvants to juvenile Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill sunfish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, William T; Stocker, Randall K

    2003-03-01

    Nineteen adjuvants, many used as surfactants for aquatic herbicide applications, were applied in static bioassay to bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) for 96 h to determine median lethal concentrations (LC50). Surfactants are added to the tank mix as a percentage (v/v) of the total volume, in contrast to herbicide application rates, which are usually expressed in kilograms per hectare. Two ethoxylated tallow amine products were the most toxic, having LC50 values of 1.6 and 2.9 ppm (all values v/v). Seven alcohol/glycol-based surfactants had 96-h LC50 values of 4.0 to 11.6 ppm (mean = 7.9 ppm). The polysiloxane- or silicone-based surfactants had toxicities of 18.1 to 29.7 ppm (mean = 24.7). Two limonene-based products had LC50 values of 10.2 and 30.2 ppm. A methylated seed oil with emulsifier had a LC50 of 53.1 ppm. Two acid/buffer utility adjuvants had LC50 values of 60.8 and 221 ppm. To compare the relative safety of the tested surfactants, we assumed maximum label rate applications to 1 m deep water with uniform mixing. This comparison of relative safety is based on mortality to 50% of the test organisms and does not imply application rates that would not result in any mortality. The two ethoxylated tallow amines, neither used or recommended for aquatic applications, had a relative safety factor of 12.6 or less. Relative safety factor varied from 6.2 to 20.4 for the seven alcohol/glycol surfactants, 38.4 to 63.2 for silicone-based products, 5.5 to 16.1 for limonene products, 113 for methylated seed oil, and 132.2 to 315.7 for acid/buffer utility adjuvants. When used according to label recommendations under normal use conditions, these adjuvants should not be present in acutely toxic concentrations; however, the most toxic adjuvants in very shallow water (< 10 cm) would be toxic to bluegill sunfish that did not move to deeper water to avoid lethal concentrations.

  2. Growth, life history, and species interactions of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) under heavy predation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belk, Mark Carl [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was, first, to compare growth and life history characteristics of an unfished population of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) in the presence of an abundant predator population to characteristic exhibited by bluegills in typical southeastern US reservoirs where the abundance of predators is reduced, but fishing is increased. The second objective was to determine if differences observed between populations were determined genetically or environmentally.

  3. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of waterborne and dietary selenium in juvenile bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Laverne; Little, Edward E.; Buckler, Denny R.; Wiedmeyer, Raymond H.

    1993-01-01

    Juvenile bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) were exposed to waterborne selenium as a 6:1 mixture of selenate to selenite (as Se) for 60 d and to dietary seleno-l-methionine for 90 d. Measured concentrations of total selenium in the waterborne exposure ranged from 0.16 to 2.8 mg/l, and concentrations of seleno-l-methionine in the test diet ranged from 2.3 to 25.0 mg/kg wet weight. Mortality, body weight, condition factor, swimming and feeding behavior, aggression, and selenium tissue residues were monitored during the tests. Increased mortality at measured concentrations of 0.64 mg Se/l and greater was the primary adverse effect of waterborne selenium on the juvenile bluegill. Bluegill exposed to 2.8 mg/l of waterborne Se for 30 d exhibited a significant reduction in condition factor (K), whereas dietary exposure of bluegill to 25 mg Se/kg for 30 d and 13 mg Se/kg or greater for 90 d elicited significant reductions in K. Mortality and swimming activity of bluegill were not affected in the dietary exposure. Net accumulation of Se from both water and diet was directly related to exposure concentration. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 5 to 7 for bluegill exposed to waterborne Se and from 0.5 to 1.0 for fish exposed to dietary Se. Results of these laboratory tests indicate that survival of bluegill may be impaired in natural waters with elevated Se concentrations.

  4. Determination of ten perfluorinated compounds in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) fillets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delinsky, Amy D.; Strynar, Mark J. [US Environmental Protection Agency, NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Nakayama, Shoji F. [US Environmental Protection Agency, NRMRL, Cincinnatti, OH (United States); Varns, Jerry L. [NCBA Inc., SEE program, Durham, NC (United States); Ye, XiBiao [NIEHS, IRTA Fellow, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); McCann, Patricia J. [Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul, MN (United States); Lindstrom, Andrew B., E-mail: lindstrom.andrew@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    A rigorous solid phase extraction/liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of 10 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in fish fillets is described and applied to fillets of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) collected from selected areas of Minnesota and North Carolina. The 4 PFC analytes routinely detected in bluegill fillets were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorodecanoic acid (C10), perfluoroundecanoic acid (C11), and perflurododecanoic acid (C12). Measures of method accuracy and precision for these compounds showed that calculated concentrations of PFCs in spiked samples differed by less than 20% from their theoretical values and that the %RSD for repeated measurements was less than 20%. Minnesota samples were collected from areas of the Mississippi River near historical PFC sources, from the St. Croix River as a background site, and from Lake Calhoun, which has no documented PFC sources. PFOS was the most prevalent PFC found in the Minnesota samples, with median concentrations of 47.0-102 ng/g at locations along the Mississippi River, 2.08 ng/g in the St. Croix River, and 275 ng/g in Lake Calhoun. North Carolina samples were collected from two rivers with no known historical PFC sources. PFOS was the predominant analyte in fish taken from the Haw and Deep Rivers, with median concentrations of 30.3 and 62.2 ng/g, respectively. Concentrations of C10, C11, and C12 in NC samples were among the highest reported in the literature, with respective median values of 9.08, 23.9, and 6.60 ng/g in fish from the Haw River and 2.90, 9.15, and 3.46 ng/g in fish from the Deep River. These results suggest that PFC contamination in freshwater fish may not be limited to areas with known historical PFC inputs.

  5. Population biology of bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, in lotic habitats on the irrigated San Joaquin Valley floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Schmitt, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Rapid expansion of irrigated agriculture in the western United States has prompted concerns for aquatic resources. Although the impacts of irrigation activities on quality and quantity of river water are well documented (e.g., high turbidity from soil erosion, eutrophication from nutrient runoff, pesticide contamination, reduced dis- charge), their effects on fish populations are still poorly understood. We studied the food, growth, and relative weight (a measure of body condition) of bluegills, Lepo- mis macrochirus, in relation to environmental factors in reaches of the San Joaquin and Merced rivers that have been affected to varying degrees by irrigation return flows. Fry of bluegills ate mostly cladocerans and copepods; fingerlings and larger fish ate immature aquatic insects, terrestrial insects, amphipods, and mollusks. Bluegill stomachs were fuller and contained a higher diversity of forage taxa in habitats with low turbidity and conductivity, weak buffering capacity, and low nutrient levels; bluegills also ate a more diverse diet where the potential forage supply (benthic macroinvertebrates) was most diverse. Bluegills attained mean total lengths of about 42 mm at age I, 86 mm at age 11, 116 mm at age III, 153 mm at age IV, and 166 mm at age V. Mean relative weight ranged from 96-111. Growth rate and relative weight were not significantly correlated with environmental or dietary variables. On the basis of our study, we concluded that environmental degradation from irrigation activities affected the diet of bluegills primarily by modifying the food supply, but growth rate and body condition were not affected.

  6. Testing a bioenergetics-based habitat choice model: bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) responses to food availability and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Using an automated shuttlebox system, we conducted patch choice experiments with 32, 8–12 g bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to test a behavioral energetics hypothesis of habitat choice. When patch temperature and food levels were held constant within patches but different between patches, we expected bluegill to choose patches that maximized growth based on the bioenergetic integration of food and temperature as predicted by a bioenergetics model. Alternative hypotheses were that bluegill may choose patches based only on food (optimal foraging) or temperature (behavioral thermoregulation). The behavioral energetics hypothesis was not a good predictor of short-term (from minutes to weeks) patch choice by bluegill; the behavioral thermoregulation hypothesis was the best predictor. In the short-term, food and temperature appeared to affect patch choice hierarchically; temperature was more important, although food can alter temperature preference during feeding periods. Over a 19-d experiment, mean temperatures occupied by fish offered low rations did decline as predicted by the behavioral energetics hypothesis, but the decline was less than 1.0 °C as opposed to a possible 5 °C decline. A short-term, bioenergetic response to food and temperature may be precluded by physiological costs of acclimation not considered explicitly in the behavioral energetics hypothesis.

  7. Bioaccumulation factor for 32P measured in bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, and catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.; Turgeon, K.S.; Martini, D.K.; Dunkerly, S.J.; el-Shinawy, R.M.; Wilson, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ratio of the bioaccumulation factors for 32 P and phosphorus was determined for edible tissue in two species of freshwater fish by measuring the specific activity ( 32 P activity per milligram phosphorus) in muscle relative to feed. The 32 P tracer was added to the feed at a uniform level throughout the study. Feeding was at two levels: ad libitum and at a lower but constant intake per body weight. In the main experiment, bluegill were maintained in a large flow-through tank and sacrificed at approximately weekly intervals for 51 d of 32 P accumulation and 28 d of depuration to compare the specific activity with values predicted with a calculational model. In experiments performed in smaller aquaria, the specific activity in bluegill and catfish muscle was compared at two feeding levels and two temperatures. In addition, unfed fish were exposed to 32 P in water at a known specific activity to determine the extent of phosphorus uptake directly from water. The pattern of specific activity increase and decrease in fish muscle during the accumulation/depuration experiment was consistent with a one-compartment model, so that specific activity ratios at steady state could be predicted from measurements during relatively brief exposures. On this basis, the ratio of the bioaccumulation factors of 32 P and phosphorus in fish feeding ad libitum was 0.081 for bluegill and 0.17 for catfish. Hence, at a mean phosphorus bioaccumulation factor of 70,000, the factors for 32 P are 6000 and 12,000, respectively. The ratios were less at lower phosphorus intakes associated with lower feeding rates; moreover, the lesser value for bluegill occurred at a much lower phosphorus intake than by catfish

  8. Uptake of 3H-cAMP by retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moredock Steve

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bluegill sunfish, the melanin-containing pigment granules of the retinal pigment epithelium undergo cyclic movements in response both to ambient lighting and circadian cues. Pigment granules aggregate into the cell body at night (in the dark, and disperse into apical processes during the day (in the light. Regulation of pigment granule aggregation in a number of fishes depends on modulating the intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Results Here we show isolated RPE takes up cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP in a saturable manner, exogenously applied cAMP induces pigment granule aggregation in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill, and aggregation induced in this manner is inhibited by treatment with probenecid, an organic anion transport inhibitor. Conclusion Our results raise the possibility that cAMP functions as a messenger secreted from the neural retina to signal darkness to the RPE, which takes it up. It further suggests that organic anion transport systems are the route by which cAMP crosses RPE cell membranes since probenecid inhibits extracellular cAMP from causing pigment granule aggregation.

  9. The trade-off between food and temperature in the habitat choice of bluegill sunfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    A model is presented to describe the trade-off between food and temperature in bluegills Lepomis macrochirus, where temperature was the primary factor used in determining the patch in which to reside.

  10. Histopathologic evaluation of postmortem autolytic changes in bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus and crappie (Pomoxis anularis at varied time intervals and storage temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami George

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Information is lacking on preserving fish carcasses to minimize postmortem autolysis artifacts when a necropsy cannot be performed immediately. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively identify and score histologic postmortem changes in two species of freshwater fish (bluegill—Lepomis macrochirus; crappie—Pomoxis annularis, at varied time intervals and storage temperatures, to assess the histologic quality of collected samples. A pooled sample of 36 mix sex individuals of healthy bluegill and crappie were euthanized, stored either at room temperature, refrigerated at 4 °C, or frozen at −20 °C, and then necropsied at 0, 4, 24, and 48 h intervals. Histologic specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. Data showed that immediate harvesting of fresh samples provides the best quality and refrigeration would be the preferred method of storage if sample collection had to be delayed for up to 24 h. When sample collection must be delayed more than 24 h, the preferred method of storage to minimize autolysis artifacts is freezing if evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is most important, or refrigeration if gill histology is most important. The gill arch, intestinal tract, followed by the liver and kidney were the most sensitive organs to autolysis.

  11. Examining the joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine in the aquatic species: Lepomis macrochirus, Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Mehler, W.; Schuler, Lance J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States)], E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu

    2008-03-15

    The joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine was compared to that of chlorpyrifos alone to discern any greater than additive response using both acute toxicity testing and whole-body residue analysis. In addition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and biotransformation were investigated to evaluate the toxic mode of action of chlorpyrifos in the presence of atrazine. The joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos exhibited no significant difference in Lepomis macrochirus compared to chlorpyrifos alone; while studies performed with Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans, did show significant differences. AChE activity and biotransformation showed no significant differences between the joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos and that of chlorpyrifos alone. From the data collected, the combination of atrazine and chlorpyrifos pose little additional risk than that of chlorpyrifos alone to the tested fish species. - The joint toxicity between atrazine and chlorpyrifos caused greater than additive responses in invertebrates, but the interactions in vertebrates was less pronounced.

  12. Examining the joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine in the aquatic species: Lepomis macrochirus, Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler Mehler, W.; Schuler, Lance J.; Lydy, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine was compared to that of chlorpyrifos alone to discern any greater than additive response using both acute toxicity testing and whole-body residue analysis. In addition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and biotransformation were investigated to evaluate the toxic mode of action of chlorpyrifos in the presence of atrazine. The joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos exhibited no significant difference in Lepomis macrochirus compared to chlorpyrifos alone; while studies performed with Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans, did show significant differences. AChE activity and biotransformation showed no significant differences between the joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos and that of chlorpyrifos alone. From the data collected, the combination of atrazine and chlorpyrifos pose little additional risk than that of chlorpyrifos alone to the tested fish species. - The joint toxicity between atrazine and chlorpyrifos caused greater than additive responses in invertebrates, but the interactions in vertebrates was less pronounced

  13. Effects of zebra mussels on food webs: Interactions with juvenile bluegill and water residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, W.B.; Bartsch, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated how water residence time mediated the impact of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus on experimental food webs established in 1100-1 outdoor mesocosms. Water residence time was manipulated as a surrogate for seston resupply - a critical variable affecting growth and survival of suspension-feeding invertebrates. We used a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experimental design with eight treatment combinations (3 replicates/treatment) including the presence or absence of Dreissena (2000 per m2), juvenile bluegill (40 per mesocosm), and short (1100 1 per d) or long (220 1 per d) water residence time. Measures of seston concentration (chlorophyll a, turbidity and suspended solids) were greater in the short- compared to long water-residence mesocosms, but intermediate in short water-residence mesocosms containing Dreissena. Abundance of rotifers (Keratella and Polyarthra) was reduced in Dreissena mesocosms and elevated in short residence time mesocosms. Cladocera abundance, in general, was unaffected by the presence of Dreissena; densities were higher in short-residence time mesocosms, and reduced in the presence of Lepomis. The growth of juvenile Lepomis were unaffected by Dreissena because of abundant benthic food. The final total mass of Dreissena was significantly greater in short- than long-residence mesocosms. Impacts of Dreissena on planktonic food webs may not only depend on the density of zebra mussels but also on the residence time of the surrounding water and the resupply of seston. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  14. Applying a reservoir functional-zone paradigm to littoral bluegills: differences in length and catch frequency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Ruhl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reservoirs exhibit gradients in conditions and resources along the transition from lotic to lentic habitat that may be important to bluegill ecology. The lotic–lentic gradient can be partitioned into three functional zones: the riverine, transitional, and lacustrine zones. We measured catch frequency and length of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus captured along the periphery of these areas (i.e., in the littoral zone of each functional zone for four small reservoirs in Southeastern Ohio during the summer months of three years. Catch frequency differed between zones for two reservoirs, but these differences were not observed in other years. There was no relationship between reservoir zone and either standard length or catch frequency when the data for all reservoirs were pooled, but we did observe a bimodal length distribution in all reservoirs. A combination of ecological factors including inter and intraspecific competition, predation intensity, management practices, limnology, and assemblage complexity may be mitigating bluegill distribution and abundance in reservoirs. Therefore, a functional zone (categorical approach to understanding bluegill ecology in reservoirs may not be appropriate.

  15. Gill lesions and death of bluegill in an acid mine drainage mixing zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T.B.; Irwin, E.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of an acid mine drainage (AMD) mixing zone was investigated by placing bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) at the confluence of a stream contaminated by AMD and a stream having neutral pH. A mixing channel receiving water from both streams was assembled in the field, during July and October 1996, to determine the toxicity of freshly mixed and aged water (2.9–7.5 min). The AMD stream had elevated concentrations of Al and Fe, which precipitated upon mixing, and of Mn, which did not precipitate in the mixing zone. Fish exposed to freshly mixed water had higher mortality than fish exposed to water after aging. Precipitating Al, but not Fe, accumulated on the gills of bluegill, and accumulation was more rapid early during the mixing process than after aging. Fish exposed for 3.5 h to freshly mixed water had hypertrophy and hyperplasia of gill filament and lamellar epithelial cells. Similar lesions were observed after 6.0 h in fish exposed to water aged after mixing. Results demonstrated that Al was the predominant metal accumulating on the gills of fish in this AMD mixing zone, and that mixing zones can be more toxic than AMD streams in equilibrium.

  16. Acute toxicity of an acid mine drainage mixing zone to juvenile bluegill and largemouth bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T.B.; Irwin, E.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.

    1999-01-01

    The toxicity of an acid mixing zone produced at the confluence of a stream that was contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD) and a pH-neutral stream was investigated in toxicity tests with juvenile bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Fish mortalities in instream cages located in the mixing zone, below the mixing zone, and upstream in both tributaries were compared to determine relative toxicity at each site. In all tests and for both species, significantly higher mortality was observed in the mixing zone than at any other location, including the acid stream, which had lower pH (2.9-4.3). The mixing zone was defined chemically by rapid precipitation of dissolved aluminum and iron, which arrived from the low-pH stream, and by the presence of white precipitates, which were attached to the substratum and which extended below the confluence. Possible seasonal changes in mixing zone toxicity were investigated by conducting field tests with bluegill in June, July, and August 1996 and in January 1997 and by conducting field tests with largemouth bass in April and May 1997. Toxicity was not significantly different at the extremes of temperature, pH, and metal concentration that occurred in June and July, as compared with January. Toxicity was significantly lower in August; however, elevated stream discharge during the August test may have disturbed mixing zone characteristics. High toxicity in AMD mixing zones may lower the survival of fishes in streams, reduce available habitat, and impede movements of migratory fish.

  17. Relationship of weed shiner and young-of-year bluegill and largemouth bass abundance to submersed aquatic vegetation in Navigation Pools 4, 8, and 13 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1998-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLain, Steven A.; Popp, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation provides food resources and shelter for many species of fish. This study found a significant relationship between increases in submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) in four study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and increases in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of weed shiners (Notropis texanus) and age-0 bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) when all of the study reaches were treated collectively using Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) vegetation and fish data for 1998–2012. The selected fishes were more abundant in study reaches with higher SAV frequencies (Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4) and less abundant in reaches with lower SAV frequencies (Pool 13 and Upper Pool 4). When each study reach was examined independently, the relationship between SAV frequency and CPUE of the three species was not significant in most cases, the primary exception being weed shiners in Lower Pool 4. Results of this study indicate that the prevalence of SAV does affect relative abundance of these vegetation-associated fish species. However, the poor annual relationship between SAV frequency and age-0 relative abundance in individual study reaches indicates that several other factors also govern age-0 abundance. The data indicate that there may be a SAV frequency threshold in backwaters above which there is not a strong relationship with abundance of these fish species. This is indicated by the high annual CPUE variability of the three selected fishes in backwaters of Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4 when SAV exceeded certain frequencies.

  18. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DAPHNIA MAGNA, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS, AND VIBRIO FISCHERI TO TOLUENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here is a continuation of work designed to further the science of available and developing online toxicity monitors(OTMs) and how they may be most effectively deployed in a watershed management plan and/or water quality early warning system. Source waters o...

  19. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DAPHNIA MAGNA, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, CORBICULA FLUMINEA, LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS, AND VIBRO FISCHERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here is a continuation of work designed to further the science of available and developing continuous, automated water quality monitors and how they may be most effectively deployed in a watershed management plan and/or water quality early warning system (W...

  20. Effects of heated effluents on the reproduction of selected species of the Centrarchid family. Progress report, October 26, 1975--October 25, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clugston, J.P.; Provost, E.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the effects of thermal effluents on the development of gametes in the bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; on uptake of the trace metal contaminants, Cd, Cr, and Pb by fishes; on food habits of the bluegill and the largemouth bass, Microptems salmoides; on the distribution of fishes in cooling reservoirs; and on the behavior of the largemouth bass

  1. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DAPHNIA MAGNA, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, CORBICULA FLUMINEA, AND LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS TO COPPER AND CYANIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here was designed to further the science of available and developing continuous, automated water quality monitors and how they may be most effectively deployed in a watershed management plan and/or water quality early warning system (WQEWS). Source waters ...

  2. Thermal tolerances of fish from a reservoir receiving heated effluent from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, W.E.; Smith, M.H.; Gibbons, J.W.; Brown, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    The heat tolerances of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) subjected to heated effluent from a nuclear reactor was compared with those of bluegill living at normal temperatures. Three of the four study areas were located in the Par Pond reservoir system on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Results shown that at least one species of warm-water fish can adjust to elevated aquatic temperatures in a natural environment by becoming more tolerant. (U.S.)

  3. The effects of methyltestosterone on sex reversal in bluegill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, L.E.; Stanley, J.G.

    1973-01-01

    Small impoundments stocked with bluegill often become overcrowded with small, undesirable fish. This problem would be prevented if it were possible to stock only one sex, but sexing of small bluegill is difficult and unreliable. Monosex broods in Oryzias latipes [3], Tilapia mossambica [1], and Carassius auratus [5] can be produced by using sperm from sex-reversed genotypic females to fertilize eggs from normal females. The objective of this research was to develop a method for changing sex in bluegill fry by administering androgens.

  4. Bioaccumulation of P-32 in bluegill and catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.; Turgeon, K.S.; Martini, D.K.; Dunkerly, S.J.; El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Wilson, M.D.; Hammond, R.A.; Uribe, R.; Mizner, A.A.

    1985-02-01

    Bluegill and catfish were fed P-32 at a constant feeding rate per body weight to determine the bioaccummulation factor (BF/sub r/) for P-32 in muscle relative to water. The fish were maintained in flow-through tanks at two feeding levels. The bluegill accumulated P-32 for 51 days, followed by depuration for 28 days. The catfish study had to be teminated after 11 days. Fish were analyzed in triplicte for P-32 and phosphorus at intervals of 1 to 8 days. Additional aquaria experiments were performed to determine the effects of water temperature, feeding rate, and type of food (worms vs. pellets) on P-32 uptake, and to observe P-32 uptake from water by unfed fish (including fish with blocked esophagus). A simple calculational model was used to determine the phosphorus turnover constant from the specific activity in tissue relative to food. This ratio at steady state approaches the BF/sub r/BF ratio (where BF is the phosphorus bioaccumulation factor) if P-32 transfers rapidly from water to food. The bluegill showed a weight gain of 0.2 %/d, a phosphorous turnover constant in muscle of 0.43 %/d, and a BF/sub r//BF ratio of 0.081 at the higher feeding rate, and 0.05 %/d, 0.34 %/d, and 0.064 at the lower feeding rate. Hence, respective P-32 BF/sub r/ values are 6000 and 4000 at a phosphorus BF of 70,000. The BF/sub r/ values for catfish were approximately twice as high. The aquarium experiments suggest that the higher factors are due to a much higher phosphorus intake, higher water temperature, higher retention from pellets than from worms, and possible higher retention by catfish than bluegill under the same conditions. 36 references, 15 figures, 22 tables

  5. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abernethy, Cary S; Amidan, Brett G

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relative importance of pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality. Specific tests were designed to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes typical of turbine passage, with and without the complication of the fish being acclimated to gas supersaturated water. We investigated the responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to these two stresses, both singly and in combination

  6. Myxobolus lepomis n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae), a gill myxozoan infecting Lepomis marginatus Holbrook and Lepomis miniatus Jordan (Perciformes: Centrarchidae), in the Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Thomas G; Baumgartner, Wes A; Barger, Michael A; Griffin, Matt J

    2017-05-01

    A parasitological survey of freshwater fishes in the Big Thicket National Preserve in southeast Texas revealed myxozoan infections in two species of sunfish, Lepomis marginatus Holbrook and Lepomis miniatus Jordan (Perciformes: Centrarchidae). Pseudocysts were elongate-oval, 988 × 485 µm (ex L. marginatus) and 800 × 606 µm (ex L. miniatus) and demonstrated a predilection to the edge of the primary gill lamellae. Myxospores consistent with the genus Myxobolus were oblong, 16.8-21.3 (19.0 ± 0.9) µm long, 7.0-8.8 (7.9 ± 0.5) µm wide and 5.3-6.1 (5.8 ± 0.3) µm thick (ex L. marginatus) and 17.2-20.3 (18.8 ± 0.7) µm long, 7.5-9.9 (8.7 ± 0.6) µm wide, and 6.8-7.2 (7.0 ± 0.2) µm thick (ex L. miniatus); with 2 pyriform polar capsules 8.3-9.8 (9.0 ± 0.5) µm long, 2.2-2.7 (2.5 ± 0.2) µm wide (ex L. marginatus) and 9.2-10.5 (10.0 ± 0.4) µm long, 2.2-3.0 (2.8 ± 0.2) µm wide (ex L. miniatus). Statistically, the measurements of spore body width, polar capsule length, and polar capsule width were significantly different between myxospores from L. marginatus and L. miniatus. However, intraspecific genetic variability between isolates at the 18S rRNA gene was negligible, with 2,000 bp of sequence. The isolates shared no significant sequence similarity with any myxozoan deposited in the GenBank nucleotide database. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from the 18S rRNA gene from both L. marginatus and L. miniatus placed the isolates within a clade of myxozoan parasites of perciform fishes. Based on shared tissue and host family tropism, overlapping morphological characters and high degrees of sequence conservation at the 18S rRNA gene, we propose these isolates as morphologically distinct, genetically conspecific representatives of M. lepomis n. sp. from the gills of L. marginatus and L. miniatus in the Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, USA.

  7. Parental care compromises feeding in the pumpkinseed ( Lepomis gibbosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zięba, G.; Dukowska, M.; Przybylski, M.; Fox, M. G.; Smith, C.

    2018-04-01

    Providing parental care is potentially costly. Costs can arise through elevated energy expenditure or from an increased risk of mortality. A cost of parental care can also occur because a parent is compromised in their ability to forage. We used pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, a fish with an alternative male mating strategy, to test whether parental males differed in their feeding in comparison with females and cuckolder males. To address this question, we examined the stomach contents of female, cuckolder male, and parental male pumpkinseed during the breeding season over an entire diel cycle. We showed that parental males had a lower total weight of food in their stomachs in comparison with females, while cuckolder males did not. Parental males also had a lower weight and number of chironomids in their stomachs. The temporal pattern of feeding of parental males diverged from that of females, and they had a lower probability of pupal chironomids in their stomachs, which implies spatial segregation in foraging. Parental males had a greater probability of conspecific eggs in their stomachs than females, while the probability of egg cannibalism did not differ between cuckolder males and females. Overall, these finding meet predictions in accordance with an assumption that parental care and territoriality can compromise feeding.

  8. Ecotoxicological assessment of bluegill sunfish inhabiting a selenium-enriched fly ash stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reash, R.J.; Lohner, T.W.; Wood, K.V.; Willet, V.E.

    1999-07-01

    Little Scary Creek (LSC), a 2nd-order tributary of the Kanawha River in West Virginia, receives treated fly ash produced during coal combustion. Selenium and other trace metals were determined in water column and sediment samples, caddisflies, and bluegill sunfish liver and gonads during 1995--96 to estimate pathways of selenium exposure and assess the likelihood of toxic effects. Selenium levels in LSC water and sediment samples, and in caddisflies were elevated compared to reference sites. Mean dry weight selenium concentrations in bluegill liver, ovary, and tested tissue equaled or exceeded published toxic thresholds. Other trace metals were significantly higher in LSC bluegill. Leukopenia, elevated serum salts, and lowered liver weight were found in LSC bluegill. Fewer older bluegill were found in LSC. Sunfish in LSC are experiencing various kinds of sublethal stress, presumably due to metals exposure. However, major toxic effects that would be predicted to occur based on tissue selenium levels (complete reproductive failure or mortality) have not been observed in this population.

  9. [Partial purification of peptides present in the Tityus macrochirus (Buthidae) scorpion venom and preliminary assessment of their cytotoxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cortés, Clara Andrea; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar Antonio; Vega-Castro, Nohora Angélica

    2017-06-01

    Scorpion venom contains peptides with neurotoxic action primarily active on ion channels in the nervous system of insects and mammals. They are also characterized as cytolytic and anticancer, biological characteristics that have not yet been reported for the Tityus macrochirus venom. To assess if the total T. macrochirus venom and the fraction of partially purified peptides decrease the viability of various tumor-derived cell lines. The scorpion venom was collected by electrical stimulation and, subsequently, subjected to chromatography, electrophoresis, and ultrafiltration with Amicon Ultra 0.5® membranes for the partial identification and purification of its peptides. The cytotoxic activity of the venom and the peptides fraction trials on tumor-derived cell lines were carried out by the MTT method. The T. macrochirus scorpion venom has peptides with molecular weights ranging between 3 and 10 kDa. They were partially purified using the ultrafiltration technique, and assessed by the RP-HPLC method. Cytotoxicity trials with the whole T. macrochirus venom showed a higher viability decrease on the PC3 cell line compared to the other cell lines assessed, while the partially purified peptides decreased the HeLa cell line viability. Peptides in the T. macrochirus scorpion venom showed cytotoxic activity on some tumorderived cell lines. We observed some degree of selectivity against other cell lines assessed.

  10. Effects of sublethal entrainment stresses on the vulnerability of juvenile bluegill sunfish to predation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.; Solomon, J.A.; Loar, J.M.

    1981-07-01

    This report provides a review of literature concerning the effects of sublethal stresses on predator-prey interactions in aquatic systems. In addition, the results of a preliminary laboratory study of the susceptibility of entrainment-stressed juvenile bluegill to striped bass predation are presented. Juvenile bluegill were exposed to thermal and physical entrainment stresses in the ORNL Power Plant Simulator and subsequently to predation by juvenile striped bass in a susceptibility to predation experimental design. None of the entrainment stresses tested (thermal shock, physical effects of pump and condenser passage, and combination of thermal and physical shock) was found to significantly increase predation rates as compared to controls, and no significant interactions between thermal and physical stresses were detected. The validity of laboratory predator-prey studies and the application of indirect mortality information for setting protective standards and predicting environmental impacts are discussed.

  11. Toxicity of peracetic acid to fish: Variation among species and impact of water chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straus, David L.; Meinelt, Thomas; Liu, Dibo

    2017-01-01

    of fingerling fish that are important to aquaculture were exposed to PAA for 24 h in static toxicity bioassays in well water. These fish were: fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; black-nose crappie, Pomoxis nigromaculatus; bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus; channel catfish...... (LC50) values were estimated with the trimmed Spearman–Karber method using nominal PAA concentrations. The mean 24-h LC50 values ranged from 2.8 to 9.3 mg/L PAA. Fathead minnow were very sensitive and blue tilapia were very tolerant to PAA exposure; LC50 values of other species tested were within...

  12. Complex inter-Kingdom interactions: carnivorous plants affect growth of an aquatic vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Jon M; Riley, Alex W

    2017-05-01

    Coexistence of organisms in nature is more likely when phenotypic similarities of individuals are reduced. Despite the lack of similarity, distantly related taxa still compete intensely for shared resources. No larger difference between organisms that share a common prey could exist than between carnivorous plants and animals. However, few studies have considered inter-Kingdom competition among carnivorous plants and animals. In order to evaluate interactions between a carnivorous plant (greater bladderwort, Utricularia vulgaris) and a vertebrate (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus) on a shared prey (zooplankton), we conducted a mesocosm experiment. We deployed two levels of bladderwort presence (functional and crushed) and measured bluegill responses (survival and growth). Zooplankton abundance was reduced the greatest in bluegill and functional bladderwort treatments. Bluegill survival did not differ among treatments, but growth was greatest with crushed bladderwort. Thus, bluegill growth was facilitated by reducing interference competition in the presence of crushed bladderwort. The facilitating effect was dampened, however, when functional bladderwort removed a shared prey. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to experimentally demonstrate interactions between a carnivorous plant and a fish. Our data suggest that carnivorous plants may actively promote or reduce animal co-occurrence from some ecosystems via facilitation or competition. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  13. Substrate choice of territorial male topeka shiners (notropis topeka) in the absence of sunfish (lepomis sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, C.C.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Arab, A.; Noltie, Douglas B.

    2009-01-01

    Topeka shiners (Notropis topeka), an endangered minnow species, typically spawn on or around breeding Lepomis sunfish (Centrarchidae) nests. Why spawning Topeka shiners are attracted to these nests is unclear, but having the nesting sunfish provide shiner eggs with improved aeration, a lessening of siltation, and protection from egg predators are possibilities. We tested the substrate utilisation of Topeka shiners in outdoor tanks in the absence of sunfish to determine the shiner's fundamental choice. Shiners were provided with substrate patches of cleaned sand, small gravel, large gravel, and small cobble, and the bare floor of the tank. The substrate above which a male shiner established his territory was used as evidence of choice. A statistically significant choice for sand substrates was demonstrated. This fundamental choice might influence which sunfish nests Topeka shiners use, given that nest substrate characteristics differ both between sunfish species and within species by spawning site location. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a bluegill-degrading microorganism, and analysis of the root hair-promoting effect of the degraded products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpa, Sirilak; Sumiyoshi, Sayoko; Kujira, Tadakazu; Matsumiya, Yoshiki; Kubo, Motoki

    2006-02-01

    Bluegill-degrading bacteria were isolated from various environmental sources. Brevibacillus sp. BGM1 degraded bluegill efficiently at 50 degrees C, and its culture supernatant showed the highest peptide and amino acid concentrations as trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble fraction (ASF) (10.7 mg/ml) of all supernatants obtained with bluegill as a substrate. Strain BGM1 secreted a protease(s) into the medium, and the concentration of peptides and amino acids gradually increased. The fertile effect of the degraded bluegill products (DGP) on Brassica rapa was also investigated. The root hair density of B. rapa grown with DGP at a concentration of 30 mug peptides and amino acids/ml was about 1.7 times higher than when grown with the same concentration of undegraded bluegill. DGP was shown to increase root hair numbers and adventitious root formation. The results of this study suggest that a specific peptide(s) for promotion of root hair is produced from the order Perciformes with a protease(s) from BGM1.

  15. Fish Community Responses to the Establishment of a Piscivore, Northern Pike (Esox lucius), in a Nebraska Sandhill Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBates, T.J.; Paukert, C.P.; Willis, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) was first documented in West Long Lake, Nebraska, in 1998 when two pike population estimate on northern pike revealed density and standing stock (i.e., biomass) estimates of 35.8 fish/ha (95% CI= ?? 8.8) and 22.0 kg/ha (95% CI= ?? 5.4), respectively. Consequently, West Long Lake was sampled in 2002 to compare relative abundance, size structure, and growth of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) prior to and after the establishment of a high-density northern pike population. Bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch relative abundances were significantly lower in 2002 than 1998. Similarly, size structures of all three species were significantly different between years. Size structure declined for both bluegill and yellow perch, and increased for largemouth bass. Growth was significantly higher for bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch in 2002 than 1998. While the fish community changes were expected with the establishment of northern pike, they occurred in a relatively short time period (i.e., four years).

  16. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  17. Reproduction of the non-native fish Lepomis gibbosus (Perciformes: Centrarchidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel E. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Minas Gerais is the fourth largest Brazilian state, and has an estimate of 354 native fish species. However, these fish species may be threatened, as this state has the highest rank of fish introductions reported for Brazil and South America. As one from the total of 85 non-native species detected, Lepomis gibbosus was introduced in the 60s to serve both as foragefish and to improve sport fishing. In this study, we evaluated the establishment of L. gibbosus in a shallow lake in the city of Ouro Preto, Doce River basin, state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. We collected fish with fishing rods every two months from March 2002-February 2003. Fragments of gonads from a total of 226 females and 226 males were obtained and processed following standard histological techniques; then 5-7μm thickness sections were taken and stained in hematoxylin-eosin. Besides, for each specimen, the biometric measurements included the standard length (SL and body weight (BW; and the sex ratio was obtained. The reproductive cycle stages were confirmed by the distribution of oocytes and spermatogenic cells. The type of spawning was determined by the frequency distribution of the reproductive cycle stages and ovarian histology. Based on the microscopic characteristics of the gonads, the following stages of the reproductive cycle were determined: one=Rest, two=Mature, three=Spawned for females or Spent for males; males and females in reproduction were found throughout the study period. Post-spawned ovaries containing oocytes in stages one (initial perinucleolar, two (advanced perinucleolar, three (pre-vitellogenic, four (vitellogenic and post-ovulatory follicles indicated fractionated-type spawning in this species. The smallest breeding male and female measured were 4.6 and 4.9cm standard length, respectively, suggesting stunting. The sex ratio did not vary between males and females along the year and bimonthly, being 1:1. Moreover, L. gibbosus appears to be at stage

  18. Reproduction of the non-native fish Lepomis gibbosus (Perciformes: Centrarchidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel E. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Minas Gerais is the fourth largest Brazilian state, and has an estimate of 354 native fish species. However, these fish species may be threatened, as this state has the highest rank of fish introductions reported for Brazil and South America. As one from the total of 85 non-native species detected, Lepomis gibbosus was introduced in the 60s to serve both as foragefish and to improve sport fishing. In this study, we evaluated the establishment of L. gibbosus in a shallow lake in the city of Ouro Preto, Doce River basin, state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. We collected fish with fishing rods every two months from March 2002-February 2003. Fragments of gonads from a total of 226 females and 226 males were obtained and processed following standard histological techniques; then 5-7μm thickness sections were taken and stained in hematoxylin-eosin. Besides, for each specimen, the biometric measurements included the standard length (SL and body weight (BW; and the sex ratio was obtained. The reproductive cycle stages were confirmed by the distribution of oocytes and spermatogenic cells. The type of spawning was determined by the frequency distribution of the reproductive cycle stages and ovarian histology. Based on the microscopic characteristics of the gonads, the following stages of the reproductive cycle were determined: one=Rest, two=Mature, three=Spawned for females or Spent for males; males and females in reproduction were found throughout the study period. Post-spawned ovaries containing oocytes in stages one (initial perinucleolar, two (advanced perinucleolar, three (pre-vitellogenic, four (vitellogenic and post-ovulatory follicles indicated fractionated-type spawning in this species. The smallest breeding male and female measured were 4.6 and 4.9cm standard length, respectively, suggesting stunting. The sex ratio did not vary between males and females along the year and bimonthly, being 1:1. Moreover, L. gibbosus appears to be at stage

  19. Reproduction of the non-native fish Lepomis gibbosus (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rangel E; Silva, Tayara P; Chehayeb, Igor V; de Magalhães, André L B

    2012-09-01

    Minas Gerais is the fourth largest Brazilian state, and has an estimate of 354 native fish species. However, these fish species may be threatened, as this state has the highest rank of fish introductions reported for Brazil and South America. As one from the total of 85 non-native species detected, Lepomis gibbosus was introduced in the 60s to serve both as foragefish and to improve sport fishing. In this study, we evaluated the establishment of L. gibbosus in a shallow lake in the city ofOuro Preto, Doce River basin, state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. We collected fish with fishing rods every two months from March 2002-February 2003. Fragments of gonads from a total of 226 females and 226 males were obtained and processed following standard histological techniques; then 5-7 microm thickness sections were taken and stained in hematoxylin-eosin. Besides, for each specimen, the biometric measurements included the standard length (SL) and body weight (BW); and the sex ratio was obtained. The reproductive cycle stages were confirmed by the distribution of oocytes and spermatogenic cells. The type of spawning was determined by the frequency distribution of the reproductive cycle stages and ovarian histology. Based on the microscopic characteristics of the gonads, the following stages of the reproductive cycle were determined: one=Rest, two=Mature, three=Spawned for females or Spent for males; males and females in reproduction were found throughout the study period. Post-spawned ovaries containing oocytes in stages one (initial perinucleolar), two (advanced perinucleolar), three (pre-vitellogenic), four (vitellogenic) and post-ovulatory follicles indicated fractionated-type spawning in this species. The smallest breeding male and female measured were 4.6 and 4.9cm standard length, respectively, suggesting stunting. The sex ratio did not vary between males and females along the year and bimonthly, being 1:1. Moreover, L. gibbosus appears to be at stage three of

  20. Exposure-related effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Denise A. Mayer,

    2015-01-01

    The exposure-related effects of a commercially prepared spray-dried powder (SDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, were evaluated on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish endemic to the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Basins. Nine species of young-of-the-year fish were exposed to SDP for 24 hours by using continuous-flow, serial-dilution exposure systems at temperatures of 12 degrees Celsius (°C; 2 species; Oncorhynchus mykiss [rainbow trout] and Salvelinus fontinalis [brook trout]), 17 °C (3 species; Perca flavescens [yellow perch], Sander vitreus [walleye], and Acipenser fulvescens [lake sturgeon]), or 22 °C (4 species; Micropterus salmoides [largemouth bass], Micropterus dolomieu [smallmouth bass], Lepomis macrochirus [bluegill sunfish], and Ictalurus punctatus [channel catfish]).

  1. Quarterly Progress Report Covering Period October 1 Through December 31, 1978 Biocide By-Products in Aquatic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Bean, R.M.; Gibson, C.I.

    1979-03-01

    Analysis of water samples from several locations across the U.S. is underway. We have completed analysis using the Purge and Trap and headspace techniques on several locations. In the freshwater phase of the program we have completed fifteen chloroform acute toxicity bioassays with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Results indicate, in all cases, the LC-50 is well above that which could be expected to be discharged due to power plant chlorination. The LC-50's range from about 15 to 50 ppm chloroform depending on the species. Histological analysis is underway on clams from long-term chlorination by-product exposures. If the results of the histological analysis indicate an effect, further histological examination of samples from other concentrations will be conducted.

  2. Identifying non-point sources of endocrine active compounds and their biological impacts in freshwater lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Beth H.; Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Ferrey, Mark L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Lundy, James R.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern, particularly endocrine active compounds (EACs), have been identified as a threat to aquatic wildlife. However, little is known about the impact of EACs on lakes through groundwater from onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). This study aims to identify specific contributions of OWTS to Sullivan Lake, Minnesota, USA. Lake hydrology, water chemistry, caged bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposures were used to assess whether EACs entered the lake through OWTS inflow and the resultant biological impact on fish. Study areas included two OWTS-influenced near-shore sites with native bluegill spawning habitats and two in-lake control sites without nearby EAC sources. Caged bluegill sunfish were analyzed for plasma vitellogenin concentrations, organosomatic indices, and histological pathologies. Surface and porewater was collected from each site and analyzed for EACs. Porewater was also collected for laboratory exposure of larval fathead minnow, before analysis of predator escape performance and gene expression profiles. Chemical analysis showed EACs present at low concentrations at each study site, whereas discrete variations were reported between sites and between summer and fall samplings. Body condition index and liver vacuolization of sunfish were found to differ among study sites as did gene expression in exposed larval fathead minnows. Interestingly, biological exposure data and water chemistry did not match. Therefore, although results highlight the potential impacts of seepage from OWTS, further investigation of mixture effects and life history factor as well as chemical fate is warranted.

  3. Multiple stressors in amphibian communities: Effects of chemical contamination, bullfrogs, and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, M.D.; Semlitsch, R.D.; Little, E.E.; Doyle, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    A leading hypothesis of amphibian population declines is that combinations of multiple stressors contribute to declines. We examined the role that chemical contamination, competition, and predation play singly and in combination in aquatic amphibian communities. We exposed larvae of American toads (Bufo americanus), southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala), and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) to overwintered bullfrog tadpoles (R. catesbeiana), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), the insecticide carbaryl, and ammonium nitrate fertilizer in 1000-L mesocosms. Most significantly, our study demonstrated that the presence of multiple factors reduced survival of B. americanus and A. maculatum and lengthened larval periods of R. sphenocephala. The presence of bluegill had the largest impact on the community; it eliminated B. americanus and A. maculatum and reduced the abundance of R. sphenocephala. Chemical contaminants had the second strongest effect on the community with the insecticide, reducing A. maculatum abundance by 50% and increasing the mass of anurans (frogs and toads) at metamorphosis; the fertilizer positively influenced time and mass at metamorphosis for both anurans and A. maculatum. Presence of overwintered bullfrogs reduced mass and increased time to metamorphosis of anurans. While both bluegill and overwintered bullfrog tadpoles had negative effects on the amphibian community, they performed better in the presence of one another and in contaminated habitats. Our results indicate that predicting deleterious combinations from single-factor effects may not be straightforward. Our research supports the hypothesis that combinations of factors can negatively impact some amphibian species and could contribute to population declines. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. First record of Neoergasilus japonicus (Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a parasitic copepod new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus, native to eastern Asia, was first collected from 4 species of fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus; and yellow perch, Perca flavescens) in July 1994 in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan. Further sampling in the bay in 2001 revealed infections on 7 additional species (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; goldfish, Carassius auratus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris; and smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu). An additional 21 species examined in 2001 were devoid of the parasite. A limited collection of fish from Lake Superior (n = 8) and Lake Michigan (n = 46) in 1994 showed no infection. Neoergasilus japonicus is most frequently found attached to the dorsal fin and, in decreasing frequency, on the anal, tail, pelvic, and pectoral fins. Prevalence generally ranged from 15 to 70 and intensity from 1 to 10. The greatest number of copepods on a single host was 44. The copepod Neoergasilus japonicus appears to disperse over long distances rather quickly, spreading across Europe in 20 yr and then moving on to North America over a span of 10 yr. Its main vehicle of transport and introduction into the Great Lakes is probably exotic fish hosts associated with the fish-culture industry.

  5. Availability of caecal habitat as a density-dependent limit on survivorship of Leptorhynchoides thecatus in green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, J A; Nickol, B B

    1989-06-01

    Distribution of Leptorhynchoides thecatus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) among the pyloric caeca and the relationship between site and rate of maturation were studied in laboratory infections of 10, 25 and 40 cystacanths fed to green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus. After 1 week fish fed at each intensity had significantly different numbers of worms. By the 3rd week post-infection, parasites disappeared from the anterior portion of the intestine. At this time the mean numbers of worms recovered from 25 and 40-cystacanth infections were not significantly different. At the end of the 1st week, the area where caeca join the alimentary tract (between caecal area) and caeca numbered 6 and 7 contained significantly more worms than the other sites. By the 3rd week post-infection only caecum 7 contained significantly more worms, and at 5 weeks there was no significant difference between the number of worms present in any caecum or the between caecal area. Initially worms in the more intense infections matured more slowly, but by the 3rd week post-infection there was no significant difference in the states of maturity. The rate of maturation was not related to the site occupied.

  6. Differences between main-channel and off-channel food webs in the upper Mississippi River revealed by fatty acid profiles of consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Bartsch, Michelle; Gutreuter, Steve; Knights, Brent C.; Bartsch, Lynn; Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jonathan M.; Arts, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Large river systems are often thought to contain a mosaic of patches with different habitat characteristics driven by differences in flow and mixing environments. Off-channel habitats (e.g., backwater areas, secondary channels) can become semi-isolated from main-channel water inputs, leading to the development of distinct biogeochemical environments. Observations of adult bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in the main channel of the Mississippi River led to speculation that the main channel offered superior food resources relative to off-channel areas. One important aspect of food quality is the quantity and composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We sampled consumers from main-channel and backwater habitats to determine whether they differed in PUFA content. Main-channel individuals for relatively immobile species (young-of-year bluegill, zebra mussels [Dreissena polymorpha], and plain pocketbook mussels [Lampsilis cardium]) had significantly greater PUFA content than off-channel individuals. No difference in PUFA was observed for the more mobile gizzard shad (Dorsoma cepedianum), which may move between main-channel and off-channel habitats even at early life-history stages. As off-channel habitats become isolated from main-channel waters, flow and water column nitrogen decrease, potentially improving conditions for nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and vascular plants that, in turn, have low PUFA content. We conclude that main-channel food webs of the upper Mississippi River provide higher quality food resources for some riverine consumers as compared to food webs in off-channel habitats.

  7. Isolation and molecular characterization of a novel picornavirus from baitfish in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Nicholas B.D.; Mor, Sunil K.; Armien, Anibal G.; Batts, William N.; Goodwin, Andrew E.; Hopper, Lacey; McCann, Rebekah; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Puzach, Corey; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Delwart, Eric; Winton, James; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2014-01-01

    During both regulatory and routine surveillance sampling of baitfish from the states of Illinois, Minnesota, Montana, and Wisconsin, USA, isolates (n = 20) of a previously unknown picornavirus were obtained from kidney/spleen or entire viscera of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and brassy minnows (Hybognathus hankinsoni). Following the appearance of a diffuse cytopathic effect, examination of cell culture supernatant by negative contrast electron microscopy revealed the presence of small, round virus particles (∼30–32 nm), with picornavirus-like morphology. Amplification and sequence analysis of viral RNA identified the agent as a novel member of the Picornaviridae family, tentatively named fathead minnow picornavirus (FHMPV). The full FHMPV genome consisted of 7834 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis based on 491 amino acid residues of the 3D gene showed 98.6% to 100% identity among the 20 isolates of FHMPV compared in this study while only 49.5% identity with its nearest neighbor, the bluegill picornavirus (BGPV) isolated from bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Based on complete polyprotein analysis, the FHMPV shared 58% (P1), 33% (P2) and 43% (P3) amino acid identities with BGPV and shared less than 40% amino acid identity with all other picornaviruses. Hence, we propose the creation of a new genus (Piscevirus) within the Picornaviridae family. The impact of FHMPV on the health of fish populations is unknown at present.

  8. Potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on a shallow natural lake fish assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeggemann, Jason J.; Kaemingk, Mark A.; DeBates, T.J.; Paukert, Craig P.; Krause, J.; Letvin, Alexander P.; Stevens, Tanner M.; Willis, David W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Much uncertainty exists around how fish communities in shallow lakes will respond to climate change. In this study, we modelled the effects of increased water temperatures on consumption and growth rates of two piscivores (northern pike [Esox lucius] and largemouth bass [Micropterus salmoides]) and examined relative effects of consumption by these predators on two prey species (bluegill [Lepomis macrochirus] and yellow perch [Perca flavescens]). Bioenergetics models were used to simulate the effects of climate change on growth and food consumption using predicted 2040 and 2060 temperatures in a shallow Nebraska Sandhill lake, USA. The patterns and magnitude of daily and cumulative consumption during the growing season (April–October) were generally similar between the two predators. However, growth of northern pike was always reduced (−3 to −45% change) compared to largemouth bass that experienced subtle changes (4 to −6% change) in weight by the end of the growing season. Assuming similar population size structure and numbers of predators in 2040–2060, future consumption of bluegill and yellow perch by northern pike and largemouth bass will likely increase (range: 3–24%), necessitating greater prey biomass to meet future energy demands. The timing of increased predator consumption will likely shift towards spring and fall (compared to summer), when prey species may not be available in the quantities required. Our findings suggest that increased water temperatures may affect species at the edge of their native range (i.e. northern pike) and a potential mismatch between predator and prey could exist.

  9. Importance of growth rate on Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Haffner, G. Douglas; Patterson, Gordon; Walters, David M.; Burtnyk, Michael D.; Drouillard, Ken G.

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of fish growth on mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bioaccumulation, a non‐steady state toxicokinetic model, combined with a Wisconsin bioenergetics model, was developed to simulate Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). The model was validated by comparing observed versus predicted Hg and PCB 180 concentrations across 5 age classes from five different waterbodies across North America. The non‐steady state model generated accurate predictions for Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in three of five waterbodies: Apsey, Sharbot and Stonelick Lake. The poor performance of the model for the Detroit River and Lake Hartwell, which were two well‐known contaminated sites with possibly high heterogeneity in spatial contamination, was attributed to changes in the feeding behavior and/ or change in prey contamination. Model simulations indicate that growth dilution is a major component of contaminant bioaccumulation patterns in fish especially during early life stages and was predicted to be more important for hydrophobic PCBs compared to Hg. Simulations which considered tissue specific growth provided some improvement in model performance particularly for PCBs in fish populations which exhibited changes in their whole body lipid content with age. Higher variation in lipid growth compared with that of lean dry protein was also observed between different bluegill populations which partially explains the greater variation in PCB bioaccumulation slopes compared with Hg across sampling sites.

  10. Efficacy of candidate chemicals for preventing attachment of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Marking, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-seven chemicals having potential for preventing the attachment of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha were identified and tested. For each chemical, 15 zebra mussels (5-8-mm shell length) in each of two replicates and six treatments were exposed for 48 h followed by a 48-h postexposure period in untreated water. Eleven of the chemicals inhibited the reattachment of zebra mussels after the 48-h exposure; eight had EC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 5.4 mg /L, and three had EC50 values ranging from 19.4 to 29.0 mg/L. Based on an analysis of chemical cost, solubility in water, anticipated treatment concentrations, and potential hazards to humans or the environment, three of the most promising chemicals, all antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], tert-butylhydroquinone, and tannic acid) were tested on nontarget fish (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). These chemicals were not selectively toxic to zebra mussels; only the tests with bluegill and BHA and with channel catfish and tannic acid had 48-h LC50 values greater than the concentrations effective for preventing the reattachment of zebra mussels. Although the attachment of zebra mussels can be prevented with selected antioxidants, an alternative formulation should be investigated to minimize effects on nontarget organisms, such as fish.

  11. Urbanization and the Level of Microplastic Ingestion by Fish: A Comparison of Freshwater Sunfish (Centrarchidae) from the Brazos River watershed, and Pinfish (Sparidae), from the Brazos Estuary and Inshore Marine Sites, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieper, K. B.; Peters, C. A.; Bratton, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    While previous research has documented ingestion of macro- and microplastics by aquatic fauna in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, relatively little is known of the environmental and ecological factors influencing the entry and diffusion of plastics and artificial polymers into aquatic foodwebs. Microplastics are defined as 50 μm to 5 mm in length. This study utilized stomach content analysis to compare the level of microplastic artificial polymer ingestion for fish collected from the Brazos River watershed, Brazos estuary, and inshore coastal waters of Texas, USA, in areas with varying levels of urbanization. We collected 318 bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and 118 longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) at 14 freshwater locales, and 11 samples of 298 pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides) at 6 saltwater locales. Sunfish averaged 12.6 cm in length, and pinfish averaged 14.9 cm. Sunfish averaged .807 microplastics per fish, and pinfish averaged 1.09. The maximum percentage for pinfish with microplastics present per sample (frequency) was 77%, compared to 75% for sunfish. Mean frequencies per sample were also similar: 45% for sunfish and 47% for pinfish. The Brazos River collections, however, had a greater percentage with frequencies of microplastics (cc=.742) and the mean number of plastic particles ingested per fish (cc=.697). The majority of the microplastics were thread shaped, with blue and grey the dominant colors. Comparison with presence of natural food items suggests microplastic ingestion is predominantly incidental for these sentinel fish species.

  12. Behavioral responses of anuran larvae to chemical cues of native and introduced predators in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; Schuytema, Gerald S.; Nebeker, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    We compared behavioral responses of larvae of three Pacific Northwest anurans from different hydroperiods to water borne cues of native and introduced predators. Two native anurans (Pacific Treefrog, Pseudacris regilla, and Northern Red-Legged Frog, Rana aurora aurora) and introduced Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) responded to water conditioned by native Redside Shiners (Richardsonius balteatus) by increasing refuge use. The larvae of the two native anurans differed in their response to introduced predator cues. Rana aurora aurora, which occur in temporary and permanent waters, responded to both introduced Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and introduced Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). Pseudacris regilla, which occur primarily in temporary ponds, did not respond to water borne cues from either introduced predator. The broader responses of R. a. aurora may indicate greater behavioral plasticity or more exposure to novel predators than experienced by P. regilla. Larvae of introduced R. catesbeiana responded strongly to cues from two fish native to the Pacific northwest but did not alter behavior in response to any of five potential predators with which they coexist in their native range. Fish that occur with R. catesbeiana in their native range generally find Bullfrog larvae unpalatable. This pattern suggests that Bullfrog larvae can recognize cues of novel predators that may find them palatable, which could contribute to their success as an invasive species in the region.

  13. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in fish fillet homogenates: Method validation and application to fillet homogenates from the Mississippi River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinsky, Michelle Duval, E-mail: mmalinsky@mmm.com [3M Environmental Laboratory, 3M Center, Building 0260-05-N-17, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Jacoby, Cliffton B.; Reagen, William K. [3M Environmental Laboratory, 3M Center, Building 0260-05-N-17, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States)

    2011-01-10

    We report herein a simple protein precipitation extraction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method, validation, and application for the analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C7-C12), perfluorinated sulfonic acids (C4, C6, and C8), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in fish fillet tissue. The method combines a rapid homogenization and protein precipitation tissue extraction procedure using stable-isotope internal standard (IS) calibration. Method validation in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) fillet tissue evaluated the following: (1) method accuracy and precision in both extracted matrix-matched calibration and solvent (unextracted) calibration, (2) quantitation of mixed branched and linear isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) with linear isomer calibration, (3) quantitation of low level (ppb) perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the presence of high level (ppm) PFOS, and (4) specificity from matrix interferences. Both calibration techniques produced method accuracy of at least 100 {+-} 13% with a precision (%RSD) {<=}18% for all target analytes. Method accuracy and precision results for fillet samples from nine different fish species taken from the Mississippi River in 2008 and 2009 are also presented.

  14. Seasonality of dipteran-mediated methylmercury flux from ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Hall, MacGregor N; Polk, D Kirkland; Williams, Edward B; Ortega-Rodriguez, Celeste L; Kennedy, James H

    2018-03-12

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an aquatic contaminant that can be transferred to terrestrial predators by emergent aquatic insects. We assessed the effects of month and pond permanence on dipteran-mediated MeHg flux (calculated as emergent dipteran biomass × dipteran MeHg concentration) in 10 experimental ponds. Emergent dipterans were collected weekly from permanent ponds with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus; n = 5) and semipermanent ponds without fish (n = 5) over a 7-mo period (February-August, 2015). We detected a significant effect of month on MeHg flux from 6 dipteran taxa and aggregate MeHg flux, with the highest MeHg flux from herbivorous/detritivorous chironomid midges and predatory midges in March; biting midges, phantom midges and herbivorous/detritivorous orthoclad midges in April; and mosquitoes in August. Aggregate dipteran-mediated MeHg flux peaked in April and then declined throughout the remainder of the summer. We did not detect a significant main effect of pond permanence or a significant month × pond permanence interaction effect on MeHg flux for any of the taxa examined in the present study or for aggregate MeHg flux. Given their ubiquity in aquatic systems and their importance in food webs at the land-water interface, dipterans are important taxa that should not be overlooked as a part of the Hg cycle. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-6. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  15. Environmental factors regulating the recruitment of walleye Sander vitreus and white bass Morone chrysops in irrigation reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Koupal, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental factors that regulate fish recruitment is essential for effective management of fisheries. Generally, first-year survival, and therefore recruitment, is inherently less consistent in systems with high intra- and interannual variability. Irrigation reservoirs display sporadic patterns of annual drawdown, which can pose a substantial challenge to recruitment of fishes. We developed species-specific models using an 18-year data set compiled from state and federal agencies to investigate variables that regulate the recruitment of walleye Sander vitreus and white bass Morone chrysops in irrigation reservoirs in south-west Nebraska, USA. The candidate model set for walleye included only abiotic variables (water-level elevation, minimum daily air temperature during winter prior to hatching, annual precipitation, spring warming rate and May reservoir discharge), and the candidate model set for white bass included primarily biotic variables (catch per unit effort (CPUE) of black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, CPUE of age-0 walleye, CPUE of bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and CPUE of age-3 and older white bass), each of which had a greater relative importance than the single abiotic variable (minimum daily air temperature during winter after hatching). Our findings improve the understanding of the recruitment of fishes in irrigation reservoirs and the relative roles of abiotic and biotic factors.

  16. Microscopic examination of skin in native and nonnative fish from Lake Tahoe exposed to ultraviolet radiation and fluoranthene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevertz, Amanda K., E-mail: agevertz@geiconsultants.com [Miami University, Department of Zoology, 212 Pearson Hall, Oxford 45056, Ohio (United States); GEI Consultants, Inc. , 4601 DTC Blvd, Suite 900, Denver 80237, Colorado (United States); Oris, James T., E-mail: orisjt@miamioh.edu [Miami University, Department of Zoology, 212 Pearson Hall, Oxford 45056, Ohio (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: •PAH cause photo-induced toxicity in aquatic organisms in the natural environment. •Montane lakes like Lake Tahoe receive PAH exposure from recreational watercraft. •These lakes are susceptible to invasion and establishment of non-native species. •Non-natives were less tolerant to photo-toxicity compared to native species. •Sensitivity differences were related to levels of oxidative damage in epidermis. -- Abstract: The presence of nonnative species in Lake Tahoe (CA/NV), USA has been an ongoing concern for many decades, and the management of these species calls for an understanding of their ability to cope with the Lake's stressors and for an understanding of their potential to out-compete and reduce the populations of native species. Decreasing levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) due to eutrophication and increasing levels of phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to recreational activities may combine to affect the relative ability of native versus nonnative fish species to survive in the lake. Following a series of toxicity tests which exposed larvae of the native Lahontan redside minnow (Richardsonius egregius) and the nonnative warm-water bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to UVR and FLU, the occurrence of skin damage and/or physiologic defense mechanisms were studied using multiple microscopic techniques. The native minnow appeared to exhibit fewer instances of skin damage and increased instances of cellular coping mechanisms. This study supports the results of previous work conducted by the authors, who determined that the native redside minnow is the more tolerant of the two species, and that setting and adhering to a water quality standard for UVR transparency may aid in preventing the spread of the less tolerant nonnative bluegill and similar warm-water species.

  17. Urbanization is a major influence on microplastic ingestion by sunfish in the Brazos River Basin, Central Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Colleen A.; Bratton, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    Microplastics, degraded and weathered polymer-based particles, and manufactured products ranging between 50 and 5000 μm in size, are found within marine, freshwater, and estuarine environments. While numerous peer-reviewed papers have quantified the ingestion of microplastics by marine vertebrates, relatively few studies have focused on microplastic ingestion by freshwater organisms. This study documents microplastic and manufactured fiber ingestion by bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and longear (Lepomis megalotis) sunfish (Centrarchidae) from the Brazos River Basin, between Lake Whitney and Marlin, Texas, USA. Fourteen sample sites were studied and categorized into urban, downstream, and upstream areas. A total of 436 sunfish were collected, and 196 (45%) stomachs contained microplastics. Four percent (4%) of items sampled were debris on the macro size scale (i.e. >5 mm) and consisted of masses of plastic, metal, Styrofoam, or fishing material, while 96% of items sampled were in the form of microplastic threads. Fish length was statistically correlated to the number of microplastics detected (p = 0.019). Fish collected from urban sites displayed the highest mean number of microplastics ingested, followed by downstream and upstream sites. Microplastics were associated with the ingestion of other debris items (e.g. sand and wood) and correlated to the ingestion of fish eggs, earthworms, and mollusks, suggesting that sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal feeding methods. The high frequency of microplastic ingestion suggest that further research is needed to determine the residence time of microplastics within the stomach and gut, potential for food web transfer, and adverse effects on wildlife and ecosystemic health. - Highlights: • Sunfish ingest microplastics and manufactured materials at significant levels. • Local urbanization influences microplastic ingestion. • Sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal

  18. Urbanization is a major influence on microplastic ingestion by sunfish in the Brazos River Basin, Central Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Colleen A; Bratton, Susan P

    2016-03-01

    Microplastics, degraded and weathered polymer-based particles, and manufactured products ranging between 50 and 5000 μm in size, are found within marine, freshwater, and estuarine environments. While numerous peer-reviewed papers have quantified the ingestion of microplastics by marine vertebrates, relatively few studies have focused on microplastic ingestion by freshwater organisms. This study documents microplastic and manufactured fiber ingestion by bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and longear (Lepomis megalotis) sunfish (Centrarchidae) from the Brazos River Basin, between Lake Whitney and Marlin, Texas, USA. Fourteen sample sites were studied and categorized into urban, downstream, and upstream areas. A total of 436 sunfish were collected, and 196 (45%) stomachs contained microplastics. Four percent (4%) of items sampled were debris on the macro size scale (i.e. >5 mm) and consisted of masses of plastic, metal, Styrofoam, or fishing material, while 96% of items sampled were in the form of microplastic threads. Fish length was statistically correlated to the number of microplastics detected (p = 0.019). Fish collected from urban sites displayed the highest mean number of microplastics ingested, followed by downstream and upstream sites. Microplastics were associated with the ingestion of other debris items (e.g. sand and wood) and correlated to the ingestion of fish eggs, earthworms, and mollusks, suggesting that sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal feeding methods. The high frequency of microplastic ingestion suggest that further research is needed to determine the residence time of microplastics within the stomach and gut, potential for food web transfer, and adverse effects on wildlife and ecosystemic health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ionoregulatory Aspects of the Osmorespiratory Compromise during Acute Environmental Hypoxia in 12 Tropical and Temperate Teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lisa M; Val, Adalberto Luis; Almeida-Val, Vera F; Wood, Chris M

    2015-01-01

    In the traditional osmorespiratory compromise, as seen in the hypoxia-intolerant freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the branchial modifications that occur to improve O2 uptake during hypoxia result in unfavorable increases in the fluxes of ions and water. However, at least one hypoxia-tolerant freshwater species, the Amazonian oscar (Astronotus ocellatus), shows exactly the opposite: decreased branchial flux rates of ions, water, and nitrogenous wastes during acute hypoxia. In order to find out whether the two strategies were widespread, we used a standard 2-h normoxia, 2-h hypoxia (20%-30% saturation), 2-h normoxic recovery protocol to survey 10 other phylogenetically diverse tropical and temperate species. Unidirectional influx and efflux rates of Na(+) and net flux rates of K(+), ammonia, and urea-N were measured. The flux reduction strategy was seen only in one additional species, the Amazonian tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), which is similarly hypoxia tolerant and lives in the same ion-poor waters as the oscar. However, five other species exhibited evidence of the increased flux rates typical of the traditional osmorespiratory compromise in the trout: the rosaceu tetra (Hyphessobrycon bentosi rosaceus), the moenkhausia tetra (Moenkhausia diktyota), the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), the zebra fish (Danio rerio), and the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Four other species exhibited no marked flux changes during hypoxia: the cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi), the hemigrammus tetra (Hemigrammus rhodostomus), the pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), and the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Overall, a diversity of strategies exist; we speculate that these may be linked to differences in habitat and/or lifestyle.

  20. Factors affecting food chain transfer of mercury in the vicinity of the Nyanza site, Sudbury River, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, T.A.; May, T.W.; Finlayson, R.T.; Mierzykowski, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump Superfund Site on the Sudbury River, Massachusetts, was assessed by analysis of sediment, fish prey organisms, and predator fish from four locations in the river system. Whitehall Reservoir is an impoundment upstream of the site, and Reservoir #2 is an impoundment downstream of the site. Cedar Street is a flowing reach upstream of the site, and Sherman Bridge is a flowing reach downstream of the site. Collections of material for analysis were made three times, in May, July, and October. Sediment was analyzed for acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), simultaneously-extracted (SEM) metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Zn), and total recoverable Hg. The dominant predatory fish species collected at all sites, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), was analyzed for the same suite of metals as sediment. Analysis of stomach contents of bass identified small fish (yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, and pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus), crayfish, and dragonfly larvae as the dominant prey organisms. Samples of the prey were collected from the same locations and at the same times as predator fish, and were analyzed for total and methyl mercury. Results of AVS and SEM analyses indicated that sediments were not toxic to aquatic invertebrates at any site. The SEM concentrations of As, Cd, and Cr were significantly higher at Reservoir #2 than at the reference sites, and SEM As and Cd were significantly higher at Sherman Bridge than at Cedar St. Sediment total Hg was elevated only at Reservoir #2. Hg was higher at site-influenced locations in all fish species except brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). Cd was higher in bluegill, black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and brown bullhead, and Cr was higher in largemouth bass fillet samples but not in whole-body samples. There were no seasonal differences in sediment or prey organism metals, but some metals in some fish species did vary over time in an inconsistent manner

  1. Do laboratory species protect endangered species? Interspecies variation in responses to 17β-estradiol, a model endocrine active compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Bartell, Stephen E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of estrogens on model laboratory species are well documented, their utility as surrogates for other species, including those listed as endangered, are less clear. Traditionally, conservation policies are evaluated based on model organism responses but are intended to protect all species in an environment. We tested the hypothesis that the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) is more vulnerable to endocrine disruption—as assessed through its larval predator-escape performance, survival, juvenile sex ratios, and whole-body vitellogenin concentration—than the commonly used toxicological model species fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Fish were exposed concurrently for 21 days to the model endocrine active compound (EAC) 17ß-estradiol (E2) at 10 ng E2/L and 30 ng E2/L in a flow-through system using reconstituted water that simulated the physicochemical conditions of the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, USA. No significant differences were observed between the fathead and silvery minnow in larval predator-escape response or juvenile sex ratio. Rio Grande silvery minnow survival decreased significantly at day 14 compared with the other two species; by day 21, both cyprinid species (silvery minnow and fathead minnow) exhibited a significant decrease in survival compared with bluegill sunfish, a member of the family Centrarchidae. Male Rio Grande silvery minnow showed a significant increase in whole-body vitellogenin concentration in the 10 ng/L treatment, whereas fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish showed no significant increases in vitellogenin concentrations across treatments. Our study showed response differences to estrogen exposures between the two cyprinid species and further divergence in responses between the families Cyprinidae and Centrarchidae. These results suggest that commonly used laboratory model organisms may be less sensitive to EACs than the endangered

  2. Do laboratory species protect endangered species? Interspecies variation in responses to 17β-estradiol, a model endocrine active compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Z G; Buhl, K; Bartell, S E; Schoenfuss, H L

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of estrogens on model laboratory species are well documented, their utility as surrogates for other species, including those listed as endangered, are less clear. Traditionally, conservation policies are evaluated based on model organism responses but are intended to protect all species in an environment. We tested the hypothesis that the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) is more vulnerable to endocrine disruption-as assessed through its larval predator-escape performance, survival, juvenile sex ratios, and whole-body vitellogenin concentration-than the commonly used toxicological model species fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Fish were exposed concurrently for 21 days to the model endocrine active compound (EAC) 17ß-estradiol (E2) at 10 ng E2/L and 30 ng E2/L in a flow-through system using reconstituted water that simulated the physicochemical conditions of the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, USA. No significant differences were observed between the fathead and silvery minnow in larval predator-escape response or juvenile sex ratio. Rio Grande silvery minnow survival decreased significantly at day 14 compared with the other two species; by day 21, both cyprinid species (silvery minnow and fathead minnow) exhibited a significant decrease in survival compared with bluegill sunfish, a member of the family Centrarchidae. Male Rio Grande silvery minnow showed a significant increase in whole-body vitellogenin concentration in the 10 ng/L treatment, whereas fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish showed no significant increases in vitellogenin concentrations across treatments. Our study showed response differences to estrogen exposures between the two cyprinid species and further divergence in responses between the families Cyprinidae and Centrarchidae. These results suggest that commonly used laboratory model organisms may be less sensitive to EACs than the endangered Rio

  3. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia; trace elements in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) livers, 1992-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, P.M.; Smith, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, trace elements in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) livers were analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of trace element contaminants in the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. All but 3 of the 22 trace elements that were analyzed were detected. Although all 10 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants were detected in the tissues sampled, they were present in relatively low concentrations. Concentrations of U.S. EPA priority pollutants in Asiatic clams collected in the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin are similar to concentrations observed in other NAWQA study units in the southeastern United States. Mercury (a U.S. EPA priority pollutant) was widely detected, being present in 29 of 30 tissue samples, but concentrations did not exceed the FDA action level for mercury of a risk-based screening value for the general public. Mercury concentrations in Asiatic clams were similar to concentrations in other NAWQA study areas in the Southeast.

  4. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin, North Carolina and Virginia; organochlorine compounds in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbrest sunfish (Lepomis auritus) 1992-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.E.; Ruhl, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) samples were collected and analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. Relatively few organochlorine compounds were detected and of the compounds detected, all were detected in relatively low concentrations. The organochlorine compounds detected were p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, trans-nonachlor, PCB's, and toxaphene. Multiple compounds were detected at 16 of 19 sites sampled. Compared to Asiatic clams, redbreast sunfish appear to be better bioindicators of organochlorine contamination in aquatic systems. Except for one detection of toxaphene, pesticide concentrations are well below the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering (NAS/NAE) guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife.

  5. Locomotion with flexible propulsors: I. Experimental analysis of pectoral fin swimming in sunfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, George V; Madden, Peter G A; Mittal, Rajat; Dong, Haibo; Bozkurttas, Meliha

    2006-12-01

    A full understanding of the mechanics of locomotion can be achieved by incorporating descriptions of (1) three-dimensional kinematics of propulsor movement, (2) material properties of the propulsor, (3) power input and control and (4) the fluid dynamics effects of propulsor motion into (5) a three-dimensional computational framework that models the complexity of propulsors that deform and change area. In addition, robotic models would allow for further experimental investigation of changes to propulsor design and for testing of hypothesized relationships between movement and force production. Such a comprehensive suite of data is not yet available for any flexible propulsor. In this paper, we summarize our research program with the goal of producing a comprehensive data set for each of the five components noted above through a study of pectoral fin locomotion in one species of fish: the bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus. Many fish use pectoral fins exclusively for locomotion, and pectoral fins in most fish are integral to generating force during maneuvering. Pectoral fins are complex structures composed of jointed bony supports that are under active control via pectoral fin musculature. During propulsion in sunfish, the fin deforms considerably, has two leading edges, and sunfish can rotate the whole fin or just control individual sections to vector thrust. Fin material properties vary along the length of fin rays and among rays. Experimental fluid dynamic analysis of sunfish pectoral fin locomotion reveals that the fin generates thrust throughout the fin beat cycle, and that the upper and lower edges each produce distinct simultaneous leading edge vortices. The following companion paper provides data on the computational approach taken to understand locomotion using flexible pectoral fins.

  6. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Dana M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Results Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusion A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms, our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC.

  7. Undulatory locomotion of flexible foils as biomimetic models for understanding fish propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Ryan M; Thornycroft, Patrick J M; Lauder, George V

    2014-06-15

    An undulatory pattern of body bending in which waves pass along the body from head to tail is a major mechanism of creating thrust in many fish species during steady locomotion. Analyses of live fish swimming have provided the foundation of our current understanding of undulatory locomotion, but our inability to experimentally manipulate key variables such as body length, flexural stiffness and tailbeat frequency in freely swimming fish has limited our ability to investigate a number of important features of undulatory propulsion. In this paper we use a mechanical flapping apparatus to create an undulatory wave in swimming flexible foils driven with a heave motion at their leading edge, and compare this motion with body bending patterns of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and clown knifefish (Notopterus chitala). We found similar swimming speeds, Reynolds and Strouhal numbers, and patterns of curvature and shape between these fish and foils, suggesting that flexible foils provide a useful model for understanding fish undulatory locomotion. We swam foils with different lengths, stiffnesses and heave frequencies while measuring forces, torques and hydrodynamics. From measured forces and torques we calculated thrust and power coefficients, work and cost of transport for each foil. We found that increasing frequency and stiffness produced faster swimming speeds and more thrust. Increasing length had minimal impact on swimming speed, but had a large impact on Strouhal number, thrust coefficient and cost of transport. Foils that were both stiff and long had the lowest cost of transport (in mJ m(-1) g(-1)) at low cycle frequencies, and the ability to reach the highest speed at high cycle frequencies. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Gear and seasonal bias associated with abundance and size structure estimates for lentic freshwater fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Quist, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    All freshwater fish sampling methods are biased toward particular species, sizes, and sexes and are further influenced by season, habitat, and fish behavior changes over time. However, little is known about gear-specific biases for many common fish species because few multiple-gear comparison studies exist that have incorporated seasonal dynamics. We sampled six lakes and impoundments representing a diversity of trophic and physical conditions in Iowa, USA, using multiple gear types (i.e., standard modified fyke net, mini-modified fyke net, sinking experimental gill net, bag seine, benthic trawl, boat-mounted electrofisher used diurnally and nocturnally) to determine the influence of sampling methodology and season on fisheries assessments. Specifically, we describe the influence of season on catch per unit effort, proportional size distribution, and the number of samples required to obtain 125 stock-length individuals for 12 species of recreational and ecological importance. Mean catch per unit effort generally peaked in the spring and fall as a result of increased sampling effectiveness in shallow areas and seasonal changes in habitat use (e.g., movement offshore during summer). Mean proportional size distribution decreased from spring to fall for white bass Morone chrysops, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, and black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, suggesting selectivity for large and presumably sexually mature individuals in the spring and summer. Overall, the mean number of samples required to sample 125 stock-length individuals was minimized in the fall with sinking experimental gill nets, a boat-mounted electrofisher used at night, and standard modified nets for 11 of the 12 species evaluated. Our results provide fisheries scientists with relative comparisons between several recommended standard sampling methods and illustrate the effects of seasonal variation on estimates of population indices that will be critical to

  9. Hydrologic modification to improve habitat in riverine lakes: Management objectives, experimental approach, and initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barry L.; Barko, John W.; Gerasimov, Yuri; James, William F.; Litvinov, Alexander; Naimo, Teresa J.; Wiener, James G.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Rogala, James T.; Rogers, Sara J.; Schoettger, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Finger Lakes habitat-rehabilitation project is intended to improve physical and chemical conditions for fish in six connected back water lakes in Navigation Pool 5 of the upper Missouri River. The primary management objective is to improve water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration and current velocity during winter for bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, and black crappies, Pomoxis nigromaculatus, two of the primary sport fishes in the lakes. The lakes will be hydrologically altered by Installing culverts to Introduce controlled flows of oxygenated water into four lakes, and an existing unregulated culvert on a fifth lake will be equipped with a control gate to regulate inflow. These habitat modifications constitute a manipulative field experiment that will compare pre-project (1991 to summer 1993) and post-project (fall 1993 to 1996) conditions in the lakes, including hydrology, chemistry, rooted vegetation, and fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Initial data indicate that the Finger Lakes differ in water chemistry, hydrology, and macrophyte abundance. Macroinvertebrate communities also differed among lakes: species diversity was highest in lakes with dense aquatic macrophytes. The system seems to support a single fish community, although some species concentrated in individual lakes at different times. The introduction of similar flows into five of the lakes will probably reduce the existing physical and chemical differences among lakes. However, our ability to predict the effects of hydrologic modification on fish populations is limited by uncertainties concerning both the interactions of temperature, oxygen and current in winter and the biological responses of primary and secondary producers. Results from this study should provide guidance for similar habitat-rehabilitation projects in large rivers.

  10. Seasonality of odonate-mediated methylmercury flux from permanent and semipermanent ponds and potential risk to red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edward B; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Kennedy, James H

    2017-10-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an aquatic contaminant that can be transferred to terrestrial predators by emergent aquatic insects such as odonates (damselflies and dragonflies). We assessed the effects of month and pond permanence on odonate-mediated MeHg flux (calculated as emergent odonate biomass × MeHg concentration) in 10 experimental ponds and the potential risk to nestling red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) posed by consuming MeHg-contaminated odonates. Emergent odonates were collected weekly from permanent ponds with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus; n = 5) and semipermanent ponds without fish (n = 5) over an 8-mo period (January-August 2015). The MeHg flux from damselflies, aeshnid dragonflies, and libellulid dragonflies began in March and peaked in April, May, and June, respectively, and then declined throughout the rest of the summer. Odonate-mediated MeHg flux from semipermanent ponds without fish was greater than that from permanent ponds with fish. Nesting of red-winged blackbirds overlapped with peak odonate emergence and odonate-mediated MeHg flux. Because their diet can be dominated by damselflies and dragonflies, we tested the hypothesis that MeHg-contaminated odonates may pose a health risk to nestling red-winged blackbirds. Concentrations of MeHg in odonates exceeded wildlife values (the minimum odonate MeHg concentrations causing physiologically significant doses in consumers) for nestlings, suggesting that MeHg-contaminated odonates can pose a health risk to nestling red-winged blackbirds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2833-2837. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. Self-imposed length limits in recreational fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Martin, Dustin R.; Hurley, Keith L.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    A primary motivating factor on the decision to harvest a fish among consumptive-orientated anglers is the size of the fish. There is likely a cost-benefit trade-off for harvest of individual fish that is size and species dependent, which should produce a logistic-type response of fish fate (release or harvest) as a function of fish size and species. We define the self-imposed length limit as the length at which a captured fish had a 50% probability of being harvested, which was selected because it marks the length of the fish where the probability of harvest becomes greater than the probability of release. We assessed the influences of fish size, catch per unit effort, size distribution of caught fish, and creel limit on the self-imposed length limits for bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white crappie Pomoxis annularis combined, white bass Morone chrysops, and yellow perch Perca flavescens at six lakes in Nebraska, USA. As we predicted, the probability of harvest increased with increasing size for all species harvested, which supported the concept of a size-dependent trade-off in costs and benefits of harvesting individual fish. It was also clear that probability of harvest was not simply defined by fish length, but rather was likely influenced to various degrees by interactions between species, catch rate, size distribution, creel-limit regulation and fish size. A greater understanding of harvest decisions within the context of perceived likelihood that a creel limit will be realized by a given angler party, which is a function of fish availability, harvest regulation and angler skill and orientation, is needed to predict the influence that anglers have on fish communities and to allow managers to sustainable manage exploited fish populations in recreational fisheries.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-06-01

    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  13. Water-quality models to assess algal community dynamics, water quality, and fish habitat suitability for two agricultural land-use dominated lakes in Minnesota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.

    2017-07-20

    proportion of good-growth habitat and a sustained period of optimal growth habitat in the summer, without any periods of lethal oxythermal habitat. For Madison and Pearl Lakes, examples of important cool-water fish, particularly game fish, include northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus); examples of important warm-water fish include bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Sensitivity analyses were completed to understand lake response effects through the use of controlled departures on certain calibrated model parameters and input nutrient loads. These sensitivity analyses also operated as land-use change scenarios because alterations in agricultural practices, for example, could potentially increase or decrease nutrient loads.

  14. Escaping Flatland: three-dimensional kinematics and hydrodynamics of median fins in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytell, Eric D; Standen, Emily M; Lauder, George V

    2008-01-01

    Fish swimming has often been simplified into the motions of a two-dimensional slice through the horizontal midline, as though fishes live in a flat world devoid of a third dimension. While fish bodies do undulate primarily horizontally, this motion has important three-dimensional components, and fish fins can move in a complex three-dimensional manner. Recent results suggest that an understanding of the three-dimensional body shape and fin motions is vital for explaining the mechanics of swimming, and that two-dimensional representations of fish locomotion are misleading. In this study, we first examine axial swimming from the two-dimensional viewpoint, detailing the limitations of this view. Then we present data on the kinematics and hydrodynamics of the dorsal fin, the anal fin and the caudal fin during steady swimming and maneuvering in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens. These fishes actively move the dorsal and anal fins during swimming, resulting in curvature along both anterio-posterior and dorso-ventral axes. The momentum imparted to the fluid by these fins comprises a substantial portion of total swimming force, adding to thrust and contributing to roll stability. While swimming, the caudal fin also actively curves dorso-ventrally, producing vortices separately from both its upper and lower lobes. This functional separation of the lobes may allow additional control of three-dimensional orientation, but probably reduces swimming efficiency. In contrast, fish may boost the caudal fin's efficiency by taking advantage of the flow from the dorsal and anal fins as it interacts with the flow around the caudal fin itself. During maneuvering, fish readily use their fins outside of the normal planes of motion. For example, the dorsal fin can flick laterally, orienting its surface perpendicular to the body, to help in turning and braking. These data demonstrate that, while fish do move

  15. The release rate of environmental DNA from juvenile and adult fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Maruyama

    Full Text Available The environmental DNA (eDNA technique is expected to become a powerful, non-invasive tool for estimating the distribution and biomass of organisms. This technique was recently shown to be applicable to aquatic vertebrates by collecting extraorganismal DNA floating in the water or absorbed onto suspended particles. However, basic information on eDNA release rate is lacking, despite it being essential for practical applications. In this series of experiments with bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus, we examined the effect of fish developmental stage on eDNA release rate. eDNA concentration reached equilibrium 3 days after the individual fish were introduced into the separate containers, enabling calculation of the eDNA release rate (copies h-1 from individual fish on the assumption that the number of eDNA released from the fish per unit time equals total degradation in the container (copies h-1. The eDNA release rate was 3-4 times higher in the adult (body weight: 30-75 g than in the juvenile group (0.5-2.0 g. Such positive relationship between fish size and eDNA release rate support the possibility of biomass rather than density estimation using eDNA techniques. However, the eDNA release rate per fish body weight (copies h-1 g-1 was slightly higher in the juvenile than the adult group, which is likely because of the ontogenetic reduction in metabolic activity. Therefore, quantitative eDNA data should be carefully interpreted to avoid overestimating biomass when the population is dominated by juveniles, because the age structure of the focal population is often variable and unseen in the field. eDNA degradation rates (copies l-1 h-1, calculated by curve fitting of time-dependent changes in eDNA concentrations after fish removal, were 5.1-15.9% per hour (half-life: 6.3 h. This suggests that quantitative eDNA data should be corrected using a degradation curve attained in the target field.

  16. Selenium in ecosystems within the mountaintop coal mining and valley-fill region of southern West Virginia-assessment and ecosystem-scale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.

    2013-01-01

    acted as an integrator of organic-rich, fine-grained biomass present in streams. The base-case food web modeled for streams was suspended particulate material to aquatic insect to creek chub, with comparative modeling of a direct particulate-to-stoneroller food web. Model species for a reservoir setting were based on an earlier study of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Several reservoir food webs were considered based on a variety of invertebrates (insect, snail, clam). For stream and reservoir settings, predicted Se concentrations in exposure scenarios showed a high degree of correlation (r2 = 0.91 for invertebrates and 0.75 for fish) with field observations of Se concentrations when modeling was initiated from suspended-particulate-material Se concentrations and model transfer parameters defined previously in the literature were used. These strong correlations validate the derived site-specific model and establish sufficient confidence that the predictions from the developed model can be quantitatively applied to the ecosystems in southern West Virginia. An application of modeling used a metric describing the partitioning of Se between particulate material and dissolved phases (Kd) to allow determination of a dissolved Se concentration that would be necessary to attain a site-specific Se fish body burden. The operationally defined Kd quantifies the complex process of transformation at the base of a food web on a site-specific basis. The magnitude of this metric is known to vary with such factors as Se speciation, particulate-material type, and hydrology. This application (1) ties dissolved Se concentrations to fish tissue concentrations; (2) allows consideration of different choices for intervening site-specific exposure steps that set Se bioaccumulation, partitioning, and bioavailability; and (3) generates implications for management decisions that define protection through

  17. Distribution characteristics of freshwater fish in Jeju-do, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ok Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine distribution characteristics of freshwater fish in Jeju-do, freshwater fish were examined at 17 stations including three reservoirs, 13 stations in six streams, and one estuary wetland. A total of 396 fish individuals of seven species in four families were collected at the three reservoir stations and Lepomis macrochirus, an introduced species that disturbs the ecosystem, was the dominant species (71.7%. There were 770 fish individuals of 22 species in 15 families collected from the six streams. The dominant species was Chaenogobius urotaenius (22.6%. A total of 26 fish of four species in three families were found at the Hadori wetland and the dominant species was Tridentiger obscurus. There were five species of fish found for the first time in Jeju-do during this study; Micropterus salmoides, Eleotris sp., Tridentiger brevispinis, Redigobius bikolanus, and Scatophagus argus. In particular, Eleotris sp. of Eleotridae had not so far been recorded in Korea.

  18. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY OF AROMATIC AEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN BLUEGILL SUNFISH BF-2 CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toluene (methylbenzene) is a common environmental pollutant that is found in many hazardous waste sites and it is an aquifer contaminant. A concern is the potential risk to human and ecosystem health due to exposure to toluene and its major biotransformation products. The cytotox...

  19. Monogenean parasites of Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus introduced into the River Durance, France

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlátová, Lucie; Ondračková, Markéta; Přikrylová, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2015), s. 323-330 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : non-native fish * invasive species * parasites * sunfish * Monogenea * host introductions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2015

  20. Fish abundances in shoreline habitats and submerged aquatic vegetation in a tidal freshwater embayment of the Potomac River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Richard T; Jones, R Christian

    2012-05-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) is considered an important habitat for juvenile and small forage fish species, but many long-term recruitment surveys do not effectively monitor fish communities in SAV. To better understand the impact of recent large increases of SAV on the fish community in tidal freshwater reaches of the Potomac River, we compared traditional seine sampling from shore with drop ring sampling of SAV beds (primarily Hydrilla) in a shallow water (depths, shoreline and SAV habitats in late summer of three different years (2007, 2008, and 2009). For the dominant species (Fundulus diaphanus, Lepomis macrochirus, Etheostoma olmstedi, Morone americana, Lepomis gibbosus, and Fundulus heteroclitus), density was nearly always higher in SAV, but overall, species richness was highest in shoreline habitats sampled with seines. Although historical monitoring of fish in Gunston Cove (and throughout Chesapeake Bay) is based upon seine sampling (and trawl sampling in deeper areas), the high densities of fish and larger areal extent of SAV indicated that complementary sampling of SAV habitats would produce more accurate trends in abundances of common species. Because drop ring samples cover much less area than seines and may miss rare species, a combination of methods that includes seine sampling is needed for biodiversity assessment. The resurgence of SAV in tidal freshwater signifies improving water quality, and methods we evaluated here support improved inferences about population trends and fish community structure as indicators of ecosystem condition.

  1. A molecular genetic examination of the mating system of pumpkinseed sunfish reveals high pay-offs for specialized sneakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Cardenas, Oscar; Webster, Michael S

    2008-05-01

    Intrasexual variation in reproductive behaviour and morphology are common in nature. Often, such variation appears to result from conditional strategies in which some individuals (e.g. younger males or those in poor condition) adopt a low pay-off phenotype as a 'best of a bad job'. Alternatively, reproductive polymorphisms can be maintained by balancing selection, with male phenotypes having equal fitnesses at equilibrium, but examples from nature are rare. Many species of sunfish (genus Lepomis) are thought to have alternative male reproductive behaviours, but most empirical work has focused on the bluegill sunfish and the mating systems of other sunfish remain poorly understood. We studied a population of pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) in upstate New York. Field observations confirm the existence of two male reproductive strategies: 'parentals' were relatively old and large males that maintained nests, and 'sneakers' were relatively young and small males that fertilize eggs by darting into nests of parentals during spawning. The sneaker and parental male strategies appear to be distinct life-history trajectories. Sneaker males represented 39% of the males observed spawning, and sneakers intruded on 43% of all mating attempts. Microsatellite analyses revealed that sneaker males fertilized an average of 15% of the eggs within a nest. This level of paternity by sneaker males appears to be higher than seen in most other fishes, and preliminary analyses suggest that the two male reproductive strategies are maintained as a balanced polymorphism.

  2. [Phylogeography and phenotypic diversity of the pumpkinseed Sunfish Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) of the Northern Black Sea Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slynko, E E; Novitsky, R A; Bangs, M R; Douglas, M R; Douglas, M E; Khrystenko, D S; Kasyanov, A N; Slynko, Yu V

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the origin and the genetic and morphological diversity of the pumpkinseed sunfish, a North American invader that is actively expanding its range in the Northern Black Sea Coast. Based on an analysis of variability of the nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA cyt b locus, it was found that all populations of the Northern Black Sea Coast (basins of Dnieper, Dniester, and Danube rivers) are represented by one haplotype. Intraspecific variability is absent. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that the most related haplotype is in a population of pumpkinseed sunfish from New Germany Lake in the Potomac Riverbasin (Maryland, United States), which makes it possible to consider it a parent of the investigated populations. Morphological variation oin countable traits was highly homogeneous. Significant differentiation of a sample from the population of the Dnieper Reservoir from the populations of the Danube and Dniester was found for plastic traits of both the body and cranium. Analysis of the trajectories of development showed that the Dnieper is inhabited by a "pelagic" morpho-ecological form of pumpkinseed sunfish, while the Dniester and Danube is inhabited by a "littoral" form. It is suggested that the success of the settlement of this North American species in the Northern Black Sea Coast does not depend on the origin or the level of its genetic diversity but is instead likely to be ensured by the realization of its available discrete morpho-ecological variability.

  3. The hydrodynamic trails of Lepomis gibbosus (Centrarchidae), Colomesus psittacus (Tetraodontidae) and Thysochromis ansorgii (Cichlidae) investigated with scanning particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Wolf; Bleckmann, Horst

    2004-04-01

    The hydrodynamic trails of fish belonging to the families Centrarchidae, Tetraodontidae and Cichlidae were investigated. Water movements were measured in six horizontal planes, spaced 10-12 mm apart, for up to 5 min after the passage of a fish, using a computer controlled array of modulated laser diodes. We measured continuously and non-continuously swimming fish. Water velocities decayed rapidly in the leading seconds after the passage of a fish, but could still be measured for a period considerably longer than that. In still water (median water velocity fish was sufficient to be sensed by a piscivorous predator at a distance where vision or hearing frequently fail. Acoustic stimuli estimated from a dipole model in a distance that would be covered by the tested fish in 1 min (4-25 m) were 1.5 x 10(-7) to 3.1 x 10(-10) m s(-2), while the hearing threshold of a perch is three orders of magnitude above that. By contrast, the fish wakes after 1 min (except for one Colomesus wake) contained water velocities between 0.95 and 2.05 mm s(-1), which are within the detection range of hydrodynamic sensory systems. The three species differed with respect to water velocities, the spatial extent of the fish-generated water disturbances and the structure of the wake.

  4. Assessment of tolerant sunfish populations (Lepomis sp.) inhabiting selenium-laden coal ash effluents - 1. Hematological and population level assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohner, T.W.; Reash, R.J.; Willet, V.E.; Rose, L.A. [American Electrical Power Co., Columbus, OH (United States). Environmental Services Dept.

    2001-07-01

    Sunfish were collected from coal ash effluent-receiving streams and Ohio River watershed reference sites to assess the effects of exposure to low-level selenium concentrations. Selenium, copper, and arsenic concentrations were statistically higher in tissue samples from exposed fish than in reference fish. Leukopenia, lymphocytosis, and neutropenia were evident in exposed fish and were indicative of metal exposure and effect. White blood cell counts and percent lymphocyte values were significantly correlated with liver selenium concentrations. Plasma protein levels were significantly lower in exposed fish than in fish from the Ohio River, indicating that exposed fish may have been nutritionally stressed. Condition factors for fish from the ash pond-receiving streams were the same as, or lower than, those of fish from the reference sites. There was no evidence that the growth rate of fish in the receiving streams differed from that of fish in the reference streams. Despite liver selenium concentrations which exceeded reported toxicity thresholds and evidence of significant hematological changes, there were no significant differences in fish condition factors, liver-somatic indices, or length-weight regressions related to selenium.

  5. Alterations in gills of Lepomis gibbosus, after acute exposure to several xenobiotics (pesticide, detergent and pharmaceuticals): morphometric and biochemical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sara; Correia, Alberto T; Antunes, Sara C; Nunes, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, scientific research about the effects of anthropogenic xenobiotics on non-target organisms has increased. Among the likely effects, some studies reported the evaluation of biochemical and morphological changes in specific tissues or organs of fishes, such as gills, which are key organs for the direct action of pollutants in the aquatic environment. This work intended to assess biochemical [oxidative stress/phase II conjugation isoenzymes glutathione S-transferase (GSTs)] and morphological [secondary lamellar length (SLL), secondary lamellar width (SLW), interlamellar distance (ID), basal epithelial thickness (BET) and proportion of the secondary lamellae available for gas exchange (PAGE)] changes in gills, after acute exposure to the pesticide chlorfenvinphos, the detergent sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) and to the anticholinesterasic pharmaceuticals (neostigmine and pyridostigmine). Our results point to a significant, eventually hormetic, effect in the activity of GSTs following exposure to chlorfenvinphos that significantly increased the activity of GSTs at concentration of 0.2 mg/L. The activity of GSTs increased significantly after exposure to 100 mg/L of neostigmine. Considering the morphometric analysis of the gills, the data obtained showed that chlorfenvinphos exerted mainly minor architectural alterations in gills, with the exception of the highest tested concentration of chlorfenvinphos that produced also a slight decrease of the PAGE. The overall conclusions point to a null or negligible toxicity of the selected toxicants towards L. gibbosus, which may be reverted if exposure is withdrawn.

  6. Chemical defense of the eastern newt (Notophthalmus viridescens: variation in efficiency against different consumers and in different habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary H Marion

    Full Text Available Amphibian secondary metabolites are well known chemically, but their ecological functions are poorly understood--even for well-studied species. For example, the eastern newt (Notophthalmus viridescens is a well known secretor of tetrodotoxin (TTX, with this compound hypothesized to facilitate this salamander's coexistence with a variety of aquatic consumers across the eastern United States. However, this assumption of chemical defense is primarily based on observational data with low replication against only a few predator types. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that N. viridescens is chemically defended against co-occurring fishes, invertebrates, and amphibian generalist predators and that this defense confers high survivorship when newts are transplanted into both fish-containing and fishless habitats. We found that adult eastern newts were unpalatable to predatory fishes (Micropterus salmoides, Lepomis macrochirus and a crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, but were readily consumed by bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus. The eggs and neonate larvae were also unpalatable to fish (L. macrochirus. Bioassay-guided fractionation confirmed that deterrence is chemical and that ecologically relevant concentrations of TTX would deter feeding. Despite predatory fishes rejecting eastern newts in laboratory assays, field experiments demonstrated that tethered newts suffered high rates of predation in fish-containing ponds. We suggest that this may be due to predation by amphibians (frogs and reptiles (turtles that co-occur with fishes rather than from fishes directly. Fishes suppress invertebrate consumers that prey on bullfrog larvae, leading to higher bullfrog densities in fish containing ponds and thus considerable consumption of newts due to bullfrog tolerance of newt chemical defenses. Amphibian chemical defenses, and consumer responses to them, may be more complex and indirect than previously appreciated.

  7. Aquatic systems in and adjacent to Agulhas National Park with particular reference to the fish fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in and adjacent to Agulhas National Park. Fourteen fish species were collected during surveys carried out in the Heuningnes and Ratel river systems and a variety of endorheic pans from 2003 to 2005. Seven of the species are marine fishes tolerant of low salinity (Mugil cephalus, Liza richardsonii, Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Rhabdosargus holubi, Solea bleekeri, Gilchristella aestuaria with the remaining seven species being primary freshwater fishes. Three are indigenous, including Pseudobarbus burchelli, Sandelia capensis, and Galaxias zebratus of which two morphological forms were recorded within Agulhas National Park. The remaining four species are invasive aliens (Cyprinus carpio, Lepomis macrochirus, Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus punctulatus. Classification using physico-chemical variables indicated four major wetland groups, with fishes occurring predominantly in the group comprising palustrine, lacustrine and riverine wetlands, and in one instance in a brackish endorheic pan. Management actions which should facilitate conservation of indigenous fishes in the Agulhas region are suggested.

  8. Fluidized bed ash and passive treatment reduce the adverse effects of acid mine drainage on aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Clint M; Nairn, Robert W

    2010-10-15

    Elevated concentrations of acidity and metals in acid mine drainage (AMD) may be effectively addressed by active and passive treatment technologies. However, typical evaluations consider only chemical water quality with little if any regard for biological metrics. Robust evaluations including both chemical and biological indicators of water quality improvement are needed. In this study, injection of alkaline fluidized bed ash (FBA) into a flooded underground coal mine was coupled with a five-cell passive treatment system to ameliorate an abandoned AMD discharge in eastern Oklahoma. The passive system included process units promoting both aerobic and anaerobic treatment mechanisms. Resulting water quality changes and biological responses were evaluated. Organisms of two distinct functional groups (the filter-feeding mollusk Corbicula fluminea and the wide-spectrum feeding fish Lepomis macrochirus) were exposed to mine waters in several treatment cells. The combination of treatment technologies was hypothesized to limit potential negative effects on these aquatic organisms. Tissues were harvested and analyzed for concentrations of several metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Ni, Cu and Zn) of interest. Organismal responses, such as hepatosomatic index, condition factor, and condition index, did not vary significantly among organisms exposed within different treatment cells when compared to non-AMD impaired waters. Metal tissue accumulation trends, compared to aqueous concentrations, were observed for Fe, Ni and Zn. Exposure experiments with these two organisms indicated that FBA introductions coupled with passive treatment decreased the potential adverse effects of AMD to biological systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. United States high-altitude test experiences. A review emphasizing the impact on the environment. [Checkmate, Bluegill, Kingfish and Tightrope events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerlin, H.

    1976-06-01

    The US high-altitude nuclear explosions of the 1955-1962 period are listed chronologically; dates, locations, and yields are given. The major physical phases of the interactions of the weapon outputs with the atmosphere are described, such as the formation of fireballs at the low high-altitudes and the partition of energies and their distribution over very large spaces at the higher high-altitudes. The effects of these explosions on the normal activities of populations and the protective measures taken are documented. Many scientific observations, together with their significance and values, are reviewed. 109 refs.

  10. Variation in life-history traits between a newly established and long-established population of non-native pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Centrarchidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Roche, Kevin Francis; Jurajda, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2015), s. 385-392 ISSN 0137-1592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : freshwater fish * alien species * introduced species * date of introduction * size-at-maturity * fecundity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.622, year: 2015

  11. Contemporary and historical evolutionary processes interact to shape patterns of within-lake phenotypic divergences in polyphenic pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, Dylan J; Ferguson, Moira M; Robinson, Beren W

    2012-03-01

    Historical and contemporary evolutionary processes can both contribute to patterns of phenotypic variation among populations of a species. Recent studies are revealing how interactions between historical and contemporary processes better explain observed patterns of phenotypic divergence than either process alone. Here, we investigate the roles of evolutionary history and adaptation to current environmental conditions in structuring phenotypic variation among polyphenic populations of sunfish inhabiting 12 postglacial lakes in eastern North America. The pumpkinseed sunfish polyphenism includes sympatric ecomorphs specialized for littoral or pelagic lake habitats. First, we use population genetic methods to test the evolutionary independence of within-lake phenotypic divergences of ecomorphs and to describe patterns of genetic structure among lake populations that clustered into three geographical groupings. We then used multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) to partition body shape variation (quantified with geometric morphometrics) among the effects of evolutionary history (reflecting phenotypic variation among genetic clusters), the shared phenotypic response of all populations to alternate habitats within lakes (reflecting adaptation to contemporary conditions), and unique phenotypic responses to habitats within lakes nested within genetic clusters. All effects had a significant influence on body form, but the effects of history and the interaction between history and contemporary habitat were larger than contemporary processes in structuring phenotypic variation. This highlights how divergence can be better understood against a known backdrop of evolutionary history.

  12. Cesium accumulation by aquatic organisms at different trophic levels following an experimental release into a small reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, J.E., E-mail: jepinder@uga.ed [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P. O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Hinton, T.G., E-mail: thomas.hinton@irsn.f [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P. O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Taylor, B.E., E-mail: TaylorB@dnr.sc.go [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P. O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Whicker, F.W., E-mail: ward.whicker@colostate.ed [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado, State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1618 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The rates of accumulation and subsequent loss of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) by organisms at different trophic levels within plankton-based and periphyton-based food chains were measured following the addition of {sup 133}Cs into a small reservoir near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An uptake parameter u (L kg{sup -1} d{sup -1} dry mass) and a loss rate parameter k (d{sup -1}) were estimated for each organism using time-series measurements of {sup 133}Cs concentrations in water and biota, and these parameters were used to estimate maximum concentrations, times to maximum concentrations, and concentration ratios (C{sub r}). The maximum {sup 133}Cs concentrations for plankton, periphyton, the insect larva Chaoborus punctipennis, which feeds on plankton, and the snail Helisoma trivolvis, which feeds on periphyton, occurred within the first 14 days following the addition, whereas the maximum concentrations for the fish species Lepomis macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides occurred after 170 days. The C{sub r} based on dry mass for plankton and C. punctipennis were 1220 L kg{sup -1} and 5570 L kg{sup -1}, respectively, and were less than the C{sub r} of 8630 L kg{sup -1} for periphyton and 47,700 L kg{sup -1} for H. trivolvis. Although the C{sub r} differed between plankton-based and periphyton-based food chains, they displayed similar levels of biomagnification. Biomagnification was also indicated for fish where the C{sub r} for the mostly nonpiscivorous L. macrochirus of 22,600 L kg{sup -1} was three times less than that for mostly piscivorous M. salmoides of 71,500 L kg{sup -1}. Although the C{sub r} for M. salmoides was greater than those for periphyton and H. trivolvis, the maximum {sup 133}Cs concentrations for periphyton and H. trivolvis were greater than that for M. salmoides. - Research highlights: {yields} A simple uptake and loss model described the Cs dynamics in all the various biota. {yields} Concentrations of Cs were greater in periphyton than in plankton

  13. Effect of species, life stage, and water temperature on the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, J.J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Howe, G.E.; Redman, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a drug of low regulatory priority status that is effective in treating fish and fish eggs infected by fungi. However, only limited information is available to guide fish culturists in administering hydrogen peroxide to diseased fish. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine (1) the sensitivity of brown trout Salmo trutta, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and bluegill Lepomis, machrochirus to hydrogen peroxide treatments; (2) the sensitivity of various life stages of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to hydrogen peroxide treatments; and (3) the effect of water temperature on the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to three fish species. Fish were exposed to hydrogen peroxide concentrations ranging from 100 to 5,000 mu L/L (ppm) for 15-min or 45-min treatments every other day for four consecutive treatments to determine the sensitivity of various species and life stages of fish. Except for walleye, most species of fish tested (less than or equal to 2 g) tolerated hydrogen peroxide of 1,000 mu L/L or greater. Walleyes were sensitive to hydrogen peroxide concentrations as low as 100 mu L/L. A correlation was found between the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide and the life stages of rainbow trout; larger fish were more sensitive. Generally, the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide increased for all species as water temperature increased. The results of these experiments demonstrate that it is important to consider the effects of species, life stage, and water temperature when conducting hydrogen peroxide treatments.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of aluminium ions neurotoxicity in brain cells of fish from various pelagic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sukharenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic effects of aluminum chloride in higher than usual environment concentration (10 mg/L were studied in brains of fishes from various pelagic areas, especially in sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819, roach (Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus, 1758, crucian carp (Carasius carasius Linnaeus, 1758, goby (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas, 1811. The intensity of oxidative stress and the content of both cytoskeleton protein GFAP and cytosol Ca-binding protein S100β were determined. The differences in oxidative stress data were observed in the liver and brain of fish during 45 days of treatment with aluminum chloride. The data indicated that in the modeling of aluminum intoxication in mature adult fishes the level of oxidative stress was noticeably higher in the brain than in the liver. This index was lower by1.5–2.0 times on average in the liver cells than in the brain. The obtained data evidently demonstrate high sensitivity to aluminum ions in neural tissue cells of fish from various pelagic areas. Chronic intoxication with aluminum ions induced intense astrogliosis in the fish brain. Astrogliosis was determined as result of overexpression of both cytoskeleton and cytosole markers of astrocytes – GFAP and protein S100β (on 75–112% and 67–105% accordingly. Moreover, it was shown that the neurotixic effect of aluminum ions is closely related to metabolism of astroglial intermediate filaments. The results of western blotting showed a considerable increase in the content of the lysis protein products of GFAP with a range of molecular weight from 40–49 kDa. A similar metabolic disturbance was determined for the upregulation protein S100β expression and particularly in the increase in the content of polypeptide fragments of this protein with molecular weight 24–37 kDa. Thus, the obtained results allow one to presume that aluminum ions activate in the fish brain intracellular proteases which have a capacity to destroy the proteins of

  15. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish in a region affected by historic gold mining; the South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River watersheds, California, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.; Alpers, Charles N.; Law, Matthew A.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury that was used historically for gold recovery in mining areas of the Sierra Nevada continues to enter local and downstream water bodies, including the Sacramento Delta and the San Francisco Bay of northern California. Methylmercury is of particular concern because it is the most prevalent form of mercury in fish and is a potent neurotoxin that bioaccumulates at successive trophic levels within food webs. In April 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with several other agencies the Forest Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture), the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California State Water Resources Control Board, and the Nevada County Resource Conservation District began a pilot investigation to characterize the occurrence and distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota in the South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River watersheds of California. Biological samples consisted of semi-aquatic and aquatic insects, amphibians, bird eggs, and fish. Fish were collected from 5 reservoirs and 14 stream sites during August through October 1999 to assess the distribution of mercury in these watersheds. Fish that were collected from reservoirs included top trophic level predators (black basses, Micropterus spp.) intermediate trophic level predators [sunfish (blue gill, Lepomis macrochirus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; and black crappie, Poxomis nigromaculatus)] and benthic omnivores (channel catfish, Ictularus punctatus). At stream sites, the species collected were upper trophic level salmonids (brown trout, Salmo trutta) and upper-to-intermediate trophic level salmonids (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Boneless and skinless fillet portions from 161 fish were analyzed for total mercury; 131 samples were individual fish, and the remaining 30 fish were combined into 10 composite samples of three fish each of the same species and size class. Mercury concentrations in samples of black basses

  16. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... species, share this environment with sport fishes such as smallmouth and largemouth bass, bluegill and... managed for migratory birds, with an emphasis on waterfowl species. Management techniques include...

  17. Does prey community composition affect the way different behavioral types interact with their environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Michael A; Wahl, David H

    2016-10-01

    We examined how different exploratory behavioral types of largemouth bass responded to differing prey communities by determining effects on growth, survival and diet in experimental ponds. We found evidence that non-explorer largemouth bass target young-of-year bluegill early on in life, but bluegill were not an important diet item by late summer. The presence of young-of-year bluegill as prey does appear to affect the foraging strategy of the two exploring types differently. In the absence of small bluegill, both behavioral types feed primarily on benthic invertebrates and zooplankton. When small bluegill were present, we saw a shift away from zooplankton as prey for largemouth bass. However, that shift was toward more benthic invertebrates for non-exploring behavioral types and toward terrestrial insects for exploring behavioral types. Thus, it appears that prey community composition can have important effects on the way in which different behavioral types interact with their environment.

  18. Non-target trials with Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A, a lethal control agent of dreissenid mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop an efficacious and environmentally safe method for managing zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and quaggamussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, we initiated a research project investigating the potential use of bacteria and their naturalmetabolic products as biocontrol agents. This project resulted in the discovery of an environmental isolate lethal to dreissenid mussels,Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A. In previous published reports we have demonstrated that: 1 Pf-CL145A’s mode ofaction is intoxication (not infection; 2 natural product within ingested bacterial cells lyse digestive tract epithelial cells leading to dreisseniddeath; and 3 high dreissenid kill rates (>90% are achievable following treatment with Pf-CL145A cells, irrespective of whether thebacterial cells are dead or alive. Investigating the environmental safety of Pf-CL145A was also a key element in our research efforts, andherein, we report the results of non-target trials demonstrating Pf-CL145A’s high specificity to dreissenids. These acute toxicity trials weretypically single-dose, short-term (24-72 h exposures to Pf-CL145A cells under aerated conditions at concentrations highly lethal todreissenids (100 or 200 mg/L. These trials produced no evidence of mortality among the ciliate Colpidium colpoda, the cladoceran Daphniamagna, three fish species (Pimephales promelas, Salmo trutta, and Lepomis macrochirus, and seven bivalve species (Mytilus edulis,Pyganodon grandis, Pyganodon cataracta, Lasmigona compressa, Strophitus undulatus, Lampsilis radiata, and Elliptio complanata. Lowmortality (3-27% was recorded in the amphipod Hyalella azteca, but additional trials suggested that most, if not all, of the mortality couldbe attributed to some other unidentified factor (e.g., possibly particle load or a water quality issue rather than Pf-CL145A’s dreissenidkillingnatural product. In terms of potential environmental safety, the results of

  19. Bioaccumulation Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    four seasonal collections: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, and Fall 2010. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to bioaccumulation studies, the Spring investigations also included evaluation of fish health and reproductive integrity on the same fish used for bioaccumulation. Two associated reports present the fish health (Adams et al 2012) and reproductive studies (Greeley et al 2012) conducted in 2009 and 2010. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health. This report emphasizes evaluation of arsenic and selenium bioaccumulation in fish and consists of four related studies (Sections 2-5) including, (1) bioaccumulation in liver and ovaries, (2) bioaccumulation in whole body gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), (3) bioaccumulation in muscle tissue or fillets, and (4) a reconstruction analysis which establishes the relationship between selenium in muscle tissue and that of the whole body of bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus). Metals other than arsenic and selenium are evaluated separately in Section 6. This report focuses on selenium and arsenic for the following reasons: (1) based on baseline studies conducted in early 2009 in the Emory and Clinch River, only two potentially fly-ash related metals, selenium and arsenic, appeared to be elevated above background or reference levels, (2) selenium and arsenic are two of the metals in coal ash that are known to bioaccumulate and cause toxicity in wildlife, and (3) based on bioaccumulation studies of bluegill and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Stilling Pond during Spring 2009, which would represent a worst case situation for metal bioaccumulation

  20. A Dynamic Recommender System for Improved Web Usage Mining and CRM Using Swarm Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alphy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern days, to enrich e-business, the websites are personalized for each user by understanding their interests and behavior. The main challenges of online usage data are information overload and their dynamic nature. In this paper, to address these issues, a WebBluegillRecom-annealing dynamic recommender system that uses web usage mining techniques in tandem with software agents developed for providing dynamic recommendations to users that can be used for customizing a website is proposed. The proposed WebBluegillRecom-annealing dynamic recommender uses swarm intelligence from the foraging behavior of a bluegill fish. It overcomes the information overload by handling dynamic behaviors of users. Our dynamic recommender system was compared against traditional collaborative filtering systems. The results show that the proposed system has higher precision, coverage, F1 measure, and scalability than the traditional collaborative filtering systems. Moreover, the recommendations given by our system overcome the overspecialization problem by including variety in recommendations.

  1. A Dynamic Recommender System for Improved Web Usage Mining and CRM Using Swarm Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphy, Anna; Prabakaran, S

    2015-01-01

    In modern days, to enrich e-business, the websites are personalized for each user by understanding their interests and behavior. The main challenges of online usage data are information overload and their dynamic nature. In this paper, to address these issues, a WebBluegillRecom-annealing dynamic recommender system that uses web usage mining techniques in tandem with software agents developed for providing dynamic recommendations to users that can be used for customizing a website is proposed. The proposed WebBluegillRecom-annealing dynamic recommender uses swarm intelligence from the foraging behavior of a bluegill fish. It overcomes the information overload by handling dynamic behaviors of users. Our dynamic recommender system was compared against traditional collaborative filtering systems. The results show that the proposed system has higher precision, coverage, F1 measure, and scalability than the traditional collaborative filtering systems. Moreover, the recommendations given by our system overcome the overspecialization problem by including variety in recommendations.

  2. Commercial demonstration of kaolinitic clay for protection of Flavobacterium columnaris in sportfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportfish farms in Arkansas routinely battle Columnaris disease, which is caused by Flavobacterium columnare. Columnaris is especially prevalent during the feed training of centrarchids such as largemouth bass and immediately following harvest of crappie, redear sunfish, and bluegill while they are ...

  3. 21 CFR 529.1030 - Formalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spp., on salmon, trout, catfish, largemouth bass, and bluegill. (ii) Select finfish eggs. For control of fungi of the family Saprolegniaceae on salmon, trout, and esocid eggs. (iii) Penaeid shrimp. For... Dactylogyrus spp. (v) All finfish eggs: For control of fungi of the family Saprolegniaceae. (2) Amount. The...

  4. Remedial Investigation Addendum Report Data Item A009. Volume 1: Report Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Bullhead * ictalurus nebulosus (Lesueur) Brown Bullhead PERCIFORMES Percichthyidae Morone americana (Gmelin) White Perch Centrarchidae Lepomnis...Bullhead PERCIFORMES Centrarchidae Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus) P umpkinseed Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur) Black Crappie W006931 OT.080/5 z 0’ N ý - efi

  5. European distribution for metacercariae of the North American digenean Posthodiplostomum cf. minimum centrarchi (Strigeiformes: Diplostomidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Jurajda, Pavel; Bryjová, Anna; Trichkova, T.; Ribeiro, F.; Přikrylová, I.; Ondračková, Markéta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2017), s. 635-642 ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Lepomis gibbosus * Micropterus salmoides * White grub * Physid snails * Non-indigenous species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 1.744, year: 2016

  6. Quantitation of ranaviruses in cell culture and tissue samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holopainen, Riikka; Honkanen, Jarno; Jensen, Britt Bang

    2011-01-01

    – epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) and bluegill fry (BF-2) – were infected with four of the isolates (EHNV, ECV, FV3 and DFV), and the viral quantity was determined from seven time points during the first three days after infection. The qPCR was also used to determine the viral load in tissue samples from...... pike (Esox lucius) fry challenged experimentally with EHNV....

  7. Some effects of mirex on two warm-water fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valin, Charles C.; Andrews, Austin K.; Eller, Lafayette L.

    1968-01-01

    The effects of mirex on two species of warm-water fishes were studied in three experiments in which the fish were exposed either by feeding a mirex-treated diet, or by treating the holding ponds with a mirex formulation. Bluegills were used in the feeding experiment, where three different levels of mirex were incorporated into the diet and fed to fish held in plastic pools, and in the first pond-exposure experiment, in which the fish were held in earthen ponds treated once with a mirex-corncob grit formulation. The third experiment used goldfish held in earthen ponds which also were treated once with the mirex-corncob grit formulation. In general, higher rates of exposure produced higher whole-body residues of mirex in the fish, and, except in bluegills from the lower-treatment ponds of the first contact experiment and in control fish, whole-body residues increased throughout the terms of these experiments. Soil, water, and vegetation samples from the two contact experiments, although subject to large differences between individual samples, contained relatively unchanging mirex concentrations, illustrating that this chemical is highly resistant to degradation or removal. No mortality or tissue pathology in the bluegills could be ascribed to mirex exposure, but the gills and kidneys of mirex-exposed goldfish showed reactions beginning with the samples taken 56 days after treatment, and the numbers of these fish surviving until termination of this experiment were inversely related to treatment level. Total serum protein and hematocrit percentages had no apparent relationship to treatment levels, nor was mirex exposure a demonstrable factor in growth rates in the contact experiments. However, growth of the bluegills in the highest treatment groups of the feeding experiment was adversely affected. Invertebrate populations seemed not to be affected by the mirex treatment in either of the earthen pond experiments.

  8. Literature Review. Aquatic Resources Investigation, Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-26

    Report stated that the "reservoirs are on 3 the verge of being overrun with black bullheads". It was felt that this overcrowding would soon reduce the...Black bullhead were the most abundant species, but they apparently were not stunted by overpopulation . Spawning success of largemouth bass was found...they might eventually overpopulate the waters. The number of bluegill captured in 1975 was almost identical to 1972 (134 vs. 131), but their growth

  9. Water Quality Criteria for Disperse Red 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Salmonidae in class Osteichthyes ; b) member of second family in class Osteichthyes , preferably an important warmwater species; c) member of family in...families such that all of the following are included: a. the family Salmonidae in the class Osteichthyes , 49 b. a second family (preferably an...important warmwater species) in the class Osteichthyes (e.g., bluegill, fathead minnow, or channel catfish); c. a third family in the phylum Chordata (e.g

  10. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 1. Baseline Studies. Volume VIII. Summary of Baseline Studies and Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    technology on an ecosystem are derived from the established fields of limnology , botany, water chemistry, and aquatic biology. Since the required expertise... Margalef 1957), and the Evenness Index of Pielou (Pielou 1966b). Summary of results 49. On an abundance basis, bluegill, blue-spotted sunfish, and redear...CE, Vicksburg, Miss. Margalef , D. 1957. "Information Theory in Ecology," General Systems, Vol 3, pp 36-71, translated from Hem. R. Acad. Cienc

  11. Spatial and temporal trends of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in fish fillets and water collected from pool 2 of the Upper Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsted, John L; Holem, Ryan; Hohenstein, Gary; Lange, Cleston; Ellefson, Mark; Reagen, William; Wolf, Susan

    2017-11-01

    In 2011, poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were analyzed in surface water and fish fillet samples taken from Pool 2 of the Upper Mississippi River, a 33-mile stretch inclusive of the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota (USA) metropolitan area. Approximately 100 each of bluegill, freshwater drum, smallmouth bass, and white bass were sampled within the study area. Surface water samples were also collected from each of the 10 sampling reaches established for the study. Water and fillet samples were analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C4-C12), perfluorinated sulfonic acids (C4, C6, and C8), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was observed with the greatest frequency in fish fillets and ranged from 3.0 to 760 ng/g wet weight. Mean (geometric) PFOS concentrations in bluegill, freshwater drum, smallmouth bass, and white bass were 20, 28, 29, and 58 ng/g wet weight, respectively. When compared with fish data collected in 2009, a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in PFOS concentrations was noted. This finding was confirmed based on data from studies conducted in 2012 and 2013. Overall, between 2009 and 2013, PFOS concentrations decreased by 65, 76, and 50% for bluegill, freshwater drum, and white bass, respectively (44% decrease for smallmouth bass from 2009 to 2012). These declines in fish PFOS concentrations are consistent with ongoing efforts to effectively control sources of PFASs to the Mississippi River. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3138-3147. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  12. Acute Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Chloroform to Four Species of Freshwater Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1980-08-01

    Acute toxicity of chloroform to four species of freshwater fish was studied in flow-through 96-hr toxicity tests. Chloroform is toxic to fish in the tens of parts per million, a concentration well above that which would be expected to be produced under normal power plant chlorination conditions. Investigations of acute toxicity of chloroform and the bioaccumulation of chlorinated compounds in tissues of fish revealed differences in tolerance levels and tissue accumulations. Mean 96-hr LC{sub 50}s for chloroform were 18 ppm for rainbow trout and bluegill, 51 ppm for largemouth bass and 75 ppm for channel catfish. Mortalities of bluegill and largemouth bass occurred during the first 4 hr of exposure while rainbow trout and channel catfish showed initial tolerance and mortalities occurred during the latter half of the 96-hr exposure. Rainbow trout had the highest level of chloroform tissue accumulation, 7 {micro}g/g tissue, catfish the second highest, 4 {micro}g/g tissue, followed by bluegill and largemouth bass which each accumulated about 3 {micro}g/g tissue. Accumulation of chloroform was less than one order of magnitude above water concentrations for all species.

  13. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF THE FISH SPECIES IN KEMER RESERVOIR AND AKCAY STREAM, AYDIN, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz ÖZCAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Kemer Reservoir and Akcay Stream between December 2004 and June 2006. Fish samples were caught by using gill nets, cast nets and electrofishing. Fifteen species belonging to 6 families were caught during the study. Four species, Acanthobrama mirabilis (47.0, Lepomis gibbosus (18.8, Chondrostoma meandrense (12.8 and Barbus pectoralis (8.6 are dominant fish species in the reservoir.

  14. Endocrine active contaminants in aquatic systems and intersex in common sport fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Pow, Crystal S. D.; Law, J. Mac; Kwak, Thomas J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Rice, James A.; Kullman, Seth W.; Aday, D. Derek

    2017-01-01

    Male fish are susceptible to developing intersex, a condition characterized by the presence of testicular oocytes. In the present study, the relationship between intersex and exposure to estrogenic endocrine active contaminants (EACs) was assessed for 2 genera of sport fish, Micropterus and Lepomis, at 20 riverine sites. Seasonal trends and relationships between EACs and intersex (prevalence and severity) were examined at varying putative sources of EACs throughout North Carolina, identified as point sources, nonpoint sources, and reference sites. Intersex was identified in both genera, which was documented for the first time in wild-caught Lepomis. Intersex was more prevalent (59.8%) and more severe (1.6 mean rank) in Micropterus, which was highly correlation to EACs in sediment. In contrast, intersex was less common (9.9%) and less severe (0.2 mean rank) in Lepomis and was highly correlated to EACs in the water column. The authors found that concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, industrial EACs, and estrogens were highest at point source sites; however, no source type variation was identified in the prevalence or severity of intersex, nor were there seasonal trends in intersex or EAC concentrations. The authors’ results associate genus-specific prevalence of intersex with specific EAC classes in common sport fishes having biological, ecological, and conservation implications.

  15. Trophic structure and metal bioaccumulation differences in multiple fish species exposed to coal ash-associated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otter, Ryan [Middle Tennessee State University; Bailey, Frank [Middle Tennessee State University; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    On December 22, 2008 a dike containing coal fly ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant near Kingston Tennessee USA failed and resulted in the largest coal ash spill in U.S. history. Coal ash, the by-product of coal combustion, is known to contain multiple contaminants of concern, including arsenic and selenium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of arsenic and selenium and to identify possible differences in trophic dynamics in feral fish at various sites in the vicinity of the Kingston coal ash spill. Elevated levels of arsenic and selenium were observed in various tissues of largemouth bass, white crappie, bluegill and redear sunfish from sites associated with the Kingston coal ash spill. Highest concentrations of selenium were found in redear sunfish with liver concentrations as high as 24.83 mg/kg dry weight and ovary concentrations up to 10.40 mg/kg dry weight at coal ash-associated sites. To help explain the elevated selenium levels observed in redear sunfish, investigations into the gut pH and trophic dynamics of redear sunfish and bluegill were conducted which demonstrated a large difference in the gut physiology between these two species. Redear sunfish stomach and intestinal pH was found to be 1.1 and 0.16 pH units higher than in bluegill, respectively. In addition, fish from coal ash-associated sites showed enrichment of 15N & 13C compared to no ash sites, indicating differences in food web dynamics between sites. These results imply the incorporation of coal ash-associated compounds into local food webs and/or a shift in diet at ash sites compared to the no ash reference sites. Based on these results, further investigation into a broader food web at ash-associated sites is warranted.

  16. Effects of heated effluents on the reproduction of selected species of the Centrarchid family. Progress report, 26 October 1973--25 October 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clugston, J.P.; Provost, E.E.

    1974-01-01

    The numberof species found in the cooling reservoirs differed. Fourteen species were collected in Pond C and 27 species in Par Pond. Largemouth bass, bluegill, redbreast sunfish and mosquitofish were the only species found to reproduce within Pond C. Largemouth bass and bluegill made up over 95 percent of the fishes in this reservoir. Water temperatures undoubtedly limit the number of species and population sizes in Pond C. Fishes in Pond C often frequented water of a temperature very near to or even above temperatures reported as lethal. Bluegill were found in water ranging from 35 to 41 0 C. Largemouth bass were common in water 32--35 0 C and to 36--37 0 C on one occasion. Evidence is presented which suggests the large population of bass results from the fact that this reservoir has never been available to sport fisherman. The relative abundance of speices followed the same trend between coves each year. Fish kills wereobserved as a result of two different circumstances. At times fish were attracted by cool water and subsequently trapped away from refuge areas and killed by rising temperatures in Pond C. One other type kill occurred when blueback herring migrated from water 16 0 C and swam into water 25 0 C. Tracking of largemouth bass with temperature-sensing ultrasonic transmitters suggests there is a continuous rotation of bass into and out of the thermal mixing area in Par Pond and that there is not a discrete population that has been self-acclimated to the warmer water and forced to remain in the heated effluent. (HLW)

  17. Radionuclide accumulations in Clinch River fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Fish samples were collected from several locations above Melton Hill Dam, which is upstream from the liquid effluent release point of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The sampling locations were chosen to determine the accumulation of natural and man-made radionuclides in fish from areas in the Clinch River not influenced by the Laboratory's liquid effluents. Bass, carp, crappie, shad, bluegill, and other sunfish were collected; ten fish per species were composited to form a single sample for each location. The gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Estimates of radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fish are made

  18. Inter-laboratory comparison of cell lines for susceptibility to three viruses: VHSV, IHNV and IPNV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ellen; Carstensen, Bendix; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Eleven European National Reference Laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory comparison of the susceptibility of 5 selected cell lines to 3 fish pathogenic viruses. The test included viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and infectious...... pancreatic necrosis Virus (IPNV), and the cell lines derived from bluegill fry (BF-2), chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214), epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC), fathead minnow (FHM) and rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2). The results showed that for isolation of VHSV, BF-2 and RTG-2 cells performed equally well...

  19. Transfer of 65Zn from natural and synthetic foods to a freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlini, M.; Pozzi, G.; Brazzelli, A.; Berg, A.

    1976-01-01

    Lepomis gibbosus, L. from Lago Maggiore, North Italy, were fed marked laboratory-made ''synthetic'' food or the soft tissues of the snail Viviparus ater (Cristofori and Jan) which had accumulated 65 Zn from lake water prior to the experiment. Other groups of the fish, maintained in water with 65 ZnCl 2 , were fed unmarked synthetic food or nonradioactive snail tissues (natural food). The transfer of radiozinc was greater from food than from water. In addition, it appears that accumulation of the radioelement by fish is dependent upon its physico-chemical state which, in turn, depends on the type of food eaten

  20. Investigations of entrainment mortality among larval and juvenile fishes using a Power Plant Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cada, G.F.; Suffern, J.S.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A Power Plant Simulator (PPS) was constructed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to examine the component sources of entrainment mortality. This experimental apparatus circulates temperature-controlled water through a closed loop consisting of a pump, a condenser bundle, and vertically adjustable piping. Larval bluegill, channel catfish, carp, largemouth bass, and smallmouth bass and juvenile bluegill and mosquitofish were exposed to different combinations of pump speed and water temperatures in the PPS. Wide differences among species in their sensitivity to pipe and condenser passage were observed. For most of the species tested, short-term conditional mortalities resulting from the physical stresses of pipe and condenser passage increased with ΔT and/or pumping rate. Pump passage was not a major source of physical damage, and no clear relationship was found between pump efficiency and mortality. Susceptibility to physical stresses associated with entrainment was inversely related to the size of the entrained organisms. Delayed mortality frequently occurred among fishes exposed to stresses in the PPS. However, delayed mortality estimates in these experimental groups were significantly greater than corresponding values in handling control groups in only 15 of 64 comparisons. Like short-term mortalities, relatively higher delayed mortalities were often observed for the smaller species tested

  1. Concentration of radionuclides in fresh water fish downstream of Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.M.; Brunk, J.L.; Wong, X.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fish were collected for radionuclide analysis over a 5-month period in 1984 from creeks downstream of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant, which has been discharging quantities of some fission and activation products to the waterway since 1981. Among the fish, the bluegill was selected for intensive study because it is very territorial and the radionuclide concentrations detected should be representative of the levels in the local environment at the downstream locations sampled. Among the gamma-emitting radionuclides routinely released, only 134 Cs and 137 Cs were detected in the edible flesh of fish. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased with distance from the plant. The relationship between concentration and distance was determined to be exponential. Exponential equations were generated to estimate concentrations in fish at downstream locations where no site-specific information was available. Mean concentrations of 137 Cs in bluegill collected during April, May, July and August from specific downstream stations were not significantly different in spite of the release of 131 mCi to the creeks between April and August. The concentrations in fish are not responding to changes in water concentrations brought about by plant discharges. Diet appears to be a more significant factor than size or weight or water concentration in regulating body burdens of 137 Cs in these fish

  2. Effects of predatory fish on survival and behavior of larval gopher frogs (Rana capito) and Southern Leopard Frogs (Rana sphenocephala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, D.R.; Gunzburger, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, are habitat generalists occurring in virtually all freshwater habitats within their geographic range, whereas Gopher Frogs, Rana capito, typically breed in ponds that do not normally contain fish. To evaluate the potential for predation by fish to influence the distribution of these species, we conducted a randomized factorial experiment. We examined the survival rate and behavior of tadpoles when exposed to Warmouth Sunfish, Lepomis gulosus, Banded Sunfish, Enneacanthus obesus, and Eastern Mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We also conducted a choice experiment to examine the survival rate of the two species of tadpoles when a predator is given a choice of both species simultaneously. Lepomis gulosus consumed the most tadpoles and ate significantly more tadpoles of R. capito than R. sphenocephala. Gambusia holbrooki injured the most tadpoles, especially R. capito. Enneacanthus obesus did not have an effect on behavior or survival of either anuran species. Tadpoles of both anurans increased hiding when in the presence of L. gulosus and G. holbrooki, but a greater proportion of R. capito hid than did R. sphenocephala. Our results suggest that R. capito are more vulnerable to predation by fish than are R. sphenocephala. The introduction of fish may play a role in population declines of certain anurans breeding in normally fish-free wetlands, and even small fish, such as mosquitofish, may have significant negative effects on the tadpoles of R. capito. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study or Amphibians and Reptiles.

  3. Distinguishing centrarchid genera by use of lateral line scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N.M.; Rabeni, C.F.; Stanovick, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Predator-prey relations involving fishes are often evaluated using scales remaining in gut contents or feces. While several reliable keys help identify North American freshwater fish scales to the family level, none attempt to separate the family Centrarchidae to the genus level. Centrarchidae is of particular concern in the midwestern United States because it contains several popular sport fishes, such as smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, as well as less-sought-after species of sunfishes Lepomis spp. and crappies Pomoxis spp. Differentiating sport fish from non-sport fish has important management implications. Morphological characteristics of lateral line scales (n = 1,581) from known centrarchid fishes were analyzed. The variability of measurements within and between genera was examined to select variables that were the most useful in further classifying unknown centrarchid scales. A linear discriminant analysis model was developed using 10 variables. Based on this model, 84.4% of Ambloplites scales, 81.2% of Lepomis scales, and 86.6% of Micropterus scales were classified correctly using a jackknife procedure. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  4. Synthetic Fuels Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrs, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on aquatic transport studies with regard to photolysis of polycyclic compounds in water; volatilization of PAH from water; bioaccumulation of anthracene by fathead minnows; bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by aquatic invertebrates; bioaccumulation of arylamines by zooplankton; availability of sediment-bound trace metals to bluegill; microbial transformation; transport and transformation of anthracene in natural waters; and microcosm studies. Progress is also reported on acute and chronic aquatic effects; acute and chronic terrestrial effects; leaching and chemical and physical characterization of solid wastes; toxicology of solid wastes; and field site task studies with regard to aquatic transport behavior of trace contaminants in wastewater discharges and airborne contaminants at coking plant field site

  5. Spatial trends and impairment assessment of mercury in sport fish in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melwani, A.R.; Bezalel, S.N.; Hunt, J.A.; Grenier, J.L.; Ichikawa, G.; Heim, W.; Bonnema, A.; Foe, C.; Slotton, D.G.; Davis, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    A three-year study was conducted to examine mercury in sport fish from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. More than 4000 fish from 31 species were collected and analyzed for total mercury in individual muscle filets. Largemouth bass and striped bass were the most contaminated, averaging 0.40 μg/g, while redear sunfish, bluegill and rainbow trout exhibited the lowest (<0.15 μg/g) concentrations. Spatial variation in mercury was evaluated with an analysis of covariance model, which accounted for variability due to fish size and regional hydrology. Significant regional differences in mercury were apparent in size-standardized largemouth bass, with concentrations on the Cosumnes and Mokelumne rivers significantly higher than the central and western Delta. Significant prey-predator mercury correlations were also apparent, which may explain a significant proportion of the spatial variation in the watershed. - Regional differences in sport fish mercury were found in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.

  6. Propagation and isolation of ranaviruses in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Christophersen, Maj-Britt

    2009-01-01

    The optimal in vitro propagation procedure for a panel of ranavirus isolates and the best method for isolation of Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) from organ material in cell-culture were investigated. The panel of ranavirus isolates included: Frog virus 3 (FV3), Bohle iridovirus (BIV......), Pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV), European catfish virus (ECV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), EHNV, Doctor fish virus (DFV), Guppy virus 6 (GF6), short-finned eel virus (SERV) and Rana esculenta virus Italy 282/102 (REV 282/102). Each isolate was titrated in five cell lines: bluegill fry (BF-2...... consistently produced lower titers than the other cell lines at all temperatures. The optimal temperature for propagating the isolates collectively to high titers in vivo was 24 °C. Additionally, three established methods for re-isolation of virus from EHNV-infected organ material were compared. Challenged...

  7. Effects of heated effluents from a nuclear reactor on species diversity, abundance, reproduction, and movement of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clugston, J.P.

    1973-01-01

    The number of species found in the cooling reservoirs differed. Fourteen species were collected in Pond C and 27 species in Par Pond. Largemouth bass, bluegill, redbreast sunfish and mosquito-fish were the only species found to reproduce within Pond C. Water temperatures undoubtedly limit the number of species and population sizes in Pond C. Bluegill were found in water ranging from 35 to 41 0 C . Largemouth bass were common in water 32-35 0 C and to 36-37 0 C on one occasion. In general, the standing crop of the fishes in Par Pond as determined by cove-rotenone samples were similar to nearby reservoirs in South Carolina and did not differ greatly from ambient waters in 1972. The bass population throughout Par Pond is above that found in other South Carolina reservoirs. Evidence is presented which suggests the large population of bass results from the fact that this reservoir has never been available to sport fishermen. Fish kills were observed as a result of two different circumstances. At times fish were attracted by cool water and subsequently trapped away from refuge areas and killed by rising temperatures in Pond C. One other type kill occurred when blueback herring migrated from water 16 0 C and swam into water 25 0 C. There is a continuous rotation of bass into and out of the thermal mixing area in Par Pond. There is not a discrete population that has been self-acclimated to the warmer water and forced to remain in the heated effluent. (HLW)

  8. Center of mass motion in swimming fish: effects of speed and locomotor mode during undulatory propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Grace; Lauder, George V

    2014-08-01

    Studies of center of mass (COM) motion are fundamental to understanding the dynamics of animal movement, and have been carried out extensively for terrestrial and aerial locomotion. But despite a large amount of literature describing different body movement patterns in fishes, analyses of how the center of mass moves during undulatory propulsion are not available. These data would be valuable for understanding the dynamics of different body movement patterns and the effect of differing body shapes on locomotor force production. In the present study, we analyzed the magnitude and frequency components of COM motion in three dimensions (x: surge, y: sway, z: heave) in three fish species (eel, bluegill sunfish, and clown knifefish) swimming with four locomotor modes at three speeds using high-speed video, and used an image cross-correlation technique to estimate COM motion, thus enabling untethered and unrestrained locomotion. Anguilliform swimming by eels shows reduced COM surge oscillation magnitude relative to carangiform swimming, but not compared to knifefish using a gymnotiform locomotor style. Labriform swimming (bluegill at 0.5 body lengths/s) displays reduced COM sway oscillation relative to swimming in a carangiform style at higher speeds. Oscillation frequency of the COM in the surge direction occurs at twice the tail beat frequency for carangiform and anguilliform swimming, but at the same frequency as the tail beat for gymnotiform locomotion in clown knifefish. Scaling analysis of COM heave oscillation for terrestrial locomotion suggests that COM heave motion scales with positive allometry, and that fish have relatively low COM oscillations for their body size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. An annotated distributional checklist of exotic freshwater fishes from the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico Lista comentada sobre la distribución de peces dulceacuícolas exóticos de la península de Baja California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We documented the distributional status of 27 exotic fish species in the inland waters of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico, based on voucher specimens collected from 122 sites between 1977 and 2010, and on published records. The species reported here are representatives of genera from the Atlantic drainages of North America (Ictalurus, Ameiurus, Pylodictis, Morone, Lepomis, Pomoxis, Dorosoma, Cyprinella, and Micropterus, Middle America (Poecilia, Gambusia, and Xiphophorus, Eurasia (Cyprinus and Carassius, and Africa (Tilapia and Oreochromis. The family containing the highest number of species is Centrarchidae (7 species followed by Ictaluridae and Poeciliidae (6 species each. Four species were determined to be invasive due to their wide distribution and fast dispersal through the Peninsula (Gambusia affinis, Poecilia reticulata, Lepomis cyanellus, and Tilapia sp. cf. zillii. We analyze the impacts of exotic species on the native populations of 3 species with problems of conservation: Cyprinodon macularius (endangered, Fundulus lima (endangered, and Gasterosteus aculeatus (vulnerable. Alien fishes have been introduced for a variety of reasons in Mexico: ornament, sport, aquaculture, biological control, and by accident. In some cases fish introductions were carried out for more than one reason.El estatus de la distribución de peces exóticos es documentado para 27 especies en las aguas continentales de la península de Baja California, México, basado en registros de ejemplares recolectados en 122 localidades durante el período de 1977 a 2010, así como registros referidos en la literatura. Las especies aquí reportadas son representativas de géneros que proceden de la vertiente Atlántica de Norteamérica (Ictalurus, Ameiurus, Pylodictis, Morone, Lepomis, Pomoxis, Dorosoma, Cyprinella y Micropterus, Mesoamérica (Poecilia, Gambusia y Xiphophorus, Eurasia (Cyprinus y Carassius y África (Tilapia y Oreochromis. La familia con mayor n

  10. Teratogenic effects and monetary cost of selenium poisoning of fish in Lake Sutton, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemly, A Dennis

    2014-06-01

    Selenium pollution from coal ash wastewater was investigated in Lake Sutton, NC. This lake has been continuously used as a cooling pond for a coal-fired power plant since 1972. Historic and recent levels of contamination in fish tissues (14-105µg Se/g dry weight in liver, 24-127 in eggs, 4-23 in muscle, 7-38 in whole-body) exceeded toxic thresholds and teratogenic effects were observed in fish collected in 2013. A high proportion (28.9 percent) of juvenile Lepomis spp. exhibited spinal and craniofacial malformations that were consistent with selenium poisoning. Teratogenic Deformity Index values indicated population-level impacts on the fishery. The partially monetized cost of resultant fishery losses was calculated at over $US 8.6 million annually, and over $US 217 million for the entire period of damage, which dates back to 1987 when chemical and biological monitoring began. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effects of a non-native cichlid fish (African jewelfish, Hemichromis letourneuxi Sauvage 1880) on a simulated Everglades aquatic community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Slone, Daniel H.; Gregoire, Denise R.; Loftus, William F.

    2014-01-01

    In an 8-month mesocosm experiment, we examined how a simulated Everglades aquatic community of small native fishes, snails, and shrimp changed with the addition of either a native predator (dollar sunfish Lepomis marginatus) or a non-native predator (African jewelfish Hemichromis letourneuxi) compared to a no-predator control. Two snail species (Planorbella duryi, Physella cubensis) and the shrimp (Palaemonetes paludosus) displayed the strongest predator-treatment effects, with significantly lower biomasses in tanks with Hemichromis. One small native fish (Heterandria formosa) was significantly less abundant in Hemichromis tanks, but there were no significant treatment effects for Gambusia holbrooki, Jordanella floridae, or Pomacea paludosa (applesnail). Overall, there were few treatment differences between native predator and no-predator control tanks. The results suggest that the potential of Hemichromis to affect basal food-web species that link primary producers with higher-level consumers in the aquatic food web, with unknown consequences for Florida waters.

  12. Identification of Ruffe larvae (Gymnocephalus cernuus) in the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua; family Percidae) were first detected in the Laurentian Great Lakes in 1986, and are not included in the Great Lakes larval fish key which was published several years prior to their discovery. In addition, subsequent scientific literature has inconsistently described Ruffe larvae. As a result, identification of larval Ruffe remains challenging. We used traditional morphology paired with DNA technology to develop diagnostics for Ruffe larvae collected in the lower St. Louis River, and compared them to similar species. Ruffe < 6 mm total length have myomere counts and a phenotype that more closely resemble centrarchids like Black Crappie, Bluegill and Pumpkinseed rather than percids. However, morphometrics and pigment patterns can be used to distinguish Ruffe from similar centrarchids at this size. As Ruffe larvae develop, they increasingly resemble other percids such as Yellow Perch, but can be distinguished using myomere counts and morphological features. The findings presented here clarify conflicting descriptions in the scientific literature, and provide additional data to support more confident morphological identification of larval Ruffe. The impact of invasive Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) on the ecology of Great Lakes systems is currently being studied. Reproduction and early life history data, however, may be hampered by a general lack of information regarding their early life stage morphological description.

  13. Neurological effects on startle response and escape from predation by medaka exposed to organic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.; Drummond, R.; Hammermeister, D.; Bradbury, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    Simultaneous electrophysiological and behavioral studies were performed on juvenile Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to representative neurotoxic organic chemicals at sublethal concentrations. Non-invasive recordings were made of the electrical impulses generated within giant neuronal Mauthner cells, associated interneurons or motoneurons, and musculature, all of which initiate the startle or escape response in fish. Timing in milliseconds between these electrical sequelae was measured for each fish before and at 24 and 48 hours exposure to a chemical. Also noted was the number of startle responses to number of stimuli ratio (R/S). Other groups of medaka were fed to bluegills and consumption times recorded to assess their ability to escape predation. These results were compared to neurophysiological effect levels. Phenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, and 1-octanol impaired the ability of medaka to escape predation at all concentrations. Medaka were more susceptible to predation in high concentrations of carbaryl and strychnine, but less susceptible at low concentrations, whereas the reverse was true for endosulfan. The variety of neurological effects detected at these concentrations suggest that different mechanisms may be responsible. Phenol and strychnine affected Mauthner cell to motoneuron transmission, chlorpyrifos and carbaryl showed neuromuscular effects, and R/S was affected by most chemicals. Although a variety of neurotoxic mechanisms were examined, the exposure threshold for significant effects for each specific compound was found to be consistent for both the neurophysiological and behavioral endpoints.

  14. Moses Lake fishery restoration project : FY 1999 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None given

    2000-01-01

    The Moses Lake Project consists of 3 phases. Phase 1 is the assessment of all currently available physical and biological information, the collection of baseline biological data, the formulation of testable hypotheses, and the development of a detailed study plan to test the hypotheses. Phase 2 is dedicated to the implementation of the study plan including data collection, hypotheses testing, and the formulation of a management plan. Phase 3 of the project is the implementation of the management plan, monitoring and evaluation of the implemented recommendations. The project intends to restore the failed recreational fishery for panfish species (black crappie, bluegill and yellow perch) in Moses Lake as off site mitigation for lost recreational fishing opportunities for anadromous species in the upper Columbia River. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1 investigations and presents the study plan directed at initiating Phase 2 of the project. Phase 1of the project culminates with the formulation of testable hypotheses directed at investigating possible limiting factors to the production of panfish in Moses Lake. The limiting factors to be investigated will include water quality, habitat quantity and quality, food limitations, competition, recruitment, predation, over harvest, environmental requirements, and the physical and chemical limitations of the system in relation to the fishes

  15. In vivo and in vitro phenotypic differences between Great Lakes VHSV genotype IVb isolates with sequence types vcG001 and vcG002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanse, Sierra M.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Kurath, Gael; Bowser, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is an aquatic rhabdovirus first recognized in farmed rainbow trout in Denmark. In the past decade, a new genotype of this virus, IVb was discovered in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin and has caused several massive die-offs in some of the 28 species of susceptible North American freshwater fishes. Since its colonization of the Great Lakes, several closely related sequence types within genotype IVb have been reported, the two most common of which are vcG001 and vcG002. These sequence types have different spatial distributions in the Great Lakes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genotypic differences between representative vcG001 (isolate MI03) and vcG002 (isolate 2010-030 #91) isolates correspond to phenotypic differences in terms of virulence using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. In vitro infection of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC), bluegill fry (BF-2), and Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE) cells demonstrated some differences in onset and rate of growth in EPC and BF-2 cells, without any difference in the quantity of RNA produced. In vivo infection of round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) via immersion exposure to different concentrations of vcG001 or vcG002 caused a significantly greater mortality in round gobies exposed to 102 plaque forming units ml− 1 of vcG001. These experiments suggest that there are phenotypic differences between Great Lakes isolates of VHSV genotype IVb.

  16. Moses Lake Fishery Restoration Project : FY 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None given

    2000-12-01

    The Moses Lake Project consists of 3 phases. Phase 1 is the assessment of all currently available physical and biological information, the collection of baseline biological data, the formulation of testable hypotheses, and the development of a detailed study plan to test the hypotheses. Phase 2 is dedicated to the implementation of the study plan including data collection, hypotheses testing, and the formulation of a management plan. Phase 3 of the project is the implementation of the management plan, monitoring and evaluation of the implemented recommendations. The project intends to restore the failed recreational fishery for panfish species (black crappie, bluegill and yellow perch) in Moses Lake as off site mitigation for lost recreational fishing opportunities for anadromous species in the upper Columbia River. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1 investigations and presents the study plan directed at initiating Phase 2 of the project. Phase 1of the project culminates with the formulation of testable hypotheses directed at investigating possible limiting factors to the production of panfish in Moses Lake. The limiting factors to be investigated will include water quality, habitat quantity and quality, food limitations, competition, recruitment, predation, over harvest, environmental requirements, and the physical and chemical limitations of the system in relation to the fishes.

  17. Mercury concentrations in pond fish in relation to a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, D.T.; Wilson, H.T.; Pinkney, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    Although many studies have reported that atmospheric mercury is the primary cause for bioaccumulation in fish from remote lakes, few data are available on the effects of possible near-field deposition on fish from nearby waters. The authors surveyed mercury concentrations in fish from 23 ponds in the vicinity of the coal-burning Dickerson Power Plant (Dickerson, MD). A stratified random sampling design was used to select ponds within zones delineated by concentric rings mapped at 3, 7, 10, and 15 km from the plant. For each pond, mercury concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry in sunfish (bluegill, pumpkin seed, or green sunfish), and largemouth bass, which were present in 14 of the ponds. Mean concentrations in the ponds ranged from 0.03 to 0.38 ppm for sunfish and from 0.04 to 0.43 ppm for bass. Alkalinity, pH, conductivity, hardness, and fish length were measured. Stepwise multiple regression identified variables related to tissue concentrations. Differences between strata were tested with ANCOVA. The pattern of concentrations was compared to the pattern of wet deposition predicted by a model. The predicted pattern of local wet deposition did not match the observed pattern of mercury bioaccumulation. This research was sponsored by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Power Plant Research Program

  18. Potential radiation dose from eating fish exposed to actinide contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Baker, D.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a maximum potential for transporting actinides to man via fish consumption. The study took place in U-Pond, a nuclear waste pond on the Hanford Site. It has concentrations of 238 U, 238 Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu and 241 Am that are approximately three orders of magnitude greater than background levels. Fish living in the pond contain higher actinide concentrations than those observed in fish from any other location. Experiments were performed in U-pond to determine maximum quantities of actinides that could accumulate in fillets and whole bodies of two centrarchid fish species. Doses to hypothetical consumers were then estimated by assuming that actinide behavior in their bodies was similar to that defined for Standard Man by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Results indicate that highest concentrations occurring in bluegill or bass muscle after more than a year's exposure to the pond would not be sufficient to produce a significant radiation dose to a human consumer, even if he ate 0.5 kg (∼1 lb) of these fillets every day for 70 years. Natural predators (heron or coyote), having lifetime diets of whole fish from U-Pond, would receive less radiation dose from the ingested actinides than from natural background sources. 34 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Habits and Habitats of Fishes in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwick, R.; Janvrin, J.; Zigler, S.; Kratt, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River consists of 26 navigation pools that provide abundant habitat for a host of natural resources, such as fish, migratory waterfowl, non-game birds, deer, beaver, muskrats, snakes, reptiles, frogs, toads, salamanders, and many others. Of all the many different types of animals that depend on the river, fish are the most diverse with over 140 different species. The sport fishery is very diverse with at least 25 species commonly harvested. Fish species, such as walleyes, largemouth bass, bluegills, and crappies are favorites of sport anglers. Others such as common carp, buffalos, and channel catfish, are harvested by commercial anglers and end up on the tables of families all over the country. Still other fishes are important because they provide food for sport or commercial species. The fishery resources in these waters contribute millions of dollars to the economy annually. Overall, the estimate impact of anglers and other recreational users exceeds $1.2 billion on the Upper Mississippi River. The fisheries in the various reaches of the river of often are adversely affected by pollution, urbanization, non-native fishes, navigation, recreational boating, fishing, dredging, and siltation. However, state and federal agencies expend considerable effort and resources to manage fisheries and restore river habitats. This pamphlet was prepared to help you better understand what fishery resources exist, what the requirements of each pecies are, and how man-induced changes that are roposed or might occur could affect them.

  20. Replication of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in Different Cell Lines and in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss Fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvienko Natalija

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV isolated in natural reservoirs in Ukraine are presented. The pathogenicity of isolates was investigated in vitro on cell cultures and in vivo on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, fingerlings. Experimental indications were that the Ukrainian IPNV isolates have affinity with reference European strains. During the reproduction of these isolates in cell cultures of FHM (fat head minnow, RTG-2 (rainbow trout gonads, and BF-2 (bluegill caudal peduncle, complicated degenerative changes were visible that finally led to the full destruction of cell monolayers. The experimental infection of rainbow trout fingerlings resulted in typical disease symptoms that were systemic. However, obvious evidence of viral infection was noted in single individuals only, and the majority of experimental fish died without visible disease symptoms. During the study of physicochemical properties, it was noted that Ukrainian isolates completely lost their infectivity with chloroform treatment and heating to 60°C. This proved that IPNV isolates are resistant to Ion concentrations in the range of pH 3.0 to 12.0.

  1. Treated municipal sewage discharge affects multiple levels of biological organization in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Clint M; Janz, David M

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine cellular-, organ-, and organism-level responses in longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and fish community structure in a stream in which treated municipal sewage effluent is discharged and in a nearby reference stream with little surrounding land use. A modified version of the U.S.E.P.A. Rapid Bioassessment Protocol V, which combines a habitat assessment with Karr's index of biotic integrity, was used on 400-m reaches of each stream. The study site had a higher proportion of tolerant species and omnivores and a lower proportion of top predators, suggesting alterations in the fish community and a slight level of water quality impairment. Significant increases in condition factor, hepatosomatic index, serum testosterone, and plasma vitellogenin concentrations were observed in male sunfish collected from the study stream in comparison to fish collected from the reference stream. There were no differences between sites in hepatic expression of the 70-kDa stress protein (HSP70). In conclusion, effects were observed at cellular, organ, organism, and community levels of biological organization in fishes exposed to treated municipal sewage effluent.

  2. Arsenic in freshwater fish in the Chihuahua County water reservoirs (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevárez, Myrna; Moreno, Myriam Verónica; Sosa, Manuel; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Water reservoirs in Chihuahua County, Mexico, are affected by some punctual and non-punctual geogenic and anthropogenic pollution sources; fish are located at the top of the food chain and are good indicators for the ecosystems pollution. The study goal was to: (i) determine arsenic concentration in fish collected from the Chuviscar, Chihuahua, San Marcos and El Rejon water reservoirs; (ii) to assess if the fishes are suitable for human consumption and (iii) link the arsenic contents in fish with those in sediment and water reported in studies made the same year for these water reservoirs. Sampling was done in summer, fall and winter. The highest arsenic concentration in the species varied through the sampling periods: Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) with 0.22 ± 0.15 mg/kg dw in winter and Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) with 2.00 ± 0.15 mg/kg dw in summer in El Rejon water reservoir. A positive correlation of arsenic contents was found through all sampling seasons in fish samples and the samples of sediment and water. The contribution of the weekly intake of inorganic arsenic, based on the consumption of 0.245 kg fish muscles/body weight/week was found lower than the acceptable weekly intake of 0.015 mg/kg/body weight for inorganic arsenic suggested by FAO/WHO.

  3. A pilot study testing a natural and a synthetic Molluscicide for controlling invasive apple snails (Pomacea maculata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Heather M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Berhow, Mark; Carter, Jacoby

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea maculata (formerly P. insularum), an apple snail native to South America, was discovered in Louisiana in 2008. These snails strip vegetation, reproduce at tremendous rates, and have reduced rice production and caused ecosystem changes in Asia. In this pilot study snails were exposed to two molluscicides, a tea (Camellia sinensis) seed derivative (TSD) or niclosamide monohydrate (Pestanal®, 2′,5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide, CAS #73360-56-2). Mortality was recorded after exposure to high or low concentrations (0.03 and 0.015 g/L for TSD, 1.3 and 0.13 mg/L for niclosamide). The TSD induced 100 % mortality at both concentrations. Niclosamide caused 100 % and 17 % mortality at high and low concentrations respectively. These molluscicides were also tested on potential biocontrol agents, the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus). No crayfish mortalities occurred at either concentration for either chemical, but sunfish experienced 100 % mortality with TSD (0.03 g/L), and 21 % mortality with niclosamide (0.13 mg/L).

  4. Relationship between standard length and preferred water velocity on freshwater fish for naturally diverse river construction methods; Sakana no sumiyasui kawazukuri ni shisuru gyorui no seisoku bunpu to sonoba no ryusoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, O. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-21

    Distribution of Squalidus chankaensis biwae, Lepomis macrochilus LAFINESQUE, Rhinogobius brunneus, Tribolodon hakonensis and Zacoo platypus within the habitat was strongly influenced by in-situ water velocity. For example, larval fish of Squalidus chankaensis biwa, 6-20mm in SL. preferred swimming a water velocity of 0-2cm/sec at the water surface. Similarly. juvenile fish. 30-40mm in SL. preferred a water velocity of 4-5cm/sec. But the preferred water velocity for adult fish ranged from 5-25cm /sec near the bed of the stream. Similarly. adult fish of Zacco platypus was 40-90cm/sec. The other kinds of fish too. it was measured similar phenomenon. Mostly freshwater fish until juvenile period preferred a water velocity of 0-5cm/sec at the water surface near aquatic plants. but in the beginning of adult fish period, preferred water velocity was made great magnification and fish has habitabled at the near bed-pebbles of swift current. These data are important to the design of good fish habitat. 21 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Assessing the toxicity to fish embryos of surface water from the Watts Bar Lake/Clinch River system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, L.J.; Niemela, S.L.; McCracken, M.K.; Greeley, M.S. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Successful reproduction of fish populations requires the successful development of offspring into new reproductive cohorts. In order to evaluate the ability of fish offspring to survive and develop properly in the Watts Bar Lake/Clinch River system downstream of the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge, TN, a series of fish embryo-larval toxicity tests were conducted on surface water samples from Poplar Creek and the Clinch River adjacent to the Oak Ridge Reservation. Quarterly tests were conducted over an eighteen-month interval with embryos from laboratory stocks of the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Eggs obtained from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) collected from reference sites during their respective breeding seasons were fertilized in vitro for additional embryo-larval tests utilizing fish species indigenous to the Watts Bar/Clinch River system. Average survival of medaka embryos decreased significantly in water from Poplar Creek sites within the Oak Ridge Reservation, coincident with an increase in the prevalence of certain developmental abnormalities. Similar but less pronounced results were also obtained with redbreast sunfish embryos. Development of largemouth bass eggs was not adversely affected by any of the tested water samples. These findings suggest that the development of fish eggs and fry in certain reaches of the Watts Bar Lake/Clinch River system may be negatively impacted by activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  6. No evidence of nonlinear effects of predator density, refuge availability, or body size of prey on prey mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Richard M; Belk, Mark C

    2017-08-01

    Predator density, refuge availability, and body size of prey can all affect the mortality rate of prey. We assume that more predators will lead to an increase in prey mortality rate, but behavioral interactions between predators and prey, and availability of refuge, may lead to nonlinear effects of increased number of predators on prey mortality rates. We tested for nonlinear effects in prey mortality rates in a mesocosm experiment with different size classes of western mosquitofish ( Gambusia affinis ) as the prey, different numbers of green sunfish ( Lepomis cyanellus ) as the predators, and different levels of refuge. Predator number and size class of prey, but not refuge availability, had significant effects on the mortality rate of prey. Change in mortality rate of prey was linear and equal across the range of predator numbers. Each new predator increased the mortality rate by about 10% overall, and mortality rates were higher for smaller size classes. Predator-prey interactions at the individual level may not scale up to create nonlinearity in prey mortality rates with increasing predator density at the population level.

  7. LONG-TERM CHANGES IN MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FISH FROM THE MIDDLE SAVANNAH RIVER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M; Bill Littrell, B

    2007-01-02

    Total mercury levels were measured in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), ''sunfishes'' (Lepomis spp)., and ''catfish'' (primarily Ameiurus spp.) from 1971 to 2004 in the middle reaches of the Savannah River, which drains the coastal plain of the southeastern U.S. Mercury levels were highest in 1971 but declined over the next ten years due to the mitigation of point sources of industrial pollution. Mercury levels began to increase in the 1980s as a possible consequence of mercury inputs from tributaries and associated wetlands where mercury concentrations were significantly elevated in water and fish. Mercury levels in Savannah River fish decreased sharply in 2001-2003 coincident with a severe drought in the Savannah River basin, but returned to previous levels in 2004 with the resumption of normal precipitation. Regression models showed that mercury levels in Savannah River fish changed significantly over time and were affected by river discharge. Despite temporal changes, there was little overall difference in Savannah River fish tissue mercury levels between 1971 and 2004.

  8. Reproductive characteristics of a population of the washboard mussel Megalonaias nervosa (Rafinesque 1820) in the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, C.A.; Holland-Bartels, L.

    1993-01-01

    The authors examined monthly and age-specific gametogenic development of the washboard mussel, Megalonaias nervosa, from April 1986 to March 1987 in navigation Pool 10 of the upper Mississippi River. The authors found M. nervosa to be a late tachytictic breeder. Female marsupia contained eggs or glochidia primarily from August (17 degree C) through October (9 degree C). Males were mature from July through October. Most females released their glochidia in October. Only one female was gravid in Nov (3 degree C). Most mussels were sexually mature at 8 years of age and then had an estimated average size of 68 mm (shell height). Only 8% of individuals less than or equal to 4 years of age showed any degree of reproductive development, while > 90% of age 5 and older individuals had recognizable reproductive material present. In host specificity studies, three fish species were verified as hosts for the glochidial stage. Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus), black bullhead (Ictalurus melas), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) produced juveniles after 26-28 days at 17 degree C. White suckers (Catastomus commersoni) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) retained glochidia from 23 up to 26 days, but no juveniles were produced. Glochidia remained attached to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) less than or equal to 3 days. Channel catfish were retested at 12 degree C and produced juveniles after 56 days.

  9. Fish Scale Evidence for Rapid Post Glacial Colonization of an Atlantic Coastal Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, R. A.; Peteet, Dorothy

    1996-01-01

    Fish scales from the sediment of Allamuchy Pond, New Jersey, USA, indicate that fishes were present in the pond within 400 years of the time of the first deposition of organic material, at approximately 12,600 yrs BP. The earliest of the scales, from a white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, appears in sediment dated 12,260 +/- 220 yrs BP. Presence of scales in sediment deposited before I 0,000 yrs BP indicates that Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, sunfish, Lepomis sp., and yellow perch, Perca flavescens, also were early inhabitants of the pond. The timing of the arrival of each of these fishes suggests that they migrated out from Atlantic coastal refugia. A minnow scale, referred to Phoxininae, was also retrieved; it could not be matched to any cyprinid currently found in northeastern North America. The species present historically in this pond are from five families found currently in ponds throughout the Northeast and sugoest that the lentic palaeo-enviromnent was similar to present mid-elevation or high-latitude lentic systems.

  10. Feeding ecology of Brook Silverside, Golden Shiner, and Subyearling Pumpkinseed in a Lake Ontario embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; Diaz, Avriel R; Nack, Christopher C

    2017-01-01

    Fish feeding ecology has been shown to vary over a 24-h period in terms of the prey consumed and feeding intensity. Consequently, in order to best determine the interspecific feeding associations within a fish community, examination of the diet at multiple times over a 24-h period is often necessary. We examined the diel feeding ecology of three fish species that were numerically dominant in a Lake Ontario embayment during summer. The diet of each of the three species, young-of-year Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, Golden Shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, and Brook Silverside Labidesthes sicculus, was distinct with no significant overlap in diet composition occurring within any of the 4-h time intervals. The diet composition of each species suggested that Brook Silverside were feeding at the surface (terrestrial invertebrates and aquatic surface dwelling hemipterans), whereas young-of-year Pumpkinseed (amphipods) and Golden Shiner (tipulids) were feeding on different benthic prey. Differences in feeding periodicity were most pronounced for young-of-year Pumpkinseed. Our findings provide valuable insights on interspecific feeding associations among these three fish species during summer in a Lake Ontario embayment.

  11. Distribution and abundance of fish populations in the Middle Wabash River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teppen, T.C.; Gammon, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A field investigation was made of the distribution and abundance of fish within a 161-km portion of the Wabash River to determine effects of heated effluents as well as changes in water quality on ichthyofaunal communities within the river. Twenty-six sampling stations were electrofished, sequentially, four times in 1974 with extended sampling efforts made in the vicinity of two power-generating stations studied since 1967 and 1968. During August an overall rise in river temperature of 4 0 C was observed from upstream to downstream, with several chemical factors also showing slight increases. Although the majority of species populations were influenced either negatively or positively by the gradient of river conditions available to them, the only statistically significant parameters found in the analysis of community structure involved a lower diversity by weight below Terre Haute and a greater abundance of fish above the Cayuga generating station. Decreases occurred downstream in populations of redhorse (Moxostoma sp.), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis), and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), with increases downstream observed in flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), shortnose gar (Lepisosteus platostomus), longnose gar (E. osseus), and bowfin (Amia calva) populations. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were present in large numbers throughout the study area with a tremendous population increase evident in recent years. Although species associations were variable among the segments, overall community parameters remained relatively unaffected

  12. Competitive Interactions between Invasive Nile Tilapia and Native Fish: The Potential for Altered Trophic Exchange and Modification of Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles W.; Valentine, Marla M.; Valentine, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted both the positive and negative impacts of species invasions. Most of these studies have been conducted on either immobile invasive plants or sessile fauna found at the base of food webs. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of vagile invasive consumers on native competitors. This is an issue of some importance given the controlling influence that consumers have on lower order plants and animals. Here, we present results of laboratory experiments designed to assess the impacts of unintended aquaculture releases of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), in estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico, on the functionally similar redspotted sunfish (Lepomis miniatus). Laboratory choice tests showed that tilapia prefer the same structured habitat that native sunfish prefer. In subsequent interspecific competition experiments, agonistic tilapia displaced sunfish from their preferred structured habitats. When a piscivore (largemouth bass) was present in the tank with both species, the survival of sunfish decreased. Based on these findings, if left unchecked, we predict that the proliferation of tilapia (and perhaps other aggressive aquaculture fishes) will have important detrimental effects on the structure of native food webs in shallow, structured coastal habitats. While it is likely that the impacts of higher trophic level invasive competitors will vary among species, these results show that consequences of unintended releases of invasive higher order consumers can be important. PMID:21200433

  13. A Pilot Study Testing a Natural and a Synthetic Molluscicide for Controlling Invasive Apple Snails (Pomacea maculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Heather M; Jenkins, Jill A; Berhow, Mark; Carter, Jacoby

    2016-03-01

    Pomacea maculata (formerly P. insularum), an apple snail native to South America, was discovered in Louisiana in 2008. These snails strip vegetation, reproduce at tremendous rates, and have reduced rice production and caused ecosystem changes in Asia. In this pilot study snails were exposed to two molluscicides, a tea (Camellia sinensis) seed derivative (TSD) or niclosamide monohydrate (Pestanal(®), 2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide, CAS #73360-56-2). Mortality was recorded after exposure to high or low concentrations (0.03 and 0.015 g/L for TSD, 1.3 and 0.13 mg/L for niclosamide). The TSD induced 100 % mortality at both concentrations. Niclosamide caused 100 % and 17 % mortality at high and low concentrations respectively. These molluscicides were also tested on potential biocontrol agents, the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus). No crayfish mortalities occurred at either concentration for either chemical, but sunfish experienced 100 % mortality with TSD (0.03 g/L), and 21 % mortality with niclosamide (0.13 mg/L).

  14. Snake (Colubridae: Thamnophis) predatory responses to chemical cues from native and introduced prey species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, S.J.; Imbert, H.; Fish, J.M.; Ervin, E.L.; Fisher, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Several aquatic vertebrates have been introduced into freshwater systems in California over the past 100 years. Some populations of the two-striped garter snake (Thamnophis hammondii) have lived in sympatry with these species since their introduction; other populations have never encountered them. To assess the possible adaptation to a novel prey, we tested the predatory responses of T. hammondii from different populations to different chemosensory cues from native and introduced prey species. We presented chemical extracts from potential prey types and 2 control odors to individual snakes on cotton swabs and recorded the number of tongue flicks and attacks directed at each swab. Subject response was higher for prey odors than control substances. Odors from introduced centrarchid fish (Lepomis) elicited higher response levels than other prey types, including native anuran larvae (Pseudacris regilla). The pattern of response was similar for both populations of snakes (experienced and nai??ve, with respect to the introduced prey). We suggest that the generalist aquatic lifestyle of T. hammondii has allowed it to take advantage of increasing populations of introduced prey. Decisions on the management strategies for some of these introduced prey species should include consideration of how T. hammondii populations might respond in areas of sympatry.

  15. First isolation of a rhabdovirus from perch Perca fluviatilis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahli, Thomas; Bellec, Laure; von Siebenthal, Beat; Cabon, Joëlle; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Morin, Thierry

    2015-10-16

    Perca fluviatilis is a fish species of increasing interest to the Swiss fish farming industry. In recent years, recirculation systems have been specifically set up to increase production. In one of these farms, abnormal spiral swimming associated with elevated mortalities occurred in repeated batches of imported perch shortly after stocking on several occasions. No bacterial or parasitic etiology was detected, but a virus grown in bluegill fry (BF-2) cells was identified as perch rhabdovirus. Subsequent investigations of other samples suggested a viral tropism for the central nervous system (CNS). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial N and entire G gene sequences positioned this isolate in genogroup C of the species Perch rhabdovirus, with high nucleotide and amino acid (aa) sequence identities with the DK5533 strain isolated in Denmark in 1989. Comparative studies using other closely related isolates allowed the distinction of 2 serological patterns among perch rhabdoviruses and the identification of a proline substitution by a serine in position 147 of the glycoprotein potentially involved in antigenic differentiation. Even if perch imported onto the farm tested negative by virus isolation prior to transport, they may have been the origin of this outbreak since CNS tissue was not included in the samples that were analyzed. Another possibility might be a sub-clinical infection with a viral load in resident fish too low to be detected. This study reports the first isolation of a perch rhabdovirus in Switzerland, and emphasizes the necessity of optimizing diagnostic tools that facilitate better control of the risks associated with fish translocation.

  16. Environmental radiological studies conducted during 1986 in the vicinity of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1987-03-01

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1986 for our assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides discharged with aqueous releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Plant. In October 1984, a liquid-effluent control program was initiated that significantly reduced the quantities of radionuclides discharged with liquid waste from the plant. However, results from our sampling program in 1986 indicate that previously discharged radionuclides persist in the downstream environment and are found in many aquatic dietary components although at concentrations much lower than those measured in 1984 and 1985. The greatly reduced activities in the dietary components from the aquatic environment attest to the effectiveness of the liquid-effluent control program. Concentrations in the flesh of fish from the creeks have decreased over time and with distance from the plant outfall. The mean concentration of 137 Cs in fish collected from Laguna Creek at locations more than 7.5 km from Rancho Seco is now comparable to the concentration determined in fresh-water fish randomly selected from Chicago, Illinois, markets. By August 1986, the mean concentration of 137 Cs in the flesh of bluegill had fallen to 7% of the concentration measured in fish from comparable locations in 1984 and was 30% of the mean concentration measured in these fish during August 1985. Stable potassium in the water plays a major role in the accumulation of 137 Cs by fish. Concentrations of 137 Cs in the surface sections of creek sediments also declined between the end of 1984 and 1986 with an effective half-life of approximately 2 y. Surface soils collected around a perimeter 11 km from Rancho Seco and from ranchlands closer to the plant showed only concentrations of 137 Cs originating from global fallout. Soils previously irrigated with Clay Creek water retain levels of both 134 Cs and 137 Cs

  17. Kinetic determination of vitellogenin induction in the epidermis of cyprinid and perciform fishes: Evaluation of sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allner, Bernhard; Hennies, Mark; Lerche, Cristiano F; Schmidt, Thomas; Schneider, Klaus; Willner, Marco; Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra

    2016-12-01

    Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) in male and immature fish is a standardized endpoint in endocrine-disruption testing. To establish a nondestructive swab sampling method, VTG induction in the epidermis of Cypriniformes and Perciformes species was investigated. Both VTG and estrogen receptor genes are expressed in epidermal cells. Immunoaffinity and mass fingerprint analyses show induction of identical VTG peptides in liver and epidermis. Induction of VTG by estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the epidermis was quantified with homolog enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Initial values in juveniles and males were below 1 ng VTG/mL extraction buffer. Exposure to E2 led to values between 200 ng/mL and 4600 ng/mL in cyprinids and between 10 ng/mL and 81 ng/mL in perciforms. Exposure to BPA increased VTG amounts to 250 ng/mL in fathead minnows, 1360 ng/mL in goldfish, 100 ng/mL in zebrafish, and 12 ng/mL in bluegills. Serum VTG contents demonstrated a similar dose-response pattern in the epidermis and the blood. These results show that VTG induction may be reliably assessed in the skin mucus of fishes, demonstrating the suitability of this biological sample for investigating estrogenic activity in compliance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development standard protocols. This broadens the perspectives in toxicological screening and environmental monitoring, reducing the number of tested animals and minimizing harmful effects for animals, allowing for follow-up of individual induction profiles. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2916-2930. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  18. Electrofishing survey of the Great Miami River, September 1994 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, L.E.; Miller, M.C.; Evans, R.L.; Koch, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Fish sampling by electroshocking in the Great Miami River upstream and downstream the Fernald site (September 25 and 26, 1994) was designed to determine changes in the health of the fish community compared to the previous ten years and to collect samples for uranium analyses in fish fillets. Samples of 853 fish, from 27 species, eight families and three sites at river mile (RM) 38, RM 24, and RM 19 provided seventy-eight samples for uranium analyses by an independent laboratory. The biomass of fish caught per hour was greatest at RM 24 > RM 19 > RM 3 8. The diversity index and the heaviest fish community was RM 24 > RM 38 > RM 19. The pooled site at RM 38 near Hamilton was diagnostically separated from the other sites by the young-of-the-year (YOY) golden redhorse, smallmouth bass and golden shiner. The darns at Hamilton acted as an effective barrier against fish migration upriver. Larger freshwater drum, gizzard shad, channel catfish and flathead catfish, which might be expected in rapid current reaches of mid-sized rivers characterize RM 24. The pool at RM 19 was distinguished from the others by YOY gizzard shad, bluegill, and longear sunfish. Thus the fish community in 1994 was separated ecologically by the physical features of the habitat more than by water quality differences between sites. These data suggest that the Fernald effluents in September were having no detectable effects on the distribution of fishes, independent of changes in habitat quality separated on physical attributes of the river channel at each site

  19. Enhanced detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus by pretreatment of cell monolayers with polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    To improve quantification of very low levels of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in samples of tissue, ovarian fluid, or natural water supplies, we tested the ability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to enhance the sensitivity and speed of the plaque assay system. We compared 4, 7, and 10% solutions of PEG of molecular weight 6,000, 8,000, or 20,000 applied at selected volumes and for various durations. When cell monolayers of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC), fathead minnow (FHM), chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214), and bluegill fry (BF2) were pretreated with 7% PEG-20,000, they produced 4-17-fold increases in plaque assay titers of IHNV. The plaque assay titers of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, chum salmon reovirus, and chinook salmon paramyxovirus were also enhanced by exposure of CHSE-214 cells to PEG, but the titers of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and Oncorhynchus masou virus were not substantially changed. Plaques formed by IHNV on PEG-treated EPC cells incubated at 15°C had a larger mean diameter at 6 d than those on control cells at 8 d; this suggests the assay could be shortened by use of PEG. Pretreatment of EPC cell monolayers with PEG enabled detection of IHNV in some samples that appeared negative with untreated cells. For example, when ovarian fluid samples from chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were inoculated onto untreated monolayers of EPC cells, IHNV was detected in only 11 of 51 samples; 17 of the samples were positive when PEG-treated EPC cells were used.PDF

  20. Old world versus new world: life-history alterations in a successful invader introduced across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael G; Copp, Gordon H

    2014-02-01

    We examined differences in pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) life-history traits between native North American and introduced European populations, and tested three life-history predictions related to the effect of temperature, growth, waterbody size, and the presence/absence of predators on native and non-native populations. Pumpkinseed populations exhibit more 'opportunistic' traits (earlier maturity, smaller size at maturity, and higher reproductive allocation) in their introduced European range than those in their native range. Predictions of life-history traits were improved when indicators of juvenile growth rate (mean length at age 2), waterbody size (surface area), and thermal regime (air temperature degree-days above 10 °C) were incorporated into models along with continental location, but European pumpkinseed populations exhibit more opportunistic life-history traits than North American populations even when these factors are accounted for. Native pumpkinseed in waterbodies containing piscivores mature later and at a larger size, and have lower gonadosomatic indices than those in waterbodies lacking piscivores, whereas there is no significant difference in the same three life-history traits between European waterbodies containing or lacking piscivores. Because congeneric competitors of the pumpkinseed are absent from Europe, the apparent absence of a predator life-history effect there could also be due to the absence of the major sunfish competitors. In either case, the evolution and maintenance of more opportunistic traits in European pumpkinseed can likely be attributed to enemy release, and this may explain the successful establishment and spread of pumpkinseed in many parts of Europe.

  1. Temporal changes in taxonomic and functional diversity of fish assemblages downstream from mountaintop mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Chambers, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Mountaintop mining (MTM) affects chemical, physical, and hydrological properties of receiving streams, but the long-term consequences for fish-assemblage structure and function are poorly understood. We sampled stream fish assemblages using electrofishing techniques in MTM exposure sites and reference sites within the Guyandotte River basin, USA, during 2010–2011. We calculated indices of taxonomic diversity (species richness, abundance, Shannon diversity) and functional diversity (functional richness, functional evenness, functional divergence) to compare exposure and reference assemblages between seasons (spring and autumn) and across years (1999–2011). We based temporal comparisons on 2 sites that were sampled during 1999–2001 by Stauffer and Ferreri (2002). Exposure assemblages had lower taxonomic and functional diversity than reference assemblages or simulated assemblages that accounted for random variation. Differences in taxonomic composition between reference and exposure assemblages were associated with conductivity and aqueous Se concentrations. Exposure assemblages had fewer species, lower abundances, and less biomass than reference assemblages across years and seasons. Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) became numerically dominant in exposure assemblages over time because of their persistence and losses of other taxa. In contrast, species richness increased over time in reference assemblages, a result that may indicate recovery from drought. Mean individual biomass increased as fish density decreased and most obligate invertivores were apparently extirpated at MTM exposure sites. Effects of MTM were not related to physical-habitat conditions but were associated with water-quality variables, which may limit quality and availability of benthic macroinvertebrate prey. Simulations revealed effects of MTM that could not be attributed to random variation in fish assemblage structure.

  2. Long-term trends of native and non-native fish faunas in the American Southwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olden, J. D.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and the proliferation of non-native fish species threaten the endemic, and highly unique fish faunas of the American Southwest. The present study examines long-term trends (> 160 years of fish species distributions in the Lower Colorado River Basin and identifies those native species (n = 28 exhibiting the greatest rates of decline and those non-native species (n = 48 exhibiting the highest rates of spread. Among the fastest expanding invaders in the basin are red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, western mosquitofish (Gambussia affinis and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; species considered to be the most invasive in terms of their negative impacts on native fish communities. Interestingly, non-native species that have been recently introduced (1950+ have generally spread at substantially lower rates as compared to species introduced prior to this time (especially from 1920 to 1950, likely reflecting reductions in human-aided spread of species. We found general agreement between patterns of species decline and extant distribution sizes and official listing status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. ‘Endangered’ species have generally experienced greater declines and have smaller present-day distributions compared to ‘threatened’ species, which in turn have shown greater declines and smaller distributions than those species not currently listed. A number of notable exceptions did exist, however, and these may provide critical information to help guide the future listing of species (i.e., identification of candidates and the upgrading or downgrading of current listed species that are endemic to the Lower Colorado River Basin. The strong correlation between probability estimates of local extirpation and patterns of native species decline and present-day distributions suggest a possible proactive

  3. Relationships among catch, angler catisfaction, and fish assemblage characteristics of an urban small impoundment fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivasauskas, Tomas J.; Xiong, Wilson N.; Engman, Augustin C.; Fischer, Jesse R.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Rundle, Kirk R.

    2017-01-01

    Urban fisheries provide unique angling opportunities for people from traditionally underrepresented demographics. Lake Raleigh is a 38-ha impoundment located on the North Carolina State University campus in Raleigh. Like many urban fisheries, little is known about angler use and satisfaction or how angling catch rate is related to fish availability in Lake Raleigh. We characterized the recreational fishery and fish assemblage with concurrent creel and boat electrofishing surveys over the course of one year. In total, 245 anglers were interviewed on 68 survey days. On average, anglers spent 1.7 h fishing per trip and caught 0.385 fish h –1. A large proportion of anglers (43.9%) targeted multiple species, whereas 36.5% targeted largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), 10.0% targeted panfish (i.e., sunfishes [Lepomis spp.] and crappies [Pomoxis spp.]), and 9.6% targeted catfish (Ameiurus spp. and Ictalurus spp.). Most anglers (69.4%) were satisfied with their experience, and overall satisfaction was unrelated to catch rate. Pulsed-DC boat electrofishing was conducted on 25 dates, and 617 fish were sampled. Angler catch rate was unrelated to electrofishing catch rate, implying that anglers' catch rate was independent of fish density or availability. Our results demonstrate that even minimally managed urban fisheries can provide high angler satisfaction, with limited dedication of management resources. Relationships Among Catch, Angler Satisfaction, and Fish Assemblage Characteristics of an Urban Small Impoundment Fishery (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316636550_Relationships_Among_Catch_Angler_Satisfaction_and_Fish_Assemblage_Characteristics_of_an_Urban_Small_Impoundment_Fishery [accessed Aug 11, 2017].

  4. Using data from an encounter sampler to model fish dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaza, A.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Trexler, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    A method to estimate speed of free-ranging fishes using a passive sampling device is described and illustrated with data from the Everglades, U.S.A. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) from minnow traps embedded in drift fences was treated as an encounter rate and used to estimate speed, when combined with an independent estimate of density obtained by use of throw traps that enclose 1 m2 of marsh habitat. Underwater video was used to evaluate capture efficiency and species-specific bias of minnow traps and two sampling studies were used to estimate trap saturation and diel-movement patterns; these results were used to optimize sampling and derive correction factors to adjust species-specific encounter rates for bias and capture efficiency. Sailfin mollies Poecilia latipinna displayed a high frequency of escape from traps, whereas eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki were most likely to avoid a trap once they encountered it; dollar sunfish Lepomis marginatus were least likely to avoid the trap once they encountered it or to escape once they were captured. Length of sampling and time of day affected CPUE; fishes generally had a very low retention rate over a 24 h sample time and only the Everglades pygmy sunfish Elassoma evergladei were commonly captured at night. Dispersal speed of fishes in the Florida Everglades, U.S.A., was shown to vary seasonally and among species, ranging from 0.05 to 0.15 m s-1 for small poeciliids and fundulids to 0.1 to 1.8 m s-1 for L. marginatus. Speed was generally highest late in the wet season and lowest in the dry season, possibly tied to dispersal behaviours linked to finding and remaining in dry-season refuges. These speed estimates can be used to estimate the diffusive movement rate, which is commonly employed in spatial ecological models.

  5. Effects of depletion sampling by standard three-pass pulsed DC electrofishing on blood chemistry parameters of fishes from Appalachian streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Christine L.; Panek, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse effects on fishes captured by electrofishing techniques have long been recognized, although the extent of associated physical injury and behavioral alterations are highly variable and dependent on a number of factors. We examined the effects of three-pass pulsed DC (PDC) electrofishing on two salmonid species (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) and five other genera (Green Sunfish Lepomis cyanellus, Potomac Sculpin Cottus girardi, Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus) common to Appalachian streams. We examined the corresponding effects of PDC electroshock on the following physiological indicators of stress and trauma: blood glucose and serum lactate, as well as on other blood chemistry, namely, enzymes, electrolytes, minerals, and proteins. All species demonstrated physiological responses to PDC electroshock, indicated by the biochemical differences in blood parameters in unshocked and shocked groups of fish with or without gross evidence of hemorrhagic trauma. Serum lactate was the most consistent indicator of these effects. Significant differences in whole blood glucose levels were also noted in treatment groups in all species except Green Sunfish, although the patterns observed were not as consistent as for serum lactate. Elevations in the serum enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, in the electroshocked fish occurred only in the two salmonid species. In many instances, although blood parameters were elevated in electroshocked fish compared with the unshocked controls for a given species, there were no differences in those levels in electroshocked fish based on the presence of gross hemorrhagic trauma to axial musculature. While some of the blood parameters examined correlated with both the occurrence of electroshock and the resultant tissue injury, there was no apparent link between the altered blood chemistry and

  6. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: II. Biological consequences of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Mark E.; Choy, Steven J.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Minarik, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain one fifth of the world’s surface freshwater and have been impacted by human activity since the Industrial Revolution. In addition to legacy contaminants, nitrification and invasive species, this aquatic ecosystem is also the recipient of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) with poorly understood biological consequences. In the current study, we documented the presence, concentrations, and biological effects of CECs across 27 field sites in six Great Lakes tributaries by examining over 2250 resident and caged sunfish (Lepomis ssp.) for a variety of morphological and physiological endpoints and related these results to CEC occurrence. CEC were ubiquitous across studies sites and their presence and concentrations in water and sediment were highest in effluent dominated rivers and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges. However, even putative upstream reference sites were not free of CEC presence and fish at these sites exhibited biological effects consistent with CEC exposure. Only the Fox River exhibited consistent adverse biological effects, including increased relative liver size, greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles and increased plasma glucose concentrations. Canonical Redundancy Analysis revealed consistent patterns of biological consequences of CEC exposure across all six tributaries. Increasing plasma glucose concentrations, likely as a result of pollutant-induced metabolic stress, were associated with increased relative liver size and greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles. These indicators of pollutant exposure were inversely correlated with indicators of reproductive potential including smaller gonad size and less mature gametes. The current study highlights the need for greater integration of chemical and biological studies and suggests that CECs in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin may adversely affect the reproductive potential of exposed fish populations. PMID:28953953

  7. Predation on exotic zebra mussels by native fishes: Effects on predator and prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoulick, D.D.; Lewis, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. Exotic zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, occur in southern U.S. waterways in high densities, but little is known about the interaction between native fish predators and zebra mussels. Previous studies have suggested that exotic zebra mussels are low profitability prey items and native vertebrate predators are unlikely to reduce zebra mussel densities. We tested these hypotheses by observing prey use of fishes, determining energy content of primary prey species of fishes, and conducting predator exclusion experiments in Lake Dardanelle, Arkansas. 2. Zebra mussels were the primary prey eaten by 52.9% of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus; 48.2% of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens; and 100% of adult redear sunfish, Lepomis microlophus. Blue catfish showed distinct seasonal prey shifts, feeding on zebra mussels in summer and shad, Dorosoma spp., during winter. Energy content (joules g-1) of blue catfish prey (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; gizzard shad, D. cepedianum; zebra mussels; and asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea) showed a significant species by season interaction, but shad were always significantly greater in energy content than bivalves examined as either ash-free dry mass or whole organism dry mass. Fish predators significantly reduced densities of large zebra mussels (>5 mm length) colonising clay tiles in the summers of 1997 and 1998, but predation effects on small zebra mussels (???5 mm length) were less clear. 3. Freshwater drum and redear sunfish process bivalve prey by crushing shells and obtain low amounts of higher-energy food (only the flesh), whereas blue catfish lack a shell-crushing apparatus and ingest large amounts of low-energy food per unit time (bivalves with their shells). Blue catfish appeared to select the abundant zebra mussel over the more energetically rich shad during summer, then shifted to shad during winter when shad experienced temperature-dependent stress and mortality. Native fish predators can suppress adult zebra

  8. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: II. Biological consequences of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Linnea M.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Brigham, Mark E.; Choy, Steven J.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, D.J.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain one fifth of the world’s surface freshwater and have been impacted by human activity since the Industrial Revolution. In addition to legacy contaminants, nitrification and invasive species, this aquatic ecosystem is also the recipient of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) with poorly understood biological consequences. In the current study, we documented the presence, concentrations, and biological effects of CECs across 27 field sites in six Great Lakes tributaries by examining over 2250 resident and caged sunfish (Lepomis ssp.) for a variety of morphological and physiological endpoints and related these results to CEC occurrence. CEC were ubiquitous across studies sites and their presence and concentrations in water and sediment were highest in effluent dominated rivers and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges. However, even putative upstream reference sites were not free of CEC presence and fish at these sites exhibited biological effects consistent with CEC exposure. Only the Fox River exhibited consistent adverse biological effects, including increased relative liver size, greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles and increased plasma glucose concentrations. Canonical Redundancy Analysis revealed consistent patterns of biological consequences of CEC exposure across all six tributaries. Increasing plasma glucose concentrations, likely as a result of pollutant-induced metabolic stress, were associated with increased relative liver size and greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles. These indicators of pollutant exposure were inversely correlated with indicators of reproductive potential including smaller gonad size and less mature gametes. The current study highlights the need for greater integration of chemical and biological studies and suggests that CECs in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin may adversely affect the reproductive potential of exposed fish populations.

  9. Saturated Branched Chain, Normal Odd-Carbon-Numbered, and n-3 (Omega-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Freshwater Fish in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong Hao; Jackson, James R; Twining, Cornelia; Rudstam, Lars G; Zollweg-Horan, Emily; Kraft, Clifford; Lawrence, Peter; Kothapalli, Kumar; Wang, Zhen; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-10-04

    The fatty acid profiles of wild freshwater fish are poorly characterized as a human food source for several classes of fatty acids, particularly for branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), a major bioactive dietary component known to enter the US food supply primarily via dairy and beef fat. We evaluated the fatty acid content of 27 freshwater fish species captured in the northeastern US with emphasis on the BCFA and bioactive polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) most associated with fish, specifically n-3 (omega-3) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Mean BCFA content across all species was 1.0 ± 0.5% (mean ± SD) of total fatty acids in edible muscle, with rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) the highest at >2% BCFA. In comparison, EPA + DHA constituted 28% ± 7% of total fatty acids. Across all fish species, the major BCFA were iso-15:0, anteiso-15:0, iso-16:0, iso-17:0 and anteiso-17:0. Fish skin had significantly higher BCFA content than muscle tissues, at 1.8% ± 0.7%, but lower EPA and DHA. Total BCFA in fish skins was positively related with that in muscle (r 2 = 0.6). The straight chain saturates n-15:0 and n-17:0 which have been identified previously as markers for dairy consumption were relatively high with means of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, and may be an underappreciated marker for seafood intake. Consuming a standardized portion, 70 g (2.5 oz), of wild freshwater fish contributes only small amounts of BCFA, 2.5-24.2 mg, to the American diet, while it adds surprisingly high amounts of EPA + DHA (107 mg to 558 mg).

  10. Modeling possible cooling-water intake system impacts on Ohio River fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Elgin; Seegert, Greg; Vondruska, Joe; Lohner, Timothy; Lewis, Randy

    2002-04-26

    To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecological Research Program and Ohio River Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) electrofishing monitoring programs. Entrainment and impingement data were obtained from 316(b) demonstrations previously completed at eight Ohio River power plants. The model was first run under a scenario representative of current conditions, which included fish losses due to entrainment and impingement. The model was then rerun with these losses added back into the populations, representative of what would happen if all entrainment and impingement losses were eliminated. The model was run to represent a 50-year time period, which is a typical life span for an Ohio River coal-fired power plant. Percent changes between populations modeled with and without entrainment and impingement losses in each pool were compared to the mean interannual coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of normal fish population variability. In 6 of the 22 scenarios of fish species and river pools that were evaluated (6 species x 5 river pools, minus 8 species/river pool combinations that could not be evaluated due to insufficient fish data), the projected fish population change was greater than the expected variability of the existing fish population, indicating a possible adverse environmental impact. Given the number of other variables affecting fish populations and the conservative modeling approach, which assumed 100% mortality for all entrained fish and eggs, it was concluded that the likelihood of impact was by no means

  11. Modeling Possible Cooling-Water Intake System Impacts on Ohio River Fish Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgin Perry

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecological Research Program and Ohio River Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO electrofishing monitoring programs. Entrainment and impingement data were obtained from 316(b demonstrations previously completed at eight Ohio River power plants. The model was first run under a scenario representative of current conditions, which included fish losses due to entrainment and impingement. The model was then rerun with these losses added back into the populations, representative of what would happen if all entrainment and impingement losses were eliminated. The model was run to represent a 50-year time period, which is a typical life span for an Ohio River coal-fired power plant. Percent changes between populations modeled with and without entrainment and impingement losses in each pool were compared to the mean interannual coefficient of variation (CV, a measure of normal fish population variability. In 6 of the 22 scenarios of fish species and river pools that were evaluated (6 species × 5 river pools, minus 8 species/river pool combinations that could not be evaluated due to insufficient fish data, the projected fish population change was greater than the expected variability of the existing fish population, indicating a possible adverse environmental impact. Given the number of other variables affecting fish populations and the conservative modeling approach, which assumed 100% mortality for all entrained fish and eggs, it was concluded that the likelihood of impact was

  12. Influence of metal(loid) bioaccumulation and maternal transfer on embryo-larval development in fish exposed to a major coal ash spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Mark S; Adams, S Marshall; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Mary K

    2016-04-01

    In December 2008, an earthen retaining wall at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Fuel Plant failed and released 4.1 millionm(3) of coal ash to rivers flowing into Watts Bar Reservoir in east Tennessee, United States (U.S.). As part of a comprehensive effort to evaluate the risks to aquatic resources from this spill - the largest in U.S. history - we compared bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in adult redear sunfish (Lepomis macrolophus), collected two years after the spill from both coal-ash exposed and non-exposed areas of the Emory and Clinch Rivers, with the success of embryo-larval development in their offspring. Whole body and ovary concentrations of Se in female sunfish at three study sites downstream of the spill were significantly elevated (site means=4.9-5.3 and 6.7-9.0mg/kg d.w. whole body and ovary concentrations, respectively) compared with concentrations in fish from reference sites upstream of the spill site (2.2-3.2mg/kg d.w. for whole bodies and 3.6-4.8mg/kg d.w. for ovaries). However, Se concentrations in coal ash-exposed areas remain below proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Site-to-site variation in fish concentrations of As and Hg were not well-correlated with ash-exposure, reflecting the multiple sources of these metal(loid)s in the affected watersheds. In 7-day laboratory tests of embryos and larvae derived from in vitro crosses of eggs and sperm from these field-collected sunfish, fertilization success, hatching success, embryo-larval survival, and incidences of developmental abnormalities did not differ significantly between ash-exposed and non-exposed fish. Furthermore, these developmental endpoints were not correlated with whole body or ovary concentrations of Se, As, or Hg in the maternal fish, or with fish size, ovary weight, or gonadal-somatic indices. Results from this and related studies associated

  13. An Assessment of the Bioaccumulation of PCBs and Chloridane Near the U.S. Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2003-12-30

    important component of this effort, the fish sampling locations and species collected were essentially the same as in previous studies. In general, locations were chosen upstream and downstream of major KCP outfalls to help evaluate the importance of those outfalls as sources of PCBs. Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were again the primary species collected.

  14. Potential Human Health Risk by Metal(loid)s, 234,238U and 210Po due to Consumption of Fish from the “Luis L. Leon” Reservoir (Northern México)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Porres, Mayra Y.; Rodríguez-Villa, Marco A.; Herrera-Peraza, Eduardo F.; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia; Montero-Cabrera, María E.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn and activity concentrations from 234,238U and 210Po in water, fillet, liver and gills were determined in three stocked fish species from the Luis L. Leon reservoir, located in Northern Mexico. The considered species were Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus. 238U and 234U activity concentration (AC) in fillet samples showed values of 0.007–0.014 and 0.01–0.02 Bq∙kg−1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for L. cyanellus, C. carpio and I. furcatus present 210Po AC of 1.16–3.26, 0.70–1.13 and 0.93–1.37 Bq∙kg−1 ww. Arsenic, mercury and lead concentration intervals in fillet samples were 0.13–0.39, 0.005–0.126 and 0.009–0.08 mg∙kg−1 ww, respectively, while in gill samples they were 0.11–0.43, 0.002–0.039 and 0.02–0.26 mg∙kg−1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues with respect to their concentrations in water was determined. L. cyanellus showed the highest BAF values for As and total U, being BAFAs = 37 and 40 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively, and BAFU total = 1.5 L∙kg−1 in fillet. I. furcatus showed the highest BAF values for Hg and Pb, being BAFHg = 40 and 13 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, and BAFPb = 6.5 and 22 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively. Some metal(loid) concentrations are slightly higher than European regulations for fish fillets. The difference in concentrations of metal(loid)s in fillet among the studied species is probably due to their differences in diet and habitat. PMID:24968208

  15. Potential Human Health Risk by Metal(loids, 234,238U and 210Po due to Consumption of Fish from the “Luis L. Leon” Reservoir (Northern México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Y. Luna-Porres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn and activity concentrations from 234,238U and 210Po in water, fillet, liver and gills were determined in three stocked fish species from the Luis L. Leon reservoir, located in Northern Mexico. The considered species were Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus. 238U and 234U activity concentration (AC in fillet samples showed values of 0.007–0.014 and 0.01–0.02 Bq∙kg−1 wet weight (ww, respectively. Liver samples for L. cyanellus, C. carpio and I. furcatus present 210Po AC of 1.16–3.26, 0.70–1.13 and 0.93–1.37 Bq∙kg−1 ww. Arsenic, mercury and lead concentration intervals in fillet samples were 0.13–0.39, 0.005–0.126 and 0.009–0.08 mg∙kg−1 ww, respectively, while in gill samples they were 0.11–0.43, 0.002–0.039 and 0.02–0.26 mg∙kg−1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF for fish tissues with respect to their concentrations in water was determined. L. cyanellus showed the highest BAF values for As and total U, being BAFAs = 37 and 40 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively, and BAFU total = 1.5 L∙kg−1 in fillet. I. furcatus showed the highest BAF values for Hg and Pb, being BAFHg = 40 and 13 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, and BAFPb = 6.5 and 22 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively. Some metal(loid concentrations are slightly higher than European regulations for fish fillets. The difference in concentrations of metal(loids in fillet among the studied species is probably due to their differences in diet and habitat.

  16. Environmental Factors Affecting Mercury in Camp Far West Reservoir, California, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Stewart, A. Robin; Saiki, Michael K.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Topping, Brent R.; Rider, Kelly M.; Gallanthine, Steven K.; Kester, Cynthia A.; Rye, Robert O.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; De Wild, John F.

    2008-01-01

    water were observed in samples collected during summer from deepwater stations in the anoxic hypolimnion. In the shallow (less than 14 meters depth) oxic epilimnion, concentrations of methylmercury in unfiltered water were highest during the spring and lowest during the fall. The ratio of methylmercury to total mercury (MeHg/HgT) increased systematically from winter to spring to summer, largely in response to the progressive seasonal decrease in total mercury concentrations, but also to some extent because of increases in MeHg concentrations during summer. Water-quality data for Camp Far West Reservoir are used in conjunction with data from linked studies of sediment and biota to develop and refine a conceptual model for mercury methylation and bioaccumulation in the reservoir and the lower Bear River watershed. It is hypothesized that MeHg is produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria in the anoxic parts of the water column and in shallow bed sediment. Conditions were optimal for this process during late summer and fall. Previous work has indicated that Camp Far West Reservoir is a phosphate-limited system - molar ratios of inorganic nitrogen to inorganic phosphorus in filtered water were consistently greater than 16 (the Redfield ratio), sometimes by orders of magnitude. Therefore, concentrations of orthophosphate were expectedly very low or below detection at all stations during all seasons. It is further hypothesized that iron-reducing bacteria facilitate release of phosphorus from iron-rich sediments during summer and early fall, stimulating phytoplankton growth in the fall and winter, and that the MeHg produced in the hypolimnion and metalimnion is released to the entire water column in the late fall during reservoir destratification (vertical mixing). Mercury bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were computed using data from linked studies of biota spanning a range of trophic position: zooplankton, midge larvae, mayfly nymphs, crayfish, threadfin shad, bluegill,

  17. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Tumacacori National Historical Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Anning, Pamela; Docherty, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Tumacacori National Historical Park (NHP) in southern Arizona. These surveys were part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. From 2000 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Tumacacori NHP to document presence of species within the administrative boundaries of the park's three units. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a long-term monitoring program. We recorded 591 species at Tumacacori NHP, significantly increasing the number of known species for the park (Table 1). Species of note in each taxonomic group include: * Plants: second record in Arizona of muster John Henry, a non-native species that is ranked a 'Class A noxious weed' in California; * Amphibian: Great Plains narrow-mouthed toad; * Reptiles: eastern fence lizard and Sonoran mud turtle; * Birds: yellow-billed cuckoo, green kingfisher, and one observation of the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher; * Fishes: four native species including an important population of the endangered Gila topminnow in the Tumacacori Channel; * Mammals: black bear and all four species of skunk known to occur in Arizona. We recorded 79 non-native species (Table E.S.1), many of which are of management concern, including: Bermudagrass, tamarisk, western mosquitofish, largemouth bass, bluegill, sunfish, American bullfrog, feral cats and dogs, and cattle. We also noted an abundance of crayfish (a non-native invertebrate). We review some of the important non-native species and make recommendations to remove them or to minimize their impacts on the native biota of the park. Based on the observed species richness, Tumacacori NHP possesses high biological diversity of plants, fish