Sample records for blueberry supplementation attenuates

  1. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults (United States)

    The prevalence of dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease, is increasing with the expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to mitigate this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominent...

  2. A blueberry enriched diet attenuates nephropathy in a rat model of hypertension via reduction in oxidative stress (United States)

    Objective: To assess renoprotective effects of a blueberry-enriched diet in a rat model of hypertension. Background: Oxidative stress (OS) appears to be involved in the development of hypertension and related renal injury. Pharmacological antioxidants can attenuate hypertension and hypertension-indu...

  3. Blueberry husks and probiotics attenuate colorectal inflammation and oncogenesis, and liver injuries in rats exposed to cycling DSS-treatment.

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    Asa Håkansson

    Full Text Available Long-term colonic inflammation promotes carcinogenesis and histological abnormalities of the liver, and colorectal tumours frequently arise in a background of dysplasia, a precursor of adenomas. Altered colonic microbiota with an increased proportion of bacteria with pro-inflammatory characteristics, have been implicated in neoplastic progression. The composition of the microbiota can be modified by dietary components such as probiotics, polyphenols and dietary fibres. In the present study, the influence of probiotics in combination with blueberry husks on colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent liver damage was evaluated.Colorectal tumours were induced in rats by cyclic treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS. Blueberry husks and a mixture of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15159, Lactobacillus gasseri, DSM 16737 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313 supplemented a basic diet fortified with oats. The condition of the rats was monitored using a disease activity index (DAI. A qualitative and quantitative histological judgement was performed on segments of distal colon and rectum and the caudate lobe of the liver. The formation of short-chain fatty acids, bacterial translocation, the inflammatory reaction and viable count of lactobacilli and Enterobaceriaceae were addressed.Blueberry husks with or without probiotics significantly decreased DAI, and significantly reduced the number of colonic ulcers and dysplastic lesions. With a decreased proportion of blueberry husk in the diet, the probiotic supplement was needed to achieve a significant decrease in numbers of dysplastic lesions. Probiotics decreased faecal viable count of Enterobacteriaceae and increased that of lactobacilli. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics lowered the proportion of butyric acid in distal colon, and decreased the haptoglobin levels. Probiotics mitigated hepatic injuries by decreasing parenchymal infiltration and the incidence of stasis and

  4. Neurochemical differences in learning and memory paradigms among rats supplemented with anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets and exposed to acute doses of 56Fe particles (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Bielinski, Donna F.; Kelly, Megan E.; Miller, Marshall G.; Thanthaeng, Nopporn; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara


    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries (BB) on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress, which can lead to ;accelerated aging.; One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, consisting of high-energy and -charge particles (HZE), which are known to cause cognitive dysfunction and deleterious neurochemical alterations. We recently tested the behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute exposure to HZE particles such as 56Fe, within 24-48 h after exposure, and found that radiation primarily affects memory and not learning. Importantly, we observed that specific brain regions failed to upregulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in response to this insult. To further examine these endogenous response mechanisms, we have supplemented young rats with diets rich in BB, which are known to contain high amounts of antioxidant-phytochemicals, prior to irradiation. Exposure to 56Fe caused significant neurochemical changes in hippocampus and frontal cortex, the two critical regions of the brain involved in cognitive function. BB supplementation significantly attenuated protein carbonylation, which was significantly increased by exposure to 56Fe in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Moreover, BB supplementation significantly reduced radiation-induced elevations in NADPH-oxidoreductase-2 (NOX2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Overall results indicate that 56Fe particles may induce their toxic effects on hippocampus and frontal cortex by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overload, which can cause alterations in the neuronal environment, eventually leading to hippocampal neuronal death and subsequent impairment of cognitive function. Blueberry supplementation provides an effective preventative measure to reduce the ROS load on the CNS in an event of acute HZE exposure.

  5. Evaluation of the in vitro/in vivo potential of five berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) commonly used as herbal supplements to inhibit uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase. (United States)

    Choi, Eu Jin; Park, Jung Bae; Yoon, Kee Dong; Bae, Soo Kyung


    In this study, we evaluated inhibitory potentials of popularly-consumed berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) as herbal supplements on UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 in vitro. We also investigated the potential herb-drug interaction via UGT1A1 inhibition by blueberry in vivo. We demonstrated that these berries had only weak inhibitory effects on the five UGTs. Bilberry and elderberry had no apparent inhibitions. Blueberry weakly inhibited UGT1A1 with an IC50 value of 62.4±4.40 μg/mL and a Ki value of 53.1 μg/mL. Blueberry also weakly inhibited UGT2B7 with an IC50 value of 147±11.1 μg/mL. In addition, cranberry weakly inhibited UGT1A9 activity (IC50=458±49.7 μg/mL) and raspberry ketones weakly inhibited UGT2B7 activity (IC50=248±28.2 μg/mL). Among tested berries, blueberry showed the lowest IC50 value in the inhibition of UGT1A1 in vitro. However, the co-administration of blueberry had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38, which was mainly eliminated via UGT1A1, in vivo. Our data suggests that these five berries are unlikely to cause clinically significant herb-drug interactions mediated via inhibition of UGT enzymes involved in drug metabolism. These findings should enable an understanding of herb-drug interactions for the safe use of popularly-consumed berries.

  6. Cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and Blueberry Extracts Supplementation Improves Spatial Memory and Regulates Hippocampal ERK Expression in Senescence-accelerated Mice

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    TAN Long; YANG Hong Peng; PANG Wei; LU Hao; HU Yan Dan; LI Jing; LU Shi Jun; ZHANG Wan Qi; JIANG Yu Gang


    Objective To investigate whether the antioxidation and the regulation on the Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinases (ERK) signaling pathway are involved in the protective effects of blueberry on central nervous system. Methods 30 Senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into three groups and treated with normal diet, blueberry extracts (200 mg/kg·bw/day) and cyaniding-3-O-galactoside (Cy-3-GAL) (50 mg/kg·bw/day) from blueberry for 8 weeks. 10 SAMR1 mice were set as control group. The capacity of spatial memory was assessed by Passive avoidance task and Morris water maze. Histological analyses on hippocampus were completed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and the expression of ERK were detected. Results Both Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts were shown effective functions to relieve cellular injury, improve hippocampal neurons survival and inhibit the pyramidal cell layer damage. Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts also increased SOD activity and reduced MDA content in brain tissues and plasma, and increased hippocampal phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) expression in SAMP8 mice. Further more, the passive avoidance task test showed that both the latency time and the number of errors were improved by Cy-3-GAL treatment, and the Morris Water Maze test showed significant decreases of latency were detected by Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts treatment on day 4. Conclusion Blueberry extracts may reverse the declines of cognitive and behavioral function in the ageing process through several pathways, including enhancing the capacity of antioxidation, altering stress signaling. Cy-3-GAL may be an important active ingredient for these biological effects.

  7. Intake of Wild Blueberry Powder Improves Episodic-Like and Working Memory during Normal Aging in Mice. (United States)

    Beracochea, Daniel; Krazem, Ali; Henkouss, Nadia; Haccard, Guillaume; Roller, Marc; Fromentin, Emilie


    The number of Americans older than 65 years old is projected to more than double in the next 40 years. Cognitive changes associated to aging can affect an adult's day-to-day functioning. Among these cognitive changes, reasoning, episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed decline gradually over time. Early memory changes include a decline in both working and episodic memory. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic (up to 75 days) daily administration of wild blueberry extract or a wild blueberry full spectrum powder would help prevent memory failure associated with aging in tasks involving various forms of memory. Both blueberry ingredients were used in a study comparing young mice (6 months old) to aged mice (18 months old). At this age, mice exhibit memory decline due to aging, which is exacerbated first by a loss in working and contextual (episodic-like) memory. Contextual memory (episodic-like memory) was evaluated using the contextual serial discrimination test. Working and spatial memory were evaluated using the Morris-Water maze test and the sequential alternation test. Statistical analysis was performed using an ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Supplementation with wild blueberry full spectrum powder and wild blueberry extract resulted in significant improvement of contextual memory, while untreated aged mice experienced a decline in such memory. Only the wild blueberry full spectrum powder significantly contributed to an improvement of spatial and working memory versus untreated aged mice. These improvements of cognitive performance may be related to brain oxidative status, acetylcholinesterase activity, neuroprotection, or attenuation of immunoreactivity.

  8. Attenuation of oxidative stress and cardioprotective effects of zinc supplementation in experimental diabetic rats. (United States)

    Barman, Susmita; Srinivasan, Krishnapura


    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, which further exacerbates damage of cardiac, hepatic and other tissues. We have recently reported that Zn supplementation beneficially modulates hyperglycaemia and hypoinsulinaemia, with attendant reduction of associated metabolic abnormalities in diabetic rats. The present study assessed the potential of Zn supplementation in modulating oxidative stress and cardioprotective effects in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats with streptozotocin, and groups of diabetic rats were treated with 5- and 10-fold dietary Zn interventions (0·19 and 0·38 g Zn/kg diet) for 6 weeks. The markers of oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activities and concentrations of antioxidant molecules, lipid profile, and expressions of fibrosis and pro-apoptotic factors in the cardiac tissue were particularly assessed. Supplemental Zn showed significant attenuation of diabetes-induced oxidative stress in terms of altered antioxidant enzyme activities and increased the concentrations of antioxidant molecules. Hypercholesterolaemia and hyperlipidaemia were also significantly countered by Zn supplementation. Along with attenuated oxidative stress, Zn supplementation also showed significant cardioprotective effects by altering the mRNA expressions of fibrosis and pro-apoptotic factors (by >50 %). The expression of lipid oxidative marker 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) protein in cardiac tissue of diabetic animals was rectified (68 %) by Zn supplementation. Elevated cardiac and hepatic markers in circulation and pathological abnormalities in cardiac and hepatic tissue architecture of diabetic animals were ameliorated by dietary Zn intervention. The present study indicates that Zn supplementation can attenuate diabetes-induced oxidative stress in circulation as well as in cardiac and hepatic tissues.

  9. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

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    Wafa Siouda


    supplemented rats. Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats.

  10. Fighting phytophthora in blueberries (United States)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  11. Effect of zinc supplements in the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat heart. (United States)

    Kansal, Sunil Kumar; Jyoti, Uma; Sharma, Samridhi; Kaura, Arun; Deshmukh, Rahul; Goyal, Sandeep


    Hyperlipidemia is regarded as independent risk factor in the development of ischemic heart disease, and it can increase the myocardial susceptibility to ischemia-/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury. Hyperlipidemia attenuates the cardioprotective response of ischemic preconditioning (IPC). The present study investigated the effect of zinc supplements in the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rat by feeding high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks then the serum lipid profile was observed. In experiment, the isolated Langendorff rat heart preparation was subjected to 4 cycles of ischemic preconditioning (IPC), then 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was elaborated morphologically by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and biochemically by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) release from coronary effluent and left ventricular collagen content. However, the effect of zinc supplement, i.e., zinc pyrithione (10 μM) perfused during reperfusion for 120 min, significantly abrogated the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat heart whereas administration of chelator of this zinc ionophore, i.e., N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylene diamine (TPEN; 10 μM), perfused during reperfusion 2 min before the perfusion of zinc pyrithione abrogated the cardioprotective effect of zinc supplement during experiment in hyperlipidemic rat heart. Thus, the administration of zinc supplements limits the infarct size, LDH, and CK-MB and enhanced the collagen level which suggests that the attenuated cardioprotective effect of IPC in hyperlipidemic rat is due to zinc loss during reperfusion caused by ischemia/reperfusion.

  12. Macadamia Oil Supplementation Attenuates Inflammation and Adipocyte Hypertrophy in Obese Mice

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    Edson A. Lima


    Full Text Available Excess of saturated fatty acids in the diet has been associated with obesity, leading to systemic disruption of insulin signaling, glucose intolerance, and inflammation. Macadamia oil administration has been shown to improve lipid profile in humans. We evaluated the effect of macadamia oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profile, and adipocyte size in high-fat diet (HF induced obesity in mice. C57BL/6 male mice (8 weeks were divided into four groups: (a control diet (CD, (b HF, (c CD supplemented with macadamia oil by gavage at 2 g/Kg of body weight, three times per week, for 12 weeks (CD + MO, and (d HF diet supplemented with macadamia oil (HF + MO. CD and HF mice were supplemented with water. HF mice showed hypercholesterolemia and decreased insulin sensitivity as also previously shown. HF induced inflammation in adipose tissue and peritoneal macrophages, as well as adipocyte hypertrophy. Macadamia oil supplementation attenuated hypertrophy of adipocytes and inflammation in the adipose tissue and macrophages.

  13. Supplementation of parenteral nutrition with fish oil attenuates acute lung injury in a rat model (United States)

    Kohama, Keisuke; Nakao, Atsunori; Terashima, Mariko; Aoyama-Ishikawa, Michiko; Shimizu, Takayuki; Harada, Daisuke; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Yamashita, Hayato; Fujiwara, Mayu; Kotani, Joji


    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has diverse immunomodulatory properties and attenuates acute lung injury when administered in enternal nutrition. However, enteral nutrition is not always feasible. Therefore, we investigated the ability of parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil to ameliorate acute lung injury. Rats were infused with parenteral nutrition solutions (without lipids, with soybean oil, or with soybean oil and fish oil) for three days. Lipopolysaccharide (15 mg/kg) was then administered intratracheally to induce acute lung injury, characterized by impaired lung function, polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment, parenchymal tissue damage, and upregulation of mRNAs for inflammatory mediators. Administration of parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil prior to lung insult improved gas exchange and inhibited neutrophil recruitment and upregulation of mRNAs for inflammatory mediators. Parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil also prolonged survival. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, leukotriene B4 and leukotriene B5 secretion was measured in neutrophils from the peritoneal cavity. The neutrophils from rats treated with fish oil-rich parenteral nutrition released significantly more leukotriene B5, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid, than neutrophils isolated from rats given standard parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition with fish oil significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats in part by promoting the synthesis of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. PMID:24688221


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    Florentina BADIU


    Full Text Available This article presents the advantages of cultivating blueberries, both economically and from an alimentary and therapeutic point of view. By calculating profit per hectare for the most productive varieties of blueberry, it was shown that this culture is particularly profitable for young farmers. In fact, blueberries have significant therapeutic value, being used in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Current Development Situation and Prospects of Blueberry in Guangdong Province

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    Lixia; GAO; Hualan; XIAO; Sen; LI; Fengmin; LIU; Aiqiong; MO


    With high nutrition and health value,blueberry receives much concern in recent years. Blueberry experts in the world are cultivating new blueberry varieties. They have come up with constructive theoretical support and planting technology researches and are constantly devoted to expanding blueberry planting latitudes. This paper elaborated researches of blueberry at home and abroad,current development situation of blueberry in China and Guangdong Province,analyzed strengths of planting blueberry in Guangdong. Besides,it came up with recommendations for development of blueberry industry. Finally,it discussed development prospects of blueberry planting in Guangdong.

  16. American ginseng supplementation attenuates creatine kinase level induced by submaximal exercise in human beings

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    Cheng-Chen Hsu; Min-Chen Ho; Li-Chin Lin; Borcherng Su; Mei-Chich Hsu


    AIM: To investigate whether American ginseng (AG, Panax quinquefolium) supplementation was able to improve endurance exercise performance.METHODS: Thirteen physically active male college students were divided into two groups (AG or placebo)and received supplementation for 4 wk, before the exhaustive running exercise. Treadmill speed was increased to a pace equivalent to 80% VO2max of the subject. A 4-wk washout period followed before the subjects crossed over and received the alternate supplement for the next 4 wk.They then completed a second exhaustive running exercise. The physiological variables that were examined included time to exhaustion and oxygen pulse. Moreover,the plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate were measured prior to the exercise, at 15 and 30 min during exercise,immediately after exercise, and 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after exercise.RESULTS: The major finding of this investigation was that the production plasma CK during the exercise significantly decreased for group AG than for group P. Secondary physiological finding was that 80% VO2max running was not improved over a 4-wk AG supplementation regimen.CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AG for 4 wk prior to an exhaustive aerobic treadmill running reduced the leakage of CK during exercise, but did not enhance aerobic work capacity. The reduction of plasma CK may be due to the fact that AG is effective for the decrease of skeletal muscle cell membrane damage, induced by exercise during the high-intensity treadmill run.

  17. Long-term supplementation with resveratrol alleviates oxidative stress but does not attenuate sarcopenia in aged mice. (United States)

    Jackson, Janna R; Ryan, Michael J; Alway, Stephen E


    This study analyzed the capacity of resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, to reduce aging-induced oxidative stress and protect against sarcopenia. Middle-aged (18 months) C57/BL6 mice were randomly assigned to receive either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% trans-resveratrol for 10 months. Young (6 months) and middle-aged (18 months) mice were used as controls. Resveratrol supplementation did not reduce the aging-associated loss of muscle mass or improve maximal isometric force production, but it appeared to preserve fast-twitch fiber contractile function. Resveratrol supplementation did not improve mitochondrial content, the subcellular localization of cytochrome c protein content, or PGC1 protein content. Resveratrol increased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), reduced hydrogen peroxide(,) and lipid peroxidation levels in muscle samples, but it was unable to significantly reduce protein carbonyl levels. The data suggest that resveratrol has a protective effect against aging-induced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, likely through the upregulation of MnSOD activity, but sarcopenia was not attenuated by resveratrol.

  18. Exercise-induced muscle damage is not attenuated by beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid supplementation. (United States)

    Nunan, David; Howatson, Glyn; van Someren, Ken A


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combined oral beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) supplementation on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) after an acute bout of eccentric-biased exercise. Fourteen male subjects were allocated to 2 groups: a placebo group (3 g.d corn flour, N = 7) or an HMB + KIC group (3 g.d HMB and 0.3 g.d KIC, N = 7). Supplementation commenced 11 days before a 40-minute bout of downhill running and continued for 3 days post-exercise. Delayed-onset muscle soreness, mid-thigh girth, knee extensor range of motion, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, and isometric and concentric torque were assessed pre-exercise and at 24, 48, and 72 hours post-exercise. Delayed-onset muscle soreness, CK activity, and isometric and concentric torque all changed over the 72-hour period (p < 0.05); however, HMB + KIC had no significant effect on any of the indices of muscle damage. Although 14 days HMB and KIC supplementation did not attenuate indices of EIMD after an acute bout of unaccustomed eccentric-biased exercise, there was a trend for a more rapid rate of recovery in isometric and isokinetic muscle function. beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and KIC may therefore provide limited benefit in the recovery of muscle function after EIMD in untrained subjects or after unaccustomed exercise.

  19. Dietary L-arginine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in broiler chickens (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation on inflammatory response and innate immunity of broilers. Experiment 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatment; 6 birds/cage) with 3 dietary Arg concentrations (1.05, 1.4...

  20. Marginal Ascorbate Status (Hypovitaminosis C) Results in an Attenuated Response to Vitamin C Supplementation. (United States)

    Carr, Anitra C; Pullar, Juliet M; Bozonet, Stephanie M; Vissers, Margreet C M


    Inadequate dietary intake of vitamin C results in hypovitaminosis C, defined as a plasma ascorbate concentration ≤23 μmol/L. Our objective was to carry out a retrospective analysis of two vitamin C supplementation studies to determine whether supplementation with 50 mg/day vitamin C is sufficient to restore adequate ascorbate status (≥50 μmol/L) in individuals with hypovitaminosis C. Plasma ascorbate data from 70 young adult males, supplemented with 50 or 200 mg/day vitamin C for up to six weeks, was analyzed. Hypovitaminosis C status was identified based on plasma ascorbate being ≤23 μmol/L and the response of these individuals to vitamin C supplementation was examined. Of the participants consuming 50 mg/day vitamin C for up to six weeks, those with hypovitaminosis C at baseline achieved plasma concentrations of only ~30 μmol/L, whereas the remainder reached ~50 μmol/L. Participants who consumed 200 mg/day vitamin C typically reached saturating concentrations (>65 μmol/L) within one week, while those with hypovitaminosis C required two weeks to reach saturation. Regression modelling indicated that the participants' initial ascorbate status and body weight explained ~30% of the variability in the final ascorbate concentration. Overall, our analysis revealed that supplementation with 50 mg/day vitamin C, which resulted in a total dietary vitamin C intake of 75 mg/day, was insufficient to achieve adequate plasma ascorbate concentrations in individuals with hypovitaminosis C. Furthermore, increased body weight had a negative impact on ascorbate status.

  1. Blueberries inhibit proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in macrophages (United States)

    Blueberries (BB) have been reported to attenuate atherosclerosis in apoE deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of BB on proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages was investigated. ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G diet (...

  2. Feeding blueberry diets dose-dependently inhibits bone resorption in young rats (United States)

    Nutritional status is a critical factor that influences bone development. We previously reported that weanling rats fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry (BB) powder for only two weeks beginning on postnatal day 21 (PND21) significantly promoted bone formation. Howeve...

  3. Blueberries affect neuroinflammation and cognition differentially depending on individual cognitive baseline status (United States)

    Aging and neurodegenerative diseases are thought to be the results of prolonged effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Previously, we have shown that daily supplementation of blueberries (BBs) was able to reverse age-related deficits in behavioral and neuronal function in aged rats. However, ...

  4. Dietary Chitosan Supplementation Increases Microbial Diversity and Attenuates the Severity of Citrobacter rodentium Infection in Mice (United States)

    Wang, Hongbing; Xiong, Xia; Tan, Bie; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Fang, Jun


    C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS) supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower in colon from COS-feeding mice than those in the control group. Furthermore, mice in COS group were also found to experience inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the colonic tissue. Overall, the findings revealed that adding 300 mg/kg COS to the diet changed the composition of the intestinal microflora of mice, resulting in suppressed NF-κB activation and less production of TNF-α and IL-6; and these changes led to better control of inflammation and resolution of infection with C. rodentium. PMID:27761062

  5. Dietary Chitosan Supplementation Increases Microbial Diversity and Attenuates the Severity of Citrobacter rodentium Infection in Mice

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    Guiping Guan


    Full Text Available C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower in colon from COS-feeding mice than those in the control group. Furthermore, mice in COS group were also found to experience inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in the colonic tissue. Overall, the findings revealed that adding 300 mg/kg COS to the diet changed the composition of the intestinal microflora of mice, resulting in suppressed NF-κB activation and less production of TNF-α and IL-6; and these changes led to better control of inflammation and resolution of infection with C. rodentium.

  6. Riboflavin supplementation does not attenuate hyperoxic lung injury in transgenic (spc-mt)hGR mice. (United States)

    Heyob, Kathryn M; Rogers, Lynette K; Tipple, Trent E; Welty, Stephen E


    The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that mice expressing mitochondrially targeted human glutathione reductase (GR) driven by a surfactant protein C promoter ((spc-mt)hGR) are functionally riboflavin deficient and that this deficiency exacerbates hyperoxic lung injury. The authors further hypothesized that dietary supplementation with riboflavin (FADH) will improve the bioactivity of GR, thus enhancing resistance to hyperoxic lung injury. Transgenic (mt-spc)hGR mice and their nontransgenic littermates were fed control or riboflavin-supplemented diets upon weaning. At 6 weeks of age the mice were exposed to either room air (RA) or >95% O(2) for up to 84 hours. GR activities (with and without exogenous FADH) and GR protein levels were measured in lung tissue homogenates. Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) concentrations were assayed to identify changes in GR activity in vivo. Lung injury was assessed by right lung to body weight ratios and bronchoalveolar lavage protein concentrations. The data showed that enhanced GR activity in the mitochondria of lung type II cells does not protect adult mice from hyperoxic lung injury. Furthermore, the addition of riboflavin to the diets of (spc-mt)hGR mice neither enhances GR activities nor offers protection from hyperoxic lung injury. The results indicated that modulation of mitochondrial GR activity in lung type II cells is not an effective therapy to minimize hyperoxic lung injury.

  7. Blueberry Extracts Protect Testis from Hypobaric Hypoxia Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

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    Andrea Zepeda


    Full Text Available Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes oxidative damage to male rat reproductive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a blueberry extract (BB-4 in testis of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Morphometric analysis, cellular DNA fragmentation, glutathione reductase (GR, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were evaluated. Our results showed that supplementation of BB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation, decreased apoptosis, and increased GR and SOD activities in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia conditions . Therefore, this study demonstrates that blueberry extract significantly reduced the harmful effects of oxidative stress caused by hypobaric hypoxia in rat testis by affecting glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities.

  8. Folic acid supplementation attenuates hyperhomocysteinemia-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in rats

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    Jun Wang; Yan Cui; Jing Ge; Meijing Ma


    Folic acid participates in the metabolism of homocysteine and lowers plasma homocysteine levels directly or indirectly. To establish a hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rat model, 2 mL of DL-homocysteine was administered daily by intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 200 mg/kg from day 10 to day 19 of gestation. Folic acid was administered by intragastric administration at a dose of 20 mg/kg during the period of preeclampsia induction. Results showed that systolic blood pressure, proteinuria/creatinine ratio, and plasma homocysteine levels in the hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats increased significantly, and that body weight and brain weight of rat pups significantly decreased. Folic acid supplementation markedly reversed the above-mentioned abnormal changes of hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats and rat pups. These findings suggest that folic acid can alleviate the symptoms of hyperhomocysteinemia- induced preeclampsia in pregnant rats without influencing brain development of rat pups.

  9. Dietary unsaponifiable fraction from extra virgin olive oil supplementation attenuates acute ulcerative colitis in mice. (United States)

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, M; Aparicio-Soto, M; Villegas, I; Rosillo, M A; de la Lastra, C Alarcón


    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has demonstrated immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties in murine experimental ulcerative colitis (UC). In addition to its high monounsaturated fatty acid content, evidences have accumulated on the favorable properties of minor, although highly bioactive, components present in the unsaponifiable fraction (UF). The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary EVOO's UF supplementation on acute UC. C57BL/6 mice were fed from weaning with sunflower oil (SD), EVOO diet and UF-enriched SD at 5% oil (SD+UF). After 30 days, mice were exposed to 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days developing acute colitis. After 4 days of DSS removal, animals were sacrificed and colons were histological and biochemically processed. Disease activity index and microscopic damage score were significantly improved in EVOO and SD+UF dietary groups versus SD group. In addition, both dietary treatments significantly induced decreases in MCP-1 and TNF-α levels, iNOS and COX-2 overexpression and p38 MAPKs activation in colon mucosa. Moreover, an upregulation of IκB expression was also observed after feeding the animals with both diets. However, no statistically differences between data from mice fed with EVOO or UF+SD diets were observed. Dietary enrichment with EVOO's UF reduces the damage in acute colitis model, alleviating the oxidative events and returning proinflammatory proteins expression to basal levels probably through p38 MAPK and NFκB signalling pathways. EVOO's UF diet might provide a basis for developing a new strategy in dietary supplementation for the prevention of UC.

  10. Exogenous nerve growth factor supplementation elevates myocardial immunoreactivity and attenuates cardiac remodeling in pressure-overload rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing He; and Yuming Li; Fan Ye; Xin Zhou; He Li; Xiaoqing Xun; Xiaoqing Ma; Xudong Liu; Zhihong Wang; Pengxiao Xu


    It is postulated that supplementation of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) might mediate improvement of the cardiac sympathetic nerve function in heart failure (HF).Local intramuscular injection of NGF near the cardiac sympathetic ganglia could influence the innervation pattern,norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene expression,and improve the cardiac remodeling in experimental HF animals.In this study,we injected NGF into the scalenus medius muscles of Sprague-Dawley rats with abdominal aortic constriction (AC).The nerve innervated pattern,left ventricular morphology,and function following injection in rats with AC were investigated respectively by immunohistochemistry and echocardiography.Levels of mRNA expression of NET,growth associated protein 43 (GAP 43),NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75NTR,and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured by realtime polymerase chain reaction.The results showed that myocardial NGF mRNA levels were comparable in rats with AC.Short-term supplementation of exogenous NGF raised the myocardial NGF immunoreactivity,but did not cause hyperinnervation and NET mRNA upregulation in the AC rats.Furthermore,myocardial TrkA mRNA was found to be remarkably decreased and p75NTR mRNA was increased.Myocardial TrkA downregulation may play a beneficial effect for avoiding the hyperinnervation,and it is reasonable to postulate that p75NTR can function as an NGF receptor in the absence of TrkA.Interestingly,local NGF administration into the neck muscles near the ganglia could attenuate cardiac remodeling and downregulate BNP mRNA.These results suggest that exogenous NGF can reach the target tissue along the axons anterogradely,and improve the cardiac remodeling.

  11. Cigarette Smoking-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy, Vascular Inflammation and Injury are Attenuated by Antioxidant Supplementation in An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Al Hariri


    hypertrophy in cigarette smoke exposed animals.Conclusion Findings from this work showed that cigarette smoking exposure is associated with significant cardiovascular pathology such as cardiac hypertrophy, inflammation, pro-fibrotic and atherogenic markers and aortic calcification in an animal model as assessed 1 month post exposure. Antioxidant supplementation prevented cardiac hypertrophy and attenuated indicators of atherosclerosis markers associated with cigarette smoke exposure.Key words: Cigarette smoking, pomegranate Juice, inflammation, hypertrophy, calcification, reactive oxygen species, cardiovascular diseases.

  12. The ergogenic supplement β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) attenuates insulin resistance through suppressing GLUT-2 in rat liver. (United States)

    Sharawy, Maha H; El-Awady, Mohammed S; Megahed, Nirmeen; Gameil, Nariman M


    This study investigates the effect of the ergogenic supplement β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on insulin resistance induced by high-fructose diet (HFD) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed 60% HFD for 12 weeks and HMB (320 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), orally) for 4 weeks. HFD significantly increased fasting insulin, fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1C), liver glycogen content, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, while it decreased glucose and insulin tolerance. Furthermore, HFD significantly increased serum triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels, while it significantly decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, HFD significantly increased mRNA expression of glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) but decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) in liver. Aortic relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) was impaired and histopathology showed severe hepatic steatosis. HMB significantly increased insulin tolerance and decreased fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HBA1C, hepatic glycogen content, serum TG, LDL-C, and VLDL-C. Additionally, HMB enhanced ACh-induced relaxation, ameliorated hepatic steatosis, and decreased mRNA expression of GLUT-2. In conclusion, HMB may attenuate insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis through inhibiting GLUT-2 in liver.

  13. Survival and cardioprotective benefits of long-term blueberry enriched diet in dilated cardiomyopathy following myocardial infarction in rats (United States)

    Background: Despite remarkable progress in treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) over the last two decades, mortality, personal suffering and cost remain staggering. And effective interventions are still a challenge. Previously we reported that a blueberry-enriched diet (BD) attenuated necroapopt...

  14. Glutamine supplementation attenuates ethanol-induced disruption of apical junctional complexes in colonic epithelium and ameliorates gut barrier dysfunction and fatty liver in mice. (United States)

    Chaudhry, Kamaljit K; Shukla, Pradeep K; Mir, Hina; Manda, Bhargavi; Gangwar, Ruchika; Yadav, Nikki; McMullen, Megan; Nagy, Laura E; Rao, RadhaKrishna


    Previous in vitro studies showed that glutamine (Gln) prevents acetaldehyde-induced disruption of tight junctions and adherens junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers and human colonic mucosa. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Gln supplementation on ethanol-induced gut barrier dysfunction and liver injury in mice in vivo. Ethanol feeding caused a significant increase in inulin permeability in distal colon. Elevated permeability was associated with a redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins and depletion of detergent-insoluble fractions of these proteins, suggesting that ethanol disrupts apical junctional complexes in colonic epithelium and increases paracellular permeability. Ethanol-induced increase in colonic mucosal permeability and disruption of junctional complexes were most severe in mice fed Gln-free diet. Gln supplementation attenuated ethanol-induced mucosal permeability and disruption of tight junctions and adherens junctions in a dose-dependent manner, indicating the potential role of Gln in nutritional intervention to alcoholic tissue injury. Gln supplementation dose-dependently elevated reduced-protein thiols in colon without affecting the level of oxidized-protein thiols. Ethanol feeding depleted reduced protein thiols and elevated oxidized protein thiols. Ethanol-induced protein thiol oxidation was most severe in mice fed with Gln-free diet and absent in mice fed with Gln-supplemented diet, suggesting that antioxidant effect is one of the likely mechanisms involved in Gln-mediated amelioration of ethanol-induced gut barrier dysfunction. Ethanol feeding elevated plasma transaminase and liver triglyceride, which was accompanied by histopathologic lesions in the liver; ethanol-induced liver damage was attenuated by Gln supplementation. These results indicate that Gln supplementation ameliorates alcohol-induced gut and liver injury.

  15. Feeding blueberry diets to young rats dose-dependently inhibits bone resorption through suppression of rankl in stromal cells (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that weanling rats fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry (BB) powder for two weeks beginning on postnatal day 21 (PND21) significantly increased bone formation at PND35. However, the minimal level of dietary BB needed to produce thes...

  16. Effect of blueberry extract from blueberry pomace on the microencapsulated fish oil (United States)

    The effect of the addition of blueberry extract (BE) obtained from blueberry pomace on lipid oxidation of pollock liver oil (PO) during microencapsulation was evaluated. An emulsion containing PO and BE (EBE) was prepared and spray dried in a pilot scale spray dryer. Thiobarbituric acids (TBARS) of ...

  17. Prevalence and incidence of postharvest diseases of blueberries in California (United States)

    Recent establishment of low-chill southern highbush blueberry cultivars in California’s warm climate has significantly increased the acreage of blueberry production in the Central Valley of California, which is now a major southern highbush blueberry production region in the United States. The vast ...

  18. Blueberries reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in mouse macrophages by inhibiting NF Kappa B activation and the MAPK pathway (United States)

    Blueberries (BB) have been reported to attenuate atherosclerosis in apoE deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of BB in reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production in mouse macrophages. ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 1% fre...

  19. 75 FR 7985 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Withdrawal of a Proposed Rule (United States)


    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Withdrawal... 36955), to amend the Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) by increasing the..., development, advertising, and promotion of highbush blueberries in the marketplace. The Council...

  20. Glutamine Supplementation Attenuates Expressions of Adhesion Molecules and Chemokine Receptors on T Cells in a Murine Model of Acute Colitis

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    Yu-Chen Hou


    Full Text Available Background. Migration of T cells into the colon plays a major role in the pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated the effects of glutamine (Gln supplementation on chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules expressed by T cells in mice with dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS- induced colitis. Methods. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a Gln diet replacing 25% of the total nitrogen. After being fed the diets for 5 days, half of the mice from both groups were given 1.5% DSS in drinking water to induce colitis. Mice were killed after 5 days of DSS exposure. Results. DSS colitis resulted in higher expression levels of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand- (PSGL- 1, leukocyte function-associated antigen- (LFA- 1, and C-C chemokine receptor type 9 (CCR9 by T helper (Th and cytotoxic T (Tc cells, and mRNA levels of endothelial adhesion molecules in colons were upregulated. Gln supplementation decreased expressions of PSGL-1, LFA-1, and CCR9 by Th cells. Colonic gene expressions of endothelial adhesion molecules were also lower in Gln-colitis mice. Histological finding showed that colon infiltrating Th cells were less in the DSS group with Gln administration. Conclusions. Gln supplementation may ameliorate the inflammation of colitis possibly via suppression of T cell migration.

  1. ‘Baby Blues’ highbush blueberry (United States)

    ‘Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

  2. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Cláudio A. Cunha


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  3. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet. (United States)

    Shin, Su-Kyung; Cho, Su-Jung; Jung, Un Ju; Ryu, Ri; Choi, Myung-Sook


    Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w), high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w), or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w). The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  4. BBGD: an online database for blueberry genomic data

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    Matthews Benjamin F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae family, which also includes closely related cranberry and more distantly related rhododendron, azalea, and mountain laurel. Blueberry is a major berry crop in the United States, and one that has great nutritional and economical value. Extreme low temperatures, however, reduce crop yield and cause major losses to US farmers. A better understanding of the genes and biochemical pathways that are up- or down-regulated during cold acclimation is needed to produce blueberry cultivars with enhanced cold hardiness. To that end, the blueberry genomics database (BBDG was developed. Along with the analysis tools and web-based query interfaces, the database serves both the broader Ericaceae research community and the blueberry research community specifically by making available ESTs and gene expression data in searchable formats and in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of cold acclimation and freeze tolerance in blueberry. Description BBGD is the world's first database for blueberry genomics. BBGD is both a sequence and gene expression database. It stores both EST and microarray data and allows scientists to correlate expression profiles with gene function. BBGD is a public online database. Presently, the main focus of the database is the identification of genes in blueberry that are significantly induced or suppressed after low temperature exposure. Conclusion By using the database, researchers have developed EST-based markers for mapping and have identified a number of "candidate" cold tolerance genes that are highly expressed in blueberry flower buds after exposure to low temperatures.

  5. A calcium-collagen chelate dietary supplement attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Hooshmand, Shirin; Feresin, Rafaela G; Payton, Mark E; Gu, Jennifer; Arjmandi, Bahram H


    Menopause leads to an increased risk for osteoporosis in women. Although drug therapies exist, increasing numbers of people prefer alternative therapies such as dietary supplements, for example, calcium, vitamin D, and collagen hydrolysates for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We have previously shown that a 3-month intervention using a calcium-collagen chelate (CC) dietary supplement was efficacious in improving bone mineral density (BMD) and blood biomarkers of bone turnover in osteopenic postmenopausal women. This study reports the long-term efficacy of CC in reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Thirty-nine women were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 5 g of CC containing 500 mg of elemental calcium and 200 IU vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) or control (500 mg of calcium and 200 IU vitamin D) daily for 12 months. Total body, lumbar, and hip BMD were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 12 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months to assess levels of blood biomarkers of bone turnover. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed using repeated measures analysis of variance pairwise comparisons and multivariate analysis to assess time and group interactions. The loss of whole body BMD in women taking CC was substantially lower than that of the control group at 12 months in those who completed the study and the ITT analysis, respectively (CC: -1.33% and -0.33% vs. control: -3.75% and -2.17%; P=.026, P=.035). The CC group had significantly reduced levels of sclerostin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) (P<.05), and higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase/TRAP5b ratio (P<.05) than control at 6 months. These results support the use of CC in reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  6. Potentiation of the bioavailability of blueberry phenolic compounds by co-ingested grape phenolic compounds in mice, revealed by targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces. (United States)

    Dudonné, Stéphanie; Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Dubé, Pascal; Varin, Thibault V; Calon, Frédéric; Desjardins, Yves


    The low bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds, resulting from poor absorption and high rates of metabolism and excretion, is a concern as it can limit their potential beneficial effects on health. Targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces of mice supplemented for 15 days with a blueberry extract, a grape extract or their combination revealed significantly increased plasma concentrations (3-5 fold) of blueberry phenolic metabolites in the presence of a co-ingested grape extract, associated with an equivalent decrease in their appearance in feces. Additionally, the repeated daily administration of the blueberry-grape combination significantly increased plasma phenolic concentrations (2-3-fold) compared to animals receiving only a single acute dose, with no such increase being observed with individual extracts. These findings highlight a positive interaction between blueberry and grape constituents, in which the grape extract enhanced the absorption of blueberry phenolic compounds. This study provides for the first time in vivo evidence of such an interaction occurring between co-ingested phenolic compounds from fruit extracts leading to their improved bioavailability.

  7. Glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition attenuates plasma interleukin-6 in surgical patients with lower disease severity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Tsan Lin; Sung-Pao Kung; Sung-Ling Yeh; Koung-Yi Liaw; Ming-Yang Wang; Ming-Liang Kuo; Po-Houng Lee; Wei-Jao Chen


    AIM: To evaluate whether the effect of Gln dipeptideenriched total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on postoperative cytokine alteration depended on the disease severity of surgical patients.METHODS: Forty-eight patients with major abdominal surgery were allocated to two groups to receive isonitrogenous (0.228 g nitrogen/kg per d) and isocaloric(30 kcal/kg per d) TPN for 6 d. Control group (Conv)using conventional TPN solution received 1.5 g amino adds/kg per day, whereas the test group received 0.972 g amino acids/kg per day and 0.417 g L-alanyl-L-glutamine(Ala-Gln)/kg per day. Blood samples were collected on d 1 and d 6 postoperatively for plasma interleukin (IL)-2,IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN)-γ analysis.RESULTS: Plasma IL-2 and IFN-γ were not detectable.IL-6 concentrations were significantly lower on the 6th postoperative day in the Ala-Gln group than those in the Conv group in patients with APACHE Ⅱ≤6, whereas no difference was noted in patients with APACHE Ⅱ>6. There was no difference in IL-8 levels between the two groups.No difference in cumulative nitrogen balance was observed on d 2-5 after the operation between the two groups(Ala-Gln -3.2±1.6 g vs Conv -6.5±2.7 g). A significant inverse correlation was noted between plasma IL-6 levels and cumulative nitrogen balance postoperatively in the Ala-Gln group, whereas no such correlation was observed in the Conv group.CONCLUSION: TPN supplemented with Gln dipeptide had no effect on plasma IL-8 levels after surgery. However,Gln supplementation had a beneficial effect on decreasing systemic IL-6 production after surgery in patients with low admission illness severity, and lower plasma IL-6 may improve nitrogen balance in patients with abdominal surgery when Gln was administered.

  8. Whey protein with potassium bicarbonate supplement attenuates the reduction in muscle oxidative capacity during 19 days of bed rest. (United States)

    Bosutti, Alessandra; Salanova, Michele; Blottner, Dieter; Buehlmeier, Judith; Mulder, Edwin; Rittweger, Jörn; Yap, Moi Hoon; Ganse, Bergita; Degens, Hans


    The effectiveness of whey protein plus potassium bicarbonate-enriched diet (WP+KHCO3) in mitigating disuse-induced changes in muscle fiber oxidative capacity and capillarization was investigated in a 21-day crossover design bed rest study. Ten healthy men (31 ± 6 yr) once received WP+KHCO3 and once received a standardized isocaloric diet. Muscle biopsies were taken 2 days before and during the 19th day of bed rest (BR) from the soleus (SOL) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle. Whole-body aerobic power (V̇o2 max), muscle fatigue, and isometric strength of knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles were monitored. Muscle fiber types and capillaries were identified by immunohistochemistry. Fiber oxidative capacity was determined as the optical density (OD) at 660 nm of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-stained sections. The product of fiber cross-sectional area and SDH-OD (integrated SDH) indicated the maximal oxygen consumption of that fiber. The maximal oxygen consumption supported by a capillary was calculated as the integrated SDH in its supply area. BR reduced isometric strength of knee extensor muscles (P capacity (P capacity in both muscles (P capacity is proportionally larger than the loss of capillaries. WP+KHCO3 appears to attenuate disuse-induced reductions in fiber oxidative capacity.

  9. Oleanolic acid supplement attenuates liquid fructose-induced adipose tissue insulin resistance through the insulin receptor substrate-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Jianwei, E-mail: [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Gu, Tieguang [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia); Yamahara, Johji [Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto 602-8136 (Japan); Li, Yuhao, E-mail: [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia)


    Oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid contained in more than 1620 plants including various fruits and foodstuffs, has numerous metabolic effects, such as hepatoprotection. However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) may contribute to the development and progress of metabolic abnormalities through release of excessive free fatty acids from adipose tissue. This study investigated the effect of oleanolic acid on Adipo-IR. The results showed that supplement with oleanolic acid (25 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 10 weeks attenuated liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in rats. Simultaneously, oleanolic acid reversed the increase in the Adipo-IR index and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test assessment. In white adipose tissue, oleanolic acid enhanced mRNA expression of the genes encoding insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. At the protein level, oleanolic acid upregulated total IRS-1 expression, suppressed the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 at serine-307, and restored the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 to total IRS-1 ratio. In contrast, phosphorylated Akt to total Akt ratio was increased. Furthermore, oleanolic acid reversed fructose-induced decrease in phosphorylated-Akt/Akt protein to plasma insulin concentration ratio. However, oleanolic acid did not affect IRS-2 mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggest that oleanolic acid supplement ameliorates fructose-induced Adipo-IR in rats via the IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of metabolic actions of oleanolic acid. - Highlights: • Adipose insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) contributes to metabolic abnormalities. • We investigated the effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on adipo-IR in

  10. 78 FR 29258 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase (United States)


    ... blueberry promotion by the USHBC has had a positive impact on the blueberry producers' price. Specifically... no generic blueberry promotion by the USHBC, the average producers' price would have been 8.4 cents...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research...

  11. Supplementation of Magnolol Attenuates Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Bladder Cancer-Bearing Mice Undergoing Chemotherapy via Suppression of FoxO3 Activation and Induction of IGF-1.

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    Meng-Chuan Chen

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy, the most prominent phenotypic feature of cancer cachexia, is often observed in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Magnolol (M extracted from Magnolia officinalis exhibits several pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated whether magnolol supplementation protects against the development of cachexia symptoms in bladder cancer-bearing mice undergoing chemotherapy. Combined treatment of magnolol with chemotherapeutic drugs, such as gemcitabine and cisplatin (TGCM or gemcitabine (TGM, markedly attenuates the body weight loss and skeletal muscle atrophy compared with conventional chemotherapy (TGC. The antiatrophic effect of magnolol may be associated with inhibition of myostatin and activin A formation, as well as FoxO3 transcriptional activity resulting from Akt activation, thereby suppressing ubiquitin ligases MuRF-1 and MAFbx/atrogin-1 expression, as well as proteasomal enzyme activity. Notably, magnolol-induced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 production and related protein synthesis may also contribute to its protective effects. The decreased food intake, and intestinal injury and dysfunction observed in the mice of TGC group were significantly improved in the TGCM and TGM groups. Moreover, the increased inflammatory responses evidenced by elevation of proinflammatory cytokine formation and NF-κB activation occurred in the atrophying muscle of TGC group were markedly inhibited in mice of combined treatment with magnolol. In summary, these findings support that magnolol is a promising chemopreventive supplement for preventing chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle atrophy associated with cancer cachexia by suppressing muscle protein degradation, and inflammatory responses, as well as increasing IGF-1-mediated protein synthesis.

  12. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Blueberries in an Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). (United States)

    Ebenezer, Philip J; Wilson, C Brad; Wilson, Leslie D; Nair, Anand R; J, Francis


    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma and stressor-related disorder that results in a prolonged stress response. It is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC). The only approved therapy for PTSD is selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but their efficacy is marginal. Recently, we demonstrated that over-production of norepinephrine (NE) as the possible reason for the lack of efficacy of SSRIs. Hence, there is a need for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of PTSD. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of blueberries in modulating inflammatory markers and neurotransmitter levels in PTSD. Rats were fed either a blueberry enriched (2%) or a control diet. Rats were exposed to cats for one hour on days 1 and 11 of a 31-day schedule to simulate traumatic conditions. The rats were also subjected to psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized and the PFC and HC were isolated. Monoamines were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene and protein expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were also measured. In our PTSD model, NE levels were increased and 5-HT levels were decreased when compared to control. In contrast, a blueberry enriched diet increased 5-HT without affecting NE levels. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also studied and they confirmed our findings. The enhanced levels free radicals, gene and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines seen in the PTSD group were normalized with a blueberry enriched diet. Decreased anxiety in this group was shown by improved performance on the elevated plus-maze. These findings indicate blueberries can attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation and restore neurotransmitter imbalances in a rat model of PTSD.

  13. Blueberry latent virus: An Amalgam of the Totiviridae and Partitiviridae (United States)

    A new, symptomless virus was identified in blueberry. The dsRNA genome of the virus, provisionally named Blueberry latent virus (BBLV), codes for two putative proteins and lacks a movement protein, a property only shared with cryptic viruses. More than 35 isolates of the virus from different cultiv...

  14. Susceptibility of highbush blueberry cultivars to Phytophthora root rot (United States)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  15. Salmonella spp. dynamics in wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton (United States)

    A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...

  16. Identifying blueberry germplasm that is slow to get Blueberry shock virus in the Pacific Northwest United States (United States)

    Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) is a serious problem in blueberry production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of North America. Infection occurs during bloom and the virus moves into other parts of the plant in an uneven but steady manner and may take several years to become fully systemic in mat...

  17. Blueberry fruit drop associated virus: A new member of the family Caulimoviridae isolated from blueberry exhibiting fruit drop symptoms (United States)

    This study describes the nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a new DNA virus isolated from ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry plants named Blueberry fruit drop associated virus (BFDaV). Infected bushes lose nearly 100% of their fruit prior to harvest, and in springtime young leaves and flowers develop ...

  18. Attenuation of inflammatory response phenomena in periparturient dairy cows by the administration of an ω3 rumen protected supplement containing vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bertoni


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the consequences of ω3 fatty acids (FA administration around calving on inflammatory response and on productive performances. In this period dairy cows undergo a metabolic challenge, coming with an inflammatory-like status triggering the release of pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. eicosanoids, cytokines. Eicosanoids synthesis may be modulated by altering the ratio of their precursors (ω3 and ω6 FA. Ten cows received 22 g/d of rumen-protected ω3 FA from -21 to +21 days from calving (OPT, while 10 (CTR received no supplement. Cows were frequently monitored for health status, body condition score (BCS, blood (metabolic, inflammatory and FA profiles, milk yield. OPT (vs CTR showed a similar milk production, a numerically smaller BCS drop, lower postpartum levels of non-esterified fatty acids (P<0.05, β-hydroxybutyric acid (P<0.1 and creatinine (P<0.05, suggesting a milder post-calving reserves mobilization. All cows underwent an inflammatory condition around calving, but OPT showed a milder response, as suggested by lower levels of bilirubin (P<0.05, and by the higher level of Liver Functionality Index (P<0.09. Plasma concentration of ω3 FA (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids increased in OPT during treatment (P<0.01 vs CTR. Since ω3 FA are the main replacers of arachidonic acid in membrane phospholipids, their increased levels in plasma of OPT cows may have cut the formation of arachidonic-derivatives (pro-inflammatory mediators, countering the beginning of the inflammation. Hence, the administration of rumen-protected ω3 FA in transition period seems to attenuate the effects of subclinical inflammations and to improve the energy balance.

  19. Supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum K68 and Fruit-Vegetable Ferment along with High Fat-Fructose Diet Attenuates Metabolic Syndrome in Rats with Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yu Huang


    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum K68 (isolated from fu-tsai and fruit-vegetable ferment (FVF have been tested for antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties in a rat model of insulin resistance, induced by chronic high fat-fructose diet. Fifty rats were equally assigned into control (CON, high fat-fructose diet (HFFD, HFFD plus K68, HFFD plus FVF, and HFFD plus both K68 and FVF (MIX groups. Respective groups were orally administered with K68 (1×109 CFU/0.5 mL or FVF (180 mg/kg or MIX for 8 weeks. We found that HFFD-induced increased bodyweights were prevented, and progressively increased fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were reversed (P<0.01 by K68 and FVF treatments. Elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and HOMA-IR values were controlled in supplemented groups. Furthermore, dyslipidemia, characterized by elevated total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs with HFFD, was significantly (P<0.01 attenuated with MIX. Elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, were controlled (P<0.01 by K68, FVF, and MIX treatments. Moreover, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities were substantially (P<0.01 restored by all treatments. Experimental evidences demonstrate that K68 and FVF may be effective alternative medicine to prevent HFFD-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia, possibly associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacies.

  20. Zinc deficiency exacerbates while zinc supplement attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in high-fat diet-induced obese mice through modulating p38 MAPK-dependent signaling. (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Luo, Manyu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Gu, Junlian; Chen, Jing; Payne, Kristen McClung; Tan, Yi; Wang, Yuehui; Yin, Xia; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Gilbert C; Wintergerst, Kupper; Liu, Quan; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Lu


    Childhood obesity often leads to cardiovascular diseases, such as obesity-related cardiac hypertrophy (ORCH), in adulthood, due to chronic cardiac inflammation. Zinc is structurally and functionally essential for many transcription factors; however, its role in ORCH and underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear and were explored here in mice with obesity induced with high-fat diet (HFD). Four week old mice were fed on either HFD (60%kcal fat) or normal diet (ND, 10% kcal fat) for 3 or 6 months, respectively. Either diet contained one of three different zinc quantities: deficiency (ZD, 10mg zinc per 4057kcal), normal (ZN, 30mg zinc per 4057kcal) or supplement (ZS, 90mg zinc per 4057kcal). HFD induced a time-dependent obesity and ORCH, which was accompanied by increased cardiac inflammation and p38 MAPK activation. These effects were worsened by ZD in HFD/ZD mice and attenuated by ZS in HFD/ZS group, respectively. Also, administration of a p38 MAPK specific inhibitor in HFD mice for 3 months did not affect HFD-induced obesity, but completely abolished HFD-induced, and zinc deficiency-worsened, ORCH and cardiac inflammation. In vitro exposure of adult cardiomyocytes to palmitate induced cell hypertrophy accompanied by increased p38 MAPK activation, which was heightened by zinc depletion with its chelator TPEN. Inhibition of p38 MAPK with its specific siRNA also prevented the effects of palmitate on cardiomyocytes. These findings demonstrate that ZS alleviates but ZD heightens cardiac hypertrophy in HFD-induced obese mice through suppressing p38 MAPK-dependent cardiac inflammatory and hypertrophic pathways.


    The levels of phytochemicals in blueberries were found to increase after illumination with UV-C light. Phytochemicals affected included resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol 3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, cy...

  2. A variant of blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus associated with red lesions in blueberry. (United States)

    Cantu-Iris, M; Harmon, P F; Londoño, A; Polston, J E


    The complete genome of a variant of the multi-segmented (+) RNA virus blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus (BNRBV), which has not been assigned to a genus, was obtained from foliar red lesions on southern highbush blueberries grown in Alachua Co., Florida. The genome organization of this variant, BNRBV-RL, is the same as that of BNRBV: four genomic segments and seven ORFs (one ORF on each of RNA 1, RNA 2, and RNA 4 and as many as four ORFs on RNA 3). BLAST analysis revealed nucleic acid sequence identities of 89 %, 90 %, 90 % and 86 % to BNRBV RNA 1, RNA 2, RNA 3 and RNA 4, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence of the putative RdRp domain indicated that BNRBV-RL was closely related to BNRBV and less related to citrus leprosis virus type C and three other mite-transmitted viruses. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence differences between BNRBV-RL and BNRBV combined with differences in symptom expression in blueberry would suggest that BNRBV-RL is a strain of BNRBV.

  3. Antibacterial characteristics of anthocyanins extracted from wild blueberries against foodborne pathogens (United States)

    Wild blueberries have rich bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, phenolics and organic acids. Previous studies demonstrated the antibacterial activity of blueberries against the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial characteristics and mech...

  4. 76 FR 16324 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Continuance Referendum (United States)


    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This... practice and procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Blueberry...

  5. 75 FR 12707 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership (United States)


    ... Council administers a nationally coordinated program of research, development, advertising, and promotion... practice and procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Blueberry promotion... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order;...

  6. 75 FR 31279 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership (United States)


    ... Council administers a nationally coordinated program of research, development, advertising, and promotion... practice and procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Blueberry promotion... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order;...

  7. A novel Caulimovirus associated with a complete fruit drop symptom in ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry (United States)

    Here we describe the nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a novel virus in the family Caulimoviridae from ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry plants that exhibited fruit drop symptoms. The virus is tentatively named Blueberry fruit drop associated virus (BFDaV). Blueberry fruit drop disease (BFDD) was fi...

  8. 75 FR 7986 - Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Orders; Section 610 Reviews (United States)


    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 1218 and 1219 Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and... (AMS) plans to review the Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Orders... mail: regarding avocados. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Blueberry...

  9. Diagnosis and management of new and re-emerging diseases of highbush blueberries in Michigan (United States)

    Blueberries are an important commodity in Michigan and disease management is crucial for production of high-quality fruit. Over the past 6 years, a number of new and re-emerging diseases have been diagnosed in the state. In 2009, Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV) and Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) were ...

  10. Maternal Diet Supplementation with n-6/n-3 Essential Fatty Acids in a 1.2 : 1.0 Ratio Attenuates Metabolic Dysfunction in MSG-Induced Obese Mice (United States)

    Martin, Josiane Morais; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Alves, Vander Silva; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Pavanello, Audrei; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Banafé, Elton Guntendeorfer; Martin, Clayton Antunes; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas


    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) prevent cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to study whether a diet supplemented with a mixture of n-6/n-3 PUFAs, during perinatal life, attenuates outcomes of long-term metabolic dysfunction in prediabetic and obese mice. Seventy-day-old virgin female mice were mated. From the conception day, dams were fed a diet supplemented with sunflower oil and flaxseed powder (containing an n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio of 1.2 : 1.0) throughout pregnancy and lactation, while control dams received a commercial diet. Newborn mice were treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG, 4 mg g−1 body weight per day) for the first 5 days of age. A batch of weaned pups was sacrificed to quantify the brain and pancreas total lipids; another batch were fed a commercial diet until 90 days of age, where glucose homeostasis and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) as well as retroperitoneal fat and Lee index were assessed. MSG-treated mice developed obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, pancreatic islet dysfunction, and higher fat stores. Maternal flaxseed diet-supplementation decreased n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio in the brain and pancreas and blocked glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, GIIS impairment, and obesity development. The n-6/n-3 essential PUFAs in a ratio of 1.2 : 1.0 supplemented in maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation prevent metabolic dysfunction in MSG-obesity model. PMID:28050167

  11. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers (United States)

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Appears to Attenuate Particulate Air Pollution-induced Cardiac Effects and Lipid Changes in Healthy Middle-aged Adults. (United States)

    Context: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiologic study reported that omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the cardiac responses to air pollution exposure. Objective: To evaluate in a randomized contro...

  13. Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine. (United States)

    Santos, Roberta O; Trindade, Simone C; Maurer, Luana H; Bersch, Andriely M; Sautter, Claudia K; Penna, Neidi G


    Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate) and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose) on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar). The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.

  14. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study. (United States)

    Die, Jose V; Rowland, Lisa J


    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  15. Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar. The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.

  16. conservation and nutritional quality of blueberry treated with eatable covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcibela Stülp


    Full Text Available Lengthening the post-harvest life of fruits from temperate climates is one of the greatest challenges of modern agriculture, which aims at diminishing the losses and increasing the offer period of the product in national and international market. The use of eatable pellicles has been explored to cover fruits, since its usage represents an economical advantage, due to its low price and reduction of post-harvest losses. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of blueberry, cultivar Florida M, produced in an organic production system and covered with eatable covering based on kefir grains associated with different storage temperatures. Thus, it was observed that the most efficient treatment to reduce blueberry post-harvest loss was the combination of kefir grains in association with storage cooled at 5 ºC, not changing the chemical composition and nutritional of blueberry.

  17. Elevated Genetic Diversity in the Emerging Blueberry Pathogen Exobasidium maculosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Stewart

    Full Text Available Emerging diseases caused by fungi are increasing at an alarming rate. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry, caused by the fungus Exobasidium maculosum, is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA, severely reducing fruit quality in some plantings. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic diversity of E. maculosum in the southeastern USA to elucidate the basis of disease emergence and to investigate if populations of E. maculosum are structured by geography, host species, or tissue type. We sequenced three conserved loci from 82 isolates collected from leaves and fruit of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum, highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum, and southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum hybrids from commercial fields in Georgia and North Carolina, USA, and 6 isolates from lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium from Maine, USA, and Nova Scotia, Canada. Populations of E. maculosum from the southeastern USA and from lowbush blueberry in Maine and Nova Scotia are distinct, but do not represent unique species. No difference in genetic structure was detected between different host tissues or among different host species within the southeastern USA; however, differentiation was detected between populations in Georgia and North Carolina. Overall, E. maculosum showed extreme genetic diversity within the conserved loci with 286 segregating sites among the 1,775 sequenced nucleotides and each isolate representing a unique multilocus haplotype. However, 94% of the nucleotide substitutions were silent, so despite the high number of mutations, selective constraints have limited changes to the amino acid sequences of the housekeeping genes. Overall, these results suggest that the emergence of Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot is not due to a recent introduction or host shift, or the recent evolution of aggressive genotypes of E. maculosum, but more likely as a result of an increasing

  18. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

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    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua


    Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.

  19. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions. (United States)


    ... marketing. Sale of the insured crop directly to consumers without the intervention of an intermediary such as a wholesaler, retailer, packer, processor, shipper or buyer. Examples of direct marketing include... percentage you elect. Prune. A cultural practice performed to increase blueberry production as follows:...

  20. Dissecting the microbiome to assess blueberry soil health (United States)

    The plant rhizosphere is made up of not only soil, but a myriad of living organisms; these living organisms can both contribute to, and be indicators of, soil health. We explored the possibility of assaying the soil microbiome in areas where blueberry fields are declining, as compared to healthy fie...

  1. [Agrobacterium rubi strains from blueberry plants are highly diverse]. (United States)

    Abrahamovich, Eliana; López, Ana C; Alippi, Adriana M


    The diversity of a collection of Agrobacterium rubi strains isolated from blueberries from different regions of Argentina was studied by conventional microbiological tests and molecular techniques. Results from biochemical and physiological reactions, as well as from rep-PCR and RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 23S rDNA showed high phenotypic and genotypic intraspecific variation.

  2. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal (United States)

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  3. Manna in winter: indigenous Americans, huckleberries, and blueberries (United States)

    More than 35 species of blueberries (Vaccinium L.) and huckleberries (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia Kunth.) are indigenous to North America. The indigenous North American peoples, wise in the ways of survival, recognized the quality of these edible fruits and revered these plants. Beyond food needs, the...

  4. Herbivore-induced blueberry volatiles and intra-plant signaling. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R


    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are commonly emitted from plants after herbivore attack. These HIPVs are mainly regulated by the defensive plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its volatile derivative methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Over the past 3 decades researchers have documented that HIPVs can repel or attract herbivores, attract the natural enemies of herbivores, and in some cases they can induce or prime plant defenses prior to herbivore attack. In a recent paper, I reported that feeding by gypsy moth caterpillars, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage induce the emissions of volatiles from blueberry plants, albeit differently. In addition, blueberry branches respond to HIPVs emitted from neighboring branches of the same plant by increasing the levels of JA and resistance to herbivores (i.e., direct plant defenses), and by priming volatile emissions (i.e., indirect plant defenses). Similar findings have been reported recently for sagebrush, poplar, and lima beans. Here, I describe a push-pull method for collecting blueberry volatiles induced by herbivore (gypsy moth) feeding, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage. The volatile collection unit consists of a 4 L volatile collection chamber, a 2-piece guillotine, an air delivery system that purifies incoming air, and a vacuum system connected to a trap filled with Super-Q adsorbent to collect volatiles. Volatiles collected in Super-Q traps are eluted with dichloromethane and then separated and quantified using Gas Chromatography (GC). This volatile collection method was used in my study to investigate the volatile response of undamaged branches to exposure to volatiles from herbivore-damaged branches within blueberry plants. These methods are described here. Briefly, undamaged blueberry branches are exposed to HIPVs from neighboring branches within the same plant. Using the same techniques described above, volatiles emitted from branches after exposure to HIPVs are collected and

  5. Blueberry production in Chile: current status and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales


    Full Text Available Chile has become a major actor in the blueberry industry as the most important supplier of off-season fresh fruit for the northern hemisphere. Blueberry exports passed from US$ 30 million (around 4,000 tons in 2000 to US$ 380 million (94,000 tons in 2011. The characteristics of the major blueberry growing regions (North, Central, South-central and South are presented in terms of acreage, varieties, management practices, extension of the harvest season, and soil and climatic conditions. Most fruit is from highbush varieties, picked by hand and exported fresh by boat to United States. Largest proportion of fruit is exported from mid December to late January, which coincides with lowest prices. The south-central region (latitudes 34º50' to 38º15' S was in 2007 the most important one with 5,075 ha (51.1% of area planted. Among the challenges for the Chilean blueberry industry in the near future are: 1. Lower profitability due to lower rates of currency exchange and higher costs, 2 - Greater scarcity and higher cost of labor, 3.- Need for higher productivity and sustainable production practices, 4- Fruit of high and consistent quality, and 5.- Greater investment in research. As a case study the article presents three approaches that can help identify areas with low availability of labor and improve its efficiency. The article shows the use of geomatic tools to establish labor availability, application of growth regulators to reduce crop load, increase fruit size and improve harvest efficiency, and the use of shakers to harvest fresh fruit for long distance markets. More research is needed to improve yields, reduce costs and give greater economical and ecological sustainability to the Chilean blueberry industry.

  6. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.). (United States)

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai


    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts.

  7. Oral supplementation with non-absorbable antibiotics or curcumin attenuates western diet-induced atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance in LDLR-/- mice--role of intestinal permeability and macrophage activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha S Ghosh

    Full Text Available Association between circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS and metabolic diseases (such as Type 2 Diabetes and atherosclerosis has shifted the focus from Western diet-induced changes in gut microbiota per se to release of gut bacteria-derived products into circulation as the possible mechanism for the chronic inflammatory state underlying the development of these diseases. Under physiological conditions, an intact intestinal barrier prevents this release of LPS underscoring the importance of examining and modulating the direct effects of Western diet on intestinal barrier function. In the present study we evaluated two strategies, namely selective gut decontamination and supplementation with oral curcumin, to modulate Western-diet (WD induced changes in intestinal barrier function and subsequent development of glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis. LDLR-/- mice were fed WD for 16 weeks and either received non-absorbable antibiotics (Neomycin and polymyxin in drinking water for selective gut decontamination or gavaged daily with curcumin. WD significantly increased intestinal permeability as assessed by in vivo translocation of FITC-dextran and plasma LPS levels. Selective gut decontamination and supplementation with curcumin significantly attenuated the WD-induced increase in plasma LPS levels (3.32 vs 1.90 or 1.51 EU/ml, respectively and improved intestinal barrier function at multiple levels (restoring intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity and expression of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and Claudin-1. Consequently, both these interventions significantly reduced WD-induced glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice. Activation of macrophages by low levels of LPS (50 ng/ml and its exacerbation by fatty acids is likely the mechanism by which release of trace amounts of LPS into circulation due to disruption of intestinal barrier function induces the development of these diseases. These studies not only establish the important role

  8. New and emerging viruses of blueberry and cranberry. (United States)

    Martin, Robert R; Polashock, James J; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E


    Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses as well as the appearance of new viruses. Many of the known viruses of these crops are latent or asymptomatic in at least some cultivars. Diagnosis and detection procedures are often non-existent or unreliable. Whereas new viruses can move into cultivated fields from the wild, there is also the threat that devastating viruses can move into native stands of Vaccinium spp. or other native plants from cultivated fields. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of blueberry and cranberry viruses, focusing not only on those that are new but also those that are emerging as serious threats for production in North America and around the world.

  9. The use of natural blueberry dye producing butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov


    Full Text Available Creamy сream - finishing semi-finished product in the manufacture of pastry products. Tinting cream mass in different shades of color can improve the aesthetic appearance of the product appearance and make it more attractive. Natural blueberry anthocyanin dye has antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-sclerotic, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, P-vitamin activity. The influence of the content of blueberry dye to change the chromaticity characteristics, organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, shape keeping capacity, antioxidant activity of the samples of butter cream after manufacture and during storage. Based on the analysis of the results to give a butter cream pleasant pink color can be recommended dosage blueberry dye - 2.5 g / kg, with anthocyanin dye in this case is used as an antioxidant and as its use in the recommended amounts increases the antioxidant activity of 12.5 mg / 100 g (62.8% (relative to unstained samples cream. Pastry with a creamy semi-finished product, colored with natural blueberry dye, demand on the food market of confectionery products, and they can be recommended as the first baby food, people with lowered immunity, the elderly and mass consumption, as products contain vitamin E - 30 mg / 100 g of product (satisfaction of the daily requirement for vitamin makes - 75% and a significant amount of antioxidants. The facts make it possible to expand the range of competitive confectionery functionality diversify colors shades of cream, to improve its taste and aroma properties, enhance the nutritional value and shelf life due to the large amount of co-antioxidants.

  10. Optimization of frozen wild blueberry vacuum drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum drying of frozen blueberries in order to preserve health benefits phytochemicals using response surface methodology. The drying was performed in a new design of vacuum dryer equipment. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and of pressure 38-464 mbar. Total solids, total phenolics, vitamin C, anthocyanin content and total color change were used as quality indicators of dried blueberries. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 60 °C and 100 mbar were established for vacuum drying of blueberries. Separate validation experiments were conducted at optimum conditions to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 3.70 mgCAE/100dw, vitamin C 59.79 mg/100gdw, anthocyanin content 2746.33 mg/100gdw, total solids 89.50% and total color change 88.83. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  11. Oligonol supplementation attenuates body temperature and the circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 after heat stress in humans. (United States)

    Shin, Young Oh; Lee, Jeong Beom; Song, Young Ju; Min, Young Ki; Yang, Hun Mo


    Oligonol, a phenolic production from lychee, has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effect of Oligonol supplementation on circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, as well as body temperature, after heat stress in 17 healthy human male volunteers (age, 21.6±2.1 years). All experiments were performed in an automated climate chamber (26.0°C±0.5°C, relative humidity 60%±3.0%, air velocity less than 1 m/sec) between 2 and 5 p.m. Subjects ingested an Oligonol (100 mg)-containing beverage or placebo beverage before half-body immersion into hot water (42°C±0.5°C for 30 min). Tympanic and skin temperatures were measured and mean body temperatures were calculated. Serum concentrations of PGE2 and COX-2 were analyzed before, immediately after, and 60 min after immersion. Oligonol intake significantly prevented elevation of tympanic (temperature difference: 0.17°C at Post, Pheat stress, and this is associated with decreases in serum levels of PGE2 and COX-2.

  12. 78 FR 59775 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase (United States)


    ... indicated that generic blueberry promotion by the USHBC has had a positive impact on producer prices. Specifically, had there been no generic blueberry promotion by the USHBC, the average producers' price would... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in...

  13. Effect of Infusion Method and Parameters on Mass Transfer in Blueberries (United States)

    In order to obtain optimal processing conditions for producing infused blueberries with high solid gain, we investigated the infusion characteristics of blueberries under various processing parameters in sugar solutions with 1:1 ratio of solution and berries. Static batch constant concentration inf...

  14. Ranking cultivated blueberry for Mummy Berry Blight and Fruit Infection Incidence (United States)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated the resistance of more than 100 blueberry cultivar to both phases of the disease...

  15. 75 FR 22551 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries (United States)


    ..., Agricultural Research Service and the other from the American Frozen Food Institute. Both commenters stated... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries AGENCY: Agricultural... proposed revision to the United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries. After considering...

  16. Mortality of container-grown blueberry plants inoculated with Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands (United States)

    We conducted four studies to evaluate the effect of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates and inoculum delivery methods on root rot development and mortality of container-grown blueberry plants. Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates were obtained from the root zone of symptomatic blueberry plants and identifie...

  17. Characterization of Pseudomonas syringae from blueberry fields in Oregon and Washington (United States)

    Bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae, is a common disease that kills buds and stems in blueberry fields in Oregon and western Washington. Management is primarily through application of copper; antibiotics are not registered for blueberry. Little is known about the diversity of P. syringa...

  18. Dietary olive oil supplemented with fish oil, rich in EPA and DHA (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, attenuates colonic inflammation in rats with DSS-induced colitis. (United States)

    Camuesco, Desirée; Gálvez, Julio; Nieto, Ana; Comalada, Mònica; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Concha, Angel; Xaus, Jordi; Zarzuelo, Antonio


    Previous studies proposed a protective role of the dietary intake of (n-3) PUFA in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but almost no studies have been performed using olive oil. The aims of the present study were to test the beneficial effects of an olive oil-based diet with or without fish oil, rich in (n-3) PUFA, in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of rat colitis and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their potential beneficial effects, with special attention to the production of some of the mediators involved in the intestinal inflammatory response, such as leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and nitric oxide (NO). Rats were fed the different diets for 2 wk before colitis induction and thereafter until colonic evaluation 15 d later. Colitic rats fed the olive oil-based diet had a lower colonic inflammatory response than those fed the soybean oil diet, and this beneficial effect was increased by the dietary incorporation of (n-3) PUFA. A restoration of colonic glutathione levels and lower colonic NO synthase expression occurred in all colitic rats fed an olive oil diet compared with the control colitic group that consumed the soybean oil diet. However, (n-3) PUFA incorporation into an olive oil diet significantly decreased colonic TNFalpha and LTB(4) levels compared with colitic rats that were not supplemented with fish oil. These results affirm the benefits of an olive oil diet in the management of IBD, which are further enhanced by the addition of (n-3) PUFA.

  19. Bioactive Compounds of Blueberries: Post-Harvest Factors Influencing the Nutritional Value of Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Michalska


    Full Text Available Blueberries, besides having commonly-recognized taste properties, are also a valuable source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. For several decades, blueberries have gained in popularity all over the world, and recent years have seen not only an increase in fresh consumption, but also in the importance of blueberries for the processing industry. Blueberry processing mostly consists of freezing and juicing. Recently, more attention has been drawn to dewatering and drying, which are promising areas for developing novel blueberry products. Processing affects each biologically-active compound in a different way, and it is still unknown what changes those compounds undergo at the molecular level after the application of different processing technologies. This work presents the most recent state of knowledge about the pre-treatment and processing methods applied to blueberries and their influence on the content of biologically-active compounds. The presentation of methods is preceded by a brief overview of the characteristics of the blueberry species, a description of the chemical composition of the fruit and a short note about the main growing areas, production volumes and the management of fruit crops.

  20. Bioactive Compounds of Blueberries: Post-Harvest Factors Influencing the Nutritional Value of Products. (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Łysiak, Grzegorz


    Blueberries, besides having commonly-recognized taste properties, are also a valuable source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. For several decades, blueberries have gained in popularity all over the world, and recent years have seen not only an increase in fresh consumption, but also in the importance of blueberries for the processing industry. Blueberry processing mostly consists of freezing and juicing. Recently, more attention has been drawn to dewatering and drying, which are promising areas for developing novel blueberry products. Processing affects each biologically-active compound in a different way, and it is still unknown what changes those compounds undergo at the molecular level after the application of different processing technologies. This work presents the most recent state of knowledge about the pre-treatment and processing methods applied to blueberries and their influence on the content of biologically-active compounds. The presentation of methods is preceded by a brief overview of the characteristics of the blueberry species, a description of the chemical composition of the fruit and a short note about the main growing areas, production volumes and the management of fruit crops.

  1. Occurrence and biology of Tolype innocens (Burmeister on blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salvador Louzada


    Full Text Available Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 is reported for the first time damaging blueberry (Vaccinium ashei plants in Brazil having the caterpillars feeding on leaves and new shoots. T. innocens biology was studied on blueberry leaves in laboratory conditions and then a fertility life table was elaborated. Developmental time and viability of egg, larval and pupal stages and egg-adult period were 15.0 and 35.3, 33.3 and 84.5, 20.6 and 100, and 69.2 days and 45%, respectively. Average pupal weight was 0.840g for the females and 0.580g for the males. The sex ratio was 0.5. Pre-oviposition and oviposition time lasted 6.34 and 12.1 days, respectively. Mean fecundity was 251 eggs per female. Eggs were laid either individually or in masses. Longevity was 19.0 and 20.0 days for males and females, respectively. T. innocens population increased 47 times per generation, with a mean generation time of 77 days, and a finite rate of increase of 1.02. This data on biological parameters will be useful for establishing control strategies.

  2. Intermolecular binding of blueberry pectin-rich fractions and anthocyanin. (United States)

    Lin, Z; Fischer, J; Wicker, L


    Pectin was extracted from blueberry powder into three fractions of water soluble (WSF), chelator soluble (CSF) and sodium carbonate soluble (NSF). The fractions were incubated with cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a mixture of five anthocyanidins (cyanidin, pelargonidin, malvidin, petunidin and delphinidin) or blueberry juice at pH 2.0-4.5. Free anthocyanins and bound anthocyanin-pectin mixtures were separated by ultrafiltration. WSF bound the least amount of anthocyanin at all pH values. CSF had stronger anthocyanin binding ability at pH 2.0-3.6, while NSF had stronger anthocyanin binding ability at pH 3.6-4.5. The pectin and anthocyanin binding was lowest at pH 4.5 and higher at pH 2.0-3.6. Nearly doubling C3G pigment content increased bound anthocyanin percentage by 16-23% at pH 3.6, which favored anthocyanin aromatic stacking, compared to 3-9% increase at pH 2.0. Ionic interaction between anthocyanin flavylium cations and free pectic carboxyl groups, and anthocyanin stacking may be two major mechanisms for pectin and anthocyanin binding.

  3. Exploring Perceptions of Raspberries and Blueberries by Italian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Girgenti


    Full Text Available Consumers can be important active contributors to a sustainable society by selecting foods that are produced respecting environmental and socially ethical standards. In the fruit sector, sustainability issues are often associated with imprecisely defined concepts such as “locally grown”, “freshness” and “local product”. This study has investigated raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. purchases in order to identify how berry fruits choice attributes are ranked by consumers in two Italian Regions, using a choice experiment (best-worst methodology. Twelve attributes—that indirectly refer to the concept of environmental sustainability—have been investigated. According to the preferences expressed by our sample of retail purchasers (n = 669, the results show that the reasons for the purchase of berries are associated with numerous parameters among which freshness and product origin are the most important and price was not ranked as so relevant. These findings indirectly testify the consumer attention towards the sustainability of local production and the link between sustainability and territory. Therefore, we can presume that the improvement of consumer familiarity with attributes such as “locally grown” and “local product” could support more eco-friendly consumption of raspberries and blueberries.

  4. Dietary Supplements (United States)

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

  5. Changes of flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity in blueberries after UV-C illumination (United States)

    The levels of flavonoids in blueberries were found to increase after illumination with UV-C. Phytochemicals affected included resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol derivative, delphinidin-3-galactoside, cyaniding 3-galactoside, delphinidin 3-...

  6. Incresing antioxidant activity and reducing decay of blueberries by essential oils (United States)

    Several naturally occurring essential oils including carvacrol, anethole, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, perillaldehyde, linalool, and p-cymene were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing decay and increasing antioxidant levels and activities in ‘Duke’ blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum). Carv...

  7. Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Using Antioxidants from Blackberry, Blueberry, Pomegranate, and Turmeric Extracts (United States)

    Greener synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles is described using antioxidants from blackberry, blueberry, pomegranate, and turmeric extracts. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HR...

  8. 76 FR 11939 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Section 610 Review (United States)


    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Section 610 Review AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Confirmation of regulations. SUMMARY... Palmer, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS,...

  9. Phylogenetic, Morphological, and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria Species Associated with Fruit Rot of Blueberry in California. (United States)

    Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L


    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit.

  10. 蓝莓深加工技术研究进展%Progress of Blueberry Deep Processing Technique Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Blueberry has high nutrition value and economic value. Blueberry deep processing is an effective way for solving the problem of blueberry hard storage. In the article, it stated the progress of blueberry deep processing technique research from the aspects of blue-berry dairy product processing, blueberry fruit juice and wine processing, blueberry jam processing and blueberry preserved fruit pro-cessing, in order to provide a reference for the development of blueberry industry.%蓝莓具有很高的营养价值和经济价值.对蓝莓进行深加工处理是解决蓝莓不耐贮藏问题的有效途径.从蓝莓乳制品加工、蓝莓果汁果酒饮料加工、蓝莓酱加工、蓝莓果脯加工方面综述蓝莓深加工技术的研究进展,以期为蓝莓产业的发展提供参考.

  11. Effect of New Zealand blueberry consumption on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeay Yanita


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD is accompanied by localized oxidative stress / inflammation which, in the short-term at least, is associated with impaired muscular performance. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to reduce excessive oxidative stress; however, their effectiveness in facilitating recovery following EIMD is not clear. Blueberries demonstrate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we examine the effect of New Zealand blueberries on EIMD after strenuous eccentric exercise. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 10 females consumed a blueberry smoothie or placebo of a similar antioxidant capacity 5 and 10 hours prior to and then immediately, 12 and 36 hours after EIMD induced by 300 strenuous eccentric contractions of the quadriceps. Absolute peak and average peak torque across the knee, during concentric, isometric, and eccentric actions were measured. Blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation were assessed at 12, 36 and 60 hours post exercise. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. Results A significant (p p = 0.047 interaction effect was seen for peak isometric tension suggesting a faster rate of recovery in the blueberry intervention group. A similar trend was observed for concentric and eccentric strength. An increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers was also observed in both treatment groups following EIMD. Although a faster rate of decrease in oxidative stress was observed in the blueberry group, it was not significant (p  Conclusions This study demonstrates that the ingestion of a blueberry smoothie prior to and after EIMD accelerates recovery of muscle peak isometric strength. This effect, although independent of the beverage’s inherent antioxidant capacity, appears to involve an up-regulation of adaptive processes, i.e. endogenous antioxidant processes, activated by the combined actions of the eccentric exercise

  12. Mummy Berry Fruit Rot and Shoot Blight Incidence in Blueberry: Prediction, Ranking, and Stability in a Long-term Study (United States)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated blueberry cultivar resistance to both phases of the disease and, utilizing ‘stan...

  13. Effects of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolate, inoculum delivery method, flood, and drought on vigor, disease severity and mortality of blueberry plants (United States)

    Four studies evaluated the effect of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates, inoculum delivery methods, and flood and drought conditions on vigor, disease severity scores, and survival of blueberry plants grown in pots in the greenhouse. Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates were obtained from blueberry plants ...

  14. Nondestructive Detection and Quantification of Blueberry Bruising using Near-infrared (NIR) Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Li, Changying; Takeda, Fumiomi


    Currently, blueberry bruising is evaluated by either human visual/tactile inspection or firmness measurement instruments. These methods are destructive, time-consuming, and subjective. The goal of this paper was to develop a non-destructive approach for blueberry bruising detection and quantification. Experiments were conducted on 300 samples of southern highbush blueberry (Camellia, Rebel, and Star) and on 1500 samples of northern highbush blueberry (Bluecrop, Jersey, and Liberty) for hyperspectral imaging analysis, firmness measurement, and human evaluation. An algorithm was developed to automatically calculate a bruise ratio index (ratio of bruised to whole fruit area) for bruise quantification. The spectra of bruised and healthy tissues were statistically separated and the separation was independent of cultivars. Support vector machine (SVM) classification of the spectra from the regions of interest (ROIs) achieved over 94%, 92%, and 96% accuracy on the training set, independent testing set, and combined set, respectively. The statistical results showed that the bruise ratio index was equivalent to the measured firmness but better than the predicted firmness in regard to effectiveness of bruise quantification, and the bruise ratio index had a strong correlation with human assessment (R2 = 0.78 ‑ 0.83). Therefore, the proposed approach and the bruise ratio index are effective to non-destructively detect and quantify blueberry bruising.

  15. Nondestructive Detection and Quantification of Blueberry Bruising using Near-infrared (NIR) Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Li, Changying; Takeda, Fumiomi


    Currently, blueberry bruising is evaluated by either human visual/tactile inspection or firmness measurement instruments. These methods are destructive, time-consuming, and subjective. The goal of this paper was to develop a non-destructive approach for blueberry bruising detection and quantification. Experiments were conducted on 300 samples of southern highbush blueberry (Camellia, Rebel, and Star) and on 1500 samples of northern highbush blueberry (Bluecrop, Jersey, and Liberty) for hyperspectral imaging analysis, firmness measurement, and human evaluation. An algorithm was developed to automatically calculate a bruise ratio index (ratio of bruised to whole fruit area) for bruise quantification. The spectra of bruised and healthy tissues were statistically separated and the separation was independent of cultivars. Support vector machine (SVM) classification of the spectra from the regions of interest (ROIs) achieved over 94%, 92%, and 96% accuracy on the training set, independent testing set, and combined set, respectively. The statistical results showed that the bruise ratio index was equivalent to the measured firmness but better than the predicted firmness in regard to effectiveness of bruise quantification, and the bruise ratio index had a strong correlation with human assessment (R2 = 0.78 − 0.83). Therefore, the proposed approach and the bruise ratio index are effective to non-destructively detect and quantify blueberry bruising. PMID:27767050

  16. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Gook KIM; Hong Lim KIM; Su Jin KIM; Kyo-Sun PARK


    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon,Korea were analyzed for fruit size,soluble solids content,titratable acidity,total anthocyanin content,total phenolic content,and antioxidant activity.Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars.Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g,soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3°Brix,and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%.Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars.Among the 45 blueberry cultivars,high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols,and high antioxidant activity were observed in ‘Elliott’,‘Rubel’,‘Rancocas’,and ‘Friendship’.

  17. Development and Utilization of Wild Blueberries%野生蓝莓资源的开发与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊基胜; 吴林生; 张春龙; 王子迎


    Through studies on the distribution and morphology of wild blueberry tree,chemical compostion and nutritional value analysis of wild blueberry in China, discussed the potential value of the wild blueberries' processing. The advantages of development and utilization of wild blueberries were absorbed and the disadvantages of it were given up at the same time. The article focused on introduction ahout the research and development elements of the wild blueberries products, such as dipping liquor of blueberries, fermented wine of blueberries, snack foods of blueberries, anthocyanins of blueberries, health capsules of blueberries, blueberries tea and so on.%通过对我国野生蓝莓资源的分布、形态特征、蓝莓浆果的化学成分以及营养价值分析,探讨了野生蓝莓的潜在价值。吸收野生蓝莓资源开发和利用现状中的优点,总结了当前野生蓝莓资源开发和利用研究中的不足之处。并重点介绍了野生蓝莓深加工相关产品蓝莓浸渍酒、蓝莓发酵酒、蓝莓休闲系列、蓝莓花青素、蓝莓保健胶囊以及蓝莓叶茶等研发、制作要点。

  18. A novel water-assisted pulsed light processing for decontamination of blueberries. (United States)

    Huang, Yaoxin; Chen, Haiqiang


    Sample heating and shadowing effect have limited the application of pulsed light (PL) technology for decontamination of fresh produce. In this study, a novel setup using water-assisted PL processing was developed to overcome these limitations. Blueberries inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella were either treated with PL directly (dry PL treatment) or immersed in agitated water during the PL treatment (wet PL treatment) for 5-60 s. Although both pathogens were effectively inactivated by the dry PL treatments, the appearance of the blueberries was adversely affected and a maximum temperature of 64.8 °C on the blueberry surface was recorded. On the other hand, the visual appearance of blueberries remained unchanged after wet PL treatments and sample heating was significantly reduced. The wet PL treatments were more effective than chlorine washing on inactivating both pathogens. After a 60-s wet PL treatment, the populations of E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on calyx and skin of blueberries were reduced by 3.0 and >5.8 log CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella on blueberry calyx and skin was reduced by 3.6 and >5.9 log CFU/g, respectively. No viable bacterial cells were recovered from the water used in the wet PL treatments, demonstrating that this setup could prevent the risk of cross-contamination during fresh produce washing. Our results suggest that this new water-assisted PL treatment could be a potential non-chemical alternative (residue free) to chlorine washing since it is both more effective and environmentally friendly than chlorine washing.

  19. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-yang HUANG; Hong-cheng ZHANG; Wen-xu LIU; Chun-yang LI


    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants.In the present study,the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry,blackberry,and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated.Blueberry,with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW),exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods.Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC,9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW),total flavonoid content (TFC,36.08 mg rutin/g DW),and total anthocyanidin content (TAC,24.38 mg catechin/g DW).A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry,blackberry,and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid,protocatechuic acid,p-hydroxybenzoic acid,vanillic acid,caffeic acid,p-coumaric acid,ferulic acid,ellagic acid,and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone:luteolin; flavonols:rutin,myricetin,quercetrin,and quercetin; flavanols:gallocatechin,epigallocatechin,catechin,and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins:malvidin-3-galactoside,malvidin-3-glucoside,and cyanidin).In particular,the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins,which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical.

  20. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  1. Blueberry Supply Chain in Italy: Management, Innovation and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Peano


    Full Text Available The growing trend market of fresh products is driven by a consumer oriented to new lifestyles and environmental issues. The berries market in Europe represents a good example of a consumer driven supply chain, due to the capacity to answer all the sequences of the system. To explore the process developed by fruit growers’ associated groups in Italy, the research is organized into four stages. The first stage provides a review of the organization of the fresh fruit supply chain (FFSC and the need to innovate it in light of the driven demand. The second section focuses on the innovation displayed towards storing, managing and maintaining the quality of fruit during the supply. The third section considers the case study. The manuscript concludes by summarising the main results and discussing the implications for future research. The use of a modified active packaging system (MAP with “green” films has enabled the maintenance of the quality of the fruits for two months, as well as the presence of the company blueberries market for longer periods, and has finally led to improving the exports, thus reaching new European countries, increasing the turnover of the associated group and better remuneration for the fruit growers as a consequence.

  2. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants. (United States)

    Walworth, Aaron E; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-Qing


    In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora ('VcFT-Aurora'), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in 'VcFT-Aurora'. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all of these

  3. Research Progress on Breeding Technology and Application of Blueberry%蓝莓繁育技术及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    present, there are mainly three cultivated blueberry species: highbush blueberry, lowbush blueberry and labbiteye blueberry. Blueberry is rich in pectin, vitamins and other nutrients. It has the function of antioxidant effects, preventing and curing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, maintain- ing eye health,and preventing of visual impairment. Therefore, the cultivation technology and application of blueberry has become a research hotspot. In this paper, the author summarized the breeding technology of blueberry and its application in food.%目前,已栽培利用的蓝莓主要有三个种类:高丛蓝莓、矮丛蓝莓和兔眼蓝莓。蓝莓中含有丰富的果胶、维生素和花青素等营养成分,使其具有抗氧化性、预防和辅助治疗心脑血管疾病、维护眼睛健康、预防视力受损的作用,因此,蓝莓的繁育技术及其应用已成为研究热点。本文对不同种类蓝莓的栽培技术及其现阶段在食品中的应用进行了总结。

  4. Supplemental Colleges (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  5. Fungicide resistance phenotypes in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Understanding fungicide- resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of preharvest fungicide programs for contro...

  6. Development of a soilless growing system for blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum): nutrient demand and nutrient solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Dijk, van P.; Douven, F.; Maas, van der M.P.


    Although the majority of blueberries in The Netherlands are soil grown, interest in soilless culture has increased recently. Modern cultivation with high yield and fruit quality needs maximum control of growth and crop development, which is expected to be achieved with irrigation and nutrient manage

  7. Management of Phytophthora cinnamomi root rot disease of blueberry with gypsum and compost (United States)

    Root rot disease of blueberry caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi is becoming more prevalent as a consequence of widespread adoption of drip irrigation. This creates higher moisture content in the root zone more conducive for the pathogen. Options for disease control under organic management are limi...

  8. 78 FR 79634 - Importation of Fresh Blueberry Fruit From Morocco Into the Continental United States (United States)


    ... States. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before March 3, 2014. ADDRESSES: You... vegetables in Sec. 319.56-3, each consignment of blueberries would be subject to further inspection at the... validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) Enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of...

  9. Effect of postharvest handling practices on phytochemical concentrations and bioactive potential in wild blueberry fruit (United States)

    In this study, we quantified anthocyanin (ANC), proanthocyanidin (PAC), and chlorogenic acid (CA) concentrations in wild blueberry fruit (WBB) exposed to a variety of postharvest handling practices relevant to consumers and to industry. Additionally, we analyzed the bioactive potential of WBB subjec...

  10. Evaluation of Irrigation Methods for Highbush Blueberry. I. Growth and Water Requirements of Young Plants (United States)

    A study was conducted in a new field of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Elliott') to determine the effects of different irrigation methods on growth and water requirements of uncropped plants during the first 2 years after planting. The plants were grown on mulched, raised beds...

  11. Suitable sources of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer for fertigation of northern highbush blueberry (United States)

    Many blueberry growers are switching from broadcasting granular fertilizers to using fertigation through a drip irrigation system. Fertigation increases growth and production without increasing the need for more fertilizer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different liquid sources ...

  12. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and fungicides on Botryosphaeria stem blight lesion development on detached blueberry stems (United States)

    Botryosphaeria stem blight is a destructive disease of blueberries. Field observations indicate stem blight is more severe on vigorous plants than on slower growing plants. Two studies compared the effect of two types of fertilizers applied at four rates and nine fungicides on lesion development fo...

  13. Late-onset blueberry muffin lesions following recombinant erythropoietin administration in a premature infant. (United States)

    Pandey, Vishal; Dummula, Krishna; Fraga, Garth; Parimi, Prabhu


    Recombinant erythropoietin is being used in premature population for anemia of prematurity. It is considered very safe in this population, although risks are still being evaluated. We report the first case of dermal erythropoiesis as a side effect of recombinant erythropoietin in an extremely prematurely born infant presenting with late-onset blueberry muffin lesions.

  14. Pollen viability and storage temperature for Southern highbush and Rabbiteye blueberry breeding (United States)

    Pollen viability, as measured by tetrad germination, has been reported, but these studies focused on freshly collected pollen and did not address viability of pollen stored at different temperatures over time. Moreover, genetic differences in pollen viability have been reported in blueberry genotype...

  15. Irrigation and fertigation with drip and alternative micro irrigation systems in northern highbush blueberry (United States)

    The effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation using conventional drip and alternative micro irrigation systems were evaluated in six cultivars of northern highbush blueberry. The drip system consisted of two laterals of drip tubing, with 2 L/h in-line emitters (point source) spaced every 0.45 m, on each s...

  16. Sports Supplements (United States)

    ... not getting the whole story about how supplements work, if they are really effective, and the risks you take by using them. Androstenedione and DHEA ... like testicular cancer, infertility, stroke, and an increased risk of heart ... height. Natural steroid supplements can also cause breast development ...

  17. Qualitative analysis of volatiles in rabbiteye blueberry cultivars at various maturities using rapid solid-phase micro extraction (United States)

    Recently, superfruits, such as blueberries, have received much attention as scientists, marketers, and consumers push forward knowledge and demand for high antioxidant, healthier diets. Production and consumption are steadily increasing. Yet, there are very few studies detailing the aroma, astring...

  18. Antimicrobial effect of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extracts against the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis (United States)

    We studied the antimicrobial effects of berry extracts obtained from four cultivars (Elliott, Darrow, Bluecrop and Duke) of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal conc...




    This study was conducted to find out performance of some northern highbush blueberries in northeastern part of Turkey. Two years old plants of Berkeley, Ivanhoe, Jersey, Northland and Rekord blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) varieties planted in Ikizdere, Rize. Their phonological, morphological and yield properties were determined. Among cultivars ‘Ivanhoe’ had the highest (146.44 cm) and most extremely vigor bushes. ‘Berkeley’ gave shorter plants with short bushes (82.72 cm) but had bigger...

  20. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina (United States)

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P. M.; Cline, W. O.; Agudelo, P.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Noe, J. P.


    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum and its relationship to BRD warrants further investigation. PMID:23833323

  1. 蓝莓抑菌活性研究进展%Progress in Antibacterial Activity of Blueberries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 孙晓红; 曹奕; 赵勇; Vivian C.H.Wu; 潘迎捷


    越橘属的蓝莓含有酚类物质、有机酸类、花青素类和糖类等生物活性成分.较早研究表明,蓝莓具有抗感染、抗氧化、抗肿瘤等功能,而近年的研究表明蓝莓具有抑菌作用.本文介绍了蓝莓的抑菌活性,分析了蓝莓中的抑菌活性成分,同时概括了蓝莓提取物对各种菌体的抑菌机理.%Blueberry was belong to Vaccinium spp.,which contained the biological active component of phenolic substances,organic acids,anthocyan and sugars.Early it was researched that blueberries had the ftmction of anti-infection,oxidation,anti-tumor.But recently,it was suggested that blueberry had bacteriostasis.The activity of bacteriostasis in blueberry was covered in this paper.And the antibacterial activity ingredients in blueberries were analyzed.In addition,the antibacterial mechanism of blueberry extract to all kinds of bacteria was summarized.

  2. Calcium supplements (United States)

    ... do not help. Always tell your provider and pharmacist if you are taking extra calcium. Calcium supplements ... 2012:chap 251. The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF). Clinician's Guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis . National ...

  3. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt


    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  4. Quercetin glycosides and chlorogenic acid in highbush blueberry leaf decoction prevent cataractogenesis in vivo and in vitro: Investigation of the effect on calpains, antioxidant and metal chelating properties. (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Makri, Olga E; Mermigki, Penelope G; Lamari, Fotini N; Georgakopoulos, Constantinos D


    The present study investigates whether highbush blueberry leaf polyphenols prevent cataractogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, rutin, isoquercetin and hyperoside were quantified in Vaccinium corymbosum leaf decoction (BBL) using HPLC-DAD. Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with 20 μmol selenite (Na2SeO3)/kg body weight on postnatal (PN) day 10 (Se, n = 8-10/group) only or also intraperitoneally with 100 mg dry BBL/kg body weight on PN days 11 and 12 (SeBBL group, n = 10). Control group received only normal saline (C). Cataract evaluation revealed that BBL significantly prevented lens opacification. It, also, protected lens from selenite oxidative attack and prevented calpain activation, as well as protein loss and aggregation. In vitro studies showed that quercetin attenuated porcine lens turbidity caused by [Formula: see text] or Ca(2+) and interacted efficiently with those ions according to UV-Vis titration experiments. Finally, rutin, isoquercetin and hyperoside moderately inhibited pure human μ-calpain. Conclusively, blueberry leaf extract, a rich source of bioactive polyphenols, prevents cataractogenesis by their strong antioxidant, chelating properties and through direct/indirect inhibition of lens calpains.

  5. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0429 TITLE: Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Perenlei Enkhbaatar, MD., PhD...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Our recent findings demonstrate that burn injury significantly depleted stores of vitamin E in adipose tissue of children by nearly...oxidative stress. The objectives of our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha-tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b) to

  6. Correlation between species-specific metabolite profiles and bioactivities of blueberries (Vaccinium spp.). (United States)

    Lee, Sarah; Jung, Eun Sung; Do, Seon-Gil; Jung, Ga-Young; Song, Gwanpil; Song, Jung-Min; Lee, Choong Hwan


    Metabolite profiling of three blueberry species (Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb., V. oldhamii Miquel., and V. corymbosum L.) was performed using gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) combined multivariate analysis. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly showed metabolic differences among species. GC-TOF-MS analysis revealed significant differences in amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, sugars, and phenolic acids among the three blueberry species. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis indicated that anthocyanins were the major metabolites distinguishing V. bracteatum from V. oldhamii. The contents of anthocyanins such as glycosides of cyanidin were high in V. bracteatum, while glycosides of delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin were high in V. oldhamii. Antioxidant activities assessed using ABTS and DPPH assays showed the greatest activity in V. oldhamii and revealed the highest correlation with total phenolic, total flavonoid, and total anthocyanin contents and their metabolites.

  7. Dietary supplementation with long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids attenuates obesity-related metabolic dysfunction and increases expression of PPAR gamma in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhi-Hong


    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of present study was to examine the effect of long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LC-MUFAs with chain lengths longer than 18 (i.e., C20:1 and C22:1 isomers combined on obesity-related metabolic dysfunction and its molecular mechanisms. Type-2 diabetic KK-Ay mice (n = 20 were randomly assigned to the 7% soybean oil-diet group (control group and 4% LC-MUFA concentrate-supplemented-diet group (LC-MUFA group. At 8 weeks on the diet, the results showed that plasma, liver and adipose tissue levels of C20:1 and C22:1 isomers increased significantly with LC-MUFA treatment. Supplementation with LC-MUFAs markedly reduced white fat pad weight as well as adipocyte size in the mice. The levels of plasma free fatty acids, insulin, and leptin concentration in the obese diabetic mice of the LC-MUFA group were also decreased as compared with the mice in the soybean oil-diet control group. Dietary LC-MUFAs significantly increased the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg, lipoprotein lipase (Lpl, fatty acid transport protein (Fatp, fatty acid translocase/CD36 (Cd36, as well as mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid oxidation such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (Cpt1a and citrate synthase (Cs, and decreased the mRNA expression of inflammatory marker serum amyloid A 3 (Saa3 in the adipose tissues of diabetic mice. The results suggest that LC-MUFAs may ameliorate obesity-related metabolic dysfunction partly through increased expression of Pparg as well as its target genes, and decreased inflammatory marker expression in white adipose tissue.

  8. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T


    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  9. An efficient RNA isolation procedure and identification of reference genes for normalization of gene expression in blueberry. (United States)

    Vashisth, Tripti; Johnson, Lisa Klima; Malladi, Anish


    Application of transcriptomics approaches can greatly enhance our understanding of blueberry physiology. The success of transcriptomics approaches is dependent on the extraction of high-quality RNA which is complicated by the abundance of polyphenolics and polysaccharides in blueberry. Additionally, transcriptomics requires the accurate quantification of transcript abundance. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a robust method to determine transcript abundance. Normalization of gene expression using stably expressed reference genes is essential in qRT-PCR. An evaluation of the stability of expression of reference genes has not yet been reported in blueberry. The objectives of this study were to develop an effective procedure for extracting RNA from different organs and to evaluate potential reference genes for qRT-PCR analyses in blueberry. RNA of high quality and yield was extracted from eight and six organs of rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberry, respectively, using a modified cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-based method. The expression stability of 12 reference genes was evaluated. UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME (UBC28), RNA HELICASE-LIKE (RH8), CLATHRIN ADAPTER COMPLEXES MEDIUM SUBUNIT FAMILY PROTEIN (CACSa), and POLYUBIQUITIN (UBQ3b) were the most stably expressed genes across multiple organs in both blueberry species. Further, the expression stability of the reference genes in the branch abscission zone following treatment with fruit abscission-inducing compounds was analyzed. CACSa, RH8, and UBC28 were the most stably expressed genes in the abscission zone under abscission-inducing conditions. We suggest a preliminary evaluation of UBC28, CACSa, RH8, and UBQ3b to identify the most suitable reference genes for the experimental conditions under consideration in blueberry.

  10. Identification and nutritional value of some wild materials of blueberry (Vaccinium spp)


    Jiménez-Bonilla, Vilma; Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana


    The blueberry is a shrub of the family Ericaceae, genus Vaccinium. Its fruits are berries of dark, bluish or reddish coloration. Presents nutritional qualities and antioxidants which make it a fruit of high nutritional and medicinal value. During this study several wild materials identified as Vaccinium consanguinium were located, collected, identified and analyzed by the method of ORAC (antioxidant total capacity).  Chemical analysis showed high levels of antioxidants in the fruits ((Las Tor...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of controlled-release chlorine dioxide gas on fresh blueberries. (United States)

    Sun, Xiuxiu; Bai, Jinhe; Ference, Christopher; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yifan; Narciso, Jan; Zhou, Kequan


    The effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas on the safety and quality of blueberries was studied. In vitro studies revealed that both ClO2 gas fumigation and ClO2 direct contact in water killed food pathogen bacterium Escherichia coli and fruit decay pathogen fungus Colletotrichum acutatum. In vivo studies were conducted using noninoculated berries and berries inoculated with postharvest decay and foodborne pathogens. Berries were inoculated with either E. coli (5.2 log CFU/g) or C. acutatum (3.9 log CFU/g). Inoculated fruit were dried for 2 h at room temperature in a climate-controlled laboratory and packed in perforated commercial clamshells, with or without ClO2 pads, and stored at 10°C for up to 9 days. The effects of ClO2 on microbial populations and fruit firmness were monitored during storage. In the inoculation experiment, treatment with ClO2 reduced populations of E. coli and C. acutatum by 2.2 to 3.3 and 1.3 to 2.0 log CFU/g, respectively. For the noninoculated blueberries, the initial total aerobic bacteria count and the yeast and mold count were 4.2 and 4.1 log CFU/g, respectively. ClO2 treatment reduced total aerobic bacteria count and yeast and mold count by 1.5 to 1.8 and 1.3 to 1.7 log CFU/g, respectively. The firmness of both inoculated and noninoculated blueberries was maintained by ClO2 treatment. Thus, controlled-release ClO2 gas fumigation technology shows promise as an effective and practical antimicrobial agent in commercial clamshell packaging of blueberry and other fruits.

  12. Analysis of Organic Acids in Blueberry Juice and its Fermented Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxue Fu


    Full Text Available A rapid analytical method for simultaneous separation and determination of organic acids is of the essence for quality control of blueberry juice and its fermented wine. In this present study, a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method for separation and determination of organic acids (oxalic acid, gluconic acid, tartaric acid, formic acid, pyruvic acid, malic acid, isocitric acid, shikimic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid and propionic acid in blueberry juice and wine has been developed. The chromatographic separation was performed at 35°C by using an ammonium hydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 2.8 as mobile phase and 0.6 mL/min as the column flow rate. A C18 analytical column and Ultraviolet Detection (UV at &lembda = 210 nm were used for all acids above. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy and precision. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing organic acids in real samples of six species of blueberry juices and wines. The results show that species significantly affect distribution of organic acids in samples but not the kinds of organic acids between six species. Oxalic acid, gluconic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid and citric acid are detected in blueberry juice. Citric acid, which accounts for a percentage >75% of the whole content of organic acids, is the major acid in four kinds of tested species (Sharpblue, Misty, Anna and Bluecrop. In the other two species (Britewell and Premier, malic acid, gluconic acid and citric acid own a mean percentage of 40, 32 and 25%, respectively. After yeast fermentation and aging, several new organic acids (pyruvic acid, isocitric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid and propionic acid appear in wine.

  13. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) leaf infusions. (United States)

    Piljac-Zegarac, J; Belscak, A; Piljac, A


    Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of leaf infusions prepared from six highbush blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), one wild lowbush blueberry cultivar (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), and one commercially available mix of genotypes were determined. In order to simulate household tea preparation conditions, infusions were prepared in water heated to 95 degrees C. The dynamics of extraction of polyphenolic antioxidants were monitored over the course of 30 minutes. Extraction efficiency, quantified in terms of the total phenol (TP) content, and antioxidant capacity of infusions, evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays, were compared with cultivar type and extraction time. The 30-minute infusions exhibited the highest TP content and antioxidant capacity according to all three assays. Wild blueberry infusion had the highest TP content (1,879 mg/L gallic acid equivalents [GAE]) and FRAP values (20,050 microM). The range of TP values for 30-minute infusions was 394-1,879 mg/L GAE with a mean of 986 mg/L GAE across cultivars; FRAP values fell between 3,015 and 20,050 microM with a mean of 11,234 microM across cultivars. All 30-minute infusions exhibited significant scavenging capacity for DPPH(*) and ABTS(*+) radicals, comparable to different concentrations of catechin, gallic acid, and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid. Overall, tested infusions showed significant reducing capacity as well as radical scavenging potential, which places blueberry leaf tea high on the list of dietary sources of antioxidants.

  14. Atmospheric cold plasma inactivation of aerobic microorganisms on blueberries and effects on quality attributes. (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Niemira, Brendan A; Gurtler, Joshua B; Fan, Xuetong; Sites, Joseph; Boyd, Glenn; Chen, Haiqiang


    Cold plasma (CP) is a novel nonthermal technology, potentially useful in food processing settings. Berries were treated with atmospheric CP for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, or 120 s at a working distance of 7.5 cm with a mixture of 4 cubic feet/minute (cfm) of CP jet and 7 cfm of ambient air. Blueberries were sampled for total aerobic plate count (APC) and yeast/molds immediately after treatment and at 1, 2, and 7 days. Blueberries were also analyzed for compression firmness, surface color, and total anthocyanins immediately after each treatment. All treatments with CP significantly (P < 0.05) reduced APC after exposure, with reductions ranging from 0.8 to 1.6 log CFU/g and 1.5 to 2.0 log CFU/g compared to the control after 1 and 7 days, respectively. Treatments longer than 60s resulted in significant reductions in firmness, although it was demonstrated that collisions between the berries and the container contributed significantly to softening. A significant reduction in anthocyanins was observed after 90 s. The surface color measurements were significantly impacted after 120 s for the L* and a* values and 45 s for the b* values. CP can inactivate microorganisms on blueberries and could be optimized to improve the safety and quality of produce.

  15. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies. (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus


    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  16. Influence of three different concentration techniques on evaporation rate, color and phenolics content of blueberry juice. (United States)

    Elik, Aysel; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Maskan, Medeni; Göğüş, Fahrettin


    The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of three different concentration processes open-pan, rotary vacuum evaporator and microwave heating on evaporation rate, the color and phenolics content of blueberry juice. Kinetics model study for changes in soluble solids content (°Brix), color parameters and phenolics content during evaporation was also performed. The final juice concentration of 65° Brix was achieved in 12, 15, 45 and 77 min, for microwave at 250 and 200 W, rotary vacuum and open-pan evaporation processes, respectively. Color changes associated with heat treatment were monitored using Hunter colorimeter (L*, a* and b*). All Hunter color parameters decreased with time and dependently studied concentration techniques caused color degradation. It was observed that the severity of color loss was higher in open-pan technique than the others. Evaporation also affected total phenolics content in blueberry juice. Total phenolics loss during concentration was highest in open-pan technique (36.54 %) and lowest in microwave heating at 200 W (34.20 %). So, the use of microwave technique could be advantageous in food industry because of production of blueberry juice concentrate with a better quality and short time of operation. A first-order kinetics model was applied to modeling changes in soluble solids content. A zero-order kinetics model was used to modeling changes in color parameters and phenolics content.

  17. Myo-Inositol content determined by myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation in blueberry fruit. (United States)

    Song, Fangyuan; Su, Hongyan; Yang, Nan; Zhu, Luying; Cheng, Jieshan; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Xianhao


    Myo-inositol metabolism in plant edible organs has become the focus of many recent studies because of its benefits to human health and unique functions in plant development. In this study, myo-inositol contents were analyzed during the development of two blueberry cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop'. Furthermore, two VcMIPS 1/2 (Vaccinium corymbosum MIPS) genes, one VcIMP (Vaccinium corymbosum IMP) gene and one VcMIOX (Vaccinium corymbosum MIOX) gene were isolated for the first time from blueberry. The expression patterns of VcMIPS2, VcIMP and VcMIOX genes showed a relationship with the change profiles of myo-inositol content during fruit ripening. The results were further confirmed by the analyses of the enzyme activity. Results indicated that both myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation played important roles in determining of myo-inositol levels during the development of blueberry. To our knowledge, this report is the first to discuss myo-inositol levels in fruits in terms of biosynthesis and catabolism.

  18. Stability and biological activity of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) polyphenols during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. (United States)

    Correa-Betanzo, J; Allen-Vercoe, E; McDonald, J; Schroeter, K; Corredig, M; Paliyath, G


    Wild blueberries are rich in polyphenols and have several potential health benefits. Understanding the factors that affect the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of polyphenols is important for evaluating their biological significance and efficacy as functional food ingredients. Since the bioavailability of polyphenols such as anthocyanins is generally low, it has been proposed that metabolites resulting during colonic fermentation may be the components that exert health benefits. In this study, an in vitro gastrointestinal model comprising sequential chemostat fermentation steps that simulate digestive conditions in the stomach, small intestine and colon was used to investigate the breakdown of blueberry polyphenols. The catabolic products were isolated and biological effects tested using a normal human colonic epithelial cell line (CRL 1790) and a human colorectal cancer cell line (HT 29). The results showed a high stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins during simulated gastric digestion step with approximately 93% and 99% of recovery, respectively. Intestinal digestion decreased polyphenol- and anthocyanin- contents by 49% and 15%, respectively, by comparison to the non-digested samples. During chemostat fermentation that simulates colonic digestion, the complex polyphenol mixture was degraded to a limited number of phenolic compounds such as syringic, cinnamic, caffeic, and protocatechuic acids. Only acetylated anthocyanins were detected in low amounts after chemostat fermentation. The catabolites showed lowered antioxidant activity and cell growth inhibition potential. Results suggest that colonic fermentation may alter the biological activity of blueberry polyphenols.

  19. Multi-response Optimization of Pectinase Processing Conditions on Blueberry Juice Extraction by Desirability Function Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao


    Full Text Available Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to analyze the effect of pectinase processing on Juice Yield (JY, Total Anthocyanin content (TA, Total Phenol content (TP and Total Flavonoid content (TF of blueberry juice. The processing conditions included enzyme dosage, hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time. For resolving multi-response optimization, desirability function method was used to integrate JY, TA, TP and TF into a new target D (Desirability value. Predicted values of JY, TA, TP, TF and D were found to be in good agreement with experimental values as indicated by the high R2 values of 0.9963, 0.9217, 0.9586, 0.9901 and 0.9933, respectively. The optimum conditions were: enzyme dosage of 0.6 mg/g, hydrolysis temperature of 51.6°C and hydrolysis time of 2.36 h. At this optimum point, JY, TA, TP, TF and D were 71.406%, 420.367 mg/L, 2.784 g/L, 3.121 g/L and 0.9206, respectively. The study showed that RSM was an effective technique to model the effect of pectinase processing on blueberry juice parameters and desirability function method could be used for multi-response optimization of blueberry juice extraction.

  20. Overexpression of blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with changes in the expression of phytohormone-related genes in blueberry plants. (United States)

    Gao, Xuan; Walworth, Aaron E; Mackie, Charity; Song, Guo-Qing


    Flowering locus T (FT) is a primary integrator in the regulation of plant flowering. Overexpressing a blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) FT gene (VcFT) (herein VcFT-OX) resulted in early flowering and dwarfing in 'Aurora' plants (herein 'VcFT-Aurora'). In this study, we found that VcFT-OX reduced shoot regeneration from leaf explants. To investigate the potential roles of the phytohormone pathway genes associated with VcFT-OX, differentially expressed (DE) genes in leaf tissues of 'VcFT-Aurora' plants were annotated and analyzed using non-transgenic 'Aurora' plants as a control. Three DE floral genes, including the blueberry SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of constans 1 (VcSOC1) (gibberellin related), Abscisic acid responsive elements-binding factor 2 (VcABF2) and protein related to ABI3/VP1 (VcABI3/VP1) (ethylene-related), are present under both the phytohormone-responsive and the dwarfing-related Gene Ontology terms. The gene networks of the DE genes overall showed the molecular basis of the multifunctional aspects of VcFT overexpression beyond flowering promotion and suggested that phytohormone changes could be signaling molecules with important roles in the phenotypic changes driven by VcFT-OX.

  1. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Wild Blueberries (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. with Cultivated Blueberry Varieties (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in Artvin Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Saral


    Full Text Available Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. which are found naturally in most part of Blacksea Region, and Artvin are generally called bear grape, Trabzon tea, and likapa. In addition, different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. have been cultivated in Artvin region for 5 or 6 years. Blueberries contain appreciable levels of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and flavonols that have high biological activity. V. arctostaphylos and V. myrtillus show that natural distrubition with received V. corymbosum of different cultured species in Artvin region will be determined antioxidant activity in this study. In this study showed that wild species had a higher antioxidant effect than cultivated species. V. myrtillus had high total polyphenols (11.539-20.742 mg GAE/g dry sample, flavonoids (1.182-2.676 mg QE/g dry sample and anthocyanins (3.305-11.473 mg Cyn/g dry sample than V. corymbosum species. In addition, wild species had high CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH values. The antioxidant activities found with CUPRAC, expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity ranged from 0.143 to 0.297 mmol TEAC/g dry sample. Those determined with DPPH expressed as IC50 ranged from 0.229 to 1.178 mg/ml. Those determined with FRAP expressed as FeSO4.7H2O equivalent were in 130.719–346.115 µmol Fe/g dry sample range.

  2. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo; Beom; Eom; Hokyung; Kim; Jinchae; Kim; Un-Chul; Paek; Byeong; Ha; Lee


    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  3. Antimicrobial Effects of Blueberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Aqueous Extracts and their Effects on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae. (United States)

    Khalifa, Hazim O; Kamimoto, Maki; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi


    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry on 13 pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were determined before and after neutralization to pH 7.03 ± 0.15. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited by the non-neutralized berries. Blueberry was the best inhibitor, and Vibrio and Listeria were the most sensitive bacteria. After neutralization, blueberry affected only Vibrio and Listeria, whereas the antimicrobial activities of raspberry and strawberry were abolished. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the extracts were measured with colorimetric methods and were highest in strawberry, followed by raspberry, and then blueberry. We also studied the effects of sub-bactericidal concentrations of the three berry extracts on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three berry extracts effectively repressed the transcription of the tcpA gene. Raspberry also repressed the transcription of the ctxA gene, whereas blueberry and strawberry did not. However, the three berry extracts did not affect the transcription of toxT. These results suggest that the three berry extracts exert potent antimicrobial effects and inhibit the expression of the virulence factors of V. cholerae.

  4. 蓝莓果酒发酵工艺研究%Study on the Fermentation Technology of Blueberry Fruit Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗世芹; 姚万欣


    This paper introduced blueberries and blueberry wine, and discussed blueberry wine fermentation process and control points in the process. Fermentation process and influencing factors were analyzed. Treatment of blueberries, sugar additives, different yeast, the main fermentation process, pectin decomposition would have impacts on the quality of blueberry wine. Factors influencing the fermentation process were discussed in details to optimize the fermentation process and improve product quality.%本文对蓝莓和蓝莓果酒进行了介绍,探讨了蓝莓果酒的发酵流程、发酵过程中的控制要点。并对发酵过程中的影响因素进行了分析,蓝莓的处理方法、糖类添加剂、不同的酵母、主发酵工艺、果胶分解均会对蓝莓果酒的质量产生影响。针对发酵过程中的影响因素进行了具体讨论,旨在优化发酵工艺,提高产品质量。

  5. Native bee diversity and pollen foraging specificity in cultivated highbush blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum) in Rhode Island (United States)

    Scott, Zachary; Ginsberg, Howard; Alm, Steven R.


    We identified 41 species of native bees from a total of 1,083 specimens collected at cultivated highbush blueberry plantings throughout Rhode Island in 2014 and 2015. Andrena spp., Bombus spp., and Xylocopa virginica (L.) were collected most often. Bombus griseocollis (DeGeer), B. impatiens Cresson, B. bimaculatus Cresson, B. perplexus Cresson, and Andrena vicina Smith collected the largest mean numbers of blueberry pollen tetrads. The largest mean percent blueberry pollen loads were carried by the miner bees Andrena bradleyi Viereck (91%), A. carolina Viereck (90%), and Colletes validus Cresson (87%). The largest mean total pollen grain loads were carried by B. griseocollis (549,844), B. impatiens (389,558), X. virginica (233,500), and B. bimaculatus (193,132). Xylocopa virginica was the fourth and fifth most commonly collected bee species in 2014 and 2015, respectively. They exhibit nectar robbing and females carried relatively low blueberry pollen loads (mean 33%). Overall, we found 10 species of bees to be the primary pollinators of blueberries in Rhode Island.

  6. Endurance exercise training and diferuloyl methane supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman


    supplementation, or both resulted in a significant decrease in MDA levels and significantly increased BDNF and TAC levels, as compared to lead acetate group. These results provide a rationale for an inhibitory role of curcumin and regular exercise in the attenuation of lead-induced neurotoxicity....

  7. Novel Intriguing Strategies Attenuating to Sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma


    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, increased risk of fall-related injury, and, often, frailty. Since sarcopenia is largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostasis, and apoptosis, the mechanisms responsible for these deleterious changes present numerous therapeutic targets for drug discovery. Resistance training combined with amino acid-containing supplements is often utilized to prevent age-related muscle wasting and weakness. In this review, we summarize more recent therapeutic strategies (myostatin or proteasome inhibition, supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or ursolic acid, etc. for counteracting sarcopenia. Myostatin inhibitor is the most advanced research with a Phase I/II trial in muscular dystrophy but does not try the possibility for attenuating sarcopenia. EPA and ursolic acid seem to be effective as therapeutic agents, because they attenuate the degenerative symptoms of muscular dystrophy and cachexic muscle. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α in skeletal muscle by exercise and/or unknown supplementation would be an intriguing approach to attenuating sarcopenia. In contrast, muscle loss with age may not be influenced positively by treatment with a proteasome inhibitor or antioxidant.

  8. Dietary avocado oil supplementation attenuates the alterations induced by type I diabetes and oxidative stress in electron transfer at the complex II-complex III segment of the electron transport chain in rat kidney mitochondria. (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Sámano-García, Carlos Alberto; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Pérez-Hernández, Ismael H; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian


    Impaired complex III activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria have been identified as key events leading to renal damage during diabetes. Due to its high content of oleic acid and antioxidants, we aimed to test whether avocado oil may attenuate the alterations in electron transfer at complex III induced by diabetes by a mechanism related with increased resistance to lipid peroxidation. 90 days of avocado oil administration prevented the impairment in succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in kidney mitochondria. This was associated with a protection against decreased electron transfer through high potential chain in complex III related to cytochromes c + c1 loss. During Fe(2+)-induced oxidative stress, avocado oil improved the activities of complexes II and III and enhanced the protection conferred by a lipophilic antioxidant against damage by Fe(2+). Avocado oil also decreased ROS generation in Fe(2+)-damaged mitochondria. Alterations in the ratio of C20:4/C18:2 fatty acids were observed in mitochondria from diabetic animals that not were corrected by avocado oil treatment, which yielded lower peroxidizability indexes only in diabetic mitochondria although avocado oil caused an augment in the total content of monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, a protective effect of avocado oil against lipid peroxidation was observed consistently only in control mitochondria. Since the beneficial effects of avocado oil in diabetic mitochondria were not related to increased resistance to lipid peroxidation, these effects were discussed in terms of the antioxidant activity of both C18:1 and the carotenoids reported to be contained in avocado oil.

  9. Tracer attenuation in groundwater (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir


    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  10. Study on Technology of Blueberry Melon Seeds%蓝莓瓜子加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽; 孙汉巨; 康琳琳; 朱作朋; 刘天成; 谢慧明


    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the optimum technology conditions for the blueberry melon seeds. [Method] With the pumpkin seed was the main raw material, matched with the blueberry fruit juice, the melon seeds with pure nature fruit juice was developed out. Taking the sense quality of the melon seeds as the evaluation standard, with the blueberries, sugar and citric acid as the factors, the orthogonal experiment on the blueberry fruit juice proportion and the test on the ratio of the fruit juice and anthocyanins in black rice were conducted. The effects of the fruit juice adding quantity, baking temperature and time and frying time on the quality of the melon seeds were studied and the optimum technology conditions for the blueberry melon seeds were confirmed. [ Result ] The factors influencing the taste of the compound blueberry fruit juice were in order of sugar > citric acid > blueberries. The optimum formula of the blueberry fruit juice was as follows: blueberries of 5% , sucrose of 8% and citric acid of 0.2%. The optimum ratio of blueberry juice to anthocyanins in the black rice was 1: 3 and the adding quantity of the blueberry fruit juice was 15 ml per 20 g seeds. The main technology conditions for producing the blueberry melon seeds were as follows; the stripping melon seeds were baked for 2 h at 80 ℃ and fried for 270 s at 160 ℃. [ Conclusion] The study provided the scientific basis for the development of the green fruit juice with pure nature.%[目的]探讨蓝莓瓜子的最佳加工工艺条件.[方法]以南瓜子为主要原料,复配以蓝莓果汁,开发纯天然的果汁瓜子.以瓜子的感官品质为评价标准,以蓝莓、白砂糖和柠檬酸为因素,进行蓝莓果汁配比的正交试验以及该果汁与黑米花青素的配比试验,研究果汁添加量、烘烤温度和时间及炒制时间对瓜子品质的影响,确定蓝莓瓜子的最佳工艺条件.[结果]影响蓝莓复配果汁风味的因素依次为:白砂糖>

  11. Testing and design of a passive container for the optimisation of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cold chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Beghi


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to test a passive cooling system (PCS on highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. to verify cooling performances soon after harvest. Based on experimental results the cooling trend was modelled and a dedicated system was designed for the optimisation of blueberries cold chain. The evolution of qualitative characteristics of stored fruits was evaluated analysing the percentage of damaged berries, the weight loss, the texture, the titratable acidity and the total soluble solids content. The analysis of temperature profiles during transport using PCS shows how this device is not fast enough in tearing down the blueberries field heat. A computer simulation, using finite elements method modelling, considering the thermo-physical properties of materials used and the boundary conditions arising from experimental data collected was carried out. Computer modelling has provided the characteristics of geometry, thickness, type and density of the material to obtain the desired cooling performance.

  12. Soil Nutrient Availability, Plant Nutrient Uptake, and Wild Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Yield in Response to N-Viro Biosolids and Irrigation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitazaz A. Farooque


    Full Text Available We compared the impact of surface broadcasted N-Viro biosolids and inorganic fertilizer (16.5% Ammonium sulphate, 34.5% Diammonium phosphate, 4.5% Potash, and 44.5% s and/or clay filler applications on soil properties and nutrients, leaf nutrient concentration, and the fruit yield of lowbush blueberry under irrigated and nonirrigated conditions during 2008-2009 at Debert, NS, Canada. Application rates of N-Viro biosolids were more than double of inorganic fertilizer applied at a recommended N rate of 32 kg ha−1. The experimental treatments NI: N-Viro with irrigation, FI: inorganic fertilizer with irrigation, N: N-Viro without irrigation, and F: inorganic fertilizer without irrigation (control were replicated four times under a randomized complete block design. The NI treatment had the highest OM (6.68% followed by FI (6.32%, N (6.18%, and F (4.43% treatments during the year 2008. Similar trends were observed during 2009 with the highest soil OM values (5.50% for NI treatment. Supplemental irrigation resulted in a 21% increase in the ripe fruit yield. Nonsignificant effect of fertilizer treatments on most of the nutrient concentrations in soil and plant leaves, and on ripe fruits yield reflects that the performance of N-Viro was comparable with that of the inorganic fertilizer used in this study.

  13. Effects of Blueberry Extract on Antioxidant Capacity in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long TAN; Hai-qiang LI; Hong-peng YANG; Wei PANG; Wei LIU; Shou-dan SUN; Yu-gang JIANG


    ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of blueberry extract on antioxidant capacity in mice with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were adopted as the AD model and groups AD, AD+BB and control (CT) were set with ten mice in each group. The mice were given blueberry extract(BB) or saline for 16 weeks. The body weight gain and the food consumption were recorded weekly. The morphological changes in cortex were detected, and the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and the levels of GSH and MDA in the brain, liver, kidney and serum were determined.Results The food consumption did not show any significant difference among the three groups, and the AD mice treated with BB obtained a remarkable body weight gain during the experimental period. The morphological examination showed that an obvious neuronal loss appeared in the cortex of AD mice and improvement was noted in mice treated with BB. The biochemical detection showed that the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, and levels of GSH in the brain, liver and serum were significantly declined while the levels of MDA in these tissues and serum were increased in AD mice. After BB administration, the activity of SOD in brain was elevated significantly and the activities of GSH-Px and the levels of GSH in liver and serum were also recovered to some extent. Meanwhile, the levels of MDA in the brain, liver and serum were decreased obviously. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the level of MDA did not show significant change in kidney. Conclusion Brain is susceptive to oxidative stress in AD mice. Blueberry extract is effective in alleviating the oxidative damage in AD mice.

  14. Preterm infant with a late presentation of blueberry muffin lesions secondary to recombinant erythropoietin. (United States)

    Rajpara, Anand; Blackmon, Joseph; Laarman, Rachel; Skaggs, Robert; Liolios, Ana; Lui, Deede; Fraga, Garth


    Our patient is a 26-week-old preterm female infant delivered by caesarean section secondary to severe maternal preeclampsia who had been receiving subcutaneous recombinant erythropoietin (r-EPO) for anemia of prematurity. At 8 weeks of age after 8 doses of r-EPO, the infant developed numerous non-blanching erythematous macules and patches located on the back, posterior shoulder, and posterior arms, concerning for late-onset blueberry muffin lesions. Biopsy of the lesions confirmed dermal hematopoiesis. After r-EPO was discontinued all skin lesions gradually resolved over a period of 2 weeks and never recurred.

  15. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt


    , metal, gritty, consistence and ability to drink 150 ml (one glass), and the patients arranged the drinks in order of preference. Results: The sensory qualities differed significantly concerning sweet (p...Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss....... Objective: We wanted to investigate taste preferences and sensoric characteristics among three usually used ONS in patients with malignant haematological disease during cytotoxic treatment. Design: Tested drinks were: Protin® (protein-enriched-milk, ARLA), Nutridrink® (NUTRICIA) and hospital-produced drink...

  16. Botrytis californica, a new cryptic species in the B. cinerea species complex causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes. (United States)

    Saito, S; Margosan, D; Michailides, T J; Xiao, C L


    The Botrytis cinerea species complex comprises two cryptic species, originally referred to Group I and Group II based on Bc-hch gene RFLP haplotyping. Group I was described as a new cryptic species B. pseudocinerea During a survey of Botrytis spp. causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes in the Central Valley of California, six isolates, three from blueberries and three from table grapes, were placed in Group I but had a distinct morphological character with conidiophores significantly longer than those of B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea We compared these with B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea by examining morphological and physiological characters, sensitivity to fenhexamid and phylogenetic analysis inferred from sequences of three nuclear genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the three partial gene sequences encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) supported the proposal of a new Botrytis species, B. californica, which is closely related genetically to B. cinerea, B. pseudocinerea and B. sinoviticola, all known as causal agents of gray mold of grapes. Botrytis californica caused decay on blueberry and table grape fruit inoculated with the fungus. This study suggests that B. californica is a cryptic species sympatric with B. cinerea on blueberries and table grapes in California.

  17. Effect of cultural practices and fungicide treatments on the severity of Phytophthora root rot of blueberries grown in Mississippi (United States)

    Phytophthora root rot is an important disease of blueberries, especially those grown in areas with poor drainage. Reliable cultural and chemical management strategies are needed for control of this disease. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of cultural practices and fungicide treat...


    Lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) is a tetraploid hybrid (2n = 4x = 48) and is an economically important fruit crop of the northeast regions of North America. It is cultivated from wild stands and requires bees for pollination. The overall variation among individuals is very high wi...

  19. Short-term blueberry-enriched antioxidant diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aged rats (United States)

    Objective Previously, four months of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aged rats. Experiment 1 determined whether one and two-month BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the d...

  20. Fertilizer and soil management practices for improving the efficiency of nutrient uptake and use in northern highbush blueberry (United States)

    Highbush blueberry is a long-lived perennial crop well-adapted to acidic soils. Plants acquire primarily NH4-N and tolerate relatively low concentrations of P and cations in the soil and high concentrations of plant available metals such as Al and Mn. Recently, we found that optimal leaf nutrient co...

  1. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation (United States)

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  2. Botrytis californica, a new cryptic species in the B. cinerea species complex causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea consists of two cryptic species, referred to as Group I and Group II based on Bc-hch gene RFLP haplotyping, and Group I has been described as a new cryptic species B. pseudocinerea. During a survey for Botrytis spp. causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes in the Central Va...

  3. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Properties of Anthocyanin Rich Extracts from Blueberry and Blackcurrant Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa


    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative potential of anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARFs obtained from two commercially available juices (blueberry and blackcurrant juices on three tumor cell lines; B16F10 (murine melanoma, A2780 (ovarian cancer and HeLa (cervical cancer. Individual anthocyanin determination, identification and quantification were done using HPLC-MS. Antioxidant activity of the juices was determined through different mechanism methods such as DPPH and ORAC. For biological testing, the juices were purified through C18 cartridges in order to obtain fractions rich in anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins identified were glycosylated cyanidin derivatives. The antiproliferative activity of the fractions was tested using the MTT assay. The antiproliferative potential of ARF was found to be associated with those bioactive molecules, anthocyanins due to their antioxidant potential. The results obtained indicated that both blueberry and blackcurrants are rich sources of antioxidants including anthocyanins and therefore these fruits are highly recommended for daily consumption to prevent numerous degenerative diseases.

  4. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Andean clade and the placement of new Colombian blueberries (Ericaceae, Vaccinieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pedraza-Penalosa


    Full Text Available The blueberry tribe Vaccinieae (Ericaceae is particularly diverse in South America and underwent extensive radiation in Colombia where many endemics occur. Recent fieldwork in Colombia has resulted in valuable additions to the phylogeny and as well in the discovery of morphologically noteworthy new species that need to be phylogenetically placed before being named. This is particularly important, as the monophyly of many of the studied genera have not been confirmed. In order to advance our understanding of the relationships within neotropical Vaccinieae and advice the taxonomy of the new blueberry relatives, here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for the Andean clade. Anthopterus, Demosthenesia, and Pellegrinia are among the putative Andean genera recovered as monophyletic, while other eight Andean genera were not. The analyses also showed that genera that have been traditionally widely defined are non-monophyletic and could be further split into more discrete groups. Four newly discovered Colombian Vaccinieae are placed in the monophyletic Satyria s.s. and the Psammisia I clade. Although these new species are endemic to the Colombian Western Cordillera and Chocó biogeographic region and three are not known outside of Las Orquídeas National Park, they do not form sister pairs.

  5. Isolation of high-purity anthocyanin mixtures and monomers from blueberries using combined chromatographic techniques. (United States)

    Wang, Erlei; Yin, Yongguang; Xu, Caina; Liu, Jingbo


    Research on the isolation and preparation of anthocyanins has intensified in recent years because of the requirements of quantitative and bioactive analyses. However, simple and effective methods for the scale purification of pure anthocyanins from natural products are rarely reported. In this study, high-purity anthocyanin mixtures and monomers were successfully isolated from wild blueberries using a combination of column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. We established an effective elution system to separate high-purity anthocyanin mixtures with aqueous ethanol containing 0.01% HCl first in an Amberlite XAD-7HP column (ethanol/H2O=35:65) and then in a Sephadex LH-20 column (ethanol/H2O=25:75). Crude anthocyanin extracts were isolated using the Amberlite column, and a purity of 32% was obtained based on UV-vis analysis. Three fractions of anthocyanin mixtures were isolated from the crude extracts using the Sephadex column with purities ranging from 59% to 68%. Three pure monomeric anthocyanins of malvidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-O-glucoside were also isolated by semi-preparative HPLC and identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The purities of these anthocyanins were determined by analytical HPLC and estimated to be 97.7%, 99.3%, and 95.4%, respectively. The results of this study may help promote the purification of anthocyanins from most blueberry varieties as well as from other plant materials.

  6. Blueberry polyphenol oxidase: Characterization and the kinetics of thermal and high pressure activation and inactivation. (United States)

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Delon, Antoine; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis


    Partially purified blueberry polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in Mcllvaine buffer (pH=3.6, typical pH of blueberry juice) was subjected to processing at isothermal-isobaric conditions at temperatures from 30 to 80 °C and pressure from 0.1 to 700 MPa. High pressure processing at 30-50 °C at all pressures studied caused irreversible PPO activity increase with a maximum of 6.1 fold increase at 500 MPa and 30 °C. Treatments at mild pressure-mild temperature conditions (0.1-400 MPa, 60 °C) also caused up to 3 fold PPO activity increase. Initial activity increase followed by a decrease occurred at relatively high pressure-mild temperature (400-600 MPa, 60 °C) and mild pressure-high temperature (0.1-400 MPa, 70-80 °C) combinations. At temperatures higher than 76 °C, monotonic decrease in PPO activity occurred at 0.1 MPa and pressures higher than 500 MPa. The activation/inactivation kinetics of the enzyme was successfully modelled assuming consecutive reactions in series with activation followed by inactivation.

  7. Development of Blueberry and Carrot Juice Blend Fermented by Lactobacillus reuteri LR92

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Saori Ishii Mauro


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the blueberry and carrot juice blend as a fermentable substrate for Lactobacillus reuteri LR92, in order to develop a fermented non-dairy functional beverage. Analysis of cell viability, pH, and acidity were performed during the fermentation process. The resistance of the microorganism in the blend, under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in storage at 4 °C for 28 days, was evaluated at the same time as the antioxidant potential of the fermented juice. After 40 h of fermentation, the L. reuteri population presented a logarithmic growth of three cycles, reaching count records of 10.26 ± 0.23 log CFU/mL and after 28 days of storage at 4 °C, the bacterial population maintained elevated numbers of viable cell (8.96 ± 0.08 log CFU/mL, with increase in the antioxidant capacity of the fermented blend. However, in the test of gastric simulation, the L. reuteri population had a logarithmic reduction of five cycles. In the presence of bile salts, the viability was maintained even after 150 min of incubation. This way, the results suggested that the blueberry and carrot blend juice can be considered as a good medium for the growth of L. reuteri, providing microbiological stability during refrigerated storage with elevated antioxidant capacity, which allows for the development of a non-dairy probiotic beverage.

  8. Developing a Lactobacillus Fermented Beverage of Blueberry%蓝莓乳酸菌发酵饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The blueberry as raw materials, production of Lactobacillus fermented beverage, the optimal parameters for this beverage was determined by single factor and orthogonal experiment.The optimal fermentation conditions for:blueberry juice and skim milk ratio of 1:1.5,fermentation time 20 h, fermentation temperature 40 ℃, amount of vaccination 4 %. The optimum formula of blueberry lactobacillus fermented beverage was blueberry fermented original juice 80%, sugar 5%, citric acid 0.01%;composed of blueberry Lactobacillus fermented beverage a stabilizer of 0.15%xanthan gum,0.06%CMC-Na,0.07%sodium alginate.%以蓝莓为原料,制作乳酸菌发酵饮料,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定了该饮料的各项最佳工艺参数.发酵最佳工艺条件为蓝莓汁:脱脂牛奶的比例为1:1.5,发酵时间为20 h,发酵温度为40℃,菌种接种量为4%.蓝莓乳酸菌饮料最佳配方为原发酵汁添加量80%,白糖添加量5%,柠檬酸添加量0.01%;蓝莓乳酸菌饮料稳定剂添加量为黄原胶添加0.15%、CMC-Na添加0.06%、海藻酸钠添加0.07%.

  9. 蓝莓酸乳饮料的工艺研究%Study on processing technology of blueberry yogurt beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少庸; 费英敏


    以纯牛奶和蓝莓为主要原料,通过发酵、调配、均质、杀菌等加工工艺制成蓝莓酸乳饮料,通过单因素和正交实验法筛选出最佳工艺配方,采用CMC和黄原胶对其稳定性进行研究,优化并确定了最佳工艺配方为:酸奶30%,蓝莓汁12%,蔗糖12%,柠檬酸0.02%,乙基麦芽酚0.01%,苯甲酸钠0.10%,水45%(均为质量分数)时蓝莓酸乳饮料风味最佳;CMC质量分数为0.5%和黄原胶0.1%复配时蓝莓酸乳饮料稳定性最好.%The paper used fresh milk and blueberry as main ingrediengts, through fermentation, dispensation,homogenization,sterilization and etc, made the blueberry yogurt beverage .the optimum technological conditions were determined with single- factor test and orthogonal test. The stability was studied with two additives:CMC and Xanthan,the optimum formulation was optimized and determined:when the additive amount meet yoghurt 30%,blueberry juice 12%, sucrose 12%, lemon acid 0.02% Ethyl maltol 0.010%, Sodiun Bebzoate 0.1% and water 45% the blueberry yogurt beverage had a good flavor and taste; when the additive amount meet CMC 0.5% ,the mixture of Xanthan Gum 0.1% the blueberry yogurt beverage was considered to be the better stabilizer.

  10. Computational identification of conserved microRNAs and their targets from expression sequence tags of blueberry (Vaccinium corybosum). (United States)

    Li, Xuyan; Hou, Yanming; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Wenhao; Quan, Chen; Cui, Yuhai; Bian, Shaomin


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, approximately 21nt in length, non-coding RNA, which mediate the expression of target genes primarily at post-transcriptional levels. miRNAs play critical roles in almost all plant cellular and metabolic processes. Although numerous miRNAs have been identified in the plant kingdom, the miRNAs in blueberry, which is an economically important small fruit crop, still remain totally unknown. In this study, we reported a computational identification of miRNAs and their targets in blueberry. By conducting an EST-based comparative genomics approach, 9 potential vco-miRNAs were discovered from 22,402 blueberry ESTs according to a series of filtering criteria, designated as vco-miR156-5p, vco-miR156-3p, vco-miR1436, vco-miR1522, vco-miR4495, vco-miR5120, vco-miR5658, vco-miR5783, and vco-miR5986. Based on sequence complementarity between miRNA and its target transcript, 34 target ESTs from blueberry and 70 targets from other species were identified for the vco-miRNAs. The targets were found to be involved in transcription, RNA splicing and binding, DNA duplication, signal transduction, transport and trafficking, stress response, as well as synthesis and metabolic process. These findings will greatly contribute to future research in regard to functions and regulatory mechanisms of blueberry miRNAs.

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Blueberry Anthocyanin%蓝莓花青素的抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 潘利华


    [目的]研究蓝莓花青素的抗氧化活性.[方法]采用酸化乙醇提取蓝莓鲜果中的蓝莓花青素,并通过羟自由基、DPPH自由基、H2O2、超氧阴离子自由基及Fe3+清除率试验评价蓝莓花青素的抗氧化能力.[结果]蓝莓花青素对羟自由基、DPPH自由基、H2O2、超氧阴离子自由基及Fe3+清除率随着浓度的增大而增强,其抗氧化活性高于相同浓度的抗坏血酸.[结论]蓝莓花青素具有很高的抗氧化活性,可以作为天然抗氧化剂进行开发.%[Objective] To determine the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin from blueberry.[Method] The anthocyanin were extracted with acidified ethanol from the fresh blueberry and the antioxidant activities of blueberry anthocyanin were determined by · OH,DPPH ·,H2O2,superoxide anion and Fe3+ removal experiments.[Result] The · OH,DPPH ·,H2O2,superoxide anion and Fe3+ removal rates of blueberry anthocyanin increased with its concentrations and were superior to that of Vc at the same concentration.[Conclusion] Blueberry anthocyanin possessed high antioxidant activity,which can be developed as natural antioxidants.

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Mechanism analysis and simulation of blueberry harvest by vibration mode%振动式蓝莓采摘的机理分析与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海滨; 郭艳玲; 鲍玉冬; 耿雷


      为改变中国蓝莓人工采摘状况,实现高丛蓝莓的机械化采摘,该文研究了高丛蓝莓的采摘机理,并对所建立的数学模型进行仿真分析。首先分析蓝莓振动采摘机理,建立蓝莓植株采摘物理模型,推导得出动力学方程,采用数学物理微分方程求解得到蓝莓树枝稳态受迫振动输出解及采摘惯性力。运用MATLAB软件仿真分析蓝莓树枝稳态受迫振动时域仿真曲线及采摘力幅频特性仿真曲线,并进行了蓝莓采摘试验,试验数据与仿真结果一致:仿真结果满足蓝莓采摘条件的采摘频率为14~16rad/s,较优的采摘频率为15rad/s,该频率下的采摘效率为913颗/min,采摘生果率为2.99%,采摘果实损坏率为2.86%,未采净率为3.17%,机采人采效率比为10.14。研究结果可为高丛蓝莓采摘机的研制提供参考。%  Recently, the blueberry was served as the king of fruits, and people have been paying more attention to the health care effect, economic and medicinal value of the blueberry. Planting the blueberry is a new economic growth point in agriculture and forestry. The demand for blueberry exceeds the supply in the international market with high-speed growth demand. However, the blueberries are harvested depending entirely on hand picking in China with serious losses, and the picking cost accounts for 50%−70%of the total blueberry production cost. The old harvesting method restricts the widespread popularization and planting of blueberries. Research on blueberry picking machines and blueberry picking mechanisms is in its infancy in China. The price of blueberry picking machines is high. An experiment was conducted to change the artificial harvesting status of the blueberry, realize the mechanization of a high-bush blueberry-picking tool, and establish the theoretical guidance and design basis for the blueberry-picking machine for Chinese national conditions. We studied the

  7. Fungicide resistance profiling in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington and their impact on control of gray mold (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Sensitivities to boscalid, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, and pyraclostrobin, representing five different fungicide classes, were...

  8. Research Advance in the Development of Blueberry Dairy Products%蓝莓乳制品开发研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈小媛; 王芳; 贾强


    Blueberry dairy products are more popular with consumers, because blueberries have a variety of healthpromoting effects. This paper describes the nutrition value and health-promoting functions of blueberries, reviews the current status of development of blueberry dairy products and the recent advance in research on key production technologies, and explores future perspectives.%蓝莓具有多种保健功能,将其与牛乳组合开发新型蓝莓乳制品会倍受消费者青睐。本文对蓝莓营养价值、保健功能等进行概述,重点阐述蓝莓乳制品开发现状及其生产关键技术研究进展,并对其发展前景作出展望。

  9. Landing gear noise attenuation (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)


    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  10. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    as a meta-documentary, or an always-already deconstructed communication mainly dealing with the act of communicating about philosophy, rather than communicating philosophical insight as such. Philosophy is thus shown to be communication, transmission, situated and framed speech acts - supplements...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style......, or inversely how does his style always/already produce these supplements and deferrals?...

  11. Tyrosine Supplementation Attenuates Cognitive and Psychomotor Deficits in Cold Environments (United States)


    caused by low body temperature. J Appl Physiol 55: 27-31, 1983. 11. Fine BJ, Kobrick JL and Lieberman HR. Effects of caffeine or diphenhydramine on...Hale B and Lieberman HR. Caffeine effects on marksmanship during high- stress military training with 72 hour sleep deprivation. Aviat Space Environ Med...D, Hyde, DE, Schrot, J, and Thomas, JR. Thermal protection and diver performance in special operations forces combat swimmers (resting diver phase

  12. A single serving of blueberry (V. corymbosum) modulates peripheral arterial dysfunction induced by acute cigarette smoking in young volunteers: a randomized-controlled trial. (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Fracassetti, Daniela; Campolo, Jonica; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia


    Cigarette smoking causes oxidative stress, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may prevent these conditions. We investigated the effect of a single serving of fresh-frozen blueberry intake on peripheral arterial function and arterial stiffness in young smokers. Sixteen male smokers were recruited for a 3-armed randomized-controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300 g of blueberry) + smoking; control treatment (300 mL of water with sugar) + smoking. Each treatment was separated by one week of wash-out period. The blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral arterial function (reactive hyperemia and Framingham reactive hyperemia), and arterial stiffness (digital augmentation index, digital augmentation index normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm) were measured before and 20 min after smoking with Endo-PAT2000. Smoking impaired the blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral arterial function, but did not affect the arterial stiffness. Blueberry consumption counteracted the impairment of the reactive hyperemia index induced by smoking (-4.4 ± 0.8% blueberry treatment vs. -22.0 ± 1.1% smoking treatment, p smoking treatment, p smoking treatment, mmHg, p smoking. No effect was observed for arterial stiffness and other vital signs. In conclusion, data obtained suggest a protective role of blueberry on reactive hyperemia, Framingham reactive hyperemia, and systolic blood pressure in subjects exposed to smoke of one cigarette. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  13. Generation and analysis of blueberry transcriptome sequences from leaves, developing fruit, and flower buds from cold acclimation through deacclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Lisa J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been increased consumption of blueberries in recent years fueled in part because of their many recognized health benefits. Blueberry fruit is very high in anthocyanins, which have been linked to improved night vision, prevention of macular degeneration, anti-cancer activity, and reduced risk of heart disease. Very few genomic resources have been available for blueberry, however. Further development of genomic resources like expressed sequence tags (ESTs, molecular markers, and genetic linkage maps could lead to more rapid genetic improvement. Marker-assisted selection could be used to combine traits for climatic adaptation with fruit and nutritional quality traits. Results Efforts to sequence the transcriptome of the commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cultivar Bluecrop and use the sequences to identify genes associated with cold acclimation and fruit development and develop SSR markers for mapping studies are presented here. Transcriptome sequences were generated from blueberry fruit at different stages of development, flower buds at different stages of cold acclimation, and leaves by next-generation Roche 454 sequencing. Over 600,000 reads were assembled into approximately 15,000 contigs and 124,000 singletons. The assembled sequences were annotated and functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO terms. Frequency of the most abundant sequences in each of the libraries was compared across all libraries to identify genes that are potentially differentially expressed during cold acclimation and fruit development. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm their differential expression patterns. Overall, 14 out of 17 of the genes examined had differential expression patterns similar to what was predicted from their reads alone. The assembled sequences were also mined for SSRs. From these sequences, 15,886 blueberry EST-SSR loci were identified. Primers were designed from 7,705 of the SSR-containing sequences

  14. Influence on longevity of blueberry, cinnamon, green and black tea, pomegranate, sesame, curcumin, morin, pycnogenol, quercetin, and taxifolin fed iso-calorically to long-lived, F1 hybrid mice. (United States)

    Spindler, Stephen R; Mote, Patricia L; Flegal, James M; Teter, Bruce


    Phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice. We tested extracts of blueberry, pomegranate, green and black tea, cinnamon, sesame, and French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol and taxifolin), as well as curcumin, morin, and quercetin for their effects on the life span of mice. While many of these phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of model organisms, we found no significant effect on the life span of male F1 hybrid mice, even though the dosages used reportedly produce defined therapeutic end points in mice. The compounds were fed beginning at 12 months of age. The control and treatment groups were iso-caloric with respect to one another. A 40% calorically restricted and other groups not reported here did experience life span extension. Body weights were un-changed relative to controls for all but two supplemented groups, indicating most supplements did not change energy absorption or utilization. Tea extracts with morin decreased weight, whereas quercetin, taxifolin, and Pycnogenol together increased weight. These changes may be due to altered locomotion or fatty acid biosynthesis. Published reports of murine life span extension using curcumin or tea components may have resulted from induced caloric restriction. Together, our results do not support the idea that isolated phytonutrient anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories are potential longevity therapeutics, even though consumption of whole fruits and vegetables is associated with enhanced health span and life span.

  15. Study on the Material of Blueberry Wine%蓝莓浸渍酒原料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊基胜; 吴林生; 张春龙; 王子迎


    Blueberry wine was produced by fresh blueben'ies and distilled spirits as original material, lemon and sugar as accessories. Blueberry was freezed and dipped at the room temperature, purificated, blended, after-ripened and then bottled. There is lots of factors influence the quality of blueberry wine, such as amount of blueberry, pretreatment of original material, raw liquor's alcohol degree and categories. The final plan of experiment was fixed by combined the above factors and comprehensive assessment of wine's sense, taste and nutrition function. The results show that the best method is adding 16%blueberries, blueberries were frozen before added to the 45% rice wine. 2% fresh lemon and 3% of the sugar was added to the raw liquor, dipping 30 d at the room temperature.%以新鲜的蓝莓浆果和大米酒为原料,新鲜的柠檬和冰糖为辅料,蓝莓冷冻、常温浸渍、过滤、勾兑、装瓶,生产蓝莓浸渍酒。通过蓝莓的添加量、原料的预处理、原料酒酒精度以及原料酒种类对蓝莓酒品质的影响试验,结合感官、口感及营养保健功能的综合评定,最终确定试验方案。试验结果表明蓝莓浸渍酒最佳用料为蓝莓添加量为16%左右,在原料添加前对蓝莓进行低温冷冻处理,选择酒精度为45°的大米酒,浸渍的过程中添加2%的新鲜柠檬和3%的冰糖,常温浸渍30d。

  16. Optimization of ultrasonic cell grinder extraction of anthocyanins from blueberry using response surface methodology. (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-Long; Yang, Jun-Li; Shi, Yan-Ping


    Ultrasonic cell grinder extraction (UCGE), using water as the solvent, was firstly applied to extract anthocyanins from blueberry. Extraction yield was related with four variables, including ratio of solution to solid, extraction power, buffer time, and extraction time. On the basis of response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal conditions were determined to be the ratio of solution to solid as 25:1(mL/g), the extraction power as 1500W, the buffer time as 3.0s, and the extraction time as 40min. The experimental yield of anthocyanins using UCGE was 2.89mg/g higher than that of conventional ultrasound-assisted extraction (CUAE). This study indicated that UCGE was an innovative, efficient, and environment friendly method in ultrasonic extraction fields, and had a potential to effectively extract other bioactive constituents.

  17. Antioxidants of therapeutic relevance in COPD from the neotropical blueberry Anthopterus wardii (United States)

    Flores, Gema; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Whalen, Kathleen; Pedraza-Peñalosa, Paola; Foronjy, Robert F.; D’Armiento, Jeanine M.; Kennelly, Edward J.


    Four flavone C-glycosides, isoorientin (1), orientin (2), vitexin (3), and isovitexin (4), were isolated from the neotropical blueberry of Anthopterus wardii, a so-called “superfruit”, using antioxidant activity-guided fractionation. A dose-response relationship of compounds 1–4 was determined for their anti-inflammatory activity against interleukin-8 (IL-8) and for the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression, an inflammatory marker for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The four flavone C-glycosides exhibited inhibitory activity against IL-8 production and MMP-1 expression, with compounds 1, 3, and 4 having the most potent inhibitory activities in both assays at 100 μg/ml. The structures of compounds 1–4 were determined by spectroscopic methods. These flavone C-glycosides are reported for the first time in the Anthopterus genus. PMID:22363097

  18. Impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the (poly)phenol content of wild blueberry. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; George, Trevor W; Spencer, Jeremy P E


    Accumulating evidence suggests that diets rich in (poly)phenols may have positive effects on human health. Currently there is limited information regarding the effects of processing on the (poly)phenolic content of berries, in particular in processes related to the baking industry. This study investigated the impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the anthocyanin, procyanidin, flavonol, and phenolic acid contents of wild blueberry using HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. Anthocyanin levels decreased during cooking, proving, and baking, whereas no significant changes were observed for total procyanidins. However, lower molecular weight procyanidins increased and high molecular weight oligomers decreased during the process. Quercetin and ferulic and caffeic acid levels remained constant, whereas increases were found for chlorogenic acid. Due to their possible health benefits, a better understanding of the impact of processing is important to maximize the retention of these phytochemicals in berry-containing products.

  19. How do consumer attitudes influence acceptance of a novel wild blueberry-soy product? (United States)

    Teh, T; Dougherty, M P; Camire, M E


    Acceptance of healthful foods by consumers is not yet well understood. In this study, 3 formulations of frozen dessert bars were prepared containing both soy and wild blueberries. Soy content was controlled to provide an amount of soy protein that qualified for the health claim for soy and reduced risks for cardiovascular disease. Consumers were asked to complete the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS) and then evaluate the acceptability of the 3 frozen bar types using a 9-point hedonic scale. One week after the 1st session, the participants returned. Approximately half were given information to read regarding the health benefits of soy protein, the other participants were given no information. The samples were then presented a 2nd time and labeled with their soy protein content. Changes in hedonic scores between sessions were compared and correlated with HTAS ratings. Nutrition information generally did not affect acceptability scores.

  20. In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean blueberry(Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadira; Binte; Samad; Trishna; Debnath; Michael; Ye; Md.Abul; Hasnat; Beong; Ou; Lim


    Objective:To investigate in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean blueberry(Vaccinium corymbosum L.).Methods:Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the Korean blueberry water and ethanol extracts were determined before determining the potential of the extracts as antioxidant.Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by following some well established methods for free radical scavenging such as 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate,1,2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid),free radical induced DNA damage,superoxide dismutaselike and catalase assay etc.Furthermore,1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan and nitric oxide assay were performed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts.Results:Total phenolic contents were found(115.0±3.0) and(4.2±3.0) mg GAE/100 g fresh mass for both extracts,respectively and flavonoid contents were(1 942.8±7.0) and(1 292.1±6.0) mg CE/100 g fresh mass for water and ethonal extracts,respectively.Both the extracts displayed significant scavenging activity of some radicals such as 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate(IC50 at 1.8 mg/mL and 2.05 mg/mL,respectively),l,2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)(IC50 at1.5 mg/mL and 1.6 mg/mL,respectively) and nitrite(IC50 at 1.7 mg/mL and 1.5 mg/mL,respectively)etc.The extracts were found to prevent inflammation as well by reducing nitric oxide production and cytotoxicity in cell.Conclusions:The findings suggest that the fresh Korean blueberry could be used as a source of natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents.

  1. Examining the spatial distribution of flower thrips in southern highbush blueberries by utilizing geostatistical methods. (United States)

    Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E; Grunwald, Sabine


    Flower thrips (Frankliniella spp.) are one of the key pests of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. x V. darrowii Camp), a high-value crop in Florida. Thrips' feeding and oviposition injury to flowers can result in fruit scarring that renders the fruit unmarketable. Flower thrips often form areas of high population, termed "hot spots", in blueberry plantings. The objective of this study was to model thrips spatial distribution patterns with geostatistical techniques. Semivariogram models were used to determine optimum trap spacing and two commonly used interpolation methods, inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK), were compared for their ability to model thrips spatial patterns. The experimental design consisted of a grid of 100 white sticky traps spaced at 15.24-m and 7.61-m intervals in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Thirty additional traps were placed randomly throughout the sampling area to collect information on distances shorter than the grid spacing. The semivariogram analysis indicated that, in most cases, spacing traps at least 28.8 m apart would result in spatially independent samples. Also, the 7.61-m grid spacing captured more of the thrips spatial variability than the 15.24-m grid spacing. IDW and OK produced maps with similar accuracy in both years, which indicates that thrips spatial distribution patterns, including "hot spots," can be modeled using either interpolation method. Future studies can use this information to determine if the formation of "hot spots" can be predicted using flower density, temperature, and other environmental factors. If so, this development would allow growers to spot treat the "hot spots" rather than their entire field.

  2. Effects of Power Ultrasound on Stability of Cyanidin-3-glucoside Obtained from Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Long Yao


    Full Text Available Power ultrasound (US could potentially be used in the food industry in the future. However, the extent of anthocyanin degradation by US requires investigation. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu obtained from blueberry extracts was used as research material to investigate the effect of power ultrasound on food processing of anthocyanin-rich raw materials. The effects of ultrasonic waves on the stability of Cy-3-glu and on the corresponding changes in UV-Vis spectrum and antioxidant activity were investigated, and the mechanisms of anthocyanin degradation induced by ultrasonic waves were discussed. To explore Cy-3-glu degradation in different environments, we kept the Cy-3-glu solution treated with ultrasonic waves in four concentrations (0%, 10%, 20%, and 50% of ethanol aqueous solutions to simulate water, beer, wine, and liquor storage environment according to the chemical kinetics method. Results show that the basic spectral characteristics of Cy-3-glu did not significantly change after power ultrasound cell crusher application at 30 °C. However, with anthocyanin degradation, the intensity of the peak for Cy-3-glu at 504 nm significantly decreased (p < 0.05. The degradation kinetics of Cy-3-glu by ultrasonic waves (200–500 W frequency fitted well to first-order reaction kinetics, and the degradation rate constant of Cy-3-glu under power ultrasound was considerably larger than that under thermal degradation (p < 0.05. The sensitivity of the anthocyanins of blueberry to temperature increased with increasing ethanol concentration, and the longest half-life was observed in 20% ethanol aqueous solution.

  3. Planetary Ices Attenuation Properties (United States)

    McCarthy, Christine; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    In this chapter, we review the topic of energy dissipation in the context of icy satellites experiencing tidal forcing. We describe the physics of mechanical dissipation, also known as attenuation, in polycrystalline ice and discuss the history of laboratory methods used to measure and understand it. Because many factors - such as microstructure, composition and defect state - can influence rheological behavior, we review what is known about the mechanisms responsible for attenuation in ice and what can be inferred from the properties of rocks, metals and ceramics. Since attenuation measured in the laboratory must be carefully scaled to geologic time and to planetary conditions in order to provide realistic extrapolation, we discuss various mechanical models that have been used, with varying degrees of success, to describe attenuation as a function of forcing frequency and temperature. We review the literature in which these models have been used to describe dissipation in the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Finally, we address gaps in our present knowledge of planetary ice attenuation and provide suggestions for future inquiry.

  4. Anthocyanins and phenolic acids from a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) powder counteract lipid accumulation in THP-1-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin;


    to counteract lipid accumulation in macrophages derived from monocytic THP-1 cells. In addition, we tested the capacity of pure ACNs and their metabolites to alter lipid accumulation. METHODS: THP-1-derived macrophages were incubated with fatty acids (500 μM oleic/palmitic acid, 2:1 ratio) and different......PURPOSE: Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins (ACNs) and phenolic acids (PA), which are hypothesized to protect against development of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of an ACN- and PA-rich fractions, obtained from a wild blueberry powder, on the capacity...... concentrations (from 0.05 to 10 μg mL(-1)) of ACN- and PA-rich fractions, pure ACN standards (malvidin, delphinidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside), and metabolites (syringic, gallic and protocatechuic acids). Lipid accumulation was quantified with the fluorescent dye Nile red. RESULTS: Lipid accumulation was reduced...

  5. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture. (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality.

  6. Frequency Dependent Attenuation Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Kowar; Xavier, Bonnefond


    The work is inspired by thermo-and photoacoustic imaging, where recent efforts are devoted to take into account attenuation and varying wave speed parameters. In this paper we study causal equations describing propagation of attenuated pressure waves. We review standard models like frequency power laws and and the thermo-viscous equation. The lack of causality of standard models in the parameter range relevant for photoacoustic imaging requires to derive novel equations. The main ingredients for deriving causal equations are the Kramers-Kronig relation and the mathematical concept of linear system theory. The theoretical results of this work are underpined by numerical experiments.

  7. Optimization on Fermentation Technology of Blueberry Wine%蓝莓果酒发酵工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢洋洋; 李延红; 王传华; 樊友宏; 汪宏涛; 武佳斌


    The fermentation technology of blueberry wine was studied with blueberries as raw material and active dry wine yeast as fermentation bacteria. Firstly, the effect of initial sugar concentration, yeast inoculation concentration, fermentation temperature and initial pH on the fermentation of blueberry wine were investigated through single-factor experiments. On the basis of that, an orthogonal experiment (L9 (34)) was conducted to optimize the fermentation conditions in terms of the comprehensive sensory evaluation. The results showed that the optimal conditions for blueberry wine were initial sugar concentration 10°Bx, yeast inoculation concentration 0.1%, fermentation temperature 25℃and initial pH of 3.3.%以蓝莓为主要原料,安琪酿酒酵母为发酵菌株,通过单因素实验考察初糖浓度、酵母接种量、发酵温度、起始pH对蓝莓果酒发酵的影响。在单因素实验的基础上,以主发酵后的果酒感官综合评分为指标,通过L9(34)正交试验确定蓝莓果酒发酵工艺的最佳条件。结果表明蓝莓果酒的最佳工艺条件为:初始糖度为10°Bx,酵母接种量为0.1%,发酵温度为25℃,起始pH为3.3。

  8. The effects of long-term management on patterns of carbon storage in a northern highbush blueberry production system. (United States)

    Nemeth, Denise; Lambrinos, John G; Strik, Bernadine C


    Perennial crops potentially provide a sink for atmospheric carbon. However, there is a poor understanding of how perennial crops differ in their carbon allocation patterns, and few studies have tested how agronomic practices such as fertilization influence long-term patterns of carbon allocation in actual production systems. In this study, we report results of a long-term field experiment that tested the individual and combined effects of organic matter incorporation and nitrogen fertilization on carbon allocation. The mature (nine-year-old) blueberry plants in this study had an average standing carbon stock of 1147gCm(-2) and average annual Net Primary Production (NPP) of 523gCm(-2)yr(-1), values that are similar to those reported for other woody crops. Forty-four percent of blueberry annual NPP was sequestered in persistent biomass, 19% was exported as harvested fruit, and 37% entered the detrital pathway. Nitrogen applied at rates typical for blueberry production throughout the span of the study had no significant effect on total plant or soil C. However, pre-planting organic matter incorporation and periodic mulching with sawdust significantly increased both soil organic matter and soil C. Pre-planting organic matter incorporation also increased total standing plant C nine years later at maturity. At the field scale, we estimate that fields receiving pre-planting organic matter incorporation would have 4.8% (4.5Mgha(-1)) more standing C relative to non-amended fields, although the difference is within the range of uncertainty of the estimated values. These results suggest that blueberry production can provide a valuable medium-term carbon store that is comparable in magnitude to that of temperate tree crops, but overall carbon budgets are influenced by management practices over the first decade after planting.

  9. Flowering and fruit set of six cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in the conditions of the Lublin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bożek


    Full Text Available The results presented in this paper relate to the time and duration of flowering of highbush blueberry as well as fruit set in the conditions of flower isolation and free visitation by pollinating insects. Observations were carried out in the years 2001- 2004 at a plantation located in Niemce near the city of Lublin. Six cultivars: 'Bluecrop', 'Bluejay', 'Croatan', 'Darrow', 'Northland' and 'Spartan', were covered by the study. The flowering period of the studied highbush blueberry cultivars was in May in three years of study, whereas in 2004 in May and June. Depending on the year, it lasted from 14 up to 21 days, on the average. Significant differences were found in the life span of a single flower which, depending on the cultivar and conditions prevailing during flowering, bloomed from 5 up to 10 days (the average for all the years for all the cultivars. With free access of pollinating insects, highbush blueberry set an average of 92 false-berries per 100 flowers, whereas only 40 during spontaneous self-pollination under the isolating cover. In each year of study, irrespective of atmospheric conditions prevailing during flowering as well as the time and duration of flowering, fruit set of the investigated cultivars in flowers freely accessible to pollinating insects should be considered to be good or very good.

  10. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules


    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin


    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  11. Effect of storage conditions on the biological activity of phenolic compounds of blueberry extract packed in glass bottles. (United States)

    Srivastava, Anita; Akoh, Casimir C; Yi, Weiguang; Fischer, Joan; Krewer, Gerard


    Recent research suggests that blueberries are rich in total polyphenols and total anthocyanins. Phenolic compounds are highly unstable and may be lost during processing, particularly when heat treatment is involved. There is no systematic study available providing information on the fate of phenolic compounds during storage and how that affects their biological activity. We provide a systematic evaluation of the changes observed in total polyphenols (TPP), total anthocyanins (TACY), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), phenolic acids, and individual anthocyanins of blueberry extract stored in glass bottles and the ability of blueberry extract to inhibit cell proliferation. The extract was stored at different temperatures (-20 +/- 1, 6 +/- 1, 23 +/- 1, and 35 +/- 1 degrees C). Two cultivars, Tifblue and Powderblue, were chosen for the study. The recoveries of TPP, TACY, and TEAC in blueberry extract after pressing and heating were approximately 25, approximately 29, and approximately 69%, respectively, for both cultivars. The recovery of gallic acid, catechin, and quercetin was approximately 25%. Ferulic acid was not detected in the final extract in both Tifblue and Powderblue cultivars. The recovery of peonidin, malvidin, and cyanidin glycosides was approximately 20% in the final extract in both cultivars. Losses due to storage were less when compared with initial losses due to processing. At -20 degrees C, no statistically significant loss of TPP, TACY, and TEAC was observed up to 30 days (P glass bottles for Tifblue and Powderblue, respectively, when compared with other individual anthocyanins. A linear relationship was observed between TEAC values and total polyphenols or total anthocyanins. A cell viability assay was performed using HT-29 cancer cell lines and anthocyanins extracted from 30, 60, and 90 days of stored extract at 6 +/- 1 and 23 +/- 1 degrees C. A significant cell proliferation inhibition percentage was observed in 30 days, although this

  12. Anthocyanin determination in blueberry extracts from various cultivars and their antiproliferative and apoptotic properties in B16-F10 metastatic murine melanoma cells. (United States)

    Bunea, Andrea; Rugină, Dumitriţa; Sconţa, Zoriţa; Pop, Raluca M; Pintea, Adela; Socaciu, Carmen; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Grootaert, Charlotte; Struijs, Karin; VanCamp, John


    Blueberry consumption is associated with health benefits contributing to a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the anthocyanin profile of blueberry extracts and to evaluate their effects on B16-F10 metastatic melanoma murine cells. Seven blueberry cultivars cultivated in Romania were used. The blueberry extracts were purified over an Amberlite XAD-7 resin and a Sephadex LH-20 column, in order to obtain the anthocyanin rich fractions (ARF). The antioxidant activity of the ARF of all cultivars was evaluated by ABTS, CUPRAC and ORAC assays. High performance liquid chromatography followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was used to identify and quantify individual anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content of tested cultivars ranged from 101.88 to 195.01 mg malvidin-3-glucoside/100g fresh weight. The anthocyanin rich-fraction obtained from cultivar Torro (ARF-T) was shown to have the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity, and inhibited B16-F10 melanoma murine cells proliferation at concentrations higher than 500 μg/ml. In addition, ARF-T stimulated apoptosis and increased total LDH activity in metastatic B16-F10 melanoma murine cells. These results indicate that the anthocyanins from blueberry cultivar could be used as a chemopreventive or adjuvant treatment for metastasis control.

  13. Crescimento de plantas de mirtilo a partir de mudas micropropagadas Growth of blueberry from micropropagation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Cristina Ristow


    Full Text Available Mudas de mirtilo apresentam crescimento inicial lento e baixo índice de sobrevivência. Dentre os fatores envolvidos na produção de mudas, a qualidade do substrato é um fator de grande importância. O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de mirtilo, em diferentes composições de substrato, durante os meses de dezembro de 2005 a março de 2006. Foram utilizadas mudas da cultivar Georgiagem, do grupo highbush, oriundas de multiplicação in vitro. Foram utilizados sete diferentes substratos para a formação das mudas: T1 - Plantmax® (100%; T2 - Plantmax® + perlita (1:1; T3 - solo + composto industrial + perlita (1:1:1; T4 - solo + casca de arroz + terra (1:1:2; T5 - solo + composto industrial + vermiculita (1:1:1; T6 - casca de acácia + terra (1:2; T7 - acícula de pínus + terra - (1:2. Foram avaliados: altura das plantas; acúmulo de matéria seca da parte aérea e raiz, e análise química dos substratos. A composição do substrato influenciou no desenvolvimento das mudas de mirtilo. Os melhores resultados foram observados em substratos com pH ácido. Conclui-se que os substratos acícula de pínus + terra, Plantmax®, Plantmax® + perlita e casca de arroz + terra apresentaram melhores resultados.The blueberry presents slow development and low index of survival of the seedlings. Among the factors involved in the production of seedlings, the quality of the substrate is a factor of great importance. The work had as objective evaluates the development of blueberry seedlings in different substrate compositions, during the months of December 2005 to March 2006. It was used seedlings of the cultivar Georgiagem of the highbush group, originated from of multiplication in vitro. Seven different substrates were used for the formation of the seedlings: T1 - Plantmax® (100%; T2 - Plantmax® + Perlita (1: 1; T3 - Soil + industrial compost + Perlita (1: 1 :1; T4 - Soil + rice husks + Soil (1 : 1: 2; T5 - Soil

  14. Nonthermal inactivation of norovirus surrogates on blueberries using atmospheric cold plasma. (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Niemira, Brendan A; Gurtler, Joshua B; Sites, Joseph; Boyd, Glenn; Kingsley, David H; Li, Xinhui; Chen, Haiqiang


    Viruses are currently the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks, most of which are associated with foods consumed raw. Cold plasma (CP) is an emerging novel nonthermal technology that can be used to surface decontaminate foods. This study investigated CP technology for the nonthermal inactivation of human norovirus surrogates, Tulane virus (TV) and murine norovirus (MNV), on the surface of blueberries. Blueberries (5 g) were weighed into sterile 4 oz. glass jars and inoculated with TV, 5 log PFU/g. Samples were treated with atmospheric CP for 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 s at a working distance of 7.5 cm with 4 cubic feet/minute (cfm) of CP jet. Temperature readings were taken with an infrared camera prior to, and immediately following, CP treatments. In order to establish the impact of air flow during CP treatment (4 cfm), an additional 7 cfm jet of room temperature air was introduced from a separate nozzle. The experiment was repeated with 90 and 120 s as additional treatment time points. Viral titers were measured immediately after each treatment with a plaque assay using LLC-MK2 cells (TV) or RAW 264.7 cells (MNV). TV was significantly reduced 1.5 PFU/g compared to the control after treatment time of 45s, which was achieved regardless of temperature conditions. With the addition of 7 cfm of ambient air, the maximum log reduction for TV was 3.5 log PFU/g after 120s of treatment. MNV was significantly reduced by 0.5 log PFU/g compare to the control at 15s, and further treatment of MNV with ambient air brought the log reduction to greater than 5 log PFU/g at 90 s of treatment (Fig. 3). These results demonstrate that CP viral inactivation does not rely on thermal inactivation, and is therefore nonthermal in nature. With further optimization, CP may be used by food processors as a means of nonthermal inactivation of foodborne viruses.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borrione


    Full Text Available More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996. Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. Ginko biloba, horse- chestnut, and only 10% of the herbs used in nutritional supplements are commonly present in the food (e.g. garlic, soy, blueberry, green the, ginger, curcuma (Eisenberg et al., 1993. There is much interest in "alternative natural approaches" in sport. It is appealing for athletes to use 'natural' substances with similar activity to 'pharmacological' ones in term of improving performance, are not considered doping, and are considered side-effects free (Table 1. Indeed, many herbal dietary supplements marketed on internet are presented as legal alternative to illicit drugs (Denneey et al., 2005. EcdysteroidsEcdysteroids are the steroid hormones of arthropods (Figure 1. They also occur in some plants, where they are known as phytoecdysteroids, and are believed to contribute to deter invertebrate predators. In insects, they regulate moulting and metamorphosis, may regulate reproduction and diapause. Most actions of ecdysteroids are mediated by intracellular receptor complexes, which regulate gene expression in a tissue- and development-specific manner (Lehmann et al 1989.Several phytoecdysteroids have anabolic growth-promoting effects on mice, rats, pigs and Japanese quails. Ecdysteroids stimulate muscle growth, and this anabolic effect promotes increased physical performance without training. Ecdysteroids are also able to increase muscle ATP content in vitamin D-deprived rats (Báthori, 2002. Ecdysteroids stimulate protein synthesis in the

  16. Hydrophilic carboxylic acids and iridoid glycosides in the juice of American and European cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and V. oxycoccos), lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea), and blueberries (V. myrtillus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Krogfelt, Karen A; Cornett, Claus;


    iridoid glucosides were shown to be monotropein and 6,7-dihydromonotropein by MS and NMR spectroscopy. A fast reversed-phase HPLC method for quantification of the hydrophilic carboxylic acids was developed and used for analyses of cranberry, lingonberry, and blueberry juices. The level of hydrophilic...... carboxylic acids in cranberries was 2.67-3.57% (w/v), in lingonberries 2.27-3.05%, and in blueberries 0.35-0.75%. In lingonberries both iridoid glucosides were present, whereas only monotropein was present in blueberries.......Analysis of the hydrophilic fraction of cranberry juice by reversed-phase HPLC using an Aqua LUNA column with diode array or MS detection revealed the presence of quinic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid, and citric acid. For the first time, two iridoid glucosides were found in the juice. The two...

  17. Anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts of berries in food supplements--analysis with problems. (United States)

    Krenn, L; Steitz, M; Schlicht, C; Kurth, H; Gaedcke, F


    The fundamental nutritional benefit of fruit and vegetables in the prevention of degenerative diseases--especially in the light of the current "anti-aging wave"--has directed the attention of scientists and consumers to a variety of berry fruits and their constituents. Many of these fruits, e.g. blueberries, elderberries or cranberries, have a long tradition in European and North American folk medicine. Based on these experiences and due to the growing interest the number of food supplements on the market containing fruit powders, juice concentrates or extracts of these fruits has increased considerably. Advertising for these products mainly focusses on the phenolic compounds, especially the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins and their preventive effects. Most of the preparations are combinations, e.g. of extracts of different fruits with vitamins and trace elements, etc. which are labelled in a way which does not allow a comparison of the products. Typically, information on the extraction solvent, the drug: extract ratio and the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins is missing. Besides that, the analysis of these polyphenols causes additional problems. Whereas the quality control of herbal medicinal products is regulated in detail, no uniform requirements for food supplements are existing. A broad spectrum of methods is used for the assay of the constituents, leading to differing, incomparable results. In addition to that, the methods are quite interference-prone and consequently lead to over- or underestimation of the contents. This publication provides an overview of some selected berries (lingonberry, cranberry, black elderberry, black chokeberry, black currant, blueberry), their constituents and use. The analytical methods currently used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols in these berries are described, including an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages.

  18. The Study of Artificial Hybridization Pollination Test and Hybrid Seedlings Cultivation of Blueberries%蓝莓人工杂交及幼苗培育技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘肖; 苏淑钗; 侯智霞; 雷雪敏


    To obtain hybrid fruit of blueberry cultivars, improve the efficiency of blueberry seedling nursery, select Chippewa, Bluecrop, Darrow, Northland, Duke, and Powderblue 6 different blueberry cultivated varieties as parents, artificial hybridization pollination test was taken and the hybrid seed breeding was proceeded. The results indicated that: low temperature and dry were useful for the preservation of blueberry pollen; blueberries of different haploidisations existed the phenomenon that they were not androlepsised; after the hybrid fruit mature the size and weight had difference; the germination rate of the hybrid pollination seed was 4%, GA3 could remarkably improve the emergence rate and the author generalized the blueberry artificial hybridization and seedling cultivation.%为了通过有性杂交、实生选种等方法对蓝莓进行遗传改良与种质创新,以获取蓝莓栽培品种杂交果实,提高蓝莓实生育苗效率,选取Chippewa、Bluecrop、Darrow、Northland、Duke和Powderblue 6种不同蓝莓栽培品种作为亲本,进行人工杂交授粉试验,并对杂交得到的种子进行幼苗培育.结果表明:低温干燥有利于蓝莓花粉的贮藏及活力保存;不同倍性蓝莓品种间存在杂交不亲和现象;杂交果实成熟后其横纵径和单果重存在差异;杂交授粉产生的种子出苗率为4%,使用赤霉素(GA3)能显著提高出苗率,并总结出蓝莓人工杂交与幼苗培育的方法.

  19. Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel. (United States)

    Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A


    Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes.

  20. Blueberry effects on dark vision and recovery after photobleaching: placebo-controlled crossover studies. (United States)

    Kalt, Wilhelmina; McDonald, Jane E; Fillmore, Sherry A E; Tremblay, Francois


    Clinical evidence for anthocyanin benefits in night vision is controversial. This paper presents two human trials investigating blueberry anthocyanin effects on dark adaptation, functional night vision, and vision recovery after retinal photobleaching. One trial, S2 (n = 72), employed a 3 week intervention and a 3 week washout, two anthocyanin doses (271 and 7.11 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents (C3g eq)), and placebo. The other trial, L1 (n = 59), employed a 12 week intervention and an 8 week washout and tested one dose (346 mg C3g eq) and placebo. In both S2 and L1 neither dark adaptation nor night vision was improved by anthocyanin intake. However, in both trials anthocyanin consumption hastened the recovery of visual acuity after photobleaching. In S2 both anthocyanin doses were effective (P = 0.014), and in L1 recovery was improved at 8 weeks (P = 0.027) and 12 weeks (P = 0.030). Although photobleaching recovery was hastened by anthocyanins, it is not known whether this improvement would have an impact on everyday vision.

  1. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Spent Osmotic Solution (SOS Generated from Osmotic Dehydration of Blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushlendra Singh


    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization of spent osmotic solution (SOS, a waste generated from osmotic dehydration of fruits, has the potential of transformation into hydrochars, a value-added product, while reducing cost and overall greenhouse gas emissions associated with waste disposal. Osmotic solution (OS and spent osmotic solution (SOS generated from the osmotic dehydration of blueberries were compared for their thermo-chemical decomposition behavior and hydrothermal carbonization. OS and SOS samples were characterized for total solids, elemental composition, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. In addition, hydrothermal carbonization was performed at 250 °C and for 30 min to produce hydrochars. The hydrochars were characterized for elemental composition, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, particle shape and surface morphology. TGA results show that the SOS sample loses more weight in the lower temperature range than the OS sample. Both samples produced, approximately, 40%–42% (wet-feed basis hydrochar during hydrothermal carbonization but with different properties. The OS sample produced hydrochar, which had spherical particles of 1.79 ± 1.30 μm diameter with a very smooth surface. In contrast, the SOS sample produced hydrochar with no definite particle shape but with a raspberry-like surface.

  2. Simultaneous determination of active ingredients in blueberry wine by CE-AD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Cheng Li; Lang Zhu Chi; Jin Kun Zhu; Yin Yan Zhang; Qing Jiang Wang; Pin Gang He; Yu Zhi Fang


    A method based on capillary electrophoresis coupled with amperometric detection (CE-AD) has been developed for the separation and determination of kaempferol, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid in blueberry wine for the first time. In order to get the optimum conditions of separation, the effects of working electrode potential, pH value and concentration of running buffer, separation voltage and injection time on CE-AD were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the analytes could be separated in Na2B4O7-KH2PO4 buffer at pH 7.8 within 18 min. A 300 μm diameter carbon disk electrode had good current responses at +0.95 V (vs. SCE) for all analytes. The responses were linear with concentrations over three orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N = 3) at 10-8 g/mL magnitude for the analytes and the recoveries were in the range of 95.8-106.7%. The method could be successfully applied to the analysis of real sample with satisfactory results and therefore recommended for use by the quality control departments of fruit wine producers.

  3. Biochemical and molecular changes in response to aluminium-stress in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Aquea, Felipe; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alberdi, Miren; Arce-Johnson, Patricio


    Aluminium (Al) stress is an important factor limiting crop yields in acid soils. Despite this, very little is known about the mechanisms of resistance to this stress in woody plants. To understand the mechanisms of Al-toxicity and response in blueberries, we compared the impact of Al-stress in Al-resistant and Al-sensitive genotypes using Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) as a plant model. We investigated the effect of Al-stress on the physiological performance, oxidative metabolism and expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes in two V. corymbosum cultivars maintained hydroponically with AlCl(3) (0 and 100 μM). Microscopic analyses of Al-treated root tips suggested a higher degree of Al-induced morphological injury in Bluegold (sensitive genotype) compared to Brigitta (resistant genotype). Furthermore, the results indicated that Brigitta had a greater ability to control oxidative stress under Al-toxicity, as reflected by enhancement of several antioxidative and physiological properties (radical scavenging activity: RSA, superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase: CAT; maximum quantum yield: Fv/Fm, effective quantum yield: ФPSII, electron transport rate: ETR and non-photochemical quenching: NPQ). Finally, we analyzed the expression of genes homologous to GST and ALDH, which were identified in a global expression analysis. In the resistant genotype, the expression of these genes in response to Al-stress was greater in leaves than in roots.

  4. Multistate Comparison of Attractants for Monitoring Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Blueberries and Caneberries. (United States)

    Burrack, Hannah J; Asplen, Mark; Bahder, Luz; Collins, Judith; Drummond, Francis A; Guédot, Christelle; Isaacs, Rufus; Johnson, Donn; Blanton, Anna; Lee, Jana C; Loeb, Gregory; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; van Timmeren, Steven; Walsh, Douglas; McPhie, Douglas R


    Drosophila suzukii Matsumara, also referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, has recently expanded its global range with significant consequences for its primary host crops: blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, cherries, and strawberries. D. suzukii populations can increase quickly, and their infestation is difficult to predict and prevent. The development of effective tools to detect D. suzukii presence in new areas, to time the beginning of activity within a crop, to track seasonal activity patterns, and to gauge the effectiveness of management efforts has been a key research goal. We compared the efficiency, selectivity, and relationship to fruit infestation of a range of commonly used homemade baits and a synthetic formulated lure across a wide range of environments in 10 locations throughout the United States. Several homemade baits were more efficient than apple cider vinegar, a commonly used standard, and a commercially formulated lure was, in some configurations and environments, comparable with the most effective homemade attractant as well as potentially more selective. All alternative attractants also captured flies between 1 and 2 wk earlier than apple cider vinegar, and detected the presence of D. suzukii prior to the development of fruit infestation. Over half the Drosophila spp. flies captured in traps baited with any of the attractants were not D. suzukii, which may complicate their adoption by nonexpert users. The alternative D. suzukii attractants tested are improvement on apple cider vinegar and may be useful in the development of future synthetic lures.

  5. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G


    . An interest in the indulgence dimension of food explains positive attitudes in the United States and adoption intentions in both countries. Conclusions: The results indicate that potential consumers of resveratrol supplements are identified by their usage of complementary and alternative medicine, rather than......Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...

  6. Flavor of fresh blueberry juice and the comparison to amount of sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, and physicochemical measurements. (United States)

    Bett-Garber, Karen L; Lea, Jeanne M; Watson, Michael A; Grimm, Casey C; Lloyd, Steven W; Beaulieu, John C; Stein-Chisholm, Rebecca E; Andrzejewski, Brett P; Marshall, Donna A


    Six cultivars of southern highbush (SHB) and rabbiteye (RE) blueberry samples were harvested on 2 different dates. Each treatment combination was pressed 2 times for repeated measures. Fresh juice was characterized for 18 flavor/taste/feeling factor attributes by a descriptive flavor panel. Each sample was measured for sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, Folin-Ciocalteu, soluble solids (BRIX), titratable acidity (TA), and antioxidant capacity (ORACFL ). Flavors were correlated with the composition and physicochemical data. Blueberry flavor correlated with 3 parameters, and negatively correlated with 2. Strawberry correlated with oxalic acid and negatively correlated with sucrose and quinic acid. Sweet aroma correlated with oxalic and citric acid, but negatively correlated with sucrose, quinic, and total acids. Sweet taste correlated with 11 parameters, including the anthocyanidins; and negatively correlated with 3 parameters. Neither bitter nor astringent correlated with any of the antioxidant parameters, but both correlated with total acids. Sour correlated with total acids and TA, while negatively correlating with pH and BRIX:TA. Throat burn correlated with total acids and TA. Principal component analysis negatively related blueberry, sweet aroma, and sweet to sour, bitter, astringent, tongue tingle, and tongue numbness. The information in this component was related to pH, TA, and BRIX:TA ratio. Another principal component related the nonblueberry fruit flavors to BRIX. This PC, also divided the SHB berries from the RE. This work shows that the impact of juice composition on flavor is very complicated and that estimating flavor with physicochemical parameters is complicated by the composition of the juice.

  7. Exercise x BCAA Supplementation in Young Trained Rats: What are their Effects on Body Growth? (United States)

    de Campos-Ferraz, Patricia Lopes; Ribeiro, Sandra Maria Lima; Luz, Silmara Dos Santos; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Tirapegui, Julio


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d) were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8): Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex), Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex), Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed) and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed). The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day) or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation. Key pointsCartilage proteoglycan synthesis was dramatically reduced in trained animals as a whole.BCAA supplementation augmented liver glycogen stores and reduced proteolysis in our experimental conditionsTrained animals receiving BCAA supplementation featured increased proteoglycan synthesis compared to sedentary ones, probably because BCAA may have attenuated the negative effects of exercise on cartilage development.BCAA supplementation was not capable of neutralizing directly the negative effects of long-term physical training and lower food intake in young male rats on body growth.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lopes de Campos-Ferraz


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8: Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex, Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex, Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed. The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation

  9. Dietary polyphenol supplementation prevents alterations of spatial navigation in middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eBensalem


    Full Text Available Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB (from the Neurophenols Consortium with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal CaMKII mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of NGF mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline.

  10. Differential protection among fractionated blueberry polyphenolic families against DA-, Abeta(42)- and LPS-induced decrements in Ca(2+) buffering in primary hippocampal cells. (United States)

    Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Brewer, Gregory J; Weikel, Karen A; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Fisher, Derek R


    It has been postulated that at least part of the loss of cognitive function in aging may be the result of deficits in Ca(2+) recovery (CAR) and increased oxidative/inflammatory (OX/INF) stress signaling. However, previous research showed that aged animals supplemented with blueberry (BB) extract showed fewer deficits in CAR, as well as motor and cognitive functional deficits. A recent subsequent experiment has shown that DA- or Abeta(42)-induced deficits in CAR in primary hippocampal neuronal cells (HNC) were antagonized by BB extract, and (OX/INF) signaling was reduced. The present experiments assessed the most effective BB polyphenol fraction that could protect against OX/INF-induced deficits in CAR, ROS generation, or viability. HNCs treated with BB extract, BB fractions (e.g., proanthocyanidin, PAC), or control medium were exposed to dopamine (DA, 0.1 mM), amyloid beta (Abeta(42), 25 muM) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 microg/mL). The results indicated that the degree of protection against deficits in CAR varied as a function of the stressor and was generally greater against Abeta(42) and LPS than DA. The whole BB, anthocyanin (ANTH), and PRE-C18 fractions offered the greatest protection, whereas chlorogenic acid offered the lowest protection. Protective capabilities of the various fractions against ROS depended upon the stressor, where the BB extract and the combined PAC (high and low molecular weight) fraction offered the best protection against LPS and Abeta(42) but were less effective against DA-induced ROS. The high and low molecular weight PACs and the ANTH fractions enhanced ROS production regardless of the stressor used, and this reflected increased activation of stress signals (e.g., P38 MAPK). The viability data indicated that the whole BB and combined PAC fraction showed greater protective effects against the stressors than the more fractionated polyphenolic components. Thus, these results suggest that, except for a few instances, the lesser the

  11. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G


    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...

  12. Application of water-assisted pulsed light treatment to decontaminate raspberries and blueberries from Salmonella. (United States)

    Huang, Yaoxin; Sido, Robert; Huang, Runze; Chen, Haiqiang


    We developed and evaluated a small scaled-up water-assisted pulsed light (WPL) system, in which berries were washed in a flume washer while being irradiated by pulsed light (PL). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used in combination with PL as an advanced oxidation process and chlorine wash was used as a control. The effects of organic load, water turbidity, berry type and PL energy output on the inactivation of Salmonella using the WPL system were investigated. The combination of WPL and 1% H2O2 (WPL-H2O2) was the most effective treatment which reduced Salmonella on raspberries and blueberries by 4.0 and >5.6logCFU/g, respectively, in clear water. When high organic load and SiO2, as a soil simulator, were added in wash water, the free chlorine level in chlorinated water decreased significantly (P0.05) was observed for the decontamination efficacy of 1-min WPL-H2O2 treatment. Even in the presence of high organic load and water turbidity, no viable bacterial cells were recovered from the wash water, which showed that WPL-H2O2 could effectively prevent the risk of cross-contamination during treatment. Taken together, 1-min WPL treatment without H2O2 could provide a chemical free alternative to chlorine washing with similar and in some cases significantly higher bactericidal efficacy. Compared with chlorine washing, the combination of WPL and H2O2 resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) reduction of Salmonella on berries, providing a novel intervention for processing of small berries intended for fresh-cut and frozen berry products.

  13. Effect of blueberry juice on clearance of buspirone and flurbiprofen in human volunteers (United States)

    Hanley, Michael J; Masse, Gina; Harmatz, Jerold S; Cancalon, Paul F; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Court, Michael H; Greenblatt, David J


    Aim The present study evaluated the possibility of drug interactions involving blueberry juice (BBJ) and substrate drugs whose clearance is dependent on cytochromes P4503A (CYP3A) and P4502C9 (CYP2C9). Methods A 50:50 mixture of lowbush and highbush BBJ was evaluated in vitro as an inhibitor of CYP3A activity (hydroxylation of triazolam and dealkylation of buspirone) and of CYP2C9 activity (flurbiprofen hydroxylation) using human liver microsomes. In clinical studies, clearance of oral buspirone and oral flurbiprofen was studied in healthy volunteers with and without co-treatment with BBJ. Results BBJ inhibited CYP3A and CYP2C9 activity in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of less than 2%, but without evidence of mechanism-based (irreversible) inhibition. Grapefruit juice (GFJ) also inhibited CYP3A activity, but inhibitory potency was increased by pre-incubation, consistent with mechanism-based inhibition. In clinical studies, GFJ significantly increased area under the plasma concentration−time curve (AUC) for the CYP3A substrate buspirone. The geometric mean ratio (GMR = AUC with GFJ divided by AUC with water) was 2.12. In contrast, the effect of BBJ (GMR = 1.39) was not significant. In the study of flurbiprofen (CYP2C9 substrate), the positive control inhibitor fluconazole significantly increased flurbiprofen AUC (GMR = 1.71), but BBJ had no significant effect (GMR = 1.03). Conclusion The increased buspirone AUC associated with BBJ is quantitatively small and could have occurred by chance. BBJ has no effect on flurbiprofen AUC. The studies provide no evidence for concern about clinically important pharmacokinetic drug interactions of BBJ with substrate drugs metabolized by CYP3A or CYP2C9. PMID:22943633

  14. Evaluation of Blueberry Juice in Mouse Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Crypts and Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Álvarez-González


    Full Text Available Blueberry is a plant with a number of nutritional and biomedical capabilities. In the present study we initially evaluated the capacity of its juice (BJ to inhibit the number of aberrant crypts (AC induced with azoxymethane (AOM in mouse. BJ was administered daily by the oral route to three groups of animals during four weeks (1.6, 4.1, and 15.0 μL/g, respectively, while AOM (10 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected to the mentioned groups, twice a week, in weeks two and three of the assay. We also included two control groups of mice, one administered distilled water and the other the high dose of BJ. A significant increase of AC was observed in the AOM treated animals, and a mean protection of 75.6% was determined with the two low doses of BJ tested; however, the high dose of the juice administered together with AOM increased the number of crypts more than four times the value observed in animals administered only AOM. Furthermore, we determined the antioxidant potential of BJ with an ex vivo DPPH assay and found a dose-dependent decrease with a mean of 19.5%. We also determined the DNA oxidation/antioxidation by identifying 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine adducts and found a mean decrease of 44.3% with the BJ administration with respect to the level induced by AOM. Our results show a complex differential effect of BJ related to the tested doses, opening the need to further evaluate a number of factors so as to determine the possibility of a cocarcinogenic potential.

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase genes and their association with fruit storage conditions in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel


    Blueberry is a widely grown and easily perishable fruit crop. An efficient post-harvest handling is critical, and for that purpose gene technology methods have been part of ongoing programmes to improve crops with high food values such as blueberry. Here we report the isolation, cloning, characterization and differential expression levels of two cDNAs encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibitor Protein (PGIP) and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase (CCR) from blueberry fruits in relation to various storage conditions. The open reading frame of PGIP and CCR encodes a polypeptide of 329 and 347 amino acids, respectively. To assess changes in the expression of blueberry PGIP and CCR after harvest, a storage trial was initiated. The northern blots hybridization showed a clear differential expression level of PGIP and CCR between freshly harvested and stored fruits as well as between fruits stored under various storage conditions. Although the prospects of exploiting such a strategy for crop improvement are limited, the results provide further insight into the control of the quality over the storage period at the molecular level.

  16. Maternal metabolic changes with dietary intake of blueberry during pregnancy and lactation predispose adult progeny to lower mammary tumor growth rate (United States)

    We have shown lower growth rates of tumors that developed from Wnt1-transgenic (Tg) offspring of dams consuming whole blueberry powder (3% BB) during pregnancy and lactation, compared to those of control (Casein) dams. Dietary exposure at post-weaning through lifetime did not mimic the effects of ea...

  17. Research Status of Blueberry Processing in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江省蓝莓加工研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In order to promote the development of blueberry industry better in Heilongjiang province and further improve the blueberry processing products in the market ,products market share ,brand ,quantity and popularity of blueberry processed products in Heilongjiang province were investigated including beverage ,fruit wine and blueberries dairy products ,the processing industry present situation of processing enterprises ,the condition of product quality were analyzed ,and the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions were proposed to make leading enterprises ,strengthen product development and improve the quality guarantee system .%为了更好地带动黑龙江省蓝莓产业的发展,进一步完善蓝莓加工品的市场,对黑龙江省蓝莓加工品如饮料、果酒和乳制品的市场占有率,品牌数量及知名度进行了调查,对蓝莓加工产业现存的加工企业现状、产品品质状况进行了分析,并提出了相应的对策建议,即打造龙头企业、加大产品开发力度、健全质量保障体系。

  18. The Effect of Different Container on Young Blueberry Tree%不同容器对蓝莓幼苗培育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰冬灵; 李海玲; 王洁; 郎伟; 张长青


    In recent years, blueberry becomes a rapidly developing fruit tree. Yet, since its week and small body, poor root, and weak resistance to biotic or abiotic stress, its growing quality in field is always not high. To improve the effect of blueberry cultivation, a study of different container effects on blueberry was performed. The results show, a container with function on regulating root growth has a best effect, which proved a reference for the culture of young blueberry tree.%蓝莓是近年来发展迅速的一种果树,其幼苗矮小、根系差、抗逆性弱、种植质量不高。为改善蓝莓栽培效果,试验研究不同容器对蓝莓幼苗培育质量的影响。结果表明,快速控根容器是一种理想育苗容器。

  19. Different effects of anthocyanins and phenolic acids from wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) on monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells in a TNF-α stimulated proinflammatory environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Roursgaard, Martin; Porrini, Marisa;


    Scope: Monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium is a crucial step in the early stagesof atherogenesis. This study aims to investigate the capacity of an anthocyanin (ACN) andphenolic acid (PA) rich fraction (RF) of a wild blueberry, single ACNs (cyanidin, malvidin,delphinidin) and related...

  20. Effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink intervention on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in humans with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riso, Patrizia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Del Bo', Cristian;


    Wild blueberries (WB) (Vaccinium angustifolium) are rich sources of polyphenols, such as flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins (ACNs), reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. This study investigated the effect of regular consumption of a WB or a placebo (PL...

  1. Improving yield and berry quality for zygomorphic blooms of blueberry: the role of the plant growth regulators, gibberellic acid and coconut oil (United States)

    A putative mutant gene(s) induces a high degree of zygomorphy that eliminates or deforms the tubular corollas of rabbiteye blueberries. Once thought to have a benign affect on V. ashei pollination and fruit set, zygomorphy is linked to greater seedlessness, lower fruit set, and is suspected to be a ...

  2. Erythritol and Lufenuron Detrimentally Alter Age Structure of Wild Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Populations in Blueberry and Blackberry (United States)

    We report on the efficacy of 0.5 M (61,000 ppm) Erythritol (E) in Truvia Baking Blend®, 10 ppm Lufenuron (L), and their combination (LE) to reduce egg and larval densities of wild populations of spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (SWD) infesting fields of rabbiteye blueberries (...

  3. 蓝莓饮料总花色苷抗氧化性研究%Study on antioxidant capacity of total anthocyanin in blueberry beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐迹; 毛燕; 张宁; 闫林


    ObjectiveTo make a comparison and analysis of the antioxidant capacity of total anthocyanin in blueberry beverage of different brands. MethodsThe liquid part and flesh part in blueberry beverage were separated by means of filtration, and their antioxidant capacity was compared by DPPH and ABTS spectroscopic ways. The extraction condition of blueberry flesh was optimized. Finally, the antioxidant capacity of total anthocyanin in several brands of blueberry beverage was compared. ResultsThe extraction condition of anthocyanin in blueberry flesh was by applying 60% acid ethanol solution to 30 min extracting with ultrasonic each time, with totally 5 times under 100% power. There are little differences of the antioxidant capacity of total anthocyanin among several commercially available brands of blueberry beverage.Conclusion The antioxidant capacity of total anthocyanin in different brands of blueberry beverage showed no obvious difference in the market of Jilin province.%目的:研究不同品牌蓝莓饮料总花色苷抗氧化性的差异。方法将蓝莓饮料中的液体和果肉通过过滤分离,通过DPPH和ABTS两种抗氧化性光谱检测方法检测液体和果肉的抗氧化性能力,优化了果肉中花色苷的提取条件,最后对比研究了不同品牌蓝莓饮料总花色苷抗氧化能力。结果蓝莓饮料中果肉里花色苷提取条件为:在100%超声功率下,用60%酸性乙醇溶液进行超声提取,30 min/次,提取5次。市售的蓝莓饮料,其总花色苷抗氧化性相差不大。结论目前吉林省市场上不同品牌蓝莓饮料的总花色苷抗氧化性无显著差异。

  4. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua


    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  5. The influence of microwave-assisted drying techniques on the rehydration behavior of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Markowski, Marek


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: (a) different drying methods, (b) hot air temperature in a convection oven, and (c) the moisture content of fruits dehydrated by multi-stage drying which involves a transition between different stages of drying, on the rehydration kinetics of dry blueberries. Models describing rehydration kinetics were also studied. Blueberries dehydrated by multi-stage microwave-assisted drying, which involved a hot air pre-drying step at 80 °C until the achievement of a moisture content of 1.95 kg H2O kg(-1)DM, were characterized by significantly higher rates of initial and successive rehydration as well as smaller initial loss of soluble solids in comparison with the samples dried by other methods. The highest initial rehydration rate and the smallest loss of soluble solids after 30 min of soaking were determined at 0.46 min(-1) and 0.29 kg DM kg(-1)DM, respectively. The Peleg model and the first-order-kinetic model fit the experimental data well.

  6. Evaluation of protective effect of freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder on acrylamide toxicity in mice. (United States)

    Zhao, Mengyao; Liu, Xin; Luo, Yinghua; Guo, Huan; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang


    Berries are dietary plants with high antioxidant activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of berries (strawberry, grape, and blueberry) against the acrylamide (AA)-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice model, respectively. Mice were treated with 50 mg/kg b.w./day AA intraperitoneal injection for 5 d after feeding control diet or diet containing freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder. The results showed that AA induced a significant general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice. Compared with the control diet, the diets containing berries could reverse the AA-induced alterations in liver antioxidant enzymes activities (P < 0.05). Moreover, the AA-induced genotoxicity could be prevented by the diet containing berries. The DNA damage in the lymphocyte and liver cells and the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cell were significantly alleviated (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the mice fed with diets containing berries showed a recovery in the sperm count, the sperm activity rate, sperm motility parameters, and the abnormal sperm rate (P < 0.05). Berry powders have remarkable intervention against the AA-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity. Abundant phenolics, especially anthocyanins, may contribute to the intervention.

  7. An efficient method for high-purity anthocyanin isomers isolation from wild blueberries and their radical scavenging activity. (United States)

    Chorfa, Nasima; Savard, Sylvain; Belkacemi, Khaled


    An efficient process for the purification of anthocyanin monomeric isomers from wild blueberries of Lake Saint-Jean region (Quebec, Canada) was developed and easy scalable at industrial purpose. The blueberries were soaked in acidified ethanol, filtered, and the filtrate was cleaned by solid phase extraction using silica gel C-18 and DSC-SCX cation-exchange resin. Anthocyanin-enriched elutes (87 wt.%) were successfully fractionated by preparative liquid chromatography. The major anthocyanins mono-galactoside, -glucoside and -arabinoside isomers of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin were isolated with a purity up to 100% according to their LC-MS and (1)H NMR spectra. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the obtained pure anthocyanins was evaluated. Delphinidin-3-galactoside has the highest capacity (13.062 ± 2.729 μmol TE/μmol), and malvidin-3-glucoside the lowest (0.851 ± 0.032 μmol TE/μmol). A mechanistic pathway preview is suggested for the anthocyanins scavenging free radical activity by hydrogen transfer.

  8. Characterization of Changes in Polyphenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Physico-Chemical Parameters during Lowbush Blueberry Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gibson


    Full Text Available Changes in major polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and selected physico-chemical parameters were examined in lowbush blueberry during fruit ripening. Polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins, density, soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, and antioxidant capacity were determined in fruits of four maturities: green, pink/red, blue, and over-mature. Highest concentrations of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids were in green fruits: 168 ± 107, 119 ± 29 and 543 ± 91 mg/100 g dry weight (DW respectively. Highest anthocyanin levels were found in blue and over-mature fruits (1011–1060 mg/100 DW. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and quercetin-3-O-galactoside the most abundant flavonol in all maturities. Epicatechin was the most abundant flavan-3-ol in green fruits (80 ± 20 mg/100 DW, and catechin was the most abundant in other maturity stages. Increase of glucose and fructose and decrease of organic acids were observed during fruit ripening. Among six organic acids found, quinic acid (1.7–9.5 mg/100 mg DW was the most abundant throughout the fruit ontogeny. Soluble solids, pH, and density increased with maturity while, titratable acidity decreased. These findings can be helpful in optimizing harvest and processing operations in lowbush blueberry fruits.

  9. Ground and rove beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) are affected by mulches and weeds in highbush blueberries. (United States)

    Renkema, J M; Lynch, D H; Cutler, G C; Mackenzie, K; Walde, S J


    Biological control of insects by predators may be indirectly influenced by management practices that change the invertebrate community in agroecosystems. In this study we examined effects that mulching and weeding have on predatory beetles (Carabidae and Staphylinidae) and their potential prey in a highbush blueberry field. We compared beetle communities in unweeded control plots to those that were weeded and/or received a single application of compost or pine needle mulch. Compost mulch and weeding significantly affected the carabid community while the staphylinid community responded to compost and pine needle mulches. Effects because of mulch tended to intensify in the year after mulch application for both families. Estimates of species richness and diversity for Carabidae and Staphylinidae were similar in all plot types, but rarefaction curves suggested higher Carabidae richness in unmulched plots despite fewer individuals captured. Carnivorous Carabidae, dominated by Pterostichus melanarius, were most frequently captured in compost plots both years, and omnivores were most frequently captured in unweeded compost. Density of millipedes, the most abundant potential prey, was generally greater in mulched plots, whereas seasonal abundance of small earthworms varied among mulch types. Our results have potential implications for biological control in mulched highbush blueberries depending on beetle consumption rates for key pests and how rates are affected by alternative prey.

  10. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed blueberry products. (United States)

    Brownmiller, C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L


    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of blueberries that were canned in syrup (CS), canned in water (CW), pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) assay using fluorescein (ORAC(FL)) were determined postprocessing after 1 d, and 1, 3, and 6 mo of storage. Thermal processing resulted in marked losses in total anthocyanins (28% to 59%) and ORAC(FL) values (43% to 71%) in all products, with the greatest losses occurring in clarified juices and the least in nonclarified juices. Storage at 25 degrees C for 6 mo resulted in dramatic losses in total anthocyanins, ranging from 62% in berries CW to 85% in clarified juices. This coincided with marked increases in percent polymeric color values of these products over the 6-mo storage. The ORAC(FL) values showed little change during storage, indicating that the formation of polymers compensated for the loss of antioxidant capacity due to anthocyanin degradation. Methods are needed to retain anthocyanins in thermally processed blueberries.

  11. Metal and PAH concentrations in fruit of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. (Lowbush Blueberry) : a comparison among Whitney Pier, North Sydney and supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Land Resource Science


    The concentration of various metals in the fruit harvested from Lowbush blueberry plants in Whitney Pier, Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS), North Sydney (NS) and supermarket were quantified in this report. The concentrations were compared among the 3 sources to determine whether the metal and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the blueberries from Whitney Pier were higher or lower compared to the reference blueberries from North Sydney and the supermarket. Mean values for each of the analytes were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study determined whether washed berries have lower concentrations of contaminants than unwashed berries. The risk to human health of exposure to metals and PAHs through consumption of blueberry samples was also calculated. It was concluded that concentrations of selenium and zinc are elevated in blueberries from Whitney Pier compared to berries from North Sydney and the supermarket, but are well within safe levels. Other elements such as arsenic, titanium, vanadium, lead, copper and molybdenum were similar, and only thallium was elevated in supermarket berries relative to those from Whitney Pier and North Sydney. Chromium was not detected in any samples. It was determined that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the metals analyzed, regardless of whether they were Whitney Pier samples or reference samples. Only 2 PAHs were detected in one of the unwashed samples from Whitney Pier. No PAHs were found in washed berries or unwashed berries from the supermarket or North Sydney. It was concluded that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the PAHs. Washed and unwashed samples had similar metal concentrations, indicating that surface contamination did not occur. A full methodology of the testing program was provided. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. AB-8大孔树脂对蓝莓花色苷的纯化研究%The purification study of blueberry anthocyanin on resin AB-8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄月鹏; 黄翠贤


    花色苷是一种水溶性的安全的天然色素。本论文以蓝莓花色苷提取液为原料。使用AB-8树脂对蓝莓花色苷精制工艺进行了研究。结果表明:AB-8树脂吸附流速为10mL/min,用40%乙醇洗脱,解吸流速为5mL/min。AB-8树脂饱和吸附量1.25mg/mL,树脂量是蓝莓花色苷量的3BV。蓝莓花色苷的纯度为38.1%。%Anthocyanin was a water-soluble, safe and natural pigment. Extraction of blueberry anthocyanin was used as raw material in this was studied that technology of purifing resin AB-8 to blueberry anthocyanin. The results showed that the absorption speed of resin AB-8 was 10ml/min,the anthocyanin from blueberry was eluted with 40% ethanol at the flow rate of 5mL/min.The absorption capacity of the resin AB-8 was determined to be 1.25mg/mL. It revealed that ratio of resinAB-8 to blueberry anthocyanin solvent were 3BV. The purification of blueberry anthocyanin was 38.1%.

  13. Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Adam E;


    Integrated whole-body PET/MRI tomographs have become available. PET/MR imaging has the potential to supplement, or even replace combined PET/CT imaging in selected clinical indications. However, this is true only if methodological pitfalls and image artifacts arising from novel MR-based attenuation...

  14. Supplements for exotic pets. (United States)

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H


    The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers.

  15. Dietary supplements in sport. (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S


    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  16. 越橘果实花青苷含量及其不同发育阶段的变化%Contents and changes of anthocyanin in blueberry during fruit development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春雨; 王晶莹; 郭庆勋; 周连霞; 贾承国


    对25个高丛越橘,9个半高丛越橘品种和10个杂交后代的花青苷含量进行分析.结果表明,越橘品种花青苷含量在52.700~233.000 U·g1 FW之间,其中艾木蓝花青苷含量最高.高丛越橘品种平均为103.771 U·g-1FW,品种间的变异系数为29.48%,半高丛越橘品种平均为99.956U·g-1FW,品种间的变异系数为19.64%.杂交后代类型的花青苷平均含量为135.860U ·g-1 FW,高于高丛越橘和半高丛越橘平均值.对果实发育过程中花青苷含量变化进行分析显示,越橘果实花青苷主要存在于果皮中,粉色期是花青苷合成的主要时期,而50%蓝色期是越橘花青苷迅速合成期.%The contents of anthocyanin in 25 highbush blueberry, 9 half-highbush blueberry, and 10 blueberry hybrid progeny fruits were analyzed. The results showed that content of anthocyanin ranged from 52.700 to 233.000 U·g-1 FW, in which the content of Amblue anthocyanin was the highest. Average anthocyanin content of highbush blueberry and half-highbush blueberry was 103.771 and 99.956 U·g-1 FW, respectively. The coefficient of variation of anthocyanin contents was 29.48% between the highbush blueberry cultivars, and 19.64% between the half-highbush blueberry cultivars. Average anthocyanin content of hybrid progeny was 135.860 U·g-1 FW, which was higher than that of highbush blueberry and half-highbush blueberry. The change of anthocyanin content was detected during fruit development. The results showed that anthocyanin primarily lied in the skin for blueberry. Pink stage was the key syntheses stage and 50% blue stage was the rapid syntheses stage for blueberry.

  17. Iron supplements (image) (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  18. Herbal Products and Supplements (United States)

    ... black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, saw palmetto, and St. John's wort.Are herbal health products and supplements safe?Herbs ... not work the way it should. For example, St. John's wort reduces the amount of certain drugs absorbed by ...

  19. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... not provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize ...

  20. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements (United States)

    ... that is otherwise adulterated or misbranded. Dietary supplement advertising, including ads broadcast on radio and television, falls ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  1. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian


    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  2. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO


    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue her

  3. Rheological behavior of blueberry Comportamento reológico de mirtilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Colato Antonio


    Full Text Available The physical and physicochemical characteristics of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus fruits produced in Brazil were analyzed. Rheological properties were measured at 5, 25, 45 and 65 °C, on a stress controlled rheometer equipped with grooved a stainless-steel parallel-plate in a shear rate range of 0-300 s-1, with the objective of determining the influence of temperature on the rheological properties. The pseudoplastic behavior with yield stress was well described by the Ostwald-de-Waele (Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley (HB and Mizhari Berk models. The yield stress and behavior index decreased with the increase in the temperatures for 5, 25, and 45 °C whereas for the temperature of 65 °C the effects were the opposite exhibiting elevated values. The viscosity decreased with an increase in temperature, and the Arrhenius equation described adequately the effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity of the puree, in which the activation energy (Ea determined at a shear rate of 100 s-1 was 9.36 kJ.mol-1.As características físicas e físico-químicas do mirtilo (Vaccinium myrtillus produzido no Brasil foram analisadas. As propriedades reológicas foram medidas em 5, 25, 45 e 65 °C, em um reômetro de tensão controlada equipado com geometria rugosa de placas paralelas com taxa de deformação variando de 0-300 s-1 com o objetivo de verificação da influência da temperatura no comportamento do fluido. O comportamento pseudoplástico com tensão residual foi bem descrito pelos modelos de Ostwald-de-Waele (Lei da Potência, Herschel-Bulkley (HB e Mizhari Berk. A tensão residual diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura para 5, 25 e 45 °C, enquanto que para 65 °C os efeitos foram contrários, exibindo elevados valores. A viscosidade diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura e a equação de Arrhenius apresentou uma boa descrição do efeito da temperatura na viscosidade aparente do mirtilo, e a energia de ativação (Ea determinada para uma taxa de


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Lelie, D.; Reid-Green, J. D.; Stern, E. A.


    We have investigated the feasibility of using natural attenuation methods for ecosystem restoration in New York/New Jersey Harbor. Measurements were made of the most probable number of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in native sediments and in samples, which had been supplemented with an appropriate electron donor and electron acceptor. The results showed that the activity of the endogenous microbial population in the native sediment was high enough to make possible adequate chemical transformation rates. The bioavailability of the zinc in the sediments was measured using the BIOMET biosensor technique. The bioavailability of the zinc was effectively eliminated following the microbial activities. We concluded that natural attenuation could be used effectively in treating sediments from Newark Bay and surrounding waters and that the resultant materials could likely be used in environmental restoration projects of the type proposed for construction in South Kearny, NJ.

  5. Micro-modified atmosphere storage of blueberries%蓝莓微气调贮藏技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宋宋; 姜惠铁; 高海霞; 窦连登; 王宝刚


    Micro-modified atmosphere storage of blueberries was studied. Effects of different materials, the shelf life of blueberries by micro-modified atmosphere storage, and the changes of internal quality during storage were compared, and the storability of different varieties was discussed. Results showed that the effect of micro-modified atmosphere storage E was much better than other materials, and good fruit rate reached to 94% after 75 days' storage. There was no significant difference in internal quality of blueberries between harvest and storage, but sales under low temperature were needed to extend shelf life. Storability of "Bluecrop" was significantly higher than "Darrow" and "Elliott", and it was 14% and 20% higher after 60 days' storage, respectively. Conclusion: It could prolong the storage time for 30-45 days compared with other storage methods.%以蓝莓为试材,研究其微气调贮藏技术,比较不同微气调材料的贮藏效果,观察微气调贮藏后果实的货架期和贮藏期间果实内部品质的变化,并探讨品种的耐贮性。研究发现,微气调E的贮藏效果显著优于其他材料,贮藏75d好果率达94%,贮藏前后果实内部品质无显著性差异,但需低温销售延长贷架期;初步得出,蓝丰品种的耐贮性显著高于达柔、埃利奥特,贮藏60d好果率高出14%、20%。结论:应用微气调技术贮藏蓝莓可比其他方式延长贮藏期30~45d。

  6. Methods for RNA isolation from blueberry tissues%蓝莓组织 RNA 提取方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余柯达; 叶美娟; 陈文荣; 朱凯丽; 张常晶; 郭卫东


    为建立蓝莓组织RNA提取方法,以蓝莓幼果为材料,比较了5种RNA提取方法,建立了改良的十六烷基三甲基溴化铵-乙酸钾( CTAB-KAc)提取方法,并比较了CTAB-KAc法对蓝莓根、成熟叶、幼茎、花、幼果和成熟果实组织RNA的提取效果.结果表明:CTAB-KAc法提取RNA的过程只需3 h,蓝莓幼果RNA的A260/A280和A260/A230值分别达到2.02和2.46,且无基因组DNA污染,RNA产量达到143.37μg· g-1;用CTAB-KAc法成功提取了蓝莓成熟叶、幼茎、花、幼果和成熟果实组织的RNA,但是根的RNA提取方法还需优化.把上述RNA反转录成cDNA后进行PCR,扩增出预期大小的目的片段,可满足后续分子生物学实验的要求.%Tissues of blueberry were generally rich in polysaccharides, proteins, and polyphenols, resulting in the difficulties of RNA isolation with both high quantity and quality.To optimize the technology of RNA isola-tion from blueberry tissues, five methods for RNA extraction from immature fruit of blueberry were evaluated. The results showed that the most efficient technique for RNA isolation from blueberry fruits was the optimized CTAB-KAc-based method.A subsequent experiment showed that the optimized CTAB-KAc-based technique was also efficient in successful RNA isolation from full-expanded leaf, green stem, flower, immature fruit and mature fruit of blueberry, although protocol for roots still needed to be optimized.The method yielded 143.37μg· g-1 high-quality RNA without DNA contamination within 3 h.The ratios of A260/A280 and A260/A230 of the total RNA from immature fruit of blueberry were 2.02 and 2.46, respectively.Reverse transcription-PCR con-firmed that the isolated RNA was of appropriate quality and integrity for subsequent molecular biology studies.

  7. 蓝莓叶水提物的体外抗氧化活性%In Vitro Antioxidation Activity of Blueberry Leaf Water Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓红; 沈佳鑫; 马瑞; 徐丽珊


    通过对蓝莓叶水提物的还原力、DPPH·自由基的清除率及总抗氧化能力的测定,检测蓝莓叶水提物的体外抗氧化活性.同时以Vc和BHA为对照,并与等质量Vc,BHA混合,考察Vc和BHA对蓝莓叶水提物体外抗氧化效果的影响.结果表明,蓝莓叶水提物对DPPH·自由基的清除能力及还原力均弱于Vc和BHA,且差异达极显著水平.但在一定浓度范围内,蓝莓叶水提物的总抗氧化能力与BHA相近.在还原力上,Vc与蓝莓叶水提物之间存在协同作用.蓝莓叶水提物体外抗氧化活性虽弱于Vc和BHA,但将一定量的提取物混于BHA中可产生相近的抗氧化效果.因此,蓝莓叶水提物可减少化学合成抗氧化剂在食品中的添加.%The in vitro antioxidation activities of blueberry leaf water extracts were studied by detecting the reduction force, scavenging effects on DPPH ? radical and total antioxidant capacity. Taking combination of vitamin C and BHA as control group, with the same weight vitamin C and BHA mixture, the effects of Vc and BHA on in vitro antioxidation blueberry leaf water extracts were studied. The results showed that: scavenging capacity and reducing power of DPPH ? radical on water extracts of blueberry leaf were lower than vitamin C and BHA. But in a certain concentration range, total antioxidant capacity of water extracts of blueberry leaf was similar with BHA. In reduction of force, Vc and water extracts had cooperative effect. The antioxidant activity of water extracts of blueberry leaf was weak in Vc and BHA, but a certain amount extracts mixing, in BHA could have the similar antioxidant effect. Therefore, blueberry leaf water extracts could reduce chemical synthetic antioxidants additive in food.

  8. Semiactive control for vibration attenuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitmann, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Coll. of Engineering


    With the advent of materials, such as electrorheological fluids, whose material properties can be altered rapidly by means of external stimuli, employing such materials as actuators for the controlled attenuation of undesirable vibrations is now possible. Such control schemes are dubbed semiactive in that they attenuate vibrations whether applied actively or passively. The author investigates various such control schemes, allowing for both separate and joint control of the stiffness and damping characteristics of the material.

  9. Leucine supplementation improves regeneration of skeletal muscles from old rats. (United States)

    Pereira, Marcelo G; Silva, Meiricris T; da Cunha, Fernanda M; Moriscot, Anselmo S; Aoki, Marcelo S; Miyabara, Elen H


    The decreased regenerative capacity of old skeletal muscles involves disrupted turnover of proteins. This study investigated whether leucine supplementation in old rats could improve muscle regenerative capacity. Young and old male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine; then, the muscles were cryolesioned and examined after 3 and 10 days. Leucine supplementation attenuated the decrease in the expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in young and old muscles on day 3 post-injury and promoted an increase in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers from both young and old soleus muscles on day 10 post-injury. This supplementation decreased the levels of ubiquitinated proteins and increased the proteasome activity in young regenerating muscles, but the opposite effect was observed in old regenerating muscles. Moreover, leucine decreased the inflammation area and induced an increase in the number of proliferating satellite cells in both young and old muscles. Our results suggest that leucine supplementation improves the regeneration of skeletal muscles from old rats, through the preservation of certain biological responses upon leucine supplementation. Such responses comprise the decrease in the inflammation area, increase in the number of proliferating satellite cells and size of regenerating myofibers, combined with the modulation of components of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  10. Carbon emission from the soil surface in a mature blueberry pine forest of the middle taiga (Republic of Komi) (United States)

    Osipov, A. F.


    Data on the input of plant falloff and organic matter decomposition on the surface of the peaty podzolic-gleyic humus-illuvial (Gleyic Podzol) soil under a mature blueberry pine forest in the middle taiga are presented. The fractional composition of the falloff was determined, and constants of decomposition for its components were calculated. The carbon flux to the atmosphere due to the mineralization of plant residues is estimated at 251 g/m2. A close positive correlation ( r = 0.71; P < 0.05) was found between the carbon dioxide emission measured using a gas analyzer and the soil temperature at the depth of 10 cm. The CO2 emission for a growing period calculated from the data on its dependence on soil temperature in different years varied from 243 to 313 g C/m2 and was related to weather conditions.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin-3-Glucoside and Malvidin-3-Galactoside in Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yang Huang


    Full Text Available Blueberry fruits have a wide range of health benefits because of their abundant anthocyanins, which are natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry’s two main anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside on inflammatory response in endothelial cells. These two malvidin glycosides could inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α induced increases of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 production both in the protein and mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Mv-3-glc at the concentration of 1 μM could inhibit 35.9% increased MCP-1, 54.4% ICAM-1, and 44.7% VCAM-1 protein in supernatant, as well as 9.88% MCP-1 and 48.6% ICAM-1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05. In addition, they could decrease IκBα degradation (Mv-3-glc, Mv-3-gal, and their mixture at the concentration of 50 μM had the inhibition rate of 84.8%, 75.3%, and 43.2%, respectively, p < 0.01 and block the nuclear translocation of p65, which suggested their anti-inflammation mechanism was mediated by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB pathway. In general malvidin-3-glucoside had better anti-inflammatory effect than malvidin-3-galactoside. These results indicated that blueberry is good resource of anti-inflammatory anthocyanins, which can be promising molecules for the development of nutraceuticals to prevent chronic inflammation in many diseases.

  12. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements. (United States)

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian


    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants.

  13. Supplements and sports. (United States)

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J


    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality.

  14. Effect of Microencapsulation by Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying Technique on the Antioxidant Properties of Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus Juice Polyphenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkowska Agnieszka


    Full Text Available Blueberry juice with high polyphenol concentration was spray- or freeze-dried using different coating materials: HP-β-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin. The quality of the obtained powders was characterised by their anthocyanin content, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. SEM was used for monitoring structures and size (2–20 μm of the microparticles. The losses of total phenolic compounds during spray-drying reached 76–78% on average, while these of anthocyanins about 57%. Freeze-dried powders showed better retention values of anthocyanins, which was about 1.5-fold higher than for the spray-dried counterparts. All blueberry preparations studied were characterised by very high radical scavenging activity.

  15. Study on Strong Seedling in Bottle of Four Varieties of Blueberry%四个蓝莓品种组培苗瓶内壮苗的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙书伟; 姚平; 黄国辉; 宋洁; 周文杰


    To explore the best strong seedling technology of tissue culture seedling of four varieties of blueberry of Bluecrop, Northblue, Northland and Darrow in bottle, effects of culture mediums with different kinds and con-centrations of hormones on the seedling height, coarseness, survival rate after seedling adaptation were tested. The results showed that the best culture medium for strong seedling of four varieties of blueberry was improved WPM culture medium +IAA0. 15 mg/L+ZT0. 05 mg/L. Survival rate after seedling adaptation of four varieties blueber-ry were significantly increased after strong seedling. Strong seedling culture of blueberry can applied as a conven-tional cultivation technique of in vitro rapid propagation.%为探索四个蓝莓品种组培苗瓶内壮苗最佳技术,检测不同激素种类和浓度的培养基处理蓝丰、北蓝、北陆和达柔四个蓝莓品种后,组培苗的高度、粗度、炼苗后成活率,结果表明:四个蓝莓品种复壮最佳培养基配方为改良WPM培养基+IAA0.15 mg · L-1+ZT0.05 mg · L-1。四个品种组培瓶苗复壮后比复壮前炼苗成活率有大幅提高。蓝莓复壮培养可以做为离体快繁的常规技术环节应用。

  16. Gene expression and metabolite profiling of developing highbush blueberry fruit indicates transcriptional regulation of flavonoid metabolism and activation of abscisic acid metabolism. (United States)

    Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Zaharia, L Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kennedy, James A; Constabel, C Peter


    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation of

  17. Study of the Process of Blueberry and Kudzuvine Root Compound Beverage%蓝莓葛根复合饮料的加工与研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕾; 鲍俊杰; 王辰龙; 闫晓明; 徐义流


    The processing of blueberry and kudzuvine root compound beverage was studied. The best Process con⁃ditions was established.In this study,preparation of flesh blueberry juice with pectinase,its reaction temperature is 40℃,enzyme loading of 0.3%,hydrolysis time of 5h.The flavor of juice processing technology was determined for the blueberry juice content of 140mL,adding sugar 8g and kudzuvine root 20mL,rose 10mL,VC 2.33%,Cit⁃ric acid 0.23%,Potassium sorbate 0.02%,Sugar acid ratio 40∶1. The flavor of the compound blueberry beverage was Fresh and delicious.%  研究了新型的蓝莓葛根复合饮料的生产工艺,确立了最佳的工艺条件。用果胶酶处理蓝莓汁的反应温度为40℃、加酶量0.3%、酶解5h。蓝莓原汁的添加量为140mL,白糖的添加量为8g,葛根汁的添加量为20mL,玫瑰花汁的添加量为10mL,VC的添加量为2.33%,柠檬酸的添加量为0.23%,山梨酸钾的添加量为0.02%,糖酸比为40∶1。复合蓝莓饮料清新宜人、风味俱佳,营养丰富。

  18. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)


    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  19. Photoacoustic Imaging Taking into Account Attenuation

    CERN Document Server

    Kowar, Richard


    First, we review existing attenuation models and discuss their causality properties, which we believe to be essential for algorithms for inversion with attenuated data. Then, we survey causality properties of common attenuation models. We also derive integro-differential equations which the attenuated waves are satisfying. In addition we discuss the ill--conditionness of the inverse problem for calculating the unattenuated wave from the attenuated one.

  20. Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yeap


    Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.

  1. Oral Supplementation of Myoinositol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, G.; Bertelsen, B.; Harbo, H.


    28 young diabetics with short disease duration participated in a double-blind study by taking 6 g of myoinositol or placebo daily for 2 months. The aim was to demonstrate a possible beneficial effect of this compound on subclinical diabetic neuropathy. Measurement of vibratory perception threshol...... of myoinositol in their muscle tissue remained uninfluenced by oral supplementation of myoinositol....

  2. Parameterization of the InVEST Crop Pollination Model to spatially predict abundance of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) native bee pollinators in Maine, USA (United States)

    Groff, Shannon C.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Drummond, Frank; Bushmann, Sara; McGill, Brian J.


    Non-native honeybees historically have been managed for crop pollination, however, recent population declines draw attention to pollination services provided by native bees. We applied the InVEST Crop Pollination model, developed to predict native bee abundance from habitat resources, in Maine's wild blueberry crop landscape. We evaluated model performance with parameters informed by four approaches: 1) expert opinion; 2) sensitivity analysis; 3) sensitivity analysis informed model optimization; and, 4) simulated annealing (uninformed) model optimization. Uninformed optimization improved model performance by 29% compared to expert opinion-informed model, while sensitivity-analysis informed optimization improved model performance by 54%. This suggests that expert opinion may not result in the best parameter values for the InVEST model. The proportion of deciduous/mixed forest within 2000 m of a blueberry field also reliably predicted native bee abundance in blueberry fields, however, the InVEST model provides an efficient tool to estimate bee abundance beyond the field perimeter.

  3. Optimization of Preparation Process for Processed Cheese Fortified with Blueberry Pulp%蓝莓果肉再制干酪工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 李浩; 田雪娇; 张建强; 张丽萍


    This paper deals with process optimization for the preparation of processed cheese fortified with blueberry pulp from fast-ripened cheese and blueberry pulp using one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods.The optimal formulation for processed cheese was skimmed milk powder 8%,butter 10%,blueberry pulp 20%,emulsifying salt 1.0%,xanthan gum 0.3%,salt 1.5%,and purified water 35%,which were simultaneously heated at 85 ℃ and stirred for 7 min.%以快速成熟干酪、蓝莓果浆为主要原料,通过单因素和正交试验对蓝莓果肉再制干酪工艺进行优化,确定最佳配方为:加入脱脂奶粉8%、黄油10%、蓝莓果浆20%、乳化盐1.5%、黄原胶0.3%、食盐1.5%、纯净水35%、加热温度85℃、搅拌时间7min。

  4. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.), Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb.) and Blueberry Cultivars (United States)

    Tsuda, Hirotoshi; Kunitake, Hisato; Kawasaki-Takaki, Ryoko; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Masao; Komatsu, Haruki; Yukizaki, Chizuko


    Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.) was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.). The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract. PMID:27137366

  5. Study on the Brewing Process of Blueberry Dry Red Wine%蓝莓干红酒酿制工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱平; 吉平; 张文雅; 柯常毅; 李涛; 谭祥


    According to the blueberry juice initial sugar content, from 12° red blueberry wine will fill sugar is adjusted to 21%, the amount of SO2 was adjusted to 40mg/L. meanwhile, adding active dry yeast powder, the inoculation was 0.20%, at 25℃ temperature fermentation for 6 days, the main fermentation onto the end of low temperature aging, can make the residual sugar is low, moderate acidity, the wine body coordination, mellow taste, fruit suitable, deep ruby red in color, with blueberry special typical style of dry red wine.%根据蓝莓汁初始糖度,酿制12°干红蓝莓酒时将补糖量调整至21%,SO2添加量调整为40mg/L。同时,添加活性干酵母粉,其接种量为0.20%,在25℃条件下控温发酵6d,主发酵结束转入低温陈酿,能够酿制残糖较低、酸度适中、酒体协调、口感醇厚、果香适宜,色泽为深宝石红,具有蓝莓特有典型风格的蓝莓干红酒。

  6. Effect of high pressure processing on the qualities of blueberry juice%超高压处理对蓝莓汁品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寅; 陶晓赟; 陈健; 张师; 李路宁; 孙爱东


    The effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (200~500MPa for 5~15min)on the quality changes of blueberry juice were studied.The results showed that microorganisms in fresh blueberry juice could be inactivated effectively by HPP.Compared with the control samples, the color, the reducing sugar and the soluble solids in blueberry juice had no significant change treated by HPP treatment, while total sugars and total phenol were decreased after HPP treatment.Anthocyanins and Vc were well retained after HPP treatment.%以蓝莓汁为原料,采用200~500MPa高压分别对蓝莓汁处理5~15min,对处理后的蓝莓汁进行微生物和理化指标检测 研究结果表明:超高压处理杀菌效果显著,400MPa处理10min已无菌落检出;高压处理对蓝莓汁色泽、还原糖、可溶性固形物的影响较小,蓝莓汁中的花青素和Vc含量在高压处理后保留率达90%以上,而总酸和总酚含量略有下降.

  7. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq., Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb. and Blueberry Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotoshi Tsuda


    Full Text Available Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.. The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract.

  8. (-)-Epicatechin Attenuates Degradation of Mouse Oxidative Muscle Following Hindlimb Suspension. (United States)

    Lee, Icksoo; Hüttemann, Maik; Malek, Moh H


    The purpose of this study was to conduct a 14-day hindlimb suspension (HS) with and without (-)-epicatechin supplementation to determine whether (-)-epicatechin treatment can attenuate the loss in muscle degradation, angiogenesis, and mitochondrial signaling in oxidative skeletal muscle. Adult mice were randomized into 3 groups: (a) control (C); (b) HS with vehicle (HS-V); and (c) HS with (-)-epicatechin (HS-(-)-Epi). Animals in the HS-(-)-Epi group received (-)-epicatechin (1.0 mg · kg(-1) of body mass) twice daily through oral gavage. For markers related to muscle degradation, the HS-V group had significantly higher protein expression compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. Moreover, protein expression for myosin heavy chain type I was significantly reduced by approximately 45% in the HS-V group compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. In addition, capillarity contact and capillary-to-fiber ratio were significantly higher in the HS-(-)-Epi group compared with the HS-V group. Furthermore, protein expression for thrombospondin-1 was significantly higher in HS-V group compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. Hindlimb suspension also significantly reduced protein expression for mitochondrial signaling compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. These findings suggest that (-)-epicatechin supplementation attenuates degradation in oxidative muscles after HS.

  9. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  10. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? (United States)

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed ...

  11. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? (United States)

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  12. X-Ray Attenuation Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D.; Toor, A.


    To minimize the pulse-to-pulse variation, the LCLS FEL must operate at saturation, i.e. 10 orders of magnitude brighter spectral brilliance than 3rd-generation light sources. At this intensity, ultra-high vacuums and windowless transport are required. Many of the experiments, however, will need to be conducted at a much lower intensity thereby requiring a reliable means to reduce the x-ray intensity by many orders of magnitude without increasing the pulse-to-pulse variation. In this report we consider a possible solution for controlled attenuation of the LCLS x-ray radiation. We suggest using for this purpose a windowless gas-filled cell with the differential pumping. Although this scheme is easily realizable in principle, it has to be demonstrated that the attenuator can be made short enough to be practical and that the gas loads delivered to the vacuum line of sight (LOS) are acceptable. We are not going to present a final, optimized design. Instead, we will provide a preliminary analysis showing that the whole concept is robust and is worth further study. The spatial structure of the LCLS x-ray pulse at the location of the attenuator is shown in Fig. 1. The central high-intensity component, due to the FEL, has a FWHM of {approx}100 {micro}m. A second component, due to the undulator's broad band spontaneous radiation is seen as a much lower intensity ''halo'' with a FWHM of 1 mm. We discuss two versions of the attenuation cell. The first is directed towards a controlled attenuation of the FEL up to the 4 orders of magnitude in the intensity, with the spontaneous radiation halo being eliminated by collimators. In the second version, the spontaneous radiation is not sacrificed but the FEL component (as well as the first harmonic of the spontaneous radiation) gets attenuated by a more modest factor up to 100. We will make all the estimates assuming that the gas used in the attenuator is Xenon and that the energy of the FEL is 8.25 keV. At


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Anne McDowall


    Full Text Available This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices

  14. Dietary L-arginine supplementation modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response in broiler chickens (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response through LPS/TLR-4 signaling pathway in broilers. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatm...

  15. Attenuation in silica-based optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandel, Marie Emilie


    In this thesis on attenuation in silica based optical fibers results within three main topics are reported. Spectral attenuation measurements on transmission fibers are performed in the wide wavelength range 290 nm – 1700 nm. The measured spectral attenuation is analyzed with special emphasis...... on absorption peaks in order to investigate the cause of an unusual high attenuation in a series of transmission fibers. Strong indications point to Ni2+ in octahedral coordination as being the cause of the high attenuation. The attenuation of fibers having a high core refractive index is analyzed and the cause...... of the high attenuation measured in such fibers is described as being due to scattering of light on fluctuations of the core diameter. A novel semi-empirical model for predicting the attenuation of high index fibers is presented. The model is shown to be able to predict the attenuation of high index fibers...

  16. Attenuating effect of daidzein on polychlorinated biphenyls-induced oxidative toxicity in mouse testicular cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-lei ZHANG; Yu-ling MI; Kai-ming WANG; Wei-dong ZENG; Cai-qiao ZHANG


    The attenuating effect of daidzein (DAD on oxidative toxicity induced by Aroclor 1254 (A 1254) was investigated in mouse testicular cells. Cells were exposed to A1254 alone or with DAI. The oxidative damage was estimated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content. Results show that A 1254 induced a decrease of germ cell number, an elevation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) but a decrease in SOD activity and GSH content. However, simultaneous supplementation with DAI decreased TBARS level and increased SOD activity and GSH content. Consequently, dietary DAI may restore the intracellular antioxidant system to attenuate the oxidative toxicity of A1254 in testicular cells.

  17. 金属离子对蓝莓花色苷的影响%Effects of metal ions on the blueberry anthocyanins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖畅; 齐凤元; 冯彦博


    Anthocyanins have important functional characteristic, but its stability was influenced by various physical-chemical factors. Metal ions have different influence on the stability of anthocyanins. Study on the effects of metal ions on the stability of blueberry anthocyanins to provide evidence for their industrialized production. The effects of metal ions on the blueberry anthocyanins were ascertained by absorbency in different metal ions solution. Results showed that the wavelength of absorption respectively was 279 nm and 520 nm in pH3.0 acid solvent. K+ had no effect on the stability of anthocyanins. Ca2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ had a certain effect of dour improvement, but no effect on the stability of anthocyanins. , Na+ , Zn2+ and Mn2+ could not noly strengthen the colour at higher concentration, but enhance the stability of blueberry anthocyanins. Fe2+, Fe3+ and Pb2+ were harmful to the stability of blueberry anthocyanins while Fe3+ and Pb2+ could lead to precipitate in blueberry anthocyanins solution.%花色苷具有重要的生理功能,但其稳定性易受各种理化因素的影响而发生变化.本试验系统地研究金属离子对其稳定性的影响,为蓝莓花色苷的加工生产提供理论指导.通过测定蓝莓花色苷在不同浓度金属溶液中的吸光度的变化,确定金属离子对蓝莓花色苷稳定性的影响.结果表明:蓝莓花色苷在酸性水溶液中的吸收峰分别在279,520 nm处.K+不能使花色苷的吸光度增加,对花色苷的稳定性也无显著影响;Ca2+、Cu2+、Al3+具有增色作用,对花色苷的稳定性无显著影响;高浓度Na+、Zn2+、Mn2+具有增色作用,而且能够增强花色苷的稳定性;Fe2+、Fe3+、Pb2+对花色苷具有破坏作用,使花色苷的稳定性下降,含Fe3+、Pb2+的花色苷溶液中有白色沉淀生成.

  18. Resveratrol Attenuates Copper-Induced Senescence by Improving Cellular Proteostasis (United States)


    Copper sulfate-induced premature senescence (CuSO4-SIPS) consistently mimetized molecular mechanisms of replicative senescence, particularly at the endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis level. In fact, disruption of protein homeostasis has been associated to age-related cell/tissue dysfunction and human disorders susceptibility. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with proved antiaging properties under particular conditions. In this setting, we aimed to evaluate resveratrol ability to attenuate cellular senescence induction and to unravel related molecular mechanisms. Using CuSO4-SIPS WI-38 fibroblasts, resveratrol is shown to attenuate typical senescence alterations on cell morphology, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, and cell proliferation. The mechanisms implicated in this antisenescence effect seem to be independent of senescence-associated genes and proteins regulation but are reliant on cellular proteostasis improvement. In fact, resveratrol supplementation restores copper-induced increased protein content, attenuates BiP level, and reduces carbonylated and polyubiquitinated proteins by autophagy induction. Our data provide compelling evidence for the beneficial effects of resveratrol by mitigating CuSO4-SIPS stressful consequences by the modulation of protein quality control systems. These findings highlight the importance of a balanced cellular proteostasis and add further knowledge on molecular mechanisms mediating resveratrol antisenescence effects. Moreover, they contribute to identifying specific molecular targets whose modulation will prevent age-associated cell dysfunction and improve human healthspan. PMID:28280523

  19. Coconut oil attenuates the effects of amyloid-β on cortical neurons in vitro. (United States)

    Nafar, Firoozeh; Mearow, Karen M


    Dietary supplementation has been studied as an approach to ameliorating deficits associated with aging and neurodegeneration. We undertook this pilot study to investigate the effects of coconut oil supplementation directly on cortical neurons treated with amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in vitro. Our results indicate that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ is rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Coconut oil co-treatment also attenuates Aβ-induced mitochondrial alterations. The results of this pilot study provide a basis for further investigation of the effects of coconut oil, or its constituents, on neuronal survival focusing on mechanisms that may be involved.

  20. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.


    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc bias...

  1. Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon


    We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...


    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair


    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  3. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  4. Supplemental topics on voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, H.J.


    Several topics concerning voids are presented, supplementing the report of Rood (1988). The discovery of the Coma supercluster and void and the recognition of the cosmological significance of superclusters and voids are reviewed. Galaxy redshift surveys and redshift surveys for the Abell clusters and very distant objects are discussed. Solar system and extragalactic dynamics are examined. Also, topics for future observational research on voids are recommended. 50 references.

  5. Stormwater Attenuation by Green Roofs (United States)

    Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.


    Innovative municipal stormwater management technologies are urgently required in urban centers. Inadequate stormwater management can lead to excessive flooding, channel erosion, decreased stream baseflows, and degraded water quality. A major source of urban stormwater is unused roof space. Green roofs can be used as a stormwater management tool to reduce roof generated stormwater and generally improve the quality of runoff. With recent legislation in some North American cities, including Toronto, requiring the installation of green roofs on large buildings, research on the effectiveness of green roofs for stormwater management is important. This study aims to assess the hydrologic response of an extensive sedum green roof in London, Ontario, with emphasis on the response to large precipitation events that stress municipal stormwater infrastructure. A green roof rapidly reaches field capacity during large storm events and can show significantly different behavior before and after field capacity. At field capacity a green roof has no capillary storage left for retention of stormwater, but may still be an effective tool to attenuate peak runoff rates by transport through the green roof substrate. The attenuation of green roofs after field capacity is linked to gravity storage, where gravity storage is the water that is temporarily stored and can drain freely over time after field capacity has been established. Stormwater attenuation of a modular experimental green roof is determined from water balance calculations at 1-minute intervals. Data is used to evaluate green roof attenuation and the impact of field capacity on peak flow rates and gravity storage. In addition, a numerical model is used to simulate event based stormwater attenuation. This model is based off of the Richards equation and supporting theory of multiphase flow through porous media.

  6. Role of vitamin C and E supplementation on IL-6 in response to training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yfanti, Christina; Fischer, Christian P.; Nielsen, Søren


    Vitamin C and E supplementation has been shown to attenuate the acute exercise-induced increase in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration. Here, we studied the effect of antioxidant vitamins on the regulation of IL-6 expression in muscle and the circulation in response to acute exercise before......, including catalase, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase 1 mRNA expression in the VT group. However, skeletal muscle protein content of catalase, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, or glutathione peroxidase 1 was not affected by training or supplementation. In conclusion, our results...... indicate that, although vitamin C and E supplementation may attenuate exercise-induced increases in plasma IL-6 there is no clear additive effect when combined with endurance training....

  7. Ferrite attenuator modulation improves antenna performance (United States)

    Hooks, J. C.; Larson, S. G.; Shorkley, F. H.; Williams, B. T.


    Ferrite attenuator inserted into appropriate waveguide reduces the gain of the antenna element which is causing interference. Modulating the ferrite attenuator to change the antenna gain at the receive frequency permits ground tracking until the antenna is no longer needed.

  8. Probiotic Cheese Attenuates Exercise-induced Immune Suppression In Wistar Rats


    Lollo P.C.B.; Cruz A.G.; Morato P.N.; Moura C.S.; Carvalho-Silva L.B.; Oliveira C.A.F.; Faria J.A.F.; Amaya-Farfan J.


    Intense physical activity results in a substantial volume of stress and hence a significant probability of immunosuppression in athletes, with milk proteins being, perhaps, the most recommended protein supplements. Consumption of a probiotic cheese can attenuate immune suppression induced by exhausting exercise in rats. A popular Brazilian fresh cheese (Minas Frescal cheese) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 and Bifidobacterium longum BL05 was fed for 2 wk to adult Wistar rats, which ...

  9. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove


    and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes....

  10. 高压脉冲电场和热处理对蓝莓汁品质的影响%Influence of pulsed electric field(PEF) and thermal treatments on quality of blueberry juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寅; 陶晓赟; 陈健; 张师; 李路宁; 孙爱东


    以蓝莓汁为原料,比较了高压脉冲电场(PEF)杀菌和热力杀菌处理对蓝莓汁中微生物和理化指标的影响,以及不同处理的蓝莓汁在贮藏期间的品质变化规律。结果表明:PEF可以有效杀灭蓝莓汁中的微生物;PEF杀菌对蓝莓汁色泽参数影响程度小;杀菌处理后,贮藏期内PEF处理和热处理对蓝莓汁的还原糖、总酸、可溶性固形物含量、总酚含量影响较小,PEF处理较热处理能更好地保持蓝莓汁中的VC和花青素含量。%The fresh blueberry was selected as the trial material.Two samples of blueberry juice were sterilized by pulsed electric field(PEF)and thermal treatments respectively and their qualities were analyzed and compared by microorganisms chemical evaluation.The change of fresh blueberry juice qualities during storage were studied.The results showed that microorganisms in fresh blueberry juice could be inactivated effectively by PEF.Less influence of PEF was observed on the color quality of blueberry juice.After sterilization,there was no significant change in the relative content of deoxidize sugar,total acid,soluble solid content and total phenol.Fresh blueberry juice treated with PEF sterilization was better than that with heat sterilization not only in VC,but also in anthocyanins.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; W. H. Albright, W; E. S. Becvar, E; C. H. Benson, C; T. O. Early, T; E. Hood, E; P. M. Jardine, P; M. Lorah, M; E. Majche, E; D. Major, D; W. J. Waugh, W; G. Wein, G; O. R. West, O


    In 2003 the US Department of Energy (DOE) embarked on a project to explore an innovative approach to remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes that focused on introducing mechanisms for augmenting natural attenuation to achieve site closure. Termed enhanced attenuation (EA), this approach has drawn its inspiration from the concept of monitored natural attenuation (MNA).

  12. Leucine Supplementation Accelerates Connective Tissue Repair of Injured Tibialis Anterior Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G. Pereira


    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of leucine supplementation on the skeletal muscle regenerative process, focusing on the remodeling of connective tissue of the fast twitch muscle tibialis anterior (TA. Young male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine (1.35 g/kg per day; then, TA muscles from the left hind limb were cryolesioned and examined after 10 days. Although leucine supplementation induced increased protein synthesis, it was not sufficient to promote an increase in the cross-sectional area (CSA of regenerating myofibers (p > 0.05 from TA muscles. However, leucine supplementation reduced the amount of collagen and the activation of phosphorylated transforming growth factor-β receptor type I (TβR-I and Smad2/3 in regenerating muscles (p < 0.05. Leucine also reduced neonatal myosin heavy chain (MyHC-n (p < 0.05, increased adult MyHC-II expression (p < 0.05 and prevented the decrease in maximum tetanic strength in regenerating TA muscles (p < 0.05. Our results suggest that leucine supplementation accelerates connective tissue repair and consequent function of regenerating TA through the attenuation of TβR-I and Smad2/3 activation. Therefore, future studies are warranted to investigate leucine supplementation as a nutritional strategy to prevent or attenuate muscle fibrosis in patients with several muscle diseases.

  13. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete. (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B


    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method.

  14. Determining Rooting Ability of Ennobled Blueberry Wood Pieces (Vaccinium corymbosum L. with Presence of Growth Regulators IBA and NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Ennobled blueberry (V. Corymbosum L. has many specific requirements for optimal growth, therefore, the increase of cultivated areas is limited. It requires acidic soils (pH 4,3-4,8, well drained, with full aeration and a constant moderate amount of moisture. The successful technique of asexual propagation will be necessary for rapid clonal propagation of selected cultivars. The objective of this experiment was to identify an efficient way to improve rooting with the help of growth regulators in the ‘Bluecrop’ cultivar using well-lignified one-year old wood pieces, collected at the end of winter, end of March prior to bud swelling. Treatments with various concentrations (1500, 3000, 4500 mg/l, show that treatment with IBA at 3000 mg/l has the highest rooting percentage in comparison to NAA. Whilst the torf-perlite substrate (at a 2:1 ratio, has produced a higher rooting percentage compared to the torf-only substrate, and the crucial factor for successful rooting is the time of collecting wood pieces. Treatment results have promoted higher rooting of wooden pieces compared to the control (untreated wooden pieces. The most efficient promotor in all concentrations was IBA.

  15. Short-term UV-B radiation affects photosynthetic performance and antioxidant gene expression in highbush blueberry leaves. (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie


    The impact of increased artificial UV-B radiation on photosynthetic performance, antioxidant and SOD activities and molecular antioxidant metabolism responses in leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes was studied. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 W m(-2) of biologically-effective UV-B irradiance for 0-72 h. Our findings show that net photosynthesis (Pn) decreased significantly in Bluegold, accompanied by a reduction in the effective quantum yield (ФPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR), especially at the highest UV-B irradiation. On the other hand, Brigitta showed a better photosynthetic performance, as well as a clear increment in the antioxidant activity response that could be associated with increased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the early hours of induced UV-B stress in all treatments. At the molecular level, the expression of the three antioxidant genes evaluated in both genotypes had a similar tendency. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) expression was significantly increased (6-fold) in Bluegold compared to Brigitta. Thus, the reduction of Pn concomitant with a lower photochemical performance and a reduced response of antioxidant metabolism suggest that the Bluegold genotype is more sensitive to UV-B radiation, while Brigitta appears to tolerate better moderate UV-B irradiance in a short-term experiment.

  16. The Interacting Axes of Environmental, Health, and Social Justice Cumulative Impacts: A Case Study of the Blueberry River First Nations. (United States)

    Gislason, Maya K; Andersen, Holly K


    We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects. We use the case study to contemplate several mechanisms at the intersection of these axes whereby the negative effects of each not only add but also amplify through their interactions. For example, direct impact along the environmental axis indirectly amplifies other health and social justice impacts separately from the direct impacts on those axes. We conclude there is significant work still to be done to use cumulative indicators to study the impacts of extractive industry projects-like liquefied natural gas-on peoples, environments, and health.

  17. The Interacting Axes of Environmental, Health, and Social Justice Cumulative Impacts: A Case Study of the Blueberry River First Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya K Gislason


    Full Text Available We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects. We use the case study to contemplate several mechanisms at the intersection of these axes whereby the negative effects of each not only add but also amplify through their interactions. For example, direct impact along the environmental axis indirectly amplifies other health and social justice impacts separately from the direct impacts on those axes. We conclude there is significant work still to be done to use cumulative indicators to study the impacts of extractive industry projects—like liquefied natural gas—on peoples, environments, and health.

  18. The efficacy of blueberry and grape seed extract combination on triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Chua, Chian-Sem; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Chen, Jui-Hao; Liu, Yuh-Hwa; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Huang, Shih-Yi


    Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Traditional therapy with proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics is regarded as optimal for H. pylori eradication whereas, the eradication rate is unsatisfactory. Studies have reported that cranberry may inhibit H. pylori adhesion to the human gastric mucus but lack of other berry extracts have been evaluated in clinical study. Thus, a 9-week add-on randomised controlled trial was conducted to explore the impact of blueberry and grape seed extract (BGE) combinations traditional therapy for H. pylori eradication. In results, we found that there was no significant difference of eradication rate between the berry extract group and placebo group in the intention-to-treat analysis and in the per-protocol analysis (94.64% versus 84.62%, p = 0.085). Diarrhoea, constipation and epigastric pain were observed increasing during ingestion of the berry extract in some cases. In conclusion, this study indicated that no significant difference existed between the BGE extract group and placebo group in eradication rate under triple therapy.

  19. Mechanisms of geometrical seismic attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Morozov


    Full Text Available In several recent reports, we have explained the frequency dependence of the apparent seismic quality-factor (Q observed in many studies according to the effects of geometrical attenuation, which was defined as the zero-frequency limit of the temporal attenuation coefficient. In particular, geometrical attenuation was found to be positive for most waves traveling within the lithosphere. Here, we present three theoretical models that illustrate the origin of this geometrical attenuation, and we investigate the causes of its preferential positive values. In addition, we discuss the physical basis and limitations of both the conventional and new attenuation models. For waves in media with slowly varying properties, geometrical attenuation is caused by variations in the wavefront curvature, which can be both positive (for defocusing and negative (for focusing. In media with velocity/density contrasts, incoherent reflectivity leads to geometrical-attenuation coefficients which are proportional to the mean squared reflectivity and are always positive. For «coherent» reflectivity, the geometrical attenuation is approximately zero, and the attenuation process can be described according to the concept of «scattering Q». However, the true meaning of this parameter is in describing the mean reflectivity within the medium, and not that of the traditional resonator quality factor known in mechanics. The general conclusion from these models is that non-zero and often positive levels of geometrical attenuation are common in realistic, heterogeneous media, both observationally and theoretically. When transformed into the conventional Q-factor form, this positive geometrical attenuation leads to Q values that quickly increase with frequency. These predictions show that the positive frequency-dependent Q observed in many datasets might represent artifacts of the transformations of the attenuation coefficients into Q.

  1. Supplementing managed competition. (United States)

    Higgins, W

    President Clinton's proposal for health care reform calls for managed competition within global expenditure targets. However, it is unlikely that health plans will have sufficient leverage with providers to negotiate arrangements consistent with expenditure targets in nonurban areas. This paper describes a reimbursement system based on competitive prospective payment and capitation (CPPC) which can supplement managed competition in less populous areas or replace managed competition should that strategy prove unsuccessful. The CPPC system is capable of enforcing an expenditure target while encouraging the formation of capitated networks and creating strong incentives for efficiency. It is generally compatible with the Clinton administration's version of managed competition.

  2. Study on the Content Change of Anthocyanins in the Process of Blueberry Vinegar Fermentation%探究蓝莓果醋发酵过程中花青素含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪文艳; 蒋予箭


    Adopt vanillic aldehyde-sulfuric acid colorimetry to detect the content of anthocyanins during the process of alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation of blueberry vinegar.Based on the results,discuss the effects of blueberry vinegar fermentation process on anthocyanins.%采用香草醛-硫酸比色法测定蓝莓果醋发酵过程中酒精发酵和醋酸发酵阶段的花青素含量,根据实验结果分析探究蓝莓果醋发酵过程对花青素的影响。

  3. Screening of Yeast Strains for Blueberry Wine and Study on Their Fermenting Performance%蓝莓果酒酵母筛选及发酵性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春光; 刘盈盈; 王莹; 向准; 孙超; 贺红早


    采集贵州麻江蓝莓栽培基地土壤、蓝莓叶、蓝莓鲜果、自然发酵的不同阶段发酵液为实验材料,通过选用不同培养基富集酵母,并进行蓝莓专用酵母筛选和发酵特性能研究.结果表明,共分离得46株酵母,其中从土壤共分离得6株酵母菌,蓝莓叶上分离得3株,果表皮分离得9株,自然发酵不同阶段发酵液分离到28株,富集酵母菌适合的培养基为酵母富集培养基、YEPD培养基和PDA培养基.进行复筛和发酵性能试验,筛选到的4株酵母菌均能发酵出蓝莓果香和酒香协调、酸味柔和、酒体丰满的蓝莓果酒,具有开发成优良商品果酒酵母的潜力.为今后酿造具有独特风格的蓝莓酒有非常重要的意义.%The soil, blueberry leaf, blueberry fruit, and blueberry at different natural fermentation stages were collected as the experimental ma-terials. Through the selection of different culture mediums for yeast strains accumulation, a total of 46 yeast strains was isolated successfully in-cluding 6 strains from the soil, 3 strains from blueberry leaf, 9 strains from blueberry fruit peel, and 28 strains from blueberry at different natu-ral fermentation stages. The culture mediums suitable for yeast strains accumulation included yeast accumulation culture medium, YEPD cul-ture medium, and PDA culture medium. After secondary screening and fermenting performance test, 4 yeast strains were finally obtained suit-able for producing blueberry wine with enjoyable taste, harmonious wine aroma and full wine body. Besides, they had the development poten-tials as commercial yeast strains. This study was of great significance in guiding the development of blueberry wine with special styles.

  4. Zinc supplementation in burn patients. (United States)

    Caldis-Coutris, Nancy; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Logsetty, Sarvesh


    Micronutrient supplementation is a common practice throughout many burn centers across North America; however, uncertainty pertaining to dose, duration, and side effects of such supplements persists. The authors prospectively collected data from 23 hospitalized patients with burn sizes ranging from 10 to 93% TBSA. Each patient received a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement, 50 mg zinc (Zn) daily, and 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. Supplements were administered orally or enterally. Albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, serum Zn, and serum copper were measured weekly during hospital admission until levels were within normal reference range. Our study concluded that 50 mg daily dose of Zn resulted in normal serum levels in 19 of 23 patients at discharge; 50 mg Zn supplementation did not interfere with serum copper levels; and Zn supplements, regardless of administration route, did not result in gastrointestinal side effects.


    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta


    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  6. Optimal dose of zinc supplementation for preventing aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats****

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Lu; Yugang Jiang; Jianyang Hu; Jing Li; Wei Pang; Yandan Hu; Hongpeng Yang; Wenjie Li; Chengyu Huang; Mingman Zhang


    Zinc supplementation can help maintain learning and memory function in rodents. In this study, we hypothesized that zinc supplementation could antagonize the neurotoxicity induced by aluminum in rats. Animals were fed a diet containing different doses of zinc (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) for 9 weeks, and oral y administered aluminum chloride (300 mg/kg daily) from the third week for 7 consecutive weeks. Open-field behavioral test results showed that the number of rearings in the group given the 100 mg/kg zinc supplement was significantly increased compared with the group given the 50 mg/kg zinc supplement. Malondialdehyde content in the cerebrum was significantly decreased, while dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels were increased in the groups given the diet plemented with 100 and 200 mg/kg zinc, compared with the group given the diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg zinc. The acetylcholinesterase activity in the cerebrum was significantly decreased in the group given the 100 mg/kg zinc supplement. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed evident patho-logical damage in the hippocampus of rats in the group given the diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg zinc, but the damage was attenuated in the groups given the diet supplemented with 100 and 200 mg/kg zinc. Our findings suggest that zinc is a potential neuroprotective agent against alumi-num-induced neurotoxicity in rats, and the optimal dosages are 100 and 200 mg/kg.

  7. Comparative Study of Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Blueberry Cultivars%不同蓝莓品种光合特性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晓鹰; 吕国华; 邵丽萍; 权俊萍; 孟娉


    以石河子地区引种栽培的3个北高灌蓝莓品种为研究对象,分析其光合-光响应曲线特征,测定比较光合相关参数(净光合速率、蒸腾速率、细胞间CO2浓度、气孔导度)变化,测定叶绿素含量,观察叶表皮特征及气孔形态差异,揭示不同蓝莓品种间光合差异,为蓝莓适宜品种的筛选和确定提供理论支持.结果表明:1)3个蓝莓品种叶绿素含量有显著性差异;2)蓝莓叶表皮特征表现为具有表皮毛,气孔均为椭圆形,3个蓝莓品种在气孔大小及气孔分布数量上表现出一定差异,蓝莓06的气孔大小及分布数量最多;3)3个蓝莓品种的光合速率与光合有效辐射、气孔导度、蒸腾速率呈正相关,与胞间CO2浓度呈负相关;4)蓝莓的光饱和点(LSP)和光补偿点(LCP)的分别为7.41(μmol/m2)/s~15.88(μmol/m2)/s和1.26(μmol/m2)/s~2.15(μmol/m2)/s,北高灌蓝莓属于阴性植物且光合能力差异显著,蓝莓10号光合能力综合表现较强,对光环境的适应性表现良好,蓝莓06号在光合能力及光适应方面表现较弱.%Three northern highbush blueberry varieties were uses as study object,which were introduced and cultivated in Shihezi. This research analyzed the photosynthesis characteristics of the photosynthetic light response curve, determined and compared the relevant parameters including net photosynthetic rate (Pn) , transpiration rate ( Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal conductance (Gs) ,determined the changes of chlorophyll content,and observed the characters of leaf epidermis and stomatal morphological differences. Results:1)Chlorophyll contents of the three blueberries were significantly different. 2)The leaf epidermal characters;they have tnchomes and ova! stoma; stomatal size and distribution quantity showed difference in the three varieties, with NO. 06 blueberry the largest in them. 3)The photosynthetic rate were positively correlated with active photosynthetic

  8. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports. (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D


    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  9. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay. (United States)

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F


    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  10. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for assessing antioxidants, foods, and dietary supplements. (United States)

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai


    A cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for quantifying the antioxidant activity of phytochemicals, food extracts, and dietary supplements has been developed. Dichlorofluorescin is a probe that is trapped within cells and is easily oxidized to fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF). The method measures the ability of compounds to prevent the formation of DCF by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP)-generated peroxyl radicals in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The decrease in cellular fluorescence when compared to the control cells indicates the antioxidant capacity of the compounds. The antioxidant activities of selected phytochemicals and fruit extracts were evaluated using the CAA assay, and the results were expressed in micromoles of quercetin equivalents per 100 micromol of phytochemical or micromoles of quercetin equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruit. Quercetin had the highest CAA value, followed by kaempferol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), myricetin, and luteolin among the pure compounds tested. Among the selected fruits tested, blueberry had the highest CAA value, followed by cranberry > apple = red grape > green grape. The CAA assay is a more biologically relevant method than the popular chemistry antioxidant activity assays because it accounts for some aspects of uptake, metabolism, and location of antioxidant compounds within cells.

  11. Laparoscopic Gastric Sleeve and Micronutrients Supplementation: Our Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Capoccia


    Full Text Available Background. Laparoscopic gastric sleeve (LGS has been recently introduced as a stand-alone, restrictive bariatric surgery. Theoretically, LGS attenuates micronutrients deficiencies and associated complications that were typically observed following malabsorptive procedures. The aim of this study was to assess some micronutrients and mineral deficiencies in patients undergoing LGS. Methods. In the period between July 2008 and April 2010, 138 obese patients (110 females and 28 males with mean BMI 44.4 kg/m2 ± 6.5, mean age 43.9±10.9 years were enrolled and underwent LGS. Patients were followed up with routine laboratory tests and anthropometric measurements and assessed for nutritional status, as regards vitamin B12, folic acid, iron, hemoglobin, calcium, and vitamin D, every three months throughout 12 months. Results. 12 months after sleeve, patients did not show iron deficiency and/or anemia; plasma calcium levels were in the normal range without supplementation from the sixth month after the operation. Vitamin B12 and folic acid were adequately supplemented for all the follow-up period. Vitamin D was in suboptimal levels, despite daily multivitamin supplementation. Conclusion. In this study, we showed that LGS is an effective surgery for the management of morbid obesity. An adequate supplementation is important to avoid micronutrients deficiencies and greater weight loss does not require higher dosage of multivitamins.

  12. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced neural tube defects in mice. (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Chen, Xue; Dong, Xu-Ting; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Hua; Wu, Shu-Xian; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, De-Xiang


    Folic acid is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin. Increasing evidence demonstrates that physiological supply of folic acid during pregnancy prevents folic acid deficiency-related neural tube defects (NTDs). Previous studies showed that maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure caused NTDs in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-dose folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on LPS-induced NTDs. Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (20 μg/kg/d) from gestational day (GD) 8 to GD12. As expected, a five-day LPS injection resulted in 19.96% of fetuses with NTDs. Interestingly, supplementation with folic acid (3mg/kg/d) during pregnancy significantly alleviated LPS-induced NTDs. Additionally, folic acid significantly attenuated LPS-induced fetal growth restriction and skeletal malformations. Additional experiment showed that folic acid attenuated LPS-induced glutathione (GSH) depletion in maternal liver and placentas. Moreover, folic acid significantly attenuated LPS-induced expression of placental MyD88. Additionally, folic acid inhibited LPS-induced c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in placentas. Correspondingly, folic acid significantly attenuated LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in placentas, maternal serum and amniotic fluid. In conclusion, supplementation with high-dose folic acid during pregnancy protects against LPS-induced NTDs through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  13. Research Status and Prospects of Blueberry Anthocyanin%蓝莓花青苷的研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑红岩; 刘建兰; 高梦; 刘同方; 于华忠


    针对近几年来国内外蓝莓花青苷的发展现状以及未来的发展方向,从蓝莓花青苷的化学结构、理化性质、药理活性、检测方法、制备方法以及应用现状等方面进行了综述,指出蓝莓花青苷的提取方法主要有溶剂提取法、酶提取法、超声波提取法、超临界流体萃取法等,其中溶剂提取法最常见;检测方法主要有比色法、pH示差法、差减法和高效液相色谱法;蓝莓花青苷其具有抗氧化、抗突变、抗菌及保护心血管等作用,其主要应用于食品、医药、保健品、化妆品及嗜好品工业中。%In allusion to the development status of blueberry anthocyanin at home and abroad in recent years and the development direction in the future,the research progress of anthocyanin in blueberry was summarized,including chemical structure, physical and chemical properties, pharmacological activity, preparation methods, detection methods and application status of anthocyanin in blueberry, etc. In addition,the main extraction methods of anthocyanin in blueberry were pointed out, such as solvent extraction method,enzyme extraction method,ultrasonic extraction method,supercritical fluid extraction method.Herein to,the solvent extraction method was the most common;the detection methods mainly contained colorimetric method, minusing method, pH differential method and HPLC;Moreover, anthocyanin has the functions of antioxidation,antimutagenic effect,antibacterial effect and cardiovascular system protection.Mainly used in food, medicine, health care products, cosmetics and hobby goods industry.

  14. 黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋饮料的研发%Study on Composite Fruit Vinegar Beverage of Blackcurrants and Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关莹; 张冬雪; 张军


    本试验采用二次发酵法,通过对黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋的酒精发酵及醋酸发酵的优化,最终确定黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋的酒精发酵最佳工艺为:黑加仑果汁与蓝莓果汁3∶2复合,在初始糖度8°Bx、初始pH3.8、28℃发酵6d、.醋酸发酵最佳条件为:发酵温度35℃,通风量为1∶0.10~0.15(V/V/min),酒精含量6.0%.接种量8.0%,初始pH5.5.黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋饮料配方:12%复合果醋、5.5%白砂糖、2%蜂蜜、0.1%食盐、0.06%复合香抖,评分为92分.工艺调整后的放大生产产品质量仍稳定、达标.产品具有食醋清香和黑加仑、蓝莓果香,酸味柔和,风味独特.%The tests used secondary fermentation on composite fruit vinegar beverage of blackcurrants and blueberry. From optimization of acetic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation ,the optimum alcoholic fermentation technology of composite juice of blackcurrants and blueberry was as follows: blackcurrant and blueberry fruit juice mixed with 3:2,initial sugar degree 18。 BX,fermentation temperature 28℃ ,fermentation time 6d,initial pH 3.8.The optimized fermentation conditions of acetic acid were as follows:temperature 35℃,ventilation quantity controlled between l:0.10_0.15(v/v)min,initial content of alcohol 6.0%,inoculum concentration 8.0%, initial pH 5.5.The formula of composite fruit vinegar beverage of blackcurrants and blueberry was as follows:composite fruit vinegar 12%,white sugar 5.5%,honey 2% ,common salt 0.1%,composite flavor 0.06%,a score of 92.The products' quality of amplification production after technique adjustment was still stable and could attain the standards.

  15. 甜型野生蓝莓酒澄清优化试验研究%Experimental Study on Clarification of Sweet Wild Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The experiment made wild blueberry as the raw material to make into sweet blueberry wine and stud-ied gelatin,bentonite,PVPP,chitosan four clarification agent on the effects of the sweet blueberry wine clarifi-cation.Then single factor experiment and orthogonal test was made on compound clarifying agent. The results showed that the compound clarifying agent and cold treatment could achieve effect of clarification. The best ad-dition amount of bentonite and chitosan were 0.45 g/L and 0.25 g/L ,clarified for three days under-5℃,its lu-minousness could reach 98.40%,the alcohol content was 17.0% (vol) ,total sugar content more than 55 g/L and total acids content 6.8 g/L,The sweet blueberry wine showed bright ruby red colour,harmonious aroma and mellow taste.%以野生蓝莓为原料加工成甜型蓝莓原酒,分别研究了澄清剂:明胶、皂土、PVPP、壳聚糖对蓝莓果酒澄清效果的影响,然后对复合澄清剂进行了单因素试验和正交试验。结果表明:采用复合澄清剂并进行冷处理,可以达到更为理想的澄清效果。即皂土最佳添加量0.45 g/L、壳聚糖最佳添加量0.25 g/L、在-5℃下澄清3 d,其透光率可高达到98.40%,酒精度17.1%(vol),总糖≥55 g/L,总酸6.8 g/L.酒体呈明亮的宝石红,果香、酒香和谐,口感醇厚。

  16. The High Yield Cultivation Techniques of Blueberry in Suitable Habitat of Anhui%安徽蓝莓适生地蓝莓丰产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊基胜; 蒋光月; 陶龙


    在安徽蓝莓适生地多年蓝莓栽培和管理基础上总结了蓝莓丰产栽培技术,从建园、管理到采收方面作了详细的描述,并阐述了病虫鸟害的防治.%The high yield cultivation techniques of blueberry in suitable habitat of Anhui based on years of cultivation and management were summarized. Moreover, the construction of orchard, field management and harvesting were described in detail, the prevention and cure of pest and disease damage were expounded.

  17. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica;


    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative...... were collected and used to evaluate anthocyanin absorption (through mass spectrometry), endogenous and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in blood mononuclear cells (through the comet assay), and plasma nitric oxide concentrations (through a fluorometric assay). Peripheral arterial function was assessed...

  18. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr


    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...

  19. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr


    .g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines...... the growth of these bacteria (prebiotics) are added to food to achieve health effects exceeding its pure nutritional function. Several of these effects are mediated by enzyme systems involved in xenobiotic and drug metabolism, and in some cases this might lead to undesired interactions with medication...... cases, nutrients, food contaminants, and secondary plant metabolites can themselves become substrates for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in health-promoting or health-threatening products. This chapter focuses on how important components of our daily nutrition and supplements can interfere...

  20. Imaging Rayleigh wave attenuation with USArray (United States)

    Bao, Xueyang; Dalton, Colleen A.; Jin, Ge; Gaherty, James B.; Shen, Yang


    The EarthScope USArray provides an opportunity to obtain detailed images of the continental upper mantle at an unprecedented scale. The majority of mantle models derived from USArray data to date contain spatial variations in seismic-wave speed; however, in many cases these data sets do not by themselves allow a non-unique interpretation. Joint interpretation of seismic attenuation and velocity models can improve upon the interpretations based only on velocity and provide important constraints on the temperature, composition, melt content, and volatile content of the mantle. The surface wave amplitudes that constrain upper-mantle attenuation are sensitive to factors in addition to attenuation, including the earthquake source excitation, focusing and defocusing by elastic structure, and local site amplification. Because of the difficulty of isolating attenuation from these other factors, little is known about the attenuation structure of the North American upper mantle. In this study, Rayleigh wave traveltime and amplitude in the period range 25-100 s are measured using an interstation cross-correlation technique, which takes advantage of waveform similarity at nearby stations. Several estimates of Rayleigh wave attenuation and site amplification are generated at each period, using different approaches to separate the effects of attenuation and local site amplification on amplitude. It is assumed that focusing and defocusing effects can be described by the Laplacian of the traveltime field. All approaches identify the same large-scale patterns in attenuation, including areas where the attenuation values are likely contaminated by unmodelled focusing and defocusing effects. Regionally averaged attenuation maps are constructed after removal of the contaminated attenuation values, and the variations in intrinsic shear attenuation that are suggested by these Rayleigh wave attenuation maps are explored.

  1. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  2. Occurrence and biology of Tolype innocens (Burmeister on blueberry Ocorrência e biologia de Tolype innocens (Burmeister em mirtilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salvador Louzada


    Full Text Available Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 is reported for the first time damaging blueberry (Vaccinium ashei plants in Brazil having the caterpillars feeding on leaves and new shoots. T. innocens biology was studied on blueberry leaves in laboratory conditions and then a fertility life table was elaborated. Developmental time and viability of egg, larval and pupal stages and egg-adult period were 15.0 and 35.3, 33.3 and 84.5, 20.6 and 100, and 69.2 days and 45%, respectively. Average pupal weight was 0.840g for the females and 0.580g for the males. The sex ratio was 0.5. Pre-oviposition and oviposition time lasted 6.34 and 12.1 days, respectively. Mean fecundity was 251 eggs per female. Eggs were laid either individually or in masses. Longevity was 19.0 and 20.0 days for males and females, respectively. T. innocens population increased 47 times per generation, with a mean generation time of 77 days, and a finite rate of increase of 1.02. This data on biological parameters will be useful for establishing control strategies.A ocorrência de Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 (Lasiocampidae é relatada pela primeira vez danificando o mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei no Brasil, sendo que as lagartas se alimentam das folhas e ramos novos. Em laboratório, foi estudada a biologia em folhas de mirtilo em condições controladas de temperatura (25±1ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotofase (12h e elaborada a tabela de vida de fertilidade. A duração e a viabilidade dos estágios de ovo, lagarta e pupa, e período ovo-adulto foram de 15,0 e 35,3; 33,3 e 84,5; 20,6 e 100; e 69,2 dias e 45%, respectivamente. O peso médio de pupas foi de 0,840g para as fêmeas e 0,580g para os machos. A razão sexual foi de 0,5. Os períodos de pré-oviposição e oviposição foram de 6,34 e 12,1 dias, respectivamente. A fecundidade média foi de 251 ovos por fêmea, colocados de forma isolada ou em massas. A longevidade dos machos foi de 19,0 dias e das fêmeas de 20,0 dias. T

  3. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know (United States)

    ... dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and enzymes. Dietary supplements are marketed in forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, gelcaps, powders, and liquids. What are the ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin


    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  5. Magnetoelectric Composite Based Microwave Attenuator (United States)

    Tatarenko, A. S.; Srinivasan, G.


    Ferrite-ferroelectric composites are magnetoelectric (ME) due to their response to elastic and electromagnetic force fields. The ME composites are characterized by tensor permittivity, permeability and ME susceptibility. The unique combination of magnetic, electrical, and ME interactions, therefore, opens up the possibility of electric field tunable ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) based devices [1]. Here we discuss an ME attenuator operating at 9.3 GHz based on FMR in a layered sample consisting of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate bonded to yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film on a gadolinium gallium garnet substrate. Electrical tuning is realized with the application of a control voltage due to ME effect; the shift is 0-15 Oe as E is increased from 0 to 3 kV/cm. If the attenuator is operated at FMR, the corresponding insertion loss will range from 25 dB to 2 dB. 1. S. Shastry and G. Srinivasan, M.I. Bichurin, V.M. Petrov, A.S. Tatarenko. Phys. Rev. B, 70 064416 (2004). - supported by grants the grants from the National Science Foundation (DMR-0302254), from Russian Ministry of Education (Å02-3.4-278) and from Universities of Russia Foundation (UNR 01.01.026).

  6. Design and sampling plan optimization for RT-qPCR experiments in plants: a case study in blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die


    Full Text Available The qPCR assay has become a routine technology in plant biotechnology and agricultural research. It is unlikely to be technically improved, but there are still challenges which center around minimizing the variability in results and transparency when reporting technical data in support of the conclusions of a study. There are a number of aspects of the pre- and post-assay workflow that contribute to variability of results. Here, through the study of the introduction of error in qPCR measurements at different stages of the workflow, we describe the most important causes of technical variability in a case study using blueberry. In this study, we found that the stage for which increasing the number of replicates would be the most beneficial depends on the tissue used. For example, we would recommend the use of more RT replicates when working with leaf tissue, while the use of more sampling (RNA extraction replicates would be recommended when working with stems or fruits to obtain the most optimal results. The use of more qPCR replicates provides the least benefit as it is the most reproducible step. By knowing the distribution of error over an entire experiment and the costs at each step, we have developed a script to identify the optimal sampling plan within the limits of a given budget. These findings should help plant scientists improve the design of qPCR experiments and refine their laboratory practices in order to conduct qPCR assays in a more reliable-manner to produce more consistent and reproducible data.

  7. Anthocyanins extracted from Chinese blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) and its anticancer effects on DLD-1 and COLO205 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZU Xiao-yan; ZHANG Zhen-ya; ZHANG Xiao-wen; YOSHIOKA Masahiro; YANG Ying-nan; LI Ji


    Background Vaccinium uliginosum L. is a type of blueberry found in the Chinese Changbai Mountains. We extracted Vaccinium uliginosurn Anthocyanins (Av.uli) to investigate its bioactivity on suppressing cancer cells.Methods Av.uli was extracted under different conditions of temperature (10℃-35℃), pH 1.0-3.0, and diatomaceous earth (1.0 g-3.0 g), followed by a HPLC analysis for the determination of the ingredients. Its anticancer bioactivities on human colon and colorectal cancer cells (DLD-1 and COLO205) were compared with those on Lonicera caerulea Anthocyanins (AL.cae) and Vaccinium myrtillus Anthocyanins (Av.myr), using cell viability assays, DNA electrophoresis and nuclear morphology assays.Results The optimum process of Av.uliextraction involved conditions of temperature 20℃, pH 2.0, and diatomaceous earth 1.0 g/50 g of fruit weight. Av.uli contained 5 main components: delphinidin (40.70±1.72)%, cyanidin (3.40±0.68)%,petunidin (17.70±0.54)%, peonidin (2.90±0.63)% and malvidin (35.50±1.11)%. The malvidin percentage was significantly higher (P <0.05) than it in Av.myr. Av.uli complied with a dose-dependent repression of cancer cell proliferation with an IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) value of 50 μg/ml, and showed greater anticancer efficiency than AL. cae and Av. myr under the same cell treatment conditions. These observations were further supported by the results of nuclear assays.Conclusions The extraction protocol and conditions we used were effective for anthocyanin extraction. Av.uli could be a feasible practical research tool and a promising therapeutic source to suppress human colon or colorectal cancers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional method of net present value (NPV to analyze the economic profitability of an investment (based on a deterministic approach does not adequately represent the implicit risk associated with different but correlated input variables. Using a stochastic simulation approach for evaluating the profitability of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. production in Chile, the objective of this study is to illustrate the complexity of including risk in economic feasibility analysis when the project is subject to several but correlated risks. The results of the simulation analysis suggest that the non-inclusion of the intratemporal correlation between input variables underestimate the risk associated with investment decisions. The methodological contribution of this study illustrates the complexity of the interrelationships between uncertain variables and their impact on the convenience of carrying out this type of business in Chile. The steps for the analysis of economic viability were: First, adjusted probability distributions for stochastic input variables (SIV were simulated and validated. Second, the random values of SIV were used to calculate random values of variables such as production, revenues, costs, depreciation, taxes and net cash flows. Third, the complete stochastic model was simulated with 10,000 iterations using random values for SIV. This result gave information to estimate the probability distributions of the stochastic output variables (SOV such as the net present value, internal rate of return, value at risk, average cost of production, contribution margin and return on capital. Fourth, the complete stochastic model simulation results were used to analyze alternative scenarios and provide the results to decision makers in the form of probabilities, probability distributions, and for the SOV probabilistic forecasts. The main conclusion shown that this project is a profitable alternative investment in fruit trees in

  9. Modulation of tissue fatty acids by L-carnitine attenuates metabolic syndrome in diet-induced obese rats. (United States)

    Panchal, Sunil K; Poudyal, Hemant; Ward, Leigh C; Waanders, Jennifer; Brown, Lindsay


    Obesity and dyslipidaemia are metabolic defects resulting from impaired lipid metabolism. These impairments are associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Correcting the defects in lipid metabolism may attenuate obesity and dyslipidaemia, and reduce cardiovascular risk and liver damage. L-Carnitine supplementation was used in this study to enhance fatty acid oxidation so as to ameliorate diet-induced disturbances in lipid metabolism. Male Wistar rats (8-9 weeks old) were fed with either corn starch or high-carbohydrate, high-fat diets for 16 weeks. Separate groups were supplemented with L-carnitine (1.2% in food) on either diet for the last 8 weeks of the protocol. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinaemia, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. L-Carnitine supplementation attenuated these high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced changes, together with modifications in lipid metabolism including the inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 activity, reduced storage of short-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in the tissues with decreased linoleic acid content and trans fatty acids stored in retroperitoneal fat. Thus, L-carnitine supplementation attenuated the signs of metabolic syndrome through inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 activity, preferential β-oxidation of some fatty acids and increased storage of saturated fatty acids and relatively inert oleic acid in the tissues.

  10. Effect of Different Yeast on Dry Blueberry Wine Sensory Quality and Polyphenols%不同酵母对干型蓝莓酒感官品质和多酚类物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于清琴; 孙玉霞; 史红梅; 韩晓梅; 王哲


    The concentration of polyphenols and sensory quality of dry blueberry wine were studied during the blueberry fermentation inoculated by three kinds of wine yeasts ,natural yeast and natural yeast adding pectinase .The natural fermentation was compared with by other kind of yeast .The result showed that the blueberry wines fermented by D 21 and RC212 had excellent performance and sensory quality .And the concentration of polyphenols was the highest .In addition , various physical and chemical indicators was moderate .D254 was excellent wine yeast ,not suitable for the fermentation of blueberry wine.%以蓝莓鲜果为原料,在酿造过程中,重点试验了3种葡萄酒酵母、自然发酵+果胶酶对干型蓝莓果酒多酚含量和感官品质的影响,以自然发酵作对照,结果显示:D21、RC212发酵蓝莓酒性能优良,成品酒感官品质优良,多酚含量最高,各种理化指标适中,为性能优良的干型蓝莓酒发酵酵母。 D254作为葡萄酒酿造的优良酵母而不适合发酵蓝莓酒。

  11. Lower concentrations of blueberry polyphenolic-rich extract differentially alter HepG2 cell proliferation and expression of genes related to cell-cycle, oxidation and epigenetic machinery (United States)

    In vitro cancer models have been used to study the effect of relatively high concentrations (>200 ug/ml) of phenolic plant extracts upon cell proliferation. In this study we report that the treatment of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells with lower concentrations of blueberry phenolic extract (6.5-10...

  12. Multiple Lines Of Evidence Supporting Natural Attenuation: Lines Of Inquiry Supporting Monitored Natural Attenuation And Enhanced Attenuatin Of Chlorinated Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, Karen; Widemeirer, T. H.; Barden, M.J.; Dickson, W. Z.; Major, David


    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Attenuation (EA) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management (EM) ''Alternative Project,'' focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EA. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EA Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, the DOE is publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry (see listing). The following report--documenting our evaluation of the state of the science for the lines of evidence for supporting decision-making for MNA--is one of those supplemental documents.

  13. Attenuation map reconstruction from TOF PET data

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Qingsong; Wang, Ge


    To reconstruct a radioactive tracer distribution with positron emission tomography (PET), the background attenuation correction is needed to eliminate image artifacts. Recent research shows that time-of-flight (TOF) PET data determine the attenuation sinogram up to a constant, and its gradient can be computed using an analytic algorithm. In this paper, we study a direct estimation of the sinogram only from TOF PET data. First, the gradient of the attenuation sinogram is estimated using the aforementioned algorithm. Then, a relationship is established to link the differential attenuation sinogram and the underlying attenuation background. Finally, an iterative algorithm is designed to determine the attenuation sinogram accurately and stably. A 2D numerical simulation study is conducted to verify the correctness of our proposed approach.

  14. 河源南高丛蓝莓酒精发酵前后挥发性成分变化%Aroma compounds of southern high-bush blueberry in Heyuan area before and after alcohol fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继军; 肖更生; 徐玉娟; 陈卫东; 余元善; 张友胜


    Objective To determine the key aroma compounds of southern high-bush blueberry varie-ties in Heyuan area and analyze the aroma compounds before and after alcohol fermentation.Methods By solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer-computer (GC-MS), the flavor compo-nents of Heyuan high-bush blueberry before and after alcohol fermentation were analyzed.Results The main aroma components of Heyuan southern high-bush blueberry wered-limonene and other kinds of alkenes and aldehydes. The main aroma compoents of blueberry wine were ethyl acetate, octanoic acid ethyl ester and other kinds of ester and alcohols.Conclusion There are some different aroma compounds between blueberry in Heyuan area and northern area. After blueberry fermented into blueberry drink olefins, aldehydes were signifi-cantly reduced or disappeared, and esters, alcohols, some long chain alkane and fatty acid esters increased sig-nificantly.%目的:明确广东河源地区南高丛蓝莓特征风味成分以及蓝莓发酵后香挥发性成分变化规律。方法采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用法分析了河源南高丛蓝莓的风味成分,以及发酵成蓝莓酒后的风味成分变化。结果河源南高丛蓝莓主要风味成分为柠檬烯以及其他烯烃、醛类等物质,发酵成蓝莓酒后主要特征风味成分为乙酸乙酯、辛酸乙酯等酯类和醇类物质。结论河源南高丛蓝莓在挥发性成分上与以往报道的温带地区蓝莓有一定的区别,蓝莓发酵成蓝莓酒后烯烃、醛类物质显著减少或消失,而酯类和醇类显著增加,同时生成了长链烷烃和脂肪酸酯类物质。

  15. Magnesium nitrate attenuates blood pressure rise in SHR rats. (United States)

    Vilskersts, Reinis; Kuka, Janis; Liepinsh, Edgars; Cirule, Helena; Gulbe, Anita; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Dambrova, Maija


    The administration of magnesium supplements and nitrates/nitrites decreases arterial blood pressure and attenuates the development of hypertension-induced complications. This study was performed to examine the effects of treatment with magnesium nitrate on the development of hypertension and its complications in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Male SHR rats with persistent hypertension at the age of 12-13 weeks were allocated to two groups according to their arterial blood pressure. Rats from the control group received purified water, while the experimental animals from the second group received magnesium nitrate dissolved in purified water at a dose of 50 mg/kg. After four weeks of treatment, blood pressure was measured, the anatomical and functional parameters of the heart were recorded using an ultrasonograph, vascular reactivity was assayed in organ bath experiments and the cardioprotective effects of magnesium nitrate administration was assayed in an ex vivo experimental heart infarction model. Treatment with magnesium nitrate significantly increased the nitrate concentration in the plasma (from 62 ± 8 μmol/l to 111 ± 8 μmol/L), and attenuated the increase in the arterial blood pressure. In the control and magnesium nitrate groups, the blood pressure rose by 21 ± 3 mmHg and 6 ± 4 mmHg, respectively. The administration of magnesium nitrate had no effect on the altered vasoreactivity, heart function or the size of the heart infarction. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that magnesium nitrate effectively attenuates the rise in arterial blood pressure. However, a longer period of administration or earlier onset of treatment might be needed to delay the development of complications due to hypertension.

  16. Glutamine attenuates post-traumatic glutathione depletion in human muscle. (United States)

    Fläring, U B; Rooyackers, O E; Wernerman, J; Hammarqvist, F


    Glutathione is quantitatively the most important endogenous scavenger system. Glutathione depletion in skeletal muscle is pronounced following major trauma and sepsis in intensive care unit patients. Also, following elective surgery, glutathione depletion occurs in parallel with a progressive decline in muscle glutamine concentration. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that glutamine supplementation may counteract glutathione depletion in a human trauma model. A homogeneous group of patients (n = 17) undergoing a standardized surgical procedure were prospectively randomly allocated to receive glutamine (0.56 g x day(-1) x kg(-1)) or placebo as part of isonitrogenous and isocaloric nutrition. Percutaneous muscle biopsies and blood samples were taken pre-operatively and at 24 and 72 h after surgery. The concentrations of muscle glutathione and related amino acids were determined in muscle tissue and plasma. In the control (unsupplemented) subjects, total muscle glutathione had decreased by 47+/-8% and 37+/-11% and reduced glutathione had decreased by 53+/-10% and 45+/-16% respectively at 24 and 72 h after surgery (P glutamine supplementation attenuates glutathione depletion in skeletal muscle in humans following standardized surgical trauma.

  17. Genistein Attenuates Vascular Endothelial Impairment in Ovariectomized Hyperhomocysteinemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Zhen


    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy is a well-known independent risk factor for vascular diseases in the general population. This study was to explore the effect of genistein (GST, a natural bioactive compound derived from legumes, on HHcy-induced vascular endothelial impairment in ovariectomized rats in vivo. Thirty-two adult female Wistar rats were assigned randomly into four groups (n=8: (a Con: control; (b Met: 2.5% methionine diet; (c OVX + Met: ovariectomy + 2.5% methionine diet; (d OVX + Met + GST: ovariectomy + 2.5% methionine diet + supplementation with genistein. After 12 wk of different treatment, the rats' blood, toracic aortas and liver samples were collected for analysis. Results showed that high-methionine diet induced both elevation of plasma Hcy and endothelial dysfunction, and ovariectomy deteriorated these injuries. Significant improvement of both functional and morphological changes of vascular endothelium was observed in OVX + Met + GST group; meanwhile the plasma Hcy levels decreased remarkably. There were significant elevations of plasma ET-1 and liver MDA levels in ovariectomized HHcy rats, and supplementation with genistein could attenuate these changes. These results implied that genistein could lower the elevated Hcy levels, and prevent the development of endothelial impairment in ovariectomized HHcy rats. This finding may shed a novel light on the anti-atherogenic activities of genistein in HHcy patients.

  18. Blanching improves anthocyanin absorption from highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) purée in healthy human volunteers: a pilot study. (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Brambilla, Ada; Gardana, Claudio; Rizzolo, Anna; Simonetti, Paolo; Bertolo, Gianni; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Porrini, Marisa


    Blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are rich sources of phenolics and anthocyanins (ACNs). We investigated the absorption of ACNs after consumption of one portion (300 g) of minimally processed blueberry purée (P) obtained from blanched (BL) or unblanched (NB) berries. A repeated-measures, crossover design study was conducted on healthy human volunteers. Blood was drawn between baseline and 24 h after BL-P or NB-P consumption, while urine were collected from the day before the experiment up to 48 h. Total plasma ACN content was not significantly different, while phenolics content was higher in BL-P with respect to NB-P. The maximum ACN absorption in plasma was observed after 1.5 h from the intake of the purées and was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) after the intake of BL-P. Both products increased the excretion of hippuric acid in urine. In conclusion, blanching had no significant effect on total ACN content and enhanced their absorption from minimally processed purées.

  19. Effect of cadmium on phenolic compounds, antioxidant enzyme activity and oxidative stress in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) plantlets grown in vitro. (United States)

    Manquián-Cerda, K; Escudey, M; Zúñiga, G; Arancibia-Miranda, N; Molina, M; Cruces, E


    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) can affect plant growth due to its mobility and toxicity. We evaluated the effects of Cd(2+) on the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant response of Vaccinium corymbosum L. Plantlets were exposed to Cd(2+) at 50 and 100µM for 7, 14 and 21 days. Accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the antioxidant enzyme SOD was determined. The profile of phenolic compounds was evaluated using LC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test (FRAP). Cd(2+) increased the content of MDA, with the highest increase at 14 days. The presence of Cd(2+) resulted in changes in phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compound found in blueberry plantlets was chlorogenic acid, whose abundance increased with the addition of Cd(2+) to the medium. The changes in the composition of phenolic compounds showed a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity measured using FRAP. Our results suggest that blueberry plantlets produced phenolic compounds with reducing capacity as a selective mechanism triggered by the highest activity of Cd(2+).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马珦玻; 李宝库; 李爱军


    Through on orthogonal design L9(34),the technology of blueberry Juice fermented by lactobacillus was studied.The results showed that the optimum formulation was the blueberry Juice 8 %, the suger 9 %, the fermentation milk 25 %, the stable preparation 0.30 %, 42℃, 4 h, ratio of lactic acid bacteria 1:1, inoculation quantity 2.5 %, VC 25 g/L.%通过采用四因素三水平的正交试验,对野生蓝莓汁乳酸菌饮料的最佳工艺配方进行研究.结果表明:蓝莓汁8%、白砂糖9%、发酵乳25%、乳化稳定剂0.30%,42℃发酵4 h.菌种比1:1,接种量2.5%,VC含量高达25 g/L.

  1. Development of a Lactic Acid Bacteria-Fermented Blueberry Dairy Beverage%乳酸发酵型蓝莓乳饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏伟; 简素平; 徐静


    Abstract : A nutritional beverage way developed by fermenting a mixture of blueberry juice and milk with mixed cultures of domesticated lactic acid bacteria. Orthogonal array design was used to determine optimal process parameters. The optimal fermentation substrate composition was composed of 60% milk, 14% blueberry juice and 6.5% sucrose. The optimal fermentation parameters were determined as 3.2% of inoculum size, 4.4 h of fermentation time and 42 °C of fermentation temperature.%以蓝莓汁、牛奶为原料,将其按一定比例混合,接种经驯化的乳酸混合菌进行发酵,由正交试验确定最佳工艺参数。结果表明:最佳原料配比为:牛奶60%、蓝莓汁添加量14%、蔗糖量6.5%;最佳发酵工艺参数为:接种量3.2%、发酵时间4.4h、温度42℃。

  2. Activity of broad-spectrum and reduced-risk insecticides on various life stages of cranberry fruitworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in highbush blueberry. (United States)

    Wise, John C; Jenkins, Paul E; Poppen, Ryan Vander; Isaacs, Rufus


    Laboratory and semifield bioassays were conducted to determine the life-stage activity of insecticides for controlling cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii Riley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a key lepidopteran pest of highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L. The organophosphates azinphosmethyl and phosmet, the pyrethroid esfenvalerate, and the carbamate methomyl were lethal to all life stages. The neonicotinoids thiacloprid and acetamiprid demonstrated strong larvicidal and ovicidal activity but were somewhat weaker adulticides than the conventional broad-spectrum compounds. Bacillus thuringiensis, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate were shown to control A. vacinii primarily through their larvicidal activity. Spinosad was toxic to all life stages, including eggs laid on top of residues and those that were treated topically, but larvicidal activity was short lived. The growth regulators pyriproxyfen and novaluron had strong ovicidal activity when eggs were laid on top of residues but had limited larvicidal activity. Tebufenozide was not directly toxic to eggs, but demonstrated larvicidal activity, and ovilarvicidal activity when topically applied to eggs. Azinphosmethyl, phosmet, indoxacarb, thiacloprid, and acetamiprid were all toxic to the egg parasitoid Trichogramma minutum Riley. In contrast pyriproxyfen, emamectin benzoate, methomyl, novaluron, and spinosad did not negatively affect the survival of T. minutum within Acrobasis vacinii eggs. These results help inform the ongoing development of integrated strategies for insect management in blueberry.

  3. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Baudino, Claudio [AgrifruttaSoc. Coop. Agr., Via Beinette 6, 12016 Peveragno, CN (Italy)


    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. - Highlights: • LCA is a system for evaluating the environmental sustainability of products and processes. • The disposal of the packaging material is taken into account. • The LCA methodology has been applied to quantify the emissions of berry fruits. • Species index: blueberry and raspberry.

  4. Influence of Low Temperature Enzyme Maceration Techniques on Volatile Compounds of Semi-dry Wine Made with cv. Premier of Rabbiteye Blueberries (Vaccinium ashei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao


    Full Text Available A low temperature enzyme maceration treatment was conducted during fermentation process of semi-dry cv. Premier blueberry wine. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maceration conditions on the wine aroma. As a pre-treatment, blueberry must was divided into 6 samples which were respectively treated by pectinase with 6 different maceration conditions at 6°C 1day, 6°C 2 days, 6°C 3 days, 16°C 1 day, 16°C 2 days and 16°C 3 days. After that wines were obtained by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Volatile compounds of wines were analyzed by GC-MS. Overall, the typical aroma compounds of semi-dry cv. Premier wines were constituted by three groups of organic compounds including esters, alcohols and fatty acids. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl decanoate, 2-phenethanol and 3-methylbutanoic acid, which occupied 60% of the typical volatile aromatic compounds, all had higher Odor Activity Values (OAVs in 6°C 3 days than other conditions. Maceration temperature and time had a significant effect on concentration and varieties of wines aroma substances. The results presented will help to better understand the aroma winemaking potential of this variety.

  5. Identification of aluminum-regulated genes by cDNA-AFLP analysis of roots in two contrasting genotypes of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Aquea, Felipe; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Alberdi, Miren; Arce-Johnson, Patricio


    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of Al(3+)-stress in blueberry, a cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis was employed to identify Al-regulated genes in roots of contrasting genotypes of highbush blueberry (Brigitta, Al(3+)-resistant and Bluegold, Al(3+)-sensitive). Plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with 0 and 100 μM Al(3+) and collected at different times over 48 h. Seventy transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified as being Al(3+) responsive, 31 of which showed significant homology to genes with known or putative functions. Twelve TDFs were homologous to uncharacterized genes and 27 did not have significant matches. The expression pattern of several of the genes with known functions in other species was confirmed by quantitative relative real-time RT-PCR. Twelve genes of known or putative function were related to cellular metabolism, nine associated to stress responses and other transcription and transport facilitation processes. Genes involved in signal transduction, photosynthetic and energy processes were also identified, suggesting that a multitude of processes are implicated in the Al(3+)-stress response as reported previously for other species. The Al(3+)-stress response genes identified in this study could be involved in Al(3+)-resistance in woody plants.

  6. Study on the Blueberry Hawthorn Nectar Process and Optimization for the Recipe%蓝莓山楂果茶的研制及配方的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪慧华; 刘小飞; 汪长钢; 柳青; 徐雅君


    采用正交试验对蓝莓山楂果茶配方进行优化,确定稳定剂的配比及果茶的最佳配方,并通过不同杀菌条件比较其杀菌效果,优化果茶的杀菌参数。结果表明,果茶最佳的原料配方为:蓝莓与山楂混浆添加量为40%、白砂糖10%、柠檬酸0.08%、黄原胶0.03%和CMC0.03%。最佳杀菌时间和温度是85℃/20 min。%The paper reports the studies on the recipe optimization of blueberry hawthorn nectar, and ratios of stabilizers, the best ratios to the nectar components with an orthogonal statistical test method. By comparison with sterilization effects of various sterilization conditions, the optimization parameters are found. The results of the studies point out that the optimized ratios to nectar raw recipe are composed of a dosage of 40%blueberry and hawthorn mixing solutions, 10%sugar, 0.08%citric acid, 0.03%xanthan gum and 0.03%CMC. The best sterilization time and temperature is 85℃and 20 min.

  7. 蓝莓枸杞发酵酒的生产工艺研究%Research on the Production Technology of Medlar-blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 孙波


    the healthy, nutritional and low alcoholic wine brewing technology in which blueberry and medlar are used as major raw materials, fermented by yeast without distillation, and honey is added was introduced. The wine made by this technology has the characteristics of fruit and wine fragrance, mellow and fresh taste, fusion of nutrition and function of medlar, blueberry and honey, low sugar, low alcohol and high nutritional value.%介绍了以蓝莓和枸杞作为主要原料,经酵母发酵,无需蒸馏,加入适量蜂蜜,生产低度营养保健酒的工艺.用此方法生产的保健酒具有蓝莓和枸杞的果香和酒香,口感醇厚、清爽,充分融合了蓝莓、枸杞及蜂蜜的营养和功效,具有糖分低、酒度低、营养价值高等特点.

  8. Krill oil attenuates left ventricular dilatation after myocardial infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fosshaug Linn E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the western world, heart failure (HF is one of the most important causes of cardiovascular mortality. Supplement with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA has been shown to improve cardiac function in HF and to decrease mortality after myocardial infarction (MI. The molecular structure and composition of n-3 PUFA varies between different marine sources and this may be of importance for their biological effects. Krill oil, unlike fish oil supplements, contains the major part of the n-3 PUFA in the form of phospholipids. This study investigated effects of krill oil on cardiac remodeling after experimental MI. Rats were randomised to pre-treatment with krill oil or control feed 14 days before induction of MI. Seven days post-MI, the rats were examined with echocardiography and rats in the control group were further randomised to continued control feed or krill oil feed for 7 weeks before re-examination with echocardiography and euthanization. Results The echocardiographic evaluation showed significant attenuation of LV dilatation in the group pretreated with krill oil compared to controls. Attenuated heart weight, lung weight, and levels of mRNA encoding classical markers of LV stress, matrix remodeling and inflammation reflected these findings. The total composition of fatty acids were examined in the left ventricular (LV tissue and all rats treated with krill oil showed a significantly higher proportion of n-3 PUFA in the LV tissue, although no difference was seen between the two krill oil groups. Conclusions Supplement with krill oil leads to a proportional increase of n-3 PUFA in myocardial tissue and supplement given before induction of MI attenuates LV remodeling.

  9. Optimal ultrasonic array focusing in attenuative media. (United States)

    Ganguli, A; Gao, R X; Liang, K; Jundt, J


    This paper presents a parametric study on the efficiency of ultrasound focusing in an attenuative medium, using phased arrays. Specifically, an analytical model of ultrasound wave focusing in a homogeneous, isotropic and attenuative fluid with point sources is presented. Calculations based on the model have shown that in an attenuative medium, an optimum frequency exists for the best focusing performance for a particular size of aperture and focal distance. The effect of different f numbers on the focusing performance in the attenuative medium is further investigated. The information obtained from the analytical model provides insights into the design and installation of a phased transducer array for energy efficient wave focusing.

  10. Wideband, 50 dB Attenuation Range Liquid Crystal Based Variable Optical Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.J.; Pan; Henry; He; Eric; Zhang


    A compact variable optical attenuator, covering C and L bands with over 50 dB attenuation range, is realized using a single liquid crystal cell with a tilted fused silica coating compensating the cell's small residual birefringence.

  11. 超高压和热处理对蓝莓汁品质的影响%Influence of Ultra High Pressure and Thermal Treatments on the Quality of Blueberry Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晓赟; 王寅; 张蒙; 李路宁; 张师; 孙爱东


    以蓝莓汁为原料,进行了超高压(UHP)和热力处理对蓝莓汁微生物和理化指标的影响,以及贮藏期内蓝莓汁品质变化的研究。结果表明:超高压可以有效杀灭蓝莓汁中的微生物;超高压处理后,蓝莓汁表现出更诱人的颜色;贮藏期内超高压和热处理对蓝莓汁的总酸、还原糖、可溶性固形物含量影响较小;与热处理相比,超高压处理能更好的保持蓝莓汁中的Vc和花青素含量。%The fresh blueberry was selected as the trial material. Two samples of blueberry juice were sterilized by ultra high pressure (UI-IP) and thermal treatments respectively. The physicocbemical property were analyzed and compared during the storage. The results showed that microorganisms in fresh blueberry juice could be inactivated ef- fectively by UHP. Blueberry Juice showed better color after UHP. UI-IP had no significant effect on titratable acids, reducing sugar, Brix. Fresh blueberry juice treated with UHP was better than that with heat sterilization not only on Vc, but also on anthocyanins.

  12. Dietary supplements in sport nutrition


    BOČAN, David


    Thesis deals with dietary supplements and their use by amateurs and professionals.The theoretical part is in the 1st part devoted to supplements and their legislation,forms and division.To the 2nd part was selected substances used by athletes and further discussed in terms of their function and effects on the organism.Within the general information was drafted in the 3rd part risks related to the use of dietary supplements due to wrong dosage or concentration and the issue of doping. Research...

  13. China's Developing Dietary Supplement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Crowther


    @@ With the increasingly large size and forward momentum of China's economy, one would think there has to be a well-developed dietary supplement industry.However, although China has been posting re-cord gains to its GDP, it is far behind the U.S., E.U.and Japan in regard to a well-defined and prosperous dietary supplement industry.With that said, having an established dietary supple-ment industry is not the measure by which countries are judged in terms of economic prowess.

  14. Ultrasonic attenuation in cuprate superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Gupta; D M Gaitonde


    We calculate the longitudinal ultrasonic attenuation rate (UAR) in clean d-wave superconductors in the Meissner and the mixed phases. In the Meissner phase we calculate the contribution of previously ignored processes involving the excitation of a pair of quasi-holes or quasi-particles. There is a contribution ∝ in the regime B ≪ F ≪ 0 and a contribution ∝ 1/ in the regime F ≪ B ≪ 0. We find that these contributions to the UAR are large and cannot be ignored. In the mixed phase, using a semi-classical description, we calculate the electronic quasi-particle contribution to the UAR which at very low , has a independent term proportional to $\\sqrt{H}$.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero


    Full Text Available Psychotic syndrome includes several devastating mental disorders characterized by a rupture of higher mental functions. The signs and symptoms of psychosis begin in adolescence or early adulthood and usually begin gradually and progress over time. Attenuated psychosis syndrome is a new DSM-5 diagnostic proposal which deals with identifying people at high-risk mental state (ARMS/UHR which may be a predictor of conversion to psychosis. The potential benefit would be that if psychotic disorder is treated more effectively in its early stages, it could produce a lasting beneficial effect that probably could not be achieved with later intervention. This syndrome has generated intense discussion in specialized scientific and professional forums, crisscrossing arguments in favor and against its inclusion. HRMS is preferentially evaluated in the adolescent or young adult population. HRMS evolution is associated with a higher rate of transition toward nonaffective psychosis, although it can evolve toward other mental disorders, remain stable or remit over time. Empirical evidence shows that early intervention seems to have a certain beneficial effect, although for now the results are still insufficient and contradictory. The lack of specificity of symptoms in predicting psychosis, presence of certain limitations (e.g., stigmatization, results found in early interventions and lack of empirical evidence, have led to include the attenuated psychosis syndrome in the DSM-5 Appendix III. The main benefits and limitations of including this supposed category, possible lessons learned from this type of study and future lines of action are discussed in the light of these findings.

  16. Attenuation characteristics of a light attenuator combined by polarizers with different extinction ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Chong; Deng Peng; Zhao Shuang; Chen Hai-Qing


    This paper deals with a systematical analysis and an algorithm of attenuation characteristics of a light attenuator combined by n pieces of polarizers(n-LACP)whose extinction ratios are different from each other.The attenuation ratio expression of a two-LACP is deduced. We find that the monotonic attenuation interval depends on the first polarizer and that the attenuation range depends on the second one.For the three-LACP,a method for obtaining a monotonic attenuation interval is proposed.Moreover,the attenuation ratio expression is demonstrated.Analysis and experiment show that when the initial status of the three-LACP is at the maximum output,if the second or third polarizer rotates alone,the minimum attenuation ratios can reach K2-1and K3-1,respectively,and if the first polarizer rotates,a minimum attenuation ratio of K2-1K3-1can be obtained(K1,K2 and K3 represent the extinction ratios of the three polarizers in turn).Furthermore,the attenuation ratio expression of n-LACP and the relevant attenuation characteristics are proposed.The minimum attenuation ratio of an n-LACP is(K2K3...Kn)-1.

  17. To supplement or not to supplement: a metabolic network framework for human nutritional supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Nogiec

    Full Text Available Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology.

  18. Added Value via SPI supplement (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplement that indicates where to find the source data sets on the EPA system. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Bowden, J., K.D. Talgo, T....

  19. Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics (OEDA) produced an annual Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement report providing detailed statistical...

  20. Herbal Supplements: Cause for Concern?


    Paolo Borrione; Luigi Di Luigi; Nicola Maffulli; Fabio Pigozzi


    More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996). Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. G...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Weiping; MU Xiaowu; SUN Yuqiang


    In present paper, the disturbance attenuation problem of uncertain nonlinear cascaded systems is studied. Based on the adding one power integrator technique and recursive design, a feedback controller that solves the disturbance attenuation problem is constructed for uncertain nonlinear cascaded systems with internal stability.

  2. Light attenuation on Chlorella vulgaris cells (United States)

    Krol, Tadeusz; Lotocka, Maria


    The laboratory measurements of spectrum of light attenuation on phytoplankton particles i.e. monoculture of unicellural green algae Chlorella vulgaris are presented. The measurements were carried out for alive culture and the cultures subjected to chemical (NaOH) or physical (ultrasounds) modification. The distinct changes in the light attenuation spectrum were a result of modification of the internal cell structures.

  3. Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading. (United States)

    Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin


    Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio.

  4. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines. (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J


    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time.

  5. St. John's Wort Attenuates Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Mice through Suppression of Inflammatory Signaling. (United States)

    Manna, Soumen K; Golla, Srujana; Golla, Jaya Prakash; Tanaka, Naoki; Cai, Yan; Takahashi, Shogo; Krausz, Kristopher W; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Korboukh, Ilia; Gonzalez, Frank J


    Despite widespread use as well as epidemiologic indications, there have been no investigations into the effect of St. John's wort (SJW) extract on colorectal carcinogenesis in vivo. This study reports a systematic evaluation of the impact of dietary supplementation of SJW extract on azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. Mice were fed with either AIN-93G (control) diet or SJW extract-supplemented diet (SJW diet) prior to azoxymethane treatment. SJW diet was found to significantly improve the overall survival of azoxymethane-treated mice. Pretreatment with the SJW diet significantly reduced body weight loss as well as decrease of serum albumin and cholesterol levels associated with azoxymethane-induced colorectal tumorigenesis. SJW diet-fed mice showed a significant decrease in tumor multiplicity along with a decrease in incidence of large tumors and a trend toward decreased total tumor volume in a dose-dependent manner. A short-term study, which examined the effect of SJW prior to rectal bleeding, also showed decrease in colorectal polyps in SJW diet-fed mice. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathways were attenuated by SJW administration. SJW extract resulted in early and continuous attenuation of these pathways in the colon epithelium of SJW diet-fed mice under both short-term and long-term treatment regimens. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the chemopreventive potential of SJW extract against colorectal cancer through attenuation of proinflammatory processes.

  6. Ultrasound fields in an attenuating medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gandhi,, D; O'Brien,, W.D., Jr.


    Ultrasound fields propagating in tissue will undergo changes in shape not only due to diffraction, but also due to the frequency dependent attenuation. Linear fields can be fairly well predicted for a non-attenuating medium like water by using the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating...... the spatial impulse response, whereas the field cannot readily be found for an attenuating medium. In this paper we present a simulation program capable of calculating the field in a homogeneous attenuating medium. The program splits the aperture into rectangles and uses a far-field approximation for each...... of the rectangles and sums all contributions to arrive at the spatial impulse response for the aperture and field point. This approach makes it possible to model all transducer apertures, and the program can readily calculate the emitted, pulse-echo and continuous wave field. Attenuation is included by splitting...

  7. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males. (United States)

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha


    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  8. Attenuation of the protein wasting associated with bed rest by branched-chain amino acids (United States)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.; Boden, G.


    Bed rest is generally accepted as being an appropriate ground-based model for human spaceflight. The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that increasing the amount of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the diet could attenuate the protein loss associated with bed rest. Nineteen healthy subjects were randomized into two groups according to diet. During the 6 d of bed rest, the diets were supplemented with either 30 mmol/d each of three non-essential amino acids, glycine, serine, and alanine (control group), or with 30 mmol/d each of the BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine, and valine (BCAA group). Nutrition was supplied as a commercially available defined formula diet at a rate of 1.3 x REE. Nitrogen (N) balance and urinary 3-MeH excretion were determined for the 6 d. In our results, the urine-based estimate of N balance was 22.2 +/- 14.4 (n = 9) mg and 60.5 +/- 10.1 mg (n = 8) for the control and BCAA-supplemented groups, respectively (P BCAA supplementation attenuates the N loss during short-term bed rest.

  9. Attenuation of the protein wasting associated with bed rest by branched-chain amino acids (United States)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.; Boden, G.


    Bed rest is generally accepted as being an appropriate ground-based model for human spaceflight. The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that increasing the amount of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the diet could attenuate the protein loss associated with bed rest. Nineteen healthy subjects were randomized into two groups according to diet. During the 6 d of bed rest, the diets were supplemented with either 30 mmol/d each of three non-essential amino acids, glycine, serine, and alanine (control group), or with 30 mmol/d each of the BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine, and valine (BCAA group). Nutrition was supplied as a commercially available defined formula diet at a rate of 1.3 x REE. Nitrogen (N) balance and urinary 3-MeH excretion were determined for the 6 d. In our results, the urine-based estimate of N balance was 22.2 +/- 14.4 (n = 9) mg and 60.5 +/- 10.1 mg (n = 8) for the control and BCAA-supplemented groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Urinary 3-MeH excretion was unchanged in both groups with bed rest. We conclude that BCAA supplementation attenuates the N loss during short-term bed rest.

  10. Impacto de los sistemas de riego por goteo en arándanos Impact of drip irrigation systems in blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pannunzio


    Full Text Available El ensayo examinó los efectos de diferentes sistemas de riego por goteo en el rendimiento de la variedad O´Neal de arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L. El estudio se realizó en Zarate (33º 41’ S y 59º 41’ W, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El cultivo se implantó en agosto de 2001, la primera cosecha se efectuó en octubre de 2003. El objetivo fue determinar cual era el sistema de riego por goteo que maximizaba el rendimiento, siendo los tratamientos, un lateral de tubería de goteo por fila de plantas con goteros a 40 cm (T1 y dos laterales de tubería de goteo con goteros a 20 cm por fila de plantas (T2. El porcentaje de suelo mojado por sistema se incrementa a medida que aumenta el número de emisores por metro lineal. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completamente aleatorizados, con bloques de cinco plantas y cinco repeticiones por tratamiento. La cosecha de 2003, reportó rendimientos de 2436 kg ha-1 para el tratamiento T1 y de 4335 kg ha-1 para tratamiento T2. El mojado parcial del suelo que realiza el tratamiento T1, de menor cantidad de goteros por metro lineal, no es suficiente para mojar un porcentaje de suelo compatible con altos rendimientos.The experiment examined the effects of different drip irrigation systems in an O´Neal variety of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. It was contucted at Zarate (33º 41’ S and 59º 41’ W, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Plants of the experiment were planted in August of 2001, after one year in nursery. The first harvest was realized in October of 2003. The main scope of the experiment was to find the irrigation system which maximized yields. Treatments were: one drip irrigation line with drippers at 40 cm (T1 and two laterals with drippers at 20 cm per row (T2. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design, each one with 5 plants and 5 replications. During the harvest of October and November of 2003, reported yields were 2436 kg ha-1 for the treatment T1 and

  11. Blueberry treatment antagonizes C-2 ceramide-induced stress signaling in muscarinic receptor-transfected COS-7 cells. (United States)

    Joseph, James A; Bielinski, Donna F; Fisher, Derek R


    Previous research has shown that muscarinic receptors (MAChRs) show loss of sensitivity in aging and AD and are selectively sensitive to oxidative stress (OS). Thus, COS-7 cells transfected (tn) with MAChR subtype M1 show > OS sensitivity [as reflected in the ability of the cell to extrude or sequester Ca(2+) following depolarization (recovery) by oxotremorine (oxo) and exposure to dopamine (DA) or amyloid beta (Abeta)] than M3-transfected COS-7 cells. Blueberry (BB) extract pretreatment prevented these deficits. Research has also indicated that C2 ceramide (Cer) has several age-related negative cellular effects (e.g., OS). When these cells were treated with Cer, the significant decrements in the ability of both types of tn cells to initially respond to oxo were antagonized by BB treatment. Present experiments assessed signaling mechanisms involved in BB protection in the presence or absence of DA, Abeta, and/or Cer in this model. Thus, control or BB-treated M1 and M3 tn COS-7 cells were exposed to DA or Abeta(42) in the presence or absence of Cer. Primarily, results showed that the effects of DA or Abeta(42) were to increase stress (e.g., PKCgamma, p38MAPK) and protective signals (e.g., pMAPK). Cer also appeared to raise several of the stress and protective signals in the absence of the other stressors, including PKCgamma, pJNK, pNfkappaB, p53, and p38MAPK, while not significantly altering MAPK, or Akt. pArc was, however, increased by Cer in both types of transfected cells. The protective effects of BB when combined with Cer generally showed greater protection when BB extract was applied prior to Cer, except for one protective signal (pArc) where a greater effect was seen in the M3 cells exposed to Abeta(42.) In the absence of the Abeta(42) or DA, for several of the stress signals (e.g., pNfkappaB, p53), BB lowered their Cer-induced increases in M1- and M3-transfected cells. We are exploring these interactions further, but it is clear that increases in ceramide

  12. Attenuation of diacylglycerol second messengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, W.R.; Ganong, B.R.; Bell, R.M.


    Diacylglycerol(DAG) derived from phosphatidylinositol activates protein kinase C in agonist-stimulated cells. At least two pathways may contribute to the attenuation of the DAG signal: (1) phosphorylation to phosphatidic acid(PA) by DAG kinase(DGK), and (2) deacylation by DAG and monoacylglycerol lipases. A number of DAG analogs were tested as substrates and inhibitors of partially purified pig brain DGK. Two analogs were potent inhibitors in vitro, 1-monooleoylglycerol(MOG,K/sub I/ = 91 and diotanoylethyleneglycol (diC/sub 8/EG, K/sub I/ = 58 These compounds were tested in human platelets. DiC/sub 8/EG inhibited (70 - 100%) (/sup 32/P/sub i/) incorporation into PA in thrombin-stimulated platelets. Under these conditions the DAG signal was somewhat long-lived but was still metabolized, presumably by the lipase pathway. MOG treatment elevated DAG levels up to 4-fold in unstimulated platelets. The DAG formed was in a pool where it did not activate protein kinase C. Thrombin-stimulation of MOG-treated platelets resulted in DAG levels 10-fold higher than control platelets. This appears to be due to the inability of these platelets to metabolize agonist-linked DAG via the lipase pathway. The development of specific inhibitors of DAG kinase and DAG lipase, in conjunction with mass quantification of DAG levels as used here, will provide further insights into the regulation of DAG second messengers.

  13. Live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine. (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Montinaro, Valentina; Groppali, Elena; Tenconi, Rossana; Semino, Margherita; Principi, Nicola


    Annual vaccination is the most effective means of preventing and controlling influenza epidemics, and the traditional trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is by far the most widely used. Unfortunately, it has a number of limitations, the most important of which is its poor immunogenicity in younger children and the elderly, the populations at greatest risk of severe influenza. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has characteristics that can overcome some of these limitations. It does not have to be injected because it is administered intranasally. It is very effective in children and adolescents, among whom it prevents significantly more cases of influenza than the traditional TIV. However, its efficacy in adults has not been adequately documented, which is why it has not been licensed for use by adults by the European health authorities. LAIV is safe and well tolerated by children aged > 2 y and adults, but some concerns arisen regarding its safety in younger children and subjects with previous asthma or with recurrent wheezing. Further studies are needed to solve these problems and to evaluate the possible role of LAIV in the annual vaccination of the general population.

  14. Pistachio supplementation attenuates motor and cognition impairments induced by cisplatin or vincristine in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Golchin


    Conclusion: We conclude that pistachio in the diet following anticancer drugs such as cisplatin and vincristine might have a protective effect against anticancer drug-induced disruptions in motor and cognitive function. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanisms of this protective effect of pistachio.

  15. Environmental Report 2000 Data Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, A H; Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Harrach, R J; Larson, J M; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Nisbet, B; Ring Peterson, S; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Williams, R A


    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual ''Environmental Report 2000'' was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air surveillance, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other five chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup -11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  16. Environmental Report 1999 Data Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, J M; Biermann, A H; Harrach, R J; Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brandstetter, E R; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Christofferson, E; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Garcia, L M; Giesing, T A; Grayson, A R; Hall, L C; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Ward, R J; Williams, R A


    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual ''Environmental Report 1999'' was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other five chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup -11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  17. Graphene-based Electronically Tuneable Microstrip Attenuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pierantoni


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a graphene- based electronically tuneable microstrip attenuator operating at a frequency of 5 GHz. The use of graphene as a variable resistor is discussed and the modelling of its electromagnetic properties at microwave frequencies is fully addressed. The design of the graphene-based attenuator is described. The structure integrates a patch of graphene, whose characteristics can range from being a fairly good conductor to a highly lossy material, depending on the applied voltage. By applying the proper voltage through two high-impedance bias lines, the surface resistivity of graphene can be modified, thereby changing the insertion loss of the microstrip attenuator.

  18. 蓝莓酒中菌落总数测量不确定度的分析%Uncertainty Analysis of Total Colony Count in Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雯; 薛巍


    In accordance with the national standard GB 4789.2-2010,national standard for food safety,food microbiology detection and standard for total colony number detection,the factors which affect uncertainty of total colony count in blueberry wine detection was evaluated.Furthermore,the accuracy of total bacterial colony detection process which was affected by uncertainty was verified.%依据GB 4789.2-2010《食品安全国家标准食品微生物学检验菌落总数测定方法标准》,通过对蓝莓酒中菌落总数的测量结果,对不确定度的因素进行评估,研究了测量不确定度对细菌总数检验过程准确性的验证。

  19. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  20. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen


    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  1. Application of pulsed electric field in the production of juice and extraction of bioactive compounds from blueberry fruits and their by-products. (United States)

    Bobinaitė, Ramunė; Pataro, Gianpiero; Lamanauskas, Nerijus; Šatkauskas, Saulius; Viškelis, Pranas; Ferrari, Giovanna


    The influence of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) pre-treatment of blueberry fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), both on the extraction yield and antioxidant properties of juice obtained by pressing and on the on the recovery of bioactive compounds from berry by-products (press cake) by extraction with solvent, was investigated. PEF treatments carried out at field strengths of 1, 3, and 5 kV/cm and an energy input of 10 kJ/kg achieved a cell disintegration index (Z p ) of 0.70, 0.80, and 0.87, respectively. Mechanical pressing (1.32 bar for 8 min) of PEF-treated berries (1, 3, and 5 kV/cm at 10 kJ/kg) significantly increased the juice yield (+28 %) compared with the untreated sample. The juice obtained from PEF pre-treated berries also had a significantly higher total phenolic content (+43 %), total anthocyanin content (+60 %) and antioxidant activity (+31 %). However, PEF treatment intensity higher than 1 kV/cm did not significantly improve the quantitative or qualitative characteristics of the juice. Compared to the untreated sample, higher amounts of total phenolics (+63 %), total athocyanins (+78 %) and antioxidant activity (+65 %) were detected in the press cake extracts. PEF treatment of higher intensity resulted in better extractability of bioactive compounds from blueberry press cake. The results obtained from this study demonstrate the potential of PEF as a mild pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of the industrial processing of berry fruits.

  2. Phosphatidylserine and caffeine attenuate postexercise mood disturbance and perception of fatigue in humans. (United States)

    Wells, Adam J; Hoffman, Jay R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fragala, Maren S; Mangine, Gerald T; McCormack, William P; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Robinson, Edward H


    Phosphatidylserine (PS) may attenuate the adverse effects of physical fatigue. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a multi-ingredient supplement containing 400 mg/d PS and 100 mg/d caffeine (supplement [SUP]) for 2 weeks on measures of cognitive function (CF), reaction time (RT), and mood (MD) following an acute exercise stress. It is hypothesized that PS will maintain preexercise CF and RT scores, while attenuating postexercise fatigue. Participants completed 2 acute bouts of resistance exercise (T1 and T2) separated by 2-week ingestion of SUP or control (CON). Outcome measures were assessed pre- and postexercise. When collapsed across groups, a significant decrease in RT performance was seen in the 60-second reaction drill from pre- to postexercise at T1. All other RT tests were similar from pre- to postexercise at T1. Reaction time was not significantly changed by PS. When collapsed across groups, a significant increase in performance of the serial subtraction test was seen. A significant increase (8.9% and 7.1%) in the number of correct answers and a significant decrease (8.0% and 7.5%) in time to answer were seen from pre- to postworkout at T1 and T2, respectively. A significant increase in total MD score from pre- to postworkout was observed for CON but not for PS at T2. Phosphatidylserine significantly attenuated pre- to postexercise perception of fatigue compared to CON. Ingestion of SUP for 14 days appears to attenuate postexercise MD scores and perception of fatigue, but does not affect CF or RT, in recreationally trained individuals.

  3. Pyridoxine supplementation during isoniazid therapy. (United States)

    Snider, D E


    Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) supplementation during isoniazid (INH) therapy is necessary in some patients to prevent the development of peripheral neuropathy. In vivo pyridoxine is converted into coenzymes which play an essential role in the metabolism of protein, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and several other substances, including brain amines, INH apparently competitively inhibits the action of pyridoxine in these metabolic functions. The reported frequency of INH-induced neuropathy in various studies is reviewed and population groups at relatively high risk of developing this complication are identified. The routine use of pyridoxine supplementation to prevent peripheral neuropathy in high risk populations is recommended.

  4. Precision Model for Microwave Rotary Vane Attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Tom


    A model for a rotary vane attenuator is developed to describe the attenuator reflection and transmission coefficients in detail. All the parameters of the model can be measured in situ, i.e., without diassembling any part. The tranmission errors caused by internal reflections are calculated from ...... measurements of the much larger reflection parameters, hence commonly used nonprecision instruments can be used to determine the transmission errors with sufficient accuracy for the highest precision obtainable in standard laboratories....

  5. Wave attenuation charcteristics of tethered float system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.

    and transmitted wave powers, transmission coefficients are computed. The results show that transmission coefficient does not vary with changes in wave height or water depth. When depth of submergence of float increases, wave attenuation decreases, showing... that the system performs well when it is just submerged. As float velocity decreases with increase in float size, transmission coefficient increases with increase in float size. The influence of wave period on wave attenuation is remarkable compared to other...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Lhomond, Alice; Ohlrich, Mogens


    In this paper the attenuation and flanking transmissions of impact noise in lightweight building structures is studied using a modal approach. The structural field is mainly analysed, putting the main attention to the parts being important in the modelling. The amount of attenuation produced...... by the periodically reinforcing beams used in lightweight building structures is analysed. The consequence of these factors in modelling flanking transmission is also discussed....

  7. Light attenuation in estuarine mangrove lakes (United States)

    Frankovich, Thomas A.; Rudnick, David T.; Fourqurean, James W.


    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) cover has declined in brackish lakes in the southern Everglades characterized by low water transparencies, emphasizing the need to evaluate the suitability of the aquatic medium for SAV growth and to identify the light attenuating components that contribute most to light attenuation. Underwater attenuation of downwards irradiance of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was determined over a three year period at 42 sites in shallow (lakes in two sub-estuaries in the coastal Everglades, Florida USA. Turbidity, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and phytoplankton chlorophyll a (chl a) were measured concurrently and their respective contributions to the light attenuation rate were estimated. Light transmission to the benthos relative to literature estimates of minimum requirements for SAV growth indicated that the underwater light environment was often unsuitable for SAV. Light attenuation rates (n = 417) corrected for solar elevation angles ranged from 0.16 m-1 to 9.83 m-1 with a mean of 1.73 m-1. High concentrations of CDOM with high specific light absorption contributed the most to light attenuation followed by turbidity and chl a. CDOM alone sufficiently reduces light transmission beyond the estimated limits for SAV growth, making it difficult for ecosystem managers to increase SAV abundance by management activities. Light limitation of SAV in these areas may be a persistent feature because of their proximity to CDOM source materials from the surrounding mangrove swamp. Increasing freshwater flow into these areas may dilute CDOM concentrations and improve the salinity and light climate for SAV communities.

  8. Studies on Optimization for the Compound Stabilizer Formulation of Hawthorn Blueberry Nectar%山楂蓝莓果茶复合稳定剂配方的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪慧华; 罗红霞; 汪长钢; 刘小飞; 柳青


    In the studies, compound formulation stabilizers were tested to improve stabilization of hawthorn blueberry nectar in optimal conditions. An orthogonal statistical test method was used to compare its stability for experiments. As a result for the hawthorn blueberry nectar, the optimized stabilizer formulation was the ratios of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC) 0.02%, xanthan gum 0.03%, gelatin 0.03%in the component of stabilizers.%采用正交试验对山楂蓝莓果茶复合稳定剂配方进行优化,并进行稳定性比较实验,结果表明:最佳稳定剂配方为:羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)0.02%、黄原胶0.03%、明胶0.03%。

  9. Resveratrol attenuates MPP(+)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis via AKT/GSK-3β pathway in SN4741 cells. (United States)

    Zeng, Weijun; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Fangfang; Gao, Li; Gao, Guodong


    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play crucial role in the dopaminergic neurons death, which is the pathological feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Resveratrol (Res), a polyphenol derived from grapes and blueberries, has been reported to reduce oxidative stress injury and to restore mitochondrial function. In this study, we aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of the beneficial effects of Res against MPP+- induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis in SN4741 cells. The data showed that Res significantly alleviated MPP+- induce cytotoxicity and restored MPP+- induced mitochondrial dysfunction in SN4741 cells. Moreover, Res rescued MPP+- induced a decline on the level of p-AKT, p-GSK-3βand the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and an elevation on the expression of Bax and caspase-3, 9. However, inhibition GSK-3β activity clearly abolished the protective effects of Res. Taken together, these results suggest that Res attenuates MPP+- induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis, and these protections may be achieved through AKT/GSK-3β pathway. These also indicate that Res could be a promising therapeutic agent for PD.

  10. EMS诱变越橘的研究%A Preliminary Study of Mutagenesis in Blueberry Plants with EMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文娟; 石佳; 任广炼; 李政; 李凌


    The shoot tips of the test-tube plantlets of blueberry (Vaccinium spp. ) cultivars Bluecrop and Darrow were treated with EMS (ethyl methane sulphonate) at different concentrations and subjected to PEG (polyethylene glycol)-simulated drought, to determine the optimum chemical mutagenesis combination and the critical PEG concentration. Principal component analysis and membership function analysis were made to evaluate the drought resistance and water-logging tolerance of the materials before and after the treatment. The results showed that the best combination of chemical mutagenesis was EMS treatment at 3% and for 2 h and the critical PEG concentration of simulated drought was 10%. By principal component analysis and membership function analysis, the factors of chlorophyll and osmotic adjustment were shown to be the two principal components and the drought tolerance of the plantlets studied were in the order of non-EMS-treated Darrow> non-EMS-treated Bluecrop>EMS-treated Bluecrop>EMS-treated Darrow; and chlorophyll, antioxidant enzymes and osmotic adjustment were the three principal components for water-logging-resistance, which was in the order of EMS-treated Darrow>non-EMS-treated Darrow> EMS-treated Bluecrop>non- EMS-treated Bluecrop.%用甲基磺酸乙酯和聚乙二醇处理蓝丰越橘组培苗茎尖,筛选诱变处理的最佳组合和模拟干旱处理的临界浓度,并应用主成分及隶属函数分析法对诱变前后的蓝丰、达柔组培苗进行耐旱性和耐水淹能力评价.结果表明: 诱变处理的最佳组合为3%EMS处理4h,聚乙二醇的临界浓度为10%;通过主成分分析,耐旱性指标可归纳成叶绿素因子和渗透调节因子2个主成分,越橘的耐旱性由强到弱为:未经处理的达柔、未经处理的蓝丰、诱变处理后的蓝丰、诱变处理后的达柔;耐水淹能力指标可归纳成叶绿素因子、抗氧化酶因子和渗透调节因子3个主成分,越橘的耐水淹能力由强到弱为:

  11. 不同提取方法对蓝莓色素得率及抗氧化活力的影响研究%Effects of extraction methods on yield and antioxidant capacity of blueberry pigments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘利华; 贺元康


    目的:研究不同提取方法对蓝莓色素得率、抗氧化活力的影响及得率与抗氧化活力间的关系。方法分别以乙醇、甲醇、丙酮为浸提溶剂,常规溶剂浸提、超声辅助浸提、微波辅助浸提3种提取方式,测定浸提液色素得率及其清除DPPH·、·O·-2、·OH的能力;分析色素得率与抗氧化活力的关系。结果不同提取溶剂对蓝莓色素得率的影响差异不显著(P>0.05),但不同提取方式对蓝莓色素得率的影响差异显著(P0.05), but the yields and scavenging capacities to DPPH·, ·O·-2 and ·OH of blueberry pigments extracted by conventional solvent extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction or microwave-assisted extraction were significantly different (P<0.05). There were significant positive correlations between the yields and scavenging capacities to DPPH· and ·OH of blueberry pigments, respectively (R=0.793, 0.944;P<0.05). Conclusion The yields and scavenging capacities of blueberry pigments obtained by different extraction methods with the same extraction solvent are significantly different. The yields are significantly correlated with scavenging capacities of DPPH· and ·OH. It will help to get blueberry pigments with higher yield and higher antioxidant activity by ultrasonic assisted ethanol extraction.

  12. New supplements to infant formulas. (United States)

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan


    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved.

  13. Supplements to Traditional Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      In a word, Vocabulary plays an indispensable part in language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how wel learns language, so it cannot be ignored. I discussed Schools’ viewpoints on the vocabulary teaching ,Reason for forgetting, Traditional approach to vocabulary teaching, supplements to vocabulary teaching,the author hope the above content can offer some hints for language learners.

  14. A Supplement for Teaching Beowulf (United States)

    Milosh, Joseph


    Suggests supplementing the teaching of "Beowulf" to high school students with (1) translation and grammatical analysis of parts of the original lines, (2) study of Anglo-Saxon poetic techniques, and (3) students' imitation of old English poetic techniques in New English. (SW)

  15. Herbal Supplements and Sport Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ellen Coleman; Ron Maughan; Sozanne Nelson Steen; Rob Skinner


    @@ KEY POINTS ·Labels on dietary supplements can be misleading. Containers may include substantially more,but usually less,of the listed amounts of ingredients,and substances may be added? some of which can cause failed doping tests for athletes?

  16. Potassium supplementation and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Molenberg, Famke; Bakker, S.J.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.


    Background and aims: Increasing the intake of potassium has been shown to lower blood pressure, but whether it also affects heart rate (HR) is largely unknown. We therefore assessed the effect of potassium supplementation on HR in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods and resul

  17. Determination of free amino acids and 18 elements in freeze-dried strawberry and blueberry fruit using an Amino Acid Analyzer and ICP-MS with micro-wave digestion. (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Hai-Tian; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Dong, Ai-Jun; Jing, Jing; Wang, Jing


    The objective of this study was to investigate the level of 18 trace elements of two freeze-dried samples from the Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and the Strawberry (Fragaria × Ananassa). The total free amino acid composition in the blueberry and strawberry was determined by an Amino Acid Analyzer. Eleven free amino acids were found in both berries. The trace elements in each dried fruit sample were determined by ICP-MS with microwave digestion. The linearity range of the standard curves was 0-1250.0 μg L(-1) (Mg, P, K, Ca),while in all cases, except for B, Na, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Pb, Ge and As, which was 125.0 μg mL(-1), all related coefficients were above 0.9999; recovery was in the range of 79.0-106.8%. Minor concentrations of nutritional elements were found in each freeze-dried berry. In sum, the toxic trace element analysis found the content of toxic trace elements in each freeze-dried berry sample was safe for human consumption and that the overall quality of the blueberry surpassed that of the strawberry. The results certify that the two freeze-dried berries have potential for human consumption in value-added products and have a certain theoretical and practical significance.

  18. Effects of Temperature, pH-value, and Light on Stability of Anthocyanin in Blueberry Juice%温度、pH值和光照对蓝莓汁花色苷稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆卿卿; 张丽霞; 刘小莉; 董明盛; 周剑忠


    The effects of temperature, pH - value, and light source on the stability of anthocyanin in the blueberry juice were studied in this paper. The results showed that anthocyanin maintained its red color only in acidic circumstance, but was not stable in alkaline circumstance. Blueberry juice anthocyanin faded faster in natural light than in dark condition. Blueberry juice anthocyanin had a higher stability at the temperature of 60 T. After being heated for 4 hours, the residual rate of anthocyanin stayed above 80%.%研究了温度、pH值、光照对蓝莓汁花色苷稳定性的影响,结果表明:花色苷在酸性介质中保持其本色——红色,而在碱性介质中则相对较不稳定;蓝莓花色苷在自然光直射下褪色较快,在避光条件下褪色相对较慢;蓝莓汁中的花色苷在60℃以下的热稳定性较好,加热4h后,其花色苷残留率达80%以上.

  19. Clinical use of glutamine supplementation. (United States)

    Wernerman, Jan


    Endogenous production of glutamine may become insufficient during critical illness. The shortage of glutamine is reflected as a decrease in plasma concentration, which is a prognostic factor for poor outcome in sepsis. Because glutamine is a precursor for nucleotide synthesis, rapidly dividing cells are most likely to suffer from a shortage. Therefore, exogenous glutamine supplementation is necessary. In particular, when i.v. nutrition is given, extra glutamine supplementation becomes critical, because most present formulations for i.v. use do not contain any glutamine for technical reasons. The major part of endogenously produced glutamine comes from skeletal muscle. For patients staying a long time in the intensive care unit (ICU), the muscle mass decreases rapidly, which leaves a tissue of diminishing size to maintain the export of glutamine. The metabolic and nutritional adaptation in long-staying ICU patients is poorly studied and is one of the fields that needs more scientific evidence for clinical recommendations. To date, there is evidence to support the clinical use of glutamine supplementation in critically ill patients, in hematology patients, and in oncology patients. Strong evidence is presently available for i.v. glutamine supplementation to critically ill patients on parenteral nutrition. This must be regarded as the standard of care. For patients on enteral nutrition, more evidence is needed. To guide administration of glutamine, there are good arguments to use measurement of plasma glutamine concentration for guidance. This will give an indication for treatment as well as proper dosing. Most patients will have a normalized plasma glutamine concentration by adding 20-25 g/24 h. Furthermore, there are no reported adverse or negative effects attributable to glutamine supplementation.

  20. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements (United States)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  1. 7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing. (United States)


    ... supplemental financing according to their plant revenue ratio (PRR), as defined in § 1710.2, based on the most recent year-end data available on the date of loan approval, as follows: PRR Supplemental loan...

  2. Kommentarer og supplement til DS 418

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Saxhof, Bjarne


    Comments and Supplement for DS 418. Lecture note for DTU course 64040 Basic Course in Building Energy Technology.......Comments and Supplement for DS 418. Lecture note for DTU course 64040 Basic Course in Building Energy Technology....

  3. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  4. Maximum likelihood estimation of the attenuated ultrasound pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus Bolding


    The attenuated ultrasound pulse is divided into two parts: a stationary basic pulse and a nonstationary attenuation pulse. A standard ARMA model is used for the basic pulse, and a nonstandard ARMA model is derived for the attenuation pulse. The maximum likelihood estimator of the attenuated...

  5. Direct Summands of ⊕-Supplemented Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nil Orhan; Derya Keskin Tütüncü; Rachid Tribak


    A module M is called ⊕-supplemented if every submodule of M has a supplement that is a direct summand of M. It is shown that if M is a ⊕-supplemented module and r(M) is a coclosed submodule of M for a left preradical r, then r(M) is a direct summand of M, and both r(M) and M/r(M) are ⊕-supplemented.

  6. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  7. 43 CFR 7.32 - Supplemental definitions. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental definitions. 7.32 Section 7... RESOURCES Department of the Interior Supplemental Regulations § 7.32 Supplemental definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions will be used: (a) Site of religious or cultural...

  8. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental treatment. 141.809... treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment...

  9. Comparison of non-attenuation corrected and attenuation corrected myocardial perfusion SPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Raza


    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that CT based attenuation corrected Tc-99mm sestamibi SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging significantly improved the specificity of the RCA territory compared with non-attenuation corrected Tc-99mm sestamibi SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in both genders irrespective of BMI.

  10. [Trade of food supplement: food or drug supplement? (United States)

    Siracusa, Margherita; Petrelli, Fabio


    The aporia is obvious: food supplement, classified and regulated by food law, sometimes have the characteristics and the typical effects of medicines. In addition, these are produced by pharmaceutical companies and, through the scientific officer, are prescribed by doctors and dispensed by pharmacies. This study will attempt to retrace the winding, and sometimes overlapping, regulatory pathways of the legislation on food supplement, food and medicines. It will be important object the particular application of the precautionary principle behind the legislation on food supplement: application "in posterior", so the controls on the purity of the product and the possible effects resulting from the assumption is carried out ex post trade. So we try to disentangle the intricate legislation with the national (and European) Court contributions. In particular, after a brief analysis of the rulings of the Competition and Market Authority on misleading advertising and by the Supreme Court in relation to crimes against health damage, it will come to the analysis of interpretative problems of a purely criminal law nature, in light of the recent proposal for reform about agribusiness crimes. Finally, it will be inevitable to analyze briefly the recent implementation of the d.lgs. n. 17/2004 concerning the distance trade of non-prescription medicines. There is no doubt that now, internet represents the preferred distribution channel for pharmaceutical products (including food supplement) and the most tempting "place" (because of control difficulties) for the realization of criminal conduct. The conclusion will be that the need to achieve more targeted and homogeneous regulatory measures, while also having to protect - public and individual - health through the protection of the legal security in one with the protection of the right to information.

  11. Attenuation tomography in West Bohemia/Vogtland (United States)

    Mousavi, Sima; Haberland, Christian; Bauer, Klaus; Hejrani, Babak; Korn, Michael


    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave attenuation (Qp) model for the geodynamically active swarm earthquake area of West Bohemia/Vogtland in the Czech/German border region. Path-averaged attenuation t* is calculated from amplitude spectra of time windows around the P-wave arrivals of local earthquakes. Average t/t* value or Qp for stations close to Nový Kostel are very low (focal zone (increases up to 500 within 80 km distance). The SIMUL2000 tomography scheme is used to invert the t* for P-wave attenuation perturbation. Analysis of resolution shows that our model is well-resolved in the vicinity of earthquake swarm hypocenters. The prominent features of the model are located around Nový Kostel focal zone and its northern vicinity. Beneath Nový Kostel a vertically stretched (down to depth of 11 km) and a highly attenuating body is observed. We believe that this is due to fracturing and high density of cracks inside the weak earthquake swarm zone in conjunction with presence of free gas/fluid. Further north of Nový Kostel two highly attenuating bodies are imaged which could represent fluid channels toward the surface. The eastern anomaly shows a good correlation with the fluid accumulation area which was suggested in 9HR seismic profile.

  12. Salicylic Acid Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavle Randjelovic


    Full Text Available Gentamicin (GM is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections, but its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of salicylic acid (SA in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Quantitative evaluation of gentamicin-induced structural alterations and degree of functional alterations in the kidneys were performed by histopathological and biochemical analyses in order to determine potential beneficial effects of SA coadministration with gentamicin. Gentamicin was observed to cause a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels. The significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA levels and protein carbonyl groups indicated that GM-induced tissue injury was mediated through oxidative reactions. On the other hand, simultaneous SA administration protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by GM treatment. Exposure to GM caused necrosis of tubular epithelial cells. Necrosis of tubules was found to be prevented by SA pretreatment. The results from our study indicate that SA supplement attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in gentamicin-treated rats.

  13. Salicylic acid attenuates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. (United States)

    Randjelovic, Pavle; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Stojiljkovic, Nenad; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Sokolovic, Dusan; Stoiljkovic, Milan; Ilic, Ivan


    Gentamicin (GM) is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections, but its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of salicylic acid (SA) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Quantitative evaluation of gentamicin-induced structural alterations and degree of functional alterations in the kidneys were performed by histopathological and biochemical analyses in order to determine potential beneficial effects of SA coadministration with gentamicin. Gentamicin was observed to cause a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels. The significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and protein carbonyl groups indicated that GM-induced tissue injury was mediated through oxidative reactions. On the other hand, simultaneous SA administration protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by GM treatment. Exposure to GM caused necrosis of tubular epithelial cells. Necrosis of tubules was found to be prevented by SA pretreatment. The results from our study indicate that SA supplement attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in gentamicin-treated rats.

  14. Optimizing of main composition changes and extraction conditions of blueberry juice wine%蓝莓露酒主要成分变化及浸提条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方堃; 陆胜民; 夏其乐; 杨颖


    目的:优化蓝莓露酒主要成分变化及浸提条件。方法以新鲜蓝莓为原料,用不同纯度的乙醇溶液浸提,并对浸提过程中溶出的总酚、黄酮、花色苷、总酸、可溶性固形物和维生素C进行动态分析。在多个单因素试验的基础上采用正交试验考察乙醇溶液和蓝莓的比例(A)、浸提用乙醇溶液的纯度(B)、浸提前超声处理时间(C)和浸提时间(D)对蓝莓酒抗氧化能力的影响。结果和结论最佳的浸提条件为料液比1:1,浸提用乙醇溶液的乙醇含量60%(v/v),超声处理时间40 min,浸提时间为30 d,在此条件下其DPPH自由基清除率为66.30%。%Objective To optimize the main composition changes and extraction conditions of blueberry juice wine. Methods Blueberry integrated alcoholic beverage was produced by immersing the fresh blueberry fruits into different concentrations of alcohol. Some ingredients, like total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, total acid, soluble solids and Vitamin C, of blueberry fruits dissolved into the alcohol solution during immer-sion process were dynamically monitored. Orthogonal test was used to determine the effect of solid-liquid ratio (A), alcohol concentration (B), ultrasonic time (C) as well as immersion time (D) on the antioxidant capacity of the blueberry integrated alcoholic beverage. Results and Conclusion The best combination of factors was the ratio of fruit to liquid 1:1, alcohol concentration 60%(v/v) , ultrasonic time 40 min, impregnation time 30 d, and the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of the alcoholic beverage was determined to 66.30%.

  15. 不同蒸馏次数对蓝莓白兰地香气成分影响%Effects of Different Distillation Times on Aroma Components of Blueberry Brandy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆印; 陈亮; 胡仙妹; 李燕


    Aroma components of blueberry brandy distilled two times from blueberry fermented wine were analyzed by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction(SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that 66 of aroma components were detected in the blueberry brandy, of which 3 kinds of alcohols, 20 kinds of esters, 1 kind of acid, 9 kinds of phenol species, 22 kinds of alkanes and 11 of other kinds. Esters relative content was the highest , of which one time distillation and two distillations were 42.3 % and 29.43 % respectively. Ester compounds were the main aroma components of blueberry brandy. According to sensory evaluation, one time distilled brandy in the sensory score was superior to the two distillation brandy. One time distilled brandy's color was clear, transparent, and bright. It had not suspension and precipitation. It's taste was mellow and of pure fruity , with harmonious blueberry characteristic flavor.%采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术对蓝莓发酵酒进行两次蒸馏得到的蓝莓白兰地香气成分进行分析。结果表明蓝莓白兰地中共检出66种香气成分,其中醇类3种、酯类20种、酸类1种、苯酚类9种、烃类22种、其他类11种,酯类在两次蒸馏白兰地中含量最高,一次蒸馏和二次蒸馏分别为42.3%和29.43%,表明酯类化合物是蓝莓白兰地的主要香气成分。基于感官评价,一次蒸馏白兰地的感官评分要优于二次蒸馏的白兰地,其色泽清澈透明、晶亮,无悬浮物、无沉淀,果香纯正,口味醇厚、爽净,具有和谐的蓝莓特征风味。

  16. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections. (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M


    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines.

  17. Research on Nanosecond Pulse Corona Discharge Attenuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zheng-hao; XU Huai-li; BAI Jing; YU Fu-sheng; HU Feng; LI Jin


    A line-to-plate reactor was set-up in the experimental study on the application of nanosecond pulsed corona discharge plasma technology in environmental pollution control.Investigation on the attenuation and distortion of the amplitude of the pulse wave front and the discharge image as well as the waveform along the corona wire was conducted.The results show that the wave front decreases sharply during the corona discharge along the corona wire.The higher the amplitude of the applied pulse is,the more the amplitude of the wave front decreased.The wave attenuation responds in a lower corona discharge inversely.To get a higher efficiency of the line-to-plate reactor a sharp attenuation of the corona has to be considered in practical design.

  18. Weakly Distributive Modules. Applications to Supplement Submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Engin Büyükaşik; Yilmaz M Demirci


    In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of Ganesan and Vanaja. We prove that -projective duo modules, in particular commutative rings, are weakly distributive. Using this result we obtain that in a commutative ring supplements are unique. This generalizes a result of Camillo and Lima. We also prove that any weakly distributive $\\oplus$-supplemented module is quasi-discrete.

  19. Synthetic androgens as designer supplements. (United States)

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina


    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacological effects and metabolism of unapproved steroids due to the absence of clinical studies. The large number of designer steroid findings in dietary supplements and the detection of new compounds combined with legal loopholes for their distribution in many countries show that stricter regulations and better information policy are needed.

  20. Is there seismic attenuation in the mantle? (United States)

    Ricard, Y.; Durand, S.; Montagner, J.-P.; Chambat, F.


    The small scale heterogeneity of the mantle is mostly due to the mixing of petrological heterogeneities by a smooth but chaotic convection and should consist in a laminated structure (marble cake) with a power spectrum S(k) varying as 1/k, where k is the wavenumber of the anomalies. This distribution of heterogeneities during convective stirring with negligible diffusion, called Batchelor regime is documented by fluid dynamic experiments and corresponds to what can be inferred from geochemistry and seismic tomography. This laminated structure imposes density, seismic velocity and potentially, anisotropic heterogeneities with similar 1/k spectra. A seismic wave of wavenumber k0 crossing such a medium is partly reflected by the heterogeneities and we show that the scattered energy is proportional to k0S(2k0). The reduction of energy for the propagating wave appears therefore equivalent to a quality factor 1/Q∝k0S(2k0). With the specific 1/k spectrum of the mantle, the resulting apparent attenuation should therefore be frequency independent. We show that the total contribution of 6-9% RMS density, velocity and anisotropy would explain the observed S and P attenuation of the mantle. Although these values are large, they are not unreasonable and we discuss how they depend on the range of frequencies over which the attenuation is explained. If such a level of heterogeneity were present, most of the attenuation of the Earth would be due to small scale scattering by laminations, not by intrinsic dissipation. Intrinsic dissipation must certainly exist but might correspond to a larger, yet unobserved Q. This provocative result would explain the very weak frequency dependence of the attenuation, and the fact that bulk attenuation seems negligible, two observations that have been difficult to explain for 50 years.

  1. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B


    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  2. Vitamin D Supplementation in Submariners (United States)


    also known as cholecalciferol . This is a result of the reaction between 7-dehydrocholesterol in the epidermis and ultraviolet radiation in (From Diet) Vitamin D3 ( Cholecalciferol ) UV light Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol) Liver 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (Calcidiol) Kidney 1,25-Dihydroxy...monthly oral vitamin D3 ( cholecalciferol ) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: randomized double

  3. Synthetic Androgens as Designer Supplements


    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina


    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacologic...

  4. Creatine supplementation and swimming performance. (United States)

    Leenders, N M; Lamb, D R; Nelson, T E


    The purpose of this study was to determine if oral creatine (CR) ingestion, compared to a placebo (PL), would enable swimmers to maintain a higher swimming velocity across repeated interval sets over 2 weeks of supplementation. Fourteen female and 18 male university swimmers consumed a PL during a 2-week baseline period. Using a randomized, double-blind design, during the next 2 weeks subjects consumed either CR or PL. Swimming velocity was assessed twice weekly during 6 X 50-m swims and once weekly during 10 X 25-yd swims. There was no effect of CR on the 10 X 25-yd interval sets for men and women and no effect on the 6 X 50-m interval sets for women. In contrast, for men, CR significantly improved mean overall swimming velocity in the 6 X 50-m interval after 2 weeks of supplementation, whereas PL had no effect. Although ineffective in women, CR supplementation apparently enables men to maintain a faster mean overall swimming velocity during repeated swims each lasting about 30 s; however, CR was not effective for men in repeated swims each lasting about 10 - 15 s.

  5. Dietary L-glutamine supplementation improves pregnancy outcome in mice infected with type-2 porcine circovirus. (United States)

    Ren, Wenkai; Luo, Wei; Wu, Miaomiao; Liu, Gang; Yu, Xinglong; Fang, Jun; Li, Teijun; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao


    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes reproductive failure in swine. As glutamine can enhance immune function in animals, this study was conducted with mice to test the hypothesis that dietary glutamine supplementation will improve pregnancy outcome in PCV2-infected dams. Beginning on day 0 of gestation, mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with 1.0% L-glutamine or 1.22% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control). All mice were infected with PCV2 (2000 TCID50) on day 10 of gestation. On day 17 of gestation, six mice from each group were euthanized to obtain maternal tissues and fetuses for hematology and histopathology tests. The remaining mice continued to receive their respective diets supplemented with 1.0% L-glutamine or 1.22% L-alanine through lactation. The PCV2 virus was present in maternal samples (serum and lung) of most mice in the control group but was not detected in the glutamine-supplemented mice. Dietary glutamine supplementation reduced abortion, decreased fetal deaths, and enhanced neonatal survival. The glutamine treatment also reduced concentrations of interleukin-6, while increasing concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein, in the maternal serum of mice. Furthermore, glutamine supplementation attenuated microscopic lesions in maternal tissues (lung, spleen, and liver). Collectively, these results indicate that dietary glutamine supplementation is beneficial for ameliorating reproductive failure in virus-infected mice. The findings support the notion that gestating dams require adequate amounts of dietary glutamine for the optimal survival and growth of embryos, fetuses, and neonates, and have important implications for nutritional support of mammals (including swine and humans) during gestation and lactation.

  6. Prior exercise and antioxidant supplementation: effect on oxidative stress and muscle injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both acute bouts of prior exercise (preconditioning and antioxidant nutrients have been used in an attempt to attenuate muscle injury or oxidative stress in response to resistance exercise. However, most studies have focused on untrained participants rather than on athletes. The purpose of this work was to determine the independent and combined effects of antioxidant supplementation (vitamin C + mixed tocopherols/tocotrienols and prior eccentric exercise in attenuating markers of skeletal muscle injury and oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Methods Thirty-six men were randomly assigned to: no prior exercise + placebo; no prior exercise + antioxidant; prior exercise + placebo; prior exercise + antioxidant. Markers of muscle/cell injury (muscle performance, muscle soreness, C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase activity, as well as oxidative stress (blood protein carbonyls and peroxides, were measured before and through 48 hours of exercise recovery. Results No group by time interactions were noted for any variable (P > 0.05. Time main effects were noted for creatine kinase activity, muscle soreness, maximal isometric force and peak velocity (P Conclusion There appears to be no independent or combined effect of a prior bout of eccentric exercise or antioxidant supplementation as used here on markers of muscle injury in resistance trained men. Moreover, eccentric exercise as used in the present study results in minimal blood oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Hence, antioxidant supplementation for the purpose of minimizing blood oxidative stress in relation to eccentric exercise appears unnecessary in this population.

  7. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  8. Ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography using energy-scaled amplitude ratios (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Shin, Junseob; Huang, Lianjie


    Ultrasound attenuation of breast tumors is related to their types and pathological states, and can be used to detect and characterize breast cancer. Particularly, ultrasound scattering attenuation can infer the margin properties of breast tumors. Ultrasound attenuation tomography quantitatively reconstructs the attenuation properties of the breast. Our synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography system with two parallel transducer arrays records both ultrasound reflection and transmission signals. We develop an ultrasound attenuation tomography method using ultrasound energy-scaled amplitude decays of ultrasound transmission signals and conduct ultrasound attenuation tomography using a known sound-speed model. We apply our ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography method to a breast phantom dataset, and compare the ultrasound attenuation tomography results with conventional beamforming ultrasound images obtained using reflection signals. We show that ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography complements beamforming images in identifying breast lesions.

  9. Application of immobilized yeast in blueberry wine fermentation%酵母的固定化及在蓝莓酒发酵中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄艳秋; 张秀玲


    To study the superiority of immobilized yeast, immobilized yeast was compared with free yeast.Chitosansodium alginate carrier together with SiO2 and Al2O3 and PVA-sodium alginate carrier together with SiQ and Al2O3 was used to test to select the better carrier.In the experiment, detecting the optimal dosage of sodium aiginate, PVA,SiO2 and Al2O3 ,and determining the optimum condition by orthogonaI.The result was that fermentation was the best,fermentation period was 3 days and blueberry wine flavor was the best,when concentration of sodium alginate was 1.5% ,the dosage of PVA was 0.6% ,the dosage of Al2O3 was 0.8% ,the dosage of SiO2 was 1.4%.So the nature of all aspects of blueberry wine fermented by PVA-sodium alginate carrier together with SiO2 and Al2O3 were the best.%为了研究固定化酵母的优越性,将固定化酵母与游离酵母进行比较。用加有SiO2和Al2O3的壳聚糖-海藻酸钠和加有SiO2和Al2O3的PVA-海藻酸钠载体进行实验,确定较优的载体。测定海藻酸钠、PVA、SiO2和Al2O3的最适添加量,通过正交实验,确定最佳工艺条件。结果表明:海藻酸钠浓度为1.5%,PVA添加量为0.6%,Al2O3添加量为0.8%,SiO2添加量为1.4%时,发酵效果最好,发酵周期短,为3d,蓝莓酒风味也最好。因此,用加有SiOz和Al2O3的PVA-海藻酸钠载体发酵得到的蓝莓酒各方面性质最好。

  10. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuki Takeshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 μg/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 μg/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

  11. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna


    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  12. Microwave attenuation with composite of copper microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorriti, A.G.; Marin, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, (UCM-ADIF-CSIC) and Departamento de Fisica de Materiales (UCM). P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Cortina, D. [Micromag S.L., Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Hernando, A., E-mail: antonio.hernando@adif.e [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, (UCM-ADIF-CSIC) and Departamento de Fisica de Materiales (UCM). P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Micromag S.L., Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain)


    It is shown that copper microwires composite media attenuates microwave reflection of metallic surfaces. We show how the distance to the metallic surface, as well as the length and volume fraction of microwires, determine the frequency of maximum absorption and the return loss level. Furthermore, we were able to fit the experimental results with a theoretical model based on Maxwell-Garnett mixing formula.

  13. GPR measurements of attenuation in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, David, E-mail:; Margetan, Frank J., E-mail:; Pavel, Brittney, E-mail: [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, 1915 Scholl Road, Ames, IA 50011-3042 (United States)


    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals from concrete structures are affected by several phenomenon, including: (1) transmission and reflection coefficients at interfaces; (2) the radiation patterns of the antenna(s) being used; and (3) the material properties of concrete and any embedded objects. In this paper we investigate different schemes for determining the electromagnetic (EM) attenuation of concrete from measured signals obtained using commercially-available GPR equipment. We adapt procedures commonly used in ultrasonic inspections where one compares the relative strengths of two or more signals having different travel paths through the material of interest. After correcting for beam spread (i.e., diffraction), interface phenomena, and equipment amplification settings, any remaining signal differences are assumed to be due to attenuation thus allowing the attenuation coefficient (say, in dB of loss per inch of travel) to be estimated. We begin with a brief overview of our approach, and then discuss how diffraction corrections were determined for our two 1.6 GHz GPR antennas. We then present results of attenuation measurements for two types of concrete using both pulse/echo and pitch/catch measurement setups.

  14. Modification by antioxidant supplementation of changes in human lung function associated with air pollutant exposure: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Katherine S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outdoor air pollution, given its demonstrated negative effects on the respiratory system, is a growing public health concern worldwide, particularly in urban cities. Human exposure to pollutants such as ozone, nitrogen oxides, combustion-related particulate matter and oxides of sulfur is responsible for significant cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. Several antioxidants have shown an ability to partially attenuate the negative physiological and functional impacts of air pollutants. This study systematically presents current data on the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation on lung function outcomes associated with air pollutant exposures in intact humans. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Sciences, Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management and TOXNET were systematically searched for all studies published up to April 2009. Search terms relating to the concepts of respiratory tract diseases, respiratory function tests, air pollution, and antioxidants were used. Data was systematically abstracted from original articles that satisfied selection criteria for inclusion. For inclusion, the studies needed to have evaluated human subjects, given supplemental antioxidants, under conditions of known levels of air pollutants with measured lung function before and after antioxidant administration and/or air pollution exposure. Selected studies were summarized and conclusions presented. Results Eight studies investigated the role of antioxidant supplementation on measured lung function outcomes after subject exposure to air pollutants under controlled conditions; 5 of these studies concluded that pollutant-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and diminution in lung function measurements were attenuated by antioxidant supplementation. The remaining five studies took place under ambient (uncontrolled exposures and unanimously concluded that antioxidant

  15. The effect of 6 days of sodium phosphate supplementation on appetite, energy intake, and aerobic capacity in trained men and women. (United States)

    West, Jessica S; Ayton, Tom; Wallman, Karen E; Guelfi, Kym J


    Ingestion of an acute dose of phosphate has been shown to attenuate energy intake in the subsequent meal. This raises the question of whether the practice of phosphate supplementation over a number of days by athletes to enhance performance also influences energy intake. This study investigated the effect of 6 d of phosphate supplementation on appetite and energy intake, as well as aerobic capacity, in trained individuals. Twenty participants completed two 6-d phases of supplementation with either sodium phosphate (50 mg/kg of fat-free mass per day) or a placebo in a double-blinded, counterbalanced design. On Days 1, 2, and 6 of supplementation, a laboratory meal was provided to assess appetite and ad libitum energy intake. All other food and drink consumed during each supplementation phase were recorded in a food diary. After the 6 d of supplementation, peak aerobic capacity (VO(2peak)) was assessed. There was no difference in energy intake at the laboratory meal after an acute dose (i.e., on Day 1; placebo 2,471 ± 919 kJ, phosphate 2,353 ± 987 kJ; p = .385) or prolonged supplementation with sodium phosphate (p = .581) compared with placebo. Likewise, there was no difference in VO(2peak) with phosphate supplementation (placebo 52.6 ± 5.2 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1), phosphate 53.3 ± 6.1 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p = .483). In summary, 6 d of sodium phosphate supplementation does not appear to influence energy intake. Therefore, athletes supplementing with sodium phosphate can do so without hindering their nutritional status. However, given that phosphate supplementation failed to improve aerobic capacity, the ergogenic benefit of this supplement remains questionable.

  16. Betaine Treatment Attenuates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Steatosis and Alterations to the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum K. Kharbanda


    Full Text Available Introduction. Mitochondrial damage and disruption in oxidative phosphorylation contributes to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that the hepatoprotective actions of betaine against alcoholic liver injury occur at the level of the mitochondrial proteome. Methods. Male Wister rats were pair-fed control or ethanol-containing liquid diets supplemented with or without betaine (10 mg/mL for 4-5 wks. Liver was examined for triglyceride accumulation, levels of methionine cycle metabolites, and alterations in mitochondrial proteins. Results. Chronic ethanol ingestion resulted in triglyceride accumulation which was attenuated in the ethanol plus betaine group. Blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE revealed significant decreases in the content of the intact oxidative phosphorylation complexes in mitochondria from ethanol-fed animals. The alcohol-dependent loss in many of the low molecular weight oxidative phosphorylation proteins was prevented by betaine supplementation. This protection by betaine was associated with normalization of SAM : S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH ratios and the attenuation of the ethanol-induced increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide generation in the liver. Discussion/Conclusion. In summary, betaine attenuates alcoholic steatosis and alterations to the oxidative phosphorylation system. Therefore, preservation of mitochondrial function may be another key molecular mechanism responsible for betaine hepatoprotection.

  17. Sizes of mantle heteogeneities and seismic attenuation (United States)

    Ricard, Y. R.; durand, S.; Chambat, F.; Montagner, J.


    The small scale heterogeneity of the mantle, being mostly due to the mixing of petrological heterogeneities by a smooth but chaotic convection should consist in a laminated structure (marble cake) with a power spectrum S(k) varying as 1/k, where k is the wavenumber of the anomalies. This distribution of heterogeneities during convective stirring with negligible diffusion, called Batchelor regime is documented by fluid dynamic experiments and corresponds to what can be inferred from geochemistry and seismic tomography. This laminated structure imposes density, seismic velocity and potentially, anisotropic heterogeneities with similar 1/k spectrums. We show that a seismic wave of wavenumber k_0 crossing such medium is partly reflected by the heterogeneities and the scattered energy has an energy found proportional to k_0 S(2k_0). The reduction of energy for the propagating wave appears therefore equivalent to a quality factor 1/Q proportional to k_0 S(2k_0). With the specific 1/k spectrum of the mantle, the resulting apparent attenuation should therefore be frequency independent. We show that the total contribution of 6-9% RMS density, velocity and anisotropy would explain the observed S and P attenuation of the mantle. Although these values are large there are not unreasonable and we discuss how they are likely overestimated. In this case, most of the attenuation of the Earth would be due to small scale scattering by laminations not by intrinsic dissipation. Intrinsic dissipation must certainly exists but might correspond to a larger, yet unobserved Q. This provocative result would explain the observed very weak frequency dependence of the attenuation, and the fact that bulk attenuation seems negligeable, two observations that have been difficult to explain for 50 years.

  18. Nutritional supplements and ergogenic AIDS. (United States)

    Liddle, David G; Connor, Douglas J


    Performance enhancing drugs, ergogenic aids, and supplements come in many forms. The financial, personal, social, and health-related impact of these substances has wide and varied consequences. This article reviews common substances and practices used by athletes. It discusses the history, use, effects, and adverse effects of androgenic anabolic steroids, peptide hormones, growth factors, masking agents, diuretics, volume expanders, β-blockers, amphetamines, caffeine, other stimulants, and creatine. The evidence base behind the use, safety, and efficacy of these items as well as testing for these substances is discussed.

  19. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy. (United States)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele; Baudino, Claudio


    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact.

  20. Effects of UV-B radiation on anatomical characteristics, phenolic compounds and gene expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway in highbush blueberry leaves. (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Arellano, Alejandro; Latsague, Mirtha; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren


    The effects of increased doses of UV-B radiation on anatomical, biochemical and molecular features of leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes were investigated. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 Wm(-2) of biologically effective UV-B radiation for up to 72 h. Leaf thickness and the adaxial epidermis thickness fell more than 3-fold in both genotypes at the highest UV-B dose. Moreover, in Bluegold an evident disorganization in the different cell layers was observed at the highest UV-B radiation. A significant decrease in chlorophyll a/b after 6 h in Brigitta under the greater UV-B doses was observed. Anthocyanin and total phenolics were increased, especially at 0.19 Wm(-2), when compared to the control in both genotypes.Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in Brigitta, and was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than in Bluegold leaves. Regarding the expression of phenylpropanoid genes, only the transcription factor VcMYBPA1 showed a significant and sustained induction at higher doses of UV-B radiation in both genotypes compared to the controls. Thus, the reduction of leaf thickness concomitant with a lower lipid peroxidation and rapid enhancement of secondary metabolites, accompanied by a stable induction of the VcMYBPA1 transcription factor suggest a better performance against UV-B radiation of the Brigitta genotype.

  1. 蓝莓的组织培养及快速繁殖%Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of the Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜冬; 张利萍


      对蓝莓的组培快繁技术进行了研究.结果表明:茎段在1/3MS + BA1.5 mg/L + NAA0.2 mg/L+ ZT1.5 mg/L 培养基上继代一次即可出苗,繁苗系数8倍以上;生根培养以1/4MS + IBA0.5 mg/L 培养基为最好,生根率达100%,并且每株可达5~10条根;移栽基质以腐苔藓为最好,成活率达80%以上%  Cell culture was made of the blueberry for its rapid propagation .Orthogonal design indicated that 1/3MS + 6-BA 1 .5mg/L + NAA 0 .2mg/L + ZT 1 .5 mg/L was the best culture medium to induce proliferation buds from its tuber .Propagation coefficient was eight times .The best culture medium for multiplication of cluster shoots was 1/4 MS + IBA 0 .5 mg/L .Rooting rate 100% ,every plant root 5-10 ;When micropropagated plantlets with well-developed root systems were transferred to planting bed of moss in a greenhouse ,80% of the plantlets survived .

  2. Attenuation of seismic waves in Central Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abbas Morsy


    Full Text Available Attenuation of seismic waves in central Egypt had never been studied before. The results of the research on the seismic attenuation are based upon the information collected by the seismological network from 1998 to 2011. 855 earthquakes were selected from the Egyptian seismological catalog, with their epicenter distances between 15 and 150 km, their magnitudes ranging from 2 and 4.1 and focal depths reaching up to 30 km. The first systematic study of attenuation derived from the P-, S- and coda wave in the frequency range 1–24 Hz is presented. In the interpretation of the results both single and multiple scattering in a half space are considered. The single scattering model proposed by Sato (1977 was used. Two methods, the coda (Qc and the Multiple Lapse Time Window (MLTW method are used. The aim of this study is to validate these interpretations in the region and to try to identify the effects of attenuation due to intrinsic (Qi and scattering attenuation (Qsc. The mean Qc value calculated was Qc = (39 ± 1f1.0±0.009. The average Qc at 1.5 Hz is (53 ± 6 and Qc = (900 ± 195 at 24 Hz with Qo ranging between 23 and 107, where η ranging between 0.9 and 1.3. The quality factor (Q was estimated from spectra of P- and S-waves by applying a spectral ratio technique. The results show variations in Qp and QS as a function of frequency, according to the power law Q = 56η1.1. The seismic albedo is 0.7 at all stations and it mean that the earthquake activity is due to tectonic origin. The attenuation and frequency dependency for different paths and the correlation of the results with the geotectonic of the region are presented. The Qc values were calculated and correlated with the geology and tectonics of the area. The relatively low Qo and the high frequency dependency agree with the values of a region characterized by a low tectonic activity and vise versa.

  3. A randomised study of the effects of supplemental exercise sessions after a 7-week chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rehabilitation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Rasmussen, Mathilde; Buch, Tove Fedder;


    Background: Several studies have suggested that the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rehabilitation programs tend to attenuate with time. We aimed to investigate the effects of supplemental exercise sessions following an initial 7-week COPD rehabilitation program with regard...... to exercise capacity and disease-specific quality of life (QoL). Methods: We performed a 7-week COPD rehabilitation program in 140 COPD patients. Patients (n = 118) who completed the initial program were randomised for additional six supervised supplemental exercise sessions or three follow-up examinations...... in the intervention group. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the observed changes in QoL or ESWT at any time point. Conclusions: In conclusion, a program of six supplemental exercise sessions following the initial 7-week COPD rehabilitation program did not have any...

  4. Overview of Dietary Supplements in Prostate Cancer. (United States)

    Yacoubian, Aline; Dargham, Rana Abu; Khauli, Raja B; Bachir, Bassel G


    Prostate cancer is a key health concern for men with its etiology still under investigation. Recently, the role of dietary supplements has been noted to have a major inhibitory effect on prostate cancer and numerous studies have been conducted in this regard. This review provides a summary on numerous recent studies conducted in this field. Some of the studies reviewed revealed a protective role for supplements, and others showed no correlation while some even had an adverse effect. The mechanism of how these supplements act on the prostate is still not clear. Further studies are warranted especially for supplements that have been shown to have a potential inhibitory role in prostate cancer.

  5. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity. (United States)

    Navarro, Victor J


    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products.

  6. 叶黄素-蓝莓功能性饮料乳化性能和稳定性研究%Emulsifying properties and stability of xanthophyll-blueberry functional beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文; 王振宇; 程翠林; 贠可力; 田双起


    In order to enhance the function of blueberry drinks, and provide a new way for utilization of lutein and blueberry resource as wel , we made xanthophol s and blueberry fruit into lutein-blueberry beverage. Two kinds of emulsifiers cal ed Span 80 and Tween 80 were chosen. The optimum HLB value was determined by single factor experiment with turbidity method. Under the optimal HLB condition, five kinds of hydrophilic emulsifier, that was, sucrose esters of fatty acids, diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono-and diglycerides, octyl and decyl glycerate, sodium stearoyl lactate, tripolyglycerol monostearates were filtered out to find the best emulsified group. Mixed emulsifier, xanthan gum, guar gum and sodium alginate were used as variables to design the four factors and three levels response surface with Design-expert software, and investigate the relationship between the amount of additives and the stability of xanthophol s-blueberry beverage. As a result, the optimum HLB value was 10.9;42%sucrose esters of fatty acids plused 58% Octyl and decyl glycerate compounds emulsifier had the best emulsifying effect; When adding 0.12% emulsifier, 0.15% xanthan gum, 0.05% guar gum, 0.15% sodium alginate into the xanthophol s-blueberry beverage, and we could get the optimal stability.%为丰富蓝莓饮料的功能性,同时为叶黄素、蓝莓果资源的利用提供新途径,以叶黄素和蓝莓果果汁为主要原料,制成叶黄素-蓝莓果汁饮料。选择Span80和Tween80两种乳化剂,应用浊度法进行单因素试验确定最适HLB值。选择蔗糖脂肪酸单酯、双乙酰酒石酸单甘油酯、辛奎酸甘油酯、硬脂酰乳酸钠、三聚甘油单硬脂酸酯五种亲水型的食品乳化剂在最适HLB下两两复配,筛选出乳化性能最好的复合乳化剂。以乳化剂、黄原胶、瓜尔胶、海藻酸钠为变量,用Design-expert软件设计4因素3水平响应面优化试验探究乳化剂和稳定剂的用量对叶黄素-蓝莓

  7. The effects of lean beef supplementation on the iron status of college athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson J


    Full Text Available Jocelyn Johnson, Danielle Burke, Matthew Vukovich, Kendra KattelmannHealth and Nutritional Sciences Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USAAbstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether weekly supplementation with nine ounces of prepackaged lean beef sticks could maintain the iron status of college endurance athletes. Thirty-four college endurance athletes (20 female, 14 male were stratified by sex, baseline serum ferritin concentration, and use of iron supplements, and randomized into an intervention (n = 18 or control (n = 16 group. The participants in the intervention group supplemented their usual diet with nine ounces of prepackaged lean beef sticks per week and a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement containing 18 mg iron. The participants in the control group consumed their normal diet and the daily multivitamin/mineral supplement only. Body composition, dietary intake, and blood markers of iron status (hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, serum ferritin, and total iron binding capacity were measured at baseline and postintervention. A two-way analysis of variance with group and time as treatment factors was used to determine the main effect of beef supplementation on variables measured. None of the participants in this study was categorized as iron deficient at baseline or postintervention. Heme iron intake was significantly greater (P < 0.003 in the intervention group (3.1 ± 0.3 mg per day than in the control group (1.5 ± 0.3 mg per day as a result of the intervention. The intervention participants had significant improvements in hematocrit concentrations; there were, however, no differences in blood iron parameters of serum iron, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, or total iron binding capacity as a result of the intervention. The results of this study suggest that daily intake of bioavailable iron may attenuate the effects of exercise on the iron status of endurance athletes.Keywords: bioavailable iron

  8. Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men. (United States)

    Barber, James J; McDermott, Ann Y; McGaughey, Karen J; Olmstead, Jennifer D; Hagobian, Todd A


    Creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation independently increase exercise performance, but it remains unclear whether combining these 2 supplements is more beneficial on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of combining creatine monohydrate and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance. Thirteen healthy, trained men (21.1 ± 0.6 years, 23.5 ± 0.5 kg·m(-2), 66.7 ± 5.7 ml·(kg·m)(-1) completed 3 conditions in a double-blinded, crossover fashion: (a) Placebo (Pl; 20 g maltodextrin + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), (b) Creatine (Cr; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), and (c) Creatine plus sodium bicarbonate (Cr + Sb; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate). Each condition consisted of supplementation for 2 days followed by a 3-week washout. Peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and bicarbonate concentrations were assessed during six 10-second repeated Wingate sprint tests on a cycle ergometer with a 60-second rest period between each sprint. Compared with Pl, relative peak power was significantly higher in Cr (4%) and Cr + Sb (7%). Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with that in sprint 1, in both Pl and Cr. However, in Cr + Sb, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in Cr + Sb (10%), compared with in Pl and Cr, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6, although not significantly. Combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased peak and mean power and had the greatest attenuation of decline in relative peak power over the 6 repeated sprints. These data suggest that combining these 2 supplements may be advantageous for athletes participating in high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

  9. Frequency Dependence of Attenuation Constant of Dielectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Zadgaonkar


    Full Text Available Different dielectric materials have been studied for frequency dependence of attenuation constant. The sensitive cathode ray oscillograph method has been used to evaluate to the dielectric constant and loss factor, and from these attenuation constants have been calculated. The temperature remaining constant, a regular increase has been observed in attenuation constant, at higher frequencies of electro-magnetic propagating wave.

  10. On the excess attenuation of sound in the atmosphere (United States)

    Deloach, R.


    The attenuation suffered by an acoustic plane wave propagating from an elevated source to the ground, in excess of absorption losses, was studied. Reported discrepancies between attenuation measurements made in the field and theories which only account for absorption losses are discussed. It was concluded that the scattering of sound by turbulence results in a nonnegligible contribution to the total attenuation.

  11. Attenuation of microwaves by poly-disperse small spheroid particles (United States)

    Zhang, Peichang; Wang, Zhenhui


    Expressions for calculating the attenuation cross sections of poly-disperse, small spheroids, whose rotatory axes are in specific status, have been derived from a universal formula for calculating the attenuation cross section of a particle of arbitrary shape. Attenuation cross sections of liquid, ice, and spongy spheroidal droplets in different size and eccentricity at different wave lengths have been computed and analyzed.

  12. Attenuated partial internal reflection infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenfeng; Ewing, George E


    A new method for the spectroscopic study of absorbing films is proposed. In contrast to the well-established methods that take advantage of the attenuation of total internal reflection (ATR) to obtain spectra, we intentionally arrange the optics to permit partial internal reflection from the sampling prism face. Attenuated partial internal reflection (APR) spectroscopy is introduced through theoretical calculations and experimental demonstrations. The calculated APR spectra in the infrared region were generated from the Fresnel and Airy equations. Experimentally, APR spectra of water films on a NaCl prism were obtained. APR is more sensitive than ATR, and can easily distinguish water films at the monolayer level (310 pm). The determination of film thickness from interference fringes in APR spectra is also illustrated. It is shown that APR can be used for film thickness measurements that can span 6 orders of magnitude. The limitations of APR are also discussed.

  13. Particle size characterization by ultrasonic attenuation spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingxu Su; Minghua Xue; Xiaoshu Cai; Zhitao Shang; Feng Xu


    This paper contributes to extracting information from signals of broadband ultrasonic attenuation spectrum for effective utilization in particle size characterization. The single particle scattering model and the coupled-phase model are formulated simultaneously, the relationship between particle size distribution and ultrasonic spectrum is established, and a convergence criterion for calculation is quantified. Demonsa'ation inversion by the optimum regularization factor method is carded out to yield typical numerical results for discussion. With the experimental set-up developed by the Institute of Particle and Two-Phase Flow Measurement (IPTFM) at the University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, sand sediment particle size is measured by attenuation spectrum and analyzed using the above inversion algorithm and theoretical models. To validate the proposed ultrasonic spectrum particle sizing method, results are compared with those obtained by microscopy.

  14. Attenuated psychosis syndrome: benefits of explicit recognition (United States)

    SCHIFFMAN, Jason; CARPENTER, William T


    Summary Given the unique characteristics of people who meet criteria for attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) and the growing literature on the clinical benefits of providing services to individuals who meet these criteria, the APS diagnosis serves an important, and previously missing, role in psychiatry. The promotion of the APS diagnosis should help reduce the over-diagnosis and over-treatment of individuals with prodromal psychotic conditions and it should also encourage expanded training about attenuated psychosis among clinicians who primarily provide services to youth (a primary group who are diagnosed with APS). Only some of the individuals with APS subsequently develop psychosis, but all have existing clinical needs – regardless of subsequent conversion. The formal recognition of APS in DSM-5 will facilitate the research needed to identify and meet those needs. PMID:25852257

  15. Carcinoma cervix with fat attenuating skull metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anuradha Kapali; Atmakuri Sateesh Kumar; Mukunda Malathi; S D Shamsundar


    Skeletal metastasis in carcinoma cervix occurs in about 0.8-23% of cases. These lesions are usually radiographically lytic. Very few cases of metastases to the skull have been identiifed, about 5 cases to the best of our knowledge. We present a case of adenosquamous cell carcinoma of cervix with fat attenuating skull metastases in a 38-year-old lady that is not reported till date. The lesion was lytic, expansile and with negative attenuation of -15 to -30 Hounsifeld units corresponding to fat.Metastases must be included in the differentials of scalp lesions. A history of recent onset of swelling and associated lytic areas in calvarium on contrast enhanced computed tomography with multiplicity can give a clue to metastatic nature of disease.

  16. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on Sterilization and Quality of Blueberry Juice%高压脉冲电场对蓝莓汁杀菌效果及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晓赟; 王寅; 陈健; 李路宁; 孙爱东


    The study evaluated the sterilizing effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on Escherichia coli in blueberry juice and its impact on physicochemical property of blueberry juice. The results showed that the inactivation effect of Escherichia coli was enhanced when the electric field strength and total treatment time were increased. With PEF treatments at 35 kV/cm and 82 ~s, the reduction of Escherichia coli was 5. 12 logarithms. When the electric field strength was constant and the electric conductivity was increased, the inactivation effect of Escherichia coli declined slightly. PEF had no significant effect on the content of vitamin C, anthocyanin, total phenols, titratable acids, re- ducing sugar, and Brix in blueberry juice and its color.%研究了高压脉冲电场(PEF)对蓝莓汁的杀菌效果及其对蓝莓汁理化性质的影响。结果显示:随电场强度、处理时间的增大,PEF对蓝莓汁中大肠杆菌的杀灭效果增强。当电场强度为35kV/cm,处理时间为82μs时,蓝莓汁中大肠杆菌致死率为5.12个对数。电场强度一定时,电导率增大,PEF对大肠杆菌的钝化效果略微下降。PEF对蓝莓汁Vc、花青素、总酚、可滴定酸、还原糖、可溶性固形物及色泽等理化性质没有影响。

  17. 响应面法优化蓝莓澄清型果汁饮料工艺%Formulation Optimization for Clarified Blueberry Juice Beverage by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛英亮; 马艳秋


    This paper reports the optimization of stabilizer formulation by orthogonal array design and the optimization of clarified blueberry juice beverage formulation by response surface methodology. The best stabilizer formulation was composed of xanthan, sodium alginate and β-cyclodextrin at a mass ratio of 1:1:1. The best clarified blueberry juice beverage formulation consisted of blueberry juice 12%, sugar 2%, citric acid 0.15%, and complex stabilizer 0.05%. The resulting beverage showed a mellow blue color, a palatable balance between sweet and tart, and abundant nutrients and had certain healthcare functions.%采用正交试验和响应面法对蓝莓澄清型饮料配方及加工工艺进行优化,确定蓝莓澄清型饮料稳定剂的最佳配比及蓝莓澄清型饮料的最佳配方。结果表明:以黄原胶、海藻酸钠和β-环状糊精作为蓝莓澄清型果汁饮料的稳定剂,添加比例为1:1:1(m/m)时,稳定效果较好。蓝莓澄清果汁饮料配方(质量分数):12%蓝莓汁、12%白砂糖、0.15%柠檬酸和0.05%复合稳定剂,可以得到具有色泽蓝润、酸甜适口、营养丰富、并具有一定保健功能的蓝莓澄清型果汁饮料。

  18. LCLS XTOD Attenuator System System Concept Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishiyama, K; Roeben, M; Trent, J; Ryutov, D; Shen, S


    The attenuator system for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been configured and analyzed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The system layout, performance analyses and selection of the vacuum components are presented in this System Conceptual Review (SCR) report. Also included are the plans for prototype, procurement, mechanical integration, and the cost estimates.

  19. Narrow terahertz attenuation signatures in Bacillus thuringiensis. (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Brown, Elliott R; Viveros, Leamon; Burris, Kellie P; Stewart, C Neal


    Terahertz absorption signatures from culture-cultivated Bacillus thuringiensis were measured with a THz photomixing spectrometer operating from 400 to 1200 GHz. We observe two distinct signatures centered at ∼955 and 1015 GHz, and attribute them to the optically coupled particle vibrational resonance (surface phonon-polariton) of Bacillus spores. This demonstrates the potential of the THz attenuation signatures as "fingerprints" for label-free biomolecular detection.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Attenuated Junin Virus Variants. (United States)


    No. DAMD17-89-Z-9024 Area de Quimica Biologica y Biologia Molecular Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Universidad Nacional de La Plata Calles 47 y 115, 1900...MONITORING ORGANIZATION Area de Quimica Biologica (If applicable) y Biologia Molecular I 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIPCode) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State...AD-A260 128 AD____ MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ATTENUATED JUNIN VIRUS VARIANTS FINAL REPORT VICTOR ROMANOWSKI PABLO D. GHIRINGHELLI CESAR G