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Sample records for blueberry-enriched diet protects

  1. Blueberry-enriched diet protects rat heart from ischemic damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismayil Ahmet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available to assess the cardioprotective properties of a blueberry enriched diet (BD.Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a major role in ischemia-related myocardial injury. The attempts to use synthetic antioxidants to block the detrimental effects of ROS have produced mixed or negative results precipitating the interest in natural products. Blueberries are readily available product with the highest antioxidant capacity among fruits and vegetables.Following 3-mo of BD or a regular control diet (CD, the threshold for mitochondrial permeability transition (t(MPT was measured in isolated cardiomyocytes obtained from young male Fischer-344 rats. Compared to CD, BD resulted in a 24% increase (p<0.001 of ROS indexed t(MPT. The remaining animals were subjected to a permanent ligation of the left descending coronary artery. 24 hrs later resulting myocardial infarction (MI in rats on BD was 22% less than in CD rats (p<0.01. Significantly less TUNEL(+ cardiomyocytes (2% vs 9% and 40% less inflammation cells were observed in the myocardial area at risk of BD compared to CD rats (p<0.01. In the subgroup of rats, after coronary ligation the original diet was either continued or switched to the opposite one, and cardiac remodeling and MI expansion were followed by serial echocardiography for 10 weeks. Measurements suggested that continuation of BD or its withdrawal after MI attenuated or accelerated rates of post MI cardiac remodeling and MI expansion.A blueberry-enriched diet protected the myocardium from induced ischemic damage and demonstrated the potential to attenuate the development of post MI chronic heart failure.

  2. Survival and cardioprotective benefits of long-term blueberry enriched diet in dilated cardiomyopathy following myocardial infarction in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Despite remarkable progress in treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) over the last two decades, mortality, personal suffering and cost remain staggering. And effective interventions are still a challenge. Previously we reported that a blueberry-enriched diet (BD) attenuated necroapopt...

  3. Short-term blueberry-enriched diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, David H; Lee, David R; Goyarzu, Pilar; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Ennis, Lalanya J; Beckett, Elizabeth; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A

    2011-03-01

    Previously, 4 mo of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aging rats. Experiment 1 determined whether 1- and 2-mo BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the diets. Experiment 2 determined whether a 1-mo BB diet could subsequently reverse existing object memory impairment in aging rats. In experiment 1, Fischer-344 rats were maintained on an appropriate control diet or on 1 or 2 mo of the BB diet before testing object memory at 19 mo postnatally. In experiment 2, rats were tested for object recognition memory at 19 mo and again at 20 mo after 1 mo of maintenance on a 2% BB or control diet. In experiment 1, the control group performed no better than chance, whereas the 1- and 2-mo BB diet groups performed similarly and significantly better than controls. The 2-mo BB-diet group, but not the 1-mo group, maintained its performance over a subsequent month on a standard laboratory diet. In experiment 2, the 19-mo-old rats performed near chance. At 20 mo of age, the rats subsequently maintained on the BB diet significantly increased their object memory scores, whereas the control diet group exhibited a non-significant decline. The change in object memory scores differed significantly between the two diet groups. These results suggest that a considerable degree of age-related object memory decline can be prevented and reversed by brief maintenance on BB diets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A blueberry-enriched diet attenuates nephropathy in a rat model of hypertension via reduction in oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie M Elks

    Full Text Available To assess renoprotective effects of a blueberry-enriched diet in a rat model of hypertension. Oxidative stress (OS appears to be involved in the development of hypertension and related renal injury. Pharmacological antioxidants can attenuate hypertension and hypertension-induced renal injury; however, attention has shifted recently to the therapeutic potential of natural products as antioxidants. Blueberries (BB have among the highest antioxidant capacities of fruits and vegetables.Male spontaneously hypertensive rats received a BB-enriched diet (2% w/w or an isocaloric control diet for 6 or 12 weeks or 2 days. Compared to controls, rats fed BB-enriched diet for 6 or 12 weeks exhibited lower blood pressure, improved glomerular filtration rate, and decreased renovascular resistance. As measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, significant decreases in total reactive oxygen species (ROS, peroxynitrite, and superoxide production rates were observed in kidney tissues in rats on long-term dietary treatment, consistent with reduced pathology and improved function. Additionally, measures of antioxidant status improved; specifically, renal glutathione and catalase activities increased markedly. Contrasted to these observations indicating reduced OS in the BB group after long-term feeding, similar measurements made in rats fed the same diet for only 2 days yielded evidence of increased OS; specifically, significant increases in total ROS, peroxynitrite, and superoxide production rates in all tissues (kidney, brain, and liver assayed in BB-fed rats. These results were evidence of "hormesis" during brief exposure, which dissipated with time as indicated by enhanced levels of catalase in heart and liver of BB group.Long-term feeding of BB-enriched diet lowered blood pressure, preserved renal hemodynamics, and improved redox status in kidneys of hypertensive rats and concomitantly demonstrated the potential to delay or attenuate development

  5. Blueberry-enriched diet ameliorates age-related declines in NMDA receptor-dependent LTP.

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    Coultrap, Steven J; Bickford, Paula C; Browning, Michael D

    2008-12-01

    NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus is widely accepted as a cellular substrate for memory formation. Age-related declines in the expression of both NMDAR-dependent LTP and NMDAR subunit proteins in the CA1 region of the hippocampus have been well characterized and likely underlie age-related memory impairment. In the current study, we examined NMDAR-dependent LTP in young Fischer 344 rats (4 months old) and aged rats (24 months old) given either a control diet or a diet supplemented with blueberry extract for 6-8 weeks. NMDAR-dependent LTP was evoked by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) in the presence of nifedipine, to eliminate voltage-gated calcium channel LTP. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were increased by 57% 1 h after HFS in young animals, but this potentiation was reduced to 31% in aged animals. Supplementation of the diet with blueberry extract elevated LTP (63%) in aged animals to levels seen in young. The normalization of LTP may be due to the blueberry diet preventing a decline in synaptic strength, as measured by the slope of the fEPSP for a given fiber potential. The blueberry diet did not prevent age-related declines in NMDAR protein expression. However, phosphorylation of a key tyrosine residue on the NR2B subunit, important for increasing NMDAR function, was enhanced by the diet, suggesting that an increase in NMDAR function might overcome the loss in protein. This report provides evidence that dietary alterations later in life may prevent or postpone the cognitive declines associated with aging.

  6. Blueberry-enriched diet ameliorates age-related declines in NMDA receptor-dependent LTP

    OpenAIRE

    Coultrap, Steven J.; Bickford, Paula C.; Browning, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus is widely accepted as a cellular substrate for memory formation. Age-related declines in the expression of both NMDAR-dependent LTP and NMDAR subunit proteins in the CA1 region of the hippocampus have been well characterized and likely underlie age-related memory impairment. In the current study, we examined NMDAR-dependent LTP in young Fischer 344 rats (4?months old) and aged rats (24?months old) given either a control d...

  7. Resveratrol protects rabbits against cholesterol diet- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... groups compared to HFD group only. In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Keywords: Cholesterol diet, Lipidaemia, Rabbit; Resveratrol, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TG ...

  8. Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; de Roode, Jacobus C; Hunter, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Multiple generations of hosts are often exposed to the same pathogens, favouring the evolution of trans-generational defences. Because females have more opportunities to transfer protective molecules to offspring, many studies have focused on maternally derived protection. However, males of many species can transfer compounds along with sperm, including chemicals that could provide protection. Here, we assess maternally and paternally derived protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where parasite resistance is heavily influenced by secondary plant chemicals, known as cardenolides, present in the larval diet of milkweed plants. We reared monarch butterflies on medicinal and non-medicinal milkweed species and then measured resistance of their offspring to infection. We also measured cardenolide content in adult monarchs reared on the two species, and in the eggs that they produced. We found that offspring were more resistant to infection when their fathers were reared on medicinal milkweed, while maternal diet had less of an effect. We also found that eggs contained the highest levels of cardenolides when both parents were reared on the medicinal species. Moreover, females reared on non-medicinal milkweed produced eggs with significantly higher levels of cardenolides if they mated with males reared on the medicinal milkweed species. However, we found an equivocal relationship between the cardenolides present in eggs and parasite resistance in the offspring. Our results demonstrate that males reared on medicinal plants can transfer protection to their offspring, but the exact mechanism remains unresolved. This suggests that paternal protection from parasitism might be important, particularly when there are environmental sources of parasite resistance and when males transfer spermatophores during mating. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  9. The New Nordic Diet is an effective tool in environmental protection: it reduces the associated socioeconomic cost of diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    The New Nordic Diet (NND) was designed by gastronomic, nutritional, and environmental specialists to be a palatable, healthy, and sustainable diet containing 35% less meat than the Average Danish Diet (ADD); more whole-grain products, nuts, fruit, and vegetables; locally grown food in season; and >75% organic produce. The environmental impact of the 2 diets was compared based on 16 impact categories, which were monetized to evaluate the overall socioeconomic effect of a shift from an ADD to an NND. The objective was to determine whether this diet shift can be an effective tool in environmental protection. The 3 features by which this diet shift affects the environment-composition, transport (import), and type of production (organic/conventional)-were separately investigated by using life cycle assessment. When both diet composition and transport were taken into account, the NND reduced the environmental impact relative to the ADD measured by all 16 impact categories. The socioeconomic savings related to this diet shift was €266/person per year, or 32% of the overall environmental cost of the ADD. When the actual 8% content of organic produce in the ADD and the 84% content of organic produce in the investigated recipe-based NND were also taken into account, the NND reduced the environmental impact relative to the ADD measured by only 10 of the 16 impact categories whereas 6 were increased. The socioeconomic savings related to the diet shift were lowered to €42/person per year, or 5% of the overall environmental cost of the ADD. Reducing the content of meat and excluding most long-distance imports were of substantial environmental and socioeconomic advantage to the NND when compared with the ADD, whereas including high amounts of organic produce was a disadvantage.

  10. Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, M; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Panea, B; Pérez-Juan, M; Realini, C E; Campo, M M

    2016-04-01

    Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss (P⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat (P⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses (P⩽0.01) and shear force (P⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour (P⩽0.05), but increased beef (P⩽0.01) and liver (P⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid (P⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA.

  11. Mechanism of protection of moderately diet restricted rats against doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical use of doxorubicin (Adriamycin (registered) ), an antitumor agent, is limited by its oxyradical-mediated cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that moderate diet restriction protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress and inducing cardioprotective mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g) were maintained on diet restriction [35% less food than ad libitum]. Cardiotoxicity was estimated by measuring biomarkers of cardiotoxicity, cardiac function, lipid peroxidation, and histopathology. A LD 100 dose of doxorubicin (12 mg/kg, ip) administered on day 43 led to 100% mortality in ad libitum rats between 7 and 13 days due to higher cardiotoxicity and cardiac dysfunction, whereas all the diet restricted rats exhibited normal cardiac function and survived. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed equal accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the ad libitum and diet restricted hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that diet restricted rats were protected due to (1) lower oxyradical stress from increased cardiac antioxidants leading to downregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) induction of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-α and plasma adiponectin increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation (666.9 ±14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ad libitum versus 1035.6 ± 32.3 nmol/min/g heart in diet restriction) and mitochondrial AMPα2 protein kinase. The changes led to 51% higher cardiac ATP levels (17.7 ± 2.1 μmol/g heart in ad libitum versus 26.7 ± 1.9 μmol/g heart in diet restriction), higher ATP/ADP ratio, and (3) increased cardiac erythropoietin and decreased suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, which upregulates cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. These findings collectively show that moderate diet restriction renders resiliency against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by lowering oxidative stress, enhancing ATP synthesis, and inducing the JAK/STAT3 pathway

  12. Hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha Protects Against High-Fat Diet Exposure by Regulating ER alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Finan, Brian; Kim, Min; Frank, Aaron; Garcia-Caceres, Cristina; Navas, Carlos Rodriguez; Gordillo, Ruth; Neinast, Michael; Kalainayakan, Sarada P.; Li, Dan L.; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Hahner, Lisa; Palmer, Biff F.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diets (HFDs) lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogens and estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha

  13. Protective effects of some fruit juices with low-fat diet on rat testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effects of some fruit juices with low-fat diet on rat testis damaged by carbon tetrachloride: A genetic and histological study. Medhat R. Rehan, Amina M. G. Zedan, Samah A. El-Hashash, Mona A. Farid, Gehan A. El-Shafie ...

  14. Diet as a factor in behavioral radiation protection following exposure to heavy particles

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    Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James; Todd, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Major risks associated with radiation exposures on deep space missions include carcinogenesis due to heavy-particle exposure of cancer-prone tissues and performance decrements due to neurological damage produced by heavy particles. Because exposure to heavy particles can cause oxidative stress, it is possible that antioxidants can be used to mitigate these risks (and possibly some health risks of microgravity). To assess the capacity of antioxidant diets to mitigate the effects of exposure to heavy particles, rats were maintained on antioxidant diets containing 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to exposure to 1.5 or 2.0 Gy of accelerated iron particles at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation rats were tested on a series of behavioral tasks: amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning, operant responding and spatial learning and memory. The results indicated that the performance of the irradiated rats maintained on the antioxidant diets was, in general, significantly better than that of the control animals, although the effectiveness of the diets ameliorating the radiation-induced deterioration in performance varied as a function of both the specific diet and the specific endpoint. In addition, animals fed antioxidant diets prior to exposure showed reduced heavy particle-induced tumorigenesis one year after exposure compared to the animals fed the control diet. These results suggest that antioxidant diets have the potential to serve as part of a system designed to provide protection to astronauts against the effects of heavy particles on exploratory missions outside the magnetic field of the earth.

  15. Piper species protect cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Akinfiresoye, Luli; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert; Vinson, Joe A

    2012-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies points to the use of antioxidants as an effective measure to reduce the progression of oxidative stress related disorders. The present study evaluate the effect of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) for the protection of cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters were classified into eight groups: a normal control, atherogenic control and six other experimental groups (fed atherogenic diet supplemented with different doses of P. nigrum, P. guineense and P. umbellatum (1 and 0.25 g/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding period the heart, liver and kidney from each group were analyzed for lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. Atherogenic diet induced a significant (PPiper species significantly inhibited the alteration effect of atherogenic diet on the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. The Piper extracts may possess an antioxidant protective role against atherogenic diet induced oxidative stress in cardiac, hepatic and renal tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatic CEACAM1 Overexpression Protects Against Diet-induced Fibrosis and Inflammation in White Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumona Ghosh Lester

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available CEACAM1 promotes insulin extraction, an event that occurs mainly in liver. Phenocopying global Ceacam1 null mice (Cc1–/–, C57/BL6J mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited reduced hepatic CEACAM1 levels and impaired insulin clearance, followed by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity. Conversely, forced liver-specific expression of CEACAM1 protected insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure, and limited gain in total fat mass by high-fat diet in L-CC1 mice. Because CEACAM1 protein is barely detectable in white adipose tissue, we herein investigated whether hepatic CEACAM1-dependent insulin clearance pathways regulate adipose tissue biology in response to dietary fat. While high-fat diet caused a similar body weight gain in L-CC1, this effect was delayed and less intense relative to wild-type mice. Histological examination revealed less expansion of adipocytes in L-CC1 than wild-type by high-fat intake. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated a more limited recruitment of crown-like structures and qRT-PCR analysis showed no significant rise in TNFα mRNA levels in response to high-fat intake in L-CC1 than wild-type mice. Unlike wild-type, high-fat diet did not activate TGF-β in white adipose tissue of L-CC1 mice, as assessed by Western analysis of Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Consistently, high-fat diet caused relatively less collagen deposition in L-CC1 than wild-type mice, as shown by Trichome staining. Coupled with reduced lipid redistribution from liver to visceral fat, lower inflammation and fibrosis could contribute to protected energy expenditure against high-fat diet in L-CC1 mice. The data underscore the important role of hepatic insulin clearance in the regulation of adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis.

  17. Butyrate production from high-fiber diet protects against lymphoma tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Sun, Wei; Yu, Shanshan; Yang, Yu; Ai, Limei

    2016-10-01

    Gut microbiota and dietary fiber are critical for protecting body from obesity, diabetes and cancer. Butyrate, produced in the gut by bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers, is demonstrated to be protective against the development of colorectal cancer as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. We report that high-fiber diet and butyrate significantly inhibited the growth lymphoma tumors. Butyrate induced apoptosis of lymphoma tumor cells and significantly up-regulated histone 3 acetylation (H3ac) level and target genes such as Fas, P21, P27. Our results unravel an instrumental role of fiber diet and their metabolites on lymphoma tumor and demonstrate an intervention potential on the prevention and therapy of lymphoma.

  18. Moringa oleifera-based diet protects against nickel-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Adeyemi, Oluyomi; Sokolayemji Aroge, Cincin; Adewumi Akanji, Musbau

    2017-01-01

    Multiple health-promoting effects have been attributed to the consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves, as part of diet without adequate scientific credence. This study evaluated the effect of M. oleifera-based diets on nickel (Ni) - induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male rats assigned into six groups were given oral administration of 20 mg/kg body weight nickel sulfate in normal saline and either fed normal diet orM. oleifera-based diets for 21 days. All animals were sacrificed under anesthesia 24 hours after the last treatment. Ni exposure elevated the rat plasma activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase significantly. Ni exposure also raised the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol while depleting the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. Further, Ni exposure raised rat plasma malondialdehyde but depleted reduced glutathione concentrations. The histopathological presentations revealed inflammation and cellular degeneration caused by Ni exposure. We show evidence thatM. oleifera-based diets protected against Ni-induced hepatotoxicity by improving the rat liver function indices, lipid profile as well as restoring cellular architecture and integrity. Study lends credence to the health-promoting value ofM. oleifera as well as underscores its potential to attenuate hepatic injury. PMID:28808207

  19. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.

  20. Loss of Nlrp3 Does Not Protect Mice from Western Diet-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Glucose Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringling, Rebecca E; Gastecki, Michelle L; Woodford, Makenzie L; Lum-Naihe, Kelly J; Grant, Ryan W; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Padilla, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that loss of Nlrp3 would protect mice from Western diet-induced adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and associated glucose intolerance and cardiovascular complications. Five-week old C57BL6J wild-type (WT) and Nlrp3 knockout (Nlrp3-/-) mice were randomized to either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or Western diet (45% kcal from fat and 1% cholesterol) for 24 weeks (n = 8/group). Contrary to our hypothesis that obesity-mediated white AT inflammation is Nlrp3-dependent, we found that Western diet-induced expression of AT inflammatory markers (i.e., Cd68, Cd11c, Emr1, Itgam, Lgals, Il18, Mcp1, Tnf, Ccr2, Ccl5 mRNAs, and Mac-2 protein) were not accompanied by increased caspase-1 cleavage, a hallmark feature of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, Nlrp3 null mice were not protected from Western diet-induced white or brown AT inflammation. Although Western diet promoted glucose intolerance in both WT and Nlrp3-/- mice, Nlrp3-/- mice were protected from Western diet-induced aortic stiffening. Additionally, Nlrp3-/- mice exhibited smaller cardiomyocytes and reduced cardiac fibrosis, independent of diet. Collectively, these findings suggest that presence of the Nlrp3 gene is not required for Western diet-induced AT inflammation and/or glucose intolerance; yet Nlrp3 appears to play a role in potentiating arterial stiffening, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.

  1. Ovariectomized Highly Fit Rats Are Protected against Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A; Zidon, Terese M; Welly, Rebecca J; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Thyfault, John P; Booth, Frank W; Padilla, Jaume; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J

    2016-07-01

    In the absence of exercise training, rats selectively bred for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity running (HCR)) are protected against ovariectomy (OVX)-induced insulin resistance (IR) and obesity compared with those bred for low intrinsic aerobic capacity (low-capacity running (LCR)). This study determined whether OVX HCR rats remain protected with exposure to high-fat diet (HFD) compared with OVX LCR rats. Female HCR and LCR rats (n = 36; age, 27-33 wk) underwent OVX and were randomized to a standard chow diet (NC, 5% kcal fat) or HFD (45% kcal fat) ad libitum for 11 wk. Total energy expenditure, resting energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity (SPA), and glucose tolerance were assessed midway, whereas fasting circulating metabolic markers, body composition, adipose tissue distribution, and skeletal muscle adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mitochondrial markers were assessed at sacrifice. Both HCR and LCR rats experienced HFD-induced increases in total and visceral adiposity after OVX. Despite similar gains in adiposity, HCR rats were protected from HFD-induced IR and reduced total energy expenditure observed in LCR rats (P activity in HCR; however, HFD significantly reduced SPA and AMPK activity in LCR (P activity, gene expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (tFAM, NRF1, and PGC-1α), and protein levels of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes I, II, IV, and V in skeletal muscle (all P physical activity compensation" likely confers protection from HFD-induced IR and reduced energy expenditure in HCR rats.

  2. Fish oil rich diet in comparison to saturated fat rich diet offered protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler Thomas R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objective Systemic chronic inflammation is linked to metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and heart disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a Gram negative microbial product, triggers inflammation through toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR-4 signaling. It has been reported that dietary fatty acids also modulate inflammation through TLR-4. We investigated whether fish oil (FO rich diet in comparison to saturated fat (SF rich diet would confer protection from pathologies induced by LPS. Methods Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups. One group received FO-diet and other received SF-diet ad libitum for 60 days. Diets were isocaloric containing 45% energy from fat. After 60-days of feeding, blood was collected after overnight fast. Mice were allowed to recover for 4-days, fasted for 5-hours, challenged with 100 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially, and bled after 2-hours. After 7-days of recuperation, mice were challenged with 500 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially and observed for physical health. Results Food intake was similar in FO- and SF-fed mice. FO-fed mice compared to SF-fed mice had significantly less body weight gain (P = 0.005, epididymal fat weight (P = 0.005, fasting blood glucose (70.8 vs 83.3 ng/dL; P Conclusion Overall, FO-diet compared to SF-diet offered protection against deleterious effects of LPS in mice.

  3. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Xavier RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6 or fish oil (rich in n-3 in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5 and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL or lungs. Methods: Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results: Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion: Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. Keywords: asthma, nitric oxide, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, cytokines

  4. Healthy foods prepared at home: Diet and support as protective strategies during pregnancy for Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Allison L; Yeoman, Michelle; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Birth outcomes tend to be better among Hispanics than among other ethnic groups, even when matched for poverty and education, and foreign-born Latinas compared to their US-born counterparts. These patterns suggest that sociocultural factors exhibited by recent immigrants have the potential to protect birth outcomes against the instability of minority and low socioeconomic status. To discover potential sociocultural factors, a pilot qualitative study was carried out in Tucson, Arizona, with 18 Hispanic mothers. The two most prevalent factors reported were (1) a healthy diet prepared at home from minimally processed ingredients, and (2) constant and comprehensive social support. When comparing responses related to diet by interview language preference, a proxy for acculturation, there was very little difference between participants who interviewed in Spanish and those who interviewed in English. This result may be explained by greater maternal social support and higher education levels among those who interviewed in English.

  5. Phytosterols protect against diet-induced hypertriglyceridemia in Syrian golden hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In addition to lowering LDL-C, emerging data suggests that phytosterols (PS) may reduce blood triglycerides (TG), however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Methods We examined the TG-lowering mechanisms of dietary PS in Syrian golden hamsters randomly assigned to a high fat (HF) diet or the HF diet supplemented with PS (2%) for 6 weeks (n = 12/group). An additional subset of animals (n = 12) was provided the HF diet supplemented with ezetimibe (EZ, 0.002%) as a positive control as it is a cholesterol-lowering agent with known TG-lowering properties. Results In confirmation of diet formulation and compound delivery, both the PS and EZ treatments lowered (p < 0.05) intestinal cholesterol absorption (24 and 31%, respectively), blood non-HDL cholesterol (61 and 66%, respectively), and hepatic cholesterol (45 and 55%, respectively) compared with the HF-fed animals. Blood TG concentrations were lower (p < 0.05) in the PS (49%) and EZ (68%)-treated animals compared with the HF group. The TG-lowering response in the PS-supplemented group was associated with reduced (p < 0.05) intestinal SREBP1c mRNA (0.45 fold of HF), hepatic PPARα mRNA (0.73 fold of HF), hepatic FAS protein abundance (0.68 fold of HD), and de novo lipogenesis (44%) compared with the HF group. Similarly, lipogenesis was lower in the EZ-treated animals, albeit through a reduction in the hepatic protein abundance of ACC (0.47 fold of HF). Conclusions Study results suggest that dietary PS are protective against diet-induced hypertriglyceridemia, likely through multiple mechanisms that involve modulation of intestinal fatty acid metabolism and a reduction in hepatic lipogenesis. PMID:24393244

  6. Ovariectomized High Fit Rats Are Protected against Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A.; Zidon, Terese M.; Welly, Rebecca J.; Scroggins, Rebecca J.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Thyfault, John P.; Booth, Frank W.; Padilla, Jaume; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the absence of exercise training, rats selectively bred for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (HCR) are protected against ovariectomy (OVX)-induced insulin resistance and obesity compared to those bred for low intrinsic aerobic capacity (LCR). Purpose This study determined whether OVX HCR rats remain protected with exposure to high fat diet (HFD) compared to OVX LCR rats. Methods Female HCR and LCR rats (n=36; age 27-33 weeks) underwent OVX and were randomized to a standard chow diet (NC; 5% kcal fat) or HFD (45% kcal fat), ad libitum for 11 weeks. Total energy expenditure (TEE), resting energy expenditure (REE), spontaneous physical activity (SPA), and glucose tolerance were assessed midway, while fasting circulating metabolic markers, body composition, adipose tissue distribution, and skeletal muscle AMPK and mitochondrial markers were assessed at sacrifice. Results Both HCR and LCR experienced HFD-induced increases in total and visceral adiposity following OVX. Despite similar gains in adiposity, HCR rats were protected from HFD-induced insulin resistance and reduced TEE observed in LCR rats (P<0.05). This metabolic protection was likely attributed to a compensatory increase in SPA and associated preservation of skeletal muscle AMPK activity in HCR; whereas, HFD significantly reduced SPA and AMPK activity in LCR (P<0.05). In both lines, HFD reduced citrate synthase activity, gene expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (tFAM, NRF1, and PGC-1α), and protein levels of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes I, II, IV, and V in skeletal muscle (all P<0.05). Conclusion Following OVX, HCR and LCR rats differentially respond to HFD such that HCR increase while LCR decrease SPA. This “physical activity compensation” likely confers protection from HFD-induced insulin resistance and reduced energy expenditure in HCR rats. PMID:26885638

  7. Genetic Ablation of CD38 Protects against Western Diet-Induced Exercise Intolerance and Metabolic Inflexibility.

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    Shian-Huey Chiang

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is a key cofactor required for essential metabolic oxidation-reduction reactions. It also regulates various cellular activities, including gene expression, signaling, DNA repair and calcium homeostasis. Intracellular NAD+ levels are tightly regulated and often respond rapidly to nutritional and environmental changes. Numerous studies indicate that elevating NAD+ may be therapeutically beneficial in the context of numerous diseases. However, the role of NAD+ on skeletal muscle exercise performance is poorly understood. CD38, a multi-functional membrane receptor and enzyme, consumes NAD+ to generate products such as cyclic-ADP-ribose. CD38 knockout mice show elevated tissue and blood NAD+ level. Chronic feeding of high-fat, high-sucrose diet to wild type mice leads to exercise intolerance and reduced metabolic flexibility. Loss of CD38 by genetic mutation protects mice from diet-induced metabolic deficit. These animal model results suggest that elevation of tissue NAD+ through genetic ablation of CD38 can profoundly alter energy homeostasis in animals that are maintained on a calorically-excessive Western diet.

  8. Unexpected Long-Term Protection of Adult Offspring Born to High-Fat Fed Dams against Obesity Induced by a Sucrose-Rich Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Odile; Ferezou, Jacqueline; Gripois, Daniel; Serougne, Colette; Crépin, Delphine; Aubourg, Alain; Gertler, Arieh; Vacher, Claire-Marie; Taouis, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Background Metabolic and endocrine environment during early life is crucial for metabolic imprinting. When dams were fed a high fat diet (HF diet), rat offspring developed hypothalamic leptin resistance with lean phenotype when weaned on a normal diet. Interestingly, when grown on the HF diet, they appeared to be protected against the effects of HF diet as compared to offspring of normally fed dams. The mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet are unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We thus investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet on offspring subjected to normal or high palatable diet (P diet) on metabolic and endocrine parameters. We compared offspring born to dams fed P or HF diet. Offspring born to dams fed control or P diet, when fed P diet exhibited a higher body weight, altered hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and metabolic parameters suggesting that maternal P diet has no protective effect on offspring. Whereas, maternal HF diet reduces body weight gain and circulating triglycerides, and ameliorates corpulence index of offspring, even when subjected to P diet. Interestingly, this protective effect is differently expressed in male and female offspring. Male offspring exhibited higher energy expenditure as mirrored by increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/R2 expression, and a profound change in the arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization. In female offspring, the most striking impact of maternal HF diet is the reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC. Conclusions/Significance HF diet given during gestation and lactation protects, at least partially, offspring from excessive weight gain through several mechanisms depending upon gender including changes in arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization and increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/2 expression in males and reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in females. Taken together our results reveal new mechanisms involved in the protective

  9. Unexpected long-term protection of adult offspring born to high-fat fed dams against obesity induced by a sucrose-rich diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Couvreur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic and endocrine environment during early life is crucial for metabolic imprinting. When dams were fed a high fat diet (HF diet, rat offspring developed hypothalamic leptin resistance with lean phenotype when weaned on a normal diet. Interestingly, when grown on the HF diet, they appeared to be protected against the effects of HF diet as compared to offspring of normally fed dams. The mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We thus investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet on offspring subjected to normal or high palatable diet (P diet on metabolic and endocrine parameters. We compared offspring born to dams fed P or HF diet. Offspring born to dams fed control or P diet, when fed P diet exhibited a higher body weight, altered hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and metabolic parameters suggesting that maternal P diet has no protective effect on offspring. Whereas, maternal HF diet reduces body weight gain and circulating triglycerides, and ameliorates corpulence index of offspring, even when subjected to P diet. Interestingly, this protective effect is differently expressed in male and female offspring. Male offspring exhibited higher energy expenditure as mirrored by increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/R2 expression, and a profound change in the arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization. In female offspring, the most striking impact of maternal HF diet is the reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HF diet given during gestation and lactation protects, at least partially, offspring from excessive weight gain through several mechanisms depending upon gender including changes in arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization and increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/2 expression in males and reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in females. Taken together our results reveal new mechanisms involved in

  10. Geraniin Protects High-Fat Diet-Induced Oxidative Stress in Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Alexis Panny Y. S. Chung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Geraniin, a hydrolysable polyphenol derived from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit rind, has been shown to possess significant antioxidant activity in vitro and recently been recognized for its therapeutic potential in metabolic syndrome. This study investigated its antioxidative strength and protective effects on organs in high-fat diet (HFD-induced rodents. Rats were fed HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 10 and 50 mg/kg of geraniin supplementation for 4 weeks to assess its protective potential. The control groups were maintained on standard rat chows and HFD for the same period. At the 10th week, oxidative status was assessed and the pancreas, liver, heart and aorta, kidney, and brain of the Sprague Dawley rats were harvested and subjected to pathological studies. HFD rats demonstrated changes in redox balance; increased protein carbonyl content, decreased levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase with a reduction in the non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms and total antioxidant capacity, indicating a higher oxidative stress (OS index. In addition, HFD rats demonstrated significant diet-induced changes particularly in the pancreas. Four-week oral geraniin supplementation, restored the OS observed in the HFD rats. It was able to restore OS biomarkers, serum antioxidants, and the glutathione redox balance (reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio to levels comparable with that of the control group, particularly at dosage of 50 mg geraniin. Geraniin was not toxic to the HFD rats but exhibited protection against glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity particularly in the pancreas of the obese rodents. It is suggested that geraniin has the pharmaceutical potential to be developed as a supplement to primary drugs in the treatment of obesity and its pathophysiological sequels.

  11. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S., E-mail: marisofigime44@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+} did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta.

  12. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd 2+ , respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd 2+ , in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd 2+ exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd 2+ did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd 2+ in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd 2+ increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd 2+ induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta

  13. The immune protective effect of the Mediterranean diet against chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Rosa; Sacanella, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Dietary patterns high in refined starches, sugar, and saturated and trans-fatty acids, poor in natural antioxidants and fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and poor in omega-3 fatty acids may cause an activation of the innate immune system, most likely by excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is a nutritional model inspired by the traditional dietary pattern of some of the countries of the Mediterranean basin. This dietary pattern is characterized by the abundant consumption of olive oil, high consumption of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds); frequent and moderate intake of wine (mainly with meals); moderate consumption of fish, seafood, yogurt, cheese, poultry and eggs; and low consumption of red meat, processed meat products and seeds. Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of a Mediterranean pattern as protective against several diseases associated with chronic low-grade inflammation such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and cognition disorders. The adoption of this dietary pattern could counter the effects of several inflammatory markers, decreasing, for example, the secretion of circulating and cellular biomarkers involved in the atherosclerotic process. Thus, the aim of this review was to consider the current evidence about the effectiveness of the MedDiet in these chronic inflammatory diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which may not only act on classical risk factors but also on inflammatory biomarkers such as adhesion molecules, cytokines or molecules related to the stability of atheromatic plaque.

  14. Metabolomics Reveals Protection of Resveratrol in Diet-Induced Metabolic Risk Factors in Abdominal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoyou; Ye, Guozhu; Zhang, Xinbo; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Tu, Yingfeng; Ye, Zengjie; Liu, Jincheng; Guo, Qi; Wang, Zhiguo; Wang, Lin; Dong, Sijun; Fan, Yuhua

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is recognized as the main reason of metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to disordered skeletal and/or abdominal muscle metabolic functions. Metabolomics is a comprehensive assessment system in biological metabolites. The aim of our present study is to investigate the diet-induced metabolic risk factors by metabolic in the abdominal muscles and clarify the relationship between atheroprotective effects of Resveratrol (Rev) and abdominal muscles metabolic components during the development of atherosclerosis. The mice were randomly divided into three groups including normal group (N), high fat diet (HFD or H) group and high fat diet with Rev treated group (HR). GC-MS combined with pattern recognition approaches were employed to obtain comprehensive metabolic signatures and related differential metabolites after 24 week HFD feeding. Oil Red O staining and Electron microscopy technology (EMT) were employed to detect the size of fatty plaques and intracellular lipid accumulation, respectively. The result indicated that 22 types of metabolites in the abdominal muscles were obviously altered by HFD feeding group. Moreover, Rev treatment obviously increased 11 different kinds of metabolites, most of which were involved in the carbohydrate, amino acid and lipid metabolisms. Importantly, these elevated different metabolites were involved in pathways mainly related to galactose metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism in abdominal muscles. Oil Red O staining and Electron microscopy showed less lipid accumulation in the lesions and decreased intracellular lipid deposition in the foam cells in HR group. We concluded that Rev produced a beneficial effect partially by modulating multiple metabolism pathways and metabolites in the abdominal muscles, which may provide a new protective mechanism of Rev on the progression of atherosclerosis. These notably changed metabolites might be potential biomarkers

  15. Endothelial Protective Monocyte Patrolling in Large Arteries Intensified by Western Diet and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintar, Amado; McArdle, Sara; Wolf, Dennis; Marki, Alex; Ehinger, Erik; Vassallo, Melanie; Miller, Jacqueline; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Ley, Klaus; Buscher, Konrad

    2017-05-26

    Nonclassical mouse monocyte (CX3CR1 high , Ly-6C low ) patrolling along the vessels of the microcirculation is critical for endothelial homeostasis and inflammation. Because of technical challenges, it is currently not established how patrolling occurs in large arteries. This study was undertaken to elucidate the molecular, migratory, and functional phenotypes of patrolling monocytes in the high shear and pulsatile environment of large arteries in healthy, hyperlipidemic, and atherosclerotic conditions. Applying a new method for stable, long-term 2-photon intravital microscopy of unrestrained large arteries in live CX3CR1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) mice, we show that nonclassical monocytes patrol inside healthy carotid arteries at a velocity of 36 μm/min, 3× faster than in microvessels. The tracks are less straight but lead preferentially downstream. The number of patrolling monocytes is increased 9-fold by feeding wild-type mice a Western diet or by applying topical TLR7/8 (Toll-like receptor) agonists. A similar increase is seen in CX3CR1 +/GFP /apoE -/- mice on chow diet, with a further 2- to 3-fold increase on Western diet (22-fold over healthy). In plaque conditions, monocytes are readily captured onto the endothelium from free flow. Stable patrolling is unaffected in CX3CR1-deficient mice and involves the contribution of LFA-1 (lymphocyte-associated antigen 1) and α 4 integrins. The endothelial damage in atherosclerotic carotid arteries was assessed by electron microscopy and correlates with the number of intraluminal patrollers. Abolishing patrolling monocytes in Nr4a1 -/- apoE -/- mice leads to pronounced endothelial apoptosis. Arterial patrolling is a prominent new feature of nonclassical monocytes with unique molecular and kinetic properties. It is highly upregulated in hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in a CX3CR1-independent fashion and plays a potential role in endothelial protection. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Nitrogen metabolism and protozoa production rate in cattle fed on diet containing protected protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.P.; Gupta, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism and protozoa production rate using 14 C-choline as marker were studied on 9 adult male crossbred (Tharparker x Brown Swiss) rumen fistulated animals divided into 3 groups (A, B and C). All the animals were fed concentrate mixture and wheatstraw. However, groundnut cake (GNC) in concentrate mixture was untreated in group A, 50 per cent formaldehyde treated in group B and 100 per cent formaldehyde treated in group C. Although, DM intake was similar in these groups but water intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in control group. Total-N, ammonia-N and blood urea were significantly lower in group B and C as compared to group A. Apparent CP digestibility was not affected by addition of formaldehyde treated GNC at 50 and 100 per cent levels. However, N balances increased significantly (P<0.05) due to addition of protected protein in diet. Protozoal pool as well as production rate were significantly (P<0.01) decreased due to formaldehyde treatment of GNC protein. Thus addition of formaldehyde treated GNC in diets decreased ammonia and protozoa production but increased N retention in groups B and C. (author). 27 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Loss of Akt1 in mice increases energy expenditure and protects against diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min; Easton, Rachael M; Gleason, Catherine E; Monks, Bobby R; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kahn, C Ronald; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2012-01-01

    Akt is encoded by a gene family for which each isoform serves distinct but overlapping functions. Based on the phenotypes of the germ line gene disruptions, Akt1 has been associated with control of growth, whereas Akt2 has been linked to metabolic regulation. Here we show that Akt1 serves an unexpected role in the regulation of energy metabolism, as mice deficient for Akt1 exhibit protection from diet-induced obesity and its associated insulin resistance. Although skeletal muscle contributes most of the resting and exercising energy expenditure, muscle-specific deletion of Akt1 does not recapitulate the phenotype, indicating that the role of Akt1 in skeletal muscle is cell nonautonomous. These data indicate a previously unknown function of Akt1 in energy metabolism and provide a novel target for treatment of obesity.

  18. Multiple sclerosis and cancers in Croatia--a possible protective role of the "Mediterranean diet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materljan, Eris; Materljan, Mauro; Materljan, Branka; Vlacić, Helena; Barićev-Novaković, Zdenka; Sepcić, Juraj

    2009-06-01

    -05), whilst colon cancer alone (20.4 vs. 15.7; p = 9.44E-05) or colorectal cancer (38.3 vs. 31.6; p = 8.18E-05) had a significantly higher incidence in the coastal area. The geographic distribution of MS expressed by incidence was significantly correlated with pancreatic (r = 0.62024, df=23, p = 0.00094) and lung cancer (r = 0.46380, df=23, p = 0.01953). This research adds further malignant neoplasms, possibly exposure-related, to the list of diseases with geographic distribution like MS. The similarity of MS distribution with the named malignancies is unlikely to be incidental. MS in Gorski Kotar and Slavonia seems to be associated with a diet rich in meat and fat. A diet rich in fat and meat and poor in vegetables is a risk factor for stomach, colorectum, pancreatic as well as lung cancers. Some authors have documented a possible protective role of the "Mediterranean diet" for the named cancers. Olive oil is the main source of fat in the "Mediterranean diet". Oleocanthal, aphenolic compound of the extra-virgin olive oil was found to inhibit the cyclooxigenase enzymes which are involved in demyelination and tumorigenesis. We hypothesize that the "Mediterranean diet", olive oil and particularly oleocanthal, to have a protective role in MS too.

  19. Short-term long chain omega3 diet protects from neuroinflammatory processes and memory impairment in aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie F Labrousse

    Full Text Available Regular consumption of food enriched in omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs has been shown to reduce risk of cognitive decline in elderly, and possibly development of Alzheimer's disease. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA are the most likely active components of ω3-rich PUFAs diets in the brain. We therefore hypothesized that exposing mice to a DHA and EPA enriched diet may reduce neuroinflammation and protect against memory impairment in aged mice. For this purpose, mice were exposed to a control diet throughout life and were further submitted to a diet enriched in EPA and DHA during 2 additional months. Cytokine expression together with a thorough analysis of astrocytes morphology assessed by a 3D reconstruction was measured in the hippocampus of young (3-month-old and aged (22-month-old mice. In addition, the effects of EPA and DHA on spatial memory and associated Fos activation in the hippocampus were assessed. We showed that a 2-month EPA/DHA treatment increased these long-chain ω3 PUFAs in the brain, prevented cytokines expression and astrocytes morphology changes in the hippocampus and restored spatial memory deficits and Fos-associated activation in the hippocampus of aged mice. Collectively, these data indicated that diet-induced accumulation of EPA and DHA in the brain protects against neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment linked to aging, further reinforcing the idea that increased EPA and DHA intake may provide protection to the brain of aged subjects.

  20. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F F; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H; Ferramola, Mariana L; Oliveros, Liliana B; Gimenez, María S

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd(2+), respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd(2+), in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd(2+) exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd(2+) did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. © 2013.

  1. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  2. Protective effect of probiotic diets on haematobiochemical and histopathology changes of Mystus montanus (Jerdon 1849 against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusamy Chelladurai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the protective effect of probiotic diets on haemotobiochemical and histopathology changes of Mystus montanus against Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila. Methods: Three experimental groups of fish were fed with a diet supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus (Sporolac, comprising about 0.1 g, 0.2 g and 0.3 g. Control group of fish were fed without L. acidophilus. After 60 d of feeding the fishes in experimental group were injected with 1 mL of A. hydrophila and were supplemented with probiotic diets. The control group fishes were injected with 1 mL of physiological saline solution alone. Results: Blood samples were collected for haematobiochemical analysis, while samples of the liver, and gills were examined for path histology after 7 d of infection. The result showed that the growth parameters, weight gain, specific growth rate were better in infected group maintained on the probiotic diet compared to those in control group. The haematology parameters, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, red blood cell, white blood cell, total serum protein, Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cl, glucose, cholesterol and total immunoglobulin concentration and the pathohistology of the liver, gills were better in the infected fish maintained on the probiotic diet than those in the group fed the control diet. Conclusions: The result of the present study showed that L. acidophilus is useful as a probiotic agent in Mystus montanus against A. hydrophila.

  3. Berberine protects against diet-induced obesity through regulating metabolic endotoxemia and gut hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian Hui; Liu, Xing Zhen; Pan, Wei; Zou, Da Jin

    2017-05-01

    Systemic inflammation, which can be induced by metabolic endotoxemia, and corresponding high‑fat diet‑mediated metabolic disorders are associated with gut microbiota. In the present study reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, pyrosequencing, ELISA and Oil Red O staining were performed to assess whether berberine can protect against diet-induced obesity, through modulating the gut microbiota and consequently improving metabolic endotoxemia and gastrointestinal hormone levels. Alterations in the gut microbiota induced by berberine resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial lipopolysaccharide levels in portal plasma. Levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, as well as the mRNA expression levels of macrophage infiltration markers in visceral adipose tissue, were also reduced by berberine. Inhibition of the inflammatory response was associated with a reduction in intestinal permeability and an increase in the expression of tight junction proteins. In addition, berberine was reported to restore aberrant levels of gut hormones in the portal plasma, such as glucagon‑like peptide‑1 and ‑2, peptide YY, glucose‑dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and pancreatic polypeptide. The present findings indicated that berberine, through modulating gut microbiota, restored the gut barrier, reduced metabolic endotoxemia and systemic inflammation, and improved gut peptide levels in high‑fat diet‑fed rats. The present study suggests that berberine may be an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.

  4. Hypothalamic PGC-1α Protects Against High-Fat Diet Exposure by Regulating ERα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Morselli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diets (HFDs lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS. Estrogens and estrogen receptor α (ERα protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1α regulates ERα and inflammation in vivo. HFD significantly increased palmitic acid (PA and sphingolipids in the CNS of male mice when compared to female mice. PA, in vitro, and HFD, in vivo, reduced PGC-1α and ERα in hypothalamic neurons and astrocytes of male mice and promoted inflammation. PGC-1α depletion with ERα overexpression significantly inhibited PA-induced inflammation, confirming that ERα is a critical determinant of the anti-inflammatory response. Physiologic relevance of ERα-regulated inflammation was demonstrated by reduced myocardial function in male, but not female, mice following chronic HFD exposure. Our findings show that HFD/PA reduces PGC-1α and ERα, promoting inflammation and decrements in myocardial function in a sex-specific way.

  5. Macrophage JAK2 deficiency protects against high-fat diet-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Harsh R; Sivasubramaniyam, Tharini; Revelo, Xavier S; Schroer, Stephanie A; Luk, Cynthia T; Rikkala, Prashanth R; Metherel, Adam H; Dodington, David W; Park, Yoo Jin; Kim, Min Jeong; Rapps, Joshua A; Besla, Rickvinder; Robbins, Clinton S; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Bazinet, Richard P; Winer, Daniel A; Woo, Minna

    2017-08-09

    During obesity, macrophages can infiltrate metabolic tissues, and contribute to chronic low-grade inflammation, and mediate insulin resistance and diabetes. Recent studies have elucidated the metabolic role of JAK2, a key mediator downstream of various cytokines and growth factors. Our study addresses the essential role of macrophage JAK2 in the pathogenesis to obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. During high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, macrophage-specific JAK2 knockout (M-JAK2 -/- ) mice gained less body weight compared to wildtype littermate control (M-JAK2 +/+ ) mice and were protected from HFD-induced systemic insulin resistance. Histological analysis revealed smaller adipocytes and qPCR analysis showed upregulated expression of some adipogenesis markers in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of HFD-fed M-JAK2 -/- mice. There were decreased crown-like structures in VAT along with reduced mRNA expression of some macrophage markers and chemokines in liver and VAT of HFD-fed M-JAK2 -/- mice. Peritoneal macrophages from M-JAK2 -/- mice and Jak2 knockdown in macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 also showed lower levels of chemokine expression and reduced phosphorylated STAT3. However, leptin-dependent effects on augmenting chemokine expression in RAW 264.7 cells did not require JAK2. Collectively, our findings show that macrophage JAK2 deficiency improves systemic insulin sensitivity and reduces inflammation in VAT and liver in response to metabolic stress.

  6. Study on protective effect of ketogenic diet against hippocampal neurons of kainic acid-induced epileptic rats

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    Nan-nan ZHANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the protective effects of ketogenic diet on hippocampal neurons of kainic acid (KA-induced epileptic rats.  Methods A total of 40 healthy male specific pathogen free (SPF Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, with each group containing 10 rats. Epileptic rat models were formed by injection of KA through lateral ventricle with brain stereotactic instrument. According to Racine classification, epileptic seizures in rats above grade Ⅳ were defined successful. Then the rats were given different dietary treatment: Group C with normal saline and normal diet, Group K with normal saline and ketogenic diet, Group E with KA and normal diet, Group EK with KA and ketogenic diet. All rats were observed for 21 d, and were recorded each body weight. The epileptic seizure frequency and duration were observed at 12:00-15:00 daily. At the 21st day, all rats were put to death, and the brain hippocampus tissues were separated. Neuron injury of rat hippocampal CA3 region in Group E and EK was observed by HE staining. Normal neuron number of rat hippocampal CA3 region in Group E and EK was counted by Nissl staining. Results Group C and K had no epileptic seizures, and the neuron number in hippocampal CA3 region was normal. Rats in both Group E and EK had grade Ⅳ or Ⅴ seizures. The number of seizures in Group EK [(17.90 ± 4.12 times] after 21-day ketogenic diet was decreased significantly compared to Group E [(30.50 ± 4.40 times] after 21-day normal diet (t = 6.606, P = 0.000. The seizure duration in Group EK [(212.70 ± 17.75 s] after 21-day ketogenic diet was shortened compared to Group E [(335.00 ± 14.21 s] after 21-day normal diet (t = 17.011, P = 0.000. The normal neuron number in hippocampal CA3 region in Group EK (117.67 ± 7.51 was more than those in Group E (71.33 ± 6.11, with statistically significant difference (t = 9.614, P = 0.000.  Conclusions Ketogenic diet has protective effect on hippocampal

  7. Erythropoietin over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity in mice through increased fat oxidation in muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Brolin, Camilla; Gissel, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    patients. Thus we applied the EPO over-expression model to investigate the metabolic effect of EPO in vivo.At 12 weeks, EPO expression resulted in a 23% weight reduction (Pobese mice; thus the mice weighed 21.9+/-0.8 g (control, normal diet,) 21.9+/-1.4 g (EPO, normal diet), 35......Erythropoietin can be over-expressed in skeletal muscles by gene electrotransfer, resulting in 100-fold increase in serum EPO and significant increases in haemoglobin levels. Earlier studies have suggested that EPO improves several metabolic parameters when administered to chronically ill kidney......-physiological levels has substantial metabolic effects including protection against diet-induced obesity and normalisation of glucose sensitivity associated with a shift to increased fat metabolism in the muscles....

  8. Yogurt protects against growth retardation in weanling rats fed diets high in phytic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetke, Lisa M.; McClain, Craig J.; Toleman, C. Jean; Stuart, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the affects of adding yogurt to animal diets which were high in phytic acid (PA) and adequate in zinc (38 μg Zn/g). The PA:Zn molar ratio was 60:1. Zinc status was determined by documenting growth and measuring the zinc concentration in bone (tibia) and plasma. For 25 days, 6 groups (n=6) of Sprague-Dawley weanling rats were fed one of the following AIN-76 diets. Half of the diets contained PA. Four of the diets contained yogurt with either active or heat-treated (inactive) cultures added at 25% of the diet. Diets: (without PA) 1) AIN, 2) AIN with active yogurt, 3) AIN and inactive yogurt; and (with PA) 4) AIN with PA, 5) AIN with PA plus active yogurt, and 6) AIN with PA plus inactive yogurt. Body weight, weight gain, and zinc concentration in bone and plasma were measured, and feed efficiency ratio (FER) was calculated. Rats fed diets with PA and yogurt had normal growth compared to the control group. Growth retardation was evident in the group fed the diet with PA and no yogurt. This group had significantly lower body weight compared to all other groups (p<0.05). Rats fed diets with PA, with or without yogurt, had significantly lower zinc concentration in bone and plasma (p<0.05). Adding yogurt to diets high in PA resulted in normal growth in weanling rats, however, zinc concentration in bone and plasma was still sub-optimal. PMID:19269152

  9. Changes in Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Following Exposure to 56Fe Particles and Protection by Berry Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis; Carey, Amanda; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James

    DNA damage caused by radiation to new cells. Supplementation with the berry diets enhanced neuronal communication and cell signaling by altering gene regulation of some of the protective stress signals. Therefore, these data suggest that 56 Fe particle irradiation causes deficits in gene expression in rats which are ameliorated by berry fruit diets.

  10. Diet-Induced Ketosis Protects Against Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kui; Ye, Lena; Sharma, Katyayini; Jin, Yongming; Harrison, Matthew M; Caldwell, Tylor; Berthiaume, Jessica M; Luo, Yu; LaManna, Joseph C; Puchowicz, Michelle A

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade we have consistently shown that ketosis is neuroprotective against ischemic insults in rats. We reported that diet-induced ketotic rats had a significant reduction in infarct volume when subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and improved survival and recovery after cardiac arrest and resuscitation. The neuroprotective mechanisms of ketosis (via ketogenic diet; KG) include (i) ketones are alternate energy substrates that can restore energy balance when glucose metabolism is deficient and (ii) ketones modulate cell-signalling pathways that are cytoprotective. We investigated the effects of diet-induced ketosis following transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice. The correlation between levels of ketosis and hypoxic inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α), AKT (also known as protein kinase B or PKB) and 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were determined. Mice were fed with KG diet or standard lab-chow (STD) diet for 4 weeks. For the MCAO group, mice underwent 60 min of MCAO and total brain infarct volumes were evaluated 48 h after reperfusion. In a separate group of mice, brain tissue metabolites, levels of HIF-1α, phosphorylated AKT (pAKT), and AMPK were measured. After feeding a KG diet, levels of blood ketone bodies (beta-hydroxyburyrate, BHB) were increased. There was a proportional decrease in infarct volumes with increased blood BHB levels (KG vs STD; 4.2 ± 0.6 vs 7.8 ± 2.2 mm 3 , mean ± SEM). A positive correlation was also observed with HIF-1α and pAKT relative to blood BHB levels. Our results showed that chronic ketosis can be induced in mice by KG diet and was neuroprotective against focal cerebral ischemia in a concentration dependent manner. Potential mechanisms include upregulation of cytoprotective pathways such as those associated with HIF-1α, pAKT and AMPK.

  11. Age/Radiation Parallels in the Effects of 56Fe Particle Irradiation and Protection by Berry Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, James; Bielinski, Donna; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    Exposing young rats to particles of high-energy and charge (HZE particles) enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2% blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats, perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A subsequent study has shown that whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation; these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets. The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information, while the blueberry-supplemented animals showed enhanced learning that was dependent on striatal functioning. Additional experiments in cell models to examine possible mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects have shown that, in addition to the well known free radical scavenging effects of berries, it appears that berry fruit can directly reduce stress signaling and enhance protective signals, suggesting the involvement of multiple mechanisms in the beneficial effects observed. Enhancements of "protective" signals (e.g., extracellular signal regulated kinase, ERK) include those that are involved in neuronal communication, neurogenesis, and learning and memory. Reductions in stress signaling include inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytokines, among others, induced by oxidative and inflammatory stressors. We have found these changes in both BV2 mouse microglial and hippocampal cells. We believe that the possible addition of colorful fruits such as berry fruits to the diet can possibly

  12. Empagliflozin Protects against Diet-Induced NLRP-3 Inflammasome Activation and Lipid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Elisa; Mastrocola, Raffaella; Vitarelli, Giovanna; Cutrin, Juan Carlos; Nigro, Debora; Chiazza, Fausto; Mayoux, Eric; Collino, Massimo; Fantozzi, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic treatment with empagliflozin, a potent and selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, in a murine model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, focusing on drug effects on body weight reduction and nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome activation, which have never been investigated to date. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed control or a high fat-high sugar (HFHS) diet for 4 months. Over the last 2 months, subsets of animals were treated with empagliflozin (1-10 mg/kg) added to the diet. Empagliflozin evoked body weight reduction (P empagliflozin also decreased cardiac lipid accumulation. Moreover, diet-induced activation of NLRP-3 in kidney and liver (not observed in the heart) was dose-dependently attenuated by empagliflozin. Our results clearly demonstrate the ability of empagliflozin to counteract the deleterious effects evoked by chronic exposure to HFHS diet. Most notably, empagliflozin treatment was associated with NLRP-3 inflammasome signaling modulation, suggesting that this inhibition may contribute to the drug therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Protective effects of high Tryptophan diet on aging-induced passive avoidance impairment and hippocampal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Imbesi, Rosa; Loreto, Carla; Castorina, Sergio; Giunta, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    In our previous work we have shown that L-Tryptophan (TrP) enriched diet prevents the age-induced decline of hippocampal Serotonin (5-HT) production. Considering that loss or reduction in 5-HT neurotransmission may contribute to age-related cognitive decline, here we have investigated the effect of such diet on passive avoidance (PA) behavior, cell death, pro- and anti- apoptotic molecules (BAX, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3) and an important transcription factor involved in synaptic plasticity and memory (CREB). The increase in 5-HT neurotransmission in the Hippocampus (Hp) of aged rats was induced by 1 month of high TrP administration. In the first phase of our study we found that high TrP diet improves PA behaviour of aged rats and this correlated with a decrease of TUNEL positive cells in all hippocampal regions tested (CA1, CA2, CA3, DG). Interestingly, the Hp of aged animals fed with high TrP diet showed a significant downregulation of proapoptotic proteins, caspase-3 and BAX, and an increase of antiapoptotic molecules Bcl-2 as indicated by Western Blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Also, high TrP diet partially rescued the age-induced inhibition of hippocampal CREB phosphorylation. Altogether, our data suggest that enhanced TrP intake, and in consequence a potential increase in 5-HT neurotransmission, might be beneficial in preventing age-related detrimental features by inhibition of hippocampal apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Renin-angiotensin system blockers protect pancreatic islets against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

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    Eliete Dalla Corte Frantz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations between obesity, hypertension and diabetes are well established, and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS may provide a link among them. The effect of RAS inhibition on type 2 diabetes is still unclear; however, RAS seems to play an important role in the regulation of the pancreas and glucose intolerance of mice fed high-fat (HF diet. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice fed a HF diet (8 weeks were treated with aliskiren (50 mg/kg/day, enalapril (30 mg/kg/day or losartan (10 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks, and the protective effects were extensively compared among groups by morphometry, stereological tools, immunostaining, Western blotting and hormonal analysis. RESULTS: All RAS inhibitors significantly attenuated the increased blood pressure in mice fed a HF diet. Treatment with enalapril, but not aliskiren or losartan, significantly attenuated body mass (BM gain, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, improved the alpha and beta cell mass and prevented the reduction of plasma adiponectin. Furthermore, enalapril treatment improved the protein expression of the pancreatic islet Pdx1, GLUT2, ACE2 and Mas receptors. Losartan treatment showed the greatest AT2R expression. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that ACE inhibition with enalapril attenuated several of the deleterious effects of the HF diet. In summary, enalapril appears to be responsible for the normalization of islet morphology and function, of alpha and beta cell mass and of Pdx1 and GLUT2 expression. These protective effects of enalapril were attributed, primarily, to the reduction in body mass gain and food intake and the enhancement of the ACE2/Ang (1-7 /Mas receptor axis and adiponectin levels.

  15. High Intensity Exercise: Can It Protect You from A Fast Food Diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Christian; Rouillier, Marc-Antoine; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Karelis, Antony D

    2017-08-26

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of high intensity exercise to counteract the deleterious effects of a fast food diet on the cardiometabolic profile of young healthy men. Fifteen men were subjected to an exclusive fast food diet from a popular fast food restaurant chain (three extra value meals/day + optional snack) for 14 consecutive days. Simultaneously, participants were asked to perform each day high intensity interval training (HIIT) (15 × 60 sec sprint intervals (~90% of maximal heart rate)) on a treadmill. Fast food diet and energy expenditure profiles of the participants during the intervention were assessed as well as body composition (DXA), cardiometabolic profile (lipid, hepatic enzymes, glycated hemoglobin, glucose, insulin, hsC-reactive protein (hsCRP) and blood pressure) and estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) pre- and post-experiment. We found significant improvements for fat mass, lean body mass, estimated VO₂ max, fasting glucose, serum lipoprotein(a) and hsCRP after the intervention ( p fast food diet.

  16. Changes in gene expression in the rat hippocampus following exposure to 56Fe particles and protection by berry diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis C; Cheng, Vivian; Luskin, Katharine; Carey, Amanda N; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard M; Joseph, James A

    2013-03-01

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge, such as (56)Fe, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts behavior, including spatial learning and memory. In the present study, we examined whether gene expression in the hippocampus, an area of the brain important in memory, is affected by exposure to 1.5 Gy or 2.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy (56)Fe particles 36 hours after irradiation. We also determined if 8 weeks of pre-feeding with 2% blueberry or 2% strawberry antioxidant diets could ameliorate irradiation-induced changes in gene expression. Alterations in gene expression profile were analyzed by pathway-focused microarrays for inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signal transduction pathways. We found that genes that are directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of growth and differentiation of neurons were changed following irradiation. Genes that regulate apoptosis were up-regulated whereas genes that modulate cellular proliferation were down-regulated. The brains of animals supplemented with berry diets demonstrated an up-regulation of some protective stress signal genes. Therefore, these data suggest that (56)Fe particle irradiation causes changes in gene expression in rats that are ameliorated by berry fruit diets.

  17. Protective Effects of Setarud (IMODTM on Development of Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Rabbits

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    MH Shahhosseiny

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new herbal drug setarud (IMODTM containing selenium, carotene, and flavonoids, was expected to have positive effects on lipid metabolism and liver functions, due to the nature of its primary components. This study was designed to determine effectiveness of the drug in reducing the risk of development of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in laboratory animals. Methods: Two groups of male rabbits (n=10 per group as: intact and control groups on regular chow, were fed a high-cholesterol diet, and two experimental groups were maintained on the same diet and treated with different daily doses (0.02 g/kg and 0.04 g/kg of setarud (brand name IMOD®, Pars Roos, Iran. The treatment groups were then compared with the intact and control groups and with one another for the effects of the drug which was determined by changes in blood sugar, serum lipid levels, and liver function tests. Results: Results showed that drug had important benefits in alleviating the impact of high-cholesterol diet on serum lipids and liver function markers in drug-treated groups relative to hyperlipidemic controls (p < 0.001. A more favorable modification of total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and the atherogenic index was found in animals, which received 0.04 g/kg drug, as compared to the 0.02 g/kg dose group (p < 0.05. Assessment of serum total protein, albumin, transaminases, and bilirubin levels showed that no changes in liver function of control and drug-treated animals during the period of the study. Conclusion: From the results of this study it may concluded that setarud has dose-dependent positive effects on liver and lipid metabolism and may acts as an effective anti-hyperglycemic agent.

  18. Protective Effect of Meretrix meretrix Oligopeptides on High-Fat-Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of MMO (Meretrix meretrix oligopeptides on mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice were fed either a normal control diet (NC or a high-fat diet (HFD without or with MMO (50 mg/kg or 250 mg/kg for four weeks. Levels of ALT, AST, liver tissue GSH-Px, and SOD activities, MDA levels were measured using commercially available kits; HE staining was performed to analyze pathologic changes of the liver; a TEM assay was performed to measure the ultrastructural alterations of the mitochondria, and Western blotting was performed to detect the expression of gene proteins related to lipid metabolism, inflammation, and liver apoptosis. After six weeks, body weight, ALT, AST, and MDA levels were significantly increased, and GSH-Px levels and SOD activities were significantly decreased in the HFD control group compared with the NC group. Consumption of the HFD compared with the NC caused fatty liver abnormal mitochondria with loss of cristae, intramitochondrial granules, and a swollen and rarefied matrix. Administration of MMO significantly decreased body weight gain, and ALT, AST, and MDA levels; increased SOD activity and GSH-Px levels; alleviated fatty liver steatosis; decreased the early apoptosis population; downregulated SREBP-1c, Bax, Caspase-9, Caspase-3, TNF-α, and NF-κB protein levels; and upregulated PPAR-α, Bcl-2, and AMPK-α, compared with the HFD control group. MMO exhibited protective effects in mice with NAFLD by regulating the NF-κB anti-inflammation signaling pathways to inhibit inflammation, regulate AMPK-α, PPAR-α and SREBP-1c to improve lipid metabolism disorder, and regulate Bcl-2/Bax anti-apoptosis signaling pathways to prevent liver cell apoptosis. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with MMO ameliorates high-fat-diet-induced NAFLD.

  19. Erythropoietin over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity in mice through increased fat oxidation in muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojman, Pernille; Brolin, Camilla; Gissel, Hanne; Brandt, Claus; Zerahn, Bo; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Gehl, Julie

    2009-06-12

    Erythropoietin can be over-expressed in skeletal muscles by gene electrotransfer, resulting in 100-fold increase in serum EPO and significant increases in haemoglobin levels. Earlier studies have suggested that EPO improves several metabolic parameters when administered to chronically ill kidney patients. Thus we applied the EPO over-expression model to investigate the metabolic effect of EPO in vivo.At 12 weeks, EPO expression resulted in a 23% weight reduction (Pdiet,) 21.9+/-1.4 g (EPO, normal diet), 35.3+/-3.3 g (control, high-fat diet) and 28.8+/-2.6 g (EPO, high-fat diet). Correspondingly, DXA scanning revealed that this was due to a 28% reduction in adipose tissue mass.The decrease in adipose tissue mass was accompanied by a complete normalisation of fasting insulin levels and glucose tolerance in the high-fat fed mice. EPO expression also induced a 14% increase in muscle volume and a 25% increase in vascularisation of the EPO transfected muscle. Muscle force and stamina were not affected by EPO expression. PCR array analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid metabolism, thermogenesis and inflammation were increased in muscles in response to EPO expression, while genes involved in glucose metabolism were down-regulated. In addition, muscular fat oxidation was increased 1.8-fold in both the EPO transfected and contralateral muscles.In conclusion, we have shown that EPO when expressed in supra-physiological levels has substantial metabolic effects including protection against diet-induced obesity and normalisation of glucose sensitivity associated with a shift to increased fat metabolism in the muscles.

  20. Mitochondrial-Targeted Catalase Protects Against High-Fat Diet-Induced Muscle Insulin Resistance by Decreasing Intramuscular Lipid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui-Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Alves, Tiago; Ladiges, Warren; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Jurczak, Michael J; Choi, Cheol Soo; Shulman, Gerald I; Samuel, Varman T

    2017-08-01

    We explored the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of muscle insulin resistance. We assessed insulin action in vivo with a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in mice expressing a mitochondrial-targeted catalase (MCAT) that were fed regular chow (RC) or a high-fat diet (HFD) or underwent an acute infusion of a lipid emulsion. RC-fed MCAT mice were similar to littermate wild-type (WT) mice. However, HFD-fed MCAT mice were protected from diet-induced insulin resistance. In contrast, an acute lipid infusion caused muscle insulin resistance in both MCAT and WT mice. ROS production was decreased in both HFD-fed and lipid-infused MCAT mice and cannot explain the divergent response in insulin action. MCAT mice had subtly increased energy expenditure and muscle fat oxidation with decreased intramuscular diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation, protein kinase C-θ (PKCθ) activation, and impaired insulin signaling with HFD. In contrast, the insulin resistance with the acute lipid infusion was associated with increased muscle DAG content in both WT and MCAT mice. These studies suggest that altering muscle mitochondrial ROS production does not directly alter the development of lipid-induced insulin resistance. However, the altered energy balance in HFD-fed MCAT mice protected them from DAG accumulation, PKCθ activation, and impaired muscle insulin signaling. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Vitamin D protects against diet-induced obesity by enhancing fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotorchino, Julie; Tourniaire, Franck; Astier, Julien; Karkeni, Esma; Canault, Matthias; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Bendahan, David; Bernard, Monique; Martin, Jean-Charles; Giannesini, Benoit; Landrier, Jean-François

    2014-10-01

    Prospective studies reported an inverse correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] plasma levels and prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In addition, 25(OH)D status may be a determinant of obesity onset. However, the causality between these observations is not yet established. We studied the preventive effect of vitamin D3 (VD3) supplementation (15,000 IU/kg of food for 10 weeks) on onset of obesity in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. We showed that the VD3 supplementation limited weight gain induced by high-fat diet, which paralleled with an improvement of glucose homeostasis. The limitation of weight gain could further be explained by an increased lipid oxidation, possibly due to an up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial metabolism, leading to increased energy expenditure. Altogether, these data show that VD3 regulates energy expenditure and suggest that VD3 supplementation may represent a strategy of preventive nutrition to fight the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fiber-Mediated Nourishment of Gut Microbiota Protects against Diet-Induced Obesity by Restoring IL-22-Mediated Colonic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jun; Chassaing, Benoit; Singh, Vishal; Pellizzon, Michael; Ricci, Matthew; Fythe, Michael D; Kumar, Matam Vijay; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2018-01-10

    Dietary supplementation with fermentable fiber suppresses adiposity and the associated parameters of metabolic syndrome. Microbiota-generated fiber-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and free fatty acid receptors including GPR43 are thought to mediate these effects. We find that while fermentable (inulin), but not insoluble (cellulose), fiber markedly protected mice against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome, the effect was not significantly impaired by either inhibiting SCFA production or genetic ablation of GPR43. Rather, HFD decimates gut microbiota, resulting in loss of enterocyte proliferation, leading to microbiota encroachment, low-grade inflammation (LGI), and metabolic syndrome. Enriching HFD with inulin restored microbiota loads, interleukin-22 (IL-22) production, enterocyte proliferation, and antimicrobial gene expression in a microbiota-dependent manner, as assessed by antibiotic and germ-free approaches. Inulin-induced IL-22 expression, which required innate lymphoid cells, prevented microbiota encroachment and protected against LGI and metabolic syndrome. Thus, fermentable fiber protects against metabolic syndrome by nourishing microbiota to restore IL-22-mediated enterocyte function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Histological Study on the Protective Effect of Simvastatin on the Retinal Changes Induced by High-Fat Diet in Mice

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    Fayza Ezz Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-fat diet (HFD feeding is an important model to study the changes induced by insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity including retinopathy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and p53 have been implicated in the development of retinopathy. Objectives: The aim of his study was to analyze histological retinal changes in a high-fat atherogenic mouse model and to evaluate the possible protective effect of simvastatin on these changes including its effects on the expression of VEGF and p53. Materials and Methods: A total of 27 mice (6 weeks old were divided into 3 study groups according to their diet and treatment given; Group I - normal balanced diet-fed mice, Group II - HFD-fed mice, and Group III - HFD-fed mice treated with simvastatin daily for 30 weeks. All mice were followed up for 30 weeks. At the end of the study at 36 weeks of age, eye tissues were collected and retinal sections were examined using light microscopy. Comparison of the thickness of retinal layers in the three groups was carried out. The localization of VEGF in the retina was determined by immunohistochemical analysis, and apoptotic cell death was assessed using the p53. Results: In the HFD-fed mice, there was an increase in the retinal thickness associated with presence of wide intercellular spaces in the outer nuclear layer. Many cells in the inner nuclear layer showed cytoplasmic vacuolations. Expression of VEGF was significantly increased in the retinal ganglion cell layers and nuclear cell layers. Elevated p53 reaction was demonstrated within the inner retina. The histological changes were significantly improved in the simvastatin treated group. Conclusions: HFD-induced structural changes in the retinal layers and simultaneous upregulation of VEGF and p53. Administration of simvastatin improved these retinal alterations. [J Interdiscip Histopathol 2017; 5(3.000: 83-91

  4. Xanthine oxidase inhibition protects against Western diet-induced aortic stiffness and impaired vasorelaxation in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastra, Guido; Manrique, Camila; Jia, Guanghong; Aroor, Annayya R; Hayden, Melvin R; Barron, Brady J; Niles, Brett; Padilla, Jaume; Sowers, James R

    2017-08-01

    Consumption of a high-fat, high-fructose diet [Western diet (WD)] promotes vascular stiffness, a critical factor in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obese and diabetic women exhibit greater arterial stiffness than men, which contributes to the increased incidence of CVD in these women. Furthermore, high-fructose diets result in elevated plasma concentrations of uric acid via xanthine oxidase (XO) activation, and uric acid elevation is also associated with increased vascular stiffness. However, the mechanisms by which increased xanthine oxidase activity and uric acid contribute to vascular stiffness in obese females remain to be fully uncovered. Accordingly, we examined the impact of XO inhibition on endothelial function and vascular stiffness in female C57BL/6J mice fed a WD or regular chow for 16 wk. WD feeding resulted in increased arterial stiffness, measured by atomic force microscopy in aortic explants (16.19 ± 1.72 vs. 5.21 ± 0.54 kPa, P < 0.05), as well as abnormal aortic endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxation. XO inhibition with allopurinol (widely utilized in the clinical setting) substantially improved vascular relaxation and attenuated stiffness (16.9 ± 0.50 vs. 3.44 ± 0.50 kPa, P < 0.05) while simultaneously lowering serum uric acid levels (0.55 ± 0.98 vs. 0.21 ± 0.04 mg/dL, P < 0.05). In addition, allopurinol improved WD-induced markers of fibrosis and oxidative stress in aortic tissue, as analyzed by immunohistochemistry and transmission electronic microscopy. Collectively, these results demonstrate that XO inhibition protects against WD-induced vascular oxidative stress, fibrosis, impaired vasorelaxation, and aortic stiffness in females. Furthermore, excessive oxidative stress resulting from XO activation appears to play a key role in mediating vascular dysfunction induced by chronic exposure to WD consumption in females.

  5. Cardiovascular risk protection from the Mediterranean diet and olive oil. A transcriptomic update in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carrión

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the human studies that explore the benefits of the Mediterranean diet and olive oil, based on gene expression analysis. We summarized consistent human transcriptomic studies on cardiovascular risk, based on TMD and olive oil interventions, with real life doses and conditions. A literature review was carried out leading up to February 2016. The results show that the TMD, specially supplemented with virgin olive oil, produces beneficial changes in the transcriptomic response of relevant genes in cardiovascular risk such as CAT, GPX1 and SIRT2. p65 and MCP-1, IL1B, IL6, CXCL1, INF-γ, ARHGAP15 and IL7R, which are involved in inflammation; and ABCA1, SR-B1, PPARBP, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, CD-36 and COX-1, which play an important role in cholesterol efflux. The available data illustrate a transcriptomic effect on atherosclerosis, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways as well as the mentioned genes.

  6. Cardiovascular risk protection from the Mediterranean diet and olive oil. A transcriptomic update in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, S.; Torres, L.; Castañer, O.

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the human studies that explore the benefits of the Mediterranean diet and olive oil, based on gene expression analysis. We summarized consistent human transcriptomic studies on cardiovascular risk, based on TMD and olive oil interventions, with real life doses and conditions. A literature review was carried out leading up to February 2016. The results show that the TMD, specially supplemented with virgin olive oil, produces beneficial changes in the transcriptomic response of relevant genes in cardiovascular risk such as CAT, GPX1 and SIRT2. p65 and MCP-1, IL1B, IL6, CXCL1, INF-γ, ARHGAP15 and IL7R, which are involved in inflammation; and ABCA1, SR-B1, PPARBP, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, CD-36 and COX-1, which play an important role in cholesterol efflux. The available data illustrate a transcriptomic effect on atherosclerosis, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways as well as the mentioned genes. [es

  7. Protective effect of kombucha on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet is mediated by its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Ghrab, Ferdaws; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Ammar, Emna

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha (KT) is claimed to have various beneficial effects on human health, but there is very little scientific evidence available in the literature. The present study investigates the effects of Camellia sinensis (GT) Linn. (Theaceae) and KT, two natural drinks, on cholesterol and antioxidant status using a hypercholesterolemia rat model. The present study compared the free-radical scavenging abilities and polyphenol levels of GT and KT. Wistar rats fed cholesterol-rich diets were given KT or GT (5 mL/kg body weight per day, po) for 16 weeks, then fasted overnight and sacrificed. The plasma lipid levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) serum levels, antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and creatinine and urea rats were examined. KT had a phenolic compound of 955 ± 0.75 mg GAE/g) followed, by GT (788.92 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g). The free radical scavenging activity of KT was higher than GT. Compared with GT, KT induced lowered serum levels of TC, TG, VLDL-C, and LDL-C by 26, 27, 28, and 36%, respectively, and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). KT induced a 55% decrease of TBARS level in liver and 44% in kidney, compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet alone. Moreover, CAT and SOD activities were reduced by 29 and 33%, respectively, in liver and 31 and 35%, respectively, in kidney, after oral administration of KT, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The findings revealed that KT administration induced attractive curative effects on hypercholesterolemic, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions in rats. Its effect on humans needs to be studied further.

  8. Protective Effects of Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea Extract against High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Atiqah Aizan Abdul Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the protective effect of Cyphomandra betacea in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high fat diet. Rats were fed on either normal chow or high fat diet for 10 weeks for obesity induction phase and subsequently received C. betacea extract at low dose (150 mg kg−1, medium dose (200 mg kg−1, or high dose (300 mg kg−1 or placebo via oral gavages for another 7 weeks for treatment phase. Treatment of obese rats with C. betacea extracts led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and significant increase in HDL-C (p<0.05. Also there was a trend of positive reduction in blood glucose, triglyceride, and LDL-C with positive reduction of body weight detected in medium and high dosage of C. betacea extract. Interestingly, C. betacea treated rats showed positive improvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity along with a significant increase of total antioxidant status (TAS (p<0.05. Further, rats treated with C. betacea show significantly lower in TNF-α and IL-6 activities (p<0.05. This study demonstrates the potential use of Cyphomandra betacea extract for weight maintenance and complimentary therapy to suppress some obesity complication signs.

  9. Protective effects of n-6 fatty acids-enriched diet on intestinal ischaemia/reperfusion injury involve lipoxin A4 and its receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, T; Ducheix, S; le Faouder, P; Perez, T; Riols, F; Boue, J; Bertrand-Michel, J; Dubourdeau, M; Guillou, H; Perretti, M; Vergnolle, N; Cenac, N

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-term intake of dietary fatty acids is known to predispose to chronic inflammation, but their effects on acute intestinal ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the consequences of a diet rich in n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on intestinal I/R-induced damage. Experimental Approach Mice were fed three different isocaloric diets: a balanced diet used as a control and two different PUFA-enriched diets, providing either high levels of n-3 or of n-6 PUFA. Intestinal injury was evaluated after intestinal I/R. PUFA metabolites were quantitated in intestinal tissues by LC-MS/MS. Key Results In control diet-fed mice, intestinal I/R caused inflammation and increased COX and lipoxygenase-derived metabolites compared with sham-operated animals. Lipoxin A4 (LxA4) was significantly and selectively increased after ischaemia. Animals fed a high n-3 diet did not display a different inflammatory profile following intestinal I/R compared with control diet-fed animals. In contrast, intestinal inflammation was decreased in the I/R group fed with high n-6 diet and level of LxA4 was increased post-ischaemia compared with control diet-fed mice. Blockade of the LxA4 receptor (Fpr2), prevented the anti-inflammatory effects associated with the n-6 rich diet. Conclusions and Implications This study indicates that high levels of dietary n-6, but not n-3, PUFAs provides significant protection against intestinal I/R-induced damage and demonstrates that the endogenous production of LxA4 can be influenced by diet. PMID:25296998

  10. Protective effects of n-6 fatty acids-enriched diet on intestinal ischaemia/reperfusion injury involve lipoxin A4 and its receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, T; Ducheix, S; le Faouder, P; Perez, T; Riols, F; Boue, J; Bertrand-Michel, J; Dubourdeau, M; Guillou, H; Perretti, M; Vergnolle, N; Cenac, N

    2015-02-01

    Long-term intake of dietary fatty acids is known to predispose to chronic inflammation, but their effects on acute intestinal ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the consequences of a diet rich in n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on intestinal I/R-induced damage. Mice were fed three different isocaloric diets: a balanced diet used as a control and two different PUFA-enriched diets, providing either high levels of n-3 or of n-6 PUFA. Intestinal injury was evaluated after intestinal I/R. PUFA metabolites were quantitated in intestinal tissues by LC-MS/MS. In control diet-fed mice, intestinal I/R caused inflammation and increased COX and lipoxygenase-derived metabolites compared with sham-operated animals. Lipoxin A4 (LxA4 ) was significantly and selectively increased after ischaemia. Animals fed a high n-3 diet did not display a different inflammatory profile following intestinal I/R compared with control diet-fed animals. In contrast, intestinal inflammation was decreased in the I/R group fed with high n-6 diet and level of LxA4 was increased post-ischaemia compared with control diet-fed mice. Blockade of the LxA4 receptor (Fpr2), prevented the anti-inflammatory effects associated with the n-6 rich diet. This study indicates that high levels of dietary n-6, but not n-3, PUFAs provides significant protection against intestinal I/R-induced damage and demonstrates that the endogenous production of LxA4 can be influenced by diet. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Protection from radiation-induced enteropathy by elemental diet feeding: The role of free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, A.H.; Duong, M.N.

    1991-01-01

    Free radicals have been implicated in intestinal reperfusion injury following ischemia and in epithelial cell damage resulting from ionizing radiation. Elemental diets (ED) have been shown to afford significant prophylaxis to the intestine from these injuries. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether ED alters the activity of the defense mechanisms necessary for free radical removal. Six female dogs, fed on normal dog chow, had a 30 cm resection of terminal ileum to form Thiry-Vella loops. The main intestine was biopsied and anastomosed. Two weeks later, biopsies were taken from the lips of the loops. Following this, the loops were fed daily with ED another 2 weeks and biopsied again. The dogs were then placed on ED for 3 days before and during 4 days of pelvic irradiation, and the loops also were fed ED daily; after which the animals were again anesthetized, and the loops and main intestine were biopsied. All biopsies were processed for histology, and assayed for xanthine oxidase (XO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSP) and catalase (CAT). The XO and SOD pathway of free oxygen radical generation and scavenging are not affected by radiation. However, ED lowers both XO and SOD activity and may result in a reduced production of peroxides. The significantly increased activity of GSP and CAT when ED is fed improves the scavenging capacity of the free hydroxyl radicals generated by the radiation, and is an important adjunct to an understanding of ED prophylaxis

  12. Specific synbiotics in early life protect against diet-induced obesity in adult mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Mona; Arora, Tulika; Tims, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: The metabolic state of human adults is associated with their gut microbiome. The symbiosis between host and microbiome is initiated at birth, and early life microbiome perturbation can disturb health long-lastingly. Here, we determined how beneficial microbiome interventions in early life...... synbiotics protected mice against WSD-induced excessive fat accumulation throughout life, replicable in two independent European animal facilities. Adult insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia were improved and most pronounced gene expression changes were observed in the ileum. We observed subtle changes...... as preventive measure to ameliorate obesity risk and improve metabolic health throughout life....

  13. The NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside enhances oxidative metabolism and protects against high-fat diet induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, Carles; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Pirinen, Eija; Youn, Dou Y.; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Cen, Yana; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Andreux, Pénélope A.; Cettour-Rose, Philippe; Gademann, Karl; Rinsch, Chris; Schoonjans, Kristina; Sauve, Anthony A.; Auwerx, Johan

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY As NAD+ is a rate-limiting co-substrate for the sirtuin enzymes, its modulation is emerging as a valuable tool to regulate sirtuin function and, consequently, oxidative metabolism. In line with this premise, decreased activity of PARP-1 or CD38 —both NAD+ consumers— increases NAD+ bioavailability, resulting in SIRT1 activation and protection against metabolic disease. Here we evaluated whether similar effects could be achieved by increasing the supply of nicotinamide riboside (NR), a recently described natural NAD+ precursor with the ability to increase NAD+ levels, Sir2-dependent gene silencing and replicative lifespan in yeast. We show that NR supplementation in mammalian cells and mouse tissues increases NAD+ levels and activates SIRT1 and SIRT3, culminating in enhanced oxidative metabolism and protection against high fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. Consequently, our results indicate that the natural vitamin, NR, could be used as a nutritional supplement to ameliorate metabolic and age-related disorders characterized by defective mitochondrial function. PMID:22682224

  14. The NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside enhances oxidative metabolism and protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, Carles; Houtkooper, Riekelt H; Pirinen, Eija; Youn, Dou Y; Oosterveer, Maaike H; Cen, Yana; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Andreux, Pénélope A; Cettour-Rose, Philippe; Gademann, Karl; Rinsch, Chris; Schoonjans, Kristina; Sauve, Anthony A; Auwerx, Johan

    2012-06-06

    As NAD(+) is a rate-limiting cosubstrate for the sirtuin enzymes, its modulation is emerging as a valuable tool to regulate sirtuin function and, consequently, oxidative metabolism. In line with this premise, decreased activity of PARP-1 or CD38-both NAD(+) consumers-increases NAD(+) bioavailability, resulting in SIRT1 activation and protection against metabolic disease. Here we evaluated whether similar effects could be achieved by increasing the supply of nicotinamide riboside (NR), a recently described natural NAD(+) precursor with the ability to increase NAD(+) levels, Sir2-dependent gene silencing, and replicative life span in yeast. We show that NR supplementation in mammalian cells and mouse tissues increases NAD(+) levels and activates SIRT1 and SIRT3, culminating in enhanced oxidative metabolism and protection against high-fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. Consequently, our results indicate that the natural vitamin NR could be used as a nutritional supplement to ameliorate metabolic and age-related disorders characterized by defective mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased 4E-BP1 Expression Protects against Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yin Tsai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor driving the global type II diabetes pandemic. However, the molecular factors linking obesity to disease remain to be elucidated. Gender differences are apparent in humans and are also observed in murine models. Here, we link these differences to expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, which, upon HFD feeding, becomes significantly reduced in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of male but not female mice. Strikingly, restoring 4E-BP1 expression in male mice protects them against HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Male 4E-BP1 transgenic mice also exhibit reduced white adipose tissue accumulation accompanied by decreased circulating levels of leptin and triglycerides. Importantly, transgenic 4E-BP1 male mice are also protected from aging-induced obesity and metabolic decline on a normal diet. These results demonstrate that 4E-BP1 is a gender-specific suppressor of obesity that regulates insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism.

  16. A miso (Japanese soybean paste) diet conferred greater protection against hypertension than a sodium chloride diet in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Kashimoto, Naoki; Kajimura, Junko; Kamiya, Kenji

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of miso and sodium chloride (NaCl) on blood pressure in both sexes of Dahl and SD rats. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP/DBP) were measured at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment with a miso diet including 2.3% NaCl, a high-sodium diet including 2.3% or 1.9% NaCl, or a normal diet including 0.3% NaCl (MF diet; Oriental Yeast Co., Tokyo, Japan). The rats were autopsied after 12 weeks on a diet. DBP in male Dahl rats was significantly increased by the 2.3% NaCl diet as compared with that in the MF group (p high NaCl groups were significantly increased when compared with the MF or miso group. SBP in female Dahl rats on 2.3% NaCI was significantly increased from 8 weeks after treatment. Nephropathy was observed in both sexes of Dahl rats but not SD rats. These results show that blood pressure was not increased by the miso diet.

  17. Is a Cardio-Protective Diet Sustainable? A Review of the Synergies and Tensions Between Foods That Promote the Health of the Heart and the Planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Fanzo, Jessica

    There are many synergies between a diet that is healthy for the heart and one that is healthy for the planet, but there may also be tensions. We examined the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition's double pyramid to describe the carbon, water, and ecological footprints of the components of a cardio-protective diet. Overall, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains all tend to have low carbon and water footprints, while nuts and olive oil have relatively higher water footprints and fish have a high ecological footprint. In order to increase the sustainability of a cardio-protective diet, consumers can choose nuts (e.g., walnuts) and oils (e.g., sunflower) with lower water footprints and sustainably produced fish. However, in order to increase consumption of these foods, parallel efforts should be implemented targeting consumer knowledge and incentives to make these foods more affordable.

  18. Probiotic treatment protects against the pro-depressant-like effect of high-fat diet in Flinders Sensitive Line rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildgaard, Anders; Elfving, Betina; Hokland, Marianne; Lund, Sten; Wegener, Gregers

    2017-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly associated with dysmetabolic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2, and the gut microbiota may interact with both disease entities. We have previously shown that a high-fat diet (HFD) exacerbated depressive-like behaviour uniquely in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats that inherently present with an increased level of depressive-like behaviour compared with Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. We therefore investigated whether multispecies probiotics possessed anti-depressant-like effect in FSL rats or protected against the pro-depressant-like effect of HFD. We also examined blood and cerebral T cell subsets as well as plasma cytokines. Lastly, we investigated the effect of HFD in outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to substantiate the association between depressive-like behaviour and any immunological measures affected by HFD. HFD exacerbated the depressive-like behaviour in FSL rats in the forced swim test, whereas SD rats remained unaffected. Probiotic treatment completely precluded the pro-depressant-like effect of HFD, but it did not affect FSL rats on control diet. Cerebral T lymphocyte CD4/8 ratios closely mirrored the behavioural changes, whereas the proportions of Treg and Th17 subsets were unaltered. No association between blood and brain CD4/8 ratios were evident; nor did plasma cytokine levels change as a consequence of HFD of probiotic treatment. Our findings suggest that MDD may hold a dysmetabolic component that responds to probiotic treatment. This finding has wide implications owing to the high metabolic comorbidity in MDD. Furthermore, the close association between depressive-like behaviour and cerebral T cell populations demonstrate lymphocyte-brain interactions as a promising future research area in the field of psychoneuroimmunology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional skewing of conceptus sex in sheep: effects of a maternal diet enriched in rumen-protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Jim E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that in polygynous mammalian species females in better body condition should produce more sons than daughters. Few controlled studies have however tested this hypothesis and controversy exists as to whether body condition score or maternal diet is in fact the determining factor of offspring sex. Here, we examined whether maternal diet, specifically increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake, of ewes with a constant body condition score around the time of conception influenced sex ratio. Methods Ewes (n = 44 maintained in similar body condition throughout the study were assigned either a control (C diet or one (F enriched in rumen-protected PUFA, but otherwise essentially equivalent, from four weeks prior to breeding until d13 post-estrus. On d13, conceptuses were recovered, measured, cultured to assess their capacity for interferon-tau (IFNT production and their sex determined. The experiment was repeated with all ewes being fed the F diet to remove any effects of parity order on sex ratio. Maternal body condition score (BCS, plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations were also assessed throughout the study and related to diet. Results In total 129 conceptuses were recovered. Ewes on the F diet produced significantly more male than female conceptuses (proportion male = 0.69; deviation from expected ratio of 0.5, P 0.1, but positively correlated with maternal body condition score (P Conclusion These results provide evidence that maternal diet, in the form of increased amounts of rumen-protected PUFA fed around conception, rather than maternal body condition, can skew the sex ratio towards males. These observations may have implications to the livestock industry and animal management policies when offspring of one sex may be preferred over the other.

  20. (--Epicatechin protects the intestinal barrier from high fat diet-induced permeabilization: Implications for steatosis and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Cremonini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased permeability of the intestinal barrier is proposed as an underlying factor for obesity-associated pathologies. Consumption of high fat diets (HFD is associated with increased intestinal permeabilization and increased paracellular transport of endotoxins which can promote steatosis and insulin resistance. This study investigated whether dietary (--epicatechin (EC supplementation can protect the intestinal barrier against HFD-induced permeabilization and endotoxemia, and mitigate liver damage and insulin resistance. Mechanisms leading to loss of integrity and function of the tight junction (TJ were characterized. Consumption of a HFD for 15 weeks caused obesity, steatosis, and insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J mice. This was associated with increased intestinal permeability, decreased expression of ileal TJ proteins, and endotoxemia. Supplementation with EC (2–20 mg/kg body weight mitigated all these adverse effects. EC acted modulating cell signals and the gut hormone GLP-2, which are central to the regulation of intestinal permeability. Thus, EC prevented HFD-induced ileum NOX1/NOX4 upregulation, protein oxidation, and the activation of the redox-sensitive NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways. Supporting NADPH oxidase as a target of EC actions, in Caco-2 cells EC and apocynin inhibited tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα-induced NOX1/NOX4 overexpression, protein oxidation and monolayer permeabilization. Together, our findings demonstrate protective effects of EC against HFD-induced increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. This can in part underlie EC capacity to prevent steatosis and insulin resistance occurring as a consequence of HFD consumption. Keywords: Intestinal permeability, (--Epicatechin, Steatosis, Insulin resistance, Endotoxemia, NADPH oxidase

  1. Protective effect of diet supplemented with rice prolamin extract against DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Joong; Jang, Mi-Sun; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Song, Dong-Up; Nam, Kwang-Il; Bae, Choon-Sang; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Seung-Rock; Ku, Chang-Sub; Jang, Dong-Il; Ahn, Bong-Whan

    2015-10-14

    Rice prolamin has been reported to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and immune-promoting properties. This study is aimed to examine the protective effects of dietary rice prolamin extract (RPE) against dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in mice. BALB/c mice were fed diet supplemented with 0-0.1 % RPE for 6 weeks. For the last 2 weeks, 1 % or 0.2 % DNCB was applied repeatedly to the back skin of mice to induce AD-like lesions. Following AD induction, the severity of skin lesions was examined macroscopically and histologically. In addition, the serum levels of IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a were determined by ELISA, and the mRNA expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the skin was determined by real-time PCR. Dietary RPE suppressed the clinical symptoms of DNCB-induced dermatitis as well as its associated histopathological changes such as epidermal hyperplasia and infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils in the dermis. RPE treatment also suppressed the DNCB-induced increase in transepidermal water loss. Dietary RPE inhibited the DNCB-induced enhancement of serum IgE and IgG1 levels, whereas it increased the serum IgG2a level in DNCB-treated mice. In addition, dietary RPE upregulated the IFN-γ mRNA expression and downregulated the IL-4 mRNA expression in the skin of DNCB-treated mice. The above results suggest that dietary RPE exerts a protective effect against DNCB-induced AD in mice via upregulation of Th1 immunity and that RPE may be useful for the treatment of AD.

  2. Is a Cardio-Protective Diet Sustainable? A Review of the Synergies and Tensions Between Foods That Promote the Health of the Heart and the Planet

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, Shauna M.; Fanzo, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    There are many synergies between a diet that is healthy for the heart and one that is healthy for the planet, but there may also be tensions. We examined the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition?s double pyramid to describe the carbon, water, and ecological footprints of the components of a cardio-protective diet. Overall, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains all tend to have low carbon and water footprints, while nuts and olive oil have relatively higher water footprints and fish have a hig...

  3. Protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG against dyslipidemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bobae; Park, Kun-Young; Ji, Yosep; Park, Soyoung; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2016-04-29

    Recent reports suggest that gut microbiota can be a major determinant of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its modulation by treating probiotics is a valid strategy to exert a protective effect. In this study, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were orally administrated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) for 13 weeks. Significant reductions in the weights of the liver, mesenteric and subcutaneous adipose tissues were observed in LGG-treated HFD-fed mice compared to LGG-non-treated controls. The serum levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were also significantly reduced in LGG-treated mice. Gut microbial composition analysis showed that shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria were caused by HFD and restored by LGG treatment. A remarkable decrease of hepatic fat content was also observed in LGG-treated mice, accompanied by downregulated expressions of lipogenic and pro-inflammatory genes in the liver. LGG-treated mice had lower expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, but conversely, higher expression levels of cholesterol efflux-related genes compared to LGG-non-treated controls. The cholesterol-lowering effect of LGG was also found to be mediated by suppression of FXR and FGF15 signaling, resulting in the upregulation of hepatic CYP7A1. Our findings confirm a therapeutic potential of probiotics for ameliorating dyslipidemia and NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced dietary omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and 12/15-lipoxygenase deficiency are protective against chronic high fat diet-induced steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Lazic

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (ω6 promote and omega-3 fatty acids (ω3 reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO enzymatically produces some of these metabolites and is induced by high fat (HF diet. We investigated the effects of altering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio and 12/15-LO deficiency on HF diet-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. We examined how these conditions affect circulating concentrations of oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic and linoleic acids and innate and adaptive immune system activity in the liver. For 15 weeks, wild-type (WT mice were fed either a soybean oil-enriched HF diet with high dietary ω6/ω3 ratio (11∶1, HFH, similar to Western-style diet, or a fat Kcal-matched, fish oil-enriched HF diet with a low dietary ω6/ω3 ratio of 2.7∶1 (HFL. Importantly, the total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat content was matched in the two HF diets, which is unlike most published fish oil studies in mice. Despite modestly increased food intake, WT mice fed HFL were protected from HFH-diet induced steatohepatitis, evidenced by decreased hepatic mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes and genes involved in lymphocyte homing, and reduced deposition of hepatic triglyceride. Furthermore, oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic acid were decreased in the plasma of WT HFL compared to WT HFH-fed mice. 12/15-LO knockout (KO mice were also protected from HFH-induced fatty liver and elevated mRNA markers of inflammation and lymphocyte homing. 12/15-LOKO mice were protected from HFH-induced insulin resistance but reducing dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in WT mice did not ameliorate insulin resistance or adipose tissue inflammation. In conclusion, lowering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in HF diet

  5. A Novel Role of SIRT1/ FGF-21 in Taurine Protection Against Cafeteria Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elwahab, Azza H; Ramadan, Basma K; Schaalan, Mona F; Tolba, Amina M

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the alarmingly rising clinical problems in the 21st century with no effective drug treatment until now. Taurine is an essential amino acid in humans that proved efficacy as a non-pharmacological therapy in a plethora of diseases; however, its impact on NAFLD remains elusive. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the protective mechanism of taurine in experimental steatohepatitis induced by junk food given as cafeteria-diet (CAF-D) in male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats of local strain between 8-10 weeks old, weighing 150 ± 20 g, were divided into four equal groups: Group I (control group), Group II (Taurine group), Group III (CAF-D for 12 weeks) and Group IV (CAF-D +Taurine). CAF-D was given in addition to the standard chow for 12 weeks, where each rat was given one piece of beef burger fried in 15 g of sunflower oil, one teaspoonful of mayonnaise, and one piece of petit pan bread, weighing 60g/ piece. In the serum, liver function tests; ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and the lipid profile; TG, TC, HDL-C added to reduced glutathione (GSH) were assessed colorimetrically, while fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21, adiponectin & interleukin (IL)-6 via ELISA. The same technique was used for the assays of the hepatic levels of FGF-21, silent information regulator (SIRT1), malondialdehyde (MDA),IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as well as the apoptotic markers; caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2). The cafeteria-diet induced steatohepatitis was reflected by significantly increased body and liver weight gain, elevation of liver enzymes; ALT, AST, ALP and GGT added to the dyslipidemic panel, presented as increased TC, TG, LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels. The steatosis-induced inflammatory milieu, marked by elevated serum levels of FGF-21, IL-6, hepatic TNF-α, as well as reduced IL-10 and adiponectin, was associated with steatosis- induced hepatic oxidative stress, reflected by increased hepatic MDA and

  6. A Novel Role of SIRT1/ FGF-21 in Taurine Protection Against Cafeteria Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza H. Abd Elwahab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the alarmingly rising clinical problems in the 21st century with no effective drug treatment until now. Taurine is an essential amino acid in humans that proved efficacy as a non-pharmacological therapy in a plethora of diseases; however, its impact on NAFLD remains elusive. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the protective mechanism of taurine in experimental steatohepatitis induced by junk food given as cafeteria-diet (CAF-D in male albino rats. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats of local strain between 8-10 weeks old, weighing 150 ± 20 g, were divided into four equal groups: Group I (control group, Group II (Taurine group, Group III (CAF-D for 12 weeks and Group IV (CAF-D +Taurine. CAF-D was given in addition to the standard chow for 12 weeks, where each rat was given one piece of beef burger fried in 15 g of sunflower oil, one teaspoonful of mayonnaise, and one piece of petit pan bread, weighing 60g/ piece. In the serum, liver function tests; ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and the lipid profile; TG, TC, HDL-C added to reduced glutathione (GSH were assessed colorimetrically, while fibroblast growth factor (FGF-21, adiponectin & interleukin (IL-6 via ELISA. The same technique was used for the assays of the hepatic levels of FGF-21, silent information regulator (SIRT1, malondialdehyde (MDA,IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as well as the apoptotic markers; caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2. Results: The cafeteria-diet induced steatohepatitis was reflected by significantly increased body and liver weight gain, elevation of liver enzymes; ALT, AST, ALP and GGT added to the dyslipidemic panel, presented as increased TC, TG, LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels. The steatosis-induced inflammatory milieu, marked by elevated serum levels of FGF-21, IL-6, hepatic TNF-α, as well as reduced IL-10 and adiponectin, was associated with steatosis- induced hepatic oxidative stress

  7. Inactivation of SOCS3 in leptin receptor-expressing cells protects mice from diet-induced insulin resistance but does not prevent obesity a

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso, João A.B.; Buonfiglio, Daniella C.; Cardinali, Lais I.; Furigo, Isadora C.; Ramos-Lobo, Angela M.; Tirapegui, Julio; Elias, Carol F.; Donato, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Therapies that improve leptin sensitivity have potential as an alternative treatment approach against obesity and related comorbidities. We investigated the effects of Socs3 gene ablation in different mouse models to understand the role of SOCS3 in the regulation of leptin sensitivity, diet-induced obesity (DIO) and glucose homeostasis. Neuronal deletion of SOCS3 partially prevented DIO and improved glucose homeostasis. Inactivation of SOCS3 only in LepR-expressing cells protected against lep...

  8. SOCS2 deletion protects against hepatic steatosis but worsens insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadjali, Fahad; Santana-Farre, Ruyman; Vesterlund, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. SOCS2-knockout (SOCS2(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates were fed for 4 mo with control or high-fat diet, followed by assessment of insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid content, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. SOCS2(-/-) mice...

  9. An essential role for diet in exercise-mediated protection against dyslipidemia, inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE⁻/⁻ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cesar

    2011-02-01

    beneficial to combat dyslipidemia and protect from atherosclerosis only when combined with diet.

  10. [Protective effects of sulforaphane on the oxidative damage of kidney mitochondria complex in obese rats induced by high-fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hongfeng; Li, Yajie; Liang, Bing; Wang, Shuran

    2014-11-01

    To realize the oxidative damage of kidney mitochondrial complex in obese rats induced by high-fat diet and investigate the protective effects of sulforaphane against the damage. Eighty-eight adult male SD rats were used, after 1 week adaptability feeding, 8 rats were selected as control group and given low-fat diet. The other 80 rats were given high-fat diet. After 2 weeks, the 32 diet-induced obesity models were choosen whose weight gain was higher than 40%. The 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, i.e. high fat group, high fat+sulforaphane low dose group, high fat+sulforaphane middle dose group and high fat+sulforaphane high dose group. The rats in the sulforaphane low, middle and high dose groups were orally administered with sulforaphane 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, all the 4 groups were kept feeding high-fat diet for 5 weeks. All rats were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed to assay the index of oxidative damages. The content of ROS (0.26 ± 0.04) and MDA((0.87 ± 0.05) U/mg) in the hight-fat group were significantly higher than those in the control group((0.20 ± 0.02),(0.57 ± 0.08) U/mg)(t values were -3.02 and -4.72, P sulforaphane, the MDA amount ((0.67 ± 0.05), (0.55 ± 0.05), (0.56 ± 0.07) U/mg) in the sulforaphane low, middle and high dose groups were lower than the hight-fat group ((0.87 ± 0.05) U/mg (t values were 3.65, 5.71 and 5.60. P sulforaphane low and middle dose groups ((69.12 ± 8.63), (64.43 ± 6.58) U/mg) were higher than those in the high-fat group((53.03 ± 5.70) U/mg)(t values were -3.82 and -2.71, P 0.05). High-fat diet can induce the mitochondrial oxidative dysfunction in kidney, and sulforaphane shows protective effect on the kidney mitochondrial complex from oxidative damage in obese rats induced by high-fat diet.

  11. Autophagy protects pancreatic beta cell mass and function in the setting of a high-fat and high-glucose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qingfeng; Xiao, Xiangwei; Prasadan, Krishna; Chen, Congde; Ming, Yungching; Fusco, Joseph; Gangopadhyay, Nupur N; Ricks, David; Gittes, George K

    2017-11-27

    Autophagy is a major regulator of pancreatic beta cell homeostasis. Altered autophagic activity has been implicated in the beta cells of patients with type 2 diabetes, and in the beta cells of obese diabetic rodents. Here, we show that autophagy was induced in beta cells by either a high-fat diet or a combined high-fat and high-glucose diet, but not by high-glucose alone. However, a high-glucose intake alone did increase beta cell mass and insulin secretion moderately. Depletion of Atg7, a necessary component of the autophagy pathway, in beta cells by pancreatic intra-ductal AAV8-shAtg7 infusion in C57BL/6 mice, resulted in decreased beta cell mass, impaired glucose tolerance, defective insulin secretion, and increased apoptosis when a combined high-fat and high-glucose diet was given, seemingly due to suppression of autophagy. Taken together, our findings suggest that the autophagy pathway may act as a protective mechanism in pancreatic beta cells during a high-calorie diet.

  12. Intestine-specific deletion of acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) 2 protects mice from diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David W; Gao, Yu; Yen, Mei-I; Yen, Chi-Liang Eric

    2014-06-20

    The absorption of dietary fat involves the re-esterification of digested triacylglycerol in the enterocytes, a process catalyzed by acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) 2. Mice without a functional gene encoding MGAT2 (Mogat2(-/-)) are protected from diet-induced obesity. Surprisingly, these mice absorb normal amounts of dietary fat but increase their energy expenditure. MGAT2 is expressed in tissues besides intestine, including adipose tissue in both mice and humans. To test the hypothesis that intestinal MGAT2 regulates systemic energy balance, we generated and characterized mice deficient in MGAT2 specifically in the small intestine (Mogat2(IKO)). We found that, like Mogat2(-/-) mice, Mogat2(IKO) mice also showed a delay in fat absorption, a decrease in food intake, and a propensity to use fatty acids as fuel when first exposed to a high fat diet. Mogat2(IKO) mice increased energy expenditure although to a lesser degree than Mogat2(-/-) mice and were protected against diet-induced weight gain and associated comorbidities, including hepatic steatosis, hypercholesterolemia, and glucose intolerance. These findings illustrate that intestinal lipid metabolism plays a crucial role in the regulation of systemic energy balance and may be a feasible intervention target. In addition, they suggest that MGAT activity in extraintestinal tissues may also modulate energy metabolism. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Protective effects of pre-germinated brown rice diet on low levels of Pb-induced learning and memory deficits in developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Lu, Hongzhi; Tian, Su; Yin, Jie; Chen, Qing; Ma, Li; Cui, Shijie; Niu, Yujie

    2010-03-30

    Lead (Pb) is a known neurotoxicant in humans and experimental animals. Numerous studies have provided evidence that humans, especially young children, and animals chronically intoxicated with low levels of Pb show learning and memory impairments. Unfortunately, Pb-poisoning cases continue to occur in many countries. Because the current treatment options are very limited, there is a need for alternative methods to attenuate Pb toxicity. In this study, the weaning (postnatal day 21, PND21) rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group (AIN-93G diet, de-ionized water), the lead acetate (PbAC) group (AIN-93G diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water), the lead acetate+WR group (white rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+WR), the lead acetate+BR group (brown rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+BR) and the lead acetate+PR group (pre-germinated brown rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+PR). The animals received the different diets until PND60, and then the experiments were terminated. The protective effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PR) on Pb-induced learning and memory impairment in weaning rats were assessed by the Morris water maze and one-trial-learning passive avoidance test. The anti-oxidative effects of feeding a PR diet to Pb-exposed rats were evaluated. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by flow cytometry. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate were determined by HPLC. Our data showed that feeding a PR diet decreased the accumulation of lead and decreased Pb-induced learning and memory deficits in developing rats. The mechanisms might be related to the anti-oxidative effects and large amount of GABA in PR. Our study provides a regimen to reduce Pb-induced toxicity, especially future learning and memory deficits in the developing brain.

  14. Protective effect of Spirulina platensis against cell damage and apoptosis in hepatic tissue caused by high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, F; Gurel-Gurevin, E; Isbilen-Basok, B; Esener, O B B; Bilal, T; Keser, O; Altiner, A; Yilmazer, N; Ikitimur-Armutak, E I

    2016-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a microalga that may be a source of antioxidants that can reduce body fat deposition. Consumption of a high fat diet produces elevated blood lipid levels, inflammation and apoptosis. We investigated the possible effects of S. platensis on the blood lipid profile, and liver inflammation and apoptosis in rats fed a high fat diet. Sixty-four young male rats were divided into eight equal groups. The control group was fed a basic diet. The experimental groups were fed a diet for 60 days that was prepared by mixing variable amounts of 43% vegetable oil and 10% cholesterol with or without 3% S. platensis mixed with the basal diet. Blood and liver tissue samples were collected from each animal. Serum samples were used to analyze lipid parameters, total antioxidant status and total oxidant status. iNOS and eNOS were determined by immunohistochemistry. TUNEL staining was used to detect apoptosis to investigate a possible connection between inflammation and apoptosis in the liver tissue. The relations between fat deposition and liver degeneration were assessed by Sirius red staining and alpha-smooth muscle actin immunostaining. S. platensis reduced serum HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride, increased HDL-C levels in rats fed a high fat diet to near control levels, and reduced iNOS levels and increased eNOS levels in the liver tissue compared to vegetable oil and cholesterol treated groups. The apoptotic index was reduced in the groups that were fed a high fat or a basic diet when supplemented with S. platensis.

  15. Protective effect of Spirulina and tamarind fruit pulp diet supplement in fish (Gambusia affinis Baird & Girard) exposed to sublethal concentration of fluoride, aluminum and aluminum fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K P; Upreti, N; Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, S

    2012-12-01

    Protective role of diet supplements (Spirulina, tamarind fruit pulp and their combination) on a freshwater fish G. affinis exposed at sublethal concentration of fluoride (F-) (10 ppm), Al(+3) (3 ppm) and aluminum fluoride (AlF3) (35.4 ppm) in the microcosms (15 L sized) for 30-60 days in winter (90 days in summer) has been reported. Toxic effects of chemicals were manifested as higher fish mortality (4-50%) and acid (approximately -30%) and alkaline phosphatase (25-50%) contents, but reduction in RBC counts (5-55%) and protein content (approximately -29%) compared with controls. Alterations in values of these parameters were found maximum in aluminum exposed fish suggesting it as the most toxic among the tested chemicals. Diet supplements reduced toxicity of tested chemicals, especially when Spirulina and tamarind were given together.

  16. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) protects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease caused by Western diet containing benzo[a]pyrene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Nebert, Daniel W; Makishima, Makoto

    2018-03-01

    The Western diet contributes to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a prototypical environmental pollutant produced by combustion processes, is present in charcoal-grilled meat. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes BaP, resulting in either detoxication or metabolic activation in a context-dependent manner. To elucidate a role of CYP1A1-BaP in NAFLD pathogenesis, we compared the effects of a Western diet, with or without oral BaP treatment, on the development of NAFLD in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice versus wild-type mice. A Western diet plus BaP induced lipid-droplet accumulation in liver of Cyp1a1(-/-) mice, but not wild-type mice. The hepatic steatosis observed in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice was associated with increased cholesterol, triglyceride and bile acid levels. Cyp1a1(-/-) mice fed Western diet plus BaP had changes in expression of genes involved in bile acid and lipid metabolism, and showed no increase in Cyp1a2 expression but did exhibit enhanced Cyp1b1 mRNA expression, as well as hepatic inflammation. Enhanced BaP metabolic activation, oxidative stress and inflammation may exacerbate metabolic dysfunction in liver of Cyp1a1(-/-) mice. Thus, Western diet plus BaP induces NAFLD and hepatic inflammation in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice in comparison to wild-type mice, indicating a protective role of CYP1A1 against NAFLD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth hormone receptor antagonist transgenic mice are protected from hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance despite obesity when placed on a HF diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianxu; Householder, Lara A; Lubbers, Ellen R; List, Edward O; Troike, Katie; Vesel, Clare; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2015-02-01

    Reduced GH levels have been associated with improved glucose metabolism and increased longevity despite obesity in multiple mouse lines. However, one mouse line, the GH receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mouse, defies this trend because it has reduced GH action and increased adiposity, but glucose metabolism and life span are similar to controls. Slight differences in glucose metabolism and adiposity profiles can become exaggerated on a high-fat (HF) diet. Thus, in this study, male and female GHA and wild-type (WT) mice in a C57BL/6 background were placed on HF and low-fat (LF) diets for 11 weeks, starting at 10 weeks of age, to assess how GHA mice respond to additional metabolic stress of HF feeding. On a HF diet, all mice showed significant weight gain, although GHA gained weight more dramatically than WT mice, with males gaining more than females. Most of this weight gain was due to an increase in fat mass with WT mice increasing primarily in the white adipose tissue perigonadal depots, whereas GHA mice gained in both the sc and perigonadal white adipose tissue regions. Notably, GHA mice were somewhat protected from detrimental glucose metabolism changes on a HF diet because they had only modest increases in serum glucose levels, remained glucose tolerant, and did not develop hyperinsulinemia. Sex differences were observed in many measures with males reacting more dramatically to both a reduction in GH action and HF diet. In conclusion, our findings show that GHA mice, which are already obese, are susceptible to further adipose tissue expansion with HF feeding while remaining resilient to alterations in glucose homeostasis.

  18. Red pitaya betacyanins protects from diet-induced obesity, liver steatosis and insulin resistance in association with modulation of gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haizhao; Chu, Qiang; Yan, Fujie; Yang, Yunyun; Han, Wen; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Growing evidence indicates that gut microbiota contributes to obesity and its related metabolic disorders. Betacyanins possess free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities, suggesting its potential beneficial effects on metabolic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic effect of red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) fruit betacyanins (HPBN) on high-fat diet-fed mice and determine whether the beneficial effects of HPBN are associated with the modulation of gut microbiota. Thirty-six male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD), or high-fat diet plus HPBN of 200 mg/kg for 14 weeks. Sixteen seconds rRNA sequencing was used to analyze the composition of gut microbiota. Our results indicated that administration of HPBN reduced HFD-induced body weight gain and visceral obesity and improved hepatic steatosis, adipose hypertrophy, and insulin resistance in mice. Sixteen seconds rRNA sequencing performed on the MiSeq Illumina platform (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) showed that HPBN supplement not only decreased the proportion of Firmicutes and increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes at the phylum level but also induced a dramatic increase in the relative abundance of Akkermansia at the genus level. Red pitaya betacyanins protect from diet-induced obesity and its related metabolic disorders, which is associated with improved inflammatory status and modulation of gut microbiota, especially its ability to decrease the ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and increase the relative abundance of Akkermansia. The study suggested a clinical implication of HPBN in the management of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Loss of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Function Partially Protects against Peripheral and Cardiac Glucose Metabolic Derangements During a Long-Term High-Fat Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen E Jackson

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic inflammatory disease that carries a high risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the pathophysiological link between these disorders is not well known. We hypothesize that TLR4 signaling mediates high fat diet (HFD-induced peripheral and cardiac glucose metabolic derangements. Mice with a loss-of-function mutation in TLR4 (C3H/HeJ and age-matched control (C57BL/6 mice were fed either a high-fat diet or normal diet for 16 weeks. Glucose tolerance and plasma insulin were measured. Protein expression of glucose transporters (GLUT, AKT (phosphorylated and total, and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α and SOCS-3 were quantified in the heart using Western Blotting. Both groups fed a long-term HFD had increased body weight, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as impaired glucose tolerance compared to mice fed a normal diet. TLR4-mutant mice were partially protected against long-term HFD-induced insulin resistance. In control mice, feeding a HFD decreased cardiac crude membrane GLUT4 protein content, which was partially rescued in TLR4-mutant mice. TLR4-mutant mice fed a HFD also had increased expression of GLUT8, a novel isoform, compared to mice fed a normal diet. GLUT8 content was positively correlated with SOCS-3 and IL-6 expression in the heart. No significant differences in cytokine expression were observed between groups, suggesting a lack of inflammation in the heart following a HFD. Loss of TLR4 function partially restored a healthy metabolic phenotype, suggesting that TLR4 signaling is a key mechanism in HFD-induced peripheral and cardiac insulin resistance. Our data further suggest that TLR4 exerts its detrimental metabolic effects in the myocardium through a cytokine-independent pathway.

  20. High-fat diet induces periodontitis in mice through lipopolysaccharides (LPS receptor signaling: protective action of estrogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Blasco-Baque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A fat-enriched diet favors the development of gram negative bacteria in the intestine which is linked to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Interestingly, some pathogenic gram negative bacteria are commonly associated with the development of periodontitis which, like T2D, is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, estrogens have been shown to regulate glucose homeostasis via an LPS receptor dependent immune-modulation. In this study, we evaluated whether diet-induced metabolic disease would favor the development of periodontitis in mice. In addition, the regulatory role of estrogens in this process was assessed. METHODS: Four-week-old C57BL6/J WT and CD14 (part of the TLR-4 machinery for LPS-recognition knock-out female mice were ovariectomised and subcutaneously implanted with pellets releasing either placebo or 17β-estradiol (E2. Mice were then fed with either a normal chow or a high-fat diet for four weeks. The development of diabetes was monitored by an intraperitoneal glucose-tolerance test and plasma insulin concentration while periodontitis was assessed by identification of pathogens, quantification of periodontal soft tissue inflammation and alveolar bone loss. RESULTS: The fat-enriched diet increased the prevalence of periodontal pathogenic microbiota like Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia, gingival inflammation and alveolar bone loss. E2 treatment prevented this effect and CD14 knock-out mice resisted high-fat diet-induced periodontal defects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show that mice fed with a diabetogenic diet developed defects and microflora of tooth supporting-tissues typically associated with periodontitis. Moreover, our results suggest a causal link between the activation of the LPS pathway on innate immunity by periodontal microbiota and HFD-induced periodontitis, a pathophysiological mechanism that could be targeted by estrogens.

  1. Ablation of Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein (PML) Re-patterns Energy Balance and Protects Mice from Obesity Induced by a Western Diet*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiwen; Guo, Shuang; Liu, Yu; Chu, Hao; Hakimi, Parvin; Berger, Nathan A.; Hanson, Richard W.; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia protein is a well known tumor suppressor, but its role in metabolism is largely unknown. Mice with a deletion in the gene for PML (KO mice) exhibit altered gene expression in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, an accelerated rate of fatty acid metabolism, abnormal glucose metabolism, constitutive AMP-activating kinase (AMPK) activation, and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Last, an increased rate of energy expenditure protects PML KO mice from the effects of obesity induced by a Western diet. Collectively, our study uncovers a previously unappreciated role of PML in the regulation of metabolism and energy balance in mice. PMID:23986437

  2. Genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase 10A protects mice from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Andrea R; Rodriguez, Carlos G; Toolan, Dawn M; Price, Olga; Henry, Melanie; Forrest, Gail; Szeto, Daphne; Keohane, Carol Ann; Pan, Yie; Smith, Karen M; Raheem, Izzat T; Cox, Christopher D; Hwa, Joyce; Renger, John J; Smith, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of schizophrenia. Here we report a novel role of PDE10A in the regulation of caloric intake and energy homeostasis. PDE10A-deficient mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity (DIO) and associated metabolic disturbances. Inhibition of weight gain is due to hypophagia after mice are fed a highly palatable diet rich in fats and sugar but not a standard diet. PDE10A deficiency produces a decrease in caloric intake without affecting meal frequency, daytime versus nighttime feeding behavior, or locomotor activity. We tested THPP-6, a small molecule PDE10A inhibitor, in DIO mice. THPP-6 treatment resulted in decreased food intake, body weight loss, and reduced adiposity at doses that produced antipsychotic efficacy in behavioral models. We show that PDE10A inhibition increased whole-body energy expenditure in DIO mice fed a Western-style diet, achieving weight loss and reducing adiposity beyond the extent seen with food restriction alone. Therefore, chronic THPP-6 treatment conferred improved insulin sensitivity and reversed hyperinsulinemia. These data demonstrate that PDE10A inhibition represents a novel antipsychotic target that may have additional metabolic benefits over current medications for schizophrenia by suppressing food intake, alleviating weight gain, and reducing the risk for the development of diabetes.

  3. Tbc1d1 mutation in lean mouse strain confers leanness and protects from diet-induced obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadt, Alexandra; Leicht, Katja; Deshmukh, Atul

    2008-01-01

    We previously identified Nob1 as a quantitative trait locus for high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in genome-wide scans of outcross populations of obese and lean mouse strains. Additional crossbreeding experiments indicated that Nob1 represents an obesity suppressor from the lean Swiss Jim...

  4. Prediction of adherence to a gluten-free diet using protection motivation theory among adults with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, A J; Jung, M E; Chen, M Y; Beauchamp, M R

    2016-06-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic autoimmune disease that requires strict adherence to a gluten-free diet. However, strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is difficult, with findings from a recent review suggesting that up to 42% of individuals with coeliac disease do not eat a strict gluten-free diet. The present study aimed to examine psychosocial predictors of adherence (purposeful and accidental) to a gluten-free diet among adults with coeliac disease over a 1-month period. In this longitudinal study, 212 North American adults with coeliac disease completed online questionnaires at two time points, baseline and 1 month later. The results revealed that intentions partially mediated the effects of symptom severity, self-regulatory efficacy, planning and knowledge on purposeful gluten consumption. Intentions did not mediate the effects of severity, response cost, self-regulatory efficacy, planning and knowledge for accidental gluten consumption but, interestingly, self-regulatory efficacy directly predicted fewer accidental incidents of gluten-consumption. These findings delineate the differential psychological processes in understanding accidental and purposeful gluten consumption among adults with coeliac disease and emphasise the importance of bolstering self-regulatory efficacy beliefs to prevent accidental and purposeful consumption of gluten. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. A vegetarian diet does not protect against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A cross-sectional study between Buddhist priests and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Hun; Oh, Dong Jun; Kwon, Ki Hwan; Lee, Jun Kyu; Koh, Moon Soo; Lee, Jin Ho; Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2015-07-01

    There is limited data that supports a role for a vegetarian diet in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between vegetarian diets and NAFLD, considering metabolic syndrome and obesity. This is a cross-sectional, retrospective study comparing the prevalence of NAFLD of 615 Buddhist priests and age-, sex-, Body mass index (BMI)-and presence/absence of metabolic syndrome-matched controls who underwent routine health checkups in a health promotion center. Diagnosis and severity of NAFLD was determined based on ultrasonographic findings. The prevalence of NAFLD was not statistically significantly different between the Buddhist priests and the general population (29.9% vs. 25.05%, p=0.055). The Buddhist priest group had higher serum albumin, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum triglyceride levels and lower serum total bilirubin, serum fasting glucose, and serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels than the general population group. In univariate analysis and multivariate analysis, NAFLD was associated with old age, male gender, increased BMI, increased waist circumference, metabolic syndrome, high albumin, high glucose, high AST, high ALT, high gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), high triglycerides, low HDL, high low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high total cholesterol. The vegetarian diet does not protect against NAFLD.

  6. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rejaie, Salim Salih; Abuohashish, Hatem Mustafa; Alkhamees, Osama Abdelrahman; Aleisa, Abdulaziz Mohammed; Alroujayee, Abdulaziz S

    2012-03-16

    An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was more prominent in male

  7. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rejaie Salim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins

  8. Pre-historic eating patterns in Latin America and protective effects of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Acosta Navarro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we present the contributions to nutrition science from Latin American native peoples and scientists, appreciated from a historic point of view since pre-historic times to the modern age. Additionally, we present epidemiological and clinical studies on the area of plant-based diets and their relation with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases conducted in recent decades, and we discuss challenges and perspectives regarding aspects of nutrition in the region

  9. Targeted Overexpression of Inducible 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase in Adipose Tissue Increases Fat Deposition but Protects against Diet-induced Insulin Resistance and Inflammatory Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yuqing; Guo, Xin; Li, Honggui; Xu, Hang; Halim, Vera; Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Huan; Fan, Yang-Yi; Ong, Kuok Teong; Woo, Shih-Lung; Chapkin, Robert S.; Mashek, Douglas G.; Chen, Yanming; Dong, Hui; Lu, Fuer; Wei, Lai; Wu, Chaodong

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates the dissociation of fat deposition, the inflammatory response, and insulin resistance in the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases. As a regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (iPFK2, encoded by PFKFB3) protects against diet-induced adipose tissue inflammatory response and systemic insulin resistance independently of adiposity. Using aP2-PFKFB3 transgenic (Tg) mice, we explored the ability of targeted adipocyte PFKFB3/iPFK2 overexpression to modulate diet-induced inflammatory responses and insulin resistance arising from fat deposition in both adipose and liver tissues. Compared with wild-type littermates (controls) on a high fat diet (HFD), Tg mice exhibited increased adiposity, decreased adipose inflammatory response, and improved insulin sensitivity. In a parallel pattern, HFD-fed Tg mice showed increased hepatic steatosis, decreased liver inflammatory response, and improved liver insulin sensitivity compared with controls. In both adipose and liver tissues, increased fat deposition was associated with lipid profile alterations characterized by an increase in palmitoleate. Additionally, plasma lipid profiles also displayed an increase in palmitoleate in HFD-Tg mice compared with controls. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, overexpression of PFKFB3/iPFK2 recapitulated metabolic and inflammatory changes observed in adipose tissue of Tg mice. Upon treatment with conditioned medium from iPFK2-overexpressing adipocytes, mouse primary hepatocytes displayed metabolic and inflammatory responses that were similar to those observed in livers of Tg mice. Together, these data demonstrate a unique role for PFKFB3/iPFK2 in adipocytes with regard to diet-induced inflammatory responses in both adipose and liver tissues. PMID:22556414

  10. High adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with cardiovascular protection in higher but not in lower socioeconomic groups: prospective findings from the Moli-sani study.

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    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Pounis, George; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Cerletti, Chiara; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2017-10-01

    It is uncertain whether the cardiovascular benefits associated with Mediterranean diet (MD) may differ across socioeconomic groups. Prospective analysis on 18991 men and women aged ≥35 years from the general population of the Moli-sani cohort (Italy). Adherence to MD was appraised by the Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Household income (euros/year) and educational level were used as indicators of socioeconomic status. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Over 4.3 years of follow-up, 252 cardiovascular disease (CVD) events occurred. Overall, a two-point increase in MDS was associated with 15% reduced CVD risk (95% confidence interval: 1% to 27%). Such association was evident in highly (HR = 0.43; 0.25-0.72) but not in less (HR = 0.94; 0.78-1.14) educated subjects (P for interaction = 0.042). Similarly, CVD advantages associated with the MD were confined to the high household income group (HR = 0.39; 0.23-0.66, and HR = 1.01; 0.79-1.29 for high- and low-income groups, respectively; P for interaction = 0.0098). In a subgroup of individuals of different socioeconomic status but sharing similar MDS, diet-related disparities were found as different intakes of antioxidants and polyphenols, fatty acids, micronutrients, dietary antioxidant capacity, dietary diversity, organic vegetables and whole grain bread consumption. MD is associated with lower CVD risk but this relationship is confined to higher socioeconomic groups. In groups sharing similar scores of adherence to MD, diet-related disparities across socioeconomic groups persisted. These nutritional gaps may reasonably explain at least in part the socioeconomic pattern of CVD protection from the MD. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  11. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

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    Xu, Jiqu; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Zhonghua; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Results: All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO) which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. Conclusion: OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. PMID:26473919

  12. Grape skin extract protects against programmed changes in the adult rat offspring caused by maternal high-fat diet during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Angela C; Emiliano, Andréa F; Cordeiro, Viviane S C; de Bem, Graziele F; de Cavalho, Lenize C R M; de Oliveira, Paola Raquel B; Neto, Miguel L; Costa, Cristiane A; Boaventura, Gilson T; de Moura, Roberto S

    2013-12-01

    Maternal overnutrition during suckling period is associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders in the offspring. We aimed to assess the effect of Vitis vinifera L. grape skin extract (ACH09) on cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in adult male offspring of rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet during lactation. Four groups of female rats were fed: control diet (7% fat), ACH09 (7% fat plus 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) ACH09 orally), HF (24% fat), and HF+ACH09 (24% fat plus 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) ACH09 orally) during lactation. After weaning, all male offspring were fed a control diet and sacrificed at 90 or 180 days old. Systolic blood pressure was increased in adult offspring of HF-fed dams and ACH09 prevented the hypertension. Increased adiposity, plasma triglyceride, glucose levels and insulin resistance were observed in offspring from both ages, and those changes were reversed by ACH09. Expression of insulin cascade proteins IRS-1, AKT and GLUT4 in the soleus muscle was reduced in the HF group of both ages and increased by ACH09. The plasma oxidative damage assessed by malondialdehyde levels was increased, and nitrite levels decreased in the HF group of both ages, which were reversed by ACH09. In addition, ACH09 restored the decreased plasma and mesenteric arteries antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the HF group. In conclusion, the treatment of HF-fed dams during lactation with ACH09 provides protection from later-life hypertension, body weight gain, insulin resistance and oxidative stress. The protective effect ACH09 may involve NO synthesis, antioxidant action and activation of insulin-signaling pathways. © 2013.

  13. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone protects mice from diet-induced obesity and modulates adipokines expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Mathé, Véronique; Lafont, René; Even, Patrick; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2012-02-01

    Besides their well-known effect in the molting control in insects, ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that display potential pharmacologic and metabolic properties in mammals. The most common ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is found in many plants such as quinoa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of quinoa extract (Q) enriched in 20E supplementation to prevent the onset of diet-induced obesity and to regulate the expression of adipocyte-specific genes in mice. Mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by 20E-enriched Q or pure 20E for 3 weeks. Supplementation with Q reduced adipose tissue development in HF mice without modification of their body weight gain. This adipose tissue-specific effect was mainly associated with a reduced adipocyte size and a decrease in the expression of several genes involved in lipid storage, including lipoprotein lipase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Furthermore, Q-treated mice exhibited marked attenuation of mRNA levels of several inflammation markers (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, CD68) and insulin resistance (osteopontin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) as compared to HF mice. Q supplementation also reversed the effects of HF-induced downregulation of the uncoupling protein(s) (UCP(s)) mRNA levels in muscle. Similar results were obtained in mice fed a HF diet supplemented with similar amounts of pure 20E, suggesting that the latter accounted for most of the Q effects. Our study indicates that Q has an antiobesity activity in vivo and could be used as a nutritional supplement for the prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders.

  14. Solanum nigrum Protects against Hepatic Fibrosis via Suppression of Hyperglycemia in High-Fat/Ethanol Diet-Induced Rats

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    Cheng-Jeng Tai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs signal through the receptor for AGE (RAGE, which can lead to hepatic fibrosis in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. We investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts from Solanum nigrum (AESN on AGEs-induced RAGE signaling and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs and hyperglycemia induced by high-fat diet with ethanol. Methods: An animal model was used to evaluate the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of AESN in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 30% with ethanol (10%. Male Wistar rats (4 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6: (1 control (basal diet; (2 HFD (30% + ethanol (10% (HFD/ethanol; (3 HFD/ethanol + AESN (100 mg/kg, oral administration; and (4 HFD/ethanol + pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, oral administration and treated with HFD for 6 months in the presence or absence of 10% ethanol in dietary water. Results: We found that AESN improved insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and downregulated lipogenesis via regulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, PPARγ co-activator (PGC-1α, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, and fatty acid synthase (FAS mRNA levels in the liver of HFD/ethanol-treated rats. In turn, AESN may delay and inhibit the progression of hepatic fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA inhibition and MMP-2 production. Conclusions: These results suggest that AESN may be further explored as a novel anti-fibrotic strategy for the prevention of liver disease.

  15. Protective effects of L-arabinose in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Hao; Xiaoling Lu; Min Sun; Kai Li; Lingmin Shen; Tao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Background: L-Arabinose is a non-caloric sugar, which could affect glucose and lipid metabolism and suppress obesity. However, few reports have described the effect of L-arabinose in metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Objective: This study was conducted to explore the effects of L-arabinose in rats with metabolic syndrome induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF) diet. Methods: After the rat model for met...

  16. Protective effect of Garcinia against renal oxidative stress and biomarkers induced by high fat and sucrose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Eltawab Mohamed A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity became major health problem in the world, the objective of this work was to examine the effect of high sucrose and high fat diet to induce obesity on antioxidant defense system, biochemical changes in blood and tissue of control, non treated and treated groups by administration of Garcinia cambogia, and explore the mechanisms that link obesity with altered renal function Methods Rats were fed a standard control diet for 12 week (wk or a diet containing 65% high sucrose (HSD or 35% fat (HFD for 8 wk and then HFD group divided into two groups for the following 4 wks. One group was given Garcinia+HFD, the second only high fat, Also the HSD divided into two groups, 1st HSD+Garcinia and 2nd HSD. Blood and renal, mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues were collected for biochemical assays. Results HFD and HSD groups of rats showed a significant increase in feed intake, Body weight (BW and body mass index (BMI. Also there were significant increases in weights of mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues in HFD and HSD groups. HFD and HSD affect the kidney by increasing serum urea and creatinine levels and decreased level of nitric oxide (NO and increased blood glucose, low density lipoproteins (LDL, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC and malondialdehyde (MDA. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were significantly decreased in HFD while there were significant increases in HSD and HSD+G groups p ≤ 0.05 compared with control. Moreover, renal catalase activities and MDA levels were significantly increased while NO level was lowered. These changes improved by Garcinia that decreased the oxidative stress biomarkers and increased NO level. There were significant positive correlations among BMI, kidney functions (Creatinine and urea, TG and Oxidative markers (renal MDA and catalase. Conclusions Rats fed a diet with HFD or HSD showed, hypertriglyceridemia, increased LDL production

  17. Bland diet

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    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... A bland diet can be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may ...

  18. The protective effect of a buckwheat-enriched diet on renal injury in high salt-induced hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dai; Zhang, Xinyu; Meng, Meng; Han, Lirong; Li, Zheng; Hou, Lihua; Qi, Wentao; Wang, Chunling

    2016-08-10

    An excess of dietary salt is the most common factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension. Dietary management is deemed critical to prevent and treat hypertension. We aimed at evaluating the preventive effect of the buckwheat (BW)-enriched diet on high salt-induced elevation of blood pressure (BP) and renal injury in order to provide a new focus on the design of strategies to prevent hypertension. Control, high salt (HS)-treated (8%), HS + tartary buckwheat (TB) (8% HS + 15% TB), and a group of HS + common buckwheat (CB) (8% HS + 15% CB) rats were used for 7 weeks. BP was monitored periodically during the study by the tail cuff method. HS intake caused a significant increase of BP, the level of serum Na(+) compared to the control group. BW significantly prevented the increase of BP, attenuated oxidative damage, and improved Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in HS treated rats. These results show that a diet supplemented with whole BW has beneficial effects on hypertension, by decreasing blood pressure values and oxidative stress.

  19. Targeting arginase-II protects mice from high-fat-diet-induced hepatic steatosis through suppression of macrophage inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Rajapakse, Angana G; Riedo, Erwin; Fellay, Benoit; Bernhard, Marie-Claire; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Yang, Zhihong; Ming, Xiu-Fen

    2016-02-05

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associates with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Hypoactive AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, and macrophage-mediated inflammation are mechanistically linked to NAFLD. Studies investigating roles of arginase particularly the extrahepatic isoform arginase-II (Arg-II) in obesity-associated NAFLD showed contradictory results. Here we demonstrate that Arg-II(-/-) mice reveal decreased hepatic steatosis, macrophage infiltration, TNF-α and IL-6 as compared to the wild type (WT) littermates fed high fat diet (HFD). A higher AMPK activation (no difference in mTOR signaling), lower levels of lipogenic transcription factor SREBP-1c and activity/expression of lipogenic enzymes were observed in the Arg-II(-/-) mice liver. Moreover, release of TNF-α and IL-6 from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) of Arg-II(-/-) mice is decreased as compared to WT-BMM. Conditioned medium from Arg-II(-/-)-BMM exhibits weaker activity to facilitate triglyceride synthesis paralleled with lower expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1 and higher AMPK activation in hepatocytes as compared to that from WT-BMM. These effects of BMM conditioned medium can be neutralized by neutralizing antibodies against TNF-α and IL-6. Thus, Arg-II-expressing macrophages facilitate diet-induced NAFLD through TNF-α and IL-6 in obesity.

  20. Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom ethyl acetate extract protects against high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by regulating kinase phosphorylation in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Kim, Ji-Su; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Choo, Young-Kug

    2016-09-30

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is an herb used as a traditional medicine; however, it causes side effects such as nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Nevertheless, AMK can be applied in specific ways medicinally, including via ingestion of low doses for short periods of time. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced the hepatocyte injury and inflammation. The protective effects of AMK against NASH are unclear; therefore, in this study, the protective effects of AMK ethyl acetate extract were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH model. We found decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as well as increased levels of lipoproteins during AMK extract treatment. We also observed decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation and triglycerides, as well as suppressed hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in extract-treated livers. Treatment with extract decreased the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). These results demonstrate that the protective effect of the extract against HFD-induced NASH occurred via reductions in reactive oxygen species production, inflammation suppression, and apoptosis related to the suppression of JNK1/2 activation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that that ethyl acetate extract of AMK has potential therapeutic effects in the HFD-induced NASH mouse model.

  1. Adult-onset deficiency of acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 protects mice from diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banh, Taylor; Nelson, David W; Gao, Yu; Huang, Ting-Ni; Yen, Mei-I; Yen, Chi-Liang E

    2015-02-01

    Acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) 2 catalyzes triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, required in intestinal fat absorption. We previously demonstrated that mice without a functional MGAT2-coding gene (Mogat2(-/-)) exhibit increased energy expenditure and resistance to obesity induced by excess calories. One critical question raised is whether lacking MGAT2 during early development is required for the metabolic phenotypes in adult mice. In this study, we found that Mogat2(-/-) pups grew slower than wild-type littermates during the suckling period. To determine whether inactivating MGAT2 in adult mice is sufficient to confer resistance to diet-induced obesity, we generated mice with an inducible Mogat2-inactivating mutation. Mice with adult-onset MGAT2 deficiency (Mogat2(AKO)) exhibited a transient decrease in food intake like Mogat2(-/-) mice when fed a high-fat diet and a moderate increase in energy expenditure after acclimatization. They gained less weight than littermate controls, but the difference was smaller than that between wild-type and Mogat2(-/-) mice. The moderate reduction in weight gain was associated with reduced hepatic TAG and improved glucose tolerance. Similar protective effects were also observed in mice that had gained weight on a high-fat diet before inactivating MGAT2. These findings suggest that adult-onset MGAT2 deficiency mitigates metabolic disorders induced by high-fat feeding and that MGAT2 modulates early postnatal nutrition and may program metabolism later in life. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

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    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  3. Protective effects of synbiotic diets of Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum and inulin against acute cadmium toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Dornoush; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Ghaisari, Hamid Reza; Nazifi, Saeed; Sajedianfard, Javad; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2017-06-05

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that causes oxidative stress and has toxic effects in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two probiotics along with a prebiotic in preventing the toxic effects of cadmium in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups namely control, cadmium only, cadmium along with Lactobacillus plantarum (1 × 109 CFU/day) and inulin (5% of feedstuff) and cadmium along with Bacillus coagulans (1 × 109 spore/day) and inulin (5% of feedstuff). Cadmium treated groups received 200 μg/rat/day CdCl2 administered by gavage. During the 42-day experimental period, they were weighed weekly. For evaluation of changes in oxidative stress, the levels of some biochemicals and enzymes of serum including SOD, GPX, MDA, AST, ALT, total bilirubin, BUN and creatinine, and also SOD level of livers were measured at day 21 and 42 of treatment. The cadmium content of kidney and liver was determined by using atomic absorption mass spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's post hoc test. Treatment of cadmium induced rats with synbiotic diets significantly improved the liver enzymes and biochemical parameters that decreased AST, ALT, total bilirubin, BUN and metal accumulation in the liver and kidney and increased body weight, serum and liver SOD values in comparison with the cadmium-treated group. No significant differences were observed with MDA and GP X values between all groups (p > 0.05). This study showed that synbiotic diets containing probiotics (L. plantarum and B. coagulans) in combination with the prebiotic (inulin) can reduce the level of cadmium in the liver and kidney, preventing their damage and recover antioxidant enzymes in acute cadmium poisoning in rat.

  4. Low glycemic load diets protect against metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the male Nile rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsinger, Julia; Landstrom, Michelle; Pronczuk, Andrzej; Auerbach, Andrew; Hayes, K C

    2017-04-01

    Dietary modification helps prevent and manage Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in humans and Nile rats. Specifically fibrous legumes, like lentils, benefit humans, but whether this reflects a specific change in the Glycemic Load (GLoad) remains controversial. Accordingly, low-GLoad foods were tested in the glucose-sensitive Nile rat. 131 male Nile rats aged 3 weeks to 15 months were challenged during four experiments with 15 dietary exposures that varied Glycemic Index (GI, 36-88), GLoad (102-305/2000 kcal), and cumulative GLoad (Cum GLoad=days×GLoad, 181-537g total glucose). Lentil diets with low GLoads (102, 202) prevented, delayed, reduced, even reversed the progress of MetS and T2DM as measured by blood glucose (fasting, random, and oral glucose tolerance test) and plasma lipid parameters (plasma cholesterol and triglycerides) plus necropsy findings (liver and kidney pathology plus adipose reserves). The benefit from lentils exceeded dietary factors such as macronutrient composition (%Energy from carbohydrate:fat:protein, between 70:10:20 to 40:40:20), total fiber (0-24%), or dietary caloric density (2.9-4.7 kcal/g). The benefit of a low GLoad applied equally to rats inherently susceptible or resistant to T2DM, based on random glucose above or below 75 mg/dl, respectively, during interventions of 7-17 weeks. Measuring total food intake and the novel concept of Cum GLoad during growth generated strong correlations (up to r=0.93) between Cum GLoad and parameters of MetS and T2DM, especially during sexual maturation. The present experiments confirm the applicability of male Nile rats to diet-induced human T2DM, and suggest dietary compositions to deter MetS and T2DM in humans. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of rumen-protected choline additive to diet on productive performance of male Zaraibi growing goats during hot summer season in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeeb, A A M; Gad, A E; Atta, M A A; Abdel-Hafez, M A M

    2017-08-01

    Twenty Zaraibi goat bucks were used in this experiment which lasted 3 months during summer season of Egypt. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups. The first group was kept without treatment as control while in the second group, rumen-protected choline (RPC) at the level of 20 g/buck/day was added to the concentrate feed mixture at the morning feeding. RPC additives to diet of Zaraibi goat bucks during the period of hot summer season increased (P conversion while water intake was not affected by RPC additives. RPC increased (P goats, especially, under heat stress conditions of summer season in Egypt and showed the best results concerning the growth, feed conversion, blood metabolites, and economic efficiency.

  6. JNK1 ablation in mice confers long-term metabolic protection from diet-induced obesity at the cost of moderate skin oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becattini, Barbara; Zani, Fabio; Breasson, Ludovic; Sardi, Claudia; D'Agostino, Vito Giuseppe; Choo, Min-Kyung; Provenzani, Alessandro; Park, Jin Mo; Solinas, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with oxidative stress, which may be implicated in the progression of obesity-related diseases. The kinase JNK1 has emerged as a promising drug target for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. JNK1 is also a key mediator of the oxidative stress response, which can promote cell death or survival, depending on the magnitude and context of its activation. In this article, we describe a study in which the long-term effects of JNK1 inactivation on glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress in obese mice were investigated for the first time. Mice lacking JNK1 (JNK1(-/-)) were fed an obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) for a long period. JNK1(-/-) mice fed an HFD for the long term had reduced expression of antioxidant genes in their skin, more skin oxidative damage, and increased epidermal thickness and inflammation compared with the effects in control wild-type mice. However, we also observed that the protection from obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, steatosis, and insulin resistance, conferred by JNK1 ablation, was sustained over a long period and was paralleled by decreased oxidative damage in fat and liver. We conclude that compounds targeting JNK1 activity in brain and adipose tissue, which do not accumulate in the skin, may be safer and most effective.-Becattini, B., Zani, F., Breasson, L., Sardi, C., D'Agostino, V. G., Choo, M.-K., Provenzani, A., Park, J. M., Solinas, G. JNK1 ablation in mice confers long-term metabolic protection from diet-induced obesity at the cost of moderate skin oxidative damage. © FASEB.

  7. Lipolysis-Stimulating Peptide from Soybean Protects Against High Fat Diet-Induced Apoptosis in Skeletal Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthandam Asokan, Shibu; Hung, Tsu-Han; Chiang, Wen-Dee; Lin, Wan-Teng

    2018-03-01

    Obesity is generally associated with low-grade chronic inflammation that involves the recruitment of macrophages and other inflammation factors to the adipocytes of obese individuals. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a cytokine associated with systemic inflammation, is elevated in conditions of obesity. TNF-α is an important factor that plays an important role in skeletal muscle wasting. Apoptosis of myonuclei contributes to the loss of muscle mass and therefore plays an important role in skeletal muscle atrophy. In mouse models that were fed a high fat diet (HFD), a lipolysis-stimulating peptide-VHVV (purified from hydrolysate resulting from flavourzyme treatment of soy protein) was found to reduce HFD-related apoptotic effects in mice skeletal muscle and potentially control atrophy. HFD fed mice had heavier body weight than those fed with normal chow, and VHVV administration restricted lipid accumulation in muscle tissues of mice fed with HFD but increased nutrient uptake. Moreover, specific concentrations of VHVV regulated TNF-α expression that was elevated by HFD, suppressed apoptosis-related proteins and regulated the proteins of lipid metabolism.

  8. Adipose tissue invariant NKT cells protect against diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorder through regulatory cytokine production.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Lydia

    2012-09-21

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are evolutionarily conserved innate T cells that influence inflammatory responses. We have shown that iNKT cells, previously thought to be rare in humans, were highly enriched in human and murine adipose tissue, and that as adipose tissue expanded in obesity, iNKT cells were depleted, correlating with proinflammatory macrophage infiltration. iNKT cell numbers were restored in mice and humans after weight loss. Mice lacking iNKT cells had enhanced weight gain, larger adipocytes, fatty livers, and insulin resistance on a high-fat diet. Adoptive transfer of iNKT cells into obese mice or in vivo activation of iNKT cells via their lipid ligand, alpha-galactocylceramide, decreased body fat, triglyceride levels, leptin, and fatty liver and improved insulin sensitivity through anti-inflammatory cytokine production by adipose-derived iNKT cells. This finding highlights the potential of iNKT cell-targeted therapies, previously proven to be safe in humans, in the management of obesity and its consequences.

  9. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  10. Small heterodimer partner (SHP deficiency protects myocardia from lipid accumulation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hun Ohn

    Full Text Available The small heterodimer partner (SHP regulates fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis in the liver by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ expression. SHP is also abundantly expressed in the myocardium. We investigated the effect of SHP expression on myocardia assessing not only heart structure and function but also lipid metabolism and related gene expression in a SHP deletion animal model. Transcriptional profiling with a microarray revealed that genes participating in cell growth, cytokine signalling, phospholipid metabolism, and extracellular matrix are up-regulated in the myocardia of SHP knockout (KO mice compared to those of wild-type (WT mice (nominal p value < 0.05. Consistent with these gene expression changes, the left ventricular masses of SHP KO mice were significantly higher than WT mice (76.8 ± 20.5 mg vs. 52.8 ± 6.8 mg, P = 0.0093. After 12 weeks of high fat diet (HFD, SHP KO mice gained less weight and exhibited less elevation in serum-free fatty acid and less ectopic lipid accumulation in the myocardium than WT mice. According to microarray analysis, genes regulated by PPARγ1 and PPARα were down-regulated in myocardia of SHP KO mice compared to their expression in WT mice after HFD, suggesting that the reduction in lipid accumulation in the myocardium resulted from a decrease in lipogenesis regulated by PPARγ. We confirmed the reduced expression of PPARγ1 and PPARα target genes such as CD36, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase by SHP KO after HFD.

  11. Dietary Green Pea Protects against DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice Challenged with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Shima; de Sousa Moraes, Luís Fernando; Lebow, Noelle; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2017-05-18

    Obesity is a risk factor for developing inflammatory bowel disease. Pea is unique with its high content of dietary fiber, polyphenolics, and glycoproteins, all of which are known to be health beneficial. We aimed to investigate the impact of green pea (GP) supplementation on the susceptibility of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Six-week-old C57BL/6J female mice were fed a 45% HFD or HFD supplemented with 10% GP. After 7-week dietary supplementation, colitis was induced by adding 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days followed by a 7-day recovery period. GP supplementation ameliorated the disease activity index score in HFD-fed mice during the recovery stage, and reduced neutrophil infiltration, mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-17, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in HFD-fed mice. Further, GP supplementation increased mucin 2 content and mRNA expression of goblet cell differentiation markers including Trefoil factor 3 (Tff3), Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), and SAM pointed domain ETS factor 1 (Spdef1) in HFD-fed mice. In addition, GP ameliorated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as indicated by the reduced expression of Activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6) protein and its target genes chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), the CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), the ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like 1 protein (Edem1), and the X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) in HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, GP supplementation ameliorated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in HFD-fed mice, which was associated with the suppression of inflammation, mucin depletion, and ER stress in the colon.

  12. Angiotensin type 1a receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus protect against diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D.; Pati, Dipanwita; Wang, Lei; Hiller, Helmut; Sumners, Colin; Frazier, Charles J.; Seeley, Randy J.; Herman, James P.; Woods, Stephen C.; Krause, Eric G.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased levels of angiotensin-II (Ang-II), which activates angiotensin type-1a receptors (AT1a) to influence cardiovascular function and energy homeostasis. To test the hypothesis that specific AT1a within the brain control these processes, we utilized the Cre/lox system to delete AT1a from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of mice. PVN AT1a deletion did not affect body mass or adiposity when mice were maintained on standard chow. However, maintenance on a high-fat diet revealed a gene by environment interaction whereby mice lacking AT1a in the PVN had increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure that augmented body mass and adiposity relative to controls. Despite this increased adiposity, PVN AT1a deletion reduced systolic blood pressure, suggesting that this receptor population mediates the positive correlation between adiposity and blood pressure. Gene expression studies revealed that PVN AT1a deletion decreased hypothalamic expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and oxytocin, neuropeptides known to control food intake and sympathetic nervous system activity. Whole cell patch clamp recordings confirmed that PVN AT1a deletion eliminates responsiveness of PVN parvocellular neurons to Ang-II, and suggest that Ang-II responsiveness is increased in obese wild-type mice. Central inflammation is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders and PVN AT1a deletion reduced indices of hypothalamic inflammation. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that PVN AT1a regulate energy balance during environmental challenges that promote metabolic and cardiovascular pathologies. The implication is that the elevated Ang-II that accompanies obesity serves as a negative feedback signal that activates PVN neurons to alleviate weight gain. PMID:23486953

  13. Road diet informational guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...

  14. Protective Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Analog on Renal Tubular Injury in Mice on High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Guo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study aimed to investigate the renoprotective effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 against renal tubular injury in C57BL/6 mice induced by a high-fat diet (HFD. Methods: Twenty C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD for 12 weeks. Ten of these mice were treated with GLP-1 at 200 µg/kg subcutaneously twice daily for 4 weeks (HFDG group, and the other ten mice received vehicle only (HFD group. Ten mice fed standard rodent chow served as controls (Con group. Body weight, kidney weight, food intake, and systolic blood pressure were measured. The expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS markers (BIP, p-eIF2α, ATF4, and CHOP and apoptosis in the kidney were examined utilizing western blotting, immunohistochemistry and TUNEL, respectively. Angiotensin II and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R were examined by ELISA. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK2 were treated with GLP-1(150 nM followed by treatment with palmitic acid (500 nM [PA] for 24 h. HK2 cells treated with BSA were used as controls. The protein levels of ERS markers, apoptosis-associated protein, and AT1R were measured by western blotting. Results: Increase of body weight, food intake, and systolic blood pressure was less pronounced in GLP-1 treated HFDG mice compared to HFD mice. The levels of ERS markers (BIP, p-eIF2α, ATF4, and CHOP and apoptosis decreased following GLP-1 treatment in vivo and in vitro (p<0.05. Increased AT1R induced by HFD and PA were blocked with GLP-1 treatment. In contrast, the level of angiotensin II after GLP-1 treatment was not significantly different between the HFD and HFDG mice. Conclusion: The study indicated that saturated fatty acids induced ERS and apoptosis in the kidney and increased AT1R expression. GLP-1 treatment exerted renoprotective effects against saturated fatty acid-induced kidney tubular cell ERS and apoptosis together with inhibition of AT1R expression in vivo and in vitro.

  15. Absence of fatty acid transporter CD36 protects against Western-type diet-related cardiac dysfunction following pressure overload in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbusch, Laura K M; Luiken, Joost J F P; Vlasblom, Ronald; Chabowski, Adrian; Hoebers, Nicole T H; Coumans, Will A; Vroegrijk, Irene O C M; Voshol, Peter J; Ouwens, D Margriet; Glatz, Jan F C; Diamant, Michaela

    2011-10-01

    Cardiac patients often are obese and have hypertension, but in most studies these conditions are investigated separately. Here, we aimed at 1) elucidating the interaction of metabolic and mechanophysical stress in the development of cardiac dysfunction in mice and 2) preventing this interaction by ablation of the fatty acid transporter CD36. Male wild-type (WT) C57Bl/6 mice and CD36(-/-) mice received chow or Western-type diet (WTD) for 10 wk and then underwent a sham surgery or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) under anesthesia. After a 6-wk continuation of the diet, cardiac function, morphology, lipid profiles, and molecular parameters were assessed. WTD administration affected body and organ weights of WT and CD36(-/-) mice, but it affected only plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in WT mice. Cardiac lipid concentrations increased in WT mice receiving WTD, decreased in CD36(-/-) on chow, and remained unchanged in CD36(-/-) receiving WTD. TAC induced cardiac hypertrophy in WT mice on chow but did not affect cardiac function and cardiac lipid concentrations. WTD or CD36 ablation worsened the outcome of TAC. Ablation of CD36 protected against the WTD-related aggravation of cardiac functional and structural changes induced by TAC. In conclusion, cardiac dysfunction and remodeling worsen when the heart is exposed to two stresses, metabolic and mechanophysical, at the same time. CD36 ablation prevents the metabolic stress resulting from a WTD. Thus, metabolic conditions are a critical factor for the compromised heart and provide new targets for metabolic manipulation in cardioprotection.

  16. Gastric bypass surgery is protective from high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosinski, J D; Pagadala, M R; Mulya, A; Huang, H; Dan, O; Shimizu, H; Batayyah, E; Pai, R K; Schauer, P R; Brethauer, S A; Kirwan, J P

    2016-06-01

    High-fat diets are known to contribute to the development of obesity and related co-morbidities including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The accumulation of hepatic lipid may increase endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and contribute to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and metabolic disease. We hypothesized that bariatric surgery would counter the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) on obesity-associated NAFLD. Sixteen of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to Sham (N = 8) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery (N = 8) and compared to Lean controls (N = 8). Obese rats were maintained on a HFD throughout the study. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and hepatic steatosis, triglyceride accumulation, ER stress and apoptosis were assessed at 90 days post-surgery. Despite eating a HFD for 90 days post-surgery, the RYGB group lost weight (-20.7 ± 6%, P Hepatic steatosis and ER stress, specifically glucose-regulated protein-78 (Grp78, P < 0.001), X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) and spliced XBP-1 (P < 0.01), and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) gene expression, were normalized in the RYGB group compared to both Sham and Lean controls. Significant TUNEL staining in liver sections from the Obese Sham group, indicative of accelerated cell death, was absent in the RYGB and Lean control groups. Additionally, fasting plasma glucagon like peptide-1 was increased in RYGB compared to Sham (P < 0.02). These data suggest that in obese rats, RYGB surgery protects the liver against HFD-induced fatty liver disease by attenuating ER stress and excess apoptosis. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Protective effect of boswellic acids versus pioglitazone in a rat model of diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: influence on insulin resistance and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitone, Sawsan A; Barakat, Bassant M; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Fawzy, Manal S; Abdelaziz, Eman Z; Farag, Noha E

    2015-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely linked to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and cytokine imbalance. Boswellic acids, a series of pentacyclic triterpene molecules that are produced by plants in the genus Boswellia, has been traditionally used for the treatment of a variety of diseases. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effect of boswellic acids in a model of diet-induced NAFLD in rats in comparison to the standard insulin sensitizer, pioglitazone. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce NAFLD. Starting from week 5, rats received boswellic acids (125 or 250 mg/kg) or pioglitazone parallel to the HFD. Feeding with HFD induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation in rats. In addition, liver index, insulin resistance index, activities of liver enzymes, and serum lipids deviated from normal. Further, serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cyclooxygenase 2 were elevated; this was associated with an increase in hepatic expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). Rats treated with boswellic acids (125 or 250 mg/kg) or pioglitazone showed improved insulin sensitivity and a reduction in liver index, activities of liver enzymes, serum TNF-α and IL-6 as well as hepatic iNOS expression and HNE formation compared to HFD group. Furthermore, at the cellular level, boswellic acids (250 mg/kg) ameliorated the expression of thermogenesis-related mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 in white adipose tissues. Data from this study indicated that boswellic acids might be a promising therapy in the clinical management of NAFLD if appropriate safety and efficacy data are available.

  18. Quality traits and modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk of Alpine breeds fed diets supplemented with rumen-protected conjugated fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Pellattiero, E; Malchiodi, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Pazzola, M; Vacca, G M; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the modeling of curd-firming (CF) measures and to compare the sheep milk of 3 Alpine breeds supplemented with or without rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA). Twenty-four ewes of the Brogna, Foza, and Lamon breeds were allotted to 6 pens (2 pens/breed) and fed a diet composed of corn grain, corn silage, dried sugar beet pulp, soybean meal, wheat bran, wheat straw, and a vitamin-mineral mixture. The rpCLA supplement (12 g/d per ewe plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d) was mixed into the diet of 1 pen per sheep breed (3 pens/treatment) to provide an average of 0.945 and 0.915 g/d per ewe of the cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid isomers, respectively. The trial started at 38 ± 23 d after parturition, and individual morning milk samples were collected on d 16, 23, 37, 44, and 59 of the trial. Milk samples were analyzed for composition, and duplicate samples were assessed for milk coagulation properties (MCP). A total of 180 CF measures for each sample (1 every 15s) were recorded. Model parameters were the rennet coagulation time, the asymptotic potential CF, the CF instant rate constant, the syneresis instant rate constant, the maximum CF achieved within 45 min (CFmax), and the time at achievement of CFmax. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical model that considered the fixed effects of breed, diet, lamb birth, and initial days in milk, which were tested on individual ewe (random) variance; the fixed effect of sampling day, which was tested on the within-ewe sample (random) variance; and the fixed effect of instrument or cuvette position (only for MCP), which was tested on the residual (replicates within samples) variance. The local Alpine sheep breeds displayed similar milk compositions, traditional MCP, and CF modeling parameters. Supplementation with rpCLA triggered changes in milk composition and worsened MCP (e.g., delayed rennet coagulation time, slower CF instant rate

  19. Absence of cannabinoid 1 receptor in beta cells protects against high-fat/high-sugar diet-induced beta cell dysfunction and inflammation in murine islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; Montoro, Rodrigo A; Doyle, Máire E; Liu, Qing-Rong; Rouse, Michael; O'Connell, Jennifer F; Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Ghosh, Soumita; Carlson, Olga D; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Chia, Chee W; Ghosh, Paritosh; Egan, Josephine M

    2018-03-01

    The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) regulates insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues. CB1R is expressed on pancreatic beta cells and is coupled to the G protein Gαi, suggesting a negative regulation of endogenous signalling in the beta cell. Deciphering the exact function of CB1R in beta cells has been confounded by the expression of this receptor on multiple tissues involved in regulating metabolism. Thus, in models of global genetic or pharmacological CB1R blockade, it is difficult to distinguish the indirect effects of improved insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues from the direct effects of inhibiting CB1R in beta cells per se. To assess the direct contribution of beta cell CB1R to metabolism, we designed a mouse model that allows us to determine the role of CB1R specifically in beta cells in the context of whole-body metabolism. We generated a beta cell specific Cnr1 (CB1R) knockout mouse (β-CB1R -/- ) to study the long-term consequences of CB1R ablation on beta cell function in adult mice. We measured beta cell function, proliferation and viability in these mice in response to a high-fat/high-sugar diet and induction of acute insulin resistance with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. β-CB1R -/- mice had increased fasting (153 ± 23% increase at 10 weeks of age) and stimulated insulin secretion and increased intra-islet cAMP levels (217 ± 33% increase at 10 weeks of age), resulting in primary hyperinsulinaemia, as well as increased beta cell viability, proliferation and islet area (1.9-fold increase at 10 weeks of age). Hyperinsulinaemia led to insulin resistance, which was aggravated by a high-fat/high-sugar diet and weight gain, although beta cells maintained their insulin secretory capacity in response to glucose. Strikingly, islets from β-CB1R -/- mice were protected from diet-induced inflammation. Mechanistically, we show that this is a consequence of curtailment of oxidative stress and reduced activation of

  20. Protective effects of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn against fatty liver disease induced by high fat diet in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Qiuxian [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Zhang, Qin; Xiao, Wei; Shao, Meng; Fan, Qin; Zhang, Hongwei [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Zou, Yukai [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Li, Xin [Cancer Research Institute of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Wenxue; Mo, Zhixian [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Cai, Hongbing, E-mail: chbing2008@163.com [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • AESM is able to prevent the elevation of ALT and AST, and to decreased LDL-C level. • AESM demonstrates the effects of down-regulating blood fat level and protecting liver. • AESM consistent with the efficacy of simvastatin in NAFLD. - Abstract: Objectives: Study the effects of alcohol extract of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn (AESM) on the metabolism of blood fat, morphology of fenestrated liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), and the ultrastructure of liver cells of the rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: Divide SD rats into control group, model group, simvastatin (7.2 mg/kg) group, and S.mukorossi Gaertn group with high dosage (0.5 g/kg), moderate dosage (0.1 g/kg), and low dosage (0.05 g/kg). After feeding with fat-rich nutrients for 3 weeks and establishing the model of hepatic adipose, conduct intragastric administration and provide the rats with fat-rich nutrients at the same time. At the 43rd day, take blood sample and measure aminotransferase and different indexes of blood fat; take hepatic tissue for pathological section, and observe the hepatic morphological patterns under light microscope; obtain and fix the hepatic tissue after injecting perfusate into the body, and observe the changes of fenestrated LSEC under scanning electron microscope; observe the ultrastructure of liver cells under transmission electron microscope. Results: High-dosage alcohol extracts of S.mukorossi Gaertn can alleviate the AST, ALT, TC, TG, LDL, γ-GT, and ALP level, as well as raise the HDL and APN level in the serum of NAFLD-rat model. In addition, through the observation from light microscope and electron microscopes, the morphology of the hepatic tissue and liver cells as well as the recovery of the fenestrated LSEC in the treatment group has become normal. Conclusions: Alcohol extracts of S.mukorossi Gaertn can regulate the level of blood fat and improve the pathological changes of the hepatic tissues in NAFLD-rat model, which

  1. Gut Microbiota Mediates the Protective Effects of Dietary Capsaicin against Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation and Associated Obesity Induced by High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Kang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain. High-resolution responses of the microbiota were examined by 16S rRNA sequencing, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA measurements, and phylogenetic reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt analysis. The results showed, among others, that dietary CAP induced increased levels of butyrate-producing Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae, while it caused lower levels of members of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-producing family S24_7. Predicted function analysis (PICRUSt showed depletion of genes involved in bacterial LPS synthesis in response to CAP. We further identified that inhibition of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 by CAP also contributes to prevention of HFD-induced gut barrier dysfunction. Importantly, fecal microbiota transplantation experiments conducted in germfree mice demonstrated that dietary CAP-induced protection against HFD-induced obesity is transferrable. Moreover, microbiota depletion by a cocktail of antibiotics was sufficient to block the CAP-induced protective phenotype against obesity, further suggesting the role of microbiota in this context. Together, our findings uncover an interaction between dietary CAP and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-obesity effect of CAP acting through prevention of microbial dysbiosis, gut barrier dysfunction, and chronic low-grade inflammation.

  2. Quercetin Isolated from Toona sinensis Leaves Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Protects Hepatocytes in High-Carbohydrate/High-Fat Diet and Alloxan Induced Experimental Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of diabetes mellitus is related to oxidant stress induced by a high carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HFD. Quercetin, as a major bioactive component in Toona sinensis leaves (QTL, is a natural antioxidant. However, the exact mechanism by which QTL ameliorate diabetes mellitus is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypoglycemic effects and hepatocytes protection of QTL on HFD and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Intragastric administration of QTL significantly reduced body weight gain, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels compared to those of diabetic mice. Furthermore, it significantly attenuated oxidative stress, as determined by lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and as a result attenuated liver injury. QTL also significantly suppressed the diabetes-induced activation of the p65/NF-κB and ERK1/2/MAPK pathways, as well as caspase-9 and caspase-3 levels in liver tissues of diabetic mice. Finally, micrograph analysis of liver samples showed decreased cellular organelle injury in hepatocytes of QTL treated mice. Taken together, QTL can be viewed as a promising dietary agent that can be used to reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus and its secondary complications by ameliorating oxidative stress in the liver.

  3. Inhibition of key digestive enzymes related to hyperlipidemia and protection of liver-kidney functions by Cystoseira crinita sulphated polysaccharide in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Gara, Amel; Ben Abdallah Kolsi, Rihab; Chaaben, Rim; Hammami, Nadia; Kammoun, Majed; Paolo Patti, Francesco; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Fki, Lotfi; Belghith, Hafedh; Belghith, Karima

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this current study was to investigate the possible hyperlipidemic and antioxidative effects of Cystoseira crinita sulfated polysaccharide (CCSP) in rats fed with a high-fat diet, exhibited an inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase in vitro. In vivo administration of this extract to HFD-rats lowered body weight and potentially inhibited key enzymes of lipid metabolism and absorption as lipase activity in both plasma and small intestine, which led to a notable decrease of blood LDL- cholesterol (LDL-Ch) and triglycerides (TG) levels, and an increase in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-Ch) levels in HFD-rats. CCSP was also observed to protect the liver-kidney functions efficiently, by decreasing of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activities and creatinine, albumin, T-bilirubin, uric acid, and urea rates in plasma. The histological analysis of liver and kidney tissues further established the positive effect of CCSP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Skin-specific deletion of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 alters skin lipid composition and protects mice from high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Harini; Flowers, Matthew T; Liu, Xueqing; Paton, Chad M; Sullivan, Ruth; Chu, Kiki; Zhao, Minghui; Ntambi, James M

    2009-07-24

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids and is an important regulator of whole body energy homeostasis. Severe cutaneous changes in mice globally deficient in SCD1 also indicate a role for SCD1 in maintaining skin lipids. We have generated mice with a skin-specific deletion of SCD1 (SKO) and report here that SKO mice display marked sebaceous gland hypoplasia and depletion of sebaceous lipids. In addition, SKO mice have significantly increased energy expenditure and are protected from high fat diet-induced obesity, thereby recapitulating the hypermetabolic phenotype of global SCD1 deficiency. Genes of fat oxidation, lipolysis, and thermogenesis, including uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1alpha, are up-regulated in peripheral tissues of SKO mice. However, unlike mice globally deficient in SCD1, SKO mice have an intact hepatic lipogenic response to acute high carbohydrate feeding. Despite increased basal thermogenesis, SKO mice display severe cold intolerance because of rapid depletion of fuel substrates, including hepatic glycogen, to maintain core body temperature. These data collectively indicate that SKO mice have increased cold perception because of loss of insulating factors in the skin. This results in up-regulation of thermogenic processes for temperature maintenance at the expense of fuel economy, illustrating cross-talk between the skin and peripheral tissues in maintaining energy homeostasis.

  5. Mice lacking NKT cells but with a complete complement of CD8+ T-cells are not protected against the metabolic abnormalities of diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S Mantell

    Full Text Available The contribution of natural killer T (NKT cells to the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities of obesity is controversial. While the combined genetic deletion of NKT and CD8(+ T-cells improves glucose tolerance and reduces inflammation, interpretation of these data have been complicated by the recent observation that the deletion of CD8(+ T-cells alone reduces obesity-induced inflammation and metabolic dysregulation, leaving the issue of the metabolic effects of NKT cell depletion unresolved. To address this question, CD1d null mice (CD1d(-/-, which lack NKT cells but have a full complement of CD8(+ T-cells, and littermate wild type controls (WT on a pure C57BL/6J background were exposed to a high fat diet, and glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and obesity were assessed. Food intake (15.5±4.3 vs 15.3±1.8 kcal/mouse/day, weight gain (21.8±1.8 vs 22.8±1.4 g and fat mass (18.6±1.9 vs 19.5±2.1 g were similar in CD1d(-/- and WT, respectively. As would be expected from these data, metabolic rate (3.0±0.1 vs 2.9±0.2 ml O(2/g/h and activity (21.6±4.3 vs 18.5±2.6 beam breaks/min were unchanged by NKT cell depletion. Furthermore, the degree of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, liver steatosis, and adipose and liver inflammatory marker expression (TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1, MIP1α induced by high fat feeding in CD1d(-/- were not different from WT. We conclude that deletion of NKT cells, in the absence of alterations in the CD8(+ T-cell population, is insufficient to protect against the development of the metabolic abnormalities of diet-induced obesity.

  6. Synergistic protection against acute flurothyl-induced seizures by adjuvant treatment of the ketogenic diet with the type 2 diabetes drug pioglitazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Timothy A; Matthews, Stephanie A; Simeone, Kristina A

    2017-08-01

    We have previously found that the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) contributes to the mechanism of action of the ketogenic diet (KD), an established treatment for pediatric refractory epilepsy. We have found that the KD increases brain PPARγ and that inhibition or genetic loss of PPARγ prevents the antiseizure effects of the KD on (1) acutely induced seizures in nonepileptic mice and (2) spontaneous recurrent seizures in epileptic mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adjuvant treatment of KD-treated mice with a PPARγ agonist, pioglitazone, would result in an additive effect. Acute seizures were induced in three groups of C57Bl/6 mice by inhalation exposure to flurothyl gas. In Group 1, mice were weaned onto either a standard diet or KD comprised of a fat:carbohydrate/protein ratio of either 6:1, 3:1, or 1:1 for 2 weeks. In Group 2, vehicle or pioglitazone (0.1, 1, 10, 80 mg/kg) was administered 4 h prior to flurothyl exposure. In Group 3, vehicle or increasing doses of pioglitazone were administered to KD-treated mice 4 h prior to flurothyl exposure. Latency times to clonic seizures and generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures were recorded, and isobolographic analysis was used to determine combinatorial interactions. Neither KD treatment nor pioglitazone alone or in combination affected clonic seizures. However, the latency to GTC seizures was dose-dependently and significantly increased by both KD (~57%, p < 0.05) and pioglitazone (~28%, p < 0.05). Coadministration of an ineffective 1:1 KD and pioglitazone resulted in ~47-55% (p < 0.05) increase in latency to GTC. Isobolographic analysis indicated a synergistic interaction of the KD and pioglitazone. These results suggest coadministration may enable reduction of the KD ratio without loss of seizure protection. Such adjuvant treatment could improve quality of life and limit adverse effects of a classic KD or high-dose pioglitazone. Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  7. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. → PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. → PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. → PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPARδ, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPARδ protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also protected against the development of

  8. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Jin [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Functional Control, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. {yields} PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. {yields} PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPAR{delta}, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPAR{delta} protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also

  9. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  10. Silver fir (Abies alba) trunk extract protects guinea pig arteries from impaired functional responses and morphology due to an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevenšek, Gorazd; Lunder, Mojca; Benković, Eva Tavčar; Mikelj, Ana; Štrukelj, Borut; Kreft, Samo

    2015-08-15

    Diet, rich in plant polyphenols prevents atherogenesis that manifests as reduced vascular relaxation and formation of plaques. Atherosclerosis could be reduced by the intake of silver fir (Abies alba) extract (SFTE), rich in polyphenols. Chronic, in vivo treatment animal study. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were fed for 8 weeks with one of the following three diets: atherogenic, basic or atherogenic + SFTE. After isolation, we measured the relaxation and contractile responses of the thoracic aorta. Additionally, we measured the area of fatty plaques on the aortic walls. Compared to the basic diet, the atherogenic diet decreased the ability of the aorta to relax by 63% (p < 0.001). The addition of SFTE to the atherogenic diet improved the aorta relaxation response compared to that of the atherogenic diet without SFTE (the decrease relative to the basic diet was 26%, p < 0.001). The aorta contractility did not differ between the groups. The SFTE group generated significantly fewer atherosclerotic plaques than did the atherogenic group. The areas of atherosclerotic plaques were 7.4, 0.3 and 1.6% in the aortas of guinea pigs receiving atherogenic, basic or atherogenic + SFTE diets, respectively. In a guinea pig model, prolonged treatment with antioxidative polyphenol-rich SFTE prevents aortic functional and morphological changes caused by an atherogenic diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of adding different levels of rumen protected choline to the diet on productive and reproductive performance of female goats and growth of their kids from birthing to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeeb, Alsaied A; Gad, Ahmed E; Atta, Mostafa A; Mustafa, Mohammed M

    2018-02-01

    Forty female goats in the third parity were randomly divided into four similar groups. The experiment was started 20 days before mating and lasted until the end of the suckling period for 60 days and weaning their kids. The first group were fed diet without supplementation and kept as control while in the second, third and fourth groups, each doe was fed diets with rumen protected choline (RPC) at the rate of 10, 20 and 40 g/day, respectively. Results showed that number of doe kidding twins and triplets and litter weight of kids born per group increased with increasing the level of RPC in the diet of goats and viability rate of born kids during the suckling period improved due to RPC supplementation in the diets of their mothers. Duration of estrous, days from weaning to estrous, days from kidding to estrous and kidding interval decreased significantly, while conception rate increased due to adding RPC. Milk choline concentrations and total choline secretion though milk were progressively increased significantly with increasing the level of RPC supplementation. Live body weight and daily body gain of their suckling male and female kids at weaning increased significantly with increasing RPC levels in the diets of their mothers. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Hypolipidemic effect and protection ability of liver-kidney functions of melanin from Lachnum YM226 in high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fang; Li, Jinglei; Yang, Liuqing; Hou, Guohua; Ye, Ming

    2018-02-21

    In the present study, we investigated the hypolipidemic properties of melanin from Lachnum YM226 (LM) in high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemic mice. After the hyperlipidemic model was established, mice were randomly divided into six groups, as follows: normal control group (NC), hyperlipidemic control group (HC), positive control group (7 mg kg -1 d -1 simvastatin) (PC) and LM groups (50, 100 and 200 mg kg -1 d -1 denoted as LM-50, LM-100 and LM-200, respectively). Subsequently, the body weight, organ indices, lipid metabolism, antioxidant properties and liver-kidney functions of the mice were examined. Moreover, the activities of lipoprotein metabolism enzymes in serum and liver tissue were examined to study the feasible mechanism. The results imply that LM could effectively reduce body weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherogenic index (AI), and increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, treatment with LM also increased the antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content relative to the HC group. In addition, the liver and kidney damage indices such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine (CRE), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid were lowered. LM administration also significantly corrected disturbances of liver-kidney functions with no fatty deposits in the liver, resulting in a protective effect against renal histological alteration. The hypolipidemic effect occurred partly due to the regulation of hepatic lipase (HL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in serum and liver to markedly decrease TG. This confirms the important role of LM in the prevention of hyperlipidemia.

  13. A duplication CNV that conveys traits reciprocal to metabolic syndrome and protects against diet-induced obesity in mice and men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Lacaria

    Full Text Available The functional contribution of CNV to human biology and disease pathophysiology has undergone limited exploration. Recent observations in humans indicate a tentative link between CNV and weight regulation. Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS, manifesting obesity and hypercholesterolemia, results from a deletion CNV at 17p11.2, but is sometimes due to haploinsufficiency of a single gene, RAI1. The reciprocal duplication in 17p11.2 causes Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS. We previously constructed mouse strains with a deletion, Df(1117, or duplication, Dp(1117, of the mouse genomic interval syntenic to the SMS/PTLS region. We demonstrate that Dp(1117 is obesity-opposing; it conveys a highly penetrant, strain-independent phenotype of reduced weight, leaner body composition, lower TC/LDL, and increased insulin sensitivity that is not due to alteration in food intake or activity level. When fed with a high-fat diet, Dp(1117/+ mice display much less weight gain and metabolic change than WT mice, demonstrating that the Dp(1117 CNV protects against metabolic syndrome. Reciprocally, Df(1117/+ mice with the deletion CNV have increased weight, higher fat content, decreased HDL, and reduced insulin sensitivity, manifesting a bona fide metabolic syndrome. These observations in the deficiency animal model are supported by human data from 76 SMS subjects. Further, studies on knockout/transgenic mice showed that the metabolic consequences of Dp(1117 and Df(1117 CNVs are not only due to dosage alterations of Rai1, the predominant dosage-sensitive gene for SMS and likely also PTLS. Our experiments in chromosome-engineered mouse CNV models for human genomic disorders demonstrate that a CNV can be causative for weight/metabolic phenotypes. Furthermore, we explored the biology underlying the contribution of CNV to the physiology of weight control and energy metabolism. The high penetrance, strain independence, and resistance to dietary influences associated with the CNVs in

  14. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant o...

  15. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  16. Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3 is not required for fatty acid synthesis and does not protect against high-fat diet induced obesity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah W Renner

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the reversible condensation of water and carbon dioxide to carbonic acid, which spontaneously dissociates to bicarbonate. Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3 is nutritionally regulated at both the mRNA and protein level. It is highly enriched in tissues that synthesize and/or store fat: liver, white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Previous characterization of Car3 knockout mice focused on mice fed standard diets, not high-fat diets that significantly alter the tissues that highly express Car3. We observed lower protein levels of Car3 in high-fat diet fed mice treated with niclosamide, a drug published to improve fatty liver symptoms in mice. However, it is unknown if Car3 is simply a biomarker reflecting lipid accumulation or whether it has a functional role in regulating lipid metabolism. We focused our in vitro studies toward metabolic pathways that require bicarbonate. To further determine the role of Car3 in metabolism, we measured de novo fatty acid synthesis with in vitro radiolabeled experiments and examined metabolic biomarkers in Car3 knockout and wild type mice fed high-fat diet. Specifically, we analyzed body weight, body composition, metabolic rate, insulin resistance, serum and tissue triglycerides. Our results indicate that Car3 is not required for de novo lipogenesis, and Car3 knockout mice fed high-fat diet do not have significant differences in responses to various diets to wild type mice.

  17. Physical activity and Mediterranean diet based on olive tree phenolic compounds from two different geographical areas have protective effects on early osteoarthritis, muscle atrophy and hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Nsir, Houda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Lo Furno, Debora; Di Rosa, Michelino; Imbesi, Rosa; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2018-02-15

    Osteoarthitis (OA) leads to progressive loss of articular cartilage, pain and joint disability. An acute injury constitutes an important risk factor for early OA, determining an inflammatory process responsible of cartilage degeneration and muscle atrophy, due to the joint pain and immobility. The study aims to assess the effects of conjugation of physical activity and diet enriched by olive tree compounds [extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olive leaf extract (OLE)], on the musculoskeletal system in OA rat model. OA was induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and confirmed by Mankin and OARSI scores. Rats were subjected to physical activity on treadmill 5 days a week for 10 min daily and fed with experimental diets (standard diet enriched with Sicilian EVOO, Tunisian EVOO and Tunisian EVOO-OLE) for 12 weeks. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate IL-6 and lubricin expression in cartilage tissue and ELISA was used to quantify these proteins in serum at different time points. Histology and histomorphometry analysis were done to valuate liver steatosis, muscle atrophy and cartilage pathological changes. Compared to the OA group, the experimental groups showed general increased lubricin and decreased IL-6 expression, significant muscle hypertrophy and no signs of liver steatosis, suggesting the beneficial effects of physical activity coupled with EVOO-enriched diets on rat articular cartilage. Interestingly, the best result was shown for Sicilian EVOO-enriched diet. In conclusion, the conjugation of physical activity and EVOO-enriched diet determines a significant articular cartilage recovery process in early OA.

  18. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  19. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  20. GCN2 and FGF21 are likely mediators of the protection from cancer, autoimmunity, obesity, and diabetes afforded by vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2014-09-01

    Third World quasi-vegan cultures have been characterized by low risks for "Western" cancers, autoimmune disorders, obesity, and diabetes. The relatively low essential amino acid contents of many vegan diets may play a role in this regard. It is proposed that such diets modestly activate the kinase GCN2 - a physiological detector of essential amino acid paucity - within the liver, resulting in up-regulated production of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). FGF21, by opposing the stimulatory effect of growth hormone on hepatic IGF-I production, may be responsible for the down-regulation of plasma IGF-I observed in vegans consuming diets of modest protein content. Decreased IGF-I bioactivity throughout life can be expected to have a favorable impact on cancer risk, as observed in rodents that are calorie restricted or genetically defective in IGF-I activity. Increased FGF21 in vegans might also contribute to their characteristic leanness and low LDL cholesterol by promoting hepatic lipid oxidation while inhibiting lipogenesis. Direct trophic effects of FGF21 on pancreatic beta-cells may help to explain the low risk for diabetes observed in vegans, and the utility of vegan diets in diabetes management. And up-regulation of GCN2 in immune cells, by boosting T regulatory activity, might play some role in the reduced risk for autoimmunity reported in some quasi-vegan cultures. The fact that bone density tends to be no greater in vegans than omnivores, despite consumption of a more "alkaline" diet, might be partially attributable to the fact that FGF21 opposes osteoblastogenesis and decreases IGF-I. If these speculations have merit, it should be possible to demonstrate that adoption of a vegan diet of modest protein content increases plasma FGF21 levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neonatal oral administration of DiaPep277, combined with hydrolysed casein diet, protects against Type 1 diabetes in BB-DP rats. An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, S; Klatter, FA; Visser, J; Bos, NA; Elias, D; Rozing, J

    Aims/hypothesis. Environmental factors such as diet and bacterial antigens play an important role in the onset of Type 1 diabetes. Different self-antigens are suggested to play a role in the development of diabetes. Antibodies against the 60-kDa heat shock protein 60, which have a high homology to

  2. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake protects against alterations to proteins involved in inflammatory and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue of obese mice fed a cafeteria diet

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Fernando Milanez; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Daumann, Francine; de Oliveira Marques, Schérolin; Luciano, Thais F; Possato, Jonathan Correa; de Santana, Aline Alves; Neves, Rodrigo Xavier; Rosa, José Cesar; Oyama, Lila Missae; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; de Lira, Fabio Santos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has been studied as a metabolic and an inflammatory disease and is characterized by increases in the production of pro-inflammatory adipokines in the adipose tissue. To elucidate the effects of natural dietary components on the inflammatory and metabolic consequences of obesity, we examined the effects of unripe, ripe and industrial acerola juice (Malpighia emarginata DC.) on the relevant inflammatory and lipolysis proteins in the adipose tissue of mice with cafeteria diet...

  3. Supplementation of a western diet with golden kiwifruits (Actinidia chinensis var.'Hort 16A': effects on biomarkers of oxidation damage and antioxidant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomhoff Rune

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health positive effects of diets high in fruits and vegetables are generally not replicated in supplementation trials with isolated antioxidants and vitamins, and as a consequence the emphasis of chronic disease prevention has shifted to whole foods and whole food products. Methods We carried out a human intervention trial with the golden kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis, measuring markers of antioxidant status, DNA stability, plasma lipids, and platelet aggregation. Our hypothesis was that supplementation of a normal diet with kiwifruits would have an effect on biomarkers of oxidative status. Healthy volunteers supplemented a normal diet with either one or two golden kiwifruits per day in a cross-over study lasting 2 × 4 weeks. Plasma levels of vitamin C, and carotenoids, and the ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP were measured. Malondialdehyde was assessed as a biomarker of lipid oxidation. Effects on DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes were estimated using the comet assay with enzyme modification to measure specific lesions; another modification allowed estimation of DNA repair. Results Plasma vitamin C increased after supplementation as did resistance towards H2O2-induced DNA damage. Purine oxidation in lymphocyte DNA decreased significantly after one kiwifruit per day, pyrimidine oxidation decreased after two fruits per day. Neither DNA base excision nor nucleotide excision repair was influenced by kiwifruit consumption. Malondialdehyde was not affected, but plasma triglycerides decreased. Whole blood platelet aggregation was decreased by kiwifruit supplementation. Conclusion Golden kiwifruit consumption strengthens resistance towards endogenous oxidative damage.

  4. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  5. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...

  6. Protective role of diet supplements Spirulina and Tamarind fruit pulp on kidney in sodium fluoride exposed Swiss albino mice: Histological and biochemical indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, N; Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K p; Pandey, A; Pareek, P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride toxicity through potable water, particularly ground water, is not uncommon in countries such as India, China, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, parts of Africa and Afghanistan. Kidney being the main organ involved in fluoride removal, it accumulates considerable amount of fluoride. Here, we report toxic effects of oral exposure of Swiss albino mice to fluoride (sub-acute: 190 mg/kg body wt. for 7 days; and sub-chronic: 94 mg/kg body wt. for 90 days) and recovery of sub-chronic fluoride exposed mice after 90 days of sodium fluoride (NaF) withdrawal. The role of diet supplements (Spirulina and tamarind fruit pulp @ 230 mg/kg body wt. independently as well as in combination) in amelioration of fluoride toxicity has also been screened. Compared with controls, feed intake decreased from 3-43%, body wt. 4-18%, and kidney wt. 5-12% in treated mice (except diet supplement groups of sub-chronic exposure) while their water intake increased from 4-43%. Histopathological changes in the cortical region of kidney in fluoride treated mice were as follows: dilation of bowman's capsule and thickening of its parietal and visceral layer; alterations in glomeruli size and their sclerotization; increase in bowman's space; proliferation of mesangial cells; reduction in podocyte counts; and dilation of proximal and distal tubules. Fluoride exposure altered tissue biochemistry (protein, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase content) and increased urea (23-58%) and creatinine content (14-127%) in the serum. Sub-acute exposure was found more toxic. The diet modulation not only reduced fluoride toxicity but also led to better recovery of treated mice after withdrawal, especially in combination.

  7. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake protects against alterations to proteins involved in inflammatory and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue of obese mice fed a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Milanez; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Daumann, Francine; Marques, Schérolin de Oliveira; Luciano, Thais F; Possato, Jonathan Correa; de Santana, Aline Alves; Neves, Rodrigo Xavier; Rosa, José Cesar; Oyama, Lila Missae; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; de Lira, Fabio Santos

    2014-02-04

    Obesity has been studied as a metabolic and an inflammatory disease and is characterized by increases in the production of pro-inflammatory adipokines in the adipose tissue.To elucidate the effects of natural dietary components on the inflammatory and metabolic consequences of obesity, we examined the effects of unripe, ripe and industrial acerola juice (Malpighia emarginata DC.) on the relevant inflammatory and lipolysis proteins in the adipose tissue of mice with cafeteria diet-induced obesity. Two groups of male Swiss mice were fed on a standard diet (STA) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 13 weeks. Afterwards, the CAF-fed animals were divided into five subgroups, each of which received a different supplement for one further month (water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, or vitamin C) by gavage. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blotting, a colorimetric method and histology were utilized to assess the observed data. The CAF water (control obese) group showed a significant increase in their adiposity indices and triacylglycerol levels, in addition to a reduced IL-10/TNF-α ratio in the adipose tissue, compared with the control lean group. In contrast, acerola juice and Vitamin C intake ameliorated the weight gain, reducing the TAG levels and increasing the IL-10/TNF-α ratio in adipose tissue. In addition, acerola juice intake led to reductions both in the level of phosphorylated JNK and to increases in the phosphorylation of IκBα and HSLser660 in adipose tissue. Taken together, these results suggest that acerola juice reduces low-grade inflammation and ameliorates obesity-associated defects in the lipolytic processes.

  8. Protective effects of azelaic acid against high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in liver, kidney and heart of C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, Shanmugam; Saravanan, Ramalingam

    2013-05-01

    Excess fat intake induces hyperinsulinaemia, increases nutrient uptake and lipid accumulation, amplifies ROS generation, establishes oxidative stress and morphological changes leading to tissue injury in the liver, kidney and heart of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The effect of azelaic acid (AzA), a C9 α,ω-dicarboxylic acid, against HFD-induced oxidative stress was investigated by assaying the activities and levels of antioxidants and oxidative stress markers in the liver, kidney and heart of C57BL/6J mice. Mice were segregated into two groups, one fed standard diet (NC) and the other fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. HFD-fed mice were subjected to intragastric administration of AzA (80 mg/kg BW)/RSG (10 mg/kg BW) during 11-15 weeks. Glucose, insulin, triglycerides, hepatic and nephritic markers were analysed in the plasma and the activity of enzymatic, non-enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation markers were examined in the plasma/erythrocytes, liver, kidney and heart of normal and experimental mice. We inferred significant decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants along with significant increase in glucose, insulin, hepatic and nephritic markers, triglycerides and lipid peroxidation markers in HFD-fed mice. Administration of AzA could positively restore the levels of plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, hepatic and nephritic markers to near normal. AzA increased the levels of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants with significant reduction in the levels of lipid peroxidation markers. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney and heart substantiated these results. Hence, we put forward that AzA could counteract the potential injurious effects of HFD-induced oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice.

  9. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. → NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. → NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. → Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, PPARγ coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  10. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. {yields} NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. {yields} Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}, PPAR{gamma} coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  11. GABA type B receptor signaling in proopiomelanocortin neurons protects against obesity, insulin resistance, and hypothalamic inflammation in male mice on a high-fat diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Ito Yoshihiro; Banno Ryoichi; Shibata Miyuki; Adachi Koichi; Hagimoto Shigeru; Hagiwara Daisuke; Ozawa Yoshiharu; Goto Motomitsu; Suga Hidetaka; Sugimura Yoshihisa; Bettler Bernhard; Oiso Yutaka; Arima Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting that the GABA system in the arcuate nucleus, where orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide as well as anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) are expressed, plays an important role in energy balance. In this study, we generated POMC-specific GABAB receptor-deficient [knock-out (KO)] mice. Male KO mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) showed mild increases in body weight (BW) at the age of 9 weeks compared to wild-type (WT) mice, and the differences remained s...

  12. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  13. Nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) protects from metabolic endotoxemia by modifying gut microbiota in obese rats fed high fat/sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Pérez-Cruz, Claudia; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Wang, Mei; Donovan, Sharon M; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe

    2017-07-05

    Current efforts are directed to reducing the gut dysbiosis and inflammation produced by obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether consuming nopal, a vegetable rich in dietary fibre, vitamin C, and polyphenols can reduce the metabolic consequences of obesity by modifying the gut microbiota and preventing metabolic endotoxemia in rats fed a high fat and sucrose diet. With this aim, rats were fed a high fat diet with 5% sucrose in the drinking water (HFS) for 7 months and then were fed for 1 month with HFS + 5% nopal (HFS + N). The composition of gut microbiota was assessed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Nopal modified gut microbiota and increased intestinal occludin-1 in the HFS + N group. This was associated with a decrease in metabolic endotoxemia, glucose insulinotropic peptide, glucose intolerance, lipogenesis, and metabolic inflexibility. These changes were accompanied by reduced hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in adipose tissue and brain, and improved cognitive function, associated with an increase in B. fragilis. This study supports the use of nopal as a functional food and prebiotic for its ability to modify gut microbiota and to reduce metabolic endotoxemia and other obesity-related biochemical abnormalities.

  14. Feeding a Protective Hydrolysed Casein Diet to Young Diabetes-prone BB Rats Affects Oxidation of L[U−C14] glutamine in Islets and Peyer's Patches, Reduces Abnormally High Mitotic Activity in Mesenteric Lymph Nodes, Enhances Islet Insulin and Tends to Normalize NO Production

    OpenAIRE

    Malaisse, Willy J.; Olivares, Elizabeth; Laghmich, Aouatif; Ladrière, Laurence; Sener, Abdullah; Scott, Fraser W.

    2000-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to examine concomitant diet-induced changes in pancreatic islets and cells of the gut immune system of diabetes-prone BB rats in the period before classic insulitis. Diabetes-prone (BBdp) and control non-diabetes prone (BBc) BB rats were fed for ~ 17 days either a mainly plant-based standard laboratory rodent diet associated with high diabetes frequency, NIH-07 (NIH) or a protective semipurified diet with hydrolyzed casein (HC) as the amino acid source. By ...

  15. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Tonstad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%] and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%] in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64–1.93, respectively. Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.01, not statistically significant while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.18. In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.03, not statistically significant. In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  16. Protection by extra virgin olive oil against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Chemical and biological studies on the health benefits due to a major component of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Miriam; Caruso, Francesco; Kwok, Lorraine; Lee, Grace; Caruso, Alessio; Gionfra, Fabio; Candelotti, Elena; Belli, Stuart L; Molasky, Nora; Raley-Susman, Kathleen M; Leone, Stefano; Filipský, Tomáš; Tofani, Daniela; Pedersen, Jens; Incerpi, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of in vivo studies in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes in which addition of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) to their diet significantly increased their life span with respect to the control group. Furthermore, when nematodes were exposed to the pesticide paraquat, they started to die after two days, but after the addition of EVOO to their diet, both survival percentage and lifespans of paraquat-exposed nematodes increased. Since paraquat is associated with superoxide radical production, a test for scavenging this radical was performed using cyclovoltammetry and the EVOO efficiently scavenged the superoxide. Thus, a linear correlation (y = -0.0838x +19.73, regression factor = 0.99348) was observed for superoxide presence (y) in the voltaic cell as a function of aliquot (x) additions of EVOO, 10 μL each. The originally generated supoeroxide was approximately halved after 10 aliquots (100 μL total). The superoxide scavenging ability was analyzed, theoretically, using Density Functional Theory for tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, two components of EVOO and was also confirmed experimentally for the galvinoxyl radical, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl signal disappeared after adding 1 μL of EVOO to the EPR cell in 10 minutes. In addition, EVOO significantly decreased the proliferation of human leukemic THP-1 cells, while it kept the proliferation at about normal levels in rat L6 myoblasts, a non-tumoral skeletal muscle cell line. The protection due to EVOO was also assessed in L6 cells and THP-1 exposed to the radical generator cumene hydroperoxide, in which cell viability was reduced. Also in this case the oxidative stress was ameliorated by EVOO, in line with results obtained with tetrazolium dye reduction assays, cell cycle analysis and reactive oxygen species measurements. We ascribe these beneficial effects to EVOO antioxidant properties and our results are in agreement with a clear health benefit of EVOO use

  17. Protection by extra virgin olive oil against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Chemical and biological studies on the health benefits due to a major component of the Mediterranean diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rossi

    Full Text Available We report the results of in vivo studies in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes in which addition of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO to their diet significantly increased their life span with respect to the control group. Furthermore, when nematodes were exposed to the pesticide paraquat, they started to die after two days, but after the addition of EVOO to their diet, both survival percentage and lifespans of paraquat-exposed nematodes increased. Since paraquat is associated with superoxide radical production, a test for scavenging this radical was performed using cyclovoltammetry and the EVOO efficiently scavenged the superoxide. Thus, a linear correlation (y = -0.0838x +19.73, regression factor = 0.99348 was observed for superoxide presence (y in the voltaic cell as a function of aliquot (x additions of EVOO, 10 μL each. The originally generated supoeroxide was approximately halved after 10 aliquots (100 μL total. The superoxide scavenging ability was analyzed, theoretically, using Density Functional Theory for tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, two components of EVOO and was also confirmed experimentally for the galvinoxyl radical, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl signal disappeared after adding 1 μL of EVOO to the EPR cell in 10 minutes. In addition, EVOO significantly decreased the proliferation of human leukemic THP-1 cells, while it kept the proliferation at about normal levels in rat L6 myoblasts, a non-tumoral skeletal muscle cell line. The protection due to EVOO was also assessed in L6 cells and THP-1 exposed to the radical generator cumene hydroperoxide, in which cell viability was reduced. Also in this case the oxidative stress was ameliorated by EVOO, in line with results obtained with tetrazolium dye reduction assays, cell cycle analysis and reactive oxygen species measurements. We ascribe these beneficial effects to EVOO antioxidant properties and our results are in agreement with a clear health

  18. Diet and genomic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Graeme P

    2007-01-01

    Cancer results from a disordered and unstable genome - the degree of abnormality progresses as the process of oncogenesis proceeds. Such genomic instability appears to be subject to control by environmental factors as evidenced by the number of cancers that are either caused by specific environmental agents (lung, skin, cervix) or else regulated by a broader range of agents such as effect of diet on gastric and colorectal cancers. Dietary factors might interact in several ways with the genome to protect against cancer. An agent might interact directly with the genome and regulate expression (as a genetic or epigenetic regulator) or indirectly by influencing DNA 'repair' responses and so improve genomic stability. Research now shows that diet-genomic interactions in cancer go beyond interactions with the normal genome and involve enhancement of normal cellular responses to DNA damage such that genome stability is more effectively maintained. Activation of apoptosis may be a key to protection.

  19. Diverticulitis Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the large intestine (colon). This condition is called diverticulosis. In some cases, one or more of the ... diet as soon as you can tolerate it. Diverticulosis and diverticulitis. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive ...

  20. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common questions IBS patients have is what food to avoid. This can drive a person to ... Global Treatments IBS Diet What to Do and What to Avoid Foods That Cause Cramping and Diarrhea Foods that Cause ...

  1. MuRF2 regulates PPARγ1 activity to protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy and enhance weight gain induced by a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Quintana, Megan T; Sullivan, Jenyth; L Parry, Traci; J Grevengoed, Trisha; Schisler, Jonathan C; Hill, Joseph A; Yates, Cecelia C; Mapanga, Rudo F; Essop, M Faadiel; Stansfield, William E; Bain, James R; Newgard, Christopher B; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Han, Yipin; Clarke, Brian A; Willis, Monte S

    2015-08-05

    In diabetes mellitus the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease is increased and represents an important independent mechanism by which heart disease is exacerbated. The pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy involves the enhanced activation of PPAR transcription factors, including PPARα, and to a lesser degree PPARβ and PPARγ1. How these transcription factors are regulated in the heart is largely unknown. Recent studies have described post-translational ubiquitination of PPARs as ways in which PPAR activity is inhibited in cancer. However, specific mechanisms in the heart have not previously been described. Recent studies have implicated the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase muscle ring finger-2 (MuRF2) in inhibiting the nuclear transcription factor SRF. Initial studies of MuRF2-/- hearts revealed enhanced PPAR activity, leading to the hypothesis that MuRF2 regulates PPAR activity by post-translational ubiquitination. MuRF2-/- mice were challenged with a 26-week 60% fat diet designed to simulate obesity-mediated insulin resistance and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mice were followed by conscious echocardiography, blood glucose, tissue triglyceride, glycogen levels, immunoblot analysis of intracellular signaling, heart and skeletal muscle morphometrics, and PPARα, PPARβ, and PPARγ1-regulated mRNA expression. MuRF2 protein levels increase ~20% during the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy induced by high fat diet. Compared to littermate wildtype hearts, MuRF2-/- hearts exhibit an exaggerated diabetic cardiomyopathy, characterized by an early onset systolic dysfunction, larger left ventricular mass, and higher heart weight. MuRF2-/- hearts had significantly increased PPARα- and PPARγ1-regulated gene expression by RT-qPCR, consistent with MuRF2's regulation of these transcription factors in vivo. Mechanistically, MuRF2 mono-ubiquitinated PPARα and PPARγ1 in vitro, consistent with its non-degradatory role in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However

  2. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed. PMID:24714352

  3. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Syun Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH, a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day and probucol (500 mg/kg/day. APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and low density lipoprotein (LDL levels to the normal levels expressed in the control group. Additionally, the IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway was reactivated, and Fas-FADD (Fas-associated death domain induced apoptosis was inhibited by APPH treatments (15 and 45 mg/kg/day in HFD aging rat hearts. APPH (75 mg/kg/day rather than probucol (500 mg/kg/day treatment could reduce serum lipids without affecting HDL expression. The heart protective effect of APPH in aging rats with hyperlipidemia was through lowering serum lipids and enhancing the activation of the compensatory IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway.

  4. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Syun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Chiang, Wen-Dee; Pai, Peiying; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-05-05

    The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH), a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day) and probucol (500 mg/kg/day). APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels to the normal levels expressed in the control group. Additionally, the IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway was reactivated, and Fas-FADD (Fas-associated death domain) induced apoptosis was inhibited by APPH treatments (15 and 45 mg/kg/day) in HFD aging rat hearts. APPH (75 mg/kg/day) rather than probucol (500 mg/kg/day) treatment could reduce serum lipids without affecting HDL expression. The heart protective effect of APPH in aging rats with hyperlipidemia was through lowering serum lipids and enhancing the activation of the compensatory IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway.

  5. Protective effects of a wheat germ rich diet against the toxic influence of profenofos on rat tissue lipids and oxidative pentose phosphate shunt enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Rahim, G. A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of technical and formulated forms of profenofos on the metabolic lipid fractions of the liver, brain and kidneys as well as the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD, which consider lipid related enzymes, were studied. The two forms of profenofos were given separately either orally or by dermal at doses of 1/20 LD50 for 3 months (one dose every 48 h. Total lipids and lipid fractions (cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipid contents decreased in the three studied organ tissues either in technical or formulated profenofos-induced rats compared with normal control animals. The highest effect was observed in the case of orally formulated profenofo induction, and the lowest was detected for the dermal technical one. The same trend was found in the activities of G6PD and 6PGD associated with lipid metabolism in the liver, brain and kidney tissues under the same conditions. On other hand, the treatment of profenofos-induced animals by feeding a wheat germ rich diet (as antioxidant agent produced significant improvements in both lipid fraction content and enzyme activity. In addition, the effects of the wheat germ rich diet (α-tocopherol rich source readjusted and improved the disturbed metabolic fractions of the lipid profiles in the profenofos-induced rats as well as their related enzyme activities (G6PD and 6PGD: oxidative pentose phosphate shunt.

    El efecto de formas técnicas o formuladas de profenofós en la fracción lipídica metabólica de hígado, cerebro y riñones así como la actividad de la glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa (G6PD y 6-fosfogluconato deshidrogenasa (6PGD, que son consideradas enzimas relacionadas con los lípidos, fueron estudiadas. Ambas formas de profenofós fueron suministradas separadamente tanto por vía oral como cutánea a una dosis de 1/20 LD50 durante 3 meses (una dosis cada 48 horas. Los lípidos totales y

  6. Polysaccharides extraction from Opuntia stricta and their protective effect against HepG2 cell death and hypolipidaemic effects on hyperlipidaemia rats induced by high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, Bahira; Athmouni, Khaled; Hamdaoui, Latifa; Ben Mahmoud, Lobna; Hakim, Ahmed; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Zeghal, Khaled; Ghozzi, Hanéne

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse cytoprotective effect of polysaccharides compound from Opuntia stricta (O. stricta) cladode (POS) in vitro including its radical scavenging activities and protective effects against hypercholesterolaemia. Our results showed that glucose was the dominant monosaccharides (30.35%). Arabinose, pyranose, fructose, galactose, glucose, sorbitol, S-inositol, M-inositol, trehalose and saccharose found in this species. O. stricta polysaccharides did not cause any cytotoxic effect on HepG2 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0-400 μgml -1 ). Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with POS (100 μgml -1 ) significantly (p < .05) protected against cytotoxicity induced by DPPH and ABTS radicals. The POS showed strong antioxidant potential in vitro. The results indicated also that POS significantly prevented hypercholesterolaemia-induced elevation of serum biomarkers and induced increase in serum lipid profile. Moreover, the hypercholesterolaemia characterised by elevated lipid peroxidation (MDA) and reduced antioxidant enzyme defences (SOD, CAT and GPx) was restored by POS treatment.

  7. Oral salmon calcitonin protects against impaired fasting glycemia, glucose intolerance, and obesity induced by high-fat diet and ovariectomy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigh, Michael; Andreassen, Kim V; Hjuler, Sara T; Nielsen, Rasmus H; Christiansen, Claus; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A

    2013-07-01

    Oral salmon calcitonin (sCT) has demonstrated clinical efficacy in treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The postmenopausal state is also associated with obesity-related insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of oral sCT on energy and glucose homeostasis in high-fat diet (HFD)- and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced obese rats. Furthermore, the weight-regulatory and gluco-regulatory effects of short-term oral sCT intervention on HFD-induced obese rats were explored. For prevention, female rats exposed to HFD with or without OVX were treated with oral sCT for 5 weeks. As intervention, HFD-induced obese male rats were treated with oral sCT for 4 days. Body weight, food intake, and plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin levels were measured, and the clinical homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was calculated. In addition, oral glucose tolerance was evaluated in the systemic and portal circulations. For prevention, oral sCT reduced body weight by ∼16% to 19% (P fasting glycemia (P obesity. Furthermore, oral sCT significantly reduced the incremental area under the curve for plasma glucose and insulin by ∼40% and ∼70%, respectively, during glucose tolerance testing. As intervention in HFD-induced obese rats, oral sCT reduced body weight, fasting glycemia, and insulinemia in conjunction with HOMA-IR (P obese rats, indicating the clinical usefulness of oral sCT in postmenopausal obesity-related IR and type 2 diabetes.

  8. State of the immune protection system of brood carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 based on vitamin E and selenium levels in their diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yurchak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the state of the immune system of brood carp, which were fed with a combined feed containing a liposomal preparation with vitamin E and organic compound of selenium microelement during pre-spawning period. Methodology: The study has been performed in three experimental ponds, in which carp females and males were placed after wintering. The first experimental group was fed with a diet supplemented with vitamin E at a concentration of 50 mg/mg of the feed and selenium – 0.3 mg/kg. The second experimental group received the supplement of vitamin E at a concentration of 100 mg.kg and selenium – 0.3 mg/kg. The control group received the mentioned combined feed without addition of the vitamin-mineral supplement. After termination of 30-day pre-spawning feeding with the combined feed supplemented with vitamin E and selenium, blood samples for biochemical tests were collected from fish of the control and both experimental groups. Findings. It was found that pre-spawning feeding of carp females and males with combined feeds supplemented with the above mentioned vitamin-mineral additive had a positive effect on the contents of T-, B-lymphocytes and their subpopulations in fish blood. Originality. The effect of the liposomal preparation with vitamin E and microelement Se fed to brood carp during the pre-spawning period on the contents of T-, B-lymphocytes and their subpopulations in fish peripheral blood was studied for the first time. Practical value. The results of the study can be used in fish breeding centers and full-system fish farms for balanced feeding of brood fish.

  9. Fad diets, miracle diets, diet cult… but no results.

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2017-01-01

    Fad diets, miracle diets (in sum, diet cult) are diets that make promises of weight loss or other health advantages (e.g. longer life) without backing by solid science, and usually they are characterized by highly restrictive or unusual food choices. These diets are often supported by celebrities and some health “professionals”, and they result attractive among people who want to lose weight quickly. By means of pseudoscientific arguments, designers of fad, miracle or magic diets usually desc...

  10. Cardiovascular protective effects of Casearia sylvestris Swartz in Swiss and C57BL/6 LDLr-null mice undergoing high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frediani Brant, Nayara Mercedes; Mourão Gasparotto, Francielly; de Oliveira Araújo, Valdinei; Christian Maraschin, Jhonatan; Lima Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia; Botelho Lourenço, Emerson Luiz; Cardozo Junior, Euclides Lara; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes

    2014-06-11

    Although Casearia sylvestris Swartz is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat obesity, no study has been conducted to evaluate the effects of this species in an experimental model of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate possible hypolipemiant and antiatherogenic activity of the methanolic extract obtained from Casearia sylvestris (MECS) using Swiss and C57BL/6 LDLr-null mice undergoing high fat diet (HFD). Dyslipidemia and atherogenesis were induced by the administration of commercial HFD for 4 weeks. The MECS was administered orally at doses of 250 and 500mg/kg, once a day, for two weeks, starting from the 2nd week of HFD. The gain in body weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured weekly over the four week study. At the end of the experiments the levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were measured by colorimetric method. Aldosterone, vasopressin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity were also evaluated in collected serum. The renal function, atherogenic index serum (AIS) and in vitro antiplatelet activity were investigated. Additionally, histopathological analyzes were performed to determine the intima-media thickness (IMT) and intima media ratio (IMR) in aorta samples. The HFD induced dyslipidemia and major structural changes in the aortic wall, including raising of the systolic blood pressure in LDLr-null mice. In addition, we observed an increase in lipid peroxidation accompanied by a reduction of serum nitrite. The treatment with MECS was able to prevent the increase of SBP, TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C and triglycerides levels and increase HDL-C in Swiss and LDLr-null mice. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in oxidative stress. Moreover, AIS, IMT and IMR were significantly reduced in MECS-treated mice, and the extract was able

  11. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  12. Diet-busting foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity - diet-busting foods; Overweight - diet-busting foods; Weight loss - diet busting foods ... of calories but little nutrition. Many of these diet-busting foods are made with unhealthy saturated or ...

  13. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental Studies and Internal Dosimetry projects include: Environmental Protection; 1977 Environmental Monitoring Report; Sewage Sludge Disposal on the Sanitary Landfill; Radiological Analyses of Marshall Islands Environmental Samples, 1974 to 1976; External Radiation Survey and Dose Predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls; Marshall Islands - Diet and Life Style Study; Dose Reassessment for Populations on Rongelap and Utirik Following Exposure to Fallout from BRAVO Incident (March 1, 1954); Whole Body Counting Results from 1974 to 1979 for Bikini Island Residents; Dietary Radioactivity Intake from Bioassay Data, a Model Applied to 137 Cs Intake by Bikini Island Residents; and External Exposure Measurements at Bikini Atoll

  14. The Neuropharmacology of the Ketogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Adam L.; Gasior, Maciej; Vining, Eileen P. G.; Rogawski, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a valuable therapeutic approach for epilepsy, one in which most clinical experience has been with children. Although the mechanism by which the diet protects against seizures is unknown, there is evidence that it causes effects on intermediary metabolism that influence the dynamics of the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter systems in brain. The pattern of protection of the ketogenic diet in animal models of seizures is distinct from that of other anticonvulsants, suggesting that it has a unique mechanism of action. During consumption of the ketogenic diet, marked alterations in brain energy metabolism occur, with ketone bodies partly replacing glucose as fuel. Whether these metabolic changes contribute to acute seizure protection is unclear; however, the ketone body acetone has anticonvulsant activity and could play a role in the seizure protection afforded by the diet. In addition to acute seizure protection, the ketogenic diet provides protection against the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures in models of chronic epilepsy, and it has neuroprotective properties in diverse models of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:17509459

  15. Fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (FGF15/19) protects from diet-induced hepatic steatosis: development of an FGF19-based chimeric molecule to promote fatty liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Sola, Gloria; Uriarte, Iker; Latasa, M Ujue; Fernandez-Barrena, Maite G; Urtasun, Raquel; Elizalde, Maria; Barcena-Varela, Marina; Jiménez, Maddalen; Chang, Haisul C; Barbero, Roberto; Catalán, Victoria; Rodríguez, Amaia; Frühbeck, Gema; Gallego-Escuredo, José M; Gavaldà-Navarro, Aleix; Villarroya, Francesc; Rodriguez-Ortigosa, Carlos M; Corrales, Fernando J; Prieto, Jesus; Berraondo, Pedro; Berasain, Carmen; Avila, Matias A

    2017-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (FGF15/19), an enterokine that regulates synthesis of hepatic bile acids (BA), has been proposed to influence fat metabolism. Without FGF15/19, mouse liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) is severely impaired. We studied the role of FGF15/19 in response to a high fat diet (HFD) and its regulation by saturated fatty acids. We developed a fusion molecule encompassing FGF19 and apolipoprotein A-I, termed Fibapo, and evaluated its pharmacological properties in fatty liver regeneration. Fgf15 -/- mice were fed a HFD. Liver fat and the expression of fat metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related genes were measured. Influence of palmitic acid (PA) on FGF15/19 expression was determined in mice and in human liver cell lines. In vivo half-life and biological activity of Fibapo and FGF19 were compared. Hepatoprotective and proregenerative activities of Fibapo were evaluated in obese db/db mice undergoing PH. Hepatosteatosis and ER stress were exacerbated in HFD-fed Fgf15 -/- mice. Hepatic expression of Pparγ2 was elevated in Fgf15 -/- mice, being reversed by FGF19 treatment. PA induced FGF15/19 expression in mouse ileum and human liver cells, and FGF19 protected from PA-mediated ER stress and cytotoxicity. Fibapo reduced liver BA and lipid accumulation, inhibited ER stress and showed enhanced half-life. Fibapo provided increased db/db mice survival and improved regeneration upon PH. FGF15/19 is essential for hepatic metabolic adaptation to dietary fat being a physiological regulator of Pparγ2 expression . Perioperative administration of Fibapo improves fatty liver regeneration. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Perissodactyla diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2018-01-01

    Perissodactyla (Schoch 1989) includes tapirs, rhinoceros, wild asses, horses, and zebras. It is the order of hoofed mammals referred to as “odd-toed ungulates” because its members have one to three weight-bearing toes and walk on hoofs or “ungules.” They are herbivores that are specialized to exploit grasslands and brushy habitat (rhinos, horses, asses, zebras) or dense tropical forests (tapirs). All share a common digestive system called hindgut fermentation, or cecal digestion (in the cecum), and can consume relatively tough, coarse forage. Some perissodactyls are “browsers” that forage primarily on woody shrubs and trees, whereas others are “grazers” with a graminoid-dominated diet. They are all predominantly opportunistic feeders and select for quantity over quality of forage; that is, they consume more abundant low-quality forage instead of searching and selecting for higher-quality forage because it gives them the advantage of reducing search effort, which conserves energy.

  17. Diet - liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002441.htm Diet - liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some people with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet ...

  18. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  19. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  20. Diet in dermatology: Present perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Basavaraj K; Seemanthini C; Rashmi R

    2010-01-01

    Many nutrients are essential for life, and an adequate amount of nutrients in the diet is necessary for providing energy, building and maintaining body organs, and for various metabolic processes. The role of food in the induction of various skin disorders and skin diseases leading to nutritional deficiencies is well known. The photo-protective potential of antioxidants, the effects of micronutrient supplementation on the skin immune system, and the modulating effects of fatty acids on skin d...

  1. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie H Larsson

    Full Text Available The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5 is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  2. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Marie H; Håkansson, Pernilla; Jansen, Frank P; Magnell, Kerstin; Brodin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5) is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD) and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  3. Fad diets, miracle diets, diet cult… but no results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fad diets, miracle diets (in sum, diet cult are diets that make promises of weight loss or other health advantages (e.g. longer life without backing by solid science, and usually they are characterized by highly restrictive or unusual food choices. These diets are often supported by celebrities and some health “professionals”, and they result attractive among people who want to lose weight quickly. By means of pseudoscientific arguments, designers of fad, miracle or magic diets usually describe them as healthy diets with unusual properties but always with undoubted benefits. After revising the history of these diets and exploring the scientific evidence, it must be noted that there is not a diet better than eating less, moving more and eating lots of fruits and vegetables. In addition, it is necessary to be aware of our general daily habits, remembering that eating is important but it is not everything. Getting active is also very relevant to improve (or recover our health. Summarizing, eating healthy and taking care of yourself are a duty but not a miracle.

  4. Mediterranean Diet in Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Meryem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bad eating habits lead to the emergence of chronic health problems such as coronary artery diseases, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cancer and obesity and the relationship between diet and diseases is emphasized and the relationship between them is clearly revealed in studies conducted over many years. The Mediterranean diet, which is first described by Angel Keys at the beginning of the 1960’s, is not a specific diet but a natural way of eating in olive-growing region. With the properties such as the use of vegetable oils such as olive oil in particular, and the consumption of fish instead of red meat, the diet constitutes a health-protective nutrition. So, this review conducted the relationship between Mediterranean diet and chronic diseases.

  5. The effect of renal diet in association with enalapril or benazepril on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CKD); renal diets and angiotensin -converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors are cornerstones of treatment. Whether different ACE-inhibitors have distinct kidney protective effects is unknown; it is therefore hypothesized that renal diets and enalapril ...

  6. Ketogenic Diet suppresses Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna; Thomsen, Morgane

    2018-01-01

    , we investigated the potential therapeutic benefit of a ketogenic diet in managing alcohol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats fed either ketogenic or regular diets were administered ethanol or water orally, twice daily for 6 days while the diet conditions were...... maintained. Abstinence symptoms were rated 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the last alcohol administration. RESULTS: Maintenance on a ketogenic diet caused a significant decrease in the alcohol withdrawal symptoms 'rigidity' and 'irritability'. CONCLUSION: Our preclinical pilot study suggests that a ketogenic...... diet may be a novel approach for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  7. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  8. Vegetarian diets and bone status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a common chronic condition associated with progressive loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and compromised bone strength, with increasing risk of fracture over time. Vegetarian diets have been shown to contain lower amounts of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, protein, and n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, all of which have important roles in maintaining bone health. Although zinc intakes are not necessarily lower quantitatively, they are considerably less bioavailable in vegetarian diets, which suggests the need for even higher intakes to maintain adequate status. At the same time, healthy vegetarian diets tend to contain more of several protective nutrients, including magnesium, potassium, vitamin K, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytonutrients. On balance, there is evidence that vegetarians, and particularly vegans, may be at greater risk of lower BMD and fracture. Attention to potential shortfall nutrients through the careful selection of foods or fortified foods or the use of supplements can help ensure healthy bone status to reduce fracture risk in individuals who adhere to vegetarian diets. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  10. [Mediterranean diet: not only food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Vico, Letizia; Agostini, Susanna; Brazzo, Silvia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    The proposal of a Mediterranean way of life is much more than advise how to eat. The Mediterranean Diet, a model of Sustainable Diet, is an example of how to combine personal choices, economic, social and cultural rights, protective of human health and the ecosystem. There is in fact fundamental interdependence between dietary requirements, nutritional recommendations, production and consumption of food. In literature studies and nutritional and epidemiological monitoring activities at national and international level have found a lack of adherence to this lifestyle, due to the spread of the economy, lifestyles of the Western type and globalization of the production and consumption. To encourage the spread of a culture and a constant practice of the Mediterranean Diet, there are some tools that are presented in this article. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid in addition to the recommendations on the frequency and portions of food, focuses on the choice of how to cook and eat food. The "Double Food Pyramid" encourages conscious food choices based on "healthy eating and sustainability. All the nutrition professionals and dietitians in particular should be constantly striving to encourage the adoption of a sustainable and balanced nutrition.

  11. Caffeine in the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  12. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diet - clear liquid Diet - full liquid Diverticulitis and diverticulosis - discharge Ileostomy and your child Ileostomy and your ... Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Crohn's Disease Dietary Fiber Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Ostomy Ulcerative Colitis Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  13. Understanding the DASH diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000784.htm Understanding the DASH diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The DASH diet is low in salt and rich in fruits, ...

  14. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002442.htm Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease (CKD). These changes may include limiting fluids, eating ...

  15. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  16. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23680946

  17. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

  18. Diets for Constipation

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Sun Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation.

  19. Diet quality in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der Laura A.; Nguyen, Anh N.; Schoufour, Josje D.; Geelen, Anouk; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Franco, Oscar H.; Voortman, Trudy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to evaluate diet quality of 8-year-old children in the Netherlands, to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of child diet quality, and to examine tracking of diet quality from early to mid-childhood. Methods: For 4733 children participating in a population-based

  20. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring

  1. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertension - diet ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ... DIET The low-salt Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is proven to help lower blood ...

  2. Diet and eating after esophagectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esophagectomy - diet; Post-esophagectomy diet ... weight. You will also be on a special diet when you first get home. ... will teach you how to prepare the liquid diet for the feeding tube and how much to ...

  3. Metabolic Effects of Ketogenic Diets

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    The results of 24 metabolic profiles performed on 55 epileptic children receiving the classical ketogenic diet, the MCT diet, a modified MCT diet, and normal diets are reported from the University Department of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England.

  4. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.; Westbroek, I.; Keizer, H.; Gambelli, L.; Hontecillas, R.; Bassaganya-Riera, J.; Zondag, G.C.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. DESIGN: High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed

  5. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, Irene O. C. M.; van Diepen, Janna A.; van den Berg, Sjoerd; Westbroek, Irene; Keizer, Hiskias; Gambelli, Luisa; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Zondag, Gerben C. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed oil (PUA) was fed for 12weeks to

  6. Diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Olsen, Anja; Carbonnel, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Library were searched for studies on diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Results: Established non-diet risk factors include family predisposition, smoking, appendectomy, and antibiotics. Retrospective case–control studies are encumbered with methodological problems. Prospective studies...... on European cohorts, mainly including middle-aged adults, suggest that a diet high in protein from meat and fish is associated with a higher risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Intake of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid may confer risk of ulcerative colitis, whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty...... dioxide and aluminium silicate). Conclusions: A diet high in protein, particular animal protein, may be associated with increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease and relapses. N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids may predispose to ulcerative colitis whilst n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid may protect...

  7. Lipid redistribution by α-linolenic acid-rich chia seed inhibits stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and induces cardiac and hepatic protection in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Hemant; Panchal, Sunil K; Waanders, Jennifer; Ward, Leigh; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-02-01

    Chia seeds contain the essential fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA). This study has assessed whether chia seeds attenuated the metabolic, cardiovascular and hepatic signs of a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet [carbohydrates, 52% (wt/wt); fat, 24% (wt/wt) with 25% (wt/vol) fructose in drinking water] in rats. Diets of the treatment groups were supplemented with 5% chia seeds after 8 weeks on H diet for a further 8 weeks. Compared with the H rats, chia seed-supplemented rats had improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, reduced visceral adiposity, decreased hepatic steatosis and reduced cardiac and hepatic inflammation and fibrosis without changes in plasma lipids or blood pressure. Chia seeds induced lipid redistribution with lipid trafficking away from the visceral fat and liver with an increased accumulation in the heart. The stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 products were depleted in the heart, liver and the adipose tissue of chia seed-supplemented rats together with an increase in the substrate concentrations. The C18:1trans-7 was preferentially stored in the adipose tissue; the relatively inert C18:1n-9 was stored in sensitive organs such as liver and heart and C18:2n-6, the parent fatty acid of the n-6 pathway, was preferentially metabolized. Thus, chia seeds as a source of ALA induce lipid redistribution associated with cardioprotection and hepatoprotection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  9. Diet and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years, gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, following factors were found as independent risk factors for gastric cancer: more frequent consumption of high-fat milk [Odds ratio (OR =1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.99-2.16]; mutton, lamb and/or calf meat (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.11-5.47, sugar (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.43-3.18, semi-white bread (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.25-3.50, and salting food (OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.63-12.42. Factors found as protective were: more frequent consumption of margarine (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.69, „other“ cheeses (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.77, and fish (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.19-0.76.

  10. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention.

  11. Diet and asthma: looking back, moving forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellwood Philippa E

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is an increasing global health burden, especially in the western world. Public health interventions are sought to lessen its prevalence or severity, and diet and nutrition have been identified as potential factors. With rapid changes in diet being one of the hallmarks of westernization, nutrition may play a key role in affecting the complex genetics and developmental pathophysiology of asthma. The present review investigates hypotheses about hygiene, antioxidants, lipids and other nutrients, food types and dietary patterns, breastfeeding, probiotics and intestinal microbiota, vitamin D, maternal diet, and genetics. Early hypotheses analyzed population level trends and focused on major dietary factors such as antioxidants and lipids. More recently, larger dietary patterns beyond individual nutrients have been investigated such as obesity, fast foods, and the Mediterranean diet. Despite some promising hypotheses and findings, there has been no conclusive evidence about the role of specific nutrients, food types, or dietary patterns past early childhood on asthma prevalence. However, diet has been linked to the development of the fetus and child. Breastfeeding provides immunological protection when the infant's immune system is immature and a modest protective effect against wheeze in early childhood. Moreover, maternal diet may be a significant factor in the development of the fetal airway and immune system. As asthma is a complex disease of gene-environment interactions, maternal diet may play an epigenetic role in sensitizing fetal airways to respond abnormally to environmental insults. Recent hypotheses show promise in a biological approach in which the effects of dietary factors on individual physiology and immunology are analyzed before expansion into larger population studies. Thus, collaboration is required by various groups in studying this enigma from epidemiologists to geneticists to immunologists. It is now apparent that

  12. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD......) would reduce the phosphorus load due to less phosphorus-containing food additives, animal protein and more plant-based proteins. METHODS: Phosphorus and creatinine were measured in plasma and urine at baseline, week 12 and week 26 in 132 centrally obese subjects with normal renal function as part...... modifications of the diet are needed in order to make this food concept beneficial regarding phosphorus absorption....

  13. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet....

  14. A Heart-Healthy Diet: Recent Insights and Practical Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, Monica; Pagliai, Giuditta; Sofi, Francesco

    2017-08-24

    The purpose of this study is to review the current evidence on the relationship between diet and heart, giving practical recommendations for cardiovascular prevention. A heart-healthy diet should maximize the consumption of whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and legumes and discourage the consumption of meat and meat products as well as refined and processed foods. Plant-based diets fully meet these criteria, and the evidence supporting the protective effect of these dietary patterns evolved rapidly in recent years. Among plant-based diets, the Mediterranean and vegetarian diets gained the greater interest, having been associated with numerous health benefits such as reduced levels of traditional and novel risk factors and lower risk of cardiovascular disease. These positive effects may be explained by their high content of dietary fiber, complex carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and phytochemicals. Current evidence suggests that both Mediterranean and vegetarian diets are consistently beneficial with respect to cardiovascular disease.

  15. Zinc in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuts, whole grains, legumes, and yeast. Fruits and vegetables are not good sources, because the zinc in plant proteins is not as available for use by the body as the zinc from animal proteins. Therefore, low-protein diets and vegetarian diets ...

  16. Diet and Atherosclerosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-08-14

    Aug 14, 1974 ... Among the various factors affecting the development of atherosclerosis and its complications, the diet emerges as an important influence. This article reviews the evi- dence linking diet and atherosclerosis; the relation be- tween serum cholesterol concentration and incidence of coronary heart disease, and ...

  17. Diabetes diet - gestational

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a balanced diet, you need to eat a variety of healthy foods. Reading food labels can help you make healthy choices ... provider to make sure you're getting a balanced diet. In general, you should eat: Plenty of whole ...

  18. Diet, Nutrition, and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…

  19. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y nutrición May. 24, ...

  20. Seizure tests distinguish intermittent fasting from the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Adam L; Zheng, Xiangrong; Bergbower, Emily; Kennedy, Michiko; Hardwick, J Marie

    2010-08-01

    Calorie restriction can be anticonvulsant in animal models. The ketogenic diet was designed to mimic calorie restriction and has been assumed to work by the same mechanisms. We challenged this assumption by profiling the effects of these dietary regimens in mice subjected to a battery of acute seizure tests. Juvenile male NIH Swiss mice received ketogenic diet or a normal diet fed in restricted quantities (continuously or intermittently) for ∼12 days, starting at 3-4 weeks of age. Seizures were induced by the 6 Hz test, kainic acid, maximal electroshock, or pentylenetetrazol. The ketogenic and calorie-restricted diets often had opposite effects depending on the seizure test. The ketogenic diet protected from 6 Hz-induced seizures, whereas calorie restriction (daily and intermittent) increased seizure activity. Conversely, calorie restriction protected juvenile mice against seizures induced by kainic acid, whereas the ketogenic diet failed to protect. Intermittent caloric restriction worsened seizures induced by maximal electroshock but had no effect on those induced by pentylenetetrazol. In contrast to a longstanding hypothesis, calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet differ in their acute seizure test profiles, suggesting that they have different underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of the 6 Hz test and its ability to reflect the benefits of ketosis and fat consumption. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  2. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Abreu, Maria T

    2015-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data.

  3. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  4. Dietary Approaches to Protect Against Eye Blast Induced Oxidative Stress and Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    gained weight but did not develop diabetes . B, C) Mice on a control diet had decreased OP1 (A) and OP2 (B) amplitudes. Mice on a ketogenic diet had... ketogenic diet would be protective. We have completed at least one cohort for each experimental condition and plan to repeat the studies to confirm...effect. The ketogenic diet also did not elicit a protective effect after blast. Rather, we detected an increase in the inflammatory cytokine, IL-1

  5. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Physical protection is defined and its function in relation to other functions of a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials is described. The need for a uniform minimum international standard for physical protection as well as the need for international cooperation in physical protection is emphasized. The IAEA's INFCIRC/225/Rev. 1 (Annex 1) is reviewed. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Annex 2) is discussed. Photographs show examples of typical physical protection technology (Annex 3)

  6. Gastric Bypass Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink liquids. Take at least 30 minutes to eat your meals and 30 to 60 minutes to drink 1 ... meals small. During the diet progression, you should eat several small meals a day and sip liquids slowly throughout the ...

  7. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iron; Ferric acid; Ferrous acid; Ferritin ... The human body needs iron to make the oxygen-carrying proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin. Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells and myoglobin is found ...

  8. Magnesium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - magnesium ... Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal ... There is ongoing research into the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as high ...

  9. Headache Sufferers' Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find A Provider Contact Membership Donate 13 Jan Headache Sufferers' Diet Posted at 21:35h in Headache ... No Comments Post A Comment Cancel Reply NATIONAL HEADACHE FOUNDATION Financials Annual Benefit HeadWise Magazine Subscribe to ...

  10. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  11. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  12. Diabetes and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fact or need to know how a healthy diet improves health and fights disease—rely on qualified professionals in the field. More on This Topic The Lowdown on Diabetes With 29.1 million American children and adults ...

  13. Appetoff: another diet fad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerich, M J

    1989-12-01

    Appetoff diet patches were diet aids introduced to the public in 1987 and removed from the market in 1988 by the FDA for reasons of fraud. The ingredients were supposedly homeopathic concentrations of plant and mineral products. Although 91.6% of persons in this study who used the product for at least 1 week reported weight loss and mild side effects, no active ingredients could be detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  14. Diet quality concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-06-01

    The term diet quality has recently gained considerable attention in nutritional research. Despite widespread use, it is often poorly defined and remains difficult to measure. Confusion surrounds the term, as there is no consensus on how to define quality of the diet or to pin down a framework for producing a standard indicator. The composite and cut-off selection of most diet quality indices depend on investigator choices in line with research objectives. In addition to the frequently used dietary compliance-based approach, innovative approaches have emerged to construct diet quality indices based on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory profiles of diet. Different viewpoints and overlapping interests may yield different interpretations. Most of the unresolved issues are related directly or indirectly to the multidimensional and open-textured nature of the concept. This review aims to elucidate several debated key points to understand the reasons behind this confusion and address the complexity of how to define and quantify this concept. A standardized and well-defined framework of diet quality is of great importance for both consumers and scientists from different disciplines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-07

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  16. Neurobiochemical mechanisms of a ketogenic diet in refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Patricia Azevedo de; Sampaio, Leticia Pereira de Brito; Damasceno, Nágila Raquel Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    A ketogenic diet is an important therapy used in the control of drug-refractory seizures. Many studies have shown that children and adolescents following ketogenic diets exhibit an over 50% reduction in seizure frequency, which is considered to be clinically relevant. These benefits are based on a diet containing high fat (approximately 90% fat) for 24 months. This dietary model was proposed in the 1920s and has produced variable clinical responses. Previous studies have shown that the mechanisms underlying seizure control involve ketone bodies, which are produced by fatty acid oxidation. Although the pathways involved in the ketogenic diet are not entirely clear, the main effects of the production of ketone bodies appear to be neurotransmitter modulation and antioxidant effects on the brain. This review highlights the impacts of the ketogenic diet on the modulation of neurotransmitters, levels of biogenic monoamines and protective antioxidant mechanisms of neurons. In addition, future perspectives are proposed.

  17. [Role of Mediterranean diet on the prevention of Alzheimer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Arnoldo; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina; Mennickent, Sigrid

    2017-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are possible risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease and these can be modified by physical activity and changes in dietary patterns, such as switching to a Mediterranean diet. This diet includes fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fish and moderate wine intake. These foods provide vitamins, polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids. This diet should be able to reduce oxidative stress. The inflammatory response is also reduced by unsaturated fatty acids, resulting in a lower expression and a lower production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The Cardiovascular protection is related to the actions of polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids on the vascular endothelium. The Mediterranean diet also can improve cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. These beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet should have a role in Alzheimer’s disease prevention.

  18. Neurobiochemical mechanisms of a ketogenic diet in refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Azevedo de Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A ketogenic diet is an important therapy used in the control of drug-refractory seizures. Many studies have shown that children and adolescents following ketogenic diets exhibit an over 50% reduction in seizure frequency, which is considered to be clinically relevant. These benefits are based on a diet containing high fat (approximately 90% fat for 24 months. This dietary model was proposed in the 1920s and has produced variable clinical responses. Previous studies have shown that the mechanisms underlying seizure control involve ketone bodies, which are produced by fatty acid oxidation. Although the pathways involved in the ketogenic diet are not entirely clear, the main effects of the production of ketone bodies appear to be neurotransmitter modulation and antioxidant effects on the brain. This review highlights the impacts of the ketogenic diet on the modulation of neurotransmitters, levels of biogenic monoamines and protective antioxidant mechanisms of neurons. In addition, future perspectives are proposed.

  19. Ketogenic diet and astrocyte/neuron metabolic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamecq Joseph

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is an anticonvulsant diet enriched in fat. It provides the body with a minimal protein requirement and a restricted carbohydrate supply, the vast majority of calories (more than 80-90% being given by fat. Though anticonvulsant activity of ketogenic diet has been well documented by a large number of experimental and clinical studies, underlying mechanisms still remain partially unclear. Astrocyte-neuron interactions, among which metabolic shuttles, may influence synaptic activity and hence anticonvulsant protection. The astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttles may be themselves influenced by the availability in energetic substrates such as hydrates of carbon and fats. Historically, ketogenic diet had been designed to mimic changes such as ketosis occurring upon starvation, a physiological state already known to exhibit anticonvulsant protection and sometimes referred to as “water diet”. For this reason, a special attention should be paid to metabolic features shared in common by ketogenic diet and starvation and especially those features that might result in anticonvulsant protection. Compared to feeding by usual mixed diet, starvation and ketogenic diet are both characterised by increased fat, lowered glucose and aminoacid supplies to cells. The resulting impact of these changes in energetic substrates on astrocyte/neuron metabolic shuttles might have anticonvulsant and/or neuroprotective properties. This is the aim of this communication to review some important astrocyte/neuron metabolic interactions (astrocyte/neuron lactate shuttle, glutamateinduced astrocytic glycolysis activation, glutamate/glutamine cycle along with the neurovascular coupling and the extent to which the way of their alteration by starvation and/or ketogenic diet might result in seizure and/or brain protection.

  20. Food for Training-Western Diet and Inflammatory Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Parimal; Malireddi, R K Subbarao; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2018-03-06

    In recent years, trained immunity has emerged as an attractive concept to explain cross-protection against pathogens mediated by the innate immune system. Using a diet-based sterile inflammation model, Christ et al. (2018) have shown in a recent issue of Cell that trained immunity may also play a critical role in responding to diet and endogenous sterile triggers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective effect of quercetin on high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice is mediated by modulating intestinal microbiota imbalance and related gut-liver axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, David; Nistal, Esther; Martínez-Flórez, Susana; Pisonero-Vaquero, Sandra; Olcoz, José Luis; Jover, Ramiro; González-Gallego, Javier; García-Mediavilla, María Victoria; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbiota is involved in obesity, metabolic syndrome and the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It has been recently suggested that the flavonoid quercetin may have the ability to modulate the intestinal microbiota composition, suggesting a prebiotic capacity which highlights a great therapeutic potential in NAFLD. The present study aims to investigate benefits of experimental treatment with quercetin on gut microbial balance and related gut-liver axis activation in a nutritional animal model of NAFLD associated to obesity. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with high fat diet (HFD) supplemented or not with quercetin for 16 weeks. HFD induced obesity, metabolic syndrome and the development of hepatic steatosis as main hepatic histological finding. Increased accumulation of intrahepatic lipids was associated with altered gene expression related to lipid metabolism, as a result of deregulation of their major modulators. Quercetin supplementation decreased insulin resistance and NAFLD activity score, by reducing the intrahepatic lipid accumulation through its ability to modulate lipid metabolism gene expression, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-dependent lipoperoxidation and related lipotoxicity. Microbiota composition was determined via 16S ribosomal RNA Illumina next-generation sequencing. Metagenomic studies revealed HFD-dependent differences at phylum, class and genus levels leading to dysbiosis, characterized by an increase in Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and in Gram-negative bacteria, and a dramatically increased detection of Helicobacter genus. Dysbiosis was accompanied by endotoxemia, intestinal barrier dysfunction and gut-liver axis alteration and subsequent inflammatory gene overexpression. Dysbiosis-mediated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4)-NF-κB signaling pathway activation was associated with inflammasome initiation response and reticulum stress pathway induction. Quercetin reverted gut microbiota imbalance and related endotoxemia

  2. Inhibition of the Inflammasome NLRP3 by Arglabin Attenuates Inflammation, Protects Pancreatic β-Cells from Apoptosis, and Prevents Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Development in ApoE2Ki Mice on a Chronic High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrazak, Amna; El Hadri, Khadija; Bosc, Elodie; Blondeau, Bertrand; Slimane, Mohamed-Naceur; Büchele, Berthold; Simmet, Thomas; Couchie, Dominique; Rouis, Mustapha

    2016-06-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of arglabin (2.5 ng/g of body weight, twice daily, 13 weeks) into female human apolipoprotein E2 gene knock-in (ApoE2Ki) mice fed a high-fat Western-type diet (HFD) reduced plasma levels of glucose and insulin by ∼20.0% ± 3.5% and by 50.0% ± 2.0%, respectively, in comparison with vehicle-treated mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the absence of active caspase-3 in islet sections from ApoE2Ki mice fed a HFD and treated with arglabin. In addition, arglabin reduced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in a concentration-dependent manner in Langerhans islets isolated from ApoE2Ki mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and with cholesterol crystals. This inhibitory effect is specific for the inflammasome NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) because IL-1β production was abolished in Langerhans islets isolated from Nlrp3(-/-) mice. In the insulin-secreting INS-1 cells, arglabin inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the maturation of pro-IL-1β into biologically active IL-1β probably through the inhibition of the maturation of procaspase-1 into active capsase-1. Moreover, arglabin reduced the susceptibility of INS-1 cells to apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 levels. Similarly, autophagy activation by rapamycin decreased apoptosis susceptibility while autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenin treatment promoted apoptosis. Arglabin further increased the expression of the autophagic markers Bcl2-interacting protein (Beclin-1) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 II (LC3-II) in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, arglabin reduces NLRP3-dependent inflammation as well as apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells in vivo and in the INS-1 cell line in vitro, whereas it increases autophagy in cultured INS-1 cells, indicating survival-promoting properties of the compound in these cells. Hence, arglabin may represent a new promising compound to treat inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus development

  3. Human diet and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J; Prescott, John

    2014-07-01

    Cognition influences what, when and how much we eat, which in turn affects the brain and hence cognition. In this overview, focusing mainly on the human literature, we start by examining cognitive influences on food and eating. This includes food preferences and choices (e.g., effects of learning, advertising, and cultural taboos), food habits relating to when and how much to eat (e.g., the concept of meals, dieting, and hunger strikes), the perception of food (e.g., the influence of appearance, food labels, and conceptions of naturalness), and how food perception is influenced by expertise. We also review how these various influences are disrupted by abnormalities of cognition (e.g., Gourmand syndrome, amnesia, and anorexia nervosa). The second part of the overview focuses on how diet affects cognition. We start by looking at the acute effects of diet, notably the impact of breakfast on cognitive performance in children. This is followed by a review of the effects of extended dietary exposures-years and lifetimes of particular diets. Here we look at the impacts of protein-energy malnourishment and Western-style diets, and their different, but adverse affects on cognition, and the beneficial effects on cognition of breast-feeding and certain dietary practices. We then outline how diet and cooking may have allowed the evolution of the large energy-hungry human brain. This overview serves to illustrate the multiple interactions that exist between cognition and diet, their importance to health and disease, and their impact on thinking about the role of conscious processes in decision making. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:463-475. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1290 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Negotiating Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel

    strategies are entangled in cultural, religious, and national identities. Using ethnographic methods, I investigate protection against selected risks: harm from evil eyes, violation of domestic sanctity, and cultural heritage dilapidation. Protection against these risks is examined through studies...

  5. [Protective eyeglasses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, G

    1997-01-01

    Reminder of the materials used for the manufacture of corrective lenses. Belgian statistics concerning eye accidents at work and European legislation concerning the prevention of eye accidents, personal protective equipment, P.P.E. Eye protection for sports.

  6. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  7. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic and N-aspartic acids, and 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender- and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...

  8. Prenatal and childhood Mediterranean diet and the development of asthma and allergies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzi, Leda; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2009-09-01

    To discuss current evidence about the relation between prenatal and childhood Mediterranean diet, and the development of asthma and allergies in children. Review of the literature. Four recent studies conducted in Mediterranean countries (Spain, Greece) and one conducted in Mexico evaluated the association between childhood Mediterranean diet and asthma outcomes in children. All of the studies reported beneficial associations between a high level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet during childhood and symptoms of asthma or allergic rhinitis. Individual foods or food groups contributing to the protective effect of Mediterranean diet included fish, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts and cereals, while detrimental components included red meat, margarine and junk food intake. Two studies focused on prenatal Mediterranean diet: the first is a birth cohort in Spain that showed a protective effect of a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy on persistent wheeze, atopic wheeze and atopy at the age of 6.5 years; while the second is a cross-sectional study in Mexico, collecting information more than 6 years after pregnancy, that showed no associations between maternal Mediterranean diet during pregnancy and allergic symptoms in childhood except for current sneezing. Findings from recent studies suggest that a high level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet early in life protects against the development of asthma and atopy in children. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms of this protective effect, to evaluate the most relevant window of exposure, and to address specific components of diet in relation to disease.

  9. Protecting knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....

  10. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Arun

    This PhD project is part of the research programme at the OPUS Research Centre (2009-2013) at the University of Copenhagen. The aim of the Centre is to improve public health in Denmark by developing, testing and disseminating the New Nordic Diet (NND). Combining the gastronomic ideals of the New...... Nordic Cuisine movement with eating habits that accord with Nordic dietary recommendations, the NND is designed to be a healthy, Nordic, seasonal and organic diet that will be acceptable to Danish consumers. This PhD study has four objectives: (i) to explore the acceptance of the NND among Danish......: (iv) to assess which social and cultural factors are likely to impact upon the achievement of the aim of OPUS. The NND concept was found to be well accepted, although some consumers viewed it as being an elitist diet. Also, the taste of the NND was very well accepted. The practical hallenges and time...

  11. Diet-Regulated Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Murphy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A substantial proportion of noncommunicable disease originates in habitual overconsumption of calories, which can lead to weight gain and obesity and attendant comorbidities. At the other end of the spectrum, the consequences of undernutrition in early life and at different stages of adult life can also have major impact on wellbeing and quality of life. To help address some of these issues, greater understanding is required of interactions with food and contemporary diets throughout the life course and at a number of different levels: physiological, metabolic, psychological, and emotional. Here we review the current literature on the effects of dietary manipulation on anxiety-like behaviour. This evidence, assembled from study of preclinical models of diet challenge from gestation to adult life, supports a role for diet in the important connections between psychology, physiology, and behaviour. Analogous processes in the human population in our current obesogenic environment are likely to contribute to individual and societal challenges in this area.

  12. Parental encouragement of dieting promotes daughters' early dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Savage, Jennifer S; Marini, Michele E; Birch, Leann L

    2014-09-01

    Dieting to lose weight is common among female adolescents. This research investigated the association between maternal and paternal encouragement to diet and their daughters' self-reported "early dieting" (prior to age 11 y) and adolescent dieting (between 11 y and 15 y), and how parental encouragement to diet is related to changes in daughters' BMI percentiles. Participants in this study were 174 non-Hispanic white girls and their parents, assessed when daughters were 9-, 11-, 13-, and 15 y. The Parent Encouragement of Child Weight Loss Scale was used to measure encouragement to diet. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between parental encouragement to diet and daughters' reports of dieting by 11 y and by 15 y, adjusting for daughters' weight status at baseline. Compared with girls whose mothers didn't encourage dieting, girls who were encouraged to diet were twice as likely to diet by 11 y; girls who were encouraged by their fathers were also twice as likely to diet by 11 y. Girls who were encouraged to diet by both parents were 8 times more likely to report early dieting than girls who were not. Neither maternal nor paternal encouragement predicted the emergence of dieting during adolescence. Girls who dieted and had parental encouragement to do so had increases in BMI percentile from 9 y to 15 y. Findings reveal that parental encouragement to diet may be counterproductive and that parents need alternative approaches to promote healthy patterns of intake and growth among young girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Behavioral Nutraceuticals and Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Jillian M

    2018-05-01

    Behavioral problems of companion animals are becoming more widely recognized. As a result, there are a growing number of behavioral nutraceuticals and diets on the market. These products may be useful for the treatment of mild conditions, for clients who are hesitant to give their pet a psychopharmacologic agent, or sometimes in conjunction with psychopharmacologic agents. Veterinarians should critically review the research associated with nutraceuticals and diets, and have an understanding of the functional ingredients and their mechanisms of action before prescribing treatment. This article provides an overview of nutraceuticals, their mechanisms of action, and relevant research regarding their use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Algorithmic Diversity Diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Schmidt, Jan-Hinrik

    2016-01-01

    diet system however triggers not only the classic discussion of the reach – distinctiveness balance for PSM, but also shows that ‘diversity’ is understood very differently in algorithmic recommender system communities than it is editorially and politically in the context of PSM. The design...... of a diversity diet system generates questions not just about editorial power, personal freedom and techno-paternalism, but also about the embedded politics of recommender systems as well as the human skills affiliated with PSM editorial work and the nature of PSM content....

  15. Dieting among Thai adolescents: having friends who diet and pressure to diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, R M; Suwanteerangkul, J

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dieting behavior, the number of friends who diet, and number of friends who pressure to go on a diet among a sample of 2,519 Thai adolescents. More than half of the girls (52.2%) and over one-fourth of boys (28.0%) reported going on a diet in the past 30 days. Dieting among friends was very common with only 14.2% of girls and 34.3% of boys saying none of their friends dieted. Results also showed significant associations between 1) number of friends who diet and 2) number of friends who pressure to diet with dieting behavior, body mass index (BMI), weight satisfaction, perceived body fatness, effort to look like people in the media, and frequency of thinking about wanting to be thinner in girls. In addition, several of these associations for boys were significant. The role of BMI in these relationships was also explored.

  16. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  17. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  18. Ileostomy and your diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that collects it. You will need to take care of the stoma and empty the pouch many times a day. People who have had an ileostomy can most often eat a normal diet. But some foods may cause problems. Foods that may ... Your pouch should be sealed well enough to ...

  19. Table 1 Experimental diets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Siebrits

    recommended that human diets should contain more mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to replace saturated fatty acids (Krauss et al., 1998) and the health conscious market requires products with higher. PUFA content it could be advantageous to stabilize the residual oil in sunflower oilcake by converting it into calcium ...

  20. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pubmed/22939444 . Ramu A, Neild P, Naish J. Diet and nutrition. In: Naish J, Snydercombe Court D, eds. Medical Sciences . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 16. Review Date 5/7/2017 Updated by: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, ...

  1. Water in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 16, 2017. Ramu A, Neild P, Naish J. Diet and nutrition. In: Naish J, Court DS, eds. Medical Sciences . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 16. Review Date 7/10/2017 Updated by: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, ...

  2. Diet - clear liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... full liquid Esophagectomy - discharge Gallstones - discharge Low-fiber diet Pancreatitis - discharge When you have diarrhea When you have nausea and vomiting Review Date 8/14/2016 Updated by: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, ...

  3. Diet, microbiota, and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Hakan; Tözün, Nurdan

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world causing nearly 500,000 deaths every year. In addition to genetic background, environmental factors including diet and lifestyle are accepted as major contributors to adenoma and CRC development. Lifestyle factors include high BMI, obesity, and reduced physical activity. Growing interest and accumulating data on human microbiota implicate that host-microbe interplay has an important role in the development of metabolic, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases. Findings from recent studies suggest that colon cancer risk is determined by the interaction between diet and gut microbiota. Dietary changes affect gut microbiota and conversely microbiota mediates the generation of dietary factors triggering colon cancer. Identification of the microbial communities associated with carcinogenesis is of crucial importance. Nowadays, with the evolvement of culture-independent molecular techniques, it has become possible to identify main bacterial species in healthy individuals, inflammatory conditions, and CRC. Some recent studies have shown the differences in intestinal microbiota between colon cancer patients and healthy individuals. Animal studies have provided a better understanding of interaction between pathobionts and symbionts in the development of colon cancer. There is no single causative organism identified in CRC; however, there is strong evidence that reduction of protective bacteria, increase in some bacteria (ie, fusobacterium members; Bacteroides/Prevotella), and age-related changes in microbiota have an impact on adenoma or cancer development. Future studies will enable us to understand procarcinogenic and anticarcinogenic mechanisms and give insights to rational manipulation of the microbiota with prebiotics, probiotics, or dietary modifications.

  4. Insider protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-07-01

    The government community is broadly addressing the insider threat. The first section of this paper defines protection approaches and the latter sections present various applicable technology developments. The bulk of the paper discusses technology developments applied to (1) personnel and material tracking and inventory, (2) classified document protection, and (3) protecting security systems. The personnel and material tracking system uses a PC based-host to (1) collect information from proximity tags and material movement sensors, (2) apply rules to this input to assure that the ongoing activity meets the site selectable rules and, (3) forward the results to either an automated inventory system or an alarm system. The document protection system uses a PC network to efficiently and securely control classified material which is stored on write-once-read-mostly optical media. The protection of sensor to multiplexer communications in a security system is emphasized in the discussion of protecting security systems.

  5. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  6. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health in a person with hepatitis C. A balanced diet can lead to better liver functioning and lowered ... exercise routine and start eating a healthy, well-balanced diet. Always talk to your doctor before starting a ...

  7. Is Dieting OK for Kids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight? All kids can benefit from eating a balanced diet and getting plenty of physical activity. Kids have ... to eat a variety of healthy foods. A balanced diet means that you don't eat the same ...

  8. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Diet and nutrition with lupus Lupus Foundation of America April 19, ... newsletter Related Resources Diet and Lupus ABCs of nutrition Thinking about drinking? Read this first. Stick to ...

  9. Diet for rapid weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very-low-calorie-diets/Pages/very-low-calorie-diets.aspx . Accessed May 25, 2016. Review Date 4/24/2016 Updated by: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, ...

  10. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ROZOWSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece, both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet

  11. Diets: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Claims? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) DASH Diet: MedlinePlus Health Topic (National Library of Medicine) Also ... foods Mediterranean diet Related Health Topics Child Nutrition DASH Eating Plan Diabetic Diet Nutrition Nutrition for Seniors Vegetarian Diet ...

  12. Eye Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is very important to read the product safety materials before using any new chemicals. The appropriate personal protective equipment for eye protection will be listed. This is particularly important for applying and handling pesticides, working with caustics such as lime fertilizer, ...

  13. Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency in popular diet plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calton Jayson B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown micronutrient deficiency to be scientifically linked to a higher risk of overweight/obesity and other dangerous and debilitating diseases. With more than two-thirds of the U.S. population overweight or obese, and research showing that one-third are on a diet at any given time, a need existed to determine whether current popular diet plans could protect followers from micronutrient deficiency by providing the minimum levels of 27 micronutrients, as determined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administrations (FDA Reference Daily Intake (RDI guidelines. Methods Suggested daily menus from four popular diet plans (Atkins for Life diet, The South Beach Diet, the DASH diet, the DASH diet were evaluated. Calorie and micronutrient content of each ingredient, in each meal, were determined by using food composition data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. The results were evaluated for sufficiency and total calories and deficient micronutrients were identified. The diet plans that did not meet 100% sufficiency by RDI guidelines for each of the 27 micronutrients were re-analyzed; (1 to identify a micronutrient sufficient calorie intake for all 27 micronutrients, and (2 to identify a second micronutrient sufficient calorie intake when consistently low or nonexistent micronutrients were removed from the sufficiency requirement. Results Analysis determined that each of the four popular diet plans failed to provide minimum RDI sufficiency for all 27 micronutrients analyzed. The four diet plans, on average, were found to be RDI sufficient in (11.75 ± 2.02; mean ± SEM of the analyzed 27 micronutrients and contain (1748.25 ± 209.57 kcal. Further analysis of the four diets found that an average calorie intake of (27,575 ± 4660.72 would be required to achieve sufficiency in all 27 micronutrients. Six micronutrients (vitamin B7, vitamin D, vitamin E, chromium, iodine and molybdenum were

  14. Diet as a Trigger or Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James D; Abreu, Maria T

    2017-02-01

    The most common question asked by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is, "Doctor, what should I eat?" Findings from epidemiology studies have indicated that diets high in animal fat and low in fruits and vegetables are the most common pattern associated with an increased risk of IBD. Low levels of vitamin D also appear to be a risk factor for IBD. In murine models, diets high in fat, especially saturated animal fats, also increase inflammation, whereas supplementation with omega 3 long-chain fatty acids protect against intestinal inflammation. Unfortunately, omega 3 supplements have not been shown to decrease the risk of relapse in patients with Crohn's disease. Dietary intervention studies have shown that enteral therapy, with defined formula diets, helps children with Crohn's disease and reduces inflammation and dysbiosis. Although fiber supplements have not been shown definitively to benefit patients with IBD, soluble fiber is the best way to generate short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, which has anti-inflammatory effects. Addition of vitamin D and curcumin has been shown to increase the efficacy of IBD therapy. There is compelling evidence from animal models that emulsifiers in processed foods increase risk for IBD. We discuss current knowledge about popular diets, including the specific carbohydrate diet and diet low in fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols. We present findings from clinical and basic science studies to help gastroenterologists navigate diet as it relates to the management of IBD. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acne and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ronni; Matz, Hagit; Orion, Edith

    2004-01-01

    Forbidden foods? "The first law of dietetics seems to be: If it tastes good, it's bad for you" (Isaac Asimov, Russian-born biochemist and science fiction writer). This was essentially the Magna Carta for dermatologists of the 1950s: anything coveted by the teenage palate was suspect for morning after acne. Today, half a century later, although the slant has shifted away for this line of thinking in our dermatologic textbooks, several articles on the beliefs and perceptions of acne patients showed that nothing much has changed and that they expect us to give them detailed instructions of what "acne-related" foods they should avoid. In one such study(1), diet was the third most frequently implicated factor (after hormones and genetics) as the cause of the disease, with 32% of the respondents selecting diet as the main cause, and 44% thinking that foods aggravate acne. In another study that analyzed knowledge about causes of acne among English teenagers, 11% of the responders blamed greasy food as the main cause of the disease(2), whereas in another study found that 41% of final-year medical students of the University of Melbourne chose diet as an important factor of acne exacerbation on a final examination.(3)

  16. The relationship between diet and Dental Caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, M. S

    1991-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease of multifactorial etiology and results from a complex interaction between both cariogenic and protective influences acting on the teeth. Though diet plays a major role in the causation of dental caries it has been a common mistake to over-simplify the relationship. Dietary manipulation is also extremely difficult to achieve thus limiting its role in the prevention of caries. Accordingly, alternative preventive measures such as the use of fissure sealants and fluoride which enhance the resistance of the host to disease and are of proven efficacy are more likely to be successful in the control and prevention of dental caries. (author)

  17. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

  18. Pollinator Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    What the EPA is doing to protect bees and other pollinators from pesticides; including addressing the issue of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), risk assessment, decline in pollinator health in general, and why pollinators are important.

  19. Protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Regnier, J.

    1979-01-01

    The present operational and intervention suits are described. Research work is currently in progress to improve the performance of the existing suits and to develop more resistant protective clothing. (author)

  20. Memory protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  1. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures Pantazi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  2. Protective Eyewear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whether you’re on the basketball court, in chemistry class, or sitting by the pool, wearing protective ... remember to wear safety goggles. Using chemicals in chemistry class? Look like a real scientist by wearing ...

  3. Negotiating Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel

    of architecture, the social use of luminosity, prophylactic items, saint veneration, Qur'anic items, and heritage production. The thesis challenges the preoccupation with "meaning" in material culture studies, by focusing on conceptualizations of "presence" and "absence" as equally important to protective...... strategies are confirming their efficacy, and act as material anchors for negotiating Bedouin identities in response to a rapid transformation from nomadic pastoralists to sedentary wageworkers. The tensions surrounding the materiality of protection, along with the role of the past in the present is further...... investigated through the contested public representations of Ammarin culture, along with a detailed study of the process leading to the protection of Bedouin culture by UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. The overall conclusion of this research is that negotiating efficacious protection against perceived...

  4. Corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  5. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The lecture is divided into five sections. The introduction deals with the physical and radiological terms, quantities and units. Then the basic principles of radiological protection are discussed. In the third section attention is paid to the biological effects of ionizing radiation. The fourth section deals with the objectives of practical radiological protection. Finally the emergency measures are discussed to be taken in radiation accidents. (HP) [de

  6. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The question of environment protection related to the use of nuclear energy aiming to power generation, based on the harmonic concept of economic and industrial development, preserving the environment, is discussed. A brief study of environmental impacts for some energy sources, including nuclear energy, to present the systems of a nuclear power plant which aim at environmental protection, is done. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2001-01-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported

  8. Resveratrol Protects Rabbits Against Cholesterol Diet-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in ... Regular consumption of food rich in antioxidant are associated with numerous health ... inhibition of platelet aggregation (Wang et al., 2002), promotion of vasodilatation by ...

  9. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    JAIME ROZOWSKI; ÓSCAR CASTILLO

    2004-01-01

    Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece), both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes t...

  10. Selenium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent certain cancers Protect the body from the poisonous effects of heavy metals and other harmful substances ... garlic are also good sources. Meats produced from animals that ate grains or plants found in selenium- ...

  11. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hoffman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts, and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  12. The Health Advantage of a Vegan Diet: Exploring the Gut Microbiota Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Glick-Bauer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile. The relationship between diet and the intestinal microbial profile appears to follow a continuum, with vegans displaying a gut microbiota most distinct from that of omnivores, but not always significantly different from that of vegetarians. The vegan gut profile appears to be unique in several characteristics, including a reduced abundance of pathobionts and a greater abundance of protective species. Reduced levels of inflammation may be the key feature linking the vegan gut microbiota with protective health effects. However, it is still unclear whether a therapeutic vegan diet can be prescribed to alter the gut microflora for long-term health benefits.

  13. The health advantage of a vegan diet: exploring the gut microbiota connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick-Bauer, Marian; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2014-10-31

    This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile. The relationship between diet and the intestinal microbial profile appears to follow a continuum, with vegans displaying a gut microbiota most distinct from that of omnivores, but not always significantly different from that of vegetarians. The vegan gut profile appears to be unique in several characteristics, including a reduced abundance of pathobionts and a greater abundance of protective species. Reduced levels of inflammation may be the key feature linking the vegan gut microbiota with protective health effects. However, it is still unclear whether a therapeutic vegan diet can be prescribed to alter the gut microflora for long-term health benefits.

  14. What Are the Effects of a Mediterranean Diet on Allergies and Asthma in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Castro-Rodriguez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This review updates the relationship between the adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet assessed by questionnaire and asthma, allergic rhinitis, or atopic eczema in childhood. It deals with the effect of MedDiet in children on asthma/wheeze, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis/eczema, and also with the effect of MedDiet consumption by the mother during pregnancy on the inception of asthma/wheeze and allergic diseases in the offspring. Adherence to MedDiet by children themselves seems to have a protective effect on asthma/wheezing symptoms after adjustment for confounders, although the effect is doubtful on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. By contrast, the vast majority of the studies showed no significant effect of MedDiet on preventing atopic eczema, rhinitis, or atopy. Finally, studies on adherence to MedDiet by the mother during pregnancy showed some protective effect on asthma/wheeze symptoms in the offspring only during the first year of life, but not afterward. Very few studies have shown a protective effect on wheezing, current sneeze, and atopy, and none on eczema. Randomized control trials on the effect of the adherence to MedDiet to prevent (by maternal consumption during pregnancy or improve (by child consumption the clinical control of asthma/wheezing, allergic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis are needed.

  15. Chronic Consptipation and Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ince

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Constipation presented a lof of sign-symptoms is not a single disease and a disorder that affect colonic and anorectal function. Constipation is defined as decreased of defecation number by physicians and all of problems relation with defecation by patients. But a accurate and correct defitinition giving base on patophyslogically by Rome III criteria. As patophyslogically, constipation is improved by decreased material that will be reached cecum, decreased motility of colon and multiple results improving defecation disorders. Constipation can be divided irratable bowel syndrome with constipation (normal transit, slow transit constipation and defecation disorders but there is no accurate border in this classification. Neurotransmitters, stress, medical therapies, sleep and meals are association with etiology of constipation. A high fiber diet can reach easily to cecum and prevent constipation. Therefore aim of this review is to stress effect of fiber diet in the first and second type of constipation. Slow transit constipation in 13-15% patients and irratable bowel sendrom with constipation (normal transit in 59% patients has being diagnosed. Seconder causes of constipation can be found with a good history taking from patients. Accurate diagnosis can be find with colon transit time followed by abdominal and pelvic examinitian. Treatment should be begin after correction of seconder causes. It should be recommendation to patients a high fiber diet, exercise, appropriate fluid with medical therapy. Lubiprostone and Tegaserod are used to begin for treatment of slow transit constipation. Laparoscopic surgery is recommened to patients not recoveried by medical therapy. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 71-76

  16. Role of Diet in Influencing Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badsha, Humeira

    2018-01-01

    Background: Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. Discussion: However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA. Some benefits of vegan diet may be explained by antioxidant constituents, lactobacilli and fibre, and by potential changes in intestinal flora. Similarly, Mediterranean diet shows anti-inflammatory effects due to protective properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins, but also by influencing the gut microbiome. Gluten-free and elemental diets have been associated with some benefits in RA though the existing evidence is limited. Long-term intake of fish and other sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are protective for development of RA. The benefits of fasting, anti-oxidant supplementation, flavanoids, and probiotics in RA are not clear. Vitamin D has been shown to influence autoimmunity and specifically decrease RA disease activity. The role of supplements such as fish oils and vitamin D should be explored in future trials to gain new insights in disease pathogenesis and develop RA-specific dietary recommendations. Conclusion: Specifically more research is needed to explore the association of diet and the gut microbiome and how this can influence RA disease activity. PMID:29515679

  17. Diet after cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Donato F; Rotelli, Maria T; Palasciano, Nicola

    2017-05-17

    Patients with gallstones are often affected by alimentary disorders contributing to the onset of gallstones disease. Cholecystectomy can have nutritional and metabolic consequences in the short-term (diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating) and in the long-term (increased Body Mass Index with metabolic syndrome, gastritis, liposoluble vitamin deficiency). Pathogenic mechanisms behind these disturbances are reviewed and the need for an early post-operative nutritional intervention based on low-lipid, high-fibers diet, is highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  19. Ketogenic Diet in Epileptic Encephalopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvasini Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a medically supervised high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has been found useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. It has been shown to be effective in treating multiple seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. In this paper, we review the use of the ketogenic diet in epileptic encephalopathies such as Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  20. Ketogenic Diet in Epileptic Encephalopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Suvasini; Tripathi, Manjari

    2013-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a medically supervised high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has been found useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. It has been shown to be effective in treating multiple seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. In this paper, we review the use of the ketogenic diet in epileptic encephalopathies such as Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  1. Does a vegan diet reduce risk for Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    2001-09-01

    Three recent case-control studies conclude that diets high in animal fat or cholesterol are associated with a substantial increase in risk for Parkinson's disease (PD); in contrast, fat of plant origin does not appear to increase risk. Whereas reported age-adjusted prevalence rates of PD tend to be relatively uniform throughout Europe and the Americas, sub-Saharan black Africans, rural Chinese, and Japanese, groups whose diets tend to be vegan or quasi-vegan, appear to enjoy substantially lower rates. Since current PD prevalence in African-Americans is little different from that in whites, environmental factors are likely to be responsible for the low PD risk in black Africans. In aggregate, these findings suggest that vegan diets may be notably protective with respect to PD. However, they offer no insight into whether saturated fat, compounds associated with animal fat, animal protein, or the integrated impact of the components of animal products mediates the risk associated with animal fat consumption. Caloric restriction has recently been shown to protect the central dopaminergic neurons of mice from neurotoxins, at least in part by induction of heat-shock proteins; conceivably, the protection afforded by vegan diets reflects a similar mechanism. The possibility that vegan diets could be therapeutically beneficial in PD, by slowing the loss of surviving dopaminergic neurons, thus retarding progression of the syndrome, may merit examination. Vegan diets could also be helpful to PD patients by promoting vascular health and aiding blood-brain barrier transport of L-dopa. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  2. Lightning Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

  3. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, Markus; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  4. Reversal of Diabetic Nephropathy by a Ketogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Michal M.; Mastaitis, Jason W.; Isoda, Fumiko; Grosjean, Fabrizio; Zheng, Feng; Mobbs, Charles V.

    2011-01-01

    Intensive insulin therapy and protein restriction delay the development of nephropathy in a variety of conditions, but few interventions are known to reverse nephropathy. Having recently observed that the ketone 3-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (3-OHB) reduces molecular responses to glucose, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet, which produces prolonged elevation of 3-OHB, may reverse pathological processes caused by diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we assessed if prolonged maintenance on a ketogenic diet would reverse nephropathy produced by diabetes. In mouse models for both Type 1 (Akita) and Type 2 (db/db) diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (as indicated by albuminuria) was allowed to develop, then half the mice were switched to a ketogenic diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, mice were sacrificed to assess gene expression and histology. Diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by albumin/creatinine ratios as well as expression of stress-induced genes, was completely reversed by 2 months maintenance on a ketogenic diet. However, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partly reversed. These studies demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy can be reversed by a relatively simple dietary intervention. Whether reduced glucose metabolism mediates the protective effects of the ketogenic diet remains to be determined. PMID:21533091

  5. Reversal of diabetic nephropathy by a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Michal M; Mastaitis, Jason W; Isoda, Fumiko; Grosjean, Fabrizio; Zheng, Feng; Mobbs, Charles V

    2011-04-20

    Intensive insulin therapy and protein restriction delay the development of nephropathy in a variety of conditions, but few interventions are known to reverse nephropathy. Having recently observed that the ketone 3-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (3-OHB) reduces molecular responses to glucose, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet, which produces prolonged elevation of 3-OHB, may reverse pathological processes caused by diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we assessed if prolonged maintenance on a ketogenic diet would reverse nephropathy produced by diabetes. In mouse models for both Type 1 (Akita) and Type 2 (db/db) diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (as indicated by albuminuria) was allowed to develop, then half the mice were switched to a ketogenic diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, mice were sacrificed to assess gene expression and histology. Diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by albumin/creatinine ratios as well as expression of stress-induced genes, was completely reversed by 2 months maintenance on a ketogenic diet. However, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partly reversed. These studies demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy can be reversed by a relatively simple dietary intervention. Whether reduced glucose metabolism mediates the protective effects of the ketogenic diet remains to be determined.

  6. Reversal of diabetic nephropathy by a ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M Poplawski

    Full Text Available Intensive insulin therapy and protein restriction delay the development of nephropathy in a variety of conditions, but few interventions are known to reverse nephropathy. Having recently observed that the ketone 3-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (3-OHB reduces molecular responses to glucose, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet, which produces prolonged elevation of 3-OHB, may reverse pathological processes caused by diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we assessed if prolonged maintenance on a ketogenic diet would reverse nephropathy produced by diabetes. In mouse models for both Type 1 (Akita and Type 2 (db/db diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (as indicated by albuminuria was allowed to develop, then half the mice were switched to a ketogenic diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, mice were sacrificed to assess gene expression and histology. Diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by albumin/creatinine ratios as well as expression of stress-induced genes, was completely reversed by 2 months maintenance on a ketogenic diet. However, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partly reversed. These studies demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy can be reversed by a relatively simple dietary intervention. Whether reduced glucose metabolism mediates the protective effects of the ketogenic diet remains to be determined.

  7. Diet and Endothelial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADA M CUEVAS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is one of the earliest events in atherogenesis. A consequence of endothelial damage is a lower availability of nitric oxide (NO, the most potent endogenous vasodilator. NO inhibits platelet aggregation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. Endothelial dysfunction is present in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or coronary risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking or hyperhomocysteinemia. At present, soluble markers and high resolution ultrasound of the brachial artery, have provided simple tools for the study of endothelial function and the effects of several interventions. It has been demonstrated that dietary factors may induce significant changes on vascular reactivity. Nutrients, such as fish oil, antioxidants, L-arginine, folic acid and soy protein have shown an improvement in endothelial function that can mediate, at least partially, the cardioprotective effects of these substances. Attention has been focused on dietary patterns in populations with lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence suggesting that Mediterranean diet characterized by high consumption of vegetables, fish, olive oil and moderate wine consumption may have a positive effect on endothelial function. These results give us evidence on the significant role of diet on endothelial function and its impact on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

  8. Diet in dermatology: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaimal Sowmya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet has an important role to play in many skin disorders, and dermatologists are frequently faced with the difficulty of separating myth from fact when it comes to dietary advice for their patients. Patients in India are often anxious about what foods to consume, and what to avoid, in the hope that, no matter how impractical or difficult this may be, following this dictum will cure their disease. There are certain disorders where one or more components in food are central to the pathogenesis, e.g. dermatitis herpetiformis, wherein dietary restrictions constitute the cornerstone of treatment. A brief list, although not comprehensive, of other disorders where diet may have a role to play includes atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, psoriasis vulgaris, pemphigus, urticaria, pruritus, allergic contact dermatitis, fish odor syndrome, toxic oil syndrome, fixed drug eruption, genetic and metabolic disorders (phenylketonuria, tyrosinemia, homocystinuria, galactosemia, Refsum′s disease, G6PD deficiency, xanthomas, gout and porphyria, nutritional deficiency disorders (kwashiorkar, marasmus, phrynoderma, pellagra, scurvy, acrodermatitis enteropathica, carotenemia and lycopenemia and miscellaneous disorders such as vitiligo, aphthous ulcers, cutaneous vasculitis and telogen effluvium. From a practical point of view, it will be useful for the dermatologist to keep some dietary information handy to deal with the occasional patient who does not seem to respond in spite of the best, scientific and evidence-based therapy.

  9. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  10. Noise Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  11. Latest evidence of the effects of the Mediterranean diet in prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, G; Badimon, L; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-10-01

    The first step in the prevention of cardiovascular disease is healthy lifestyle and diet. Recent systematic reviews of observational studies ranked Mediterranean diet as the most likely dietary model to provide cardiovascular protection. This review updates the knowledge on the effects of Mediterranean diet from observational and randomized trials published in the last year. The results of the PREDIMED study, a randomized trial providing a higher level of scientific evidence than cohort studies, confirmed that the Mediterranean diet reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events. This effect may be exerted by reducing blood pressure; improving glucose metabolism, lipid profile, and lipoprotein particle characteristics; and decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress. It may also stem from a favorable interaction between diet and gene polymorphisms related to cardiovascular risk factors and events. These recent results allow us to recommend Mediterranean diet to subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease with the highest level of scientific evidence.

  12. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

  13. Protective Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Beta Glass material, originating from the Apollo program is supplied to Fyrepel by Owens-Corning and incorporated into Fyrepel's Fyretex and Beta-Mex aluminized fabrics. Fabrics are used in fire entry suits, several other types of protective suits for wear in hot industrial environments and such accessory items as heat-reflecting curtains for industrial applications.

  14. SEASONAL VARIATIONS DETERMINE DIET QUALITYTOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3 Department of Biology, BahirDar Teachers' College. PO Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. ABSTRACT; The diet composition and its use by Oreochromis niloticus in. Lake Tana, Ethiopia, were studied from monthly samples taken over 13 months. The composition of the diet varied seasonally, with dramatic increases in quality.

  15. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  16. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  17. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  18. Zinc and vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Angela V; Craig, Winston J; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    Well planned vegetarian diets can provide adequate amounts of zinc from plant sources. Vegetarians appear to adapt to lower zinc intakes by increased absorption and retention of zinc. Good sources of zinc for vegetarians include whole grains, tofu, tempeh, legumes, nuts and seeds, fortified breakfast cereals and dairy products. The inhibitory effects of phytate on absorption of zinc can be minimised by modern food-processing methods such as soaking, heating, sprouting, fermenting and leavening. Absorption of zinc can be improved by using yeast-based breads and sourdough breads, sprouts, and presoaked legumes. Studies show vegetarians have similar serum zinc concentrations to, and no greater risk of zinc deficiency than, non-vegetarians (despite differences in zinc intake).

  19. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Arun

    Nordic Cuisine movement with eating habits that accord with Nordic dietary recommendations, the NND is designed to be a healthy, Nordic, seasonal and organic diet that will be acceptable to Danish consumers. This PhD study has four objectives: (i) to explore the acceptance of the NND among Danish...... demands of their lives. Cultural factors associated with acceptance of the NND were interest in cooking, eating habits that embrace ‘feminine’ tastes, ‘modern’ dishes and healthy foods, as well as preferences for consuming organic and seasonal foods. Social factors were high level of urbanisation...... foods such as fish and vegetables, had a lower level of acceptance of the NND than others. Thus, the NND appears to have a low level of cceptance among those consumers who are known to have less healthy eating habits. It is concluded that the NND is unlikely to be successful in reaching its objective...

  20. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers...... of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  1. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  2. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Letícia Pereira de Brito

    2016-10-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients. This review summarizes the history of the KD and the principles and efficacy of the classic ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride(s) (MCT) ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment.

  3. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ketogenic diet (KD, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients. This review summarizes the history of the KD and the principles and efficacy of the classic ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride(s (MCT ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment.

  4. Diet effects on honeybee immunocompetence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaux, Cédric; Ducloz, François; Crauser, Didier; Le Conte, Yves

    2010-08-23

    The maintenance of the immune system can be costly, and a lack of dietary protein can increase the susceptibility of organisms to disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between protein nutrition and immunity in insects. Here, we tested in honeybees (Apis mellifera) whether dietary protein quantity (monofloral pollen) and diet diversity (polyfloral pollen) can shape baseline immunocompetence (IC) by measuring parameters of individual immunity (haemocyte concentration, fat body content and phenoloxidase activity) and glucose oxidase (GOX) activity, which enables bees to sterilize colony and brood food, as a parameter of social immunity. Protein feeding modified both individual and social IC but increases in dietary protein quantity did not enhance IC. However, diet diversity increased IC levels. In particular, polyfloral diets induced higher GOX activity compared with monofloral diets, including protein-richer diets. These results suggest a link between protein nutrition and immunity in honeybees and underscore the critical role of resource availability on pollinator health.

  5. Health effects of vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  6. Protection Myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Salter, Ammon; Li, Cher

    from having an orientation towards legal appropriability, we conjecture that protection myopia may lead some firms to allocate too much attention to legal appropriability, in particular when the behavioral and structural contingencies are unfavorable. Examining a panel of three successive waves......The strategies firms use to protect their intellectual property and knowledge can strongly influence their ability to capture the benefits of their innovative efforts. Using the attention-based theory, we explore positive and negative sides of legal appropriability. While asserting the benefits...... of a large-scale survey data of UK manufacturing firms, we find that an orientation towards legal appropriability is curvilinearly (taking an inverted U-shape) related to innovative performance. However, this effect is only present when the firms? product innovations are radical or when they are involved...

  7. Protective articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    This patent specification describes an article affording protection against radiation, and especially against X-rays comprising at least one flexible layer of lead filled material in an envelope of, or sandwiched between two layers of a knitted, woven or non-woven fabric preferably of synthetic fibrous material, carrying on its outer surface a coating of flexible polyurethane. The outer fabric provides a resilient, extremely tough and cut resistant covering for the relatively soft lead filled material. (author)

  8. Ribonuclease protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsen, J L; Bartolomei, M S

    2001-01-01

    The ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) is a sensitive technique for the analysis of total cellular RNA. It involves generating a specific antisense riboprobe, hybridizing the probe to total RNA, removing unprotected RNA by RNases, and finally isolating and analyzing the protected RNA on a denaturing gel. Although the RPA is somewhat more labor-intensive than Northern analysis, it has the advantage of being more sensitive (as little as 0.1 pg of target RNA can be detected with ideal hybridization conditions). RPAs are also more tolerant of partially degraded RNA (provided the area that is protected is intact). Although RPAs are not as sensitive as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based RNA analyses, the target RNA is analyzed directly; a reverse transcription step is not required. Finally, the RPA is quantitative as long as the probe is in excess. More important for the study of imprinted genes, the RPA can be designed to detect allele-specific expression of the target gene of interest.

  9. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  10. Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lap Tai Le

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarians, those who avoid meat, and vegans, additionally avoiding dairy and eggs, represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the US population. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of vegetarian diets, particularly strict vegetarian diets (i.e., vegans on health and disease outcomes. We summarized available evidence from three prospective cohorts of Adventists in North America: Adventist Mortality Study, Adventist Health Study, and Adventist Health Study-2. Non-vegetarian diets were compared to vegetarian dietary patterns (i.e., vegan and lacto-ovo-vegetarian on selected health outcomes. Vegetarian diets confer protection against cardiovascular diseases, cardiometabolic risk factors, some cancers and total mortality. Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to offer additional protection for obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular mortality. Males experience greater health benefits than females. Limited prospective data is available on vegetarian diets and body weight change. Large randomized intervention trials on the effects of vegetarian diet patterns on neurological and cognitive functions, obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular outcomes are warranted to make meaningful recommendations.

  11. Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lap Tai; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Vegetarians, those who avoid meat, and vegans, additionally avoiding dairy and eggs, represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the US population. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of vegetarian diets, particularly strict vegetarian diets (i.e., vegans) on health and disease outcomes. We summarized available evidence from three prospective cohorts of Adventists in North America: Adventist Mortality Study, Adventist Health Study, and Adventist Health Study-2. Non-vegetarian diets were compared to vegetarian dietary patterns (i.e., vegan and lacto-ovo-vegetarian) on selected health outcomes. Vegetarian diets confer protection against cardiovascular diseases, cardiometabolic risk factors, some cancers and total mortality. Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to offer additional protection for obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular mortality. Males experience greater health benefits than females. Limited prospective data is available on vegetarian diets and body weight change. Large randomized intervention trials on the effects of vegetarian diet patterns on neurological and cognitive functions, obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular outcomes are warranted to make meaningful recommendations. PMID:24871675

  12. Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lap Tai; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-05-27

    Vegetarians, those who avoid meat, and vegans, additionally avoiding dairy and eggs, represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the US population. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of vegetarian diets, particularly strict vegetarian diets (i.e., vegans) on health and disease outcomes. We summarized available evidence from three prospective cohorts of Adventists in North America: Adventist Mortality Study, Adventist Health Study, and Adventist Health Study-2. Non-vegetarian diets were compared to vegetarian dietary patterns (i.e., vegan and lacto-ovo-vegetarian) on selected health outcomes. Vegetarian diets confer protection against cardiovascular diseases, cardiometabolic risk factors, some cancers and total mortality. Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to offer additional protection for obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular mortality. Males experience greater health benefits than females. Limited prospective data is available on vegetarian diets and body weight change. Large randomized intervention trials on the effects of vegetarian diet patterns on neurological and cognitive functions, obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular outcomes are warranted to make meaningful recommendations.

  13. Prevention of diabetes with Mediterranean diets: a subgroup analysis of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Romaguera, Dora; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Basora, Josep; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Sorlí, José V; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2014-01-07

    Interventions promoting weight loss can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Whether dietary changes without calorie restriction also protect from diabetes has not been evaluated. To assess the efficacy of Mediterranean diets for the primary prevention of diabetes in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea trial, from October 2003 to December 2010 (median follow-up, 4.1 years). Subgroup analysis of a multicenter, randomized trial. (Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN35739639) SETTING: Primary care centers in Spain. Men and women without diabetes (3541 patients aged 55 to 80 years) at high cardiovascular risk. Participants were randomly assigned and stratified by site, sex, and age but not diabetes status to receive 1 of 3 diets: Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts, or a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). No intervention to increase physical activity or lose weight was included. Incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (prespecified secondary outcome). During follow-up, 80, 92, and 101 new-onset cases of diabetes occurred in the Mediterranean diet supplemented with EVOO, Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, and control diet groups, respectively, corresponding to rates of 16.0, 18.7, and 23.6 cases per 1000 person-years. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.60 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.85) for the Mediterranean diet supplemented with EVOO and 0.82 (CI, 0.61 to 1.10) for the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts compared with the control diet. Randomization was not stratified by diabetes status. Withdrawals were greater in the control group. A Mediterranean diet enriched with EVOO but without energy restrictions reduced diabetes risk among persons with high cardiovascular risk. Instituto de Salud Carlos III.

  14. [Vitamins in rat experimental diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of full semisynthetic diets used in different laboratories has shown that its vitamin content covers physiological requirements of rats in these micronutrients. The significant fluctuations in group B vitamin concentrations may take place when one uses brewer's yeast as a source of these vitamins. A preliminary assessment of vitamin content in brewer's yeasts is required in this case. An essential contribution of basic components in diet vitamin content must be taken in consideration when one creates a vitamin-deficient diet. Casein contains substantial amounts of group B vitamins and vitamin D. Therefore decontamination of casein from water and / or fat-soluble vitamins or the use of commercial purified casein is required. Vegetable oils are usually used as a fatty component of a diet and they simultaneously serve as an additional source of vitamin E. A choice of naturally containing vitamin E oil as a fat component of a diet is crucial for the creating an alimentary deficiency of vitamin E. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in the diet of control group (group of comparison) and vitamin level in the diet of experimental group of animals must be equivalent in investigations with modified (quality and quantitative) fat diet component. Caloric restriction by simple reducing of food without increasing the amount of vitamins to an adequate level is incorrect. With these considerations in mind proper attention to the equivalence of vitamin content in the diet of animals in experimental and control groups should be paid during experiments scheduling. Otherwise, the studies carried out under deficient or excessive intake of vitamins can lead to incorrect interpretation of the results and difficulties in their comparison with the data obtained under different conditions.

  15. Psoriasis Diet: Can Changing Your Diet Treat Psoriasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gibson, M.D. Although there's no special psoriasis diet, some people find that certain foods worsen their symptoms or that others improve skin inflammation. It can be difficult to determine what ...

  16. Diet and breast cancer: understanding risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A

    2012-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the United States. Extensive research has been completed to evaluate the relationship between dietary factors and breast cancer risk and survival after breast cancer; however, a summary report with clinical inference is needed. Materials and This review summarizes the current epidemiological and clinical trial evidence relating diet to breast cancer incidence, recurrence, survival, and mortality. The review includes emerging epidemiological studies that assess risk within breast cancer subtypes as well as a summary of previous and ongoing dietary intervention trials designed to modify breast cancer risk. The available literature suggests that both low-fat and high-fiber diets may be weakly protective against breast cancer, whereas total energy intake and alcohol appear to be positively associated. Fiber may be weakly protective possibly through modulation of estrogen, whereas fruit and vegetable intake is not clearly associated with risk. Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal disease, and adult weight gain should be avoided to reduce risk. In survivors, diet has the greatest potential influence on overall mortality rather than breast cancer-specific events. Diet is modestly associated with breast cancer risk; associations appear more pronounced for postmenopausal disease, and healthy choices after diagnosis and treatment likely support longevity more so than reduced risk for recurrent disease.

  17. Ketogenic diet and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolnick, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    This hypothesis suggest that starvation-induced ketosis, which leads to a fundamental biochemical change in the metabolic fuel supply of the brain, is uniquely anxiolytic and rewarding to patients prone to AN. Ketosis can easily be replicated by a unique diet marked by high fat, moderate protein, and very low carbohydrate. This diet, known as a ketogenic diet (KGD) mimics starvation, thus allowing the patient to experience the anxiolytic state of ketosis, and yet avoid the morbidity of starvation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Concepts of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol

  19. Protecting Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  20. Diet and nutritional factors in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Danuta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Domagała-Rodacka, Renata; Cibor, Dorota; Mach, Tomasz

    2016-01-21

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) development is affected by complex interactions between environmental factors, changes in intestinal flora, various predisposing genetic properties and changes in the immune system. Dietary factors seem to play an underestimated role in the etiopathogenesis and course of the disease. However, research about food and IBD is conflicting. An excessive consumption of sugar, animal fat and linoleic acid is considered a risk factor for IBD development, whereas a high fiber diet and citrus fruit consumption may play a protective role. Also, appropriate nutrition in particular periods of the disease may facilitate achieving or prolonging remissions and most of all, improve the quality of life for patients. During disease exacerbation, a low fiber diet is recommended for most patients. In the remission time, an excessive consumption of alcohol and sulfur products may have a negative effect on the disease course. Attempts are also made at employing diets composed in detail in order to supplement IBD therapy. A diet with a modified carbohydrate composition, a semi-vegetarian diet and a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols are under investigation. Due to chronic inflammation as well as side effects of chronically used medications, patients with IBD are also at increased risk of nutritional factor deficiencies, including iron, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B12, folic acid, zinc, magnesium and vitamin A. It should also be remembered that there is no single common diet suitable for all IBD patients; each of them is unique and dietary recommendations must be individually developed for each patient, depending on the course of the disease, past surgical procedures and type of pharmacotherapy.

  1. Adherence to Mediterranean diet in a sample of Tuscan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, Francesca; Lorini, Chiara; Tanini, Tommaso; Indiani, Laura; Lastrucci, Vieri; Comodo, Nicola; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet in a group of Italian high school students, in relation to their lifestyles and social and family contexts, and to compare the nutrition habits of the sample with other similar groups. The KIDMED index and an ad hoc questionnaire were administered to 1127 students (mean age 16.8 ± 1.6 y) in the province of Florence. Any significant associations between the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the aforementioned variables were assessed by the χ(2) test and by logistic regression analysis. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was good in 16.5%, average in 60.5%, and poor in 23% of the students. The students attending technical high schools, those who played sports less than "almost every day", those who spent >3 h/d in sedentary activities, those who defined their school performance as worse than "more than sufficient," and those who referred to use of a car/moped as the most frequent mode of transportation, had significantly higher odds of poor rather than average or good adherence to Mediterranean diet. Moreover, being normal weight or overweight/obese, and referring to health workers as source of information on diet, seem to be protective factors against poor adherence to Mediterranean diet. Our sample presents a departure from the Mediterranean dietary pattern. It is certainly necessary to implement public health policies targeting teenagers to promote healthier lifestyle choices; the nutritional patterns of the Mediterranean diet should be among these choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Post surgey diet in the Columbus Bridge Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zunino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosseous implants are really important in dentistry to correct maxillary edentulism, but in the international literature few information is provided regards the diet and the hygiene to be followed during the post-surgery in order to protect the osseointegration. The aim of this experimental work is to give a dietetic and hygienic protocol and to evaluate that with the patient's opinions and the operator's clinical evaluation.

  3. The Mediterranean Diet: its definition and evaluation of a priori dietary indexes in primary cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni

    2018-01-18

    We have analysed the definition of Mediterranean Diet in 28 studies included in six meta-analyses evaluating the relation between the Mediterranean Diet and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Some typical food of this dietary pattern like whole cereals, olive oil and red wine were taken into account only in a few a priori indexes, and the dietary pattern defined as Mediterranean showed many differences among the studies and compared to traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Altogether, the analysed studies show a protective effect of the Mediterranean Diet against cardiovascular disease but present different effects against specific conditions as cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease. These different effects might depend on the definition of Mediterranean Diet and the indexes of the adhesion to the same one used. To compare the effects of the Mediterranean Diet against cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and stroke a univocal model of Mediterranean Diet should be established as a reference, and it might be represented by the Modern Mediterranean Diet Pyramid. The a priori index to evaluate the adhesion to Mediterranean Diet might be the Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern Score that has some advantages in comparison to the others a priori indexes.

  4. Search for the optimal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Gerard E

    2010-12-01

    Since the beginning of time, we have been searching for diets that satisfy our palates while simultaneously optimizing health and well-being. Every year, there are hundreds of new diet books on the market that make a wide range of promises but rarely deliver. Unfortunately, consumers are gullible and believe much of the marketing hype because they are desperately seeking ways to maximize their health. As a result, they continue to purchase these diet books, sending many of them all the way to the bestseller list. Because many of these meal plans are not sustainable and are questionable in their approaches, the consumer is ultimately left to continue searching, only able to choose from the newest "fad" promoted by publicists rather than being grounded in science. Thus, the search for the optimal diet continues to be the "holy grail" for many of us today, presenting a challenge for nutritionists and practitioners to provide sound advice to consumers.

  5. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Clinical Trials Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...

  6. GoM Diet Matrix

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was taken from CRD 08-18 at the NEFSC. Specifically, the Gulf of Maine diet matrix was developed for the EMAX exercise described in that center...

  7. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  8. Eating practices and diet quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Niva, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Daily practices related to eating are embedded in the social and cultural contexts of everyday life. How are such factors associated with diet quality relative to motivational factors? And, are associations universal or context-specific? We analyze the relationship between...... diet quality and the following practices: social company while eating, the regularity and duration of eating and the activity of watching TV while eating. Subjects/methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based internet survey was conducted in April 2012 with stratified random samples...... is based on eight food frequency questions focusing on fats, vegetables, fruits and fish in the diet. Results: Eating activities were associated with diet quality even when motivation to eat healthily and sociodemographic factors were controlled for. The number of daily eating events and eating main meals...

  9. Can Vegetarian Diet Reverse Diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    KOMENAN, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease that continues to grow. However, the incurable nature of the disease is questioned within the scientific community. The author examines the work of two experts concerning the cure of diabetes by a vegetarian diet.

  10. Diet and cancer and heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The modern Western diet bears little resemblance to the diet which forged the human genome over many million years. The change in basic food structure is operating to distort biology even before conception and into late years, with the epidemic of obesity and diabetes likely to lead to stroke, heart disease, and now dementia, being flagged as a consequence. In addition, mental ill health is overtaking all other burdens of ill health, and almost certainly has its roots in early disturbance of brain development. Whilst lifestyle will be playing its part, there can be little doubt that the common denominator is the aberrations in food development, predominantly in the last century. It seems it is time to reassess food policy. The principle of food production should be nutrition and human health. The globalisation of a food structure linked to such disorders and their appearance globally in response asks that steps be taken to protect other countries from making the same mistakes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Cosmetics, diet, and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetics and diet are two new areas of antiaging interest for the dermatologist. Novel delivery systems in the form of nanoparticles may allow the penetration of cosmetic actives into the skin creating new opportunities for active agent efficacy, but possibly also creating safety issues. The best method of introducing active agents into the body is through the oral route. New understandings of diet and how it affects aging are also becoming important in dermatology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Diet, gut microbiota and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Cicely; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar can lead to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. In the human gut, the trillions of harmless microorganisms harboured in the host's gastrointestinal tract are called the 'gut microbiota'. Consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar changes the healthy microbiota composition which leads to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut, a phenomenon known as "gut dysbiosis". It has been shown that certain types of gut microbiota are linked to the pathogenesis of obesity. In addition, long-term consumption of a high fat diet is associated with cognitive decline. It has recently been proposed that the gut microbiota is part of a mechanistic link between the consumption of a high fat diet and the impaired cognition of an individual, termed "microbiota-gut-brain axis". In this complex relationship between the gut, the brain and the gut microbiota, there are several types of gut microbiota and host mechanisms involved. Most of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Therefore, this review comprehensively summarizes the current evidence from mainly in vivo (rodent and human) studies of the relationship between diet, gut microbiota and cognition. The possible mechanisms that the diet and the gut microbiota have on cognition are also presented and discussed.

  13. [Epilepsy, cognition and ketogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Penas, J J

    2018-03-01

    Most individuals with epilepsy will respond to pharmacologic treatment; however, approximately 20-30% will develop medically refractory epilepsy. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs are common and can negatively affect tolerability, compliance, and long-term retention of the treatment. Ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for these children with refractory epilepsy without any negative effect on cognition or behavior. To review the current state of experimental and clinical data concerning the neuroprotective and cognitive effects of the ketogenic diet in both humans and animals. In different animal models, with or without epilepsy, the ketogenic diet seems to have neuroprotective and mood-stabilizing effects. In the observational studies in pediatric epilepsy, improvements during treatment with the ketogenic diet are reported in behavior and cognitive function, particularly with respect to attention, alertness, activity level, socialization, and sleep quality. One randomized controlled trial in patients with pediatric refractory epilepsy showed a mood and cognitive activation during ketogenic diet treatment. Ketogenic diet shows a positive impact on behavioral and cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. More specifically, an improvement is observed in mood, sustained attention, and social interaction.

  14. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  15. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  16. Protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnett, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    A protective suit used for isolating its wearer from radioactively contaminated areas is described in three parts. The first part includes the covering for the wearer's head, arms and upper body and at the waist is releasably fitted around an opening into the contaminated area. The second part includes the legs of the suit and is releasably connectible to the first part of the suit to enclose the wearer who is then supplied with air through an umbilical pipe. A further part surrounds the second part and is releasably connectible to it, enclosing a space between the parts. This further part is also releasably connectible to the opening at the waist to prevent egress from the contaminated area. The releasable connections between the parts may be bayonet type fittings or may be rotating T-shaped projections which engage in T-shaped grooves. (author)

  17. Offspring Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Steiner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental aggression, that is, offspring protection aggression, can be viewed as a type of parental investment. Most mammalian males do not exhibit parental investment and therefore exhibit little, if any, parental aggression. Men demonstrate parental investment, and are typically more physically aggressive than women, but parental physical aggression in humans has been largely unexplored. The current study examined potential sex differences in estimates of parental physical aggression involving hypothetical situations, while controlling for general physical aggression. A self-report measure was administered to 217 students from a western U.S. university (55 male nonparents, 50 female nonparents, 54 fathers, and 58 mothers. Male nonparents reported higher parental physical aggression than female nonparents, but there was no difference between mothers and fathers. The results are interpreted in light of ancestral effects of sexual selection and proximal effects of sex differences in testosterone, risk taking, and fear aversion.

  18. A Scenario-Based Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale: The DIET-SE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Christine; Knauper, Barbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of…

  19. Elemental diets in the prophylaxis and therapy for intestinal lesions: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounous, G.

    1989-01-01

    The recognition of potentially noxious physiologic substances in the intestinal milieu prompted the use of an elemental semihydrolyzed formula diet in the prophylaxis of experimental acute ischemic enteropathy. Elemental diets have been used in the management of a variety of digestive diseases. An elemental diet protects the intestinal mucosa of rodents from radiation injury and facilitates mucosal healing. Clinical trials have shown the benefits of this form of treatment in the prevention of acute radiation enteropathy and in the therapy for delayed radiation enteropathy and Crohn's disease.90 references

  20. The Modified Atkins Diet in Refractory Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvasini Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modified Atkins diet is a less restrictive variation of the ketogenic diet. This diet is started on an outpatient basis without a fast, allows unlimited protein and fat, and does not restrict calories or fluids. Recent studies have shown good efficacy and tolerability of this diet in refractory epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of the modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

  1. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventi...

  2. The modified atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a less restrictive variation of the ketogenic diet. This diet is started on an outpatient basis without a fast, allows unlimited protein and fat, and does not restrict calories or fluids. Recent studies have shown good efficacy and tolerability of this diet in refractory epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of the modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

  3. Possible dietary protective factors in relation to the distribution of duodenal ulcer in India and Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaraj, A P; Tovey, F I; Clark, C G

    1980-01-01

    In India there are regions of high incidence and regions of low incidence of duodenal ulcer. Rats prefed for two weeks on diets from low incidence areas developed significantly fewer rumenal ulcers after pyloric ligation than rats fed on diets from high incidence areas. The protective action was found in various individual items of food taken from the diets of low incidence areas. Unrefined wheat and rice, certain pulses (black gram, green gram, horse gram), some millets (sava, kutki, ragi), ...

  4. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Blueberries in an Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Ebenezer

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a trauma and stressor-related disorder that results in a prolonged stress response. It is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus (HC. The only approved therapy for PTSD is selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs, but their efficacy is marginal. Recently, we demonstrated that over-production of norepinephrine (NE as the possible reason for the lack of efficacy of SSRIs. Hence, there is a need for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of PTSD. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of blueberries in modulating inflammatory markers and neurotransmitter levels in PTSD. Rats were fed either a blueberry enriched (2% or a control diet. Rats were exposed to cats for one hour on days 1 and 11 of a 31-day schedule to simulate traumatic conditions. The rats were also subjected to psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized and the PFC and HC were isolated. Monoamines were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, gene and protein expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were also measured. In our PTSD model, NE levels were increased and 5-HT levels were decreased when compared to control. In contrast, a blueberry enriched diet increased 5-HT without affecting NE levels. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also studied and they confirmed our findings. The enhanced levels free radicals, gene and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines seen in the PTSD group were normalized with a blueberry enriched diet. Decreased anxiety in this group was shown by improved performance on the elevated plus-maze. These findings indicate blueberries can attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation and restore neurotransmitter imbalances in a rat model of PTSD.

  5. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Blueberries in an Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezer, Philip J; Wilson, C Brad; Wilson, Leslie D; Nair, Anand R; J, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma and stressor-related disorder that results in a prolonged stress response. It is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC). The only approved therapy for PTSD is selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but their efficacy is marginal. Recently, we demonstrated that over-production of norepinephrine (NE) as the possible reason for the lack of efficacy of SSRIs. Hence, there is a need for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of PTSD. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of blueberries in modulating inflammatory markers and neurotransmitter levels in PTSD. Rats were fed either a blueberry enriched (2%) or a control diet. Rats were exposed to cats for one hour on days 1 and 11 of a 31-day schedule to simulate traumatic conditions. The rats were also subjected to psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized and the PFC and HC were isolated. Monoamines were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene and protein expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were also measured. In our PTSD model, NE levels were increased and 5-HT levels were decreased when compared to control. In contrast, a blueberry enriched diet increased 5-HT without affecting NE levels. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also studied and they confirmed our findings. The enhanced levels free radicals, gene and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines seen in the PTSD group were normalized with a blueberry enriched diet. Decreased anxiety in this group was shown by improved performance on the elevated plus-maze. These findings indicate blueberries can attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation and restore neurotransmitter imbalances in a rat model of PTSD.

  6. Fresh meat quality of pigs fed diets with different fatty acid profiles and supplemented with red wine solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThree groups of pigs were fed three different diets, namely a diet rich in saturated fatty acids (palm oil-based, PO, a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-rich diet (corn oil-based, CO, and a PUFA-rich diet (corn oil-based supplemented with red wine solids (RWS, which was added to the diet (CO+RWS in order to assess the protective effect on the oxidative status of the pork meat. The addition of corn oil favourably modulates the FAs profile of the backfat, and to a lesser extent of the intramuscular fat of semimembranosus muscle, without causing adverse effects on the meat quality or on its oxidative stability. Moreover, these parameters were not affected by the addition of the RWS in the CO+RWS diet.

  7. [Diet treatment of classical galactosemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Erika; Balogh, Lídia; Reismann, Péter

    2017-11-01

    Classical galactosemia is an inherited disorder of the carbohydrate metabolism, most often caused by the deficient activity of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase. Classical galactosemia presents in the neonatal period with life threatening illness after galactose is introduced in the diet. Symptoms and signs include poor feeding, vomiting, and diarrhea, weight loss, jaundice, hypotension, cataracts, hepatosplenomegaly, hepatocellular insufficiency, and encephalopathy. Since 1975 the testing for galactosemia is part of the neonatal screening program in Hungary. Affected newborns are recognized in the first days of their life, and special diet is introduced immediately. The therapy of galactosemia is the lactose-free and galactose-poor diet for life. As a result of the nationwide newborn screening and the lifelong medical therapy, early treatment with galactosemia can achieve a normal life without serious complications. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(47): 1864-1867.

  8. Obesogenic Diets in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Intemann, Timm; Hebestreit, Antje; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2017-01-01

    will stress dietary factors in European children as one major aspect of the complex aetiology of childhood obesity, and offer a broader comment on the role of contemporary food systems. Results: Parental socioeconomic status, children’s media consumption and current arketing strategies employed by the food...... including aggressive food marketing to children, the failure of self-regulation of the food industry, and socioeconomic disadvantages....... industry were associated with a low-quality diet and unhealthy food intake in European children. Conclusion: Present evidence calls for policy interventions to facilitate healthy diets of European children and adolescents. Prevention strategies for childhood obesity should address upstream factors...

  9. Impact of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome, cancer and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Noce, Annalisa; Vidiri, Maria Francesca; Moriconi, Eleonora; Marrone, Giulia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; D'Urso, Gabriele; Tesauro, Manfredi; Rovella, Valentina; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2017-01-31

    Obesity symbolizes a major public health problem. Overweight and obesity are associated to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and to adipose tissue dysfunction. The adipose tissue is metabolically active and an endocrine organ, whose dysregulation causes a low-grade inflammatory state and ectopic fat depositions. The Mediterranean Diet represents a possible therapy for metabolic syndrome, preventing adiposopathy or "sick fat" formation.The Mediterranean Diet exerts protective effects in elderly subjects with and without baseline of chronic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between cancer and obesity. In the US, diet represents amount 30-35% of death causes related to cancer. Currently, the cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Furthermore, populations living in the Mediterranean area have a decreased incidence of cancer compared with populations living in Northern Europe or the US, likely due to healthier dietary habits. The bioactive food components have a potential preventive action on cancer. The aims of this review are to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean Diet on onset, progression and regression of metabolic syndrome, cancer and on longevity.

  10. Diet choice patterns in rodents depend on novelty of the diet, exercise, species, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiffany; Xu, Wei-Jie; York, Haley; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2017-07-01

    Prolonged consumption of a palatable, high fat (HF) diet paired with a lack of physical activity can exacerbate the development of obesity. Exercise can facilitate the maintenance of a healthy body weight, possibly though mediating changes in diet preference. Using a two-diet choice and wheel running (WR) paradigm, our laboratory previously demonstrated that WR induces HF diet avoidance with different persistency in male and female rats when HF diet and WR are introduced simultaneously. The aims of this study were to examine whether this behavior is species dependent and to what extent the novelty of the diet affects WR induced HF diet avoidance. Experiment 1 utilized male C57BL6 mice in a two-diet choice and WR paradigm. Results show that all mice preferred HF to chow diet regardless of exercise and the order in which exercise and HF diet were presented. Experiment 2A (diet novelty) utilized Sprague-Dawley rats that were first habituated to a 45% HF diet prior to the simultaneous introduction of WR and a novel high-carbohydrate, low-fat (DK) diet. All rats avoided the novel high-carbohydrate diet and neither male nor female wheel running rats exhibited reduction in HF diet intake or HF diet avoidance. After all rats were returned to a sedentary condition, female rats consumed significantly more of the DK diet than the male rats. In Experiment 2B (diet familiarity), rats remained sedentary and were re-habituated to the DK diet until intake stabilized. Subsequently, a 60% HF diet was introduced for all rats and for running rats, access to the running wheels were provided simultaneously. Consistent with our previous findings, HF diet intake and preference was significantly reduced in all wheel running rats. These data suggest that exercise induced HF diet avoidance is affected by species and the novelty of the diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dominant effects of the diet on the microbiome and the local and systemic immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jot Hui Ooi

    Full Text Available Outside the nutrition community the effects of diet on immune-mediated diseases and experimental outcomes have not been appreciated. Investigators that study immune-mediated diseases and/or the microbiome have overlooked the potential of diet to impact disease phenotype. We aimed to determine the effects of diet on the bacterial microbiota and immune-mediated diseases. Three different laboratory diets were fed to wild-type mice for 2 weeks and resulted in three distinct susceptibilities to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. Examination of the fecal microbiota demonstrated a diet-mediated effect on the bacteria found there. Broad-spectrum antibiotics disturbed the gut microbiome and partially eliminated the diet-mediated changes in DSS susceptibility. Dietary changes 2 days after DSS treatment were protective and suggested that the diet-mediated effect occurred quickly. There were no diet-mediated effects on DSS susceptibility in germ-free mice. In addition, the diet-mediated effects were evident in a gastrointestinal infection model (Citrobacter rodentium and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Taken together, our study demonstrates a dominant effect of diet on immune-mediated diseases that act rapidly by changing the microbiota. These findings highlight the potential of using dietary manipulation to control the microbiome and prevent/treat immune-mediated disease.

  12. Protective dietary factors in experimental ulceration—study of some Nigerian cereals and tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbe, R. A.; Bamgbose, S. O. A.

    1976-01-01

    Rats fed on a supplement of millet, Guinea-corn, rice or maize given in addition to laboratory stock diet showed a high degree of protection against experimental ulceration following indomethacin administration. A higher degree of protection was shown when the rats were fed with the mixture of the four cereals and laboratory stock diet. The tubers did not offer protection, while a mixture of beans and millet, Guinea-corn, unpolished rice, and maize offered no protection. The significance of such findings with regard to the geographical distribution of duodenal ulcer in Nigeria is discussed. PMID:959099

  13. Caspase-1 as a central regulator of high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Dixon

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is associated with caspase activation. However, a role for pro-inflammatory caspases or inflammasomes has not been explored in diet-induced liver injury. Our aims were to examine the role of caspase-1 in high fat-induced NASH. C57BL/6 wild-type and caspase 1-knockout (Casp1(-/- mice were placed on a 12-week high fat diet. Wild-type mice on the high fat diet increased hepatic expression of pro-caspase-1 and IL-1β. Both wild-type and Casp1(-/- mice on the high fat diet gained more weight than mice on a control diet. Hepatic steatosis and TG levels were increased in wild-type mice on high fat diet, but were attenuated in the absence of caspase-1. Plasma cholesterol and free fatty acids were elevated in wild-type, but not Casp1(-/- mice, on high fat diet. ALT levels were elevated in both wild-type and Casp1(-/- mice on high fat diet compared to control. Hepatic mRNA expression for genes associated with lipogenesis was lower in Casp1(-/- mice on high fat diet compared to wild-type mice on high fat diet, while genes associated with fatty acid oxidation were not affected by diet or genotype. Hepatic Tnfα and Mcp-1 mRNA expression was increased in wild-type mice on high fat diet, but not in Casp1(-/- mice on high fat diet. αSMA positive cells, Sirius red staining, and Col1α1 mRNA were increased in wild-type mice on high fat diet compared to control. Deficiency of caspase-1 prevented those increases. In summary, the absence of caspase-1 ameliorates the injurious effects of high fat diet-induced obesity on the liver. Specifically, mice deficient in caspase-1 are protected from high fat-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation and early fibrogenesis. These data point to the inflammasome as an important therapeutic target for NASH.

  14. Mediterranean Diet, Retinopathy, Nephropathy, and Microvascular Diabetes Complications: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-López, Andrés; Babio, Nancy; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Corella, Dolores; Amor, Antonio J; Fitó, Montse; Estruch, Ramon; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Basora, Josep; Basterra-Gortari, F Javier; Zanon-Moreno, Vicente; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-11-01

    To date no clinical trials have evaluated the role of dietary patterns on the incidence of microvascular diabetes complications. We hypothesized that a nutritional intervention based on the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) would have greater protective effect on diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy than a low-fat control diet. This was a post hoc analysis of a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study, a multicenter randomized nutritional intervention trial conducted in a population at high cardiovascular risk. Individuals with type 2 diabetes who were free of microvascular complications at enrollment (n = 3,614, aged 55-80 years) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary interventions: MedDiet supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (MedDiet+EVOO), MedDiet supplemented with mixed nuts (MedDiet+Nuts), or a low-fat control diet. Two independent outcomes were considered: new onset of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. During a median follow-up of 6.0 years, we identified 74 new cases of retinopathy and 168 of nephropathy. Compared with the control diet, multivariable-adjusted HRs for diabetic retinopathy were 0.56 (95% CI 0.32-0.97) for the MedDiet+EVOO and 0.63 (0.35-1.11) for the MedDiet+Nuts. No between-group differences were found for nephropathy. When the yearly updated information on adherence to the MedDiet was considered, the HR for retinopathy in the highest versus the lowest quintile was 0.34 (0.13-0.89; P = 0.001 for trend). No significant associations were found for nephropathy. A MedDiet enriched with EVOO may protect against diabetic retinopathy but not diabetic nephropathy. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  15. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is different, but most kids with CF will eat three meals a day plus snacks to make sure that ... and Full of Calories All kids need to eat a balanced diet of regular meals and snacks that include plenty of fruits, veggies, ...

  16. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth / For Teens / Cystic Fibrosis: ... Enzyme Supplements Beating the Frustration Print What Is Cystic Fibrosis? At lunch, Lindsay often gets bored with having ...

  17. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinney SD

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15-25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

  18. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that make it difficult to eat. Address these issues, and also consider adding foods with healthy fats — nuts, nut butters and avocado — to your diet. Try bitter greens or spicy foods to stimulate your appetite. Exercise to increase hunger. PD symptoms such as tremor, stiffness or difficulties ...

  19. RANA CATESBEIANA (AMERICAN BULLFROG) DIET

    Science.gov (United States)

    RANA CATESBELANA (American Bullfrog). DIET. Data were obtained opportunistically from 28 adult (M = 14; F = 14) bullftogs collected in April 2001 from the Meadow Valley Wash located between the cities of Carp and Elgin, Lincoln County, Nevada, USA (N37'17':WI14'30'). Alth...

  20. Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartinen, K; Lammi, K; Hypen, M; Nenonen, M; Hanninen, O; Rauma, A L

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a strict, low-salt, uncooked vegan diet rich in lactobacteria on symptoms in 18 fibromyalgia patients during and after a 3-month intervention period in an open, non-randomized controlled study was evaluated. As control 15 patients continued their omnivorous diet. The groups did not differ significantly from each other in the beginning of the study in any other parameters except in pain and urine sodium. The results revealed significant improvements in Visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) (p=0.005), joint stiffness (p=0.001), quality of sleep (p=0.0001), Health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) (p=0.031), General health questionnaire (GHQ) (p=0.021), and a rheumatologist's own questionnaire (p=0.038). The majority of patients were overweight to some extent at the beginning of the study and shifting to a vegan food caused a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) (p=0.0001). Total serum cholesterol showed a statistically significant lowering (p=0.003). Urine sodium dropped to 1/3 of the beginning values (p=0.0001) indicating good diet compliance. It can be concluded that vegan diet had beneficial effects on fibromyalgia symptoms at least in the short run.

  1. Diabetes and diet : food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewind, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the food choices of diabetic patients. Two studies were undertaken considering the barriers these patients experience with the diabetic diet. Furthermore, the changes in food choices during the first years after the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes as well as patients,

  2. Diet History Questionnaire: Canadian Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.

  3. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinney Stephen D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15–25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

  4. Ketogenic Diet: Effects on Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ketogenic diet on growth of 237 children (130 males, 107 females treated for intractable epilepsy has been evaluated in a prospective cohort study (average follow-up 308 days at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

  5. Mediterranean Diet Effect: an Italian picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzini Elena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall diet quality effects, mainly on antioxidant nutritional status and some cytokines related to the cellular immune response as well as oxidative stress in a healthy Italian population group. Methods An observational study was conducted on 131 healthy free-living subjects. Dietary intake was assessed by dietary diary. Standardised procedures were used to make anthropometric measurements. On blood samples (serum, plasma and whole blood were evaluated: antioxidant status by vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin C, uric acid, SH groups, SOD and GPx activities; lipid blood profile by total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides; total antioxidant capacity by FRAP and TRAP; the immune status by TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines; the levels of malondialdehyde in the erythrocytes as marker of lipid peroxidation. Results The daily macronutrients intake (g/day have shown a high lipids consumption and significant differences between the sexes with regard to daily micronutrients intake. On total sample mean Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS was 4.5 ± 1.6 and no significant differences between the sexes were present. A greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern increases the circulating plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein plus zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, α and β-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E. The levels of endogenous antioxidants were also improved. We observed higher levels in anti-inflammatory effect cytokines (IL-10 in subjects with MDS ≥ 6, by contrast, subjects with MDS ≤ 3 show higher levels in sense of proinflammatory (TNF α P 4. Our data suggest a protective role of vitamin A against chronic inflammatory conditions especially in subjects with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean-type dietary pattern. Conclusions Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better

  6. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Knutsen, Synnove F; Knutsen, Raymond; Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Fan, Jing; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabate, Joan; Hadley, David; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Penniecook, Jason; Herring, Patti; Butler, Terry; Bennett, Hanni; Fraser, Gary

    2016-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. In this prospective cohort study, cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate HRs by using age as the time variable. In total, 1079 incident prostate cancer cases were identified. Around 8% of the study population reported adherence to the vegan diet. Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85). After stratifying by race, the statistically significant association with a vegan diet remained only for the whites (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86), but the multivariate HR for black vegans showed a similar but nonsignificant point estimate (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer. This lower estimated risk is seen in both white and black vegan subjects, although in the latter, the CI is wider and includes the null. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. The ketogenic diet in pharmacoresistant childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winesett, Steven Parrish; Bessone, Stacey Kordecki; Kossoff, Eric H W

    2015-06-01

    Available pharmacologic treatments for seizures are limited in their efficacy. For a patient with seizures, pharmacologic treatment with available anticonvulsant medications leads to seizure control in ketogenic diet and related diets have proven to be useful in pharmacoresistant childhood epilepsy.

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... no exception. For children with ASD, a nutritious, balanced diet can make a world of difference in their ... smells and textures the biggest barriers to a balanced diet. Getting your child to try new foods — especially ...

  9. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. DASH stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood ...

  10. Nonfasting Versus Initial Fasting Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective evaluation of the ketogenic diet (KD was conducted comparing efficacy and tolerability of the diet with or without initial fasting and fluid restriction and involving university centers in Seoul, Korea.

  11. Mediterranean diet pyramid: a proposal for Italian people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni

    2014-10-16

    Bread was a staple in the traditional Mediterranean diet of the early 1960s, as well as nowadays; however, it was a stone ground sourdough bread in Nicotera and probably in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. In the present review, the nutritional characteristics of this food are analyzed in relation to its protective effects on coronary heart disease, metabolic diseases and cancer. According to our traditions, cultural heritage and scientific evidence, we propose that only cereal foods with low glycemic index (GI) and rich in fiber have to be placed at the base of the Mediterranean diet pyramid, whereas refined grains and high GI starchy foods have to be sited at the top.

  12. Mediterranean Diet Pyramid: A Proposal for Italian People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata D'Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bread was a staple in the traditional Mediterranean diet of the early 1960s, as well as nowadays; however, it was a stone ground sourdough bread in Nicotera and probably in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. In the present review, the nutritional characteristics of this food are analyzed in relation to its protective effects on coronary heart disease, metabolic diseases and cancer. According to our traditions, cultural heritage and scientific evidence, we propose that only cereal foods with low glycemic index (GI and rich in fiber have to be placed at the base of the Mediterranean diet pyramid, whereas refined grains and high GI starchy foods have to be sited at the top.

  13. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

  14. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4 in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  15. A Maternal Low-Fiber Diet Predisposes Offspring to Improved Metabolic Phenotypes in Adulthood in an Herbivorous Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Lou, Mei-Fang; Shen, Wei; Fu, Rong-Shu; Wang, De-Hua

    The maternal or paternal dietary composition can have important effects on various aspects of their offspring's physiology. Studies from animal models and humans showed that a maternal high-fiber diet protected offspring against fat accumulation. However, little is known about how a maternal low-fiber diet modifies the metabolism of offspring in herbivorous rodents. We hypothesized that a maternal low-fiber diet would confer long-lasting beneficial effects on offspring metabolic phenotypes in herbivorous Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). Female voles were fed either a control (12.4% fiber) or a low-fiber (3.5% fiber) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation, and all offspring were fed the control diet after weaning till 14 wk old. Offspring were sampled from each litter at 18 d and 14 wk of age. Another subset of adult offspring at 15 wk of age was fed a high-fat diet for 8 wk. We found that there was no difference in litter size, litter mass, or pup mass before weaning between the two maternal diet groups. Offspring from the maternal low-fiber diet increased energy intake, body mass, and lean mass; suppressed fat accumulation; and improved glucose tolerance compared with those from the control diet. Moreover, the maternal low-fiber diet alleviated high-fat diet-induced obesity in the adult offspring. Serum leptin concentration and uncoupling protein 1 content in brown adipose tissue of offspring were not affected by a maternal low-fiber diet. We demonstrate that herbivorous females fed a low-fiber diet during pregnancy and lactation may predispose their offspring to accelerated growth of lean tissue, which may increase the opportunity for survival and reproduction in offspring.

  16. DIETS/DIETARY HABITS AND CERTAIN GASTROINTESTINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    articulated diet and proper dietary manipulations remain the cure for all diet induced G.I disorders while avoidance of such habits that ... to dietary intake and unremitting stress: 'To what you are eating and to what's eating you!” ... workers showed that when cholesterol was removed from the diet, the cancers were slower.

  17. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    observation is not reversed by the KD which to some extent supports our initial hypothesis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Epilepsy , Ketogenic Diet , Seizure Disorder... ketogenic diet (KD), which is used to treat epilepsy (primarily in children) exerts a positive effect on seizure activity by regulating neuronal... Epilepsy , Ketogenic Diet , Seizure Disorder, Potassium Channels, Neurophysiology 3. Overall Project Summary: To determine the impact of KD on

  18. One strike against low-carbohydrate diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is intense controversy over whether low-carbohydrate or low-fat diets are more efficacious for weight management. Using precise methodology, Hall et al. (2015) demonstrated that a low-carbohydrate diet promoted greater fat oxidation than an isocaloric low-fat diet but, in contrast to popular s...

  19. Health Effects of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    The health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) are investigated in a six month randomized controlled intervention, in which the NND was compared to the average Danish diet (ADD) among 181 adult participants. Foods were handed out free of charge from a study shop according to the ad libitum...... has a potential as a healthy and highly satisfying diet for the general population....

  20. BIOCLAIMS standard diet (BIOsd): a reference diet for nutritional physiology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; van Schothorst, E. M.; Horáková, Olga; Voigt, A.; Rossmeisl, Martin; Pico, C.; Caimari, A.; Kopecký, Jan; Klaus, S.; Keijer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2012), s. 399-404 ISSN 1555-8932 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10059; GA MŠk(CZ) OC08008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : semi-purified diet * nutrient requirements * rat * mouse Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.329, year: 2012

  1. Cocoa Diet and Antibody Immune Response in Preclinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Camps-Bossacoma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of cocoa to interact with the immune system in vitro and in vivo has been described. In the latter context, a cocoa-enriched diet in healthy rats was able to modify the immune system’s functionality. This fact could be observed in the composition and functionality of lymphoid tissues, such as the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. Consequently, immune effector mechanisms, such as antibody synthesis, were modified. A cocoa-enriched diet in young rats was able to attenuate the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig G, IgM, and IgA and also the intestinal IgM and IgA secretion. Moreover, in immunized rats, the intake of cocoa decreased specific IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2c, and IgM concentrations in serum. This immune-regulator potential was then tested in disease models in which antibodies play a pathogenic role. A cocoa-enriched diet was able to partially prevent the synthesis of autoantibodies in a model of autoimmune arthritis in rats and was also able to protect against IgE and T helper 2-related antibody synthesis in two rat models of allergy. Likewise, a cocoa-enriched diet prevented an oral sensitization process in young rats. In this review, we will focus on the influence of cocoa on the acquired branch of the immune function. Therefore, we will focus on how a cocoa diet influences lymphocyte function both in the systemic and intestinal immune system. Likewise, its potential role in preventing some antibody-induced immune diseases is also included. Although further studies must characterize the particular cocoa components responsible for such effects and nutritional studies in humans need to be carried out, cocoa has potential as a nutraceutical agent in some hypersensitivity status.

  2. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates high-fat-diet-induced hepatic steatosis by reduced systemic inflammatory status in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity and considered an inflammatory disease. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH is a major enzyme hydrolyzing epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and attenuates their cardiovascular protective and anti-inflammatory effects. We examined whether sEH inhibition can protect against high-fat (HF-diet-induced fatty liver in mice and the underlying mechanism. Compared with wild-type littermates, sEH-null mice showed lower diet-induced lipid accumulation in liver, as seen by Oil-red O staining and triglycerides levels. We studied the effect of sEH inhibition on diet-induced fatty liver by feeding C57BL/6 mice an HF diet for 8 weeks (short-term or 16 weeks (long-term and administering t-AUCB, a selective sEH inhibitor. sEH inhibition had no effect on the HF-diet-increased body and adipose tissue weight or impaired glucose tolerance but alleviated the diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of sEH in liver increased the level of triglycerides in liver and the hepatic inflammatory response. Surprisingly, the induced expression of sEH in liver occurred only with the long-term but not short-term HF diet, which suggests a secondary effect of HF diet on regulating sEH expression. Furthermore, sEH inhibition attenuated the HF-diet-induced increase in plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines and their mRNA upregulation in adipose tissue, which was accompanied by increased macrophage infiltration. Therefore, sEH inhibition could alleviate HF-diet-induced hepatic steatosis, which might involve its anti-inflammatory effect in adipose tissue and direct inhibition in liver. sEH may be a therapeutic target for HF-diet-induced hepatic steatosis in inhibiting systemic inflammation.

  3. Refractory epilepsy and the ketogenic diet: Pathophysiological aspects and possible implications in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy denotes any disorder characterized by recurrent seizures due to abnormal paroxysmal neuronal discharge in the brain. Symptoms range from sensory absences to convulsive movements and loss of consciousness. Antiepileptic drugs are the first line of treatment. However, 20% individuals with epilepsy have drug-resistant seizures despite optimal treatment. For those with refractory epilepsy, the ketogenic diet is an effective alternative therapeutic approach. The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet that mimics the biochemical effects of fasting. There are many disparate mechanistic theories of how this diet protects against seizures. Key insights indicate that it has effects on intermediary metabolism that influence the dynamics of the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter systems in brain. This paper discusses the implicitly significant and diverse biochemical changes affected by this unique therapeutic approach that may have a bearing on oral health and the delivery of dental care to individuals with refractory epilepsy.

  4. Diet and Allergic Diseases among Population Aged 0 to 18 Years: Myth or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Raherison

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases are an important health problem. However, epidemiological studies concerning childhood diet-related allergic diseases are scarce. This review examines published articles dealing with diet, dietary patterns and nutrition in relation with allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years. Studies and trials were identified using MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and were limited to those published in English or French from 1992 until 2012. This manuscript also reviews the evidence for maternal diet during pregnancy and diet during early childhood and their association with childhood atopic diseases, taking into account the methodology used to evaluate dietary patterns. The evidence reviewed is derived from large epidemiological studies exploring the effects of different food categories on asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in children. Overall, maternal diet during pregnancy and a childhood diet rich in antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids are considered as healthy diets that could be protective for allergic diseases in childhood.

  5. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  6. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  7. The Anticonvulsant Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Epileptic Seizures and Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Xu, Jingwei; Zhang, Kun; Yang, Wei; Li, Bingjin

    2018-01-01

    Epilepsy is a syndrome of brain dysfunction induced by the aberrant excitability of certain neurons. Despite advances in surgical technique and anti-epileptic drug in recent years, recurrent epileptic seizures remain intractable and lead to a serious morbidity in the world. The ketogenic diet refers to a high-fat, low-carbohydrate and adequate-protein diet. Currently, its beneficial effects on epileptic seizure reduction have been well established. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the anti-epileptic effects of ketogenic diet are still poorly understood. In this article, the possible roles of ketogenic diet on epilepsy were discussed. Data was obtained from the websites including Web of Science, Medline, Pubmed, Scopus, based on these keywords: "Ketogenic diet" and "epilepsy". As shown in both clinical and basic studies, the therapeutic effects of ketogenic diet might involve neuronal metabolism, neurotransmitter function, neuronal membrane potential and neuron protection against ROS. In this review, we systematically reviewed the effects and possible mechanisms of ketogenic diet on epilepsy, which may optimize the therapeutic strategies against epilepsy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Influence of diet on oxidative DNA damage, uracil misincorporation and DNA repair capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Renato Paschoal; dos Santos, Bruna Fornazari; Pinto, Carla Lombardi de Souza; de Assis, Kátia Regina Carvalho; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero; Ladeira, Marcelo Sady Plácido

    2010-09-01

    The contribution of diet to cancer ranges from 10 to 80%. The low ingestion of antioxidants and enzymatic cofactors involved in DNA repair and methylation reactions and the high ingestion of chemical additives present in the modern diet, associated with genetic factors, could lead to genomic instability and the hypomethylation of proto-oncogenes, thus contributing to development of genetic-related diseases such as cancer. The present study evaluated the influence of diet on the level of oxidative DNA damage, misincorporated uracil and DNA repair capability in peripheral blood lymphocytes from two groups of individuals with antagonist diets as follows: (i) 49 healthy individuals with a diet rich in organic products, whole grains, fruit and vegetables and poor in processed foods (Group I) and (ii) 56 healthy individuals with diet rich in processed foods and poor in fruit and vegetables (Group II). Oxidative DNA damage, uracil incorporation and DNA repair capability were assessed by the comet assay. The individuals in Group I presented lower levels of oxidative DNA damage (oxidized purines and pyrimidines) and lower levels of DNA damage induced by ex vivo treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) than those individuals in Group II. The analysis of our results suggests that a diet rich in organic products, integral grains, fruit and vegetables and poor in industrialized products can protect against oxidative DNA damage and DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2).

  9. Accounting for differences in dieting status: steps in the refinement of a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huon, G; Hayne, A; Gunewardene, A; Strong, K; Lunn, N; Piira, T; Lim, J

    1999-12-01

    The overriding objective of this paper is to outline the steps involved in refining a structural model to explain differences in dieting status. Cross-sectional data (representing the responses of 1,644 teenage girls) derive from the preliminary testing in a 3-year longitudinal study. A battery of measures assessed social influence, vulnerability (to conformity) disposition, protective (social coping) skills, and aspects of positive familial context as core components in a model proposed to account for the initiation of dieting. Path analyses were used to establish the predictive ability of those separate components and their interrelationships in accounting for differences in dieting status. Several components of the model were found to be important predictors of dieting status. The model incorporates significant direct, indirect (or mediated), and moderating relationships. Taking all variables into account, the strongest prediction of dieting status was from peer competitiveness, using a new scale developed specifically for this study. Systematic analyses are crucial for the refinement of models to be used in large-scale multivariate studies. In the short term, the model investigated in this study has been shown to be useful in accounting for cross-sectional differences in dieting status. The refined model will be most powerfully employed in large-scale time-extended studies of the initiation of dieting to lose weight. Copyright 1999 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 deficiency alters the gut microbiome response to Western diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jethro S; Opiyo, Monica N; Thomson, Marian; Gharbi, Karim; Seckl, Jonathan R; Heger, Andreas; Chapman, Karen E

    2017-02-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) interconverts active glucocorticoids and their intrinsically inert 11-keto forms. The type 1 isozyme, 11β-HSD1, predominantly reactivates glucocorticoids in vivo and can also metabolise bile acids. 11β-HSD1-deficient mice show altered inflammatory responses and are protected against the adverse metabolic effects of a high-fat diet. However, the impact of 11β-HSD1 on the composition of the gut microbiome has not previously been investigated. We used high-throughput 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to characterise the gut microbiome of 11β-HSD1-deficient and C57Bl/6 control mice, fed either a standard chow diet or a cholesterol- and fat-enriched 'Western' diet. 11β-HSD1 deficiency significantly altered the composition of the gut microbiome, and did so in a diet-specific manner. On a Western diet, 11β-HSD1 deficiency increased the relative abundance of the family Bacteroidaceae, and on a chow diet, it altered relative abundance of the family Prevotellaceae Our results demonstrate that (i) genetic effects on host-microbiome interactions can depend upon diet and (ii) that alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome may contribute to the aspects of the metabolic and/or inflammatory phenotype observed with 11β-HSD1 deficiency. © 2017 The authors.

  11. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets. This dataset...

  12. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Contact Us Share It's Small Business ... WIFIA Tweets by @EPAScottPruitt View on Twitter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Video Highlights It's Small Business Week ...

  13. Diet Therapy Career Ladder, AFSC 926XO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    MPPT 1 1 HQ USAFE/DPAT 3 3 HQ USAFE/TTGT 1 1 HQ USMC (CODE TPI) 1 NODAC I SHCS/MSO (SHEPPARD AFB TX) 3 3 USAFOMC, DET 4 (SHEPPARD AFB TX) 1 I USAFOMC...performing control and administrative duties in medical food service facilities. In addition, 7- - and 9-skill level personnel supervise and superintend...DENTAL SOFT DIET 96 95 95 DIABETIC DIET 96 95 96 k FAT CONTROLLED , CHOLESTEROL RESTRICTED DIET 91 92 92 FAT FREE TEST DIET 60 71 70 FAT RESTRICTED DIET

  14. Eating pattern of vegetarian diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Couceiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated for centuries and many respected physicians, scientists and philosophers followed this practice based on different reasons. The increasing number of individuals that adopt the vegetarian diet impute to Health professionals, particularly nutritionists, the responsibility of knowing the principles of vegetarianism, in expectation of their proper management and adjustment of the vegetarian feeding behavior to the nutritional requirements of the individual.

  15. Mediterranean style diet is associated with low risk of new-onset diabetes after renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, Maryse C J; Corpeleijn, Eva; Navis, Gerjan J; Keyzer, Charlotte A; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Van Den Berg, Else; Postmus, Douwe; De Borst, Martin H; Kromhout, Daan; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2017-01-01

    Objective The incidence of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) and premature mortality is high in renal transplant recipients (RTR). We hypothesized that a Mediterranean Style diet protects against NODAT and premature mortality in RTR. Research design and methods A prospective cohort

  16. Mediterranean style diet is associated with low risk of new-onset diabetes after renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, Maryse C J; Corpeleijn, Eva; Navis, Gerjan J; Keyzer, Charlotte A; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; van den Berg, Else; Postmus, Douwe; de Borst, Martin H; Kromhout, Daan; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The incidence of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) and premature mortality is high in renal transplant recipients (RTR). We hypothesized that a Mediterranean Style diet protects against NODAT and premature mortality in RTR. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective cohort

  17. Effect of Cassava based diet on hepatic proteins in albino rats fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    oil hepatotoxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with. 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The hepatic enzymes aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase ...

  18. Supplemented low-protein diets - are they superior in chronic renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dietary intervention slows the progression of chronic renal failure.'·3 Although renal function in earlier studies was based on changes in serum creatinine (Sa). the protective effect of a low-protein (LP) ... clearance on a VLP diet supplemented with EAAs or keto acids. ... IJmoVI; no evidence of diabetes mellitus, liver disease,.

  19. Source Water Protection Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defines drinking water sources (source water), identifies drinking water sources, and describes source water assessments and protection, roles of government and organizations in drinking water source protection

  20. Laser Protection TIL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Protection TIL conducts research and analysis of laser protection materials along with integration schemes. The lab's objectives are to limit energy coming...

  1. The bones of prehistoric diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealy, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis is one of the techniques used to attempt to reconstruct the diet of people in the southwestern Cape as far back as 10 000 years ago. Carbon isotope measurement is also a useful mean of testing the idea that prehistoric people moved seasonally between the coast and the interior. The use of stable isotopes for dietary reconstruction in conjunction with radioactive isotopes for age determinations provides a significant body of data

  2. fteated bagacillo diets for lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemicellulose digest., 070. 35,2b. 14,1c. 66,8d. 50,8c. 65,7d. 55,Oc. aMeans based on three animals/treatment. b.c.dMeansin the same line bearing different superscript letters differ significantly (P < 0,05). Table 3 Nitrogen balance and Cr203 recovery in lambs fed NaOH-treated and untreated bagacillo/molasses diets.

  3. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris Irene

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coel...

  4. Prototypical versus contemporary Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, W; De Gara, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Pedone, C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. CMD group included 20 men and 34 women aged 50-60 years. Food intake was assessed by administering the EPIC food frequency questionnaire to each participant, and an additional survey to the PMD subjects only. Both PMD and CMD showed adequate intakes of macronutrients, although some deficiencies related to micronutrient requirements were evident. CMD showed a slightly greater use of animal products, processed and sugary foods, and higher intakes of simple sugars, animal proteins (49.6 vs 28.3 g/day), animal lipids (37.8 vs 20.1 g/day), saturated fats (25.0 vs 15.8 g/day) and cholesterol (305.0 vs 258.5 g/day). PMD showed many similarities to the original version of the MD in terms of macronutrients distribution and food choices. The documented evolution of the dietary habits over a 70 years timespan suggests that nowadays Mediterranean regions adhere less strictly to the original MD, although nutrients intakes are adequate to LARN and USDA recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventive effects of citrulline on Western diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; Beutheu, Stéphanie; Freese, Kim; Waligora-Dupriet, Anne-Judith; Nubret, Esther; Butel, Marie-Jo; Bergheim, Ina; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2016-07-01

    A Western diet induces insulin resistance, liver steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)) and intestinal dysbiosis, leading to increased gut permeability and bacterial translocation, thus contributing to the progression of NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In the present study, we sought, in a model of Western diet-induced NAFLD, to determine whether citrulline (Cit), an amino acid that regulates protein and energy metabolism, could decrease Western diet-induced liver injuries, as well as the mechanisms involved. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (45 %) and fructose (30 %) in drinking water or a control diet associated with water (group C) for 8 weeks. The high-fat, high-fructose diet (Western diet) was fed either alone (group WD) or with Cit (1 g/kg per d) (group WDC) or an isonitrogenous amount of non-essential amino acids (group WDA). We evaluated nutritional and metabolic status, liver function, intestinal barrier function, gut microbiota and splanchnic inflammatory status. Cit led to a lower level of hepatic TAG restricted to microvesicular lipid droplets and to a lower mRNA expression of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress, of pro-inflammatory cytokines Il6 (PWestern diet alone. Cit improves Western diet-induced liver injuries via decreased lipid deposition, increased insulin sensitivity, lower inflammatory process and preserved antioxidant status. This may be related in part to its protective effects at the gut level.

  6. Diet and asthma: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Forno, Erick; Holguin, Fernando; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to provide an overview and discussion of recent experimental studies, epidemiologic studies, and clinical trials of diet and asthma. We focus on dietary sources and vitamins with antioxidant properties [vitamins (A, C, and E), folate, and omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 and n-6 PUFAs)]. Current evidence does not support the use of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, or PUFAs for the prevention or treatment of asthma or allergies. Current guidelines for prenatal use of folate to prevent neural tube defects should be followed, as there is no evidence of major effects of this practice on asthma or allergies. Consumption of a balanced diet that is rich in sources of antioxidants (e.g. fruits and vegetables) may be beneficial in the primary prevention of asthma. None of the vitamins or nutrients examined is consistently associated with asthma or allergies. In some cases, further studies of the effects of a vitamin or nutrient on specific asthma phenotypes (e.g. vitamin C to prevent viral-induced exacerbations) are warranted. Clinical trials of 'whole diet' interventions to prevent asthma are advisable on the basis of existing evidence.

  7. Functional Foods in fad diets: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Abigail Navaro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fad diets can be defined as any diet making claims that are unrealistic and not supported by evidence-based data. Having been developed since the early 19th century, fad diets promise drastic weight loss and/or other unsubstantiated health claims, often omitting entire food groups. Their popularity with the public makes them an important topic for nutritionists and clinicians, especially in the framework of the obesity epidemic. Additionally, it is conceivable that components of fad diets can indeed facilitate weight loss, even if the diet overall is without merit. The grapefruit diet, the cabbage soup diet, and the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG diet are among the most popular fad diets and are reviewed within this study not only in terms of the diet plan itself, but also in terms of possible and known weight loss and health benefits provided by the foods on which the diets are based. Bioflavonoids in grapefruit, including naringin, hesperidin, and bergamottin, may benefit glucose homeostasis. Cabbage contains lutein, zeaxanthin, kaempferol, quercetin, and apigenin, which have anti-inflammatory properties and improve both glucose homeostasis and fat metabolism. The hCG diet is frequently supplemented with non-hCG preparations, which often contains African mango, which has been shown to enhance weight loss by an unspecified mechanism; astragalus root, which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma receptor agonistic properties; arginine, which stimulates lipolysis; glutamine, which has been shown to enhance weight loss, perhaps by altering the gut microbiome; carnitine, which appears to facilitate weight loss; B12, which improves insulin resistance; and niacin, which improves the dyslipidemia associated with overweight/obesity. Presently, high quality clinical trials suggest that fad diets reduce weight in the short term due to drastic caloric restriction rather than functional food

  8. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G; Selmin, Ornella I; Doetschman, Tom C; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  9. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah G. Donovan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  10. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G.; Selmin, Ornella I.; Doetschman, Tom C.; Romagnolo, Donato F.

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern. PMID:29259973

  11. Efficacy of the ketogenic diet in the 6-Hz seizure test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Adam L.; Lyle, Megan; Rogawski, Michael A.; Gasior, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose Since the ketogenic diet is effective in drug-resistant epilepsies, we sought to determine whether it is active in the 6-Hz seizure test, which identifies agents with a broader spectrum of activity than conventional antiepileptic screening tests. Methods Male (3–4 week old) NIH Swiss mice were fed a normal or ketogenic diet ad libitum for 2–21 days. The intensity of the corneal stimulation current required to elicit seizures in the 6-Hz test was measured. Blood glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured on the day of seizure testing. Results CC50 (current intensity producing seizures in 50% of mice tested) was 50.6 mA and 15 mA in mice fed for 12 days with a ketogenic or normal diet, respectively (p ketogenic diet exposure. CC50 values of growing mice fed the normal diet does not differ, indicating CC50 does not vary with mouse weight during a rapid growth phase. β-Hydroxybutyrate was significantly higher, and glucose was significantly lower in mice fed the ketogenic diet than those fed the normal diet. Blood glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate levels did not correlate with CC50. Discussion The ketogenic diet significantly elevates the seizure threshold in the 6-Hz test in a time-specific manner. Protection from seizures in this model was not related to level of ketosis. CC50 was insensitive to body weight in mice fed the normal diet, demonstrating that the 6-Hz model can assess anticonvulsant regimens where weight is a confounding factor. PMID:18070095

  12. Branched-chain amino acid-enriched diet: effects on insulin secretion and cellular immune aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabatas, L M; De Bruno, L F; Pastorale, C; Lombardo, Y B; Basabe, J C

    2000-07-01

    Several reports have demonstrated that high-protein diets may have beneficial effects on experimental models of diabetes and have raised the possibility that branched-chain amino acids could play a role in these protective effects. We investigated the effect of a normoproteic, branched-chain amino acid-enriched diet (experimental diet) on insulin secretion from C57BL/6N mice transferred with splenocytes from diabetic syngeneic donors. Mice previously fed with the experimental or control diet received three intraperitoneal injections, every other day, of 5 x 107 viable mononuclear splenocytes obtained from control or diabetic donors. Results showed that mice fed with the experimental diet and transferred with "diabetic" splenocytes presented: i) normoglycemia, and (ii) significantly higher levels in both phases of glucose-induced insulin secretion and normal values of arginine-glucose-induced insulin secretion. To evaluate the in vitro cellular immune aggression, dispersed mouse islet cells were co-cultured with splenocytes from syngeneic diabetic mice. First, dispersed islet cells from mice on the experimental or control diet were co-cultured with splenocytes from control or diabetic mice on a commercial diet. In the presence of "diabetic splenocytes, dispersed islet cells from mice on the experimental diet presented a significantly lower in vitro cellular immune aggression. On the other hand, "diabetic" splenocytes from mice fed with the experimental diet produced a significantly reduced cellular immune aggression on dispersed islet cells. Our results showed that feeding branched-chain amino acids increased the capacity of beta cells to withstand a functional assault and diminished the extent of in vitro cellular immune aggression.

  13. The RS4939827 polymorphism in the SMAD7 GENE and its association with Mediterranean diet in colorectal carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Molero, Jéssica; González-Donquiles, Carmen; Palazuelos, Camilo; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Ramos, Elena; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Llorca, Javier; Henar Alonso, M; Tardón, Adonina; Amiano, Pilar; Moleon, José Juan Jiménez; Pérez, Rosana Peiró; Capelo, Rocío; Molina, Antonio J; Acebo, Inés Gómez; Guevara, Marcela; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Lope, Virginia; Huerta, José María; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Moreno, Victor; Martín, Vicente

    2017-10-30

    The objective of our investigation is to study the relationship between the rs4939827 SNP in the SMAD7 gene, Mediterranean diet pattern and the risk of colorectal cancer. We examined 1087 cases of colorectal cancer and 2409 population controls with available DNA samples from the MCC-Spain study, 2008-2012. Descriptive statistical analyses, and multivariate logistic mixed models were performed. The potential synergistic effect of rs4939827 and the Mediterranean diet pattern was evaluated with logistic regression in different strata of of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the genotype. High adherence to Mediterrenean diet was statistically significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. A decreased risk for CRC cancer was observed for the CC compared to the TT genotype (OR = 0.65 and 95% CI = 0.51-0.81) of the rs4939827 SNP Also, we could show an association between the Mediterranean diet pattern (protective factor) and rs4939827. Although the decreased risk for the CC genotype was slightly more pronounced in subjects with high adherence to Mediterrenean diet, there was no statistically significant synergistic effect between genotype CC and adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern factors. The SMAD7 gene and specifically the allele C could be protective for colorectal cancer. An independent protective association was also observed between high adherence Mediterranean diet pattern and CRC risk. Findings form this study indicate that high adherence to Mediterranean diet pattern has a protective role for CRC cancer probably involving the Tumor Growth Factor- β pathway in this cancer.

  14. Nature and landscape protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  15. Med Diet 4.0: the Mediterranean diet with four sustainable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, S; Berry, E M; Serra-Majem, L; La Vecchia, C; Capone, R; Medina, F X; Aranceta-Bartrina, J; Belahsen, R; Burlingame, B; Calabrese, G; Corella, D; Donini, L M; Lairon, D; Meybeck, A; Pekcan, A G; Piscopo, S; Yngve, A; Trichopoulou, A

    2017-05-01

    To characterize the multiple dimensions and benefits of the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet, in order to revitalize this intangible food heritage at the country level; and to develop a multidimensional framework - the Med Diet 4.0 - in which four sustainability benefits of the Mediterranean diet are presented in parallel: major health and nutrition benefits, low environmental impacts and richness in biodiversity, high sociocultural food values, and positive local economic returns. A narrative review was applied at the country level to highlight the multiple sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet into a single multidimensional framework: the Med Diet 4.0. Setting/subjects We included studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals that contained data on the characterization of sustainable diets and of the Mediterranean diet. The methodological framework approach was finalized through a series of meetings, workshops and conferences where the framework was presented, discussed and ultimately refined. The Med Diet 4.0 provides a conceptual multidimensional framework to characterize the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet model, by applying principles of sustainability to the Mediterranean diet. By providing a broader understanding of the many sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet, the Med Diet 4.0 can contribute to the revitalization of the Mediterranean diet by improving its current perception not only as a healthy diet but also a sustainable lifestyle model, with country-specific and culturally appropriate variations. It also takes into account the identity and diversity of food cultures and systems, expressed within the notion of the Mediterranean diet, across the Mediterranean region and in other parts of the world. Further multidisciplinary studies are needed for the assessment of the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet to include these new dimensions.

  16. The Ketogenic Diet: Making a Comeback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Thomas; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2017-07-01

    Americans have embraced a large number of diets in an attempt to manage obesity, improve quality of life, and address specific health problems. Among diets developed to address health problems, the ketogenic diet has had a long and variable history. Developed in the 1920s by a faith healer to help children with epilepsy, this diet induces a state that mimics carbohydrate starvation. As medications became available and effectively addressed seizures, the diet fell out of favor. During the last few decades, researchers and clinicians have learned that it can be useful in children and adults with refractory epilepsy and a variety of other conditions. Once again, pharmacists may encounter patients who are employing dietary management of serious health problems. This very high-fat diet almost eliminates carbohydrates from the patient's food selection. The result is the substitution of ketone bodies as a source of energy. Today's ketogenic diet has been modified with scientifically proven adjustments to increase palatability and help with adherence. Effective for some forms of epilepsy, the ketogenic diet also seems to have some utility in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and glaucoma, and many Americans are using it to lose weight. Consultant pharmacists may field questions about this diet, its potential to correct or alleviate health conditions, and its limitations. The article discusses the ketogenic diet's strengths, limitations, potential mechanisms, and use in a number of conditions with an emphasis on the elderly.

  17. Bacterial diversity shift determined by different diets in the gut of the spotted wing fly Drosophila suzukii is primarily reflected on acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Vacchini, Violetta

    2016-11-25

    The pivotal role of diet in shaping gut microbiota has been evaluated in different animal models, including insects. Drosophila flies harbour an inconstant microbiota among which acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important components. Here, we investigated the bacterial and AAB components of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii microbiota, by studying the same insect population separately grown on fruit-based or non-fruit artificial diet. AAB were highly prevalent in the gut under both diets (90 and 92% infection rates with fruits and artificial diet, respectively). Fluorescent in situ hybridization and recolonization experiments with green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-labelled strains showed AAB capability to massively colonize insect gut. High-throughput sequencing on 16S rRNA gene indicated that the bacterial microbiota of guts fed with the two diets clustered separately. By excluding AAB-related OTUs from the analysis, insect bacterial communities did not cluster separately according to the diet, suggesting that diet-based diversification of the community is primarily reflected on the AAB component of the community. Diet influenced also AAB alpha-diversity, with separate OTU distributions based on diets. High prevalence, localization and massive recolonization, together with AAB clustering behaviour in relation to diet, suggest an AAB role in the D. suzukii gut response to diet modification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Focus radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebermann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz on radiation protection covers the following issues: (i) exposure from natural sources: health hazard due to radon, radiation protection in residential homes, radon in Germany, natural raw materials in industrial processes; (ii) clearance of radioactive wastes: clearance in the frame of nuclear power plant dismantling, the situation in Germany and Europe; (iii) emergency management: principles of radiation protection, fictive sequence of accident events; (iiii) other actual radiation protection topics: more limits - more protection? radiation protection in medicine, occupational radiation protection.

  19. Older Adults' Perceptions of Nutrition as Protective against Detrimental Effects of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kristina; Gaetke, Lisa; Stephenson, Tammy; Brewer, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    The aging process makes older adults vulnerable to the detrimental health effects of environmental contaminants. Our study assessed older adults' perceptions regarding diet as protective against environmental contaminants, levels of concern about exposure to environmental contaminants, and interest in learning about protective food-related…

  20. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absorption in the body? Dairy foods High-fiber foods Red meats Seafood Am I Correct? Latest News News HealthDay Has Butter Gotten a Bad Rap? News HealthDay Vitamin D May Affect Breast Cancer Survival News HealthDay More Research Cites Salt's Potential Health Risks News HealthDay Are ...

  1. Chemoprevention by grape seed extract and genistein in carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats is diet dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helen; Hall, Patti; Smith, Michelle; Kirk, Marion; Prasain, Jeevan K; Barnes, Stephen; Grubbs, Clinton

    2004-12-01

    Many popular dietary supplements are enriched in polyphenols such as the soy isoflavones, tea catechins, and resveratrol (from grape skins), each of which has been shown to have chemopreventive activity in cellular models of cancer. The proanthocyanidins, which are oligomers of the catechins, are enriched in grape seeds and form the basis of the dietary supplement grape seed extract (GSE). Evidence suggests that the proanthocyanidins may be metabolized to the monomeric catechins. This study was carried out to determine whether GSE added to rodent diets protected against carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats and whether this was affected by the composition of the whole diet. Female rats were begun on 5%, 1.25%, or 0% (control) GSE-supplemented diets at age 35 d. At age 50 d they were administered 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in sesame oil at 80 mg/kg body weight. They were weighed and monitored weekly for tumor development until 120 d after DMBA administration. Administration of GSE in AIN-76A diet did not show any protective activity of GSE against DMBA-induced breast cancer. However, administration of GSE in a laboratory dry food diet (Teklad 4% rodent diet) resulted in a 50% reduction in tumor multiplicity. In similar experiments, genistein administered in AIN-76A diet also failed to show chemopreventive activity against the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea; however, when administered at the same dose in the Teklad 4% rodent diet, genistein exhibited significant chemopreventive activity (44-61%). These results demonstrate that GSE is chemopreventive in an animal model of breast cancer; moreover, the diet dependency of the chemopreventive activity for both GSE and genistein suggests that whether or not a compound is chemopreventive may depend on the diet in which the agent is administered.

  2. Overall diet quality is not associated with diet cost among youth with type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Nansel, Tonja; Haynie, Denise; Lipsky, Leah; Mehta, Sanjeev; Laffel, Lori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of diet quality with diet cost in a sample of youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom diet is an important component of medical management. Differences in food group spending by diet quality were also examined to identify potential budgetary reallocation to improve overall diet quality. Families of 252 youth with type 1 diabetes ages 8–18 years completed 3-day youth diet records. Cost of each food reported was calculated based on the avera...

  3. The New Nordic Diet as a prototype for regional sustainable diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne Gjedsted; Hertwig, Jostein; Kahl, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    A main challenge in sustainable food systems is to link sustainable production to sustainable diets and consumption patterns. The new Nordic diet (NND) builds on and shares the Mediterranean diet (MD) thinking, but utilizes the ingredients and flavours of a northern climate. In both diets...... both wild and domesticated sources. Both diets have been associated with health benefits. The NND is a prototype regional diet taking health, food culture, palatability and the environment into account. Thus, the principles and guidelines could be applied in any region of the world. There are currently...

  4. Gluten-free diet and the possibility of enriching the diet coeliacs

    OpenAIRE

    BLAŽKOVÁ, Klára

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the gluten-free diet and its possible enrichment. It is divided into two parts. The first part includes chapters such as history of gluten-free diet, basics of a gluten free diet, the first step in the introduction of a gluten-free diet, gluten-free food labeling legislation and the use of alcohol on a gluten-free diet. The practical part is focused on enriching the diet celiac patients. I focused on the preparation of bakery products for celiac, I have designed and pra...

  5. Assessment of strontium and calcium levels in Pakistani diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Baloch, N.Z.; Mohammad, D.; Orfi, S.D.; Ahmad, N.

    2004-01-01

    To cope with nuclear emergency effectively due to ingestion of fission fragment 90 Sr, adequacy of nutritionally and radiologically important elements strontium and calcium was studied in typical Pakistani diet and baseline analytical data were generated. Concentrations of strontium and calcium were measured by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) techniques. Daily dietary intake of strontium and calcium varied from 0.9 to 5.7 mg and 217 to 713 mg with the geometric mean valuexgeometric standard deviation of 2.6x1.7 and 487.1x1.4 mg d -1 , respectively. The average Sr concentration in the Pakistani diet was 1.4 times higher while Ca concentration was 0.4 times lower than the recommended values of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The calculated Sr/Ca ratio 5.3E-03 was also higher than the ICRP value. The study depicts that the strontium concentration in the Pakistani diet is adequate, while the calcium concentration is inadequate according to international standards and needs improvement

  6. Diet and physical activity in the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mamta; Shike, Moshe

    2014-12-01

    Diet has been linked to the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) and may explain some of the differences in incidence and mortality among various populations. Evidence suggests that a high intake of red and processed meats is associated with an increased risk of CRC. The protective benefits of fiber are unclear, although in some studies fiber is associated with reduced CRC risk. The role of supplements, such as calcium, vitamin D, and folic acid, remains uncertain, and these nutrients cannot be currently recommended for chemoprevention. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. Because of the inherent difficulty in studying the effects of specific nutrients, dietary pattern analysis may be a preferable approach to the investigation of the relationship between diet and risk for human diseases. Lifestyle modifications, such as increasing physical activity and consumption of a diet rich in fiber, fruits, vegetables, fish, and poultry and low in red and processed meats, have been advocated for primary prevention of several chronic diseases, and may in fact be beneficial for cancer prevention, particularly CRC. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  7. Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinetti, Alberto; Zurlo, Valeria; Manenti, Antonio; Coppi, Francesca; Mattioli, Anna Vittoria

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, especially in developed countries where an estimated 60% of all cases occur. There is evidence of a higher risk for CRC in Western society, where people tend to eat more red and processed meat than those living along the Mediterranean coast, who have a decreased overall cancer mortality, which is correlated to their eating habits, such as Mediterranean diet. The aim of this review was to evaluate the correlation between three components of the Mediterranean diet (olive oil, red wine, and tomatoes) and incidence and progression of colorectal cancer. As such, we conducted a literature search using keywords "colorectal cancer," "dietary pattern," "Mediterranean diet," "olive oil," "protective effects," "resveratrol," and "lycopene." Olive oil polyphenols, red wine resveratrol, and tomato lycopene showed several characteristics in vitro that interfere with molecular cancer pathways. At the same time, many clinical studies have reported an association of these components with a reduction in cancer initiation and progression. More clinical studies are needed to identify the precise dose and administration of single agents or their combination to produce a coadjutant treatment to those already applied in chemoprevention and oncologic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Liver Stage specific response among Endemic Populations: Diet & Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Kumar Dalai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing effective anti-malarial vaccine has been a challenge for long. Various factors including complex life cycle of parasite and lack of knowledge of stage specific critical antigens are some of the reasons. Moreover, inadequate understanding of the immune responses vis-à-vis sterile protection induced naturally by Plasmodia infection has further compounded the problem. It has been shown that people living in endemic areas take years to develop protective immunity to blood stage infection. But hardly anyone believes that immunity to liver-stage infection could be developed. Various experimental model studies using attenuated parasite suggest that liver stage immunity might exist among endemic populations. This could be induced because of the attenuation of parasite in liver by various compounds present in the diet of endemic populations.

  9. A new strategy to protect Katsura-uri (Japan's heirloom pickling melon, Cucumis melo var. conomon from extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Sasaki

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: This demonstrated a new strategy to protect this heirloom vegetable from extinction by adding a new function that could increase its demand as a low-calorie fruit in the present diet habit for human health.

  10. The Effect of Diet on the Survival of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysz, Jacek; Franczyk, Beata; Ciałkowska-Rysz, Aleksandra; Gluba-Brzózka, Anna

    2017-05-13

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high and it is gradually increasing. Individuals with CKD should introduce appropriate measures to hamper the progression of kidney function deterioration as well as prevent the development or progression of CKD-related diseases. A kidney-friendly diet may help to protect kidneys from further damage. Patients with kidney damage should limit the intake of certain foods to reduce the accumulation of unexcreted metabolic products and also to protect against hypertension, proteinuria and other heart and bone health problems. Despite the fact that the influence of certain types of nutrients has been widely studied in relation to kidney function and overall health in CKD patients, there are few studies on the impact of a specific diet on their survival. Animal studies demonstrated prolonged survival of rats with CKD fed with protein-restricted diets. In humans, the results of studies are conflicting. Some of them indicate slowing down of the progression of kidney disease and reduction in proteinuria, but other underline significant worsening of patients' nutritional state, which can be dangerous. A recent systemic study revealed that a healthy diet comprising many fruits and vegetables, fish, legumes, whole grains, and fibers and also the cutting down on red meat, sodium, and refined sugar intake was associated with lower mortality in people with kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to review the results of studies concerning the impact of diet on the survival of CKD patients.

  11. The Effect of Diet on the Survival of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysz, Jacek; Franczyk, Beata; Ciałkowska-Rysz, Aleksandra; Gluba-Brzózka, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high and it is gradually increasing. Individuals with CKD should introduce appropriate measures to hamper the progression of kidney function deterioration as well as prevent the development or progression of CKD-related diseases. A kidney-friendly diet may help to protect kidneys from further damage. Patients with kidney damage should limit the intake of certain foods to reduce the accumulation of unexcreted metabolic products and also to protect against hypertension, proteinuria and other heart and bone health problems. Despite the fact that the influence of certain types of nutrients has been widely studied in relation to kidney function and overall health in CKD patients, there are few studies on the impact of a specific diet on their survival. Animal studies demonstrated prolonged survival of rats with CKD fed with protein-restricted diets. In humans, the results of studies are conflicting. Some of them indicate slowing down of the progression of kidney disease and reduction in proteinuria, but other underline significant worsening of patients’ nutritional state, which can be dangerous. A recent systemic study revealed that a healthy diet comprising many fruits and vegetables, fish, legumes, whole grains, and fibers and also the cutting down on red meat, sodium, and refined sugar intake was associated with lower mortality in people with kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to review the results of studies concerning the impact of diet on the survival of CKD patients. PMID:28505087

  12. Elemental diet as prophylaxis against radiation injury. Histological and ultrastructural studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, A.H.; Wittnich, C.; Freeman, C.R.; Duguid, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors investigated whether elemental diet feeding would protect the intestine from radiation injury. Five dogs were fed an elemental diet for three days before receiving pelvic irradiation (500 rad/day for four days) and were maintained on the diet during the days of irradiation. These dogs were compared with five dogs that were fed normal kennel ration, but were treated similarly otherwise. One day and five days following completion of the radiation treatment, the dogs were anesthetized and a biopsy specimen of terminal ileum was taken for histologic and electron microscopic studies. In the dogs fed the elemental diet, there was no significant damage to the intestine seen on histological examination, and electron microscopy disclosed elongated microvilli and no organelle damage. However, both histological and electron microscopic examination of the intestine from dogs maintained on normal kennel ration showed that severe damage had occurred from the irradiation procedure. It seems, therefore, that the feeding of an elemental diet to dogs as a prophylaxis can afford protection to the intestine from the acute phase of radiation injury

  13. A Review of the Effect of Diet on Cardiovascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Nicoll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day and phylloquinone (500 μg/day proved protective, as did a serum 25(OHD concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification.

  14. COMPOSITION OF THE ATHLETES DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Salaj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available  Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with many of research papers published annually. However, designing the most suitable sports diet is very difficult. It must be given to the type of training, its duration and intensity, the age and sex of the athlete and also for overall health. The aim of this article is to summarize knowledges about sports nutrition, especially intake of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and dietary supplements and their influence on the performance and recovery of the athlete.doi:10.5219/126 

  15. Low Nickel Diet in Dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ashimav D

    2013-01-01

    Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and the commonest cause of metal allergy among the people. Nickel allergy is a chronic, recurring problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the general population. Nickel in the diet of a nickel-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful se...

  16. Counting Calories in Drosophila Diet Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Flatt, Thomas; Kulaots, Indrek; Tatar, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The extension of life span by diet restriction in Drosophila has been argued to occur without limiting calories. Here we directly measure the calories assimilated by flies when maintained on full- and restricted-diets. We find that caloric intake is reduced on all diets that extend life span. Flies on low-yeast diet are long-lived and consume about half the calories of flies on high yeast diets, regardless of the energetic content of the diet itself. Since caloric intake correlates with yeast concentration and thus with the intake of every metabolite in this dietary component, it is premature to conclude for Drosophila that calories do not explain extension of life span. PMID:17125951

  17. Detecting frogs as prey in the diets of introduced mammals: a comparison between morphological and DNA-based diet analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeter, Bastian; Bishop, Phillip J; Robertson, Bruce C

    2015-03-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened group of vertebrates worldwide, and introduced fauna play a major role in their decline. The control of introduced predators to protect endangered species is often based on predation rates derived from diet studies of predators, but prey detection probabilities using different techniques are variable. We measured the detectability of frogs as prey, using morphological and DNA-based diet analyses, in the stomachs and faeces of four mammal species that have been introduced to many areas of the world. Frogs (Litoria raniformis) were fed to rats (Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus), mice (Mus musculus) and hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus). DNA-based analysis outperformed morphological analysis, increasing the prey detection rate from 2% to 70% in stomachs and from 0% to 53% in faeces. In most cases, utilizing either stomachs or faeces did not affect the success of prey DNA detection; however, using faeces extended the detectability half-life from 7 to 21 h. This study is the first to measure prey DNA detection periods in mammalian stomachs, and the first to compare prey DNA detection periods in the stomachs and faeces of vertebrates. The results indicate that DNA-based diet analysis provides a more reliable approach for detecting amphibians as prey and has the potential to be used to estimate the rate of predation by introduced mammals on endangered amphibians. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Influence of diet and obesity on COPD development and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson C

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrine Hanson,1 Erica P Rutten,2 Emiel FM Wouters,2,3 Stephen Rennard41Division of Medical Nutrition Education, School of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 2Research and Education, Centre of Expertise for Chronic Organ Failure, Horn, The Netherlands; 3Department of Pulmonary Diseases, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 4Division of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: The global increase in the prevalence and incidence of obesity has called serious attention to this issue as a major public health concern. Obesity is associated with many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and recently the role of overweight and obesity in lung disease has received new interest. Independently of obesity, diet also plays a role as a risk factor for many chronic diseases, and evidence is accumulating to support a role for diet in the prevention and management of several lung diseases. Chronic obstructive lung disease is the third-leading cause of death globally, and both obesity and diet appear to play roles in its pathophysiology. Obesity has been associated with decreased lung-function measures in population-based studies, with increased prevalence of several lung diseases and with compromised pulmonary function. In contrast, obesity has a protective effect against mortality in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Nutrient intake and dietary patterns have also been associated with lung-function measures and the development and progression of COPD. Taken together, this suggests that a focus on obesity and diet should be part of public health campaigns to reduce the burden of lung disease, and could have important implications for clinicians in the management of their patients. Future research should also focus on elucidating these relationships in diverse populations and age-groups, and on understanding the

  19. Ketogenic Diet in Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Damiani, Ernesto; Bosco, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of data demonstrate the utility of ketogenic diets in a variety of metabolic diseases as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. In regard to neurological disorders, ketogenic diet is recognized as an effective treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy but emerging data suggests that ketogenic diet could be also useful in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer, Parkinson’s disease, and some mitochondriopathies. Although these diseases have different pathogenesis and f...

  20. Dietary Tyrosine Protects Striatal Dopamine Receptors from the Adverse Effects of REM Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, A; Brock, J W; Payne, S; Ross, K D; Bond, S P; Prasad, C

    1998-01-01

    L-Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid that is produced as an intermediary metabolite in the conversion of phenylalanine to 3,4-dihyroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), and is a precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine. In previous studies, tyrosine pretreatment was shown to protect against the neurochemical and behavioral deficits of acute stress caused by tail shock or cold exposure in rodents. The present study addressed the hypothesis that tyrosine administration may be an effective counter-measure to dopamine-mediated behaviors induced by rapid eye-movement sleep deprivation (RSD). In order to test the hypothesis, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 9 treatment groups: RSD-treated rats on normal-protein diet (20% casein: 1% tyrosine, 1% valine); tank control (TC) rats on a normal diet; cage control (CC) rats on normal diet; RSD-treated rats on 4% tyrosine diet; TC rats on 4% tyrosine diet; CC rats on 4% tyrosine diet; RSD-treated rats on 4% valine diet; TC rats on 4% valine diet; CC rats on 4% valine diet. In the RSD group receiving tyrosine, there was no apparent change in Bmax for binding of the dopamine D2 receptor ligand [(3)H]YM-09151-2 in the striata as compared to the respective TC and CC groups; whereas RSD-treated rats maintained on the normal diet and valine supplementation demonstrated expected increases in Bmax for ligand binding. The TC group on the tyrosine diet showed attenuated catalepsy compared to the corresponding CC group, while the RSD group consuming tyrosine showed a catalepsy that was significantly increased, and similar to that of cage control animais on a control diet. These data suggest that the tyrosine-supplemented diet significantly attenuated RSD-induced changes in striatal dopamine D2 receptors, and the effect appeared sufficient to influence RSD-induced behaviors.

  1. The Role Of Diet In The Pathogenesis Of Cholesterol Gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciaula, Agostino; Garruti, Gabriella; Frühbeck, Gema; De Angelis, Maria; De Bari, Ornella; Q-H Wang, David; Lammert, Frank; Portincasa, Piero

    2017-05-29

    Cholesterol gallstone disease is a major health problem in Westernized countries and depends on a complex interplay between genetic factors, lifestyle and diet, acting on specific pathogenic mechanisms. Overweigh, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and altered cholesterol homeostasis have been linked to increased gallstone occurrence, and several studies point to a number of specific nutrients as risk- or protective factors with respect to gallstone formation in humans, motivating a rising interest in the identification of common and modifiable dietetic factors that put the patients at risk of gallstones or that are able to prevent gallstone formation and growth. In particular, dietary models characterized by increased energy intake with highly refined sugars and sweet foods, high fructose intake, low fiber contents, high fat, consumption of fast food and low vitamin C intake increase the risk of gallstone formation. On the other hand, high intake of monounsaturated fats and fiber, olive oil and fish (ω-3 fatty acids) consumption, vegetable protein intake, fruit, coffee, moderate alcohol consumption and vitamin C supplementation exert a protective role. The effect of some confounding factors (e.g., physical activity) cannot be ruled out, but general recommendations about the multiple beneficial effects of diet on cholesterol gallstones must be kept in mind, in particular in groups at high risk of gallstone formation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Initiation of dieting among adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huon, G F; Walton, C J

    2000-09-01

    This brief report identifies the factors that distinguish girls who have begun dieting recently from those who have never dieted, using Huon and Strong's (International Journal of Eating Disorders 23:361-369, 1998) model of dieting. Sixty-two initiating dieters were carefully matched with 62 never dieters, according to school, grade, age, language spoken at home, and country of birth. Both groups completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed their dieting status, perceived social influence to diet, conformity disposition, assertiveness, and familial context. A discriminant function analysis showed that initiating dieters and never dieters could be distinguished most clearly by their levels of peer and parental influence. Initiating dieters conformed and complied more to their parents. They were also more competitive with their peers than were the girls who had never dieted. Perceived supportiveness of fathers was also found to set apart those girls who had never dieted. Girls who are just beginning to diet differ from those who have never dieted, predominantly in terms of their perceived social influence. The forms of parental influence that distinguish the two groups differ in nature from the type of influence exerted by peers. Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. The Mediterranean diet: health and science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2012-01-01

    .... It discusses the Mediterranean diet in the light of recent developments in nutritional biochemistry, disease mechanisms and epidemiological studies, and also provides advice on nutrition policies...

  4. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development.

  5. The management of psoriasis through diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Gleison Duarte,1 Luan Oliveira Barbosa,2 Maria Elisa A Rosa11Dermatology Division, Alergodermoclin, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; 2Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública Salvador, Bahia, BrazilAbstract: Diet is an important factor in the management of several dermatological diseases, such as dermatitis herpetiformis, acne vulgaris, gout, phrynoderma, pellagra, psoriasis, and acrodermatitis enteropathica. New concepts have emerged concerning the influence of diet on psoriasis. For example, diet has an adjuvant role in the management of several cardiovascular comorbidities that exhibit a higher-than-expected prevalence in psoriatic patients. Functional foods, such as yellow saffron and fish oil, may exert favorable effects on immune and cardiovascular functions. A gluten-free diet may promote significant clinical and histologic improvement. Folate supplementation may induce clinical improvement of psoriasis, but side effects may also occur. Diets rich in fresh fruits and vegetables are associated with a lower prevalence of psoriasis, and vegetarian diets were associated with clinical improvement. Additionally, many drug-diet interactions (retinoids, methotrexate, cyclosporine must be considered in patients with psoriasis. Therefore, in addition to current nutritional advice given to psoriasis patients, further studies are necessary in the role of diet in psoriasis therapy.Keywords: diet, lifestyle, psoriasis, recommendations, supplementation

  6. Gluten-free diet - facts and myths.

    OpenAIRE

    Hejduk Bobková, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis was to gain a comprehensive view of the gluten-free diet and to confirm or refute the claim that the gluten-free diet became a fashion trend in nutrition. The theoretical part explains the relationship between gluten-free diet and diseases caused by intolerance of gluten. Greater attention is paid to the most serious of these, celiac disease, whose only treatment is gluten-free diet Research of commonly available sources for the general public has produced a li...

  7. Calorie shifting diet versus calorie restriction diet: A comparative clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hossein Davoodi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The CSD diet was associated with a greater improvement in some anthropometric measures, Adherence was better among CSD subjects. Longer and larger studies are required to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of CSD diet.

  8. PENATALAKSANAAN DIET PADA NEFROPATI DIABETIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triyani Kresnawan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the complication of diabetes mellitus is nephropathy diabetic, if this situation is not cured properly it tends to develop the end stage of renal failure. The objectives of this diet management in patients with nephropathy diabetic are to reduce progression of renal damage, maintain the nutritional status of the patient, control blood glucose, lipid serum and maintain electrolyte and fluid balance. Nutrient requirement of nephropathy diabetic patients should contain: protein 0.8 g/kg/body weigh/day. But if patients suffered of end stage of renal failure 0.8 g/kg body weigh/day, in the case of dialysis the protein need is 1-1.2g/kg body weigh/day. For energy requirement they need 35 kcal/kg body weigh/day, with the carbohydrate 60% from total energy need, fat should be 30% total energy need contain poly unsaturated fatty acid and mono unsaturated fatty acid. For mineral, natrium (Na is needed 1000-3000 mg/day, whereas kalium (K is 40-70 mEq/day (1600-2800mg/day. In conclusion, diet management is taking an important role to delay the progression of being end stage renal failure. Keywords: nefropati diabetik, gagal ganjal terminal

  9. [Recommended diet for reflux spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Valter Nilton; Viebig, Ricardo Guilherme

    2003-01-01

    The spectrophotometric probe, which uses bilirubin as a marker for the detection of duodenoesophagic reflux is subject to interference from strongly colored foods, which can cause erroneously high bilirubin absorbance readings. To overcome this problem it is necessary to ingest a diet that is free from such substances. To test the absorbance of 48 different food substances in an in vitro environment. Dry foods were blended with water or milk and non-dry solid foods were blended undiluted. It was utilized the proper calibration recipient to test them. The absorbance of weakly colored foods was usually lesser than the commonly accepted threshold of 0.14, and the absorbance of strongly colored foods was usually above this. Thirty-two from the 48 substances tested are suitable when the absorbance threshold is set at 0.14, but scrambled eggs, lacteous flour mush, green beans, beetroot, carrot, chayote, squash, "baroa" potato, boiled corn, orange, cashew, purple grape, avocado, mango, papaya and peach can alter the results and must be avoided. From the foods evaluated, enough are suitable at the 0.14 threshold to enable a suitable diet to be constructed for most patients during Bilitec studies.

  10. A pilot study to investigate if New Zealand men with prostate cancer benefit from a Mediterranean-style diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Erdrich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the prostate is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the third leading cause of mortality in New Zealand men, making it a significant health issue in this country. Global distribution patterns suggest that diet and lifestyle factors may be linked to the development and progression of this cancer. Twenty men with diagnosed prostate cancer adhered to a Mediterranean diet, with specific adaptations, for three months. Prostate-specific antigen, C-reactive protein and DNA damage were evaluated at baseline and after three months of following the diet. Dietary data were collated from diet diaries and an adaptation of a validated Mediterranean diet questionnaire. A significant reduction in DNA damage compared to baseline was apparent, with particular benefit noted for overall adherence to the diet (p = 0.013, increased intake of folate (p = 0.023, vitamin C (p = 0.007, legumes (p = 0.004 and green tea (p = 0.002. Higher intakes of red meat and dairy products were inversely associated with DNA damage (p = 0.003 and p = 0.008 respectively. The results from this small feasibility study suggest that a high-antioxidant diet, modelled on Mediterranean traditions, may be of benefit for men with prostate cancer. Protection against DNA damage appears to be associated with the diet implemented, ostensibly due to reduction in reactive oxidant species. These findings warrant further exploration in a longer trial, with a larger cohort.

  11. Mediterranean diet reduces 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids: one-year randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech, Mónica; Roman, Pilar; Lapetra, José; García de la Corte, Francisco J; Sala-Vila, Aleix; de la Torre, Rafael; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa-María; Toledo, Estefania; Estruch, Ramón; Coca, Antonio; Ros, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    The PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial showed that Mediterranean diets (MedDiets) supplemented with either extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced cardiovascular events, particularly stroke, compared with a control, lower fat diet. The mechanisms of cardiovascular protection remain unclear. We evaluated the 1-year effects of supplemented MedDiets on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP), blood glucose, and lipids. Randomized, parallel-design, controlled trial was conducted in 2 PREDIMED sites. Diets were ad libitum, and no advice on increasing physical activity or reducing sodium intake was given. Participants were 235 subjects (56.5% women; mean age, 66.5 years) at high cardiovascular risk (85.4% with hypertension). Adjusted changes from baseline in mean systolic BP were -2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.0 to -0.5) mm Hg and -2.6 (95% CI, -4.3 to -0.9) mm Hg in the MedDiets with olive oil and the MedDiets with nuts, respectively, and 1.7 (95% CI, -0.1 to 3.5) mm Hg in the control group (Pthe MedDiets with olive oil, MedDiets with nuts, and control diet, respectively; those of total cholesterol were -11.3, -13.6, and -4.4 mg/dL (P=0.043), respectively. In high-risk individuals, most with treated hypertension, MedDiets supplemented with extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced 24-hour ambulatory BP, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Korean diet prevents obesity and ameliorates insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Won Hee Choi; Jiyun Ahn; Chang Hwa Jung; Jung Sook Seo; Tae Youl Ha

    2017-01-01

    Background: Korean diet has received considerable attention because of the low prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders in Korea. Although the Korean diet has been shown to have health benefits, these effects have been investigated by analyzing individual nutrients or food components. In this study, we used a dietary pattern approach to investigate the effect of the Korean diet on obesity and glucose homeostasis in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods: C57BL/6 mice were fed the HFD...

  13. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are ide...

  14. Diet matters, particularly in pregnancy – Results from MoBa studies of maternal diet and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lise Brantsæter

    2014-12-01

    of foods containing these. New findings are that particularly lean fish explained the positive association between seafood intake and foetal growth, and the indications of a protective effect of probiotic and antimicrobial foods on pregnancy outcomes. This points to the importance of diet composition for a healthy gut flora and the body’s immune response. Although these studies are observational and cannot infer causality, the results identify diet as an important modifiable lifestyle factor, suggesting that healthy eating, defined as following the official recommendations, is particularly important in pregnancy.

  15. Diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice fed Western diets based on lean seafood or lean meat mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Rønnevik, Alexander; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Fjære, Even; Fauske, Kristin Røen; Liisberg, Ulrike; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    High protein diets may protect against diet-induced obesity, but little is known regarding the effects of different protein sources consumed at standard levels. We investigated how a mixture of lean seafood or lean meat in a Western background diet modulated diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota. Male C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet (WD) containing a mixture of lean seafood (seafood WD) for 12weeks accumulated less fat mass than mice fed a WD containing a mixture of lean meat (meat WD). Meat WD-fed mice exhibited increased fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose clearance, elevated fasting plasma insulin and increased plasma and liver lipid levels. We observed no first choice preference for either of the WDs, but over time, mice fed the seafood WD consumed less energy than mice fed the meat WD. Mice fed the seafood WD exhibited higher spontaneous locomotor activity and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) than mice fed the meat WD. Thus, higher activity together with the decreased energy intake contributed to the different phenotypes observed in mice fed the seafood WD compared to mice fed the meat WD. Comparison of the gut microbiomes of mice fed the two WDs revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the orders Bacteroidales and Clostridiales, with genes involved in metabolism of aromatic amino acids exhibiting higher relative abundance in the microbiomes of mice fed the seafood WD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diet induced thermogenesis measured over 24h in a respiration chamber: effect of diet composition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Wilson, S.A.; Rolland, V.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of diet composition on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) over 24h in a respiration chamber. SUBJECTS: Eight healthy female volunteers (age 27 +/- 3 y; body mass index, BMI 23 +/- 3 kg/m2). DIETS: A

  17. Habitual diet and diet quality in Irritable Bowel Syndrome : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigchelaar, E. F.; Mujagic, Z.; Zhernakova, A.; Hesselink, M. A. M.; Meijboom, S.; Perenboom, C. W. M.; Masclee, A. A. M.; Wijmenga, C.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Jonkers, D. M. A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diet is considered to be a key factor in symptom generation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and patients tend to exclude food products from their diet in pursue of symptom relief, which may impair diet quality. Methods: We evaluated habitual dietary intake in IBS patients with regard

  18. Consumption of diets high in prebiotic fiber or protein during growth influences the response to a high fat and sucrose diet in adulthood in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Kim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early dietary exposure can influence susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. We examined the lasting effects of a high protein or high prebiotic fiber weaning diet when followed by a high energy diet in adulthood. Methods At birth, litters of Wistar rats were culled to 10 pups. At 21 d pups were weaned onto control (C, high prebiotic fiber (HF or high protein (HP diet. Rats consumed the experimental diets until 14 wk when they were switched to a high fat/sucrose (HFHS diet for 6 wk. Body composition and energy intake were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT performed. Blood was analyzed for satiety hormones and tissues collected for real-time PCR. Results Weight gain was attenuated in male rats fed HF from 12 wk until study completion. In females there were early reductions in body weight that moderated until the final two wk of HFHS diet wherein HF females weighed less than HP. Final body weight was significantly higher following the high fat challenge in male and female rats that consumed HP diet from weaning compared to HF. Lean mass was higher and fat mass lower with HF compared to HP and compared to C in males. Energy intake was highest in HP rats, particularly at the start of HFHS feeding. Plasma glucose was higher in HP rats compared to HF during an OGTT. Plasma amylin was higher in HF females compared to C and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 was higher in HF rats during the OGTT. Leptin was higher in HP rats during the OGTT. HF upregulated GLUT 5 mRNA expression in the intestine and downregulated hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Male rats fed HP had higher hepatic triglyceride content than C or HF. Conclusion These data suggest that while a long-term diet high in protein predisposes to an obese phenotype when rats are given a high energy diet in adulthood, consumption of a high fiber diet during growth may provide some protection.

  19. [Composition of macronutrients in the diabetic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rušavý, Zdeněk; Žourek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The diabetic diet is one of the pillars of diabetes treatment. The rapid development of knowledge relating to the treatment of diabetes also includes diet. The paper focuses on the importance of a diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and prevention of atherosclerosis. Its main goal is to assess the impact of a composition of macronutrients on individuals with type 2 diabetes. The paper is divided into several parts, each of which ends with a conclusion. The first part examines weight reduction. The diet aimed at a weight loss is effective, it can effectively prevent diabetes, it leads to improvements in glucose control and reduction of the risk factors for atherosclerosis, however it will not impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality until after more than 20 years. The second part deals with "healthy" foods. The studies exploring this area are not convincing. The only really rational component of food in relation to atherosclerosis is dietary fibres. Important is a balanced diet combined with regular physical activities. The third part focuses on the composition of macronutrients. It turns out that, considering a low-calorie diet, the effects of high- and low-carbohydrate diets on people with diabetes are similar with regard to weight loss and lowering of HbA1c, however the low-carbohydrate diet is associated with lower glycemic variability and a reduced need for anti-diabetic drugs. We do not know how the comparison of the two extreme diets would come out regarding individuals with a high energy diet. Currently it is useful to focus on the quality of individual macronutrients. Choose foods containing carbohydrates with a low glycemic index and high fibre foods, prefer fats that contain a low proportion of saturated fatty acids. The fourth part discusses the recent recommendation of the Czech Diabetes Society regarding the composition of macronutrients in the diabetic diet. As compared with the diet proposed earlier, lower intake of fibre

  20. Evaluation of Soybean Hulls in Grower Turkey Diets | Etuk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 42 day study was carried out to evaluate the effect of soybean hulls (SBH) in diets of grower turkeys. Four experimental turkey grower diets were formulated such that soybean hulls made up of 0.0 (control diet), 10.0, 20.0 and 30.0% of the diets respectively replacing maize and soybean meal. These diets were offered ...