WorldWideScience

Sample records for blueberry enriched diet

  1. Blueberry-enriched diet protects rat heart from ischemic damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismayil Ahmet

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to assess the cardioprotective properties of a blueberry enriched diet (BD. BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a major role in ischemia-related myocardial injury. The attempts to use synthetic antioxidants to block the detrimental effects of ROS have produced mixed or negative results precipitating the interest in natural products. Blueberries are readily available product with the highest antioxidant capacity among fruits and vegetables. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following 3-mo of BD or a regular control diet (CD, the threshold for mitochondrial permeability transition (t(MPT was measured in isolated cardiomyocytes obtained from young male Fischer-344 rats. Compared to CD, BD resulted in a 24% increase (p<0.001 of ROS indexed t(MPT. The remaining animals were subjected to a permanent ligation of the left descending coronary artery. 24 hrs later resulting myocardial infarction (MI in rats on BD was 22% less than in CD rats (p<0.01. Significantly less TUNEL(+ cardiomyocytes (2% vs 9% and 40% less inflammation cells were observed in the myocardial area at risk of BD compared to CD rats (p<0.01. In the subgroup of rats, after coronary ligation the original diet was either continued or switched to the opposite one, and cardiac remodeling and MI expansion were followed by serial echocardiography for 10 weeks. Measurements suggested that continuation of BD or its withdrawal after MI attenuated or accelerated rates of post MI cardiac remodeling and MI expansion. CONCLUSION: A blueberry-enriched diet protected the myocardium from induced ischemic damage and demonstrated the potential to attenuate the development of post MI chronic heart failure.

  2. Survival and cardioprotective benefits of long-term blueberry enriched diet in dilated cardiomyopathy following myocardial infarction in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Despite remarkable progress in treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) over the last two decades, mortality, personal suffering and cost remain staggering. And effective interventions are still a challenge. Previously we reported that a blueberry-enriched diet (BD) attenuated necroapopt...

  3. Survival and cardioprotective benefits of long-term blueberry enriched diet in dilated cardiomyopathy following myocardial infarction in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismayil Ahmet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite remarkable progress in treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF over the last two decades, mortality, personal suffering and cost remain staggering, and effective interventions are still a challenge. Previously we reported that a blueberry-enriched diet (BD attenuated necroapoptosis and inflammation in periinfarct area in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that BD will attenuate the course of CHF, including mortality and cardiac remodeling during the first year after induction of MI in rats. METHOD AND RESULTS: Two weeks after coronary artery ligation, rats were divided into two groups of similar average MI size, measured by echocardiography, and then 12-mo dietary regimens were initiated as follows: ad libitum regular diet (control, CD, n = 27 and isocaloric food with 2% blueberry supplement (BD, n = 27 also available ad libitum. These dietary groups were compared to each other and to sham group (SH. Mortality over the 12 mo was reduced by 22% in BD compared with CD (p<0.01. In the course of developing CHF, BD had no effect on the body weight, heart rate or blood pressure. Bi-monthly Echo revealed significant attenuation of the LV chamber remodeling, LV posterior wall thinning, and MI expansion in BD compared with CD. In fact, BD arrested the MI expansion. CONCLUSION: This is the first experimental evidence that a blueberry-enriched diet has positive effects on the course of CHF and thus warrants consideration for clinical evaluation.

  4. A blueberry-enriched diet attenuates nephropathy in a rat model of hypertension via reduction in oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie M Elks

    Full Text Available To assess renoprotective effects of a blueberry-enriched diet in a rat model of hypertension. Oxidative stress (OS appears to be involved in the development of hypertension and related renal injury. Pharmacological antioxidants can attenuate hypertension and hypertension-induced renal injury; however, attention has shifted recently to the therapeutic potential of natural products as antioxidants. Blueberries (BB have among the highest antioxidant capacities of fruits and vegetables.Male spontaneously hypertensive rats received a BB-enriched diet (2% w/w or an isocaloric control diet for 6 or 12 weeks or 2 days. Compared to controls, rats fed BB-enriched diet for 6 or 12 weeks exhibited lower blood pressure, improved glomerular filtration rate, and decreased renovascular resistance. As measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, significant decreases in total reactive oxygen species (ROS, peroxynitrite, and superoxide production rates were observed in kidney tissues in rats on long-term dietary treatment, consistent with reduced pathology and improved function. Additionally, measures of antioxidant status improved; specifically, renal glutathione and catalase activities increased markedly. Contrasted to these observations indicating reduced OS in the BB group after long-term feeding, similar measurements made in rats fed the same diet for only 2 days yielded evidence of increased OS; specifically, significant increases in total ROS, peroxynitrite, and superoxide production rates in all tissues (kidney, brain, and liver assayed in BB-fed rats. These results were evidence of "hormesis" during brief exposure, which dissipated with time as indicated by enhanced levels of catalase in heart and liver of BB group.Long-term feeding of BB-enriched diet lowered blood pressure, preserved renal hemodynamics, and improved redox status in kidneys of hypertensive rats and concomitantly demonstrated the potential to delay or attenuate development

  5. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered ...

  6. Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mouth or the skin lining the throat. Health providers have used blueberry juice as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Contrast agents make it possible for radiologists to see and interpret the images. Some people ...

  7. Lowbush wild blueberries have the potentail to modify gut microbiota and xenobiotic metabolism in the rat colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenols present in lowbush blueberries cannot be absorbed by the intestinal epithelial tissue in their native form. These compounds are catabolized by the gut microbiota before being utilized. The objective of this research is to study the effect of a diet enriched with lowbush blueberries on th...

  8. Gluten-free diet and the possibility of enriching the diet coeliacs

    OpenAIRE

    Blažková, Klára

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the gluten-free diet and its possible enrichment. It is divided into two parts. The first part includes chapters such as history of gluten-free diet, basics of a gluten free diet, the first step in the introduction of a gluten-free diet, gluten-free food labeling legislation and the use of alcohol on a gluten-free diet. The practical part is focused on enriching the diet celiac patients. I focused on the preparation of bakery products for celiac, I have designed and pra...

  9. Feeding blueberry diets to young rats dose-dependently inhibits bone resorption through suppression of RANKL in stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that weanling rats fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry (BB powder for two weeks beginning on postnatal day 21 (PND21 significantly increased bone formation at PND35. However, the minimal level of dietary BB needed to produce these effects is, as yet, unknown. The current study examined the effects of three different levels of BB diet supplementation (1, 3, and 5% for 35 days beginning on PND25 on bone quality, and osteoclastic bone resorption in female rats. Peripheral quantitative CT scan (pQCT of tibia, demonstrated that bone mineral density (BMD and content (BMC were dose-dependently increased in BB-fed rats compared to controls (P<0.05. Significantly increased bone mass after feeding 5% BB extracts was also observed in a TEN (total enteral nutrition rat model in which daily caloric and food intake was precisely controlled. Expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand a protein essential for osteoclast formation was dose-dependently decreased in the femur of BB animals. In addition, expression of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ which regulates bone marrow adipogenesis was suppressed in BB diet rats compared to non-BB diet controls. Finally, a set of in vitro cell cultures revealed that the inhibitory effect of BB diet rat serum on RANKL expression was more profound in mesenchymal stromal cells compared to its effect on mature osteoblasts, pre-adipocytes and osteocytes. These results suggest that inhibition of bone resorption may contribute to increased bone mass during early development after BB consumption.

  10. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  11. Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Sang Gil; Park, Young-Ki; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X.; Wegner, Casey J.; Yang, Yue; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration. RESULTS No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential.

  12. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  13. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8 of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON; 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB; 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO; or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO. Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites, and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid. Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046, with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035. Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220, again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185. Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001, with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159 or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670. Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric

  14. The effect of diet and host genotype on ceca microbiota of Japanese quail fed a cholesterol enriched diet

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shasha; Bennett, Darin C.; Tun, Hein M.; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cheng, Kimberly M.; Zhang, Hongfu; Leung, Frederick C

    2015-01-01

    Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) and –resistant (RES), have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial ...

  15. Odontella aurita-enriched diet prevents high fat diet-induced liver insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Hamza; Benomar, Yacir; Haimeur, Adil; Messaouri, Hafida; Meskini, Nadia; Taouis, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effect of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (w-3 FA) consumption regarding cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and inflammation has been widely reported. Fish oil is considered as the main source of commercialized w-3 FAs, and other alternative sources have been reported such as linseed or microalgae. However, despite numerous reports, the underlying mechanisms of action of w-3 FAs on insulin resistance are still not clearly established, especially those from microalgae. Here, we report that Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in w-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid, prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver of Wistar rats. Indeed, a high fat diet (HFD) increased plasma insulin levels associated with the impairment of insulin receptor signaling and the up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions. Importantly, Odontella aurita-enriched HFD (HFOA) reduces body weight and plasma insulin levels and maintains normal insulin receptor expression and responsiveness. Furthermore, HFOA decreased TLR4 expression, JNK/p38 phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that diet supplementation with whole Ondontella aurita overcomes HFD-induced insulin resistance through the inhibition of TLR4/JNK/p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways.

  16. Wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus alleviate inflammation and hypertension associated with developing obesity in mice fed with a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto T Mykkänen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-grade metabolic inflammation and hypertension are primary mechanisms involved in obesity-associated adverse health effects. Berries, especially Nordic wild blueberries (hereafter referred to as bilberries, represent an important source of dietary anthocyanins, a group of polyphenols with potential beneficial effects to combat obesity-associated metabolic disturbances. METHODS: The effects of 5% or 10% (w/w of whole bilberries (BB were studied on the development of obesity and its metabolic disturbances in C57BL mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD for three months. Cytokines, inflammatory cells, systolic blood pressure, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, weight gain, body fat, food consumption and energy metabolism were assessed. RESULTS: Bilberries ameliorated type 1 pro-inflammatory responsiveness induced by HFD. This was indicated by the altered cytokine profile and the reduced prevalence of interferon gamma -producing T-cells, in particular T helper type 1 cells. Bilberries also prevented the progression of obesity associated long term increase in systolic blood pressure in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Bilberries reduce the development of systemic inflammation and prevent the progression of chronic hypertension, thus supporting their potential role in alleviating the adverse health effects associated with developing obesity.

  17. Enriching the diet of dairy cows natural zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Dejatkina; Ekaterina Goryacheva; Vladimir Kozlov; Mihail Dejatkin

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of economic rations of dairy cows reveals a lack of these minerals, it found that the data on the nutritional diets meet the necessary requirements. Introduction to the diet of natural zeolite cows completely fills the mineral deficiency and enhances milk production.

  18. Enriching the diet of dairy cows natural zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Dejatkina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of economic rations of dairy cows reveals a lack of these minerals, it found that the data on the nutritional diets meet the necessary requirements. Introduction to the diet of natural zeolite cows completely fills the mineral deficiency and enhances milk production.

  19. Formulación de un helado dietético sabor arándano con características prebióticas Formulation of a diet blueberry ice-cream with prebiotic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Barrionuevo

    2011-03-01

    características nutricionales y sensoriales.Introduction:The inulin is a prebiotic which has nutritional and technological properties, and it can be added to products like ice-creams. The aim of this work was to formulate a diet blueberry ice-cream (low in calories, carbohydrates and lipids with prebiotic characteristics, to evaluate it sensorially and analyze its physico-chemical composition. Materials and Methods:The ingredients used were inulin powder, skimmed milk powder; additives; dehydrated egg white and scalded and processed blueberries. The fruits were scalded in 20, 40 and 60 %, in order to define the percentage to be utilized, using the preference test (Newel and Mac Farlane. The ice- cream was mixed, pasteurized (63ºC; 30 minutes, cooled (4°C; 4,5 minutes, matured (4ºC; 2 hours beaten and frozen in an icy machine (-6ºC; 50 minutes. Then it was packed and stored (-16ºC; 12hours. The chosen ice-cream was evaluated sensorially through acceptability. Chemical analysis of humidity, proteins, carbohydrates, total dietary fiber, ashes, calcium, sodium, phosphorus and physic: overrun were carried out. The label was designed in accordance with the CAA (Argentine Food Code. Results:Acceptability was expressed in percentage and determinations in terms of average standard deviation. The favorite fruit concentration was 40%. Acceptability 86%. Attractive and purple color. Sweet- acid taste and aroma, blueberry like. Creamy texture, without ice crystals. Firm consistency, slow melting and spongy body. Humidity 68,13; protein 8,4; carbohydrates 10,51; total dietary fiber 12,51; insoluble 5,82; soluble 6,69; ashes 0,45 g %; calcium 148,56; sodium 133,96 and phosphorus 167,50 mg %; overrun 71% respectively. It was labelled "low- calorie diet food"; "0 % fat"; "without sugar additives" and "high amount of alimentary fiber". Conclusion:The Diet Blueberry Ice-Cream (low in calories, carbohydrates and lipids with inulin has been feasible, presenting good sensorial and

  20. Effects of Tail fat enriched diet on male Wistar rat reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Ezi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Male infertility is increasing worldwide. There is now emerging evidence that nutritional status is regarded as a critical determinant of normal reproductive function. Hence, today, the role of dietary nutrition has attracted the attention of researchers. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of tail fat (TF enriched diet on male rat reproductive function. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three equal groups and were fed with either standard diet (control or standard diet enriched with 10 % of TF oil or standard diet enriched with 20% TF for 5 consecutive months. Finally, the rats were euthanized, the weights of their bodies, and their testes were measured. Then, the testes were dissected and the sections were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for quantitative histopathological examination. Besides, blood samples were collected for testosterone (T assessment. Results: Compared to the control group, the rats fed with a diet enriched with 20% TF had significantly (P≤0.05 more body weight, while, their testes weight significantly (P≤0.0001 decreased. Also, histological changes showed that TF, in a dose dependence manner, significantly decreased germinal layer, seminiferous area, and spermatogonia number in the rats’ testes. There was no significant difference in T concentration between the groups. Conclusion: It was clearly found that excessive and long term intake of TF can be causative of hypogonadism and increase infertility in male rats.

  1. Gradual enrichment of N-15 with humification of diets in a below-ground food web : relationship between N-15 and diet age determined using C-14

    OpenAIRE

    Hyodo, F.; I. Tayasu; Konate, S.; Tondoh, J.E.; Lavelle, Patrick; WADA, E.

    2008-01-01

    1. Stable nitrogen (N) isotope has been widely used to disentangle food webs and to infer trophic positions of organisms based on an assumption that the stepwise enrichment occurs along trophic levels. The enrichment of N-15 in soil organisms with diet humification has also been reported, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully examined. 2. To examine the effect of diet humification on N-15, we estimated the stable N isotope ratios and diet ages of earthworms and termites. These organ...

  2. Salivary amylase induction by tannin-enriched diets as a possible countermeasure against tannins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa, G; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, F;

    2008-01-01

    proteins, some of them showing more than one isoform. Tannin-enriched diets were observed to change the salivary protein profile. One isoform of alpha-amylase was overexpressed with both types of tannins. Aldehyde reductase was only identified in saliva of the quebracho group. Additionally, a hypertrophy...

  3. Environmental enrichment and cafeteria diet attenuate the response to chronic variable stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeni, N; Bassil, M; Fromentin, G; Chaumontet, C; Darcel, N; Tome, D; Daher, C F

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to an enriched environment (EE) or the intake of a highly palatable diet may reduce the response to chronic stress in rodents. To further explore the relationships between EE, dietary intake and stress, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of two diets for 5 weeks: high carbohydrate (HC) or "cafeteria" (CAF) (Standard HC plus a choice of highly palatable cafeteria foods: chocolate, biscuits, and peanut butter). In addition, they were either housed in empty cages or cages with EE. After the first two weeks, half of the animals from each group were stressed daily using a chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm, while the other half were kept undisturbed. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the 5-week period. The effects of stress, enrichment and dietary intake on animal adiposity, serum lipids, and stress hormones were analyzed. Results showed an increase in intra-abdominal fat associated with the CAF diet and an increase in body weight gain associated with both the CAF diet and EE. Furthermore, the increase in ACTH associated with CVS was attenuated in the presence of EE and the CAF diet independently while the stress-induced increase in corticosterone was reduced by the combination of EE and CAF feeding. The present study provides evidence that the availability of a positive environment combined to a highly palatable diet increases resilience to the effects of CVS in rats. These results highlight the important place of palatable food and supportive environments in reducing central stress responses.

  4. Environmental Enrichment Mitigates Detrimental Cognitive Effects of Ketogenic Diet in Weanling Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scichilone, John M; Yarraguntla, Kalyan; Charalambides, Ana; Harney, Jacob P; Butler, David

    2016-09-01

    For decades, the ketogenic diet has been an effective treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. Childhood epilepsy is pharmacoresistant in 25-40 % of patients taking the current prescribed medications. Chronic seizure activity has been linked to deficits in cognitive function and behavioral problems which negatively affect the learning abilities of the child. Recent studies suggest the ketogenic diet (KD), a high fat with low carbohydrate and protein diet, has adverse effects on cognition in weanling rats. The diet reduces circulating glucose levels to where energy metabolism is converted from glycolysis to burning fat and generating ketone bodies which has been suggested as a highly efficient source of energy for the brain. In contrast, when weanling rats are placed in an enriched environment, they exhibit increased spatial learning, memory, and neurogenesis. Thus, this study was done to determine if weanling rats being administered a KD in an environmental enrichment (EE) would still exhibit the negative cognitive effects of the diet previously observed. The present study suggests that an altered environment is capable of reducing the cognitive deficits in weanling rats administered a KD. Learning was improved with an EE. The effect of diet and environment on anxiety and depression suggests a significant reduction in anxiety with enrichment rearing. Interestingly, circulating energy substrate levels were increased in the EE groups along with brain-derived neurotrophic factor despite the least changes in weight gain. In light of numerous studies using KDs that seemingly have adverse effects on cognition, KD-induced reductions in excitotoxic events would not necessarily eliminate that negative aspect of seizures. PMID:27112438

  5. Digestive and productive utilization of semi- simplifield hay diets enriched with vinasse for growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Campos Gondim Martins Coelho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two qualities of Tifton 85 hay enriched or not with vinasse in semi-simplified diets on the apparent nutrient digestibility, composition and nutritional contribution of cecotropes, productive performance, and carcass, edible viscera and gastrointestinal tract yields of growing New Zealand White rabbits. Fresh vinasse at a proportion of 2:1 was added to the diets containing high-quality (HQV and low-quality Tifton 85 hay (LQV. The control diets containing high-quality (HQ and low-quality Tifton 85 (LQ were not enriched with vinasse. In the digestibility assay, the semi-simplified diets were not influenced (P>0.05 by the quality of hay or by the addition of vinasse, except for the digestibility coefficients of mineral matter, which were 52.31%, 51.13%, 54.45% and 46.73% for treatments HQ, HQV, LQ and LQV, respectively. In the cecotrophy assay, production, chemical composition or nutritional contribution was not altered (P>0.05 in any of the treatments. In the performance assay, no significant difference (P>0.05 was observed in productive parameters or carcass traits, except for kidney weight (P<0.05. It is therefore possible to include vinasse in hay diets without compromising the performance, nutritional contribution of cecotropes or digestibility of growing New Zealand White rabbits.

  6. The effect of diet and host genotype on ceca microbiota of Japanese quail fed a cholesterol enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shasha; Bennett, Darin C; Tun, Hein M; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cheng, Kimberly M; Zhang, Hongfu; Leung, Frederick C

    2015-01-01

    Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) and -resistant (RES), have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial study with both strains and two diets (control, cholesterol) was carried out. Cecal content was collected from 12 week old quail that have been on their respective diets for 6 weeks. DNA was extracted from the samples and the variable region 3-5 of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified. The amplicon libraries were subjected to pyrosequencing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of β-diversity showed four distinct microbiota communities that can be assigned to the 4 treatment groups (RES/control, RES/cholesterol, SUS/control, SUS/cholesterol). At the Phylum level, the 4 treatment groups has distinct Firmicutes community characteristics but no significant difference in Bacteroidetes. Eubacterium dolichum was rare in RES/control but became overabundant in RES/cholesterol. An unclassified species of Lactobacillaceae was found in abundance in SUS/control but the same species was rare in RES/cholesterol. On the other hand, two Lactobacillus species were only found in RES/control and an unclassified Lachnospiraceae species was abundant in RES/cholesterol but rare in SUS/control. The abundance of four species of Lachnospiraceae, three species of Ruminococcaceae and one species of Coprobacillaceae was positively correlated with plasma Total Cholesterol, plasma LDL, and LDL/HDL ratio. Our study of cecal microbiota in these quail has demonstrated that selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet induced atherosclerosis has also affected the quail's cecal environment to host

  7. The effect of diet and host genotype on ceca microbiota of Japanese quail fed a cholesterol enriched diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha eLiu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS and –resistant (RES, have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial study with both strains and two diets (control, cholesterol was carried out. Cecal content was collected from 12 week old quail that have been on their respective diets for 6 weeks. DNA was extracted from the samples and the variable region 3 to 5 of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified. The amplicon libraries were subjected to pyrosequencing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA of β-diversity showed four distinct microbiota communities that can be assigned to the 4 treatment groups (RES/control, RES/cholesterol, SUS/control, SUS/cholesterol. At the Phylum level, the 4 treatment groups has distinct Firmicutes community characteristics but no significant difference in Bacteroidetes. Eubacterium dolichum was rare in RES/control but became overabundant in RES/cholesterol. An unclassified species of Lactobacillaceae was found in abundance in SUS/control but the same species was rare in RES/cholesterol. On the other hand, two Lactobacillus species were only found in RES/control and an unclassified Lachnospiraceae species was abundant in RES/cholesterol but rare in SUS/control. The abundance of 4 species of Lachnospiraceae, 3 species of Ruminococcaceae and one species of Coprobacillaceae was positively correlated with plasma Total Cholesterol, plasma LDL, and LDL/HDL ratio. Our study of cecal microbiota in these quail has demonstrated that selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet induced atherosclerosis has also affected the quail’s cecal environment

  8. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic? Diets enriched with olive, rapeseed, or sunflower oil affect postprandial factor VII differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil for periods of 3 wk. On the final day of each period, participants consumed standardized high-fat meals (42% of energy as fat). Fasting and nonfasting blood samples were collected after each period. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SEM) nonfasting peak concentrations of activated...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  9. Effect of Shilajit enriched diet on immunity, antioxidants, and disease resistance in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthafa, Mohamed Saiyad; Jawahar Ali, Abdul Rahman; Hyder Ali, Abdul Rahuman; Mohamed, Mohamed Jamal; War, Mehrajuddin; Naveed, Mohamed Saquib; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Rani, Kuppusamy Umaa; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2016-10-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with Shilajit, a multi-component natural mineral substance on the antioxidant activity, immune response, and disease resistance in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila is reported. The total hemocyte count (THC) and phagocytic activity significantly increased with 2 g kg(-1) supplemented diet on first week and with other enriched diets on weeks 2 and 4. The respiratory burst (RB) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were significantly increased with 2 g kg(-1) supplemented diet on weeks 1 and 2 whereas 2 and 4 g kg(-1) diets on week 4. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity increased significantly with 2 g kg(-1) diet only on second week and with other enriched diets only on fourth week. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased significantly with any enriched diet during the experimental period except with 6 g kg(-1) diets on first week. However, the glutathione reductase (GR) activity was enhanced significantly only with 2 g kg(-1) enriched diets on weeks 2 and 4. The cumulative mortality of the prawn fed with 2 and 4 g kg(-1) enriched diets was 10% and 15% whereas with 6 g kg(-1) diet the mortality was 20%. The results suggest that diet enriched with Shilajit at 2 g kg(-1) or 4 g kg(-1) positively enhances the antioxidant activity, immunity, and disease resistance in M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila.

  10. Effects of Tail fat enriched diet on male Wistar rat reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Ezi; Mehran Hosseini; Mahsa Hassanzadeh-Taheri; Farnaz Jahani; Mohammad Afshar; Mohammadmehdi Hassanzadeh-Taheri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Male infertility is increasing worldwide. There is now emerging evidence that nutritional status is regarded as a critical determinant of normal reproductive function. Hence, today, the role of dietary nutrition has attracted the attention of researchers. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of tail fat (TF) enriched diet on male rat reproductive function. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 adult male Wistar rats were random...

  11. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  12. Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, M; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Panea, B; Pérez-Juan, M; Realini, C E; Campo, M M

    2016-04-01

    Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss (P⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat (P⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses (P⩽0.01) and shear force (P⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour (P⩽0.05), but increased beef (P⩽0.01) and liver (P⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid (P⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA. PMID:26592312

  13. Do fiber-enriched diabetic diets have glucose-lowering effects in pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, E A; Hagay, Z; Caseria, D; Gay, L J; DeGennaro, N

    1993-07-01

    A fiber-enriched diabetic diet that contained a modest increase in dietary fiber and a commercially available fiber supplement was studied in pregnant diabetic women for its potential glucose-lowering effects. Noninsulin-requiring gestational diabetic patients were placed on a fiber-enriched diet of increasing fiber content starting with 40 gm and eventually achieving a maximum tolerable dose of 80 gm of fiber per day. Initial pilot study demonstrated that patients could not tolerate more than 40 gm of fiber-rich food. Therefore additional fiber was administered via commercially available high-fiber drink. Satisfactory patient acceptance and compliance were achieved using this method. The response curve was flat with no lowering of blood glucose with increasing dietary fiber content. Furthermore, when the group receiving the moderate-fiber dose (40 to 60 gm), the high-fiber dose (70 to 80 gm), and a third group on an American Diabetes Association recommended diet (20 gm or less of fiber) were compared, no significant difference was observed in the mean blood glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This pilot study demonstrates that high-fiber diets, although better tolerated by patients when administered in divided amounts, are not associated with a concomitant lowering of blood glucose levels in pregnant diabetic patients. PMID:8397560

  14. Camellia Oil-Enriched Diet Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumrungpert, Akkarach; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W

    2016-09-01

    Camellia oil is commonly used as an adjuvant in medicine. It is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to examine effects of camellia oil consumption on oxidative stress, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation, and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The study design was a randomized, single-blind controlled trial. Women with hypercholesterolemia (n = 50) were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (n = 25) was provided camellia oil-enriched diets and the control group (n = 25) was provided diets cooked with soybean oil three meals (45 mL oil) a day for 8 weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed before and the after intervention. Camellia oil consumption significantly decreased malondialdehyde (11.2%; P oil group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in oxidized LDL-C (8.7%; P oil consumption significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (12.3%; P oil-enriched diet could decrease oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic women. Therefore, camellia oil consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  15. [Hematological indices of rats having complete and vitamin-deficient diets enriched with dietary fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafina, O K; Trushina, É N; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A

    2013-01-01

    The hematological indices in 48 rats Wistar male with initial body weight 58.1+/- 0.5g has been studied. The rats were divided into 6 group and fed the complete semi-synthetic diet, containing 100% or 20% of vitamin mixture (Vit) with or without addition of dietary fiber (DF) in the form of wheat bran (5% of diet mass) during 4 weeks. The animals of the 1 group received 100% of vitamin mixture (100% Vit); of the 2 group--100% Vit+DF; 3 group--20% of vitamin mixture (20% Vit); 4 group--20% of vitamin mixture and DF (20% Vit+DF). The next 5 days rats from vitamin-deficient groups were fed with diets supplemented with 80% of Vit: (5 group--20% Vit+ 80% Vit; 6 group--20% Vit+DF+80% Vit). The animals fed vitamin-deficient diet lag significantly in growth from animals fed a complete diet. The growth curve of rats fed a diet with DF took an intermediate position. The studies were carried out at the Hematology analyzer "Coulter AC TTM 5 diff OV" (Beckman Coulter, USA) under the program, developed for the study of rat blood. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (MCHC) were significantly decreased in rats with combined vitamin deficiency (20% Vit) in the diet compared with those of control group rats, while the compensatory increase in the number of red blood cells (RBC) and leukocytopenia took place. The enrichment of vitamin-deficient diet with DF (20% Vit+DF) prevented MCV and RBC changes, but MCHC left reduced in comparison with the indicator of the rats in control group. Indicators characterizing the state of platelets had no statistically significant differences between the groups. Compensation of vitamin deficiency in the diet of rats from group 5 (20% Vit+80% Vit) led only to the normalization of MCV. After vitamin restore in the diet of group 6 (20% Vit+DF+80% Vit) all investigated parameters were indistinguishable from the parameters of the control group. This indicates a positive effect of wheat bran DF consumption on the studied

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of the effects of a fish oil enriched diet on murine brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Hammamieh

    Full Text Available The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD and standard lab diet (SD were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼ 40% encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation-the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the

  17. Clinical Signs of Hairballs in Cats Fed a Diet Enriched with Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Beynen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The intake of cellulose may delay gastric emptying and raise the intestinal transit rate. These effects could antagonize hairball formation. Thus, it was hypothesized that a diet enriched with a cellulose preparation (Arbocel BWW40®, forming a completely insoluble fiber network, would diminish the severity of clinical symptoms of hairballs in cats. Approach: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel design, 24 privately owned cats were used and the clinical signs were evaluated by the owners. For a period of four weeks, the cats (n = 12 per treatment group consumed a complete dry food without or with 4% (w/w cellulose. During the test period, the control or test diet was the only source of nutrition. The trial questionnaire was in the form of a booklet in which each day the occurrence of hairball symptoms (vomiting, retching and coughing were recorded by the owners. Results: When compared with the control diet, the feeding of the diet with added cellulose lowered the total incidence of vomiting, retching and coughing by 79, 91 and 70%, respectively. The cellulose-induced decrease in vomiting was statistically significant. It is suggested that cellulose ingestion had caused delayed gastric emptying, leading to binding of single strands of hair to food particles so that more hair is transferred into the duodenum. The cellulose-mediated increase in transit rate of digesta may subsequently promote the excretion of hairs with the feces. Conclusion: This study shows that a diet fortified with cellulose reduced the severity of clinical signs in cats with existing hairballs, but the diet may also be effective in the prevention of hairball development.

  18. Camellia Oil-Enriched Diet Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumrungpert, Akkarach; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W

    2016-09-01

    Camellia oil is commonly used as an adjuvant in medicine. It is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to examine effects of camellia oil consumption on oxidative stress, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation, and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The study design was a randomized, single-blind controlled trial. Women with hypercholesterolemia (n = 50) were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (n = 25) was provided camellia oil-enriched diets and the control group (n = 25) was provided diets cooked with soybean oil three meals (45 mL oil) a day for 8 weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed before and the after intervention. Camellia oil consumption significantly decreased malondialdehyde (11.2%; P stress and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic women. Therefore, camellia oil consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:27627703

  19. Comparative effects of Citrullus colocynthis, sunflower and olive oil-enriched diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbagh, N; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, C; Ouali, F; Berthault, M-F; Rouch, C; Sari, D Chabane; Magnan, C

    2009-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth) seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. The present study evaluated the differential effects of diets enriched with C. colocynthis, sunflower or olive oils on the pancreatic beta-cell mass in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ injection induced rapid hyperglycaemia in all animals. However, 2 months later, hyperglycaemia was significantly less pronounced in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet compared with other rat groups (7.9mM versus 12mM and 16mM with colocynth versus olive and sunflower oils, respectively). Assessment of insulin sensitivity using the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method also indicated less insulin resistance in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet versus the other rats. Finally, 2 months after STZ injection, the pancreatic beta-cell mass was similar in both the STZ-treated rats fed the colocynth oil-enriched diet and their controls fed the same diet. In contrast, the pancreatic beta-cell mass remained lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats fed with olive oil- and sunflower oil-enriched diets compared with the C. colocynthis group. We conclude that C. colocynthis oil supplementation may have a beneficial effect by partly preserving or restoring pancreatic beta-cell mass in the STZ-induced diabetes rat model.

  20. Lower pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows fed a diet enriched in alpha-linolenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, D J; Kastelic, J P; Corbett, R; Pitney, P A; Petit, H V; Small, J A; Zalkovic, P

    2006-08-01

    The objectives were to determine if a diet enriched in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) would influence ovarian function, early embryo survival, conception rates, and pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows. Beginning 28 d before breeding, Holstein cows (55 +/- 22 d postpartum; mean +/- SD) were assigned to diets supplemented with either rolled flaxseed (FLAX; 56.7% ALA, n = 62) or rolled sunflower seed (SUNF; 0.1% ALA, n = 59) to provide approximately 750 g of oil/d. Diets continued for 32 d after timed artificial insemination (TAI, d 0) following a Presynch/Ovsynch protocol. Barley silage- and barley grain-based TMR were formulated to meet or exceed National Research Council requirements. Metabolizable protein and net energy for lactation concentrations were similar in the 2 diets. Based upon a mean dry matter intake of 22 kg/d, cows fed FLAX or SUNF consumed > 410 g or FLAX increased the ALA content of milk by 187%. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed in 8 cows per diet; the mean diameter of ovulatory follicles was larger in cows fed FLAX compared with SUNF (16.9 +/- 0.9 vs. 14.1 +/- 0.9 mm), but follicle number, corpus luteum size, and plasma progesterone concentrations remained unaffected. Presumptive conception (progesterone 1 ng/mL on d 21) rates to first TAI were greater in FLAX than in SUNF (72.6 vs. 47.5%). Pregnancy losses were lower in cows fed FLAX (9.8%) compared with those fed SUNF (27.3%). Including flaxseed in the ration of dairy cows increased the size of the ovulatory follicle and reduced pregnancy losses. PMID:16840624

  1. Effects of tegaserod on bile composition and hepatic secretion in Richardson ground squirrels on an enriched cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfannkuche Hans-Juergen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tegaserod is effective in treating IBS patients with constipation, and does not alter gallbladder motility in healthy individuals or in patients with IBS. However, it is not known if tegaserod affects the biliary tract in gallstone disease, so to this end the effects of tegaserod on bile composition and hepatic secretion of Richardson ground squirrels maintained on an enriched cholesterol diet were examined. Results Animals were fed either a control (0.03% or enriched (1% cholesterol diet for 28 days, and treated s.c. with tegaserod (0.1 mg/kg BID or vehicle. Bile flow, bile acid, phospholipids and cholesterol secretion were measured with standard methods. Tegaserod treatment or enriched cholesterol diet, alone or combination, did not alter body or liver weights. The enriched cholesterol diet increased cholesterol saturation index (CSI, cholesterol concentrations in gallbladder and hepatic duct bile by ~50% and decreased bile acids in gallbladder bile by 17%. Tegaserod treatment reversed these cholesterol-induced changes. None of the treatments, drug or diet, altered fasting gallbladder volume, bile flow and bile salts or phospholipid secretion in normal diet and cholesterol-fed animals. However, tegaserod treatment prevented the decreases in bile acid pool size and cycling frequency caused by the enriched cholesterol diet, consequent to re-establishing normal bile acid to concentrations in the gall bladder. Tegaserod had no effect on these parameters with normal diet animals. Conclusion Tegaserod treatment results in increased enterohepatic cycling and lowers cholesterol saturation in the bile of cholesterol-fed animals. These effects would decrease conditions favorable to cholesterol gallstone formation.

  2. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched High Fat Diet Delays Skeletal Muscle Degradation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Nikul K; Ross, Alastair B; Scheers, Nathalie; Savolainen, Otto I; Nookaew, Intawat; Gabrielsson, Britt G; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions such as ageing, obesity and related metabolic disorders are associated with deterioration of skeletal muscle (SkM). Human studies have shown that marine fatty acids influence SkM function, though the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. As a model of diet-induced obesity, we fed C57BL/6J mice either a high fat diet (HFD) with purified marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (HFD-ED), a HFD with corn oil, or normal mouse chow for 8 weeks; and used transcriptomics to identify the molecular effects of EPA and DHA on SkM. Consumption of ED-enriched HFD modulated SkM metabolism through increased gene expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation and slow-fiber type genes compared with HFD-corn oil fed mice. Furthermore, HFD-ED intake increased nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Nfatc4) protein, which controls fiber-type composition. This data suggests a role for EPA and DHA in mitigating some of the molecular responses due to a HFD in SkM. Overall, the results suggest that increased consumption of the marine fatty acids EPA and DHA may aid in the prevention of molecular processes that lead to muscle deterioration commonly associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation. PMID:27598198

  3. A Walnut-Enriched Diet Reduces the Growth of LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Xenografts in Nude Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Russel J.; Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C.; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Fuentes-Broto, Lorena; Hardman, W. Elaine; Rosales-Corral, Sergio A; Qi, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether a standard mouse diet (AIN-76A) supplemented with walnuts reduced the establishment and growth of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in nude (nu/nu) mice. The walnut-enriched diet reduced the number of tumors and the growth of the LNCaP xenografts; 3 of 16 (18.7%) of the walnut-fed mice developed tumors; conversely, 14 of 32 mice (44.0%) of the control diet-fed animals developed tumors. Similarly, the xenografts in the walnut-fed animals grew more slowly than those ...

  4. Walnut-enriched diet increases the association of LDL from hypercholesterolemic men with human HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, S; Merlos, M; Zambón, D; Rodríguez, C; Sabaté, J; Ros, E; Laguna, J C

    2001-12-01

    In a randomized, cross-over feeding trial involving 10 men with polygenic hypercholesterolemia, a control, Mediterranean-type cholesterol-lowering diet, and a diet of similar composition in which walnuts replaced approximately 35% of energy from unsaturated fat, were given for 6 weeks each. Compared with the control diet, the walnut diet reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol by 4.2% (P = 0.176), and 6.0% (P = 0.087), respectively. No changes were observed in HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein A-I levels or in the relative proportion of protein, triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters in LDL particles. The apolipoprotein B level declined in parallel with LDL cholesterol (6.0% reduction). Whole LDL, particularly the triglyceride fraction, was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids from walnuts (linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids). In comparison with LDL obtained during the control diet, LDL obtained during the walnut diet showed a 50% increase in association rates to the LDL receptor in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. LDL uptake by HepG2 cells was correlated with alpha-linolenic acid content of the triglyceride plus cholesteryl ester fractions of LDL particles (r(2) = 0.42, P < 0.05). Changes in the quantity and quality of LDL lipid fatty acids after a walnut-enriched diet facilitate receptor-mediated LDL clearance and may contribute to the cholesterol-lowering effect of walnut consumption.

  5. Biologically active substances-enriched diet regulates gonadotrope cell activation pathway in liver of adult and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszkiel, Hanna; Wilczak, Jacek; Jank, Michał

    2014-09-01

    According to the Hippocrates' theorem "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food", dietary interventions may induce changes in the metabolic and inflammatory state by modulating the expression of important genes involved in the chronic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of long-term (14 months) use of biologically active substances-enriched diet (BASE-diet) on transcriptomic profile of rats' liver. The experiment was conducted on 36 Sprague-Dawley rats divided into two experimental groups (fed with control or BASE-diet, both n = 18). Control diet was a semi-synthetic diet formulated according to the nutritional requirements for laboratory animals. The BASE-diet was enriched with a mixture of polyphenolic compounds, β-carotene, probiotics, and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In total, n = 3,017 differentially expressed (DE) genes were identified, including n = 218 DE genes between control and BASE groups after 3 months of feeding and n = 1,262 after 14 months. BASE-diet influenced the expression of genes involved particularly in the gonadotrope cell activation pathway and guanylate cyclase pathway, as well as in mast cell activation, gap junction regulation, melanogenesis and apoptosis. Especially genes involved in regulation of GnRH were strongly affected by BASE-diet. This effect was stronger with the age of animals and the length of diet use. It may suggest a link between the diet, reproductive system function and aging. PMID:25156242

  6. [Correction of the combined vitamin deficiency in growing rats fed fiber enriched diets with different doses of vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A; Aksenov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 5% dietary wheat bran (WB) on the correction of combined vitamin deficiency by two doses of vitamins (physiological and enhanced) has been analyzed using a rat model (8 groups, n = 8/group). Vitamin deficiency in male weanling Wistar rats (58.1 ± 0.5 g) was induced by 5-fold reduction of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and complete vitamin E, B1 and B2 exclusion from the mixture for 30 days, then deficit was corrected within 5 days. Rats from control group were fed a complete semisynthetic diet containing microcrystalline cellulose 2%. Vitamin deficient diet for 35 days resulted in reduced (p enrichment with WB had no effect on vitamin B1 and B2 liver content, regardless of the amount of vitamins in the diet. Adding fiber to the diet of animals adequately provided with vitamins resulted in significantly 1,3-fold increase of 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration and a slight but significant decrease of α-tocopherol liver level by 16% as compared to rats not receiving WB. The enrichment of rat diet with dietary fibers worsened restoration of the reduced vitamin E status not only by filling vitamin content in the diet to an adequate level, but also by using 2-fold enhanced dose of vitamin. Within 5 days deficiency of vitamins A, B1, B2 was not eliminated with increasing vitamin diet content to an adequate level. Higher doses of vitamins are needed for the complete correction of vitamin status. The addition of vitamins to an adequate level was sufficient to normalize the elevated liver levels of MDA in rats with combined vitamin deficiency that may be associated with vitamin E status improvement. The diet enrichment with fiber did not affect on the intensity of lipid peroxidation in rat liver regardless of their provision with vitamins. PMID:25549472

  7. Blueberry polyphenols increase lifespan and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Ingram, Donald K; Joseph, James A; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2006-02-01

    The beneficial effects of polyphenol compounds in fruits and vegetables are mainly extrapolated from in vitro studies or short-term dietary supplementation studies. Due to cost and duration, relatively little is known about whether dietary polyphenols are beneficial in whole animals, particularly with respect to aging. To address this question, we examined the effects of blueberry polyphenols on lifespan and aging of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, a useful organism for such a study. We report that a complex mixture of blueberry polyphenols increased lifespan and slowed aging-related declines in C. elegans. We also found that these benefits did not just reflect antioxidant activity in these compounds. For instance, blueberry treatment increased survival during acute heat stress, but was not protective against acute oxidative stress. The blueberry extract consists of three major fractions that all contain antioxidant activity. However, only one fraction, enriched in proanthocyanidin compounds, increased C. elegans lifespan and thermotolerance. To further determine how polyphenols prolonged C. elegans lifespan, we analyzed the genetic requirements for these effects. Prolonged lifespan from this treatment required the presence of a CaMKII pathway that mediates osmotic stress resistance, though not other pathways that affect stress resistance and longevity. In conclusion, polyphenolic compounds in blueberries had robust and reproducible benefits during aging that were separable from antioxidant effects. PMID:16441844

  8. Effects of blueberry on hepatic fibrosis and transcription factor Nrf2 in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of blueberry on hepatic fibrosis and NF-E2-related factor 2(Nrf2) transcription factor in rats.METHODS:Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group(A);CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis group(B);blueberry prevention group(C);Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule(DSHX) prevention group(D);and blueberry + DSHX prevention group(E).Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 wk(except the control group...

  9. Lowbush wild blueberries have the potential to modify gut microbiota and xenobiotic metabolism in the rat colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Lacombe

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract is populated by an array of microbial species that play an important role in metabolic and immune functions. The composition of microorganisms is influenced by the components of the host's diet and can impact health. In the present study, dietary enrichment of lowbush wild blueberries (LWB was examined to determine their effect on colon microbial composition and their potential in promoting gut health. The microbial composition and functional potential of the colon microbiota from Sprague Dawley rats fed control diets (AIN93 and LWB-enriched diets (AIN93+8% LWB powder substituting for dextrose for 6 weeks were assessed using Illumina shotgun sequencing and bioinformatics tools. Our analysis revealed an alteration in the relative abundance of 3 phyla and 22 genera as representing approximately 14 and 8% of all phyla and genera identified, respectively. The LWB-enriched diet resulted in a significant reduction in the relative abundance of the genera Lactobacillus and Enterococcus. In addition, hierarchal analysis revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria, the order Actinomycetales, and several novel genera under the family Bifidobacteriaceae and Coriobacteriaceae, in the LWB group. Functional annotation of the shotgun sequences suggested that approximately 9% of the 4709 Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG hits identified were impacted by the LWB-diet. Open Reading Frames (ORFs assigned to KEGG category xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism were significantly greater in the LWB-enriched diet compared to the control and included the pathway for benzoate degradation [PATH:ko00362] and glycosaminoglycan degradation [PATH:ko00531]. Moreover, the number of ORFs assigned to the bacterial invasion of epithelial cells [PATH:ko05100] pathway was approximately 8 fold lower in the LWB group compared to controls. This study demonstrated that LWBs have the potential to promote

  10. Lowbush wild blueberries have the potential to modify gut microbiota and xenobiotic metabolism in the rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Li, Robert W; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Kristo, Aleksandra S; Tadepalli, Shravani; Krauss, Emily; Young, Ryan; Wu, Vivian C H

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is populated by an array of microbial species that play an important role in metabolic and immune functions. The composition of microorganisms is influenced by the components of the host's diet and can impact health. In the present study, dietary enrichment of lowbush wild blueberries (LWB) was examined to determine their effect on colon microbial composition and their potential in promoting gut health. The microbial composition and functional potential of the colon microbiota from Sprague Dawley rats fed control diets (AIN93) and LWB-enriched diets (AIN93+8% LWB powder substituting for dextrose) for 6 weeks were assessed using Illumina shotgun sequencing and bioinformatics tools. Our analysis revealed an alteration in the relative abundance of 3 phyla and 22 genera as representing approximately 14 and 8% of all phyla and genera identified, respectively. The LWB-enriched diet resulted in a significant reduction in the relative abundance of the genera Lactobacillus and Enterococcus. In addition, hierarchal analysis revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria, the order Actinomycetales, and several novel genera under the family Bifidobacteriaceae and Coriobacteriaceae, in the LWB group. Functional annotation of the shotgun sequences suggested that approximately 9% of the 4709 Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG) hits identified were impacted by the LWB-diet. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) assigned to KEGG category xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism were significantly greater in the LWB-enriched diet compared to the control and included the pathway for benzoate degradation [PATH:ko00362] and glycosaminoglycan degradation [PATH:ko00531]. Moreover, the number of ORFs assigned to the bacterial invasion of epithelial cells [PATH:ko05100] pathway was approximately 8 fold lower in the LWB group compared to controls. This study demonstrated that LWBs have the potential to promote gut health and

  11. Qualitative analysis of volatiles in rabbiteye blueberry cultivars at various maturities using rapid solid-phase micro extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, superfruits, such as blueberries, have received much attention as scientists, marketers, and consumers push forward knowledge and demand for high antioxidant, healthier diets. Production and consumption are steadily increasing. Yet, there are very few studies detailing the aroma, astring...

  12. Effects of diet & behavioral enrichment on free fatty acids in the aged canine brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigdha, Shikha; Astarita, Giuseppe; Piomelli, Daniele; Cotman, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite several recent studies suggesting that dysregulation of brain lipid metabolism might contribute to the mechanisms of aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), lipid metabolism has not been evaluated extensively in the aging brain. Here, we use a lipidomic approach to demonstrate that antioxidants plus mitochondrial cofactors treatment, either alone or in combination with behavioral enrichment, attenuates lipid abnormalities in the frontal cortices of aged canine in a manner correlated with cognitive scores. Our analyses revealed that the levels of free palmitoleic acid and nervonic acid were decreased in frontal cortices of aged dogs (n=5-6/group) treated with antioxidant compared to the control group. The monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio, also known as ‘desaturation index’ - an ex-vivo indicator of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity, was also reduced in the frontal cortex of dogs treated with antioxidants compared to control groups. Increased palmitoleic acid levels and desaturation index were positively correlated with increased reversal learning errors and decreased cognitive performance. In conclusion, our study indicates that the addition of antioxidants and mitochondrial cofactors to the regular diet alters the composition of free fatty acids in the aged brain. Together with data showing increased palmitoleic acid levels in AD patients, our data suggest that reducing palmitoleic acid levels and desaturation index in the brain may be associated with improved cognitive performance. PMID:22183056

  13. Effect of a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on the pig liver transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptome induced by a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and to characterize the biological mechanisms related to PUFA metabolism. Polish Landrace pigs (n = 12) were fed diet enriched with linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) or standard diet as a control. The fatty acid profiling was assayed in order to verify how feeding influenced the fatty acid content in the liver, and subsequently next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) between transcriptomes between dietary groups. The biological mechanisms and pathway interaction networks were identified using DAVID and Cytoscape tools. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated a higher contribution of PUFAs in the liver for LA- and ALA-enriched diet group, particularly for the omega-3 fatty acid family, but not omega-6. Next-generation sequencing identified 3565 DEG, 1484 of which were induced and 2081 were suppressed by PUFA supplementation. A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids resulted in the modulation of fatty acid metabolism pathways and over-representation of genes involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and immune response pathways. In conclusion, a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids altered the transcriptomic profile of the pig liver and would influence animal health status.

  14. Behavioral features of mice fed with a cholesterol-enriched diet:Deficient novelty exploration and unaltered aggressive behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ekaterina Veniaminova; Raymond Cespuglio; Nataliia Markova; Niall Mortimer; Chi Wai Cheung; Harry W Steinbusch; Klaus-Peter Lesch; Tatyana Strekalova

    2016-01-01

    Objectives:Previous studies involving mice have demonstrated that a cholesterol-enriched diet evokes liver steatosis, dystrophy, inflammation, and aspects of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These changes are accompanied by the activation of pro-inflammatory brain and liver molecular pathways, as well as anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. Given previously reported evidence for the neurobiological relationship between the above-mentioned molecular changes and abnormalities in coping with environmental stimuli, such as interactions with other individuals and new environmental contexts, we hypothesized that novelty exploration and aggressive behavior are affected in a mouse NAFLD model. Methods:To test this hypothesis, young female C57BL/6J mice were fed with a regular chow or a diet containing 0.2%cholesterol for 3 weeks. The mice were then assessed for new object and novel cage exploration, and social interaction in a food competition test. Results:We found reduced object exploration in mice on the cholesterol-enriched diet. This reduction was not related to whether the new object was placed in an anxiogenic or non-anxiogenic environment. These changes were accompanied by diminished exploration of the new environment in a novel cage, and delayed approach to food after a period of food deprivation. Mice on the regular chow or cholesterol-enriched diet showed no differences in aggressive behavior towards a counter-partner in a food competition test. Food intake and body weight did not differ between the groups, thus, excluding their potential as confounders in the measured behaviors. Conclusions:We conclude that a diet enriched with cholesterol reduces novelty exploration irrespective of the anxiogenic level of the environment and does not induce aggressive behavior in female mice.

  15. Effects of Synthetic Diets Enriched in Specific Nutrients on Drosophila Development, Body Fat, and Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Reis

    Full Text Available Gene-diet interactions play a crucial but poorly understood role in susceptibility to obesity. Accordingly, the development of genetically tractable model systems to study the influence of diets in obesity-prone genetic backgrounds is a focus of current research. Here I present a modified synthetic Drosophila diet optimized for timely larval development, a stage dedicated to energy storage. Specifically increasing the levels of individual macronutrients-carbohydrate, lipid, or protein-resulted in markedly different organismal effects. A high-carbohydrate diet adversely affected the timing of development, size, early lifespan and body fat. Strikingly, quadrupling the amount of dietary lipids had none of these effects. Diets rich in protein appeared to be the most beneficial, as larvae developed faster, with no change in size, into long-lived adults. I believe this synthetic diet will significantly facilitate the study of gene-diet interactions in organismal energy balance.

  16. THE NECESSITY OF DEVELOPING BLUEBERRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina BADIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the advantages of cultivating blueberries, both economically and from an alimentary and therapeutic point of view. By calculating profit per hectare for the most productive varieties of blueberry, it was shown that this culture is particularly profitable for young farmers. In fact, blueberries have significant therapeutic value, being used in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  17. [Correction of the combined vitamin deficiency in growing rats fed fiber enriched diets with different doses of vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A; Aksenov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 5% dietary wheat bran (WB) on the correction of combined vitamin deficiency by two doses of vitamins (physiological and enhanced) has been analyzed using a rat model (8 groups, n = 8/group). Vitamin deficiency in male weanling Wistar rats (58.1 ± 0.5 g) was induced by 5-fold reduction of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and complete vitamin E, B1 and B2 exclusion from the mixture for 30 days, then deficit was corrected within 5 days. Rats from control group were fed a complete semisynthetic diet containing microcrystalline cellulose 2%. Vitamin deficient diet for 35 days resulted in reduced (p vitamin A in the liver by 25 fold, vitamin E and B1--2.0-2.3 fold, vitamin B2--by 40%, 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration--by 21% compared with the control. Feed consumption of the animals treated with vitamin deficient diet and WB was higher by 43% than in rats with vitamin deficit. Their rate of weight occupied the intermediate position between the rates of weight in deficit and in control animals, and they could not serve a full control to evaluate the WB impact on vitamin sufficiency. After filling the vitamin diet content to an adequate level vitamin E liver content was fully restored. To restore vitamins B1 and B2 liver level higher doses of vitamins (120-160% of adequate content) were required, and to restore the reduced levels of vitamin A in rat liver even 2-fold increased dose of vitamin A was insufficient. The diet enrichment with WB had no effect on vitamin B1 and B2 liver content, regardless of the amount of vitamins in the diet. Adding fiber to the diet of animals adequately provided with vitamins resulted in significantly 1,3-fold increase of 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration and a slight but significant decrease of α-tocopherol liver level by 16% as compared to rats not receiving WB. The enrichment of rat diet with dietary fibers worsened restoration of the reduced vitamin E status not only by filling vitamin content in the diet to an

  18. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A M; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-04-01

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model. PMID:26943770

  19. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A.M.; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model. PMID:26943770

  20. Utilization of carbon isotope enrichments (ð¹³C) of alkanes as faecal markers to estimate diet composition of goats fed with heathland vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, L.M.M.; Daniel, J.B.; Celaya, R.; Santos, A.S.; Osoro, K.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possible utilization of carbon isotope enrichments (d13C) of n-alkanes as faecal markers for estimating diet composition of goats fed with diets composed of different proportions of browse (Erica umbellata, Erica cinerea, Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea, and Ulex gal

  1. Current Development Situation and Prospects of Blueberry in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia; GAO; Hualan; XIAO; Sen; LI; Fengmin; LIU; Aiqiong; MO

    2015-01-01

    With high nutrition and health value,blueberry receives much concern in recent years. Blueberry experts in the world are cultivating new blueberry varieties. They have come up with constructive theoretical support and planting technology researches and are constantly devoted to expanding blueberry planting latitudes. This paper elaborated researches of blueberry at home and abroad,current development situation of blueberry in China and Guangdong Province,analyzed strengths of planting blueberry in Guangdong. Besides,it came up with recommendations for development of blueberry industry. Finally,it discussed development prospects of blueberry planting in Guangdong.

  2. Fatty Acid Profile of Cheese from Dairy Goats Fed a Diet Enriched with Castor, Sesame and Faveleira Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertha Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen × Alpina fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor, the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p ≥ 0.05 but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA - expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  3. Gluten-free but also gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet prevent diabetes in NOD mice; the gluten enigma in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funda, D.P.; Kaas, A.; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Environmental factors such as nutrition or exposure to infections play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have previously shown that gluten-free, non-purified diet largely prevented diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study we tested...... hypothesis that early introduction of gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet may increase diabetes incidence in NOD mice. METHODS: Standard, gluten-free, gluten+ modified Altromin diets and hydrolysed-casein-based Pregestimil diet were fed to NOD females and diabetes incidence was followed for 310 days. Insulitis...... score and numbers of gut mucosal lymphocytes were determined in non-diabetic animals. RESULTS: A significantly lower diabetes incidence (p diet (5.9%, n = 34) and Pregestimil diet (10%, n = 30) compared to mice on the standard Altromin diet (60.6%, n...

  4. [Effect of selenium enriched diet on lipid peroxidation in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripchenko, N D; Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Plotnikova, O A; Meshcheriakova, V A; Mal'tsev, G Iu

    2003-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of a diet supplemented with selenium on the clinicometabolic parameters and the activity of lipid peroxidation in 43 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was indicated that under the influence of dietotherapy besides the decrease of glucose levels in capillary and venous blood, improvement of parameters of lipid metabolism, a reduction of malondialdehyde level and tendency to increase of glutathione peroxidase activity were observed. The results of investigations testify about sufficiently expressed efficacy of a diet supplemented with selenium in correction of oxidative stress and clinicometabolic parameters in this contingent of patients. PMID:12664692

  5. A CLA enriched diet improves organ damage associated with the metabolic syndrome in spontaneous hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that dietary CLA can prevent the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in tissue structure, suggesting potential benefits in the onset of this syndrome. Wistar male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), were classified into two groups that were fed a standard diet for eight weeks: one with 7.5% sunflower oil (V-SHR group), and the other with 6% sunflower oil and 1.5% CLA (CLA-SHR group). A control healthy group consisted of Kyoto-Wistar male rats fed the standard diet with 7.5% sunflower oil. The animals were sacrificed, and sections

  6. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone protects mice from diet-induced obesity and modulates adipokines expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Mathé, Véronique; Lafont, René; Even, Patrick; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2012-02-01

    Besides their well-known effect in the molting control in insects, ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that display potential pharmacologic and metabolic properties in mammals. The most common ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is found in many plants such as quinoa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of quinoa extract (Q) enriched in 20E supplementation to prevent the onset of diet-induced obesity and to regulate the expression of adipocyte-specific genes in mice. Mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by 20E-enriched Q or pure 20E for 3 weeks. Supplementation with Q reduced adipose tissue development in HF mice without modification of their body weight gain. This adipose tissue-specific effect was mainly associated with a reduced adipocyte size and a decrease in the expression of several genes involved in lipid storage, including lipoprotein lipase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Furthermore, Q-treated mice exhibited marked attenuation of mRNA levels of several inflammation markers (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, CD68) and insulin resistance (osteopontin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) as compared to HF mice. Q supplementation also reversed the effects of HF-induced downregulation of the uncoupling protein(s) (UCP(s)) mRNA levels in muscle. Similar results were obtained in mice fed a HF diet supplemented with similar amounts of pure 20E, suggesting that the latter accounted for most of the Q effects. Our study indicates that Q has an antiobesity activity in vivo and could be used as a nutritional supplement for the prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders.

  7. Salivary Amylase Induction by Tannin-Enriched Diets as a Possible Countermeasure Against Tannins

    OpenAIRE

    Da Costa, G.; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Andersen, J.; Sales Baptista, E; Coelho, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole sa...

  8. A diet enriched with Mugil cephalus processed roes modulates the tissue lipid profile in healthy rats: a biochemical and chemometric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, A; Atzeri, A; Putzu, D; Scano, P

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a diet enriched with mullet bottarga on the lipid profile (total lipids, total cholesterol, unsaturated fatty acids, α-tocopherol, and hydroperoxides) of plasma, liver, kidney, brain, and perirenal adipose tissues of healthy rats was investigated. Rats fed a 10% bottarga enriched-diet for 5 days showed body weights and tissue total lipid and cholesterol levels similar to those of animals fed control diet. Univariate and multivariate results showed that bottarga enriched-diet modified the fatty acid profile in all tissues, except brain. Significant increases of n-3 PUFA, particularly EPA, were observed together with a 20:4 n-6 decrease in plasma, liver, and kidney. Perirenal adipose tissue showed a fat accumulation that reflected the diet composition. The overall data suggest that mullet bottarga may be considered as a natural bioavailable source of n-3 PUFA and qualify it as a traditional food product with functional properties and a potential functional ingredient for preparation of n-3 PUFA enriched foods.

  9. Diets enriched with cranberry beans alter the microbiota and mitigate colitis severity and associated inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Lepp, Dion; Zhang, Claire P; Wu, Wenqing; Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Pauls, K Peter; Tsao, Rong; Wood, Geoffrey A; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2016-02-01

    Common beans are rich in phenolic compounds and nondigestible fermentable components, which may help alleviate intestinal diseases. We assessed the gut health priming effect of a 20% cranberry bean flour diet from two bean varieties with differing profiles of phenolic compounds [darkening (DC) and nondarkening (NDC) cranberry beans vs. basal diet control (BD)] on critical aspects of gut health in unchallenged mice, and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis (2% DSS wt/vol, 7 days). In unchallenged mice, NDC and DC increased (i) cecal short-chain fatty acids, (ii) colon crypt height, (iii) crypt goblet cell number and mucus content and (iv) Muc1, Klf4, Relmβ and Reg3γ gene expression vs. BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity and gut barrier function. Fecal 16S rRNA sequencing determined that beans reduced abundance of the Lactobacillaceae (Ruminococcus gnavus), Clostridiaceae (Clostridium perfringens), Peptococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Rikenellaceae and Pophyromonadaceae families, and increased abundance of S24-7 and Prevotellaceae. During colitis, beans reduced (i) disease severity and colonic histological damage, (ii) increased gene expression of barrier function promoting genes (Muc1-3, Relmβ, and Reg3γ) and (iii) reduced colonic and circulating inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IFNγ and TNFα). Therefore, prior to disease induction, bean supplementation enhanced multiple concurrent gut health promoting parameters that translated into reduced colitis severity. Moreover, both bean diets exerted similar effects, indicating that differing phenolic content did not influence the endpoints assessed. These data demonstrate a proof-of-concept regarding the gut-priming potential of beans in colitis, which could be extended to mitigate the severity of other gut barrier-associated pathologies. PMID:26878790

  10. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles. PMID:26574038

  11. Hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of jam enriched with microencapsulated fish oil decreases insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Soares de Oliveira Carvalho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome is related to the increase in cardiovascular diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil help in reducing cardiovascular risk factors and are natural bindings of PPARy2. Objective: To evaluate the impact of hypocaloric diet associated with microencapsulated fish oil supplementation in women with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial with adult women who presented metabolic syndrome (n = 30 for 90 days. The volunteers were divided into two groups: placebo group (n = 15 and microencapsulated fish oil group (n = 15 (3 g/day of microencapsulated fish oil containing 0.41 g/day of eico-sapentaenoic acid and decosahexaneoic acid. Anthropometric, body composition, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed before and after the intervention. Paired t-test was used for comparisons within groups and Student's t-test for comparison between groups. We considered p < 0.05 as significant values. Results: The comparison between groups revealed a significant reduction of blood glucose, insulinemia and the homeostasis model assessment in the microencapsulated fish oil group after 90 days, as opposed to the placebo group. We also observed reduction of the systolic arterial pressure in the microencapsulated fish oil group. Conclusion: A hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of microencapsulated fish oil was effective in reducing blood glucose, insulinemia and insulin resistance in women with MS.

  12. A CLA enriched diet improves organ damage associated with the metabolic syndrome in spontaneous hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Rodriguez, I.; Pulido-Camarillo, E.; Hernandez-Diaz, E.; Alexander-Aguilera, A.; Garcia, H.S.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that dietary CLA can prevent the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in tissue structure, suggesting potential benefits in the onset of this syndrome. Wistar male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), were classified into two groups that were fed a standard diet for eight weeks: one with 7.5% sunflower oil (V-SHR group), and the other with 6% sunflower oil and 1.5% CLA (CLA-SHR group). A control healthy group consisted of Kyoto-Wistar male rats fed the standard diet with 7.5% sunflower oil. The animals were sacrificed, and sections of liver, kidneys and aorta were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and then stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Only in the V-SHR group, the stain of the aorta indicated irregular endothelial morphology; liver parenchyma was characterized by an infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils, fibrosis, thickening of the portal vein epithelium, hepatocyte hyperplasia and steatosis. The renal tissue of this group evidenced hyperplasia in the cells of the endothelial of Bowman's capsule. Abnormal histological changes were not observed in either the control group of the rats fed with CLA, suggesting a protective role of CLA in the onset of metabolic syndrome.

  13. The protective effect of a buckwheat-enriched diet on renal injury in high salt-induced hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dai; Zhang, Xinyu; Meng, Meng; Han, Lirong; Li, Zheng; Hou, Lihua; Qi, Wentao; Wang, Chunling

    2016-08-10

    An excess of dietary salt is the most common factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension. Dietary management is deemed critical to prevent and treat hypertension. We aimed at evaluating the preventive effect of the buckwheat (BW)-enriched diet on high salt-induced elevation of blood pressure (BP) and renal injury in order to provide a new focus on the design of strategies to prevent hypertension. Control, high salt (HS)-treated (8%), HS + tartary buckwheat (TB) (8% HS + 15% TB), and a group of HS + common buckwheat (CB) (8% HS + 15% CB) rats were used for 7 weeks. BP was monitored periodically during the study by the tail cuff method. HS intake caused a significant increase of BP, the level of serum Na(+) compared to the control group. BW significantly prevented the increase of BP, attenuated oxidative damage, and improved Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in HS treated rats. These results show that a diet supplemented with whole BW has beneficial effects on hypertension, by decreasing blood pressure values and oxidative stress. PMID:27457879

  14. Effect of whey protein- and carbohydrate-enriched diet on glycogen resynthesis during the first 48 h after a soccer game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Bendiksen, Mads; Bischoff, R.;

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a whey protein- and carbohydrate (CHO)-enriched diet on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis after a soccer match was examined. Sixteen elite soccer players were randomly assigned to a group ingesting a diet rich in carbohydrates and whey protein [CHO, protein, and fat content was...... 71, 21, and 8E%, respectively; high content of carbohydrates and whey protein (HCP), n¿=¿9] or a group ingesting a normal diet (55, 18, and 26E%; control [CON], n¿=¿7) during a 48-h recovery period after a soccer match. CON and three additional players carried out a 90- and 60-min simulated match...

  15. Progress in blueberry research in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries were first introduced to New Zealand in the 1950’s from North America and by 1970 around 30 cultivars had been imported. Selection for new material better suited to the New Zealand climate then began using F1 seedlings and open pollinated crosses. The PFR blueberry breeding programme (le...

  16. Deleterious effects of lard-enriched diet on tissues fatty acids composition and hypothalamic insulin actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornellas, A P S; Watanabe, R L H; Pimentel, G D; Boldarine, V T; Nascimento, C M O; Oyama, L M; Ghebremeskel, K; Wang, Y; Bueno, A A; Ribeiro, E B

    2015-12-01

    Altered tissue fatty acid (FA) composition may affect mechanisms involved in the control of energy homeostasis, including central insulin actions. In rats fed either standard chow or a lard-enriched chow (high in saturated/low in polyunsaturated FA, HS-LP) for eight weeks, we examined the FA composition of blood, hypothalamus, liver, and retroperitoneal, epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissues. Insulin-induced hypophagia and hypothalamic signaling were evaluated after intracerebroventricular insulin injection. HS-LP feeding increased saturated FA content in adipose tissues and serum while it decreased polyunsaturated FA content of adipose tissues, serum, and liver. Hypothalamic C20:5n-3 and C20:3n-6 contents increased while monounsaturated FA content decreased. HS-LP rats showed hyperglycemia, impaired insulin-induced hypophagia and hypothalamic insulin signaling. The results showed that, upon HS-LP feeding, peripheral tissues underwent potentially deleterious alterations in their FA composition, whist the hypothalamus was relatively preserved. However, hypothalamic insulin signaling and hypophagia were drastically impaired. These findings suggest that impairment of hypothalamic insulin actions by HS-LP feeding was not related to tissue FA composition. PMID:26525379

  17. Effects of specific multi-nutrient enriched diets on cerebral metabolism, cognition and neuropathology in AβPPswe-PS1dE9 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Jansen

    Full Text Available Recent studies have focused on the use of multi-nutrient dietary interventions in search of alternatives for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD. In this study we investigated to which extent long-term consumption of two specific multi-nutrient diets can modulate AD-related etiopathogenic mechanisms and behavior in 11-12-month-old AβPPswe-PS1dE9 mice. Starting from 2 months of age, male AβPP-PS1 mice and wild-type littermates were fed either a control diet, the DHA+EPA+UMP (DEU diet enriched with uridine monophosphate (UMP and the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, or the Fortasyn® Connect (FC diet enriched with the DEU diet plus phospholipids, choline, folic acid, vitamins and antioxidants. We performed behavioral testing, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, immunohistochemistry, biochemical analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to gain a better understanding of the potential mechanisms by which these multi-nutrient diets exert protective properties against AD. Our results show that both diets were equally effective in changing brain fatty acid and cholesterol profiles. However, the diets differentially affected AD-related pathologies and behavioral measures, suggesting that the effectiveness of specific nutrients may depend on the dietary context in which they are provided. The FC diet was more effective than the DEU diet in counteracting neurodegenerative aspects of AD and enhancing processes involved in neuronal maintenance and repair. Both diets elevated interleukin-1β mRNA levels in AβPP-PS1 and wild-type mice. The FC diet additionally restored neurogenesis in AβPP-PS1 mice, decreased hippocampal levels of unbound choline-containing compounds in wild-type and AβPP-PS1 animals, suggesting diminished membrane turnover, and decreased anxiety-related behavior in the open field behavior. In conclusion, the current data indicate that specific multi-nutrient diets can

  18. A CLA enriched diet improves organ damage associated with the metabolic syndrome in spontaneous hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto-Rodríguez, Ida

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that dietary CLA can prevent the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in tissue structure, suggesting potential benefits in the onset of this syndrome. Wistar male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR, were classified into two groups that were fed a standard diet for eight weeks: one with 7.5% sunflower oil (V-SHR group, and the other with 6% sunflower oil and 1.5% CLA (CLA-SHR group. A control healthy group consisted of Kyoto-Wistar male rats fed the standard diet with 7.5% sunflower oil. The animals were sacrificed, and sections of liver, kidneys and aorta were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and then stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Only in the V-SHR group, the stain of the aorta indicated irregular endothelial morphology; liver parenchyma was characterized by an infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils, fibrosis, thickening of the portal vein epithelium, hepatocyte hyperplasia and steatosis. The renal tissue of this group evidenced hyperplasia in the cells of the endothelial of Bowman´s capsule. Abnormal histological changes were not observed in either the control group or the rats fed with CLA, suggesting a protective role of CLA in the onset of metabolic syndrome.

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue proporcionar evidencia que el CLA dietario puede evitar la patogénesis del síndrome metabólico en la estructura tisular, lo que sugiere beneficios potenciales en el desarrollo de este síndrome. Dos grupos de ratas Wistar macho espontáneamente hipertensas (SHR fueron alimentadas con una dieta normal por 8 semanas: una dieta contenía 7.5% de aceite de girasol (grupo VSHR, y el otro contenía 6% de aceite de girasol y 1.5% de CLA (grupo CLA-SHR. A un grupo testigo sano de ratas macho Kyoto-Wistar les fue proporcionada una dieta normal con 7.5% de aceite de girasol. Los animales fueron sacrificados y se tomaron secciones de hígado, riñones y aorta, las cuales fueron fijadas en formaldeh

  19. Quality traits of Ciauscolo salami from meat of pigs fed rosemary extract enriched diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ranucci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological, chemical-physical and organoleptic characteristics of four batches of Ciauscolo salami, two made from meat of pigs fed diet integrated with 0.2% of rosemary extract (RS and two controls (CSs, were considered. Three samples for each batch were in double analyzed for total bacterial count at 30°C, enumeration of lactococci, lactobacilli, staphylococcus coagulase positive, enterococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and isolation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, after filling and at 7 and 20 days of ripening. On the same samples, measurement of pH (pHmeter MP120; Mettler-Toledo Spa, Schwerzenbach, Switzerland, activity water (aw (Hygroscope BT-RS1 Rotronic; PBI International, Milan, Italy and CIE L*a*b* colour (Chromameter Minolta C400; Minolta Ltd., Osaka, Japan were performed. Proximal composition, NaCl content (AOAC, 1990 thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs and panel test (ISO 8586-1:1993 and ISO 8586 were performed only on samples obtained at the end of the ripening time. No difference in proximal composition, pH, aw values and microbial counts between CS and RS samples were observed along the whole production period. Colour analyses reveal higher a* values in RS (10.79 vs 9.68, P<0.05. Higher TBARs mean value was recorded in CS at the end of ripening (1.12 vs 0.91 mg MDA/100g, P<0.01. Even if no statistical differences were recorded in all the parameters considered in sensory evaluation, the overall acceptance of RS samples tended to be higher than CS.

  20. 蓝莓花青素对肥胖大鼠血脂、血清炎性因子及胰岛素敏感性的影响%Effects of blueberry anthocyanidin on dyslipidemia, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin sensitivity in high-fat-diet induced obese rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余仁强; 马路一; 朱静; 周详; 吴小优; 靳姗姗; 昌维维; 宋晓彤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of blueberry anthocyanidin on serum lipid profiles,proinflammatory cytokines and insulin sensitivity in high-fat-diet induced obese rats.Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly grouped to receive a standard chow diet (control group,7 cases) or high-fat-diet (23 cases).Six weeks later,high-fat-diet induced obese rats were divided into the 2 groups.Then,rats received a standard chow diet,a high-fat-diet,or a high-fat-diet supplemented with anthocyanidin extracted from blueberry at 200 mg/(kg · d) for 4 weeks,and were then euthanized.Parameters of body weight,visceral adipose tissue,serum glucose,insulin,total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride (TG),low-density lipoprotein (LDL),high-density lipoprotein (HDL),tumor necrosis factor-or (TNF-α),interleukin-6(IL-6),high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMR-IR) were measured.Results The levels of glucose [(9.15 ± 1.10) mmol/L],TC[(462.5 ± 81.5) mg/L],TG[(152.5 ±19.1) mg/L],LDL[(203.7 ±31.1) mg/L],TNF-α[(4.03 ± 1.03) ng/L],IL-6[(1.81 ±0.31) ng/L],hs-CRP[(106.62 ± 15.52) ng/L] and HOMA-IR (3.94 ± 0.78)in blueberry anthocyanidin group were lower than those in the obese rats [(11.38 ± 1.50) mmol/L,(566.2 ± 113.2) mg/L,(192.5 ± 24.9) mg/L,(253.7 ± 58.3)mg/L,(5.74 ± 1.61) ng/L,(3.85 ±0.93) ng/L,(132.62 ± 17.18) ng/L,5.09 ±O.90],and the differences were significant(all P < 0.05).But the levels of the parameters in blueberry anthocyanidin group were higher than the control group [(7.52±1.37) mmol/L,(377.1 ±71.3) mg/L,(124.2 ±26.3) rng/L,(135.7 ±38.2) rng/L,(2.41 ±0.42)ng/L,(1.12 ±0.46) ng/L,(72.28 ±12.11) ng/L,2.41 ±0.23],and the differences were significant(all P <0.05).The level of HDL in blueberry anthocyanidin group [(126.2 ± 38.1) mg/L] was higher than that in obese group [(95.0 ±25.6 mg/L)],but the level of HDL in blueberry anthocyanidin group was lower than that in the control group [(165.7 ± 22

  1. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  2. Influence of an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diet on experimentally induced synovitis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Jones, T N; McIlwraith, C W; Kisiday, J D; Hess, T M; Hansen, D K; Black, J

    2016-06-01

    Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation has previously been shown to modify joint-related inflammation in several species, although information in the horse is lacking. We investigated whether dietary supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA would modify experimentally induced synovitis in horses. Twelve, skeletally mature, non-pregnant mares were randomly assigned to either a control diet (CONT) or an n-3 long-chain fatty acid-enriched treatment diet (N3FA) containing 40 g/day of n-3 LCPUFA for 91 days. Blood samples taken on days 0, 30, 60 and 90, and synovial fluid collected on days 0 and 90 were processed for lipid composition. On day 91, joint inflammation was stimulated using an intra-articular (IA) injection of 100 ng of recombinant equine IL-1beta (reIL-1β). Synovial fluid samples taken at post-injection hours (PIH) 0, 4, 8 and 24 were analysed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and routine cytology. Synovium and articular cartilage samples collected at PIH 8 were analysed for gene expression of MMP 1 and MMP 13, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the aggrecanases, a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 and ADAMTS-5. A 90-day feeding period of n-3 LCPUFA increased serum phospholipid and synovial fluid lipid compositions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared to CONT horses. The reIL-1β injection caused an inflammatory response; however, there was no effect of dietary treatment on synovial fluid PGE2 content and MMP activity. Synovial tissue collected from N3FA horses exhibited lower expression of ADAMTS-4 compared to CONT horses. Despite the presence of EPA and DHA in the synovial fluid of N3FA horses, dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation did not modify synovial fluid biomarkers compared to CONT horses; however, the lower ADAMTS-4 mRNA expression in N3FA synovium warrants further

  3. Dietary cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry affects the development of dyslipidemia and insulin insensitivity associated with metabolic syndrome in high fructose fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of feeding cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry powder on selected parameters of metabolic syndrome were investigated in 40 growing male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were divided into five dietary treatments of 1) control AIN93G diet, 2) high fructose (65% by weight, HF) diet, and 3-5) ...

  4. Effects of plant stanol or sterol-enriched diets on lipid profiles in patients treated with statins: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shufen; Jiao, Jun; Xu, Jiaying; Zimmermann, Diane; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Guan, Lei; Zhao, Youyou; Qin, Liqiang

    2016-01-01

    Efficacy and safety data from trials with suitable endpoints have shown that non-statin medication in combination with a statin is a potential strategy to further reduce cardiovascular events. We aimed to evaluate the overall effect of stanol- or sterol-enriched diets on serum lipid profiles in patients treated with statins by conducting a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We used the PubMed, Cochrane library and ClinicalTrials.gov databases to search for literature published up to December 2015. Trials were included in the analysis if they were RCTs evaluating the effect of plant stanols or sterols in patients under statin therapy that reported corresponding data on serum lipid profiles. We included 15 RCTs involving a total of 500 participants. Stanol- or sterol-enriched diets in combination with statins, compared with statins alone, produced significant reductions in total cholesterol of 0.30 mmol/L (95% CI -0.36 to -0.25) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol of 0.30 mmol/L (95% CI -0.35 to -0.25), but not in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides. These results persisted in the subgroup analysis. Our meta-analysis provides further evidence that stanol- or sterol-enriched diets additionally lower total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in patients treated with statins beyond that achieved by statins alone. PMID:27539156

  5. Protective effects of a phosphatidylcholine-enriched diet in lipopolysaccharide-induced experimental neuroinflammation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokés, Tünde; Eros, Gábor; Bebes, Attila; Hartmann, Petra; Várszegi, Szilvia; Varga, Gabriella; Kaszaki, József; Gulya, Károly; Ghyczy, Miklós; Boros, Mihály

    2011-11-01

    Our goal was to characterize the neuroprotective properties of orally administered phosphatidylcholine (PC) in a rodent model of systemic inflammation. Sprague-Dawley rats were killed at 3 h, 1 day, 3 days, or 7 days after i.p. administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 cytokines. The control group and one group of LPS-treated animals were nourished with standard laboratory chow, whereas another LPS-treated group received a special diet enriched with 1% PC for 5 days before the administration of LPS and thereafter during the 7-day observation period. Immunohistochemistry was performed to visualize the bromodeoxyuridine and doublecortin-positive neuroprogenitor cells and Iba1-positive microglia in the hippocampus, whereas the degree of mucosal damage was evaluated on ileal and colon biopsy samples after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The activities of proinflammatory myeloperoxidase and xanthine-oxidoreductase and the tissue nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level were additionally determined, and the cognitive functions were monitored via Morris water maze testing. The inflammatory challenge transiently increased the hippocampal NOx level and led to microglia accumulation and decreased neurogenesis. The intestinal damage, mucosal myeloperoxidase, xanthine-oxidoreductase, and NOx changes were less pronounced, and long-lasting behavioral alterations were not observed. Phosphatidylcholine pretreatment reduced the plasma TNF-α and hippocampal NOx changes and prevented the decreased neurogenesis. These data demonstrated the relative susceptibility of the brain to the consequences of transient peripheral inflammatory stimuli. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation did not reduce the overall extent of peripheral inflammatory activation, but efficiently counteracted the disturbed hippocampal neurogenesis by lowering circulating TNF-α concentrations.

  6. The influence of different rotifer and Artemia enrichment diets on growth, survival and pigmentation in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Attramadal, Y.

    1992-01-01

    , approximately seven days after hatching, the larvae were fed newly-hatched Artemia salina nauplii (AT-1; Brazil strain). From day 10, enriched Great Salt Lake Artemia nauplii were introduced. Each set of seven tansk was further subdivided and the larvae fed Artemia nauplii enriched with one of four enrichment...

  7. Blueberries improve glucose tolerance and lipid handling without altering body composition in obese postmenopausal mice

    OpenAIRE

    Elks, Carrie M.; Terrebonne, Jennifer D.; Ingram, Donald K.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk increases significantly during menopause and remains elevated post-menopause. Several botanicals, including blueberries (BB), have been shown to delay MetS progression, but few studies have been conducted in postmenopausal animal models. Here, we examined the effects of BB supplementation on obese postmenopausal mice using a chemically-induced menopause model. Design and Methods After induction of menopause, mice were fed a high-fat diet or the same di...

  8. GLUCOMANNAN AND GLUCOMANNAN PLUS SPIRULINA-ENRICHED SQUID-SURIMI ADDED TO HIGH SATURATED DIET AFFECT GLYCEMIA, PLASMA AND ADIPOSE LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN GROWING FA/FA RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, M José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a very prevalent chronic disease. Among dietary factors for its prevention and treatment, interest has grown in satiating fibre (konjac glucomannan) and spirulina. Our previous studies suggest that glucomannan itself and/or in conjunction to spirulina displayed hypolipemic and antioxidant effects when incorporated to squid surimi as functional ingredients. The present study aims to determine whether glucomannan- enriched or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi improve plasma glucose and insulin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats fed a high saturated fat diet. Twenty four growing rats, divided into three groups, were given modified AIN-93M diets for seven weeks: 30% squid-surimi control diet (C), 30% glucomannan-enriched squid-surimi diet (G) and 30% glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi diet (GS). All rats became hyperglycemics and hyperinsulinemics, but G and GS diets induced significantly lower glucose levels (20%; p diet. GS animals showed higher HOMA-D (p rats (16-20 times, p diets were able to reduce hyperglycemia and increase adipose tissue adiponectin levels in fa/fa rats, suggesting an anti-hypertrophic and insulin-sensitizing adipokine effect in this tissue. Spirulina inclusion increased insulin availability. Although results are promising, the utility of consuming glucomannan surimis as part of usual diets demands future studies. PMID:26667726

  9. Nutritional skewing of conceptus sex in sheep: effects of a maternal diet enriched in rumen-protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Jim E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that in polygynous mammalian species females in better body condition should produce more sons than daughters. Few controlled studies have however tested this hypothesis and controversy exists as to whether body condition score or maternal diet is in fact the determining factor of offspring sex. Here, we examined whether maternal diet, specifically increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake, of ewes with a constant body condition score around the time of conception influenced sex ratio. Methods Ewes (n = 44 maintained in similar body condition throughout the study were assigned either a control (C diet or one (F enriched in rumen-protected PUFA, but otherwise essentially equivalent, from four weeks prior to breeding until d13 post-estrus. On d13, conceptuses were recovered, measured, cultured to assess their capacity for interferon-tau (IFNT production and their sex determined. The experiment was repeated with all ewes being fed the F diet to remove any effects of parity order on sex ratio. Maternal body condition score (BCS, plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations were also assessed throughout the study and related to diet. Results In total 129 conceptuses were recovered. Ewes on the F diet produced significantly more male than female conceptuses (proportion male = 0.69; deviation from expected ratio of 0.5, P 0.1, but positively correlated with maternal body condition score (P Conclusion These results provide evidence that maternal diet, in the form of increased amounts of rumen-protected PUFA fed around conception, rather than maternal body condition, can skew the sex ratio towards males. These observations may have implications to the livestock industry and animal management policies when offspring of one sex may be preferred over the other.

  10. Blueberry husks and probiotics attenuate colorectal inflammation and oncogenesis, and liver injuries in rats exposed to cycling DSS-treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Håkansson

    Full Text Available Long-term colonic inflammation promotes carcinogenesis and histological abnormalities of the liver, and colorectal tumours frequently arise in a background of dysplasia, a precursor of adenomas. Altered colonic microbiota with an increased proportion of bacteria with pro-inflammatory characteristics, have been implicated in neoplastic progression. The composition of the microbiota can be modified by dietary components such as probiotics, polyphenols and dietary fibres. In the present study, the influence of probiotics in combination with blueberry husks on colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent liver damage was evaluated.Colorectal tumours were induced in rats by cyclic treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS. Blueberry husks and a mixture of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15159, Lactobacillus gasseri, DSM 16737 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313 supplemented a basic diet fortified with oats. The condition of the rats was monitored using a disease activity index (DAI. A qualitative and quantitative histological judgement was performed on segments of distal colon and rectum and the caudate lobe of the liver. The formation of short-chain fatty acids, bacterial translocation, the inflammatory reaction and viable count of lactobacilli and Enterobaceriaceae were addressed.Blueberry husks with or without probiotics significantly decreased DAI, and significantly reduced the number of colonic ulcers and dysplastic lesions. With a decreased proportion of blueberry husk in the diet, the probiotic supplement was needed to achieve a significant decrease in numbers of dysplastic lesions. Probiotics decreased faecal viable count of Enterobacteriaceae and increased that of lactobacilli. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics lowered the proportion of butyric acid in distal colon, and decreased the haptoglobin levels. Probiotics mitigated hepatic injuries by decreasing parenchymal infiltration and the incidence of stasis and

  11. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  12. Chemical composition and oxidative status of tissues from Iberian pigs as affected by diets: extensive feeding v. oleic acid- and tocopherol-enriched mixed diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, S; Tejeda, J F; Estévez, M

    2008-04-01

    The present work was intended to analyse the chemical composition and oxidative stability of the muscle biceps femoris and adipose tissues from Iberian pigs fed different finishing diets: free-range feeding on grass and acorns in a 'Montanera' traditional system (MON), fed in confinement with a mixed diet containing high-oleic sunflower oil (115 g/kg of diet) and supplemented with 250 mg/kg α-tocopherol (HOVE), and fed in confinement with a tocopherol-non-supplemented control mixed diet (CON). Muscles from MON pigs contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of intramuscular fat than those from HOVE and CON pigs. Muscles from MON and HOVE pigs had significantly higher levels of α-tocopherol than muscles from CON pigs whereas free-range feeding provided significantly higher levels of γ-tocopherol to muscles from MON pigs than the experimental diets did to CON and HOVE pigs. Adipose tissues from MON and HOVE pigs contained significantly lower proportions of saturated fatty acids and significantly higher levels of oleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids than those from CON pigs. Tissues from MON pigs contained significantly smaller levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids than those from CON and HOVE pigs. To a higher extent, feeding background affected the fatty acid composition of polar lipids from the muscle biceps femoris than that of neutral lipids. Tissues from MON pigs contained significantly smaller ω-6/ω-3 values than those from pigs fed mixed diets. Compared to tissues from CON pigs, those from MON and HOVE pigs exhibited a higher oxidative stability as a likely result of a most favourable fatty acid composition and the presence of higher tocopherol levels.

  13. Serotonergic outcome, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in a South American cichlid fish fed with an L-tryptophan enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, Leonel; Ramallo, Martín Roberto; Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Höcht, Christian; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Silva, Ana; Pandolfi, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Reared animals for edible or ornamental purposes are frequently exposed to high aggression and stressful situations. These factors generally arise from conspecifics in densely breeding conditions. In vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT) has been postulated as a key neuromodulator and neurotransmitter involved in aggression and stress. The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (trp) is crucial for the synthesis of 5-HT, and so, leaves a gateway for indirectly augmenting brain 5-HT levels by means of a trp-enriched diet. The cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita, is an autochthonous, potentially ornamental species and a fruitful laboratory model which behavior and reproduction has been studied over the last 15years. It presents complex social hierarchies, and great asymmetries between subordinate and dominant animals in respect to aggression, stress, and reproductive chance. The first aim of this work was to perform a morphological description of chanchita's brain serotonergic system, in both males and females. Then, we evaluated the effects of a trp-supplemented diet, given during 4weeks, on brain serotonergic activity, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in isolated specimens. Results showed that chanchita's brain serotonergic system is composed of several populations of neurons located in three main areas: pretectum, hypothalamus and raphe, with no clear differences between males and females at a morphological level. Animals fed with trp-enriched diets exhibited higher forebrain serotonergic activity and a significant reduction in their relative cortisol levels, with no effects on sexual steroid plasma levels or growth parameters. Thus, this study points to food trp enrichment as a "neurodietary'' method for elevating brain serotonergic activity and decreasing stress, without affecting growth or sex steroid hormone levels. PMID:26449161

  14. A conjugated linoleic acid-enriched beef diet attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in mice in part through PPARgamma-mediated suppression of toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Draper, Eve; Keogh, Brian; Rahman, Arman; Moloney, Aidan P; Mills, Kingston H G; Loscher, Christine E; Roche, Helen M

    2009-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a PUFA found in beef and dairy products that has immunoregulatory properties. The level of CLA in beef can be enhanced by feeding cattle fresh grass rather than concentrates. This study determined the effect of feeding a high-CLA beef diet on inflammation in an in vivo model of septic shock. Mice were fed a high-CLA beef (4.3% total fatty acid composition) or low-CLA beef diet (0.84% total fatty acid composition) for 6 wk. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3 microg) or sterile PBS was injected i.v. and serum was harvested 6 h after injection. Serum interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-12p70, IL-12p40, and interferon-gamma concentrations were significantly reduced in response to the LPS challenge in the high-CLA beef diet group. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from the high-CLA beef diet group had significantly less IL-12 and more IL-10 in response to ex vivo LPS stimulation. Furthermore, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 protein and mRNA expression on BMDC was significantly attenuated in the high-CLA compared with the low-CLA beef diet group. Complimentary in vitro experiments to determine the specificity of the effect showed that synthetic cis9, trans11-CLA suppressed surface expression of CD14 and TLR4 on BMDC. Treatment with the PPARgamma inhibitor GW9662 partially reversed TLR4 expression in immature BMDC. The results of this study demonstrate that feeding a diet enriched in high-beef CLA exerts profound antiinflammatory effects in vivo within the context of LPS-induced sepsis. In addition, downregulation of BMDC TLR4 is mediated through induction of PPARgamma. PMID:19846417

  15. [The use of total enteral formula with enriched nutrient in home Low Calorie Diet(LCD)therapy based on regular meal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Akiko; Ibata, Takeshi; Shinoki, Keiji; Ando, Yukiko; Hirata, Takahiro; Kojima, Atsuko; Nishijima, Ritsuko; Doi, Seiko; Komuro, Ryutaro; Iijima, Shohei

    2010-12-01

    We made a low calorie diet(LCD)menu which added two commercial supporting nutritional supplements to a meal. Because a conventional formula food is very expensive, the patient was not able to afford it at home. Those supplements are a total enteral formula with enriched nutrient(ACURE EN800)and vitamin-mineral rich drink(V CRESC). The contents of vitamin and mineral in this menu satisfied the dietary reference intakes, though protein was a little low. However, we could keep the price low compared to the formula food. The patient was able to switch over to home LCD therapy with the menu.

  16. Lowbush blueberries, Vaccinium angustifolium, modulate the functional potential of nutrient utilization and DNA maintenance mechanisms in the rat proximal colon microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Lacombe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The core gut microbiota encodes for a metabolic capacity that often surpasses the metabolic potential of its host. Lowbush wild blueberries (LWB are a rich source of bioactive compounds, and the gut microbiota is an important modulator of their activity. The objective of this research is to study the effect of a diet enriched with LWB on the gastrointestinal microbiota’s metabolic potential. Methods: Nine three-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups. The control group (N=4 was placed on the AIN93 diet, and the treatment group (N=5 was fed the same diet with 8% (w/w LWB powder substituting for dextrose. The animals consumed the diets for six weeks, after which they were sacrificed. Functional profiles and metabolic potential of the colon microbiota in response to diet were analyzed using deep whole genome sequencing (WGS. Results: Proteins predicted from WGS DNA sequences were assigned to 3,746 COG, 5,577 KEGG, and 4,474 Pfam families. Statistical comparisons of the protein-coding genes revealed significant changes in 25 Gene Ontology (GO, 186 KEGG, and 20 Pfam protein families representing 2.1%, 3.3%, and 0.02% of all hits identified, respectively. Overall, the combined inquires into these databases represented an emphasis on membrane trafficking, DNA regulation, modification and repair, and nutrient metabolism. Protein families that significantly increased by the enrichment of LWBs were involved with amino acid metabolism, 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, metal ion binding, glutamate synthase, REDOX homeostasis, and aryl transferases. In Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(6:228-241 contrast, protein families involved with integrase/recombinase, reverse transcriptase, and transposon/transposase were at a lower abundance. Conclusions: The results from this study reflect the potential impact that LWBs have on the functional repertoire of bacterial communities in the proximal colon. The results

  17. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope trophic enrichment factors for Steller sea lion vibrissae relative to milk and fish/invertebrate diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Craig A.; Christ, Aaron M.; Wunder, Michael B.; Doll, Andrew C.; Farley, Sean D.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Rosen, David A. S.; Scherer, R. D.; Tollit, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional constraints have been proposed as a contributor to population declines in the endangered Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus in some regions of the North Pacific. Isotopic analysis of vibrissae (whiskers) is a potentially useful approach to resolving the nutritional ecology of this species because long-term (up to 8 yr) dietary information is sequentially recorded and metabolically inert once formed. Additionally, vibrissae are grown in utero, potentially offering indirect inference on maternal diet. However, diet reconstruction using isotopic techniques requires a priori knowledge of trophic enrichment factors (TEFs), which can vary relative to diet quality and among animal species. In this study, we provide new TEF estimates for (1) maternal relative to pup vibrissae during both gestation and nursing and (2) adult vibrissae relative to a complex diet. Further, we refine vibrissa-milk TEFs based on an additional 76 animals with an age distribution ranging from 1 to 20 mo. Mother-pup vibrissae TEF values during gestation and nursing were near zero for δ13C and averaged 0.8 and 1.6‰, respectively, for δ15N. In contrast, vibrissa-fish/invertebrate TEFs averaged 3.3 (± 0.3 SD) and 3.7‰ (±0.3) for lipid-free δ13C and δ15N, respectively. Average lipid-free δ13C and δ15N vibrissa-milk TEFs were 2.5 (±0.9) and 1.8‰ (±0.8), respectively, and did not differ among metapopulations. Empirically determined TEFs are critical for accurate retrospective diet modeling, particularly for evaluating the hypothesis of nutritional deficiency contributing to the lack of Steller sea lion population recovery in some regions of Alaska.

  18. Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Richard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13 response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05. Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05. Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05. Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT.

  19. Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Caroline; Lewis, Erin D; Goruk, Susan; Field, Catherine J

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT) in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA) or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA) diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA) treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13) response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05). Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05). Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05). Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT. PMID:26907333

  20. Production of TNF-α, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide by macrophages from mice with paracoccidioidomycosis that were fed a linseed oil-enriched diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheisa Cyléia Sargi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA can modulate the immune system and their primary effect is on macrophage function. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America that is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb. Macrophages are the main defence against this pathogen and have microbicidal activity that is dependent on interferon-Γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α. These cytokines stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, leading to the death of the fungus. To study the effect of n-3 PUFA on the host immune response during experimental PCM, macrophages that were obtained from animals infected with Pb18 and fed a diet enriched by linseed (LIN oil were cultured and challenged with the fungus in vitro. The macrophage function was analysed based on the concentrations of TNF-α, NO and H2O2. LIN oil seems to influence the production of TNF-α during the development of disease. A diet enriched with LIN oil influences the microbicidal activity of the macrophages by inducing the production of cytokines and metabolites such as NO and H2O2, predominantly in the chronic phase of infection.

  1. Identification of N-terminally truncated pyroglutamate amyloid-β in cholesterol-enriched diet-fed rabbit and AD brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garmendia, Roxanna; Hernandez-Zimbron, Luis Fernando; Morales, Miguel Angel; Luna-Muñoz, José; Mena, Raul; Nava-Catorce, Miriam; Acero, Gonzalo; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Viramontes-Pintos, Amparo; Cribbs, David H; Gevorkian, Goar

    2014-01-01

    The main amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) variants detected in the human brain are Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42; however, a significant proportion of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain also consists of N-terminal truncated/modified species. AβN3(pE), Aβ peptide bearing amino-terminal pyroglutamate at position 3, has been demonstrated to be a major N-truncated/modified constituent of intracellular, extracellular, and vascular Aβ deposits in AD and Down syndrome brain tissue. It has been previously demonstrated that rabbits fed a diet enriched in cholesterol and given water containing trace copper levels developed AD-like pathology including intraneuronal and extracellular Aβ accumulation, tau hyperphosphorylation, vascular inflammation, astrocytosis, microgliosis, reduced levels of acetylcholine, as well as learning deficits and thus, may be used as a non-transgenic animal model of sporadic AD. In the present study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of AβN3(pE) in blood vessels in cholesterol-enriched diet-fed rabbit brain. In addition, we detected AβN3(pE) immunoreactivity in all postmortem AD brain samples studied. We believe that our results are potentially important for evaluation of novel therapeutic molecules/strategies targeting Aβ peptides in a suitable non-transgenic animal model.

  2. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease, is increasing with the expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to mitigate this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominent...

  3. ‘Baby Blues’ highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

  4. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone affects energy homeostasis and intestinal fat absorption in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Even, Patrick; Lafont, René; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2014-04-10

    In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a supplementation of a high-fat diet with a quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone (QE) or pure 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) could prevent the development of obesity. In line with the anti-obesity effect of QE, we used indirect calorimetry to examine the effect of dietary QE and 20E in high-fat fed mice on different components of energy metabolism. Mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by QE or pure 20E for 3 weeks. As compared to mice maintained on a low-fat diet, HF feeding resulted in a marked physiological shift in energy homeostasis, associating a decrease in global energy expenditure (EE) and an increase in lipid utilization as assessed by the lower respiratory quotient (RQ). Supplementation with 20E increased energy expenditure while food intake and activity were not affected. Furthermore QE and 20E promoted a higher rate of glucose oxidation leading to an increased RQ value. In QE and 20E-treated HFD fed mice, there was an increase in fecal lipid excretion without any change in stool amount. Our study indicates that anti-obesity effect of QE can be explained by a global increase in energy expenditure, a shift in glucose metabolism towards oxidation to the detriment of lipogenesis and a decrease in dietary lipid absorption leading to reduced dietary lipid storage in adipose tissue.

  5. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone affects energy homeostasis and intestinal fat absorption in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Even, Patrick; Lafont, René; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2014-04-10

    In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a supplementation of a high-fat diet with a quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone (QE) or pure 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) could prevent the development of obesity. In line with the anti-obesity effect of QE, we used indirect calorimetry to examine the effect of dietary QE and 20E in high-fat fed mice on different components of energy metabolism. Mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by QE or pure 20E for 3 weeks. As compared to mice maintained on a low-fat diet, HF feeding resulted in a marked physiological shift in energy homeostasis, associating a decrease in global energy expenditure (EE) and an increase in lipid utilization as assessed by the lower respiratory quotient (RQ). Supplementation with 20E increased energy expenditure while food intake and activity were not affected. Furthermore QE and 20E promoted a higher rate of glucose oxidation leading to an increased RQ value. In QE and 20E-treated HFD fed mice, there was an increase in fecal lipid excretion without any change in stool amount. Our study indicates that anti-obesity effect of QE can be explained by a global increase in energy expenditure, a shift in glucose metabolism towards oxidation to the detriment of lipogenesis and a decrease in dietary lipid absorption leading to reduced dietary lipid storage in adipose tissue. PMID:24534167

  6. Impact of date palm fruits extracts and probiotic enriched diet on antioxidant status, innate immune response and immune-related gene expression of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, F A; Porcino, C; Cerezuela, R; Cuesta, A; Faggio, C; Esteban, M A

    2016-05-01

    The application of additives in the diet as plants or extracts of plants as natural and innocuous compounds has potential in aquaculture as an alternative to antibiotics and immunoprophylactics. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential effects of dietary supplementation of date palm fruit extracts alone or in combination with Pdp11 probiotic on serum antioxidant status, on the humoral and cellular innate immune status, as well as, on the expression levels of some immune-related genes in head-kidney and gut of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) after 2 and 4 weeks of administration. This study showed for the first time in European sea bass an immunostimulation in several of the parameters evaluated in fish fed with date palm fruits extracts enriched diet or fed with this substance in combination with Pdp 11 probiotic, mainly after 4 weeks of treatment. In the same way, dietary supplementation of mixture diet has positive effects on the expression levels of immune-related genes, chiefly in head-kidney of Dicentrarchus labrax. Therefore, the combination of both could be considered of great interest as potential additives for farmed fish. PMID:27033470

  7. Diets enriched in trans-11 vaccenic acid alleviate ectopic lipid accumulation in a rat model of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome-Sosa, M Miriam; Borthwick, Faye; Mangat, Rabban; Uwiera, Richard; Reaney, Martin J; Shen, Jianheng; Quiroga, Ariel D; Jacobs, René L; Lehner, Richard; Proctor, Spencer D; Nelson, Randal C

    2014-07-01

    Trans11-18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA) is one of the most predominant naturally occurring trans fats in our food chain and has recently been shown to exert hypolipidemic effects in animal models. In this study, we reveal new mechanism(s) by which VA can alter body fat distribution, energy utilization and dysfunctional lipid metabolism in an animal model of obesity displaying features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Obese JCR:LA-cp rats were assigned to a control diet that included dairy-derived fat or the control diet supplemented with 1% VA. VA reduced total body fat (-6%), stimulated adipose tissue redistribution [reduced mesenteric fat (-17%) while increasing inguinal fat mass (29%)] and decreased adipocyte size (-44%) versus control rats. VA supplementation also increased metabolic rate (7%) concomitantly with an increased preference for whole-body glucose utilization for oxidation and increased insulin sensitivity [lower HOMA-IR (-59%)]. Further, VA decreased nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores (-34%) and reduced hepatic (-27%) and intestinal (-39%) triglyceride secretion relative to control diet, while exerting differential transcriptional regulation of SREBP1 and FAS amongst other key genes in the liver and the intestine. Adding VA to dairy fat alleviates features of MetS potentially by remodeling adipose tissue and attenuating ectopic lipid accumulation in a rat model of obesity and MetS. Increasing VA content in the diet (naturally or by fortification) may be a useful approach to maximize the health value of dairy-derived fats. PMID:24775093

  8. Effects of Chronic Consumption of Sugar-Enriched Diets on Brain Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Adult Yucatan Minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Melissa; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Meurice, Paul; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    Excessive sugar intake might increase the risk to develop eating disorders via an altered reward circuitry, but it remains unknown whether different sugar sources induce different neural effects and whether these effects are dependent from body weight. Therefore, we compared the effects of three high-fat and isocaloric diets varying only in their carbohydrate sources on brain activity of reward-related regions, and assessed whether brain activity is dependent on insulin sensitivity. Twenty-four minipigs underwent 18FDG PET brain imaging following 7-month intake of high-fat diets of which 20% in dry matter weight (36.3% of metabolisable energy) was provided by starch, glucose or fructose (n = 8 per diet). Animals were then subjected to a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine peripheral insulin sensitivity. After a 7-month diet treatment, all groups had substantial increases in body weight (from 36.02±0.85 to 63.33±0.81 kg; Pstarch, chronic exposure to fructose and glucose induced bilateral brain activations, i.e. increased basal cerebral glucose metabolism, in several reward-related brain regions including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the caudate and putamen. The lack of differences in insulin sensitivity index and body weight suggests that the observed differences in basal brain glucose metabolism are not related to differences in peripheral insulin sensitivity and weight gain. The differences in basal brain metabolism in reward-related brain areas suggest the onset of cerebral functional alterations induced by chronic consumption of dietary sugars. Further studies should explore the underlying mechanisms, such as the availability of intestinal and brain sugar transporter, or the appearance of addictive-like behavioral correlates of these brain functional characteristics. PMID:27583555

  9. enriched diets and the growth, development and survival of litoria moorei (anura) tadpoles reared in captivity at low density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    increasing numbers of amphibian species require conservation breeding programs for their survival.a major challenge is the efficient rearing of tadpoles,many of which require complex habitats and specialised diets.aquatic tadpoles of the west australian frog litoria moorei were kept at low density (1 tadpole per 1.95 litres water) in aquaria at 25℃.fed on a staple diet of boiled lettuce and leaf litter,group of diets were supplemented with either control,wardley(r) premium spirulina discs,seratm gvg-mix tropical fish food,or a combination of wardley(r) premium spirulina discs and seratm gvg-mix fish food.there was a relatively high loss (i.e.,found dead,euthanized due to scoliosis,or not found) of tadpoles fed with the lettuce/leaf litter alone,but this was increased significantly when supplemented with wardley(r) premium spirulina discs,either alone or with seratm gvg-mix fish food,and seratm gvg fish food alone.however,the survived tadpoles fed on the three supplements were all heavier after three weeks and at metamorphosis than those fed with lettuce/leaf litter alone,and reached metamorphosis quicker.it is concluded that any benefit of the food supplements in terms of increasing the rate of growth and development of the tadpoles is outweighed by greater mortality.there is now a need for the efficient rearing of tadpoles,many from novel species that need complex habitats.further studies of diet are required due to the current conservation crisis of amphibians.

  10. Effects of Chronic Consumption of Sugar-Enriched Diets on Brain Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Adult Yucatan Minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Melissa; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Meurice, Paul; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    Excessive sugar intake might increase the risk to develop eating disorders via an altered reward circuitry, but it remains unknown whether different sugar sources induce different neural effects and whether these effects are dependent from body weight. Therefore, we compared the effects of three high-fat and isocaloric diets varying only in their carbohydrate sources on brain activity of reward-related regions, and assessed whether brain activity is dependent on insulin sensitivity. Twenty-four minipigs underwent 18FDG PET brain imaging following 7-month intake of high-fat diets of which 20% in dry matter weight (36.3% of metabolisable energy) was provided by starch, glucose or fructose (n = 8 per diet). Animals were then subjected to a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine peripheral insulin sensitivity. After a 7-month diet treatment, all groups had substantial increases in body weight (from 36.02±0.85 to 63.33±0.81 kg; Pbrain activations, i.e. increased basal cerebral glucose metabolism, in several reward-related brain regions including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the caudate and putamen. The lack of differences in insulin sensitivity index and body weight suggests that the observed differences in basal brain glucose metabolism are not related to differences in peripheral insulin sensitivity and weight gain. The differences in basal brain metabolism in reward-related brain areas suggest the onset of cerebral functional alterations induced by chronic consumption of dietary sugars. Further studies should explore the underlying mechanisms, such as the availability of intestinal and brain sugar transporter, or the appearance of addictive-like behavioral correlates of these brain functional characteristics. PMID:27583555

  11. BBGD: an online database for blueberry genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Benjamin F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae family, which also includes closely related cranberry and more distantly related rhododendron, azalea, and mountain laurel. Blueberry is a major berry crop in the United States, and one that has great nutritional and economical value. Extreme low temperatures, however, reduce crop yield and cause major losses to US farmers. A better understanding of the genes and biochemical pathways that are up- or down-regulated during cold acclimation is needed to produce blueberry cultivars with enhanced cold hardiness. To that end, the blueberry genomics database (BBDG was developed. Along with the analysis tools and web-based query interfaces, the database serves both the broader Ericaceae research community and the blueberry research community specifically by making available ESTs and gene expression data in searchable formats and in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of cold acclimation and freeze tolerance in blueberry. Description BBGD is the world's first database for blueberry genomics. BBGD is both a sequence and gene expression database. It stores both EST and microarray data and allows scientists to correlate expression profiles with gene function. BBGD is a public online database. Presently, the main focus of the database is the identification of genes in blueberry that are significantly induced or suppressed after low temperature exposure. Conclusion By using the database, researchers have developed EST-based markers for mapping and have identified a number of "candidate" cold tolerance genes that are highly expressed in blueberry flower buds after exposure to low temperatures.

  12. Blueberry polyphenols attenuate kainic acid-induced decrements in cognition and alter inflammatory gene expression in rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis C.; Carey, Amanda N.; Galli, Rachel L.; Spangler, Edward L.; Ingram, Donald K.; Joseph, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease may be partly due to long-term exposure and increased susceptibility to inflammatory insults. In the current study, we investigated whether polyphenols in blueberries can reduce the deleterious effects of inflammation induced by central administration of kainic acid by altering the expression of genes associated with inflammation. To this end, 4-month-old male Fischer-344 (F344) rats were fed a control, 0.015% piroxicam (an NSAID) or 2% blueberry diet for 8 weeks before either Ringer's buffer or kainic acid was bilaterally micro-infused into the hippocampus. Two weeks later, following behavioral evaluation, the rats were killed and total RNA from the hippocampus was extracted and used in real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression of inflammation-related genes. Kainic acid had deleterious effects on cognitive behavior as kainic acid-injected rats on the control diet exhibited increased latencies to find a hidden platform in the Morris water maze compared to Ringer's buffer-injected rats and utilized non-spatial strategies during probe trials. The blueberry diet, and to a lesser degree the piroxicam diet, was able to improve cognitive performance. Immunohistochemical analyses of OX-6 expression revealed that kainic acid produced an inflammatory response by increasing the OX-6 positive areas in the hippocampus of kainic acid-injected rats. Kainic acid up-regulated the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, the neurotrophic factor IGF-1, and the transcription factor NF-κB. Blueberry and piroxicam supplementations were found to attenuate the kainic acid-induced increase in the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB, while only blueberry was able to augment the increased IGF-1 expression. These results indicate that blueberry polyphenols attenuate learning impairments following neurotoxic insult and exert anti-inflammatory actions

  13. Cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and Blueberry Extracts Supplementation Improves Spatial Memory and Regulates Hippocampal ERK Expression in Senescence-accelerated Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Long; YANG Hong Peng; PANG Wei; LU Hao; HU Yan Dan; LI Jing; LU Shi Jun; ZHANG Wan Qi; JIANG Yu Gang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the antioxidation and the regulation on the Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinases (ERK) signaling pathway are involved in the protective effects of blueberry on central nervous system. Methods 30 Senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into three groups and treated with normal diet, blueberry extracts (200 mg/kg·bw/day) and cyaniding-3-O-galactoside (Cy-3-GAL) (50 mg/kg·bw/day) from blueberry for 8 weeks. 10 SAMR1 mice were set as control group. The capacity of spatial memory was assessed by Passive avoidance task and Morris water maze. Histological analyses on hippocampus were completed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and the expression of ERK were detected. Results Both Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts were shown effective functions to relieve cellular injury, improve hippocampal neurons survival and inhibit the pyramidal cell layer damage. Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts also increased SOD activity and reduced MDA content in brain tissues and plasma, and increased hippocampal phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) expression in SAMP8 mice. Further more, the passive avoidance task test showed that both the latency time and the number of errors were improved by Cy-3-GAL treatment, and the Morris Water Maze test showed significant decreases of latency were detected by Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts treatment on day 4. Conclusion Blueberry extracts may reverse the declines of cognitive and behavioral function in the ageing process through several pathways, including enhancing the capacity of antioxidation, altering stress signaling. Cy-3-GAL may be an important active ingredient for these biological effects.

  14. Effect of a long chain n-3 PUFA-enriched diet on production and reproduction variables in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis, Sebastien; Freret, Sandrine; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Dupont, Mickael; Faverdin, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a rumen-protected fish oil supplement on the production and reproduction variables in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows (n=46) were given a basal total mixed diet plus one PUFA supplement: n-3 (n-3; protected fish oil; 1% dry matter intake (DMI); n=23) or control (n-6; toasted soybeans; 1.8% DMI; n=23), in a switchback design over two consecutive lactations. Supplements were added to the diet between calving and 2 months after calving to assess the effect on growth and maturation of ovarian follicles from which ovulation occurred around the day of insemination. Body weight (BW), milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), subcutaneous fat thickness, plasma fatty acid composition, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and urea concentrations, follicular activity, embryo mortalities and fertility (conception rate after first AI, AI1) were assessed. BW, MY, DMI, plasma NEFA, glucose and urea were unaffected by the diet. There was a trend of an increased number of large follicles (diameter≥10mm) with the n-3 dietary supplementation (P=0.06) and a decrease in infertility or early embryo mortality rate 21 days after AI, 13.5% in the n-3 compared with 38.8% in the n-6 group (P=0.09), with no effect on the conception rate at 35d or 90d after AI1. These data suggest that the effect seen on ovarian variables is not associated with an effect on production and metabolic variables and is specific to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Further studies are necessary to determine whether DHA or EPA enhances fertility in lactating dairy cattle. PMID:26651949

  15. Lack of efficacy of blueberry in nutritional prevention of azoxymethane-initiated cancers of rat small intestine and colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xianli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberries may lower relative risk for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Previous work indicated an inhibitory effect of consumed blueberry (BB on formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colons of male Fisher F344 rats (inbred strain. However, effects of BB on colon tumors and in both genders are unknown. Methods We examined efficacy of BB in inhibition of azoxymethane (AOM-induced colon ACF and intestine tumors in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (outbred strain. Pregnant rats were fed a diet with or without 10% BB powder; progeny were weaned to the same diet as their dam and received AOM as young adults. Results Male and female rats on control diet had similar numbers of ACF at 6 weeks after AOM administration. BB increased (P P P > 0.05 to reduce overall gastrointestinal tract tumor incidence in males, however, tumor incidence in females was unaffected (P > 0.1 by BB. There was a tendency (0.1 > P > 0.05 for fewer adenocarcinomas (relative to total of adenomatous polyps plus adenocarcinomas in colons of female than male tumor-bearing rats; in small intestine, this gender difference was significant (P P Conclusion Results did not indicate robust cancer-preventive effects of BB. Blueberry influenced ACF occurrence in distal colon and tumor progression in duodenum, in gender-specific fashion. Data indicate the potential for slowing tumor progression (adenomatous polyp to adenocarcinoma by BB.

  16. The effect of hypocaloric diet enriched in legumes with or without L- arginine and selenium on anthropometric measures in central obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying new ways to decrease adiposity will be very valuable for health. The aim of this study was to find out whether L- Arginine (Arg and selenium alone or together can increase the effect of hypocaloric diet enriched in legumes (HDEL on anthropometric measures in healthy obese women. Methods: This randomized, double- blind, placebo- controlled trial was undertaken in 84 healthy premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of run- in on an isocaloric diet, participants were randomly considered to eat HDEL, Arg (5 g/d and HDEL, selenium (200 μg/d and HDEL or Arg, selenium and HDEL for 6 weeks. The following variables were assessed before intervention and 3 and 6 weeks after it: weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR, body mass index (BMI, and fasting nitrite/nitrate (NOx concentrations. Other variables (arm, thigh, calf and breast circumferences, subscapular, triceps, biceps and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses, sum of skinfold thicknesses (SSF, body density (D and estimated percent of body fat (EPF were assessed before and after intervention. Results: HDEL showed a significant effect in reduction of waist, hip, arm, thigh, calf and breast circumferences, triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses, WHR, SSF, D and EPF. HDEL + Arg + selenium significantly reduced suprailiac skinfold thicknesses; and there was no significant effect of HDEL, Arg, selenium and Arg plus selenium on weight, BMI and fasting NOx . Conclusions: The study indicates that HDEL + Arg + selenium reduce suprailiac skinfold thicknesses which represents the abdominal obesity reduction.

  17. Effects of a Diet Enriched with Polyunsaturated, Saturated, or Trans Fatty Acids on Cytokine Content in the Liver, White Adipose Tissue, and Skeletal Muscle of Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effect of diet enriched with 30% lipids on cytokines content in different tissues. Swiss male mice were distributed into four groups treated for 8 weeks with control (C, normolipidic diet; soybean oil (S; lard (L; and hydrogenated vegetable fat (H. We observed an increase in carcass fat in groups S and L, and the total amount of fatty deposits was only higher in group L compared with C group. The serum levels of free fatty acids were lower in the L group, and insulin, adiponectin, lipid profile, and glucose levels were similar among the groups. IL-10 was lower in group L in mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. H reduced IL-10 only in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. There was an increase in IL-6 in the gastrocnemius muscle of the L group, and a positive correlation between TNF-α and IL-10 was observed in the livers of groups C, L, and H and in the muscles of all groups studied. The results suggested relationships between the quantity and quality of lipids ingested with adiposity, the concentration of free fatty acids, and cytokine production in white adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, and liver.

  18. A genistein-enriched diet neither improves skeletal muscle oxidative capacity nor prevents the transition towards advanced insulin resistance in ZDF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bree, Bianca W J; Lenaers, Ellen; Nabben, Miranda; Briedé, Jacco J; Jörgensen, Johanna A; Schaart, Gert; Schrauwen, Patrick; Hoeks, Joris; Hesselink, Matthijs K C

    2016-01-01

    Genistein, a natural food compound mainly present in soybeans, is considered a potent antioxidant and to improve glucose homeostasis. However, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed whether genistein could antagonize the progression of the hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic state (pre-diabetes) toward full-blown T2DM in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats by decreasing mitochondrial oxidative stress and improving skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Rats were assigned to three groups: (1) lean control (CNTL), (2) fa/fa CNTL, and (3) fa/fa genistein (GEN). GEN animals were subjected to a 0.02% (w/w) genistein-enriched diet for 8 weeks, whereas CNTL rats received a standard diet. We show that genistein did not affect the overall response to a glucose challenge in ZDF rats. In fact, genistein may exacerbate glucose intolerance as fasting glucose levels were significantly higher in fa/fa GEN (17.6 ± 0.7 mM) compared with fa/fa CNTL animals (14.9 ± 1.4 mM). Oxidative stress, established by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, carbonylated protein content and UCP3 levels, remained unchanged upon dietary genistein supplementation. Furthermore, respirometry measurements revealed no effects of genistein on mitochondrial function. In conclusion, dietary genistein supplementation did not improve glucose homeostasis, alleviate oxidative stress, or augment skeletal muscle metabolism in ZDF rats. PMID:26973284

  19. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries (2009) by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization), invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A c...

  20. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LINOLEIC-ACID-ENRICHED DIET ON ALBUMINURIA AND LIPID-LEVELS IN TYPE-1 (INSULIN-DEPENDENT) DIABETIC-PATIENTS WITH ELEVATED URINARY ALBUMIN EXCRETION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF; BEUSEKAMP, BJ; MEIJER, S; HOOGENBERG, K; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; SLUITER, WJ

    1992-01-01

    We conducted a 2-year prospective randomised study to investigate the effects of a linoleic-acid-enriched diet on albuminuria and lipid levels in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion (overnight urinary albumin excretion rate between 10 and 200-mu-g/min

  1. Blueberry latent virus: An Amalgam of the Totiviridae and Partitiviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new, symptomless virus was identified in blueberry. The dsRNA genome of the virus, provisionally named Blueberry latent virus (BBLV), codes for two putative proteins and lacks a movement protein, a property only shared with cryptic viruses. More than 35 isolates of the virus from different cultiv...

  2. Evaluation of protective effect of freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder on acrylamide toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengyao; Liu, Xin; Luo, Yinghua; Guo, Huan; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2015-04-01

    Berries are dietary plants with high antioxidant activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of berries (strawberry, grape, and blueberry) against the acrylamide (AA)-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice model, respectively. Mice were treated with 50 mg/kg b.w./day AA intraperitoneal injection for 5 d after feeding control diet or diet containing freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder. The results showed that AA induced a significant general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice. Compared with the control diet, the diets containing berries could reverse the AA-induced alterations in liver antioxidant enzymes activities (P < 0.05). Moreover, the AA-induced genotoxicity could be prevented by the diet containing berries. The DNA damage in the lymphocyte and liver cells and the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cell were significantly alleviated (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the mice fed with diets containing berries showed a recovery in the sperm count, the sperm activity rate, sperm motility parameters, and the abnormal sperm rate (P < 0.05). Berry powders have remarkable intervention against the AA-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity. Abundant phenolics, especially anthocyanins, may contribute to the intervention.

  3. Maslinic acid-enriched diet decreases intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice through transcriptomic and metabolomic reprogramming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sánchez-Tena

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention is a pragmatic approach to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in western countries. In this regard, maslinic acid (MA, a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from wax-like coatings of olives, is known to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines without affecting normal intestinal cells. The present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy and associated mechanisms of maslinic acid treatment on spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice. Twenty-two mice were randomized into 2 groups: control group and MA group, fed with a maslinic acid-supplemented diet for six weeks. MA treatment reduced total intestinal polyp formation by 45% (P<0.01. Putative molecular mechanisms associated with suppressing intestinal polyposis in Apc(Min/+ mice were investigated by comparing microarray expression profiles of MA-treated and control mice and by analyzing the serum metabolic profile using NMR techniques. The different expression phenotype induced by MA suggested that it exerts its chemopreventive action mainly by inhibiting cell-survival signaling and inflammation. These changes eventually induce G1-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, the metabolic changes induced by MA treatment were associated with a protective profile against intestinal tumorigenesis. These results show the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of MA against intestinal tumor development in the Apc(Min/+ mice model, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against colorectal cancer.

  4. Defensive effect of lansoprazole in dementia of AD type in mice exposed to streptozotocin and cholesterol enriched diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder K Sodhi

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the potential of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor and agonist of liver x receptors in experimental dementia of AD type. Streptozotocin [STZ, 3 mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v, and high fat diet (HFD, administered for 90 days] were used to induce dementia in separate groups of Swiss mice. Morris water maze (MWM test was performed to assess learning and memory of the animals. A battery of biochemical and histopathological studies were also performed. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain reduced glutathione (GSH and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS. Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE activity and serum cholesterol levels were also estimated. The brain level of myeloperoxidase (MPO was measured as a marker of inflammation. STZ and HFD produced a marked decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ/HFD treated mice exhibited a marked accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with a fall in GSH levels. Further, the stained micrographs of STZ/HFD treated mice indicated pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Lansoprazole treatment significantly attenuated STZ and HFD -induced memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations. It also prevented HFD-induced rise in the cholesterol level. Therefore, the findings demonstrate potential of lansoprazole in memory dysfunctions which may probably be attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, both cholesterol-dependent as well as cholesterol-independent effects of lansoprazole appear to play a role. In addition study indicates the role of liver x receptors in dementia.

  5. Enrichment of dry-cured ham with α-linolenic acid and α-tocopherol by the use of linseed oil and α-tocopheryl acetate in pig diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C; Hoz, L; Cambero, M I; Cabeza, M C; Ordóñez, J A

    2008-11-01

    The use of α-linolenic acid and α-tocopherol enriched pork on the fatty acids and the sensory characteristics of Spanish dry-cured hams have been studied. Five batches of hams were manufactured using the posterior legs of pigs fed on diets with the same ingredients except for the oil source: sunflower (C), linseed (L) or linseed and olive (1/1, w/w, LO). Two different α-tocopheryl acetate concentrations [20 (C, L and LO) or 220 (LOE and LE)mg/kg diet] were used. Biceps femoris and Semitendinosus/Semimembranosus muscles from hams with low polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6/n-3 ratio (less than 3) were obtained from animals fed on linseed and linseed/olive oil enriched diets. However, hams from animals fed on diets added with linseed and α-tocopheryl acetate (20mg/kg diet) (batch L) were rejected by consumers because of less acceptable sensory characteristics and higher TBARs. The remaining hams had satisfactory sensory and nutritional characteristics.

  6. Analytical and sensory quality characteristics of twelve blueberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The analytical and sensory quality characteristics of twelve blueberry cultivars were evaluated to determine what fruit quality characteristics consumers consider important and to evaluate if sensory quality characteristics were correlated to any analytical quality characteristics. Cultivars evaluat...

  7. Evaluation of anthocynin changes in blueberries and in blueberry jam after the processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Czako

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. is worldwide famous as the healthy and desirable fruit. The most valuable nutritional components of fruits are polyphenols, which include anthocyanins. The aim of the study was to assess the content of anthocyanin dyes in selected varieties of blueberry fruit. We evaluated the changes in the content of colorants that occur after treatment for fruit jam and its subsequent storage at 21°C under the light. Varieties Ramcocas, Record, Iranka, Nelson, Pemberton, Jersey and Coville were observed. Content of anthocyanins was determined spectrophotometrically. In fresh fruits anthocyanin content ranged from 9.878 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 18.555 g kg-1 of dry matter (Nelson variety. After treatment there was found a decrease in the anthocyanins content, in the product's content were determined in the amount 1.645 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 3.476 g kg-1 of dry matter (variety Ramcocas. The decrease was due to decomposition of anthocyans at high temperatures in processed products and also by the replacement of dry matter by sucrose in the product. Mean color decrease in blueberry jam was 84.5%. After storage of the product, there were found further degradations of colorants, evaluated at 34.9%. The content of anthocyanin in jam was found to be 1.089 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 2.199 g kg-1 of dry matter (Ramcocas variety.

  8. The antimicrobial properties of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) fractional components against foodborne pathogens and the conservation of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Wu, Vivian C H; White, Jennifer; Tadepalli, Shravaini; Andre, Enroe E

    2012-05-01

    The antimicrobial properties of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) were studied against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus to determine which fractional components have antimicrobial effects and which microorganisms are most susceptible to these antimicrobial properties. Lowbush blueberry extract (F1) was separated using a C-18 Sep-Pak cartridge into monomeric phenolics (F2) and anthocyanins plus proanthocyanidins (F3). Fraction 3 was further separated into anthocyanins (F4) and proanthocyanidins (F5) using a LH-20 Sephadex column. Each fraction was initially screened for antimicrobial properties using agar diffusion assay. Treatments that demonstrated inhibition were further analyzed for inhibition in liquid culture. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using a two-fold dilution series and viable cell counts taken at 0 and 24 h to examine growth reduction. Fraction 3 demonstrated the lowest MICs/MBCs followed by F1, F2, F4, and F5. L. monocytogenes was the most susceptible to blueberry fraction treatment, followed by E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium. L. rhamnosus was the least susceptible to each fraction treatment. The results can be applied to the field of preventive medicine, food safety, and enrich the understanding of the health benefits of lowbush blueberries. PMID:22265292

  9. Mechanical harvesting of blueberries with extended shelf life: impact damage and suggestions for reducing bruise injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern highbush blueberries (SHB) (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive (over 500 hours/acre) and costly. With the uncertainty of labor availability in the near future, efforts are under way to develop blueberry ...

  10. Host status and damage potential of Paratrichodorus renifer and Pratylenchus penetrans (Nematoda) to blueberry (Vaccinium spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubby root nematodes (Paratrichodorus species) and root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus species) have been associated with blueberry in most blueberry-growing regions of North America. Relatively little is known, however, of the host status and pathogenicity of these nematodes to blueberry. We per...

  11. Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Roberta O; Trindade, Simone C; Maurer, Luana H; Bersch, Andriely M; Sautter, Claudia K; Penna, Neidi G

    2016-09-01

    Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate) and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose) on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar). The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.

  12. Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Roberta O; Trindade, Simone C; Maurer, Luana H; Bersch, Andriely M; Sautter, Claudia K; Penna, Neidi G

    2016-09-01

    Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate) and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose) on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar). The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content. PMID:27508988

  13. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V; Rowland, Lisa J

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  14. Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTA O. SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar. The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.

  15. The fatty acid and cholesterol composition of enriched egg yolk lipids obtained by modifying hens’ diets with fish oil and flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçyn, Hasan; Basmacyoolu, Hatice; Kemal Ünal, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The effects of fish oil and flaxseed in the diets of laying hens on the cholesterol and fatty acid composition of egg lipids were studied. Isa-White laying hens and five experimental diets were used. The first diet was used as the control. Fish oil (1.5%), flaxseed (4.32% and 8.64) or both of them (1.5% fish oil and 4.32% flaxseed) were added to the others and hens were fed for 30 and 60 days. The cholesterol and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined. No significant difference (p

  16. conservation and nutritional quality of blueberry treated with eatable covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcibela Stülp

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lengthening the post-harvest life of fruits from temperate climates is one of the greatest challenges of modern agriculture, which aims at diminishing the losses and increasing the offer period of the product in national and international market. The use of eatable pellicles has been explored to cover fruits, since its usage represents an economical advantage, due to its low price and reduction of post-harvest losses. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of blueberry, cultivar Florida M, produced in an organic production system and covered with eatable covering based on kefir grains associated with different storage temperatures. Thus, it was observed that the most efficient treatment to reduce blueberry post-harvest loss was the combination of kefir grains in association with storage cooled at 5 ºC, not changing the chemical composition and nutritional of blueberry.

  17. Elevated Genetic Diversity in the Emerging Blueberry Pathogen Exobasidium maculosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Stewart

    Full Text Available Emerging diseases caused by fungi are increasing at an alarming rate. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry, caused by the fungus Exobasidium maculosum, is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA, severely reducing fruit quality in some plantings. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic diversity of E. maculosum in the southeastern USA to elucidate the basis of disease emergence and to investigate if populations of E. maculosum are structured by geography, host species, or tissue type. We sequenced three conserved loci from 82 isolates collected from leaves and fruit of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum, highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum, and southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum hybrids from commercial fields in Georgia and North Carolina, USA, and 6 isolates from lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium from Maine, USA, and Nova Scotia, Canada. Populations of E. maculosum from the southeastern USA and from lowbush blueberry in Maine and Nova Scotia are distinct, but do not represent unique species. No difference in genetic structure was detected between different host tissues or among different host species within the southeastern USA; however, differentiation was detected between populations in Georgia and North Carolina. Overall, E. maculosum showed extreme genetic diversity within the conserved loci with 286 segregating sites among the 1,775 sequenced nucleotides and each isolate representing a unique multilocus haplotype. However, 94% of the nucleotide substitutions were silent, so despite the high number of mutations, selective constraints have limited changes to the amino acid sequences of the housekeeping genes. Overall, these results suggest that the emergence of Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot is not due to a recent introduction or host shift, or the recent evolution of aggressive genotypes of E. maculosum, but more likely as a result of an increasing

  18. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.

  19. Extensive feeding versus oleic acid and tocopherol enriched mixed diets for the production of Iberian dry-cured hams: Effect on chemical composition, oxidative status and sensory traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, S; Ventanas, J; Tovar, J; García, C; Estévez, M

    2007-10-01

    The present study aimed to analyse the chemical composition and oxidative status of Iberian dry-cured hams from pigs fed different finishing diets: extensive feeding on acorns and pasture in a "Montanera" traditional system (MON), fed in confinement with a mixed diet containing high-oleic sunflower oil (115g/kg of diet) and supplemented with 250mg/kg α-tocopherol (HOVE), and fed in confinement control mixed diet (CON) without added tocopherol and oleic acid fat. Muscles from MON dry-cured hams contained significantly (p<0.05) higher amounts of intramuscular fat (IMF) than those from HOVE and CON hams. The feeding background affected the tocopherol levels in dry-cured hams as those from MON and HOVE pigs had significantly higher levels of α-tocopherol than those from CON pigs whereas the extensive feeding provided muscles from MON pigs with significantly higher levels of γ-tocopherol than the experimental diets did to CON and HOVE pigs. The HOVE diet significantly increased the levels of oleic acid in Iberian dry-cured hams with these levels being similar to the oleic acid levels found in MON hams and significantly higher than those in CON hams. Compared to dry-cured hams from CON pigs, those from MON and HOVE pigs exhibited a higher oxidative stability as a likely result of a most favourable fatty acid composition and the presence of higher tocopherol levels. The principal component analysis (PCA) successfully discriminated between dry-cured hams from pigs fed different finishing diets.

  20. The effect of short-term exposure to energy-matched diets enriched in fat or sugar on memory, gut microbiota and markers of brain inflammation and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilharz, Jessica E; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-10-01

    Short-term exposure to high-energy diets impairs memory but there is little data on the relative contributions of fat and sugar to these deficits or the mechanisms responsible. Here, we investigated how these different macronutrients affect memory, neuroinflammation and neuroplasticity markers and the gut microbiota. Rats were fed matched purified diets for 2weeks; Control, Sugar, Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA) or Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA), which varied only in the percentage of energy available from sugar and the amount and type of fat. Rats consuming SFA and Sugar were impaired on hippocampal-dependent place recognition memory compared to Controls and PUFA rats, despite all rats consuming similar amounts of energy. All rats performed comparably on the object recognition task. Hippocampal and hypothalamic inflammatory markers were not substantially affected by the diets and there was no change in the neuroplasticity marker, brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Each of the diets significantly altered the microbial composition in distinct ways. Specifically, the relative abundance of 89 taxa differed significantly between groups with the majority of these changes accounted for by the Clostridiales order and within that, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. These taxa showed a range of macronutrient specific correlations with place memory. In addition, Distance based Linear Models found relationships between memory, inflammation-related hippocampal genes and the gut microbiota. In conclusion, our study shows that the macronutrient profile of the diet is crucial for diet-induced memory deficits and suggests a possible link between diet, the gut microbiota and hippocampal inflammatory genes. PMID:27448745

  1. Effect of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and adipose tissue development in young Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertí, P; Gómez, I; Mendizabal, J A; Ripoll, G; Barahona, M; Sarriés, V; Insausti, K; Beriain, M J; Purroy, A; Realini, C

    2013-06-01

    Forty-eight young Holstein bulls (slaughtered at 458.6±9.79 kg body weight) were used to evaluate the effect of whole linseed and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on animal performance, adipose tissue development, and carcass characteristics. The animals were fed with one of four isoenergetic and isoproteic diets: control (0% linseed, 0% CLA), linseed (10% linseed, 0% CLA), CLA (0% linseed, 2% CLA), and linseed plus CLA (10% linseed, 2% CLA). Animal performance and carcass characteristics were unaffected by diet composition. Adding linseed or CLA to the concentrate diet did not result in significant differences in adipocyte size and number or lipogenic enzyme activity. However, while the frequency distribution of subcutaneous adipocyte diameters followed a normal distribution, the frequency distribution of intramuscular adipocyte diameters was not normal in any dietary group (skewness coefficients: 0.8, 1.2, 0.9, 0.8 for control, linseed, CLA, and linseed plus CLA, respectively; Padipose tissue.

  2. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Lobos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last hundred years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent.

  3. Dissecting the microbiome to assess blueberry soil health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant rhizosphere is made up of not only soil, but a myriad of living organisms; these living organisms can both contribute to, and be indicators of, soil health. We explored the possibility of assaying the soil microbiome in areas where blueberry fields are declining, as compared to healthy fie...

  4. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  5. Effects of Specific Multi-Nutrient Enriched Diets on Cerebral Metabolism, Cognition and Neuropathology in AbetaPPswe-PS1dE9 Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.; Zerbi, V.; Arnoldussen, I.A.C.; Wiesmann, M.; Rijpma, A.; Fang, X.T.; Dederen, P.J.W.C.; Mutsaers, M.P.; Broersen, L.M.; Lutjohann, D.; Miller, M.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Heerschap, A.; Kiliaan, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the use of multi-nutrient dietary interventions in search of alternatives for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we investigated to which extent long-term consumption of two specific multi-nutrient diets can modulate AD-related etio

  6. Xylella fastidiosa in rabbiteye blueberry in Louisiana is genetically similar to a strain found in Southern highbush blueberry in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past ten years, Xylella fastidiosa has been confirmed as a pathogen of Southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in Georgia and Florida. Recent work in Louisiana has shown that it is also associated with reduced yield and altered fruit quality in ‘Tifblue’ ...

  7. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-15

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts.

  8. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-15

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts. PMID:27664697

  9. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA.

  10. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA. PMID:25865422

  11. Effect of the extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit on the complement system: studies in vitro and in hamsters submitted to a cholesterol-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Librandi, Ana Paula; Chrysóstomo, Taís Nader; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Recchia, Carem Gledes Vargas; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; de Assis-Pandochi, Ana Isabel

    2007-08-01

    This work evaluated a crude hydroalcoholic extract (ExT) from the pulp of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit as a source of compounds active on the complement system (CS) in vitro. ExT, previously characterized by other authors, had time and concentration dependent effects on the lytic activity of the CS. The activity of 0.8 mg/mL of the extract on the classical/lectin pathways (CP/LP) increased after 30 min of pre-incubation, while that of the alternative pathway (AP) decreased after 15 min at 1mg/mL. Since the CS is a mediator of inflammation, studies were also made in vivo, taking advantage of a model of hypercholesterolemia in hamsters to investigate the role of CS in the phase preceding the inflammatory process of atherosclerosis. Hamsters submitted to a diet rich in cholesterol showed increased lytic activity of the CP/LP and AP after 45 days. The activity levels of C2 and factor B components on respectively, classical/lectin and alternative pathways of the CS also increased. Early events cooperating to trigger the process of atherosclerotic lesions are not completely understood, and these alterations of complement may participate in these events. When treatment with a diet rich in cholesterol was associated to the furnishing of ExT, evaluation of complement components and complement lytic activity showed values similar to those of the controls, showing that treatment with ExT blocked the increase of complement activity caused by the cholesterol-rich diet. By itself, ExT had no effect on the complement system in vivo. ExT activity on the CS may be of interest for therapy and research purposes.

  12. Effects of an High-Fat Diet Enriched in Lard or in Fish Oil on the Hypothalamic Amp-Activated Protein Kinase and Inflammatory Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Emanuela; Mollica, Maria Pina; Lionetti, Lillà; Cavaliere, Gina; Trinchese, Giovanna; De Filippo, Chiara; Chieffi, Sergio; Gaita, Marcello; Barletta, Antonio; De Luca, Bruno; Crispino, Marianna; Monda, Marcellino

    2016-01-01

    The high fat diet (HFD) rich in lard induces obesity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and the deregulation of hypothalamic nuclei plays an important role in this mechanism. One important factor involved in the food intake and inflammation is adenosine monophosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK), a serine/threonine kinase activated by phosphorylation. Omega (ω)3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are dietary compounds known to attenuate the obesity-related diseases, although the molecular mechanisms underlying their actions in the hypothalamus are not completely understood. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of PUFA may be mediated by AMPK in the hypothalamus. To this aim, rats were fed a control diet (CD), or isocaloric HFD containing either fish oil (FD; rich in ω3-PUFA) or lard for 6 weeks, and the activation of AMPK, inflammatory state (IKKβ, TNF-α) and oxidative stress were analyzed in the hypothalamus. In addition, we also studied serum lipid profile, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, and pro-inflammatory parameters. Our results showed, at the hypothalamic level of LD-fed rats, an increase of AMPK activation, inflammation and oxidative stress, while no modifications were detected in FD-fed animals compared to CD. In addition body weight gain, serum lipid profile, pro-inflammatory parameters and insulin resistance were reduced in FD animals compared to LD. In conclusion, our data indicate that the substitution of saturated by unsaturated fatty acids in the diet has beneficial effects on modulation of hypothalamic inflammation and function in obesity, underlying, at hypothalamic level, the interaction among insulin and/or leptin resistance, AMPK activation and hyperphagia.

  13. Diet of Nesting Red-Cockaded Woodpecker at Three Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, J.L.; Lipcomb, D.; Franzreb, K.E.; Loeb, S.C.

    1998-12-03

    The authors studied diets of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers for two years on three sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Cameras recorded 33 different types of prey. Wood roaches were the most common, amounting to 50% of the prey. In addition, blueberries and saw fly larvae were collected by birds. Snail shells were also collected. Morista's index of diet overlap ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 for breeding males and females. We conclude that nestling diets are similar across the region.

  14. Effect of pig bodyweight on ileal amino acid endogenous losses after ingestion of a protein-free diet enriched in pea inner fibre isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Leterme, Pascal; Thewis, André

    2004-01-01

    International audience The present study was conducted to evaluate whether bodyweight and the micronisation of dietary fibre affect the endogenous nitrogen and amino acid losses (ENL and EAAL) in pigs. The effect of the micronising process was tested by providing pigs with 90 g DM*kg-1 BW0.75 of a N-free diet supplemented with isolated pea inner fibres, presented in native or micronised form and with a water-holding capacity of 12 and 4 g water*g-1 DM, respectively. ENL and EAAL were measu...

  15. New and Emerging Viruses of Blueberry and Cranberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Polashock

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses as well as the appearance of new viruses. Many of the known viruses of these crops are latent or asymptomatic in at least some cultivars. Diagnosis and detection procedures are often non-existent or unreliable. Whereas new viruses can move into cultivated fields from the wild, there is also the threat that devastating viruses can move into native stands of Vaccinium spp. or other native plants from cultivated fields. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of blueberry and cranberry viruses, focusing not only on those that are new but also those that are emerging as serious threats for production in North America and around the world.

  16. Effects of age and diet on the heavy particle-induced disruption of operant responding produced by a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M; Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2005-03-01

    On missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays which are composed of heavy particles (such as 56Fe) and protons. Exposure to these particles can affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of tasks, indicating that there is the possibility that the performance capabilities of astronauts may be affected. Previous research has shown that diets containing blueberry or strawberry extract can ameliorate the deficits produced by irradiation using a ground-based analog for exposure to cosmic rays. Rats were placed on diets containing 2% blueberry or strawberry extract for 2 months prior to exposure to 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles. There were no effects on performance of any group of animals when tested on an ascending fixed-ratio operant task 6 months following exposure. When tested 12 months after exposure, the performance of the radiated animals given blueberry extract did not differ from the radiated animals fed the control diet. Both groups performed significantly poorer than the non-irradiated controls. There were no differences between the non-irradiated animals fed control diet and the radiated animals fed the strawberry diet and their performance was significantly better than of the radiated rats fed the blueberry or control diets. The results indicate that diets containing strawberry extract may provide a significant level of radiation protection on exploratory class missions. PMID:15725409

  17. Effects of Inclusion of Two Probiotic Strains Isolated From “Sha’a”, a Maize-Based Traditionally Fermented Beverage on Lipid Metabolism of Rabbits fed a Cholesterol-Enriched Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambou Ngoufack François

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp10S and Lp11S isolated from Sha’a and evaluate their effects on lipid metabolism of hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. The strains were tested in vitro for their acid and bile tolerance, capability to remove cholesterol from MRS broth and to deconjugate bile salts. For in vivo studies, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp10S and Lp11S were administered to rabbits fed on cholesterol-enriched diet (standard diet+2×0.02 g of pure cholesterol per day per rabbit at a dose of 2×108 CFU per day per rabbit for each strain; the treatment lasted seven weeks and one week post ingestion period was observed. Serum lipids were analyzed during the experiment. The results revealed that strains Lactobacillus plantarum Lp10S and Lp11S tolerated well low pH and bile salts, expressed bile salt hydrolase activity and have ability to assimilate cholesterol in vitro. The results also showed that diets including Lactobacillus plantarum Lp10S and Lp11S significantly lowered serum total cholesterol, (VLDL+IDL+LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides levels of hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. In addition, HDL-cholesterol level significantly increased and the atherosclerosis index was significantly lowered. The present results indicate the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp10S and Lp11S strains as well as their in vivo cholesterol-lowering properties that may be useful for their application as health-promoting bacteria.

  18. Optimization of frozen wild blueberry vacuum drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum drying of frozen blueberries in order to preserve health benefits phytochemicals using response surface methodology. The drying was performed in a new design of vacuum dryer equipment. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and of pressure 38-464 mbar. Total solids, total phenolics, vitamin C, anthocyanin content and total color change were used as quality indicators of dried blueberries. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 60 °C and 100 mbar were established for vacuum drying of blueberries. Separate validation experiments were conducted at optimum conditions to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 3.70 mgCAE/100dw, vitamin C 59.79 mg/100gdw, anthocyanin content 2746.33 mg/100gdw, total solids 89.50% and total color change 88.83. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  19. The fatty acid and cholesterol composition of enriched egg yolk lipids obtained by modifying hens’ diets with fish oil and flaxseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçyn, Hasan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fish oil and flaxseed in the diets of laying hens on the cholesterol and fatty acid composition of egg lipids were studied. Isa-White laying hens and five experimental diets were used. The first diet was used as the control. Fish oil (1.5%, flaxseed (4.32% and 8.64 or both of them (1.5% fish oil and 4.32% flaxseed were added to the others and hens were fed for 30 and 60 days. The cholesterol and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined. No significant difference (pSe han estudiado los efectos producidos por la presencia de aceite de pescado y linaza, en la dieta de gallinas ponedoras, sobre la composición en colesterol y ácidos grasos de los lípidos del huevo. Se han utilizado gallinas ponedoras Isa-White y cinco tipos de dietas experimentales. La primera dieta fue usada como control. Se añadió aceite de pescado (1.5%, linaza (4.32% y 8.64 o ambos (1.5% aceite de pescado y 4.32% linaza a las otras dietas y se alimentó a las gallinas durante 30 y 60 días, determinándose la composición en colesterol y ácidos grasos de las yemas. No se encontró diferencia significativa (p<0.05 debida a las dietas en el contenido de colesterol de las yemas excepto en la que contenía 8.64% de linaza. El contenido total de ácidos grasos saturados disminuyó en todas las dietas en comparación con la dieta control. El contenido total de ácidos grasos n-3 fue significativamente mayor en todas las dietas. El cambio predominante en las dietas que contenían linaza se encontró en el contenido de ácido linolénico. El contenido de los ácidos eicosapentaenoico, docosapentaenoico y docosahexaenoico de todas las dietas fue significativamente mayor.

  20. Effect of virgin coconut oil enriched diet on the antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2013-09-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) extracted by wet processing is popular among the scientific field and society nowadays. The present study was carried out to examine the comparative effect of VCO with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO) and sunflower oil (SFO) on endogenous antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with the synthetic diet. Results revealed that dietary VCO improved the antioxidant status compared to other three oil fed groups (P oil fed groups (P oil fed rats (P oil) and tocopherols (33.12 μg per 100 g oil) etc. compared to other oils (P < 0.05). From these observations, it is concluded that VCO has a beneficial role in improving antioxidant status and hence preventing lipid and protein oxidation.

  1. Stable isotope metabolic labeling with a novel N-enriched bacteria diet for improved proteomic analyses of mouse models for psychopathologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Frank

    Full Text Available The identification of differentially regulated proteins in animal models of psychiatric diseases is essential for a comprehensive analysis of associated psychopathological processes. Mass spectrometry is the most relevant method for analyzing differences in protein expression of tissue and body fluid proteomes. However, standardization of sample handling and sample-to-sample variability are problematic. Stable isotope metabolic labeling of a proteome represents the gold standard for quantitative mass spectrometry analysis. The simultaneous processing of a mixture of labeled and unlabeled samples allows a sensitive and accurate comparative analysis between the respective proteomes. Here, we describe a cost-effective feeding protocol based on a newly developed (15N bacteria diet based on Ralstonia eutropha protein, which was applied to a mouse model for trait anxiety. Tissue from (15N-labeled vs. (14N-unlabeled mice was examined by mass spectrometry and differences in the expression of glyoxalase-1 (GLO1 and histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 2 (Hint2 proteins were correlated with the animals' psychopathological behaviors for methodological validation and proof of concept, respectively. Additionally, phenotyping unraveled an antidepressant-like effect of the incorporation of the stable isotope (15N into the proteome of highly anxious mice. This novel phenomenon is of considerable relevance to the metabolic labeling method and could provide an opportunity for the discovery of candidate proteins involved in depression-like behavior. The newly developed (15N bacteria diet provides researchers a novel tool to discover disease-relevant protein expression differences in mouse models using quantitative mass spectrometry.

  2. Mortality of container-grown blueberry plants inoculated with Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted four studies to evaluate the effect of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates and inoculum delivery methods on root rot development and mortality of container-grown blueberry plants. Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates were obtained from the root zone of symptomatic blueberry plants and identifie...

  3. Root production, distribution, and turnover in conventional and organic northern highbush blueberry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern highbush blueberry is a shallow-rooted crop with very fine, fibrous roots. Recently, we installed minirhizotrons (root observation tubes) in a conventional and an organic blueberry planting in western Oregon. We wanted to know exactly when and where new roots were being produced and determi...

  4. 75 FR 7986 - Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Orders; Section 610 Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... and serve a term of 3 years. AMS published in the Federal Register on March 24, 2006 (71 FR 14827... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 1218 and 1219 Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and... (AMS) plans to review the Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information...

  5. Effect of Infusion Method and Parameters on Mass Transfer in Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to obtain optimal processing conditions for producing infused blueberries with high solid gain, we investigated the infusion characteristics of blueberries under various processing parameters in sugar solutions with 1:1 ratio of solution and berries. Static batch constant concentration inf...

  6. Influence of extrusion processing on procyanidin composition and total anthocyanin contents of blueberry pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry juice processing by-products are a rich source of procyanidins, which comprise a group of compounds shown to possess numerous health benefits including, protection against coronary heart disease, type II diabetes, and obesity. Most of the procyanidins present in blueberry pomace, however,...

  7. 78 FR 59775 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... annual producer revenue estimate of $390,904. It is estimated that in 2012, about 68 percent of the first... activities on blueberry sales (a measure of demand), an econometric demand model was developed for blueberry sales in the United States. The model allowed the impact of the USHBC's generic promotion activities...

  8. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... A bland diet can be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may ...

  9. Influence of virgin coconut oil-enriched diet on the transcriptional regulation of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in rats - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, Sakunthala; Rajamohan, Thankappan

    2014-05-28

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower-seed oil on the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids and the molecular regulation of fatty acid metabolism in normal rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the test oils at 8 % for 45 d along with a synthetic diet. Dietary supplementation of VCO decreased tissue lipid levels and reduced the activity of the enzymes involved in lipogenesis, namely acyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase (FAS) (Poils. VCO significantly (P< 0·05) increased the mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, which was evident from the increased activities of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, acyl CoA oxidase and the enzymes involved in mitochondrial β-oxidation; this was accomplished by up-regulating the mRNA expression of PPARα and its target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. In conclusion, the present results confirmed that supplementation of VCO has beneficial effects on lipid parameters by reducing lipogenesis and enhancing the rate of fatty acid catabolism; this effect was mediated at least in part via PPARα-dependent pathways. Thus, dietary VCO reduces the risk for CHD by beneficially modulating the synthesis and degradation of fatty acids.

  10. Unilateral hindlimb casting induced a delayed generalized muscle atrophy during rehabilitation that is prevented by a whey or a high protein diet but not a free leucine-enriched diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Magne

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is the general muscle mass and strength loss associated with ageing. Muscle atrophy could be made worse by exposure to acute periods of immobilization, because muscle disuse by itself is a stimulus for atrophy. Using a model of unilateral hindlimb casting in old adult rats, we have already demonstrated that the primary effect of immobilization was atrophy in the casted leg, but was also surprisingly associated with a retarded atrophy in the non-casted leg during rehabilitation. In search of mechanisms involved in this generalized atrophy, we demonstrated in the present study that contrary to pair-fed non-immobilized control animals, muscle protein synthesis in the non-immobilized limb was unable to adapt and to respond positively to food intake. Because pair-fed control rats did not lose muscle mass, this defect in muscle protein synthesis may represent one of the explanation for the muscle mass loss observed in the non-immobilized rats. Nevertheless, in order to stimulate protein turn over and generate a positive nitrogen balance required to maintain the whole muscle mass in immobilized rats, we tested a dietary free leucine supplementation (an amino acid known for its stimulatory effect on protein metabolism during the rehabilitation period. Leucine supplementation was able to overcome the anabolic resistance in the non-immobilized limb. A greater muscle protein synthesis up-regulation associated with a stimulation of the mTOR signalling pathway was indeed recorded but it remained inefficient to prevent the loss of muscle in the non-immobilized limb. By contrast, we demonstrated here that whey protein or high protein diets were able to prevent the muscle mass loss of the non-immobilized limb by sustaining muscle protein synthesis during the entire rehabilitation period.

  11. Differential effects of blueberry proanthocyanidins on androgen sensitive and insensitive human prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara M; Erdman, John W; Lila, Mary Ann

    2006-01-18

    Blueberries are rich in health-promoting polyphenolic compounds including proanthocyanidins. The purpose of this study was to determine if proanthocyanidin-rich fractions from both wild and cultivated blueberry fruit have the same inhibitory effects on the proliferation of LNCaP, an androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line, and DU145, a more aggressive androgen insensitive prostate cancer cell line. When 20 microg/ml of a wild blueberry proanthocyanidin fraction (fraction 5) was added to LNCaP media, growth was inhibited to 11% of control with an IC50 of 13.3 microg/ml. Two similar proanthocyanidin-rich fractions from cultivated blueberries (fractions 4 and 5) at the same concentration inhibited LNCaP growth to 57 and 26% of control with an IC50 of 22.7 and 5.8 microg/ml, respectively. In DU145 cells, the only fraction that significantly reduced growth compared to control was fraction 4 from cultivated blueberries with an IC50 value of 74.4 microg/ml, indicating only minor inhibitory activity. Differences in cell growth inhibition of LNCaP and DU145 cell lines by blueberry fractions rich in proanthocyanidins indicate that blueberry proanthocyanidins have an effect primarily on androgen-dependant growth of prostate cancer cells. Possible molecular mechanisms for growth inhibition are reviewed. PMID:16399225

  12. Is Job Enrichment Really Enriching?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Mohr; Cindy Zoghi

    2006-01-01

    This study uses a survey of Canadian workers with rich, matched data on job characteristics to examine whether “enriched” job design, with features like quality circles, feedback, suggestion programs, and task teams, affects job satisfaction. We identify two competing hypotheses on the relationship between enriched jobs and job satisfaction. The “motivation hypothesis,” implies that enrichment will generally increase satisfaction and the “intensification hypothesis,” implies that enrichment m...

  13. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government

  14. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2013-06-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16/p21 in bone. Feeding a diet supplemented with blueberries (BB) to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only prior to puberty [postnatal day 21 (PND21) to PND34] prevents OVX-induced effects on expression of these molecules at PND68. In order to provide more evidence and gain a better understanding on the association between bone collagen matrix and resident bone cell fate, in vitro studies on the cellular senescence pathway using primary calvarial cells and three cell lines (ST2 cells, OB6, and MLO-Y4) were conducted. We found that senescence was inhibited by collagen in a dose-response manner. Treatment of cells with serum from OVX rats accelerated osteoblastic cell senescence pathways, but serum from BB-fed OVX rats had no effect. In the presence of low collagen or treatment with OVX rat serum, ST2 cells exhibited higher potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that bone cell senescence is associated with decreased Sirt1 expression and activated p53, p16, and p21. These results suggest that (1) a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone cell senescence from adult rats can occur after only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty, and (2) the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect involves, at least in part, prevention of collagen degradation. PMID:22555620

  15. The ex vitro rooting of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. microcuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacholczak Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing demand for blueberry fruit has necessitated the development of an efficient propagation method of this species that would provide large quantities of planting material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 50 mg dm−3, the commercial rooting powder Rhizopon containing 1% IBA, and salicylic acid (50 mg dm−3 on the in vivo rooting of microcuttings of Vaccinium corymbosum ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’. The contents of chlorophyll a + b, soluble proteins, free amino acids, as well as total soluble and reducing sugars were determined in rooted cuttings. All of the treatments increased the degree and percentage of rooting in the cuttings of both cultivars. While improving rhizogenesis in blueberry, salicylic acid did not perform as a cofactor of the auxin IBA. Foliar applications of IBA or salicylic acid (SA increased the contents of soluble proteins, free amino acids and sugars, but no effects on chlorophyll levels were observed.

  16. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century

  17. 野生蓝莓和花青素提取物对高脂饮食小鼠肠道菌群的影响%Influence of dietary wild blueberry and anthocyanins extract on intestinal microorganisms in high-fat diet-induced mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晗; 孙晓红; 吴启华; 赵勇; 潘迎捷

    2015-01-01

    [目的]研究野生蓝莓和花青素提取物对高脂饮食小鼠肠道菌群的影响.[方法]采用高脂饲料喂养C57BL/6小鼠,同时膳食补充野生蓝莓或花青素提取物,将25只无菌小鼠分为5组:正常对照组(Normal chow diet,NCD),普通饲料+10 g/100 g蓝莓组(NCD+BB),高脂饲料组(High-fat diet,HFD),高脂饲料+10 g/100 g蓝莓组(HFD+BB),高脂饲料+20 mg/100 g花青素组(HFD+ACN),饲养10周,每周对其食物摄入量、能量摄入量以及体重进行测定,并运用DGGE方法对小鼠肠道菌群结构变化进行动态监测.[结果]各实验组食物摄入量无显著性差异,HFD+BB组和HFD+ACN组能量摄入量均明显高于NCD+BB组.虽然HFD+BB组体重增加最为明显,但10周末时HFD+BB组体重与其他各组无显著差异.随着实验的进行,HFD组、HFD+BB组和HFD+ACN组肠道微生物多样性发生明显变化.HFD+BB组与NCD组菌群差异最大,HFD+ACN组与NCD组肠道菌群DGGE图谱相似性系数明显高于HFD组,对优势条带测序结果显示膳食补充蓝莓或花青素提取物可明显降低肥胖相关细菌Firmicutes的数量.[结论]蓝莓和花青素提取物可改善由高脂饮食引起的肠道微生态失调,调节肠道菌群结构,具有潜在的减肥消脂功能.

  18. Incresing antioxidant activity and reducing decay of blueberries by essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several naturally occurring essential oils including carvacrol, anethole, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, perillaldehyde, linalool, and p-cymene were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing decay and increasing antioxidant levels and activities in ‘Duke’ blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum). Carv...

  19. Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Using Antioxidants from Blackberry, Blueberry, Pomegranate, and Turmeric Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greener synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles is described using antioxidants from blackberry, blueberry, pomegranate, and turmeric extracts. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HR...

  20. Propagating and Managing orcahrd Mason Bees, Osmia spp. (Hymenoptera: Megachildae) for Pollinating Cultivated Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we present a brief overview of our bee trap-nesting study as well as information about propagating and managing mason bees for blueberry pollination, especially the bee species Osmia ribifloris....

  1. 75 FR 31279 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... disproportionately burdened. The Small Business Administration defines, in 13 CFR part 121, small agricultural... Business Administration. Most importers, first handlers, and exporters will not be classified as small... Spain, Germany, and Poland. Asian highbush blueberry production has increased during this...

  2. Organ-specific distribution of phenolic compounds in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and 'northblue' blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum x V. angustifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihinen, Kaisu; Jaakola, Laura; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Hohtola, Anja

    2008-09-01

    Blueberries and bilberries are recognized as some of the best sources of flavonoids, especially anthocyanins. The contents of flavonoids (anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols) and hydroxycinnamic acids in the flower, fruit skin and pulp, leaf and rhizome of bilberry and the blueberry cultivar 'Northblue' were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode-array detection. The most striking difference in the fruits was the predominance of hydroxycinnamic acids in blueberry, whereas in bilberry the anthocyanin content was much higher, particularly in the pulp. Differences in flavonoid contents of fruits were already apparent at the flower stage. Bilberry and blueberry leaves both contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Blueberry rhizomes accumulated high amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids. All plant parts of bilberry and blueberry are potential sources of phenolic compounds for use either as dietary botanicals or by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26050178

  3. Phylogenetic, Morphological, and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria Species Associated with Fruit Rot of Blueberry in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L

    2015-12-01

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit.

  4. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing*

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-Cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2...

  5. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-yang

    2012-02-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC, 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC, 24.38 mg catechin/g DW). A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone: luteolin; flavonols: rutin, myricetin, quercetrin, and quercetin; flavanols: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins: malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin). In particular, the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins, which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical. PMID:22302422

  6. 蓝莓深加工技术研究进展%Progress of Blueberry Deep Processing Technique Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶春苗

    2015-01-01

    Blueberry has high nutrition value and economic value. Blueberry deep processing is an effective way for solving the problem of blueberry hard storage. In the article, it stated the progress of blueberry deep processing technique research from the aspects of blue-berry dairy product processing, blueberry fruit juice and wine processing, blueberry jam processing and blueberry preserved fruit pro-cessing, in order to provide a reference for the development of blueberry industry.%蓝莓具有很高的营养价值和经济价值.对蓝莓进行深加工处理是解决蓝莓不耐贮藏问题的有效途径.从蓝莓乳制品加工、蓝莓果汁果酒饮料加工、蓝莓酱加工、蓝莓果脯加工方面综述蓝莓深加工技术的研究进展,以期为蓝莓产业的发展提供参考.

  7. Anthocyanins and phenolic acids from a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) powder counteract lipid accumulation in THP-1-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins (ACNs) and phenolic acids (PA), which are hypothesized to protect against development of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of an ACN- and PA-rich fractions, obtained from a wild blueberry powder, on the capacity to counte......PURPOSE: Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins (ACNs) and phenolic acids (PA), which are hypothesized to protect against development of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of an ACN- and PA-rich fractions, obtained from a wild blueberry powder, on the capacity...

  8. Ranking descriptive analysis in the sensory characterization of strawberry flavored diet yogurt enriched with whey protein concentrate / Análise descritiva por ordenação na caracterização sensorial de iogurte diet sabor morango enriquecido com concentrado protéico do soro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Minim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the sensory characteristics of diet strawberry flavored yogurt enriched with whey protein concentrate (WPC. Three formulations containing 0,5%, 1% and 1.5% of WPC (F2, F3 and F4 in order of increasing concentration and a controlled formulation without the addition of WCP (F1 were developed and evaluated by Ranking Descriptive Analysis. Twenty selected and trained panelists evaluated the samples characterized by attributes: pink color, viscosity, characteristic aroma of strawberry yogurt, characteristic flavor of strawberry yogurt, sweet taste, sour taste and consistency. The formulations differed significantly (p Este estudo avaliou as características sensoriais de iogurte diet sabor morango enriquecidos com concentrado protéico de soro (CPS. Três formulações contendo 0,5%, 1% e 1,5% de CPS (F2, F3 e F4 em ordem crescente de concentração e uma formulação controle sem adição de CPS (F1 foram desenvolvidas e avaliadas por meio da Análise Descritiva por Ordenação. Vinte provadores selecionados e treinados avaliaram as amostras caracterizadas pelos atributos: cor rosa, viscosidade, aroma característico de iogurte de morango, sabor característico de iogurte de morango, gosto doce, gosto ácido e consistência. As formulações diferiram significativamente (p < 0.05 nos atributos gosto doce e consistência. As amostras F3 e F4 apresentaram maior consistência confirmando a eficiência do CPS no aumento da consistência.

  9. Strawberry or blueberry supplementation may protect against increased oxidative stress vulnerability from both irradiation and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.

    In several studies we have now shown that there are some interesting parallels between aging and the effects of heavy particle irradiation (56Fe) in a rat model. Interestingly this research also has shown that, much as has been seen in aged animals, dietary supplementation with high antioxidant-strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) extracts (2% of the diet) reversed many of the age-related changes. Similarly, supplementing the diets of young rats with SBs or BBs (2% of diet as in the aged animals) for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 56Fe (1 GeV/n), using the AGS or NSRL at Brookhaven National Laboratory, prevented the deleterious effects of the radiation exposure on the motor, cognitive and neuronal parameters described above. In the present experiment we examined whether striatal tissue obtained from BB- or SB-supplemented or control-fed, irradiated or non-radiated, young rats would show differential sensitivity (as assessed via decrements in mAChR stimulation of dopamine release) to hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating agent. The results indicated that, just as we had seen previously with respect to radiation protection in the parameters described above, the tissue from the SB or BB-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals showed increased mAChR-stimulated DA release from the striatal tissue following hydrogen peroxide exposure compared to that seen in non-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals (e.g., DA rels. p moles/mg protein, rad + H202 non-supplemented = 90, SB = 260, BB = 360). These results show that aging and irradiation may produce similar decrements in dopamine release and that, much as we have seen previously with age, radiation enhances the vulnerability to oxidative stressors, but these are reduced with SB or BB supplementation. They are discussed in-terms of protection against the effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging via nutritional supplementation with foods that are high in antioxidant activity

  10. Job Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Rick

    1970-01-01

    Job enrichment means giving people more decision-making power, more responsibility, more grasp of the totality of the job, and a sense of their own importance in the company. This article presents evidence of the successful working of this approach (Donnelly Mirrors), and the lack of success with an opposing approach (General Motors). (NL)

  11. Mediterranean diet reduces senescence-associated stress in endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Carmen; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Ramirez, Rafael; Carracedo, Julia; Caballero, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Gutierrez-Mariscal, Francisco Miguel; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Cruz-Teno, Cristina; Yubero-Serrano, Elena Maria; Tinahones, Francisco; Malagon, Maria del Mar; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to study the effects of the oxidative stress induced by quality and quantity of dietary fat on cellular senescence. Twenty elderly subjects consumed three diets, each for 4 weeks: a saturated fatty acid diet (SFA), a low-fat and high-carbohydrate diet (CHO-ALA), and a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) enriched in monounsaturated fatty acid following a randomized crossover design. For each diet, we investigated intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS), cellular apoptosis and t...

  12. Electron-beam is effective in reducing Escherichia coli on blueberries and extending the shelf life of the fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh blueberries have become a popular new functional food because of their incredibly high levels of antioxidant phytonutrients and health benefits. However, the potential prevalence of human pathogens on blueberries has become an increased concern because they are consumed with minimal processing...

  13. Evaluation of assembling methods on determination of whole genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa blueberry bacterial leaf scorch strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry bacterial leaf scorch (BBLS) disease, a threat to blueberry production in the Southern USA and potentially elsewhere, is caused by Xylella fastidiosa. Efficient control of BBLS requires knowledge of the pathogen. However, this is challenging because Xylella fastidiosa is difficult to cultu...

  14. Phytochemicals in lowbush wild blueberry inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 by damaging its cell membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antimicrobial activity and model of action of polyphenolic compounds extracted from lowbush wild blueberries (LWB) were studied against E. coli O157:H7. Polyphenols in LWB were extracted using methanol:H20 (80:20, v/v), dried and reconstituted in water and designated as total blueberry phenolic...

  15. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide-generating pads and modified atmosphere packaging for control of postharvest diseases in blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest diseases are a limiting factor of storage and shelf life of blueberries. Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest diseases in blueberries grown in California. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2)-generating pads (designated ...

  16. Blueberry floral attributes that enhance the pollinations efficiency of an oligolectic bee, osmia ribifloris cockerell (megachilidae:apoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated relationships between floral morphology of 23 genotypes of southern blueberries and indicators of pollination efficiency (fruit set, fruit abortion, seed number, and berry size) for Osmia ribifloris Cockerell, a manageable solitary bee. Cultivated blueberry taxa had the largest flowers ...

  17. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector

  18. Nondestructive Detection and Quantification of Blueberry Bruising using Near-infrared (NIR) Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Li, Changying; Takeda, Fumiomi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, blueberry bruising is evaluated by either human visual/tactile inspection or firmness measurement instruments. These methods are destructive, time-consuming, and subjective. The goal of this paper was to develop a non-destructive approach for blueberry bruising detection and quantification. Experiments were conducted on 300 samples of southern highbush blueberry (Camellia, Rebel, and Star) and on 1500 samples of northern highbush blueberry (Bluecrop, Jersey, and Liberty) for hyperspectral imaging analysis, firmness measurement, and human evaluation. An algorithm was developed to automatically calculate a bruise ratio index (ratio of bruised to whole fruit area) for bruise quantification. The spectra of bruised and healthy tissues were statistically separated and the separation was independent of cultivars. Support vector machine (SVM) classification of the spectra from the regions of interest (ROIs) achieved over 94%, 92%, and 96% accuracy on the training set, independent testing set, and combined set, respectively. The statistical results showed that the bruise ratio index was equivalent to the measured firmness but better than the predicted firmness in regard to effectiveness of bruise quantification, and the bruise ratio index had a strong correlation with human assessment (R2 = 0.78 − 0.83). Therefore, the proposed approach and the bruise ratio index are effective to non-destructively detect and quantify blueberry bruising. PMID:27767050

  19. 越橘抗寒性研究进展%Research advance of blueberry cold hardiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌凤章

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is an important environmental stress factor limited blueberry cultivation region and affected fruit yield. In recent years, using genomics and transcriptomics approach identified many genes or proteins related to blueberry cold hardiness, provided the basis for developing new blueberry cold hardiness cultivars. The characteristics of blueberry cold hardiness, internal ice nucleation distribution, molecular mechanisms of cold hardiness and molecular marker assisted breeding were summarized in the paper, and prospecting the research direction of blueberry cold hardiness.%低温是限制越橘栽培区域和影响果实产量的重要环境胁迫因子.近年来,利用基因组学和转录组学方法鉴定许多与越橘抗寒性有关的基因或蛋白,为开发抗寒越橘新品种提供依据.文章从越橘抗寒性特点、内在冰核分布特征、抗寒分子机制及分子标记辅助育种等方面归纳和总结,并预测今后越橘抗寒性研究方向.

  20. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Gook KIM; Hong Lim KIM; Su Jin KIM; Kyo-Sun PARK

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon,Korea were analyzed for fruit size,soluble solids content,titratable acidity,total anthocyanin content,total phenolic content,and antioxidant activity.Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars.Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g,soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3°Brix,and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%.Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars.Among the 45 blueberry cultivars,high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols,and high antioxidant activity were observed in ‘Elliott’,‘Rubel’,‘Rancocas’,and ‘Friendship’.

  1. Development and Utilization of Wild Blueberries%野生蓝莓资源的开发与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊基胜; 吴林生; 张春龙; 王子迎

    2012-01-01

    Through studies on the distribution and morphology of wild blueberry tree,chemical compostion and nutritional value analysis of wild blueberry in China, discussed the potential value of the wild blueberries' processing. The advantages of development and utilization of wild blueberries were absorbed and the disadvantages of it were given up at the same time. The article focused on introduction ahout the research and development elements of the wild blueberries products, such as dipping liquor of blueberries, fermented wine of blueberries, snack foods of blueberries, anthocyanins of blueberries, health capsules of blueberries, blueberries tea and so on.%通过对我国野生蓝莓资源的分布、形态特征、蓝莓浆果的化学成分以及营养价值分析,探讨了野生蓝莓的潜在价值。吸收野生蓝莓资源开发和利用现状中的优点,总结了当前野生蓝莓资源开发和利用研究中的不足之处。并重点介绍了野生蓝莓深加工相关产品蓝莓浸渍酒、蓝莓发酵酒、蓝莓休闲系列、蓝莓花青素、蓝莓保健胶囊以及蓝莓叶茶等研发、制作要点。

  2. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  3. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-yang HUANG; Hong-cheng ZHANG; Wen-xu LIU; Chun-yang LI

    2012-01-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants.In the present study,the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry,blackberry,and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated.Blueberry,with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW),exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods.Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC,9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW),total flavonoid content (TFC,36.08 mg rutin/g DW),and total anthocyanidin content (TAC,24.38 mg catechin/g DW).A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry,blackberry,and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid,protocatechuic acid,p-hydroxybenzoic acid,vanillic acid,caffeic acid,p-coumaric acid,ferulic acid,ellagic acid,and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone:luteolin; flavonols:rutin,myricetin,quercetrin,and quercetin; flavanols:gallocatechin,epigallocatechin,catechin,and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins:malvidin-3-galactoside,malvidin-3-glucoside,and cyanidin).In particular,the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins,which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical.

  4. Quality of 'Climax' blueberries after low dosage electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit of 'Climax' rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade) were irradiated by a linear accelerator at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 kGy and evaluated for various quality attributes after storage for 1, 3, 7, or 14 days at 1C plus 2 days at 15C, respectively. Weight loss increased during storage and averaged 4.2% after the final inspection and was not affected by irradiation dosage. About 5% of total berries were decayed after 14 days at 1C, about 6% after the final inspection at 15C, but decay was not affected by the level of irradiation. Electrolyte leakage, skin color, total soluble solids, acidity, and pH were also not affected by irradiation dosage. There was a significant decline in berry firmness, flavor, and texture as dosage increased. Berries treated at 1.0 kGy or above were softer and had lower flavor and texture preference scores than berries treated at lower dosages or nontreated berries

  5. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Aaron E.; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora (‘VcFT-Aurora’), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in ‘VcFT-Aurora’. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all

  6. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  7. Temporal sequence of cell wall disassembly events in developing fruits. 2. Analysis of blueberry (Vaccinium species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Ariel R; Ortugno, Claudia; Rosli, Hernan; Powell, Ann L T; Greve, L Carl; Labavitch, John M

    2007-05-16

    Softening and pathogen susceptibility are the major factors limiting the marketing of blueberries as fresh fruits, and these traits are associated with fruit cell wall structure. However, few studies that characterize wall modifications occurring during development and ripening have been reported for this fruit. In this study the ripening-associated modifications of blueberry fruit cell walls (composition, pectin and hemicellulose solubilization, and depolymerization) at five stages of ripeness have been analyzed. Xylose was found to be the most abundant noncellulosic neutral sugar associated with fruit walls, and the observed high Xyl/Glc ratio suggested that xylans, which are usually a minor hemicellulosic fruit wall component, are abundant in blueberry. The pectic matrix showed increased solubilization at early and intermediate stages of ripening, but no changes were detected in late ripening. Furthermore, little reduction in pectin polymer size occurred during blueberry ripening. In contrast, hemicellulose levels decreased as ripening progressed, and a clear depolymerization of these components was observed. A model for cell wall degradation in this fruit is discussed. PMID:17428068

  8. Development of a soilless growing system for blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum): nutrient demand and nutrient solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Dijk, van P.; Douven, F.; Maas, van der M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of blueberries in The Netherlands are soil grown, interest in soilless culture has increased recently. Modern cultivation with high yield and fruit quality needs maximum control of growth and crop development, which is expected to be achieved with irrigation and nutrient manage

  9. Antimicrobial activity of controlled-release chlorine dioxide gas on fresh blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on the safety and quality of blueberries was studied. In vitro studies revealed that both ClO2 gas fumigation and ClO2 water direct contact killed food pathogen bacterium, Escherichia coli and fruit decay pathogen fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum. In vivo studies...

  10. Effects of Chitosan-Essential Oil Coatings on Safety and Quality of Fresh Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan coating plus different essential oils was developed and applied to fresh blueberries, in order to find environmentally friendly and healthy treatments to preserve fresh fruit quality and safety during postharvest storage. Studies were first performed in vitro where wild-type Escherichia col...

  11. Effects of post-harvest handling techniques on the retention of phytochemicals in wild blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild blueberries (WBB) are known to have a unique phytochemical profile that boasts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. Polyphenolic compounds in WBB conclusively demonstrate human health benefits ranging from decreases in cardiovascular risk factors and improving insulin sensitivity to bat...

  12. Identification of flavonoid and phenolic antioxidants in black currants, blueberries, raspberries, red currants, and cranberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gina; Degeneve, Alexandra; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2010-04-14

    The antioxidant capacity (AOC) of black currant, blueberry, raspberry, red currant, and cranberry extracts was determined using the FRAP assay. In addition, the vitamin C content of the berries was determined and phenolic and polyphenolic compounds in the extracts were analyze by reversed-phase HPLC-PDA-MS(3) and by reversed-phase HPLC-PDA with an online antioxidant detection system. A complex spectrum of anthocyanins was the major contributor to the AOC of black currants and blueberries, whereas the lower AOC of red currants and cranberries was due mainly to a reduced anthocyanin content. Raspberries also had a lower anthocyanin content than black currants and blueberries, but there was only a slight decline in the AOC because of the presence of the ellagitannins sanguin H-6 and lambertianin C, which were responsible for 58% of the HPLC-AOC of the berries. Vitamin C was responsible for 18-23% of the HPLC-AOC of black currants, red currants, and cranberries and for 11% of that of raspberries but did not contribute to the AOC of the blueberry extract that was examined. Seven percent of the HPLC-AOC of the cranberry extract was attributable to procyanidin dimers. However, the contribution of polymeric proanthocyanidins to the AOC of the five berries was not determined as when analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC these high molecular weight flavan-3-ols are either retained by the column or eluted as a broad unresolved band. PMID:20000747

  13. Fungicide resistance phenotypes in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Understanding fungicide- resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of preharvest fungicide programs for contro...

  14. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management. PMID:26470241

  15. Pollen viability and storage temperature for Southern highbush and Rabbiteye blueberry breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollen viability, as measured by tetrad germination, has been reported, but these studies focused on freshly collected pollen and did not address viability of pollen stored at different temperatures over time. Moreover, genetic differences in pollen viability have been reported in blueberry genotype...

  16. Irrigation and fertigation with drip and alternative micro irrigation systems in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation using conventional drip and alternative micro irrigation systems were evaluated in six cultivars of northern highbush blueberry. The drip system consisted of two laterals of drip tubing, with 2 L/h in-line emitters (point source) spaced every 0.45 m, on each s...

  17. 78 FR 29258 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... return) for the promotion activities conducted by the USHBC. The impact of the USHBC's export marketing...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  18. Quality of 'Brightwell' and 'Tifblue' blueberries after gamma irradiation for quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blueberries must be subjected to a quarantine treatment of methyl bromide fumigation when shipped to certain domestic or export markets. The principle insects that inhibit distribution of blueberries are the apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)], blueberry maggot (R. mendax Curran), and plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)]. Methyl bromide fumigation is the only approved quarantine treatment for blueberries and it is scheduled to be phased out by the year 2001. Highbush blueberries’ tolerance to low-dose irradiation is cultivar-dependent (Eaton et al., 1970). Two main cultivars grown in Florida, ‘Climax’ and ‘Sharpblue’, will tolerate irradiation up to 0.75 kGy without loss of fruit market quality (Miller et al., 1994a, 1994b, 1995). A 1.0-kGy dose is the maximum allowed (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1986) for treatment of fresh fruit or vegetables, and reportedly (personal communications, J. Sharp and G. Hallman) »0.3 kGy is sufficient for control of blueberry insects requiring quarantine certification. Two or three times the minimum dose may, however, be required to assure that the minimum dose is absorbed by all berries during commercial application. Therefore, it is most important to determine the tolerance of berries to irradiation stress. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of low-dose irradiation on the quality and condition of ‘Brightwell’ and ‘Tifblue’, two major rabbiteye cultivars grown in Georgia. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (P £ 0.05) on a split-block experimental design, with harvest dates for ‘Brightwell’, and randomized sample sets as replications for ‘Tifblue’ berries. The data were tested for the main effect of irradiation dosage on quality attributes

  19. Estudio nutricional para evaluar el aporte de calcio sobre la dieta de una leche fermentada enriquecida en calcio y vitamina D (Densia® en mujeres postmenopáusicas Nutritional trial to evaluate calcium intake in postmenopausic women on a diet of fermented milk enriched in calcium and vitamin D (Densia®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª E. González Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el aporte de calcio sobre la dieta de una unidad de leche fermentada enriquecida en Calcio y vitamina D sobre los niveles diarios de ingesta de Calcio en mujeres postmenopáusicas. Población del estudio: 261 mujeres postmenopáusicas. Método: Estudio nutricional exploratorio de 28 días de duración. A los individuos de la muestra se les proporcionó recomendaciones dietéticas para aumentar el aporte de calcio en la dieta y pautas de ejercicio físico junto con una unidad diaria de leche fermentada enriquecida en Calcio y vitamina D (Densia® que consumieron diariamente durante los 28 días de duración del estudio. Se valoró la ingesta dietética de calcio pre y post intervención mediante encuesta dietética. Resultados: La cantidad media en miligramos de Calcio ingerida fue superior después de la intervención frente a la media al inicio del estudio, aumentando incluso el porcentaje de mujeres que llegaban a las recomendaciones diarias de calcio para su franja de edad. Conclusión: El aporte de calcio diario a través de medidas dietéticas y el consumo de una unidad diaria de leche fermentada enriquecida en calcio y vitamina D incrementa el aporte dietético diario de calcio. No obstante, un porcentaje de la muestra seguía presentando valores de aporte diario de calcio por debajo de las recomendaciones dietéticas, indicando la necesidad de adoptar medidas mas intensivas para alcanzar las recomendaciones de ingesta diaria de calcio.Aim: To analyse the calcium contribution of one unit of fermented milk enriched with calcium and vitamin D in the daily calcium intake for postmenoupausic women. Subjects: 261 postmenoupausic women. Methods: 28 day duration of exploratoy, nutritional trial. All subjects received dietary advice on how to increase calcium intake in the daily diet and excercise recommendations with a unit of a fermented milk enriched with calcium and vitamin D (Densia® which was comsumed daily for the 28 day

  20. Volatile, anthocyanidin, quality and sensory changes in rabbiteye blueberry from whole fruit through pilot plant juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: High antioxidant content and keen marketing have increased blueberry demand and increased local production which in turn mandates new uses for abundant harvests. Pilot scale processes were employed to investigate the anthocyanidin profiles, qualitative volatile compositions, and sensori...

  1. Effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside lignan-enriched flaxseed powder on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure in rats fed a high-fructose and high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignan-enriched flaxseed powder LEFP) on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure were investigated using Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into three groups (n=8) that were fed either a norm...

  2. Correlation between sensory and instrumental measurements of standard and crisp-texture southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrids)

    OpenAIRE

    Blaker, Kendra M; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A.; Olmstead, James W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre- and postharvest evaluation. RESULTS Sensory and i...

  3. Behavioral analysis of Wistar rats fed with a flaxseed based diet added to an environmental enrichment Análisis del comportamiento de ratas Wistar alimentadas con una dieta a base de linaza añadidos a un enriquecimiento ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Azevedo de Meneses

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed has a high content of n-3 fatty acids and its intake associated with an environmental enrichment may promote distinct behavioral results upon habituation and animal behavior. This work aimed to evaluating animal behavior under the use of these two tools in the Open Field Test. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6: FEEG, receiving chow made up of flaxseed and kept in enriched environment; FSEG, receiving flaxseed based diet and kept in a standard environment; CEEG, receiving casein based diet and kept in enriched environment; CSEG, receiving casein based chow and kept in standard environment; MCEEG, receiving chow made up of casein but modified so as to provide the same content of fibers and lipids found in flaxseed diet and kept in enriched environment; MCSEG, receiving modified casein based diet and kept in standard environment. All animals were kept under controlled temperature, collective cages and dark/light cycle, receiving chow and water ad libitum, except for MCEEG and MCSEG, which were pair fed with FEEG and FSEG, respectively. Chow intake and animal body weight were evaluated twice in a week. Animals were maintained in these groups from the first until the second month of life, by the time when 3 day tests in Open Field Test began. Finishing the tests, animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained in order to calculate the relative brain weight. Our results show an interplay between flaxseed and environmental enrichment in habituation to a new environment, making the animals more manageable and less stressed.La linaza posee una gran cantidad de ácidos grasos n-3 y su consumo asociado a ambiente enriquecido, puede promover diferentes resultados comportamentales sobre el animal y su habituación. Este trabajo tubo por objetivo evaluar el comportamiento animal utilizando dos herramientas en el Open Field Test. Treinta y seis ratón Wistar fueron divididos en 6 grupos (n=6: FEEG, que recibi

  4. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P. M.; Cline, W. O.; Agudelo, P.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Noe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum and its relationship to BRD warrants further investigation. PMID:23833323

  5. 蓝莓抑菌活性研究进展%Progress in Antibacterial Activity of Blueberries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 孙晓红; 曹奕; 赵勇; Vivian C.H.Wu; 潘迎捷

    2013-01-01

    越橘属的蓝莓含有酚类物质、有机酸类、花青素类和糖类等生物活性成分.较早研究表明,蓝莓具有抗感染、抗氧化、抗肿瘤等功能,而近年的研究表明蓝莓具有抑菌作用.本文介绍了蓝莓的抑菌活性,分析了蓝莓中的抑菌活性成分,同时概括了蓝莓提取物对各种菌体的抑菌机理.%Blueberry was belong to Vaccinium spp.,which contained the biological active component of phenolic substances,organic acids,anthocyan and sugars.Early it was researched that blueberries had the ftmction of anti-infection,oxidation,anti-tumor.But recently,it was suggested that blueberry had bacteriostasis.The activity of bacteriostasis in blueberry was covered in this paper.And the antibacterial activity ingredients in blueberries were analyzed.In addition,the antibacterial mechanism of blueberry extract to all kinds of bacteria was summarized.

  6. Xylella fastidiosa Isolates from Both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa Cause Disease on Southern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2015-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium. PMID:25738552

  7. Rosiglitazone-enriched diet did not protect liver ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model Dieta enriquecida com rosiglitazona não protege a lesão de isquemia e reperfusão hepática em modelo experimental no rato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Franchi Teixeira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether rosiglitazone-enriched diet offer protection in a classical model of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. METHODS: Two days before the experiment, rats were divided into 2 groups: Control Group (n=13 rats fed with standard diet; Rosi Group (n=13: rats fed with a powdered standard diet supplemented with rosiglitazone. The animals were submitted to liver ischemia-reperfusion by clamping the pedicle of median and left anterolateral lobes. After 1 hour of partial hepatic ischemia, the clamp was removed for reperfusion. After 2 or 24 hours (Control and Rosi Groups, blood was collected for enzymes and cytokines analysis. Ischemic and non-ischemic liver were collected for malondialdehyde analysis and histological assessment. Lungs were removed for tissue myeloperoxidase quantification. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences between groups for all analysed parameters. CONCLUSION: In this model, rosiglitazone-enriched diet did not protect liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury.OBJETIVO: Determinar se a dieta enriquecida com rosiglitazona oferece proteção em um modelo clássico de lesão de isquemia e reperfusão hepática em ratos. MÉTODOS: Dois dias antes do experimento, os ratos foram divididos em 2 grupos: Grupo Controle (n=13: ratos alimentados com dieta padrão; Grupo Rosi (n=13: ratos alimentados com dieta em pó padrão enriquecida com rosiglitazona. Os animais foram submetidos à isquemia e reperfusão hepática por clampeamento do pedículo dos lobos médio e anterolateral esquerdo. Após 1 hora de isquemia, o clampe foi removido para a reperfusão. Após 2 ou 24 horas (Grupos Controle e Rosi, o sangue foi coletado para análise de enzimas e citocinas. Os fígados isquêmico e não isquêmico foram coletados para análise de malondialdeído e avaliação histológica. Pulmões foram removidos para quantificação da mieloperoxidase tecidual. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças estatísticas entre

  8. [Acne and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, B C

    2013-04-01

    In industrialized countries acne presents as an epidemic disease of civilization affecting sebaceous follicles of adolescents and young adults, associated with increased body mass index and insulin resistance. "Western style" diet, characterized by high glycaemic load and increased consumption of insulinotropic milk proteins, plays an important role in acne pathogenesis. On the cellular level, nutrient-derived metabolic signals are sensed by the metabolic transcription factor FoxO1 and integrated by the regulatory kinase mTORC1. mTORC1, the central hub of protein- and lipid biosynthesis, cell growth and proliferation, is activated by insulin, IGF-1 and branched-chain essential amino acids, especially leucine. The understanding of Western diet-mediated nutrient signalling with over-activated mTORC1 offers a reasonable approach for dietary intervention in acne by lowering glycaemic load and consumption of milk and milk products. A suitable diet attenuating increased mTORC1 activity is a Palaeolithic-like diet with reduced intake of sugar, hyperglycaemic grains, milk and milk products but enriched consumption of vegetables and fish. PMID:23529682

  9. Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity of Healthy Female Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml of...... blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also...... obtained four hours after consuming the juice. RESULTS: Consumption of cranberry juice resulted in a significant increase in the ability of plasma to reduce potassium nitrosodisulphonate and Fe(III)-2,4, 6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine, these measures of antioxidant capacity attaining a maximum after 60...

  10. The matrix effect of blueberry, oat meal and milk on polyphenols, antioxidant activity and potential bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebeci, Fatma; Şahin-Yeşilçubuk, Neşe

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, ready-to eat breakfast cereals prepared with fruit ingredients have gained particular attention due to their polyphenolic contents and health promoting effects. In this study, the matrix effect of blueberry, oat meal, whole milk or skimmed milk on polyphenols, antioxidative potential as well as their potential bioavailability were investigated. The phenolic properties of whole milk, skimmed milk, blueberry and oat meal were investigated and the changes in combinations of the ingredients were determined. Milk addition decreased the total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin content of samples statistically and had negative effect on antioxidant activity showing differences among different methods. According to HPLC results, it was not possible to detect catechin in mixtures due to milk addition. In vitro digestion method was used to determine potential bioavailability of phenolic compounds. According to in vitro digestion procedure results, whole or skimmed milk did not affect the total phenolic content of the proportion passing to the blood from intestine.

  11. Congenital self-healing histiocytosis presenting as blueberry muffin baby: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Popadic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital self-healing Langerhans cell histiocytosis (CSHLCH, also called as Hashimoto-Pritzker disease, is a rare, benign variant of histiocytosis. Despite the initial dramatic clinical presentation, affected infants are otherwise healthy and skin lesions disappear spontaneously within several weeks to months. We present a case of CSHLCH presenting as blueberry muffin baby. The lesions appeared in the first week of life and lasted 6 months. The follow-up period was 24 months, without any signs of relapse. At the pediatric dermatology unit of our clinic, during the last 20 years, we had 10 children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis and among them only one with CSHLCH. In the literature, we found only 5 newborns with Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as blueberry muffin baby, among them only 4 with self-healing CSHLCH. The early recognition of CSHLCH may spare children from redundant and potentially toxic systemic treatment.

  12. Analysis of Organic Acids in Blueberry Juice and its Fermented Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxue Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid analytical method for simultaneous separation and determination of organic acids is of the essence for quality control of blueberry juice and its fermented wine. In this present study, a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method for separation and determination of organic acids (oxalic acid, gluconic acid, tartaric acid, formic acid, pyruvic acid, malic acid, isocitric acid, shikimic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid and propionic acid in blueberry juice and wine has been developed. The chromatographic separation was performed at 35°C by using an ammonium hydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 2.8 as mobile phase and 0.6 mL/min as the column flow rate. A C18 analytical column and Ultraviolet Detection (UV at &lembda = 210 nm were used for all acids above. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy and precision. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing organic acids in real samples of six species of blueberry juices and wines. The results show that species significantly affect distribution of organic acids in samples but not the kinds of organic acids between six species. Oxalic acid, gluconic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid and citric acid are detected in blueberry juice. Citric acid, which accounts for a percentage >75% of the whole content of organic acids, is the major acid in four kinds of tested species (Sharpblue, Misty, Anna and Bluecrop. In the other two species (Britewell and Premier, malic acid, gluconic acid and citric acid own a mean percentage of 40, 32 and 25%, respectively. After yeast fermentation and aging, several new organic acids (pyruvic acid, isocitric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid and propionic acid appear in wine.

  13. Effect of organic amendments on half-highbush blueberry production and soil fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Warman, P.R.; Shanmugam, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    Five treatments were compared using two half-highbush blueberry cultivars (cv Chippewa and Polaris) transplanted and grown for their first three growing seasons at a site in Boutiliers Point, N.S., a Gibraltar brown sandy loam (Ferro-Humic Podzol). The five treatments were as follows: Alfalfa meal + rock P + wood ash; NPK fertilizer; Municipal Solid Waste (MSWC) compost; Ruminant compost; food waste, manure and yardwaste compost (FMYC). All amendments were weighed and applied in a...

  14. Lack of pollinators limits fruit production in commercial blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Faye E; Winfree, Rachael

    2014-12-01

    Modern agriculture relies on domesticated pollinators such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), and to a lesser extent on native pollinators, for the production of animal-pollinated crops. There is growing concern that pollinator availability may not keep pace with increasing agricultural production. However, whether crop production is in fact pollen-limited at the field scale has rarely been studied. Here, we ask whether commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) production in New Jersey is limited by a lack of pollination even when growers provide honey bees at recommended densities. We studied two varieties of blueberry over 3 yr to determine whether blueberry crop production is pollen-limited and to measure the relative contributions of honey bees and native bees to blueberry pollination. We found two lines of evidence for pollen limitation. First, berries receiving supplemental hand-pollination were generally heavier than berries receiving ambient pollination. Second, mean berry mass increased significantly and nonasymptotically with honey bee flower visitation rate. While honey bees provided 86% of pollination and thus drove the findings reported above, native bees still contributed 14% of total pollination even in our conventionally managed, high-input agricultural system. Honey bees and native bees were also similarly efficient as pollinators on a per-visit basis. Overall, our study shows that pollination can be a limiting factor in commercial fruit production. Yields might increase with increased honey bee stocking rates and improved dispersal of hives within crop fields, and with habitat restoration to increase pollination provided by native bees. PMID:25313694

  15. An efficient RNA isolation procedure and identification of reference genes for normalization of gene expression in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisth, Tripti; Johnson, Lisa Klima; Malladi, Anish

    2011-12-01

    Application of transcriptomics approaches can greatly enhance our understanding of blueberry physiology. The success of transcriptomics approaches is dependent on the extraction of high-quality RNA which is complicated by the abundance of polyphenolics and polysaccharides in blueberry. Additionally, transcriptomics requires the accurate quantification of transcript abundance. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a robust method to determine transcript abundance. Normalization of gene expression using stably expressed reference genes is essential in qRT-PCR. An evaluation of the stability of expression of reference genes has not yet been reported in blueberry. The objectives of this study were to develop an effective procedure for extracting RNA from different organs and to evaluate potential reference genes for qRT-PCR analyses in blueberry. RNA of high quality and yield was extracted from eight and six organs of rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberry, respectively, using a modified cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-based method. The expression stability of 12 reference genes was evaluated. UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME (UBC28), RNA HELICASE-LIKE (RH8), CLATHRIN ADAPTER COMPLEXES MEDIUM SUBUNIT FAMILY PROTEIN (CACSa), and POLYUBIQUITIN (UBQ3b) were the most stably expressed genes across multiple organs in both blueberry species. Further, the expression stability of the reference genes in the branch abscission zone following treatment with fruit abscission-inducing compounds was analyzed. CACSa, RH8, and UBC28 were the most stably expressed genes in the abscission zone under abscission-inducing conditions. We suggest a preliminary evaluation of UBC28, CACSa, RH8, and UBQ3b to identify the most suitable reference genes for the experimental conditions under consideration in blueberry.

  16. Influence of three different concentration techniques on evaporation rate, color and phenolics content of blueberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elik, Aysel; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Maskan, Medeni; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of three different concentration processes open-pan, rotary vacuum evaporator and microwave heating on evaporation rate, the color and phenolics content of blueberry juice. Kinetics model study for changes in soluble solids content (°Brix), color parameters and phenolics content during evaporation was also performed. The final juice concentration of 65° Brix was achieved in 12, 15, 45 and 77 min, for microwave at 250 and 200 W, rotary vacuum and open-pan evaporation processes, respectively. Color changes associated with heat treatment were monitored using Hunter colorimeter (L*, a* and b*). All Hunter color parameters decreased with time and dependently studied concentration techniques caused color degradation. It was observed that the severity of color loss was higher in open-pan technique than the others. Evaporation also affected total phenolics content in blueberry juice. Total phenolics loss during concentration was highest in open-pan technique (36.54 %) and lowest in microwave heating at 200 W (34.20 %). So, the use of microwave technique could be advantageous in food industry because of production of blueberry juice concentrate with a better quality and short time of operation. A first-order kinetics model was applied to modeling changes in soluble solids content. A zero-order kinetics model was used to modeling changes in color parameters and phenolics content.

  17. Atmospheric cold plasma inactivation of aerobic microorganisms on blueberries and effects on quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Niemira, Brendan A; Gurtler, Joshua B; Fan, Xuetong; Sites, Joseph; Boyd, Glenn; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-04-01

    Cold plasma (CP) is a novel nonthermal technology, potentially useful in food processing settings. Berries were treated with atmospheric CP for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, or 120 s at a working distance of 7.5 cm with a mixture of 4 cubic feet/minute (cfm) of CP jet and 7 cfm of ambient air. Blueberries were sampled for total aerobic plate count (APC) and yeast/molds immediately after treatment and at 1, 2, and 7 days. Blueberries were also analyzed for compression firmness, surface color, and total anthocyanins immediately after each treatment. All treatments with CP significantly (P < 0.05) reduced APC after exposure, with reductions ranging from 0.8 to 1.6 log CFU/g and 1.5 to 2.0 log CFU/g compared to the control after 1 and 7 days, respectively. Treatments longer than 60s resulted in significant reductions in firmness, although it was demonstrated that collisions between the berries and the container contributed significantly to softening. A significant reduction in anthocyanins was observed after 90 s. The surface color measurements were significantly impacted after 120 s for the L* and a* values and 45 s for the b* values. CP can inactivate microorganisms on blueberries and could be optimized to improve the safety and quality of produce.

  18. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  19. Myo-Inositol content determined by myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation in blueberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fangyuan; Su, Hongyan; Yang, Nan; Zhu, Luying; Cheng, Jieshan; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Xianhao

    2016-11-01

    Myo-inositol metabolism in plant edible organs has become the focus of many recent studies because of its benefits to human health and unique functions in plant development. In this study, myo-inositol contents were analyzed during the development of two blueberry cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop'. Furthermore, two VcMIPS 1/2 (Vaccinium corymbosum MIPS) genes, one VcIMP (Vaccinium corymbosum IMP) gene and one VcMIOX (Vaccinium corymbosum MIOX) gene were isolated for the first time from blueberry. The expression patterns of VcMIPS2, VcIMP and VcMIOX genes showed a relationship with the change profiles of myo-inositol content during fruit ripening. The results were further confirmed by the analyses of the enzyme activity. Results indicated that both myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation played important roles in determining of myo-inositol levels during the development of blueberry. To our knowledge, this report is the first to discuss myo-inositol levels in fruits in terms of biosynthesis and catabolism. PMID:27211661

  20. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often conflicting advice is available, especially on the Internet. Much of it is associated with a considerable cost. Video with Peter Whorwell, MD Diet, Eating and IBS Symptoms There are a variety of ...

  1. Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... the average American diet. In fact, saturated fat consumption is well within our dietary guidelines. More than ...

  2. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Wild Blueberries (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. with Cultivated Blueberry Varieties (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in Artvin Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Saral

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. which are found naturally in most part of Blacksea Region, and Artvin are generally called bear grape, Trabzon tea, and likapa. In addition, different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. have been cultivated in Artvin region for 5 or 6 years. Blueberries contain appreciable levels of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and flavonols that have high biological activity. V. arctostaphylos and V. myrtillus show that natural distrubition with received V. corymbosum of different cultured species in Artvin region will be determined antioxidant activity in this study. In this study showed that wild species had a higher antioxidant effect than cultivated species. V. myrtillus had high total polyphenols (11.539-20.742 mg GAE/g dry sample, flavonoids (1.182-2.676 mg QE/g dry sample and anthocyanins (3.305-11.473 mg Cyn/g dry sample than V. corymbosum species. In addition, wild species had high CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH values. The antioxidant activities found with CUPRAC, expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity ranged from 0.143 to 0.297 mmol TEAC/g dry sample. Those determined with DPPH expressed as IC50 ranged from 0.229 to 1.178 mg/ml. Those determined with FRAP expressed as FeSO4.7H2O equivalent were in 130.719–346.115 µmol Fe/g dry sample range.

  3. Beyond Job Enrichment to Employment Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werther, William B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Employment enrichment views the total work environment confronting employees as a system consisting of two overlapping areas: worker-job and worker-organization subsystems. Job enrichment has improved the worker-job subsystem. The focus of this article is on methods of improving the worker-organization relationship. (Author/JB)

  4. Influence of genotype, cultivation system and irrigation regime on antioxidant capacity and selected phenolics of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Muriel, José Luis; Moreno, Diego A; Moreno-Rojas, José M

    2016-07-01

    Demand for and availability of blueberries has increased substantially over recent years, driven in part by their health-promoting properties. Three blueberry varieties ('Rocío', V2, and V3) were grown under two cultivation systems (open-field and plastic tunnels) and subjected to two irrigations regimes (100% and 80% of crop evapotranspiration) in two consecutive years (2011-2012). They were evaluated for their phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Genotype influenced the antioxidant capacity and the content of the three groups of phenolics in the blueberries. The antioxidant activity and total flavonols content increased when the blueberries were grown under open-field conditions. Deficit irrigation conditions led to additional positive effects on their phenolics (delphinidn-3-acetilhexoside content was increased under plastic tunnel with deficit irrigation). In conclusion, the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of blueberries were not negatively affected by water restriction; Moreover, several changes were recorded due to growing system and genotype. PMID:26920295

  5. Construction of Models for Nondestructive Prediction of Ingredient Contents in Blueberries by Near-infrared Spectroscopy Based on HPLC Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenming; Yoshimura, Norio; Takayanagi, Masao; Che, Jingai; Horiuchi, Naomi; Ogiwara, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Nondestructive prediction of ingredient contents of farm products is useful to ship and sell the products with guaranteed qualities. Here, near-infrared spectroscopy is used to predict nondestructively total sugar, total organic acid, and total anthocyanin content in each blueberry. The technique is expected to enable the selection of only delicious blueberries from all harvested ones. The near-infrared absorption spectra of blueberries are measured with the diffuse reflectance mode at the positions not on the calyx. The ingredient contents of a blueberry determined by high-performance liquid chromatography are used to construct models to predict the ingredient contents from observed spectra. Partial least squares regression is used for the construction of the models. It is necessary to properly select the pretreatments for the observed spectra and the wavelength regions of the spectra used for analyses. Validations are necessary for the constructed models to confirm that the ingredient contents are predicted with practical accuracies. Here we present a protocol to construct and validate the models for nondestructive prediction of ingredient contents in blueberries by near-infrared spectroscopy. PMID:27404089

  6. 蓝莓果酒发酵工艺研究%Study on the Fermentation Technology of Blueberry Fruit Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗世芹; 姚万欣

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced blueberries and blueberry wine, and discussed blueberry wine fermentation process and control points in the process. Fermentation process and influencing factors were analyzed. Treatment of blueberries, sugar additives, different yeast, the main fermentation process, pectin decomposition would have impacts on the quality of blueberry wine. Factors influencing the fermentation process were discussed in details to optimize the fermentation process and improve product quality.%本文对蓝莓和蓝莓果酒进行了介绍,探讨了蓝莓果酒的发酵流程、发酵过程中的控制要点。并对发酵过程中的影响因素进行了分析,蓝莓的处理方法、糖类添加剂、不同的酵母、主发酵工艺、果胶分解均会对蓝莓果酒的质量产生影响。针对发酵过程中的影响因素进行了具体讨论,旨在优化发酵工艺,提高产品质量。

  7. Research Progress of Physiological Ecology of Blueberry%蓝莓的生理生态学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 王莹; 刘兵; 屈德宁

    2015-01-01

    Blueberry fruit has a high nutritional value,rich in vitamin E,vitamin A,protein and cyanine glycosides,etc. Planting blueberry has high economic effect of the project. Blueberry cultivation is influenced by various factors. This article from three aspects of blueberry water physiology,mineral nutrition and photosynthetic physiological characteristics were summarized. The future problem of blueberry research was summarized.%蓝莓果实具有很高的营养价值,其富含维生素E、维生素A、蛋白质和花青苷等,被赞誉为“浆果之王”。它含有丰富的营养成分,既有良好的营养和保健作用,还具有防止脑神经老化、强心、抗癌、软化血管、增强人体免疫功能及缓解视觉疲劳的作用。蓝莓的栽培受到多方面因素的影响。本文对蓝莓的水分生理、矿质营养和土壤pH值及光合生理特性等几个方面进行了综述,并提出了今后蓝莓研究要重视的问题。

  8. Antimicrobial Effects of Blueberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Aqueous Extracts and their Effects on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Hazim O; Kamimoto, Maki; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry on 13 pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were determined before and after neutralization to pH 7.03 ± 0.15. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited by the non-neutralized berries. Blueberry was the best inhibitor, and Vibrio and Listeria were the most sensitive bacteria. After neutralization, blueberry affected only Vibrio and Listeria, whereas the antimicrobial activities of raspberry and strawberry were abolished. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the extracts were measured with colorimetric methods and were highest in strawberry, followed by raspberry, and then blueberry. We also studied the effects of sub-bactericidal concentrations of the three berry extracts on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three berry extracts effectively repressed the transcription of the tcpA gene. Raspberry also repressed the transcription of the ctxA gene, whereas blueberry and strawberry did not. However, the three berry extracts did not affect the transcription of toxT. These results suggest that the three berry extracts exert potent antimicrobial effects and inhibit the expression of the virulence factors of V. cholerae.

  9. Feeding effect of selenium enriched rotifers on larval growth and development in red sea bream Pagrus major

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Sakakura, Yoshitaka; Maruyama, Isao; Nakamura, Toshio; Takiyama, Kazushi; Fujiki, Haruyuki; Hagiwara, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Feeding trials were conducted to investigate the effect of selenium (Se)-enriched rotifers on growth and development of red sea bream Pagrus major larvae. Fish were reared from fertilized eggs (98% hatch rate) to 20. days post hatch (dph) at 19. °C with two different food sources; non-enriched S-type rotifers (0.0. μg. Se/g D.W., control diet) or Se-enriched rotifers (2.2. μg. Se/g D.W., Se-enriched diet) at 10. rotifers/mL, respectively. On the last day of larviculture, the Se-enriched diet ...

  10. Determination of metallothionein levels in tissues of young rats fed zinc-enriched diets Determinação dos níveis de metalotioneínas em tecidos de ratos jovens alimentados com dietas enriquecidas com zinco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Simeone HENRIQUES

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to quantify metallothioneins (MT's in tissues of rats fed different concentrations of zinc, in order to observe the animal response to the metal in relation to different types of diets, and to assess the nutritional status relating to zinc in the diets. Thirty-two Wistar newly-weaned male rats were distributed into four experimental groups and housed in individual cages. They had free access to water and diet containing different zinc concentrations, named RC (AIN 93-like diet, RH (customary diet of the university restaurant, both non-supplemented, and RCS and RHS, supplemented. After four weeks, the animals were killed and liver, kidneys, femurs and testes were isolated to determine metallothionein levels by a Cd/Hb affinity assay. Zinc content was determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS. The results showed that zinc supplementation produced no change in the tissue metallothionein profile in the doses under analysis. The highest metallothionein mean concentration was found in the liver - 36.21 ± 0.88 µg/g (mean for RC-RCS groups, and 28.92 ± 5.32 µg/g (mean for RH-RHS groups. Metallothionein concentrations in testes were quite high, considering the small volume of the organ - 19.29 ± 0.54 µg/g (mean for RC-RCS groups, and 17.22 ± 1.07 µg/g (mean for RH-RHS groups. Significant increases in zinc concentration were observed in the liver of young supplemented rats - 38.94 ± 3.43 µg/g of tissue for RCS, and 42.83 ± 2.78 µg/g of tissue for RHS, and in the femurs - 140.04 ± 6.03 µg/g of tissue for RCS, and 86.57 ± 6.95 µg/g of tissue for RHS. The different carrying zinc food matrices caused no change in the adaptive response to metallothionein metabolism, and the lack of responsiveness towards metallothionein synthesis did not invalidate the results of tissue zinc concentration parameters, which suggest different degrees for zinc bioavailability.O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar

  11. Study on Technology of Blueberry Melon Seeds%蓝莓瓜子加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽; 孙汉巨; 康琳琳; 朱作朋; 刘天成; 谢慧明

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the optimum technology conditions for the blueberry melon seeds. [Method] With the pumpkin seed was the main raw material, matched with the blueberry fruit juice, the melon seeds with pure nature fruit juice was developed out. Taking the sense quality of the melon seeds as the evaluation standard, with the blueberries, sugar and citric acid as the factors, the orthogonal experiment on the blueberry fruit juice proportion and the test on the ratio of the fruit juice and anthocyanins in black rice were conducted. The effects of the fruit juice adding quantity, baking temperature and time and frying time on the quality of the melon seeds were studied and the optimum technology conditions for the blueberry melon seeds were confirmed. [ Result ] The factors influencing the taste of the compound blueberry fruit juice were in order of sugar > citric acid > blueberries. The optimum formula of the blueberry fruit juice was as follows: blueberries of 5% , sucrose of 8% and citric acid of 0.2%. The optimum ratio of blueberry juice to anthocyanins in the black rice was 1: 3 and the adding quantity of the blueberry fruit juice was 15 ml per 20 g seeds. The main technology conditions for producing the blueberry melon seeds were as follows; the stripping melon seeds were baked for 2 h at 80 ℃ and fried for 270 s at 160 ℃. [ Conclusion] The study provided the scientific basis for the development of the green fruit juice with pure nature.%[目的]探讨蓝莓瓜子的最佳加工工艺条件.[方法]以南瓜子为主要原料,复配以蓝莓果汁,开发纯天然的果汁瓜子.以瓜子的感官品质为评价标准,以蓝莓、白砂糖和柠檬酸为因素,进行蓝莓果汁配比的正交试验以及该果汁与黑米花青素的配比试验,研究果汁添加量、烘烤温度和时间及炒制时间对瓜子品质的影响,确定蓝莓瓜子的最佳工艺条件.[结果]影响蓝莓复配果汁风味的因素依次为:白砂糖>

  12. Intake of Wild Blueberry Powder Improves Episodic-Like and Working Memory during Normal Aging in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beracochea, Daniel; Krazem, Ali; Henkouss, Nadia; Haccard, Guillaume; Roller, Marc; Fromentin, Emilie

    2016-08-01

    The number of Americans older than 65 years old is projected to more than double in the next 40 years. Cognitive changes associated to aging can affect an adult's day-to-day functioning. Among these cognitive changes, reasoning, episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed decline gradually over time. Early memory changes include a decline in both working and episodic memory. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic (up to 75 days) daily administration of wild blueberry extract or a wild blueberry full spectrum powder would help prevent memory failure associated with aging in tasks involving various forms of memory. Both blueberry ingredients were used in a study comparing young mice (6 months old) to aged mice (18 months old). At this age, mice exhibit memory decline due to aging, which is exacerbated first by a loss in working and contextual (episodic-like) memory. Contextual memory (episodic-like memory) was evaluated using the contextual serial discrimination test. Working and spatial memory were evaluated using the Morris-Water maze test and the sequential alternation test. Statistical analysis was performed using an ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Supplementation with wild blueberry full spectrum powder and wild blueberry extract resulted in significant improvement of contextual memory, while untreated aged mice experienced a decline in such memory. Only the wild blueberry full spectrum powder significantly contributed to an improvement of spatial and working memory versus untreated aged mice. These improvements of cognitive performance may be related to brain oxidative status, acetylcholinesterase activity, neuroprotection, or attenuation of immunoreactivity.

  13. 蓝莓的栽培技术及病害研究%Cultivation Technique And Disease Study Of Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗丽芬

    2012-01-01

    This paper sates the cultivation technique of blueberry and characteristics and prevention measures of sev- eral diseases and insects. It also introduces the trophic value, recovery and storage methods of blueberry.%阐述蓝莓的栽培技术管理以及几种病虫害的发生特点危害及防治措施;同时也简单介绍蓝莓的营养价值及采收、贮存方法。

  14. Effects of Blueberry Extract on Antioxidant Capacity in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long TAN; Hai-qiang LI; Hong-peng YANG; Wei PANG; Wei LIU; Shou-dan SUN; Yu-gang JIANG

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of blueberry extract on antioxidant capacity in mice with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were adopted as the AD model and groups AD, AD+BB and control (CT) were set with ten mice in each group. The mice were given blueberry extract(BB) or saline for 16 weeks. The body weight gain and the food consumption were recorded weekly. The morphological changes in cortex were detected, and the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and the levels of GSH and MDA in the brain, liver, kidney and serum were determined.Results The food consumption did not show any significant difference among the three groups, and the AD mice treated with BB obtained a remarkable body weight gain during the experimental period. The morphological examination showed that an obvious neuronal loss appeared in the cortex of AD mice and improvement was noted in mice treated with BB. The biochemical detection showed that the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, and levels of GSH in the brain, liver and serum were significantly declined while the levels of MDA in these tissues and serum were increased in AD mice. After BB administration, the activity of SOD in brain was elevated significantly and the activities of GSH-Px and the levels of GSH in liver and serum were also recovered to some extent. Meanwhile, the levels of MDA in the brain, liver and serum were decreased obviously. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the level of MDA did not show significant change in kidney. Conclusion Brain is susceptive to oxidative stress in AD mice. Blueberry extract is effective in alleviating the oxidative damage in AD mice.

  15. Diet after gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric banding surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after banding; Weight loss - diet after banding ... about any problems you are having with your diet, or about other issues related to your surgery ...

  16. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  17. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources > Diet and Nutrition Go Back Diet and Nutrition Email Print + Share Diet and nutrition concerns of ... you. NEW!! Test your knowledge of diet and nutrition by taking this self-assessment for an opportunity ...

  18. Efecto de la ingesta de un preparado lácteo con fibra dietética sobre el estreñimiento crónico primario idiopático The effect of a fibre enriched dietary milk product in chronic primary idiopatic constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. López Román

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si la administración de un preparado lácteo enriquecido con un suplemento de fibra soluble (Naturfibra®[inulina y maltodextrina resistente a la digestión (Fibersol 2®], afecta a la sintomatología en el estreñimiento crónico primario idiopático. Ámbito: Sujetos de ambos sexos con estreñimiento según los criterios de Roma II. Sujetos: Se trata de un ensayo clínico doble ciego aleatorizado de intervención dietética realizado en 32 individuos con estreñimiento de ambos sexos (hombres 4; mujeres 28 y con una edad media de 47 ± 15 años. Los 32 individuos que formaban la muestra, se dividieron al azar en dos grupos homogéneos. Intervenciones: A cada grupo se le asignó un tipo de leche (A o B, una de ellas era leche semidesnatada enriquecida con fibra (A y la otra leche semidesnatada (B. Los sujetos tomaron medio litro de leche diario durante 20 días, lo que supone que aquellos que tomaron la leche enriquecida ingirieron 20 gramos de fibra al día. Resultados: Los individuos que presentaban esfuerzo deposicional (p Background: fibre is effective in some types of constipation. Our objective was to determine if the administration of an enriched dairy preparation with a supplement of soluble fibre (Naturfibra® [inulin and digestion resistant maltodextrin (Fibersol 2®], improves primary chronic constipation. Methods: Prospective, randomized, double blind clinical trial randomized with dietary intervention in 32 subjects with constipation according to the Rome II criteria. Thirty two subjects (men 4; women 28 with an average age of 47 ± 15 years were randomly divided in two homogeneous groups. A type of milk (A or B was assigned to each group. Group A received fibre enriched semi-skimmed milk; Group B received semi skimmed milk. The subjects drank half a litre of milk per day during 20 days, meaning that those who drank the enriched milk ingested 20 grams of fibre a day. Result: The subjects that presented

  19. Blueberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Growth and Metastatic Potential of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells Through Modulation of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Lynn S.; Phung, Sheryl; Yee, Natalie; Seeram, Navindra P.; Li, Liya; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are known to exhibit a variety of anti-carcinogenic properties. This study investigated the chemopreventive activity of blueberry extract in triple negative breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Blueberry decreased cell proliferation in HCC38, HCC1937 and MDA-MB-231 cells with no effect on the non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cell line. Decreased metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 cells by blueberry was shown through inhibition of cell motility using wound healing assay...

  20. Botrytis californica, a new cryptic species in the B. cinerea species complex causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea consists of two cryptic species, referred to as Group I and Group II based on Bc-hch gene RFLP haplotyping, and Group I has been described as a new cryptic species B. pseudocinerea. During a survey for Botrytis spp. causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes in the Central Va...

  1. Screenhouse Evaluations of a Mason Bee Osmia ribifloris (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) as a Pollinator for Blueberries in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmia ribifloris Cresson is a solitary stem-nesting bee whose adult emergence perfectly coincided with the flowering periods of cultivated southern blueberries. An isolated case of extended prepupal dormancy occurred, but never reappeared in a captive population raised in Mississippi. Adults foraged...

  2. Efficiacy of bumble bee disseminated biological control agents for control of Botrytis Blossom blight of Rabbiteye Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea may cause severe crop loss in rabbiteye blueberry, necessitating applications of expensive fungicides. Commercial bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, were tested as vectors of the fungicidal biological control agents (BCAs), Prestop® Gliocladium catenula...

  3. Blueberry polyphenol oxidase: Characterization and the kinetics of thermal and high pressure activation and inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Delon, Antoine; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2015-12-01

    Partially purified blueberry polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in Mcllvaine buffer (pH=3.6, typical pH of blueberry juice) was subjected to processing at isothermal-isobaric conditions at temperatures from 30 to 80 °C and pressure from 0.1 to 700 MPa. High pressure processing at 30-50 °C at all pressures studied caused irreversible PPO activity increase with a maximum of 6.1 fold increase at 500 MPa and 30 °C. Treatments at mild pressure-mild temperature conditions (0.1-400 MPa, 60 °C) also caused up to 3 fold PPO activity increase. Initial activity increase followed by a decrease occurred at relatively high pressure-mild temperature (400-600 MPa, 60 °C) and mild pressure-high temperature (0.1-400 MPa, 70-80 °C) combinations. At temperatures higher than 76 °C, monotonic decrease in PPO activity occurred at 0.1 MPa and pressures higher than 500 MPa. The activation/inactivation kinetics of the enzyme was successfully modelled assuming consecutive reactions in series with activation followed by inactivation.

  4. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Properties of Anthocyanin Rich Extracts from Blueberry and Blackcurrant Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative potential of anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARFs obtained from two commercially available juices (blueberry and blackcurrant juices on three tumor cell lines; B16F10 (murine melanoma, A2780 (ovarian cancer and HeLa (cervical cancer. Individual anthocyanin determination, identification and quantification were done using HPLC-MS. Antioxidant activity of the juices was determined through different mechanism methods such as DPPH and ORAC. For biological testing, the juices were purified through C18 cartridges in order to obtain fractions rich in anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins identified were glycosylated cyanidin derivatives. The antiproliferative activity of the fractions was tested using the MTT assay. The antiproliferative potential of ARF was found to be associated with those bioactive molecules, anthocyanins due to their antioxidant potential. The results obtained indicated that both blueberry and blackcurrants are rich sources of antioxidants including anthocyanins and therefore these fruits are highly recommended for daily consumption to prevent numerous degenerative diseases.

  5. Antioxidant Activity of Blueberry Anthocyanin%蓝莓花青素的抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 潘利华

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究蓝莓花青素的抗氧化活性.[方法]采用酸化乙醇提取蓝莓鲜果中的蓝莓花青素,并通过羟自由基、DPPH自由基、H2O2、超氧阴离子自由基及Fe3+清除率试验评价蓝莓花青素的抗氧化能力.[结果]蓝莓花青素对羟自由基、DPPH自由基、H2O2、超氧阴离子自由基及Fe3+清除率随着浓度的增大而增强,其抗氧化活性高于相同浓度的抗坏血酸.[结论]蓝莓花青素具有很高的抗氧化活性,可以作为天然抗氧化剂进行开发.%[Objective] To determine the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin from blueberry.[Method] The anthocyanin were extracted with acidified ethanol from the fresh blueberry and the antioxidant activities of blueberry anthocyanin were determined by · OH,DPPH ·,H2O2,superoxide anion and Fe3+ removal experiments.[Result] The · OH,DPPH ·,H2O2,superoxide anion and Fe3+ removal rates of blueberry anthocyanin increased with its concentrations and were superior to that of Vc at the same concentration.[Conclusion] Blueberry anthocyanin possessed high antioxidant activity,which can be developed as natural antioxidants.

  6. 蓝莓酸乳饮料的工艺研究%Study on processing technology of blueberry yogurt beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少庸; 费英敏

    2011-01-01

    以纯牛奶和蓝莓为主要原料,通过发酵、调配、均质、杀菌等加工工艺制成蓝莓酸乳饮料,通过单因素和正交实验法筛选出最佳工艺配方,采用CMC和黄原胶对其稳定性进行研究,优化并确定了最佳工艺配方为:酸奶30%,蓝莓汁12%,蔗糖12%,柠檬酸0.02%,乙基麦芽酚0.01%,苯甲酸钠0.10%,水45%(均为质量分数)时蓝莓酸乳饮料风味最佳;CMC质量分数为0.5%和黄原胶0.1%复配时蓝莓酸乳饮料稳定性最好.%The paper used fresh milk and blueberry as main ingrediengts, through fermentation, dispensation,homogenization,sterilization and etc, made the blueberry yogurt beverage .the optimum technological conditions were determined with single- factor test and orthogonal test. The stability was studied with two additives:CMC and Xanthan,the optimum formulation was optimized and determined:when the additive amount meet yoghurt 30%,blueberry juice 12%, sucrose 12%, lemon acid 0.02% Ethyl maltol 0.010%, Sodiun Bebzoate 0.1% and water 45% the blueberry yogurt beverage had a good flavor and taste; when the additive amount meet CMC 0.5% ,the mixture of Xanthan Gum 0.1% the blueberry yogurt beverage was considered to be the better stabilizer.

  7. Research Advance in the Development of Blueberry Dairy Products%蓝莓乳制品开发研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈小媛; 王芳; 贾强

    2012-01-01

    Blueberry dairy products are more popular with consumers, because blueberries have a variety of healthpromoting effects. This paper describes the nutrition value and health-promoting functions of blueberries, reviews the current status of development of blueberry dairy products and the recent advance in research on key production technologies, and explores future perspectives.%蓝莓具有多种保健功能,将其与牛乳组合开发新型蓝莓乳制品会倍受消费者青睐。本文对蓝莓营养价值、保健功能等进行概述,重点阐述蓝莓乳制品开发现状及其生产关键技术研究进展,并对其发展前景作出展望。

  8. Mechanism analysis and simulation of blueberry harvest by vibration mode%振动式蓝莓采摘的机理分析与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海滨; 郭艳玲; 鲍玉冬; 耿雷

    2013-01-01

      为改变中国蓝莓人工采摘状况,实现高丛蓝莓的机械化采摘,该文研究了高丛蓝莓的采摘机理,并对所建立的数学模型进行仿真分析。首先分析蓝莓振动采摘机理,建立蓝莓植株采摘物理模型,推导得出动力学方程,采用数学物理微分方程求解得到蓝莓树枝稳态受迫振动输出解及采摘惯性力。运用MATLAB软件仿真分析蓝莓树枝稳态受迫振动时域仿真曲线及采摘力幅频特性仿真曲线,并进行了蓝莓采摘试验,试验数据与仿真结果一致:仿真结果满足蓝莓采摘条件的采摘频率为14~16rad/s,较优的采摘频率为15rad/s,该频率下的采摘效率为913颗/min,采摘生果率为2.99%,采摘果实损坏率为2.86%,未采净率为3.17%,机采人采效率比为10.14。研究结果可为高丛蓝莓采摘机的研制提供参考。%  Recently, the blueberry was served as the king of fruits, and people have been paying more attention to the health care effect, economic and medicinal value of the blueberry. Planting the blueberry is a new economic growth point in agriculture and forestry. The demand for blueberry exceeds the supply in the international market with high-speed growth demand. However, the blueberries are harvested depending entirely on hand picking in China with serious losses, and the picking cost accounts for 50%−70%of the total blueberry production cost. The old harvesting method restricts the widespread popularization and planting of blueberries. Research on blueberry picking machines and blueberry picking mechanisms is in its infancy in China. The price of blueberry picking machines is high. An experiment was conducted to change the artificial harvesting status of the blueberry, realize the mechanization of a high-bush blueberry-picking tool, and establish the theoretical guidance and design basis for the blueberry-picking machine for Chinese national conditions. We studied the

  9. Fungicide resistance profiling in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington and their impact on control of gray mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Sensitivities to boscalid, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, and pyraclostrobin, representing five different fungicide classes, were...

  10. Mechanism analysis and simulation of blueberry harvest by vibration mode%振动式蓝莓采摘的机理分析与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海滨; 郭艳玲; 鲍玉冬; 耿雷

    2013-01-01

      为改变中国蓝莓人工采摘状况,实现高丛蓝莓的机械化采摘,该文研究了高丛蓝莓的采摘机理,并对所建立的数学模型进行仿真分析。首先分析蓝莓振动采摘机理,建立蓝莓植株采摘物理模型,推导得出动力学方程,采用数学物理微分方程求解得到蓝莓树枝稳态受迫振动输出解及采摘惯性力。运用MATLAB软件仿真分析蓝莓树枝稳态受迫振动时域仿真曲线及采摘力幅频特性仿真曲线,并进行了蓝莓采摘试验,试验数据与仿真结果一致:仿真结果满足蓝莓采摘条件的采摘频率为14~16rad/s,较优的采摘频率为15rad/s,该频率下的采摘效率为913颗/min,采摘生果率为2.99%,采摘果实损坏率为2.86%,未采净率为3.17%,机采人采效率比为10.14。研究结果可为高丛蓝莓采摘机的研制提供参考。%  Recently, the blueberry was served as the king of fruits, and people have been paying more attention to the health care effect, economic and medicinal value of the blueberry. Planting the blueberry is a new economic growth point in agriculture and forestry. The demand for blueberry exceeds the supply in the international market with high-speed growth demand. However, the blueberries are harvested depending entirely on hand picking in China with serious losses, and the picking cost accounts for 50%−70%of the total blueberry production cost. The old harvesting method restricts the widespread popularization and planting of blueberries. Research on blueberry picking machines and blueberry picking mechanisms is in its infancy in China. The price of blueberry picking machines is high. An experiment was conducted to change the artificial harvesting status of the blueberry, realize the mechanization of a high-bush blueberry-picking tool, and establish the theoretical guidance and design basis for the blueberry-picking machine for Chinese national conditions. We studied the

  11. Uranium enrichment. Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium enrichment industry is a more than 60 years old history and has developed without practically no cost, efficiency or profit constraints. However, remarkable improvements have been accomplished since the Second World War and have led to the development of various competing processes which reflect the diversity of uranium compositions and of uranium needs. Content: 1 - general considerations: uranium isotopes, problem of uranium enrichment, first realizations (USA, Russia, Europe, Asia, other countries), present day situation, future needs and market evolution; 2 - principles of isotopic separation: processes classification (high or low enrichment), low elementary enrichment processes, equilibrium time, cascade star-up and monitoring, multi-isotopes case, uranium reprocessing; 3 - enrichment and proliferation. (J.S.)

  12. Farinha de mandioca enriquecida com bioproteínas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em associação ao feijão e arroz, na dieta de ratos em crescimento Cassava flour enriched with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein, in association with beans and rice, in the diet of growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastácia Cavalcanti Metri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da mistura de feijão, arroz e farinha de mandioca enriquecida com bioproteína (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em ratos wistar machos recém-desmamados (n=60, durante 28 dias. Foram utilizadas as seguintes dietas: experimentais (feijão, arroz e farinha de mandioca enriquecida com leveduras; feijão, arroz e farinha de mandioca comum; controle (farinha de mandioca enriquecida com levedura; e padrão (caseína. Determinaram-se os testes biológicos. Os orgãos foram removidos para análise de pesos úmido e seco (rim esquerdo, baço e amostras do fígado e cérebro, teor de proteína (fígado e cérebro e histopatologia (fígado, coração e rim direito. Foram ainda quantificados os lipídios totais da carcaça dos animais. Os dados foram estatisticamente avaliados pelo teste Não Paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis e pelo teste de Comparações Múltiplas (pThe effect of a mixture of beans, rice and cassava flour enriched with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein was assessed in weanling male Wistar rats (n=60, during 28 days. The following diets were used: experimental (beans, rice and manioc flour with yeast protein; beans, rice and cassava flour without yeast protein; control (cassava flour with yeast protein; and standard (casein. The biological test were determined. The organs were removed for evaluation of wet and dry weights (left kidney, spleen and liver and brain samples, protein levels (liver and brain, and histopathology (heart, right kidney and liver. Carcass total lipids were also recorded. Results were statistically analyzed by the Nonparametric Test of Kruskal-Wallis and the Test of Multiple Comparisons (p<0.05. The highest values for all investigated parameters were found in the casein-fed group, followed by the experimental groups. Data suggest that flour enriched with yeast protein can be recommended as a dietary supplement to eradicate the nutritional deficiency in the poor population.

  13. A single serving of blueberry (V. corymbosum) modulates peripheral arterial dysfunction induced by acute cigarette smoking in young volunteers: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Fracassetti, Daniela; Campolo, Jonica; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes oxidative stress, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may prevent these conditions. We investigated the effect of a single serving of fresh-frozen blueberry intake on peripheral arterial function and arterial stiffness in young smokers. Sixteen male smokers were recruited for a 3-armed randomized-controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300 g of blueberry) + smoking; control treatment (300 mL of water with sugar) + smoking. Each treatment was separated by one week of wash-out period. The blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral arterial function (reactive hyperemia and Framingham reactive hyperemia), and arterial stiffness (digital augmentation index, digital augmentation index normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm) were measured before and 20 min after smoking with Endo-PAT2000. Smoking impaired the blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral arterial function, but did not affect the arterial stiffness. Blueberry consumption counteracted the impairment of the reactive hyperemia index induced by smoking (-4.4 ± 0.8% blueberry treatment vs. -22.0 ± 1.1% smoking treatment, p smoking treatment, p smoking treatment, mmHg, p smoking. No effect was observed for arterial stiffness and other vital signs. In conclusion, data obtained suggest a protective role of blueberry on reactive hyperemia, Framingham reactive hyperemia, and systolic blood pressure in subjects exposed to smoke of one cigarette. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  14. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium-zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with GA's standard commercial warranty

  15. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with General Atomic's standard commercial warranty

  16. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  17. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  18. Study on the Material of Blueberry Wine%蓝莓浸渍酒原料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊基胜; 吴林生; 张春龙; 王子迎

    2012-01-01

    Blueberry wine was produced by fresh blueben'ies and distilled spirits as original material, lemon and sugar as accessories. Blueberry was freezed and dipped at the room temperature, purificated, blended, after-ripened and then bottled. There is lots of factors influence the quality of blueberry wine, such as amount of blueberry, pretreatment of original material, raw liquor's alcohol degree and categories. The final plan of experiment was fixed by combined the above factors and comprehensive assessment of wine's sense, taste and nutrition function. The results show that the best method is adding 16%blueberries, blueberries were frozen before added to the 45% rice wine. 2% fresh lemon and 3% of the sugar was added to the raw liquor, dipping 30 d at the room temperature.%以新鲜的蓝莓浆果和大米酒为原料,新鲜的柠檬和冰糖为辅料,蓝莓冷冻、常温浸渍、过滤、勾兑、装瓶,生产蓝莓浸渍酒。通过蓝莓的添加量、原料的预处理、原料酒酒精度以及原料酒种类对蓝莓酒品质的影响试验,结合感官、口感及营养保健功能的综合评定,最终确定试验方案。试验结果表明蓝莓浸渍酒最佳用料为蓝莓添加量为16%左右,在原料添加前对蓝莓进行低温冷冻处理,选择酒精度为45°的大米酒,浸渍的过程中添加2%的新鲜柠檬和3%的冰糖,常温浸渍30d。

  19. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  20. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  1. Associação de carboidrase e fitase em dietas valorizadas para poedeiras semipesadas - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.12735 Association of carbohydrases and phytase in enriched diets for semi heavy layers - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.12735

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Ávito Gonçalves de Brito

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito da associação de carboidrases e fitase em dietas de poedeiras. Foram utilizadas 300 poedeiras Isa Brown com 26 semanas, submetidas aos tratamentos: Controle Positivo: sem enzimas e valorização dos nutrientes; T2: valorização em 1,5 e 6% a EMA (kcal kg-1, do milho e o farelo de soja, respectivamente, e redução nos níveis nutricionais conforme a matriz nutricional para a fitase; T3: valorização da EMA do milho e o farelo de soja (idem T2 e redução nos níveis de cálcio e fósforo conforme matriz nutricional da fitase; T4: T2 suplementado com 100 g t-1 de carboidrases e 30 g t-1 de fitase; T5: T3 suplementado com 100 g t-1 de carboidrases e 30 g t-1 de fitase. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado, seis repetições e parcela subdividida no tempo (6 períodos de 21 dias. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a produção, consumo, peso dos ovos e qualidade dos ovos. A valorização dos nutrientes preconizada com a utilização das enzimas foi eficiente tecnicamente para manutenção do desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas nas condições avaliadas, necessitando de outras pesquisas com maior redução nos níveis energéticos para avaliação do efeito das enzimas sobre a disponibilidade de energia.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combination of carbohydrases and phytase in diets of laying hens. A total of 300 Isa Brown hens at 26 weeks were submitted to the following treatments: Positive Control: without enzyme and nutrient recovery, T2: enrichment by 1.5 and 6% AME (kcal kg-1 of corn and soybean meal, respectively, and reduction in nutrient levels as the nutrient matrix for the phytase; T3: EMA enrichment of corn and soybean meal (T2 identification and reduced levels of calcium and phosphorus as the phytase nutrient matrix; T4: T2 supplemented with 100 g ton.-1 of carbohydrases and 30 g ton.-1 of phytase; T5: T3

  2. Blueberries on Earth and Mars: Correlations Between Concretions in Navajo Sandstone and Terra Meridiani on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Milner, M. W.; Netoff, D.; Dohm, J.; Kalm, V.; Krinsley, D.; Sodhi, R. N.; Anderson, R. C.; Boccia, S.; Malloch, D.; Kapran, B.; Havics, A.

    2008-12-01

    Concretionary Fe-Mn-rich nodular authigenic constituents of Jurassic Navajo sandstone (moki marbles) bear a certain relationship to similar concretionary forms ('blueberries') observed on Mars. Their origin on Earth is considered to invoke variable redox conditions with underground fluids penetrating porous quartz-rich sandstone leading to precipitation of hematite and goethite-rich material from solution, generally forming around a central nucleus of fine particles of quartz and orthoclase, recently verified by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. At the outer rim/inner nucleus boundary, bulbous lobes of fine-grained quartz often invade and fracture the outer rim armored matrix. The bulbous forms are interpreted to result from fluid explusion from the inner concretionary mass, a response to pressure changes accompanying overburden loading. Moki marbles, harder than enclosing rock, often weather out of in situ sandstone outcrops that form a surface lag deposit of varnished marbles that locally resemble desert pavement. The marbles appear morphologically similar to 'blueberries' identified on the martian surface in Terra Meridiani through the MER-1 Opportunity rover. On Earth, redox fluids responsible for the genesis of marbles may have emanated from deep in the crust (often influenced by magmatic processes). These fluids, cooling to ambient temperatures, may have played a role in the genesis of the cemented outer rim of the concretions. The low frequency of fungi filaments in the marbles, contrasts with a high occurrence in Fe-encrusted sands of the Navajo formation [1], indicating that microbial content is of secondary importance in marble genesis relative to the fluctuating influx of ambient groundwater. Nevertheless, the presence of filaments in terrestrial concretions hints at the possibility of discovering fossil/extant life on Mars, and thus should be considered as prime targets for future reconnaissance missions to Mars. 1] Mahaney, W.C., et al. (2004), Icarus, 171, 39-53.

  3. Temperature-related development and population parameters for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on cherry and blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochen, Samantha; Dalton, Daniel T; Wiman, Nik; Hamm, Christopher; Shearer, Peter W; Walton, Vaughn M

    2014-04-01

    Temperature-related studies were conducted on Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae: Drosophilini). From 10-28°C, temperature had a significant impact on blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L. 1755 (Rosales: Rosaceae), important commercial hosts of D. suzukii. Temperature had a significant influence on D. suzukii developmental period, survival, and fecundity, with decreasing developmental periods as temperatures increased to 28°C. At 30°C, the highest temperature tested, development periods increased, indicating that above this temperature the developmental extremes for the species were approached. D. suzukii reared on blueberries had lower fecundity than reared on cherries at all temperatures where reproduction occurred. The highest net reproductive rate (R(o)) and intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) were recorded on cherries at 22°C and was 195.1 and 0.22, respectively. Estimations using linear and nonlinear fit for the minimum, optimal, and maximum temperatures where development can take place were respectively, 7.2, 28.1, and 42.1°C. The r(m) values were minimal, optimal, and maximal at 13.4, 21.0, and 29.3°C, respectively. Our laboratory cultures of D. suzukii displayed high rates of infection for Wolbachia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and this infection may have impacted fecundity found in this study. A temperature-dependent matrix population estimation model using fecundity and survival data were run to determine whether these data could predict D. suzukii pressure based on environmental conditions. The model was applied to compare the 2011 and 2012 crop seasons in an important cherry production region. Population estimates using the model explained different risk levels during the key cherry harvest period between these seasons. PMID:24612968

  4. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality. PMID:27374583

  5. Optimization on Fermentation Technology of Blueberry Wine%蓝莓果酒发酵工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢洋洋; 李延红; 王传华; 樊友宏; 汪宏涛; 武佳斌

    2015-01-01

    The fermentation technology of blueberry wine was studied with blueberries as raw material and active dry wine yeast as fermentation bacteria. Firstly, the effect of initial sugar concentration, yeast inoculation concentration, fermentation temperature and initial pH on the fermentation of blueberry wine were investigated through single-factor experiments. On the basis of that, an orthogonal experiment (L9 (34)) was conducted to optimize the fermentation conditions in terms of the comprehensive sensory evaluation. The results showed that the optimal conditions for blueberry wine were initial sugar concentration 10°Bx, yeast inoculation concentration 0.1%, fermentation temperature 25℃and initial pH of 3.3.%以蓝莓为主要原料,安琪酿酒酵母为发酵菌株,通过单因素实验考察初糖浓度、酵母接种量、发酵温度、起始pH对蓝莓果酒发酵的影响。在单因素实验的基础上,以主发酵后的果酒感官综合评分为指标,通过L9(34)正交试验确定蓝莓果酒发酵工艺的最佳条件。结果表明蓝莓果酒的最佳工艺条件为:初始糖度为10°Bx,酵母接种量为0.1%,发酵温度为25℃,起始pH为3.3。

  6. THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN FRUIT OF HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM L.) RELATING TO DIFFERENT FERTILIZER APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Medvecký; Ján Daniel; Alena Vollmannová; Stanislav Zupka; Miriama Kopernická

    2015-01-01

    Six varieties of high blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) grown on a plantation of research station in Krivá, that is located in the northern part of Slovakia, was examined to determine the content of polyphenols in the fruit depending on the three variants of fertilization. The first variant was realized with the application of organic fertilization, second one with mineral fertilizers and third variant was left without fertilization. The content of total polyphenols (TP) was determined sp...

  7. Use of global trade item numbers in the investigation of a salmonella newport outbreak associated with blueberries in Minnesota, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin D; Rigdon, Carrie E; Robinson, Trisha J; Hedberg, Craig; Smith, Kirk E

    2013-05-01

    In August 2010, the Minnesota Department of Agriculture and Minnesota Department of Health investigated an outbreak of six cases of Salmonella Newport infection occurring in northwestern Minnesota, which identified fresh blueberries as the cause. Initially, traditional traceback methods involving the review of invoices and bills of lading were used to attempt to identify the source of the outbreak. When these methods failed, novel traceback methods were used. Specifically, supplier-specific 12-digit Global Trade Item Numbers (GTINs) and shopper-card information were used to identify a single blueberry grower linked to cases, corroborating the results of a case-control study in which consuming fresh blueberries was statistically associated with illness (5 of 5 cases versus 8 of 19 controls, matched odds ratio [MOR] undefined, P = 0.02). Consuming fresh blueberries from retailer A was also statistically associated with illness (3 of 3 cases versus 3 of 18 controls, MOR undefined, P = 0.03). Based on initially incomplete evidence in this investigation, the invoices pointed to wholesaler A and grower A, based on first-in-first-out product rotation. However, when point-of-sale data were analyzed and linked to shopper-card information, a common GTIN was identified. This information led to an on-site record evaluation at retailer A, and the discovery of additional records at this location documented the supply chain from grower B to wholesaler C to retailer A, shifting the focus of the investigation from grower A to grower B. This investigation demonstrates the emerging concepts of Critical Tracking Events (CTEs) and Key Data Elements (KDE) related to food product tracing. The use of these shopper-cased data and the event data that were queried by investigators demonstrates the potential utility of consciously designed CTEs and KDEs at critical points in the supply chain to better facilitate product tracing. PMID:23643117

  8. Enrichment: Dealing with overcapacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's surplus of enrichment capacity will continue until at least the end of this century. This will challenge the ingenuity of the separative work unit (SWU) suppliers as they attempt to keep market share and remain profitable in a very competitive marketplace. The utilities will be faced with attractive choices, but making the best choice will require careful analysis and increased attention to market factors. Current demand projections will probably prove too high to the extent that more reactors are canceled or delayed. The DOE has the vast majority of the unused capacity, so it will feel the most immediate impact of this large surplus in productive capacity. The DOE has responded to these market challenges by planning another reorganization of its enriching operations. Without a major agreement among the governments affected by the current surplus in enrichment capacity, the future will see lower prices, more competitive terms, and the gradual substitution of centrifuge or laser enrichment for the gaseous diffusion plants. The competition that is forcing the gaseous diffusion prices down to marginal cost will provide the long-term price basis for the enrichment industry

  9. Diet as a factor in behavioral radiation protection following exposure to heavy particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James; Todd, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Major risks associated with radiation exposures on deep space missions include carcinogenesis due to heavy-particle exposure of cancer-prone tissues and performance decrements due to neurological damage produced by heavy particles. Because exposure to heavy particles can cause oxidative stress, it is possible that antioxidants can be used to mitigate these risks (and possibly some health risks of microgravity). To assess the capacity of antioxidant diets to mitigate the effects of exposure to heavy particles, rats were maintained on antioxidant diets containing 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to exposure to 1.5 or 2.0 Gy of accelerated iron particles at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation rats were tested on a series of behavioral tasks: amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning, operant responding and spatial learning and memory. The results indicated that the performance of the irradiated rats maintained on the antioxidant diets was, in general, significantly better than that of the control animals, although the effectiveness of the diets ameliorating the radiation-induced deterioration in performance varied as a function of both the specific diet and the specific endpoint. In addition, animals fed antioxidant diets prior to exposure showed reduced heavy particle-induced tumorigenesis one year after exposure compared to the animals fed the control diet. These results suggest that antioxidant diets have the potential to serve as part of a system designed to provide protection to astronauts against the effects of heavy particles on exploratory missions outside the magnetic field of the earth.

  10. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  11. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  12. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Olli [Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  13. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  14. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD...... modifications of the diet are needed in order to make this food concept beneficial regarding phosphorus absorption....

  15. Segal Enriched Categories I

    CERN Document Server

    Bacard, Hugo V

    2010-01-01

    We develop a theory of enriched categories over a (higher) category M equipped with a class W of morphisms called homotopy equivalences. We call them Segal M_W -categories. Our motivation was to generalize the notion of "up-to-homotopy monoids" in a monoidal category M, introduced by Leinster. The formalism adopted generalizes the classical Segal categories and extends the theory of enriched category over a bicategory. In particular we have a linear version of Segal categories which did not exist so far. Our goal in this paper is to present the theory and provide some examples. Applications are reserved for the future.

  16. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  17. Adding guarana powder to medfly diets: an alternative for improving the Sterile Insect Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Câmara de Aquino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ceratitis capitata (medfly is a globally important horticultural pest that can be controlled using the sterile insect technique (SIT, but the success of SIT depends on the sexual performance of mass-reared males when released into the field. We added “guarana” (Paullinia cupana powder (derived from an Amazonian fruit that is considered to be a stimulant with aphrodisiac effects, capable of improving human physical stamina to the diets of adult male medflies to determine whether it increased their sexual performance. The basic diet of a protein extract + sucrose (1:3 was enriched with guarana powder (3 % on a volume basis. Experiments examining sexual competitiveness were performed using lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. lab-reared males fed on the basic diet (and lab-reared females fed on the basic diet, as well as lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. wild males fed on the basic diet (and wild females fed on the basic diet. The results of both experiments indicated that males maintained on diets enriched with guarana powder showed higher copulation successes than males fed only with the basic diet. Guarana powder therefore contributed to the greater mating success of lab-reared males (probably because of its stimulant properties, and may represent a new and viable option for increasing SIT effectiveness.

  18. Development of an n-3 fatty acid and α-tocopherol enriched dry fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoz, L; D'Arrigo, M; Cambero, I; Ordóñez, J A

    2004-07-01

    Five batches of "salchichon", which is a dry fermented Spanish sausage, were manufactured using backfat and meat enriched in polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids and α-tocopherol. Raw materials were obtained from animals fed on diets of the same ingredients with the exception of the oil source [sunflower oil (batch control, C), linseed oil (L and LE), 1/1 (w/w) linseed and olive oil (LO and LOE)] and α-tocopherol quantity [20 mg/kg diet of α-tocopherol (C, L and LO) or 200 mg/kg diet of α-tocopherol (LOE and LE)]. A final product with a healthier polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6:n-3 ratio (oil-enriched batches as compared with the control (12). The batches of sausages manufactured with backfat and meat from animals fed on diets enriched in α-tocopherol and linseed, or linseed and olive oil with or without α-tocopherol supplementation show a higher lipid oxidative stability than those of diets enriched in linseed oil without α-tocopherol supplementation. Sausages of dietary treatment C, LE, LO and LOE did not show differences in water, protein, fat and ash contents, a(w), pH, texture profile analysis and sensory features (odour, colour, texture, juiciness and taste quality). Sausages manufactured with material from animals fed on linseed oil-enriched diets and no added α-tocopherol (L) showed an unfavourable rancidity degree detected by both 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) index and sensory panel.

  19. Potentiation of the bioavailability of blueberry phenolic compounds by co-ingested grape phenolic compounds in mice, revealed by targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudonné, Stéphanie; Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Dubé, Pascal; Varin, Thibault V; Calon, Frédéric; Desjardins, Yves

    2016-08-10

    The low bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds, resulting from poor absorption and high rates of metabolism and excretion, is a concern as it can limit their potential beneficial effects on health. Targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces of mice supplemented for 15 days with a blueberry extract, a grape extract or their combination revealed significantly increased plasma concentrations (3-5 fold) of blueberry phenolic metabolites in the presence of a co-ingested grape extract, associated with an equivalent decrease in their appearance in feces. Additionally, the repeated daily administration of the blueberry-grape combination significantly increased plasma phenolic concentrations (2-3-fold) compared to animals receiving only a single acute dose, with no such increase being observed with individual extracts. These findings highlight a positive interaction between blueberry and grape constituents, in which the grape extract enhanced the absorption of blueberry phenolic compounds. This study provides for the first time in vivo evidence of such an interaction occurring between co-ingested phenolic compounds from fruit extracts leading to their improved bioavailability. PMID:27443888

  20. Enriching Number Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring number systems of other cultures can be an enjoyable learning experience that enriches students' knowledge of numbers and number systems in important ways. It helps students deepen mental computation fluency, knowledge of place value, and equivalent representations for numbers. This article describes how the author designed her…

  1. Designing job enrichment projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clakeley, G L

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a management strategy for a job satisfaction program utilized in a large occupational therapy department. The goal of the program is to retain satisfied, productive employees and reduce attrition of therapists and assistants. The use of job enrichment projects for occupational therapy assistants will be presented with brief descriptions of two projects. PMID:23944880

  2. Job Enrichment in Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourman, Louis S.; Jones, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 participants in Ohio State University's job enrichment program for midcareer extension agents found that 5 returned to their same jobs after the experience but only 2 felt challenged/renewed. Part-time participation while working made it difficult to balance responsibilities. More information and a structured orientation were…

  3. Enriching the Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover…

  4. Methodology for content enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederbragt, H.; Heerlien, M.

    2010-01-01

    The STERNA project mainly focuses on enrichment of existing content of content holding organisations in the natural history domain. Therefore, developing a methodology on how to best integrate one’s content into the STERNA information space is an essential part of the project. This document is the o

  5. Hydrophilic carboxylic acids and iridoid glycosides in the juice of American and European cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and V. oxycoccos), lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea), and blueberries (V. myrtillus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Krogfelt, Karen A; Cornett, Claus;

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the hydrophilic fraction of cranberry juice by reversed-phase HPLC using an Aqua LUNA column with diode array or MS detection revealed the presence of quinic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid, and citric acid. For the first time, two iridoid glucosides were found in the juice. The two...... iridoid glucosides were shown to be monotropein and 6,7-dihydromonotropein by MS and NMR spectroscopy. A fast reversed-phase HPLC method for quantification of the hydrophilic carboxylic acids was developed and used for analyses of cranberry, lingonberry, and blueberry juices. The level of hydrophilic...... carboxylic acids in cranberries was 2.67-3.57% (w/v), in lingonberries 2.27-3.05%, and in blueberries 0.35-0.75%. In lingonberries both iridoid glucosides were present, whereas only monotropein was present in blueberries....

  6. Effect of the antioxidant profile in the diet of farmed coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) on the nutritional value retention during frozen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, J.; Larraín, M. A.; Pacheco, N.; Vivanco, J. P.; Aubourg, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    A commercial diet enriched with synthetic antioxidants (butylated-hydroxytoluene and ethoxyquin (diet I) was fed to coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and its effects were compared to two diets enriched with natural antioxidants, tocopherol-rich mixture (diet II), tocopherol-rosemary extract mixture (diet III). Once sacrificed, individual fishes were kept frozen at –18 °C for up to 18 months and then analyses were carried out on the frozen salmon muscle. The feeding of diet II led to frozen s...

  7. 不同品牌蓝莓果汁抗氧化功能研究%Research of antioxidant activity of different brand blueberry juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞晨; 左丽丽; 刘芸; 张迪; 安婷; 孙珍珍

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the antioxidant activity of different brands of commercially available blueberry juice and self-made blueberry juice.Methods The anthocyanins,polysaccharides and Vc content in the different brands of blueberry juice were determined,and total reducing capacity,hydroxyl radical scavenging activity,superoxide radical scavenging capacity,DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging ability of different brands of blueberry juice were analysised based on the antioxidant method in vitro.Results There are some differences between the nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity of different brands of blueberry juice,and showed a significant dose-effect relationship.Con-clusion The self-made fruit juice and blueberry eare a good health food for its possessing the bestantioxidant ability and helping to clear free radicals in the body.%目的:研究市售不同品牌蓝莓果汁及自制蓝莓果汁的抗氧化活性。方法对不同品牌蓝莓果汁中花色苷多糖及Vc含量进行测定,并采用体外抗氧化方法研究不同品牌蓝莓果汁的总还原能力羟基自由基清除能力超氧自由基清除能力 DPPH和ABTS自由基清除能力。结果不同品牌蓝莓果汁的营养成分和抗氧化能力存在一定的差异,且呈明显量效关系。结论自制果汁和蓝莓e族抗氧化能力最佳,有助于清除机体多余自由基,是良好的保健食品。

  8. Simultaneous determination of active ingredients in blueberry wine by CE-AD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Cheng Li; Lang Zhu Chi; Jin Kun Zhu; Yin Yan Zhang; Qing Jiang Wang; Pin Gang He; Yu Zhi Fang

    2011-01-01

    A method based on capillary electrophoresis coupled with amperometric detection (CE-AD) has been developed for the separation and determination of kaempferol, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid in blueberry wine for the first time. In order to get the optimum conditions of separation, the effects of working electrode potential, pH value and concentration of running buffer, separation voltage and injection time on CE-AD were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the analytes could be separated in Na2B4O7-KH2PO4 buffer at pH 7.8 within 18 min. A 300 μm diameter carbon disk electrode had good current responses at +0.95 V (vs. SCE) for all analytes. The responses were linear with concentrations over three orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N = 3) at 10-8 g/mL magnitude for the analytes and the recoveries were in the range of 95.8-106.7%. The method could be successfully applied to the analysis of real sample with satisfactory results and therefore recommended for use by the quality control departments of fruit wine producers.

  9. Biochemical and molecular changes in response to aluminium-stress in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Aquea, Felipe; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alberdi, Miren; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) stress is an important factor limiting crop yields in acid soils. Despite this, very little is known about the mechanisms of resistance to this stress in woody plants. To understand the mechanisms of Al-toxicity and response in blueberries, we compared the impact of Al-stress in Al-resistant and Al-sensitive genotypes using Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) as a plant model. We investigated the effect of Al-stress on the physiological performance, oxidative metabolism and expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes in two V. corymbosum cultivars maintained hydroponically with AlCl(3) (0 and 100 μM). Microscopic analyses of Al-treated root tips suggested a higher degree of Al-induced morphological injury in Bluegold (sensitive genotype) compared to Brigitta (resistant genotype). Furthermore, the results indicated that Brigitta had a greater ability to control oxidative stress under Al-toxicity, as reflected by enhancement of several antioxidative and physiological properties (radical scavenging activity: RSA, superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase: CAT; maximum quantum yield: Fv/Fm, effective quantum yield: ФPSII, electron transport rate: ETR and non-photochemical quenching: NPQ). Finally, we analyzed the expression of genes homologous to GST and ALDH, which were identified in a global expression analysis. In the resistant genotype, the expression of these genes in response to Al-stress was greater in leaves than in roots.

  10. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Spent Osmotic Solution (SOS Generated from Osmotic Dehydration of Blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushlendra Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization of spent osmotic solution (SOS, a waste generated from osmotic dehydration of fruits, has the potential of transformation into hydrochars, a value-added product, while reducing cost and overall greenhouse gas emissions associated with waste disposal. Osmotic solution (OS and spent osmotic solution (SOS generated from the osmotic dehydration of blueberries were compared for their thermo-chemical decomposition behavior and hydrothermal carbonization. OS and SOS samples were characterized for total solids, elemental composition, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. In addition, hydrothermal carbonization was performed at 250 °C and for 30 min to produce hydrochars. The hydrochars were characterized for elemental composition, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, particle shape and surface morphology. TGA results show that the SOS sample loses more weight in the lower temperature range than the OS sample. Both samples produced, approximately, 40%–42% (wet-feed basis hydrochar during hydrothermal carbonization but with different properties. The OS sample produced hydrochar, which had spherical particles of 1.79 ± 1.30 μm diameter with a very smooth surface. In contrast, the SOS sample produced hydrochar with no definite particle shape but with a raspberry-like surface.

  11. Enrichment marketplace - today (and tomorrow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologies and capacities of the four primary sources of enrichment services, the United States Department of Energy, Eurodif, Techsnabexport of the Soviet Union, and Urenco, were given. Forecasts of future capacities and prices of enriched uranium were also included

  12. Effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink intervention on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in humans with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riso, Patrizia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Del Bo', Cristian;

    2013-01-01

    Wild blueberries (WB) (Vaccinium angustifolium) are rich sources of polyphenols, such as flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins (ACNs), reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. This study investigated the effect of regular consumption of a WB or a placebo (PL......) drink on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in subjects with risk factors for cardiovascular disease.......Wild blueberries (WB) (Vaccinium angustifolium) are rich sources of polyphenols, such as flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins (ACNs), reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. This study investigated the effect of regular consumption of a WB or a placebo (PL...

  13. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead to heart disease, including high cholesterol , high blood pressure, and obesity ...

  14. Diets that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brussel Sprouts Green Salad Tangerines A Vegetarian or Vegan Diet A vegetarian diet generally excludes animal products. ... Steamed Green Beans with Pine Nuts Fruit Salad Vegan Roasted Vegetables with Whole Wheat Pasta Green Salad ...

  15. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to know about Wilson Disease Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... and arthritis; cardiomyopathy, dysrhythmias; pancreatitis; hypoparathyroidism; menstrual irregularities: infertility, repeated miscarriages From: A Diagnostic Tool for Physicians ( ...

  16. Diet and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financing Living Donation Home / After The Transplant / Staying Healthy / Diet And Exercise Medications Post-Transplant Medications Types of ... be aware of the important role of a healthy diet and exercise plan in healing. Prior to your ...

  17. Diet and Exercise Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health News & Publications Annual Meeting Calendar Diet and Exercise Tips Diet and Exercise Tips News media interested ... caffeine content (tea, sodas, chocolate drinks) and caffeinated coffee to two cups per day. Minimize alcohol to ...

  18. Diet and Your Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the scarring and hardening of the liver. Diet Recommendations: • Limit salt and foods that contain a lot of salt • Talk to your doctor about how much protein to have in your diet Fatty Liver Disease ...

  19. Caffeine in the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  20. Diet quality assessment indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho; Eliane Said Dutra; Nathalia Pizato; Nádia Dias Gruezo; Marina Kiyomi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I...

  1. Vegetarian diets and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A; Reddy, S

    1994-05-01

    The diets and growth of children reared on vegetarian diets are reviewed. Excessive bulk combined with low energy density can be a problem for children aged vegetarian diets. It is suggested that vegans and vegetarians should use oils with a low ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid in view of the recently recognized role of docosahexaenoic acid in visual functioning. If known pitfalls are avoided, the growth and development of children reared on both vegan and vegetarian diets appears normal.

  2. Sources of trace elements in total diet. A statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen total diet samples have been collected from two socioeconomic groups in Turkey by duplicate portion techniques. Samples were homogenized with titanium-blade homogenizer, freeze dried and analyzed for their minor and trace elements mostly by neutron activation analysis. Bread and flour samples were also collected from the same regions and analyzed similarly by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Concentrations of more than 25 elements in total diets, bread and flour, and fiber and phytate in total diets have been determined. Daily dietary intakes of these population groups, probable source of elements through correlation coefficients, and enrichment factor calculations have been determined. (author)

  3. Evaluation of high hydrostatic pressure inactivation of human norovirus on strawberries, blueberries, raspberries and in their purees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Runze; Ye, Mu; Li, Xinhui; Ji, Lin; Karwe, Mukund; Chen, Haiqiang

    2016-04-16

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) has been an increasing concern of foodborne illness related to fresh and frozen berries. In this study, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of HuNoV on fresh strawberries, blueberries, and raspberries and in their purees was investigated. Porcine gastric mucin (PGM)-conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MBs) and real-time reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were utilized for infectious HuNoV discrimination and quantification. Strawberry puree inoculated with HuNoV genogroup I.1 (GI.1) strain was HHP-treated at 450, 500 and 550 MPa for 2 min each at initial sample temperatures of 0, 4 and 20 °C. HuNoV GI.1 strain became more sensitive to HHP treatment as the temperature decreased from 20 to 0 °C. HuNoV GI.1 or genogroup II.4 (GII.4) strains were inoculated into three types of berries and their purees and treated at pressure levels from 250 to 650 MPa for 2 min at initial sample temperature of 0 °C. For the purees, the HHP condition needed to achieve >2.9 log reduction of HuNoV GI.1 strain and >4.0 log reduction of HuNoV GII.4 strain was found to be ≥ 550 MPa for 2 min at 0 °C. HHP treatment showed better inactivation effect of HuNoV on blueberries than on strawberry quarters and raspberries. HuNoV GI.1 strain was more resistant to HHP treatment than HuNoV GII.4 strain under different temperatures and environment. The physical properties and sensory qualities of HHP-treated and untreated blueberries and the three types of berry purees were evaluated. Color, pH and viscosity of blueberries and three berry purees showed no or slight changes after HHP treatment. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that HHP treatment of 550 MPa for 2 min at 0 °C did not significantly reduced the sensory qualities of three berry purees. The results demonstrated that the HHP treatment of 550 MPa for 2 min at 0 °C could be a potential nonthermal intervention for HuNoV in berry purees without adversely affecting their sensory qualities

  4. Uranium enrichment by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After recalling the physical principles and the techniques of centrifuge enrichment the report describes the centrifuge enrichment programmes of the various countries concerned and compares this technology with other enrichment technologies like gaseous diffusion, laser, aerodynamic devices and chemical processes. The centrifuge enrichment process is said to be able to replace with advantage the existing enrichment facilities in the short and medium term. Future prospects of the process are also described, like recycled uranium enrichment and economic improvements; research and development needs to achieve the economic prospects are also indicated. Finally the report takes note of the positive aspect of centrifuge enrichment as far as safeguards and nuclear safety are concerned. 27 figs, 113 refs

  5. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  6. Diet quality assessment indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I, II or III' added to their names. Even validated indices usually find only modest associations between diet and risk of disease or death, raising questions about their limitations and the complexity associated with measuring the causal relationship between diet and health parameters. The objective of this review is to describe the main instruments used for assessing diet quality, and the applications and limitations related to their use and interpretation.

  7. Application of water-assisted pulsed light treatment to decontaminate raspberries and blueberries from Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaoxin; Sido, Robert; Huang, Runze; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-09-01

    We developed and evaluated a small scaled-up water-assisted pulsed light (WPL) system, in which berries were washed in a flume washer while being irradiated by pulsed light (PL). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used in combination with PL as an advanced oxidation process and chlorine wash was used as a control. The effects of organic load, water turbidity, berry type and PL energy output on the inactivation of Salmonella using the WPL system were investigated. The combination of WPL and 1% H2O2 (WPL-H2O2) was the most effective treatment which reduced Salmonella on raspberries and blueberries by 4.0 and >5.6logCFU/g, respectively, in clear water. When high organic load and SiO2, as a soil simulator, were added in wash water, the free chlorine level in chlorinated water decreased significantly (P0.05) was observed for the decontamination efficacy of 1-min WPL-H2O2 treatment. Even in the presence of high organic load and water turbidity, no viable bacterial cells were recovered from the wash water, which showed that WPL-H2O2 could effectively prevent the risk of cross-contamination during treatment. Taken together, 1-min WPL treatment without H2O2 could provide a chemical free alternative to chlorine washing with similar and in some cases significantly higher bactericidal efficacy. Compared with chlorine washing, the combination of WPL and H2O2 resulted in significantly higher (Pprocessing of small berries intended for fresh-cut and frozen berry products. PMID:26047537

  8. Effect of blueberry juice on clearance of buspirone and flurbiprofen in human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Michael J; Masse, Gina; Harmatz, Jerold S; Cancalon, Paul F; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Court, Michael H; Greenblatt, David J

    2013-01-01

    Aim The present study evaluated the possibility of drug interactions involving blueberry juice (BBJ) and substrate drugs whose clearance is dependent on cytochromes P4503A (CYP3A) and P4502C9 (CYP2C9). Methods A 50:50 mixture of lowbush and highbush BBJ was evaluated in vitro as an inhibitor of CYP3A activity (hydroxylation of triazolam and dealkylation of buspirone) and of CYP2C9 activity (flurbiprofen hydroxylation) using human liver microsomes. In clinical studies, clearance of oral buspirone and oral flurbiprofen was studied in healthy volunteers with and without co-treatment with BBJ. Results BBJ inhibited CYP3A and CYP2C9 activity in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of less than 2%, but without evidence of mechanism-based (irreversible) inhibition. Grapefruit juice (GFJ) also inhibited CYP3A activity, but inhibitory potency was increased by pre-incubation, consistent with mechanism-based inhibition. In clinical studies, GFJ significantly increased area under the plasma concentration−time curve (AUC) for the CYP3A substrate buspirone. The geometric mean ratio (GMR = AUC with GFJ divided by AUC with water) was 2.12. In contrast, the effect of BBJ (GMR = 1.39) was not significant. In the study of flurbiprofen (CYP2C9 substrate), the positive control inhibitor fluconazole significantly increased flurbiprofen AUC (GMR = 1.71), but BBJ had no significant effect (GMR = 1.03). Conclusion The increased buspirone AUC associated with BBJ is quantitatively small and could have occurred by chance. BBJ has no effect on flurbiprofen AUC. The studies provide no evidence for concern about clinically important pharmacokinetic drug interactions of BBJ with substrate drugs metabolized by CYP3A or CYP2C9. PMID:22943633

  9. Evaluation of Blueberry Juice in Mouse Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Crypts and Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Álvarez-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry is a plant with a number of nutritional and biomedical capabilities. In the present study we initially evaluated the capacity of its juice (BJ to inhibit the number of aberrant crypts (AC induced with azoxymethane (AOM in mouse. BJ was administered daily by the oral route to three groups of animals during four weeks (1.6, 4.1, and 15.0 μL/g, respectively, while AOM (10 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected to the mentioned groups, twice a week, in weeks two and three of the assay. We also included two control groups of mice, one administered distilled water and the other the high dose of BJ. A significant increase of AC was observed in the AOM treated animals, and a mean protection of 75.6% was determined with the two low doses of BJ tested; however, the high dose of the juice administered together with AOM increased the number of crypts more than four times the value observed in animals administered only AOM. Furthermore, we determined the antioxidant potential of BJ with an ex vivo DPPH assay and found a dose-dependent decrease with a mean of 19.5%. We also determined the DNA oxidation/antioxidation by identifying 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine adducts and found a mean decrease of 44.3% with the BJ administration with respect to the level induced by AOM. Our results show a complex differential effect of BJ related to the tested doses, opening the need to further evaluate a number of factors so as to determine the possibility of a cocarcinogenic potential.

  10. Development and validation of an algorithm to establish a total antioxidant capacity database of the US diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floegel, Anna; Kim, Dae-Ok; Chung, Sang-Jin; Song, Won O; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Bruno, Richard S; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2010-09-01

    Estimation of total antioxidant intake is the first step to investigate the protective effects of antioxidants on oxidative stress-mediated disease. The present study was designed to develop an algorithm to estimate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the US diet. TAC of individual antioxidants and 50 popular antioxidant-rich food items in the US diet were determined by 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Theoretical TAC of foods was calculated as the sum of individual antioxidant capacities of compounds. The top 10 TAC food items in the US diet according to standard serving size were blueberry > plum > green tea > strawberry > green tea (decaffeinated) > red wine > grape juice > black tea > cherry > grape. Major contributors to TAC were the total phenolic content (r = 0.952, P < 0.001) and flavonoid content (r = 0.827, P < 0.001) of 50 foods. Theoretical TAC was positively correlated to experimental TAC of 50 foods determined by the ABTS assay (r = 0.833, P < 0.001) and the DPPH assay (r = 0.696, P < 0.001), and to TAC from the USDA database for the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (r = 0.484, P = 0.001, n = 44). The TAC database of the US diet has been established and validated. In future studies, TAC of the US diet can be linked to biomarkers of chronic disease. PMID:20377495

  11. Research Status of Blueberry Processing in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江省蓝莓加工研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉莉

    2013-01-01

    In order to promote the development of blueberry industry better in Heilongjiang province and further improve the blueberry processing products in the market ,products market share ,brand ,quantity and popularity of blueberry processed products in Heilongjiang province were investigated including beverage ,fruit wine and blueberries dairy products ,the processing industry present situation of processing enterprises ,the condition of product quality were analyzed ,and the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions were proposed to make leading enterprises ,strengthen product development and improve the quality guarantee system .%为了更好地带动黑龙江省蓝莓产业的发展,进一步完善蓝莓加工品的市场,对黑龙江省蓝莓加工品如饮料、果酒和乳制品的市场占有率,品牌数量及知名度进行了调查,对蓝莓加工产业现存的加工企业现状、产品品质状况进行了分析,并提出了相应的对策建议,即打造龙头企业、加大产品开发力度、健全质量保障体系。

  12. Improving yield and berry quality for zygomorphic blooms of blueberry: the role of the plant growth regulators, gibberellic acid and coconut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A putative mutant gene(s) induces a high degree of zygomorphy that eliminates or deforms the tubular corollas of rabbiteye blueberries. Once thought to have a benign affect on V. ashei pollination and fruit set, zygomorphy is linked to greater seedlessness, lower fruit set, and is suspected to be a ...

  13. 蓝莓营养保健蛋糕的研制%The Formula and Method for Making Nutrition Health Cake with Blueberry Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路红波

    2013-01-01

      本文将蓝莓制成蓝莓汁添加到蛋糕中,制成营养保健蛋糕,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定了最佳配方为:蛋糕专用粉250 g,鸡蛋300 g,白砂糖200 g,蓝莓汁150 g,蛋糕油20 g,泡打粉18 g.按照该配方生产出的蛋糕具有蓝莓特有的香味和色泽,口感松软香甜,而且具有良好营养和保健价值,发展前景十分广阔.%The nutrition health cake was made by adding blueberry juice to it. The formula, tested by single factor and orthogonal tests, was as follows: cake flour 250g, egg 300g, white sugar 200g, blueberry juice 150g, emulsifier 20g, baking powder18g. The cake tastes soft and sweet with the typical flavor and color of blueberry. With its value in nutrition and health, the cake with blueberry juice will be widely acknowledged and enjoyed in the future.

  14. Xylella fastidiosa is associated with reduced yield and altered fruit quality in a rabbiteye blueberry orchard in Louisiana but does not appear to spread rapidly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterial pathogen that causes diseases such as Pierce’s disease of grape, bacterial leaf scorch of shade trees, and citrus variegated chlorosis. Work by researchers in Georgia and Florida has shown that it is the cause of bacterial leaf scorch of Southern highbush blueberrie...

  15. Different effects of anthocyanins and phenolic acids from wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) on monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells in a TNF-α stimulated proinflammatory environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Roursgaard, Martin; Porrini, Marisa;

    2016-01-01

    Scope: Monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium is a crucial step in the early stages of atherogenesis. This study aims to investigate the capacity of an anthocyanin (ACN) and phenolic acid (PA) rich fraction (RF) of a wild blueberry, single ACNs (cyanidin, malvidin, delphinidin) and related...

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase genes and their association with fruit storage conditions in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2013-05-13

    Blueberry is a widely grown and easily perishable fruit crop. An efficient post-harvest handling is critical, and for that purpose gene technology methods have been part of ongoing programmes to improve crops with high food values such as blueberry. Here we report the isolation, cloning, characterization and differential expression levels of two cDNAs encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibitor Protein (PGIP) and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase (CCR) from blueberry fruits in relation to various storage conditions. The open reading frame of PGIP and CCR encodes a polypeptide of 329 and 347 amino acids, respectively. To assess changes in the expression of blueberry PGIP and CCR after harvest, a storage trial was initiated. The northern blots hybridization showed a clear differential expression level of PGIP and CCR between freshly harvested and stored fruits as well as between fruits stored under various storage conditions. Although the prospects of exploiting such a strategy for crop improvement are limited, the results provide further insight into the control of the quality over the storage period at the molecular level.

  17. Valorisation of raspberry and blueberry pomace through the formulation of value-added gluten-free cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarić, Bojana; Mišan, Aleksandra; Mandić, Anamarija; Nedeljković, Nataša; Pojić, Milica; Pestorić, Mladenka; Đilas, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Successful valorisation of raspberry and blueberry pomace was achieved through their application, as dried and ground powders, in the formulation of value-added gluten-free cookies. Simplex-lattice mixture design approach was applied to obtain the product with the best sensory properties, nutritional profile and antioxidant activity. The highest desirability of 90.0 % was accomplished with the substitution of gluten-free flour mixture with 28.2 % of blueberry and 1.8 % of raspberry pomace. The model was verified. Optimized cookies had similar protein (3.72 %) and carbohydrate (66.7 %) contents as gluten-containing counterparts used for comparison, but significantly lower fat content (10.97 %). Daily portion of the optimized cookies meets: 5.00 % and 7.73 % of dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for linoleic acid, 23.6 % and 34.3 % of DRIs for α-linolenic acid and 10.3 % and 15.6 % of DRIs for dietary fibers, for male and female adults, respectively. The nutritional profile of the optimized formulation makes it comparable with added-value gluten-containing counterparts. PMID:27162394

  18. Development of Flammulina Velutipes Blueberry Jelly%金针菇蓝莓果冻的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青; 张文英

    2014-01-01

    以金针菇、蓝莓为主要原料,白砂糖、柠檬酸、魔芋胶和卡拉胶为辅料,通过单因素实验、正交试验研究确定了金针菇蓝莓果冻的最佳配方。结果表明,金针菇与蓝莓混合汁比例为4∶1,添加量为30%,白砂糖15%,柠檬酸0.15%,复合凝胶剂为0.7%,即制得玫红色,半透明,形态美观,酸甜适口,富有混合汁风味的果冻。%This study took flammulina velutipes and blueberry as the main raw material and white sugar,citric acid, konjac gum and carrageenan as accessories. And the best formulation of the jelly was determined by single factor experiment and orthogonal design experiment. The results showed that: flammulina velutipes mixed with blueberry juice ratio was 4∶1, adding amount was 30%, white sugar15%, citric acid 0.15%, composite gels 0.7%, which was prepared rose red, translucent, forms beautiful, sweet and sour, rich mixed juice flavor jelly.

  19. Characterization of Changes in Polyphenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Physico-Chemical Parameters during Lowbush Blueberry Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gibson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in major polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and selected physico-chemical parameters were examined in lowbush blueberry during fruit ripening. Polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins, density, soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, and antioxidant capacity were determined in fruits of four maturities: green, pink/red, blue, and over-mature. Highest concentrations of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids were in green fruits: 168 ± 107, 119 ± 29 and 543 ± 91 mg/100 g dry weight (DW respectively. Highest anthocyanin levels were found in blue and over-mature fruits (1011–1060 mg/100 DW. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and quercetin-3-O-galactoside the most abundant flavonol in all maturities. Epicatechin was the most abundant flavan-3-ol in green fruits (80 ± 20 mg/100 DW, and catechin was the most abundant in other maturity stages. Increase of glucose and fructose and decrease of organic acids were observed during fruit ripening. Among six organic acids found, quinic acid (1.7–9.5 mg/100 mg DW was the most abundant throughout the fruit ontogeny. Soluble solids, pH, and density increased with maturity while, titratable acidity decreased. These findings can be helpful in optimizing harvest and processing operations in lowbush blueberry fruits.

  20. Diet enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids improves insulin sensitivity in adults with normal glucose tolerance by relieving oxidative stress%单不饱和脂肪酸膳食通过缓解氧化应激改善糖耐量正常人群的胰岛素敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 宋光耀; 赵亚芝; 张明明; 马博清; 唐勇

    2010-01-01

    20例健康受试者分别接受单不饱和脂肪酸饮食、多不饱和脂肪酸饮食、饱和脂肪酸饮食3d,单不饱和脂肪酸可以改善机体的氧化应激状态,从而改善胰岛素敏感性.%Twenty healthy subjects in each of 3 groups were fed with monounsaturated fatty-acid diet,polyunsaturated fatty-acid diet, or saturated fatty-acid diet separately for 3 days. It suggested that monounsaturated fatty-acids may ameliorate the oxidative stress and improve insulin sensitivity.

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat) Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Ebrahimi; Mohamed Ali Rajion; Goh Yong Meng; Abdoreza Soleimani Farjam

    2014-01-01

    In this study, control chevon (goat meat) and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon) that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = ...

  2. Metal and PAH concentrations in fruit of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. (Lowbush Blueberry) : a comparison among Whitney Pier, North Sydney and supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Land Resource Science

    2004-07-01

    The concentration of various metals in the fruit harvested from Lowbush blueberry plants in Whitney Pier, Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS), North Sydney (NS) and supermarket were quantified in this report. The concentrations were compared among the 3 sources to determine whether the metal and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the blueberries from Whitney Pier were higher or lower compared to the reference blueberries from North Sydney and the supermarket. Mean values for each of the analytes were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study determined whether washed berries have lower concentrations of contaminants than unwashed berries. The risk to human health of exposure to metals and PAHs through consumption of blueberry samples was also calculated. It was concluded that concentrations of selenium and zinc are elevated in blueberries from Whitney Pier compared to berries from North Sydney and the supermarket, but are well within safe levels. Other elements such as arsenic, titanium, vanadium, lead, copper and molybdenum were similar, and only thallium was elevated in supermarket berries relative to those from Whitney Pier and North Sydney. Chromium was not detected in any samples. It was determined that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the metals analyzed, regardless of whether they were Whitney Pier samples or reference samples. Only 2 PAHs were detected in one of the unwashed samples from Whitney Pier. No PAHs were found in washed berries or unwashed berries from the supermarket or North Sydney. It was concluded that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the PAHs. Washed and unwashed samples had similar metal concentrations, indicating that surface contamination did not occur. A full methodology of the testing program was provided. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. AB-8大孔树脂对蓝莓花色苷的纯化研究%The purification study of blueberry anthocyanin on resin AB-8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄月鹏; 黄翠贤

    2012-01-01

    花色苷是一种水溶性的安全的天然色素。本论文以蓝莓花色苷提取液为原料。使用AB-8树脂对蓝莓花色苷精制工艺进行了研究。结果表明:AB-8树脂吸附流速为10mL/min,用40%乙醇洗脱,解吸流速为5mL/min。AB-8树脂饱和吸附量1.25mg/mL,树脂量是蓝莓花色苷量的3BV。蓝莓花色苷的纯度为38.1%。%Anthocyanin was a water-soluble, safe and natural pigment. Extraction of blueberry anthocyanin was used as raw material in this paper.lt was studied that technology of purifing resin AB-8 to blueberry anthocyanin. The results showed that the absorption speed of resin AB-8 was 10ml/min,the anthocyanin from blueberry was eluted with 40% ethanol at the flow rate of 5mL/min.The absorption capacity of the resin AB-8 was determined to be 1.25mg/mL. It revealed that ratio of resinAB-8 to blueberry anthocyanin solvent were 3BV. The purification of blueberry anthocyanin was 38.1%.

  4. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on object recognition memory in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Hinchman, Marie; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A.; Foster, Brian C.

    2009-04-01

    On long-duration missions to other planets astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit. Previous research using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays has shown that exposure to heavy particles, such as 56Fe, disrupts spatial learning and memory measured using the Morris water maze. Maintaining rats on diets containing antioxidant phytochemicals for 2 weeks prior to irradiation ameliorated this deficit. The present experiments were designed to determine: (1) the generality of the particle-induced disruption of memory by examining the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles on object recognition memory; and (2) whether maintaining rats on these antioxidant diets for 2 weeks prior to irradiation would also ameliorate any potential deficit. The results showed that exposure to low doses of 56Fe particles does disrupt recognition memory and that maintaining rats on antioxidant diets containing blueberry and strawberry extract for only 2 weeks was effective in ameliorating the disruptive effects of irradiation. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms by which exposure to these particles may produce effects on neurocognitive performance.

  5. Goat Milk Fat Naturally Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Increased Lipoproteins and Reduced Triacylglycerol in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaela Rodrigues; Juliana Soares; Hugo Garcia; Claudenice Nascimento; Maria Medeiros; Marco Bomfim; Maria Carmo Medeiros; Rita Queiroga

    2014-01-01

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters ...

  6. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  7. 越橘果实花青苷含量及其不同发育阶段的变化%Contents and changes of anthocyanin in blueberry during fruit development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春雨; 王晶莹; 郭庆勋; 周连霞; 贾承国

    2012-01-01

    对25个高丛越橘,9个半高丛越橘品种和10个杂交后代的花青苷含量进行分析.结果表明,越橘品种花青苷含量在52.700~233.000 U·g1 FW之间,其中艾木蓝花青苷含量最高.高丛越橘品种平均为103.771 U·g-1FW,品种间的变异系数为29.48%,半高丛越橘品种平均为99.956U·g-1FW,品种间的变异系数为19.64%.杂交后代类型的花青苷平均含量为135.860U ·g-1 FW,高于高丛越橘和半高丛越橘平均值.对果实发育过程中花青苷含量变化进行分析显示,越橘果实花青苷主要存在于果皮中,粉色期是花青苷合成的主要时期,而50%蓝色期是越橘花青苷迅速合成期.%The contents of anthocyanin in 25 highbush blueberry, 9 half-highbush blueberry, and 10 blueberry hybrid progeny fruits were analyzed. The results showed that content of anthocyanin ranged from 52.700 to 233.000 U·g-1 FW, in which the content of Amblue anthocyanin was the highest. Average anthocyanin content of highbush blueberry and half-highbush blueberry was 103.771 and 99.956 U·g-1 FW, respectively. The coefficient of variation of anthocyanin contents was 29.48% between the highbush blueberry cultivars, and 19.64% between the half-highbush blueberry cultivars. Average anthocyanin content of hybrid progeny was 135.860 U·g-1 FW, which was higher than that of highbush blueberry and half-highbush blueberry. The change of anthocyanin content was detected during fruit development. The results showed that anthocyanin primarily lied in the skin for blueberry. Pink stage was the key syntheses stage and 50% blue stage was the rapid syntheses stage for blueberry.

  8. Earthquake forecast enrichment scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Smyth

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP is a global project aimed at testing earthquake forecast models in a fair environment. Various metrics are currently used to evaluate the submitted forecasts. However, the CSEP still lacks easily understandable metrics with which to rank the universal performance of the forecast models. In this research, we modify a well-known and respected metric from another statistical field, bioinformatics, to make it suitable for evaluating earthquake forecasts, such as those submitted to the CSEP initiative. The metric, originally called a gene-set enrichment score, is based on a Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. Our modified metric assesses if, over a certain time period, the forecast values at locations where earthquakes have occurred are significantly increased compared to the values for all locations where earthquakes did not occur. Permutation testing allows for a significance value to be placed upon the score. Unlike the metrics currently employed by the CSEP, the score places no assumption on the distribution of earthquake occurrence nor requires an arbitrary reference forecast. In this research, we apply the modified metric to simulated data and real forecast data to show it is a powerful and robust technique, capable of ranking competing earthquake forecasts.

  9. Rheological behavior of blueberry Comportamento reológico de mirtilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Colato Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and physicochemical characteristics of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus fruits produced in Brazil were analyzed. Rheological properties were measured at 5, 25, 45 and 65 °C, on a stress controlled rheometer equipped with grooved a stainless-steel parallel-plate in a shear rate range of 0-300 s-1, with the objective of determining the influence of temperature on the rheological properties. The pseudoplastic behavior with yield stress was well described by the Ostwald-de-Waele (Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley (HB and Mizhari Berk models. The yield stress and behavior index decreased with the increase in the temperatures for 5, 25, and 45 °C whereas for the temperature of 65 °C the effects were the opposite exhibiting elevated values. The viscosity decreased with an increase in temperature, and the Arrhenius equation described adequately the effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity of the puree, in which the activation energy (Ea determined at a shear rate of 100 s-1 was 9.36 kJ.mol-1.As características físicas e físico-químicas do mirtilo (Vaccinium myrtillus produzido no Brasil foram analisadas. As propriedades reológicas foram medidas em 5, 25, 45 e 65 °C, em um reômetro de tensão controlada equipado com geometria rugosa de placas paralelas com taxa de deformação variando de 0-300 s-1 com o objetivo de verificação da influência da temperatura no comportamento do fluido. O comportamento pseudoplástico com tensão residual foi bem descrito pelos modelos de Ostwald-de-Waele (Lei da Potência, Herschel-Bulkley (HB e Mizhari Berk. A tensão residual diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura para 5, 25 e 45 °C, enquanto que para 65 °C os efeitos foram contrários, exibindo elevados valores. A viscosidade diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura e a equação de Arrhenius apresentou uma boa descrição do efeito da temperatura na viscosidade aparente do mirtilo, e a energia de ativação (Ea determinada para uma taxa de

  10. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Diets with Improved Omega-3 Fatty Acid Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla R. V.; Pernollet, Franck; van der Werf, Hayo M. G.

    2016-01-01

    A high incidence of cardiovascular disease is observed worldwide, and dietary habits are one of the risk factors for these diseases. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet help to prevent cardiovascular disease. We used life cycle assessment to analyse the potential of two strategies to improve the nutritional and environmental characteristics of French diets: 1) modifying diets by changing the quantities and proportions of foods and 2) increasing the omega-3 contents in diets by replacing mainly animal foods with equivalent animal foods having higher omega-3 contents. We also investigated other possibilities for reducing environmental impacts. Our results showed that a diet compliant with nutritional recommendations for macronutrients had fewer environmental impacts than the current average French diet. Moving from an omnivorous to a vegetarian diet further reduced environmental impacts. Increasing the omega-3 contents in animal rations increased Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in animal food products. Providing these enriched animal foods in human diets increased their EPA and DHA contents without affecting their environmental impacts. However, in diets that did not contain fish, EPA and DHA contents were well below the levels recommended by health authorities, despite the inclusion of animal products enriched in EPA and DHA. Reducing meat consumption and avoidable waste at home are two main avenues for reducing environmental impacts of diets. PMID:27504959

  11. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Diets with Improved Omega-3 Fatty Acid Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla R V; Pernollet, Franck; van der Werf, Hayo M G

    2016-01-01

    A high incidence of cardiovascular disease is observed worldwide, and dietary habits are one of the risk factors for these diseases. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet help to prevent cardiovascular disease. We used life cycle assessment to analyse the potential of two strategies to improve the nutritional and environmental characteristics of French diets: 1) modifying diets by changing the quantities and proportions of foods and 2) increasing the omega-3 contents in diets by replacing mainly animal foods with equivalent animal foods having higher omega-3 contents. We also investigated other possibilities for reducing environmental impacts. Our results showed that a diet compliant with nutritional recommendations for macronutrients had fewer environmental impacts than the current average French diet. Moving from an omnivorous to a vegetarian diet further reduced environmental impacts. Increasing the omega-3 contents in animal rations increased Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in animal food products. Providing these enriched animal foods in human diets increased their EPA and DHA contents without affecting their environmental impacts. However, in diets that did not contain fish, EPA and DHA contents were well below the levels recommended by health authorities, despite the inclusion of animal products enriched in EPA and DHA. Reducing meat consumption and avoidable waste at home are two main avenues for reducing environmental impacts of diets. PMID:27504959

  12. DIET at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, G.; Boer-Duchemin, E.; Le Moal, E.; Mayne, A. J.; Riedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the long evolution of DIET (Dynamics at surfaces Induced by Electronic Transitions) that began in the 1960s when Menzel, Gomer and Redhead proposed their famous stimulated desorption model. DIET entered the "nanoscale" in the 1990s when researchers at Bell Labs and IBM realized that the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) could be used as an atomic size source of electrons to electronically excite individual atoms and molecules on surfaces. Resonant and radiant Inelastic Electron Tunneling (IET) using the STM have considerably enlarged the range of applications of DIET. Nowadays, "DIET at the nanoscale" covers a broad range of phenomena at the atomic-scale. This includes molecular dynamics (dissociation, desorption, isomerization, displacement, chemical reactions), vibrational spectroscopy and dynamics, spin spectroscopy and manipulation, luminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and plasmonics. Future trends of DIET at the nanoscale offer exciting prospects for new methods to control light and matter at the nanoscale.

  13. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  14. Diet Choices to Prevent Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... colors of vegetables and fruits each day. A healthy diet also includes whole grains and is low in ... can I do to improve my diet? A healthy diet includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, ...

  15. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home About Porphyria Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  16. Methods for RNA isolation from blueberry tissues%蓝莓组织 RNA 提取方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余柯达; 叶美娟; 陈文荣; 朱凯丽; 张常晶; 郭卫东

    2016-01-01

    为建立蓝莓组织RNA提取方法,以蓝莓幼果为材料,比较了5种RNA提取方法,建立了改良的十六烷基三甲基溴化铵-乙酸钾( CTAB-KAc)提取方法,并比较了CTAB-KAc法对蓝莓根、成熟叶、幼茎、花、幼果和成熟果实组织RNA的提取效果.结果表明:CTAB-KAc法提取RNA的过程只需3 h,蓝莓幼果RNA的A260/A280和A260/A230值分别达到2.02和2.46,且无基因组DNA污染,RNA产量达到143.37μg· g-1;用CTAB-KAc法成功提取了蓝莓成熟叶、幼茎、花、幼果和成熟果实组织的RNA,但是根的RNA提取方法还需优化.把上述RNA反转录成cDNA后进行PCR,扩增出预期大小的目的片段,可满足后续分子生物学实验的要求.%Tissues of blueberry were generally rich in polysaccharides, proteins, and polyphenols, resulting in the difficulties of RNA isolation with both high quantity and quality.To optimize the technology of RNA isola-tion from blueberry tissues, five methods for RNA extraction from immature fruit of blueberry were evaluated. The results showed that the most efficient technique for RNA isolation from blueberry fruits was the optimized CTAB-KAc-based method.A subsequent experiment showed that the optimized CTAB-KAc-based technique was also efficient in successful RNA isolation from full-expanded leaf, green stem, flower, immature fruit and mature fruit of blueberry, although protocol for roots still needed to be optimized.The method yielded 143.37μg· g-1 high-quality RNA without DNA contamination within 3 h.The ratios of A260/A280 and A260/A230 of the total RNA from immature fruit of blueberry were 2.02 and 2.46, respectively.Reverse transcription-PCR con-firmed that the isolated RNA was of appropriate quality and integrity for subsequent molecular biology studies.

  17. Short-Term Long Chain Omega3 Diet Protects from Neuroinflammatory Processes and Memory Impairment in Aged Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Virginie F Labrousse; Nadjar, Agnès; Joffre, Corinne; Costes, Laurence; Aubert, Agnès; Grégoire, Stéphane; Bretillon, Lionel; Layé, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Regular consumption of food enriched in omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs) has been shown to reduce risk of cognitive decline in elderly, and possibly development of Alzheimer's disease. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are the most likely active components of ω3-rich PUFAs diets in the brain. We therefore hypothesized that exposing mice to a DHA and EPA enriched diet may reduce neuroinflammation and protect against memory impairment in aged mice. For this...

  18. Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits and Vegetables Common in the Croatian Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Dragović-uzelac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the polyphenol content (total phenols, flavonoids, nonflavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in selected fruits (apple, ‘Idared’; apricot, ‘Madjarska najbolja’; blueberry, ‘Bluecrop’; mandarin, ‘Kuno’; orange, unknown; sour cherry, ‘Marasca’; strawberry, ‘Maya’ and peach, ‘Redhaven’ and vegetables (broccoli, ‘Belstar’ -flower and steam; cauliflower, ‘Favola’; kale, ‘Melissa’ and leek-leaf and root -unknown commonly consumed in the Croatian diet. Total phenols, flavonoids and nonflavonoids were measured calorimetrically by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent with gallic acid as the standard; anthocyanins were determined using bisulphite bleaching method using cyanidin-3-diglucoside as standard, whereas antioxidant capacity was measured using DPPH method. The highest total polyphenols were observed in sour cherry as 2560 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW, followed by blueberry, orange, mandarin, strawberry, apple, apricot, and peach. Among vegetables the highest concentration of total polyphenols was determined in kale (1039 mg GAE/kg FW followed by broccoli flower, broccoli steam, leek leaf, leek root and cauliflower. In all investigated fruits, as well as vegetables, total flavonoids were predominant polyphenols. Total nonflavonoids were present in low concentration especially in leek leaf, broccoli flower and leek root. The highest antioxidant capacity in fruit and vegetables was determined in samples with higher concentration of flavonoids. In selected fruits, there was a distinct correlation between total phenols or flavonoids and antioxidant capacity, while in vegetable the correlation was not observed.

  19. Carbon emission from the soil surface in a mature blueberry pine forest of the middle taiga (Republic of Komi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, A. F.

    2016-08-01

    Data on the input of plant falloff and organic matter decomposition on the surface of the peaty podzolic-gleyic humus-illuvial (Gleyic Podzol) soil under a mature blueberry pine forest in the middle taiga are presented. The fractional composition of the falloff was determined, and constants of decomposition for its components were calculated. The carbon flux to the atmosphere due to the mineralization of plant residues is estimated at 251 g/m2. A close positive correlation ( r = 0.71; P < 0.05) was found between the carbon dioxide emission measured using a gas analyzer and the soil temperature at the depth of 10 cm. The CO2 emission for a growing period calculated from the data on its dependence on soil temperature in different years varied from 243 to 313 g C/m2 and was related to weather conditions.

  20. High enrichment to low enrichment core's conversion. Technical securities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the fulfillment of the technical securities subscribed by INVAP S.E. for the conversion of a high enriched uranium core. The reactor (of 5 thermal Mw), built in the 50's and 60's, is of the 'swimming pool' type, with light water and fuel elements of the curve plates MTR type, enriched at 93.15 %. These are neutronic and thermohydraulic securities. (Author)

  1. Phytochemicals in lowbush wild blueberry inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 by damaging its cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Tadepalli, Shravani; Hwang, Chen-An; Wu, Vivian C H

    2013-11-01

    The antimicrobial activity and model of action of polyphenolic compounds extracted from lowbush wild blueberries (LWB) were studied against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Polyphenols in LWB were extracted using 80% vol/vol methanol and designated as total blueberry phenolics (TBP). The fraction was further separated by a C-18 Sep-Pak cartridge into monomeric phenolics acids (MPA) and anthocyanins plus proanthocyanidins (A&P). The A&P fraction was further separated into anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins using a LH-20 Sephadex column. Each fraction was diluted in 0.85% wt/vol NaCl, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 to achieve 8 log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and incubated at 25 °C for 1 h. The survival populations of E. coli O157:H7 in the phenolic fractions were determined by a viable cell counts method. The permeability of the cell membrane of E. coli O157:H7 was determined using LIVE/DEAD viability assay, and the damage was visualized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significant (pproanthocyanidins (0.15 g/L GAE), A&P (0.45 g/L GAE), anthocyanins (0.65 g/L GAE), and TBP (0.14 g/L GAE). TEM confirmed the inactivation and increased membrane permeability of E. coli O157:H7. This study demonstrated the antimicrobial effect of polyphenols from LWB against E. coli O157:H7 and the probable mode of action. PMID:23944751

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin-3-Glucoside and Malvidin-3-Galactoside in Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yang Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry fruits have a wide range of health benefits because of their abundant anthocyanins, which are natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry’s two main anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside on inflammatory response in endothelial cells. These two malvidin glycosides could inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α induced increases of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 production both in the protein and mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Mv-3-glc at the concentration of 1 μM could inhibit 35.9% increased MCP-1, 54.4% ICAM-1, and 44.7% VCAM-1 protein in supernatant, as well as 9.88% MCP-1 and 48.6% ICAM-1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05. In addition, they could decrease IκBα degradation (Mv-3-glc, Mv-3-gal, and their mixture at the concentration of 50 μM had the inhibition rate of 84.8%, 75.3%, and 43.2%, respectively, p < 0.01 and block the nuclear translocation of p65, which suggested their anti-inflammation mechanism was mediated by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB pathway. In general malvidin-3-glucoside had better anti-inflammatory effect than malvidin-3-galactoside. These results indicated that blueberry is good resource of anti-inflammatory anthocyanins, which can be promising molecules for the development of nutraceuticals to prevent chronic inflammation in many diseases.

  3. Promising Medicated Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ The founding conference of World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies-Special Committee of Medicated Diet & Dietotherapy(WFCMS-SCMDAD).and the first world medicated diet and life nurturing academic seminar was held in the Great Hall of the People.Beijing,China,on August 11.A total of 400 experts and professors on medicated diet and life nurturing from 17 countries and regions including Japan,ROK,U.S.,Canada,U.K.,ect.Honorary President Professor Cai Guangxian delivered a welcoming speech to declare the organization's found.

  4. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  5. Effect of nano-calcium-enriched milk on calcium metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heung-Sik; Ahn, Joungjwa; Kwak, Hae-Soo

    2008-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of different kinds of calcium enrichment on serum and urine indices of mineral status in ovariectomized rats. Twenty-four 7-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into four groups, ovariectomized, and fed diets containing the following: (1) Control, non-Ca-enriched milk; (2) OVX1, calcium carbonate-enriched milk; (3) OVX2, ionized Ca-enriched milk; and (4) OVX3, nano-Ca-enriched milk. After 18 weeks of feeding, the food efficiency ratio in the nano-Ca-fed group was significantly lower compared with those in the Control and OVX2 groups. There was no difference in serum and fecal Ca among the groups. The bone/total alkaline phosphatase ratio was significantly higher in rats fed milk enriched with nano-Ca (59%) and calcium carbonate (62%) than in control (44%) animals. Urinary Ca was the highest in the nano-Ca-enriched group; however, urinary excretions of deoxypyridinoline and hydroxyproline were significantly decreased in the nano-Ca-enriched group. The present results indicate that consumption of nano-Ca-enriched milk resulted in an increase of urinary excretion of calcium and a decrease in deoxypyridinoline and hydroxyproline in ovariectomized rats.

  6. Meadow enriched ACP process algebras

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Bergstra; Middelburg, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an ACP process algebra. The models of the axiom system ACP are the origin of this notion. ACP process algebras have to do with processes in which no data are involved. We also introduce the notion of a meadow enriched ACP process algebra, which is a simple generalization of the notion of an ACP process algebra to processes in which data are involved. In meadow enriched ACP process algebras, the mathematical structure for data is a meadow.

  7. Diet for Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discuss these guidelines with a physical therapist and nutritionist familiar with movement disorders. Ataxia is a complex ... fiber to your diet with your physician or nutritionist, ask them if you might also benefit by ...

  8. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  9. Magnesium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - magnesium ... Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal ... There is ongoing research into the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as high ...

  10. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips to keep from becoming thirsty include: Avoid salty foods Freeze some juice in an ice cube ... diet. Look for these words on food labels: Low-sodium No salt added Sodium-free Sodium-reduced Unsalted ...

  11. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this special diet to limit the buildup of waste products in the body. Limiting fluids between dialysis ... up when the kidneys no longer function well. Dangerous heart rhythms may result, which can lead to ...

  12. Interstitial Cystitis and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toolkit Donate Monthly Giving Corporate Giving Planned Gifts & Estate Planning Donor Stock Transfer Instructions IC Charity in ... questionnaire on IC and diet. Revised Tuesday, April 5th, 2016 Home About IC What is Interstitial Cystitis ( ...

  13. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addiction that leads to health problems, including serious eating disorders, heart problems, and even death. Detox supplements can have side effects. Many of the supplements used during detox diets ...

  14. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  15. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Serena Tonstad; Edward Nathan; Keiji Oda; Gary Fraser

    2013-01-01

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant o...

  16. Gene expression and metabolite profiling of developing highbush blueberry fruit indicates transcriptional regulation of flavonoid metabolism and activation of abscisic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Zaharia, L Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kennedy, James A; Constabel, C Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation of

  17. Protective effect of enzymatic hydrolysates from highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Senevirathne, Mahinda; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Jeon, You-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Blueberry was enzymatically hydrolyzed using selected commercial food grade carbohydrases (AMG, Celluclast, Termamyl, Ultraflo and Viscozyme) and proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Kojizyme, Neutrase and Protamex) to obtain water soluble compounds, and their protective effect was investigated against H2O2-induced damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (V79-4) via various published methods. Both AMG and Alcalase hydrolysates showed higher total phenolic content as well as higher ce...

  18. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  19. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  20. Gene expression and metabolite profiling of developing highbush blueberry fruit indicates transcriptional regulation of flavonoid metabolism and activation of abscisic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Zaharia, L Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kennedy, James A; Constabel, C Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation of

  1. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  2. Study on the Brewing Process of Blueberry Dry Red Wine%蓝莓干红酒酿制工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱平; 吉平; 张文雅; 柯常毅; 李涛; 谭祥

    2013-01-01

    According to the blueberry juice initial sugar content, from 12° red blueberry wine will fill sugar is adjusted to 21%, the amount of SO2 was adjusted to 40mg/L. meanwhile, adding active dry yeast powder, the inoculation was 0.20%, at 25℃ temperature fermentation for 6 days, the main fermentation onto the end of low temperature aging, can make the residual sugar is low, moderate acidity, the wine body coordination, mellow taste, fruit suitable, deep ruby red in color, with blueberry special typical style of dry red wine.%根据蓝莓汁初始糖度,酿制12°干红蓝莓酒时将补糖量调整至21%,SO2添加量调整为40mg/L。同时,添加活性干酵母粉,其接种量为0.20%,在25℃条件下控温发酵6d,主发酵结束转入低温陈酿,能够酿制残糖较低、酸度适中、酒体协调、口感醇厚、果香适宜,色泽为深宝石红,具有蓝莓特有典型风格的蓝莓干红酒。

  3. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq., Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb. and Blueberry Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotoshi Tsuda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.. The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract.

  4. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.), Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb.) and Blueberry Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hirotoshi; Kunitake, Hisato; Kawasaki-Takaki, Ryoko; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Masao; Komatsu, Haruki; Yukizaki, Chizuko

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.) was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.). The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract. PMID:27137366

  5. Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin content in selected white and red wines. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity comparison with nontraditional wines obtained from highbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cao, Guohua; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Ronald L

    2003-08-13

    Antioxidant capacity, as measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(PE)), total phenolic, total and individual anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidin fraction contents were evaluated in red and white wines from grapes. A comparison in terms of antioxidant capacity is made with nontraditional wines made from highbush blueberry. Blueberries are among fruits that are best recognized for their potential health benefits. In red wines, total oligomeric proanthocyanidin content, including catechins, was substantially higher (177.18 +/- 96.06 mg/L) than that in white wines (8.75 +/- 4.53 mg/L). A relative high correlation in red wines was found between ORAC(PE) values and malvidin compounds (r = 0.75, P proanthocyanidins (r = 0.87, P proanthocyanidin fraction and peroxyl radical scavenging values (r = 0.86, P < 0.10). A moderate drink (1 drink per day, about 140 mL) of red wine, or white wine, or wine made from highbush blueberry corresponds to an intake of 2.04 +/- 0.81 mmol of TE, 0.47 +/- 0.15 mmol of TE, and 2.42 +/- 0.88 mmol of TE of ORAC(PE)/day, respectively. PMID:12903941

  6. Optimization of Preparation Process for Processed Cheese Fortified with Blueberry Pulp%蓝莓果肉再制干酪工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 李浩; 田雪娇; 张建强; 张丽萍

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with process optimization for the preparation of processed cheese fortified with blueberry pulp from fast-ripened cheese and blueberry pulp using one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods.The optimal formulation for processed cheese was skimmed milk powder 8%,butter 10%,blueberry pulp 20%,emulsifying salt 1.0%,xanthan gum 0.3%,salt 1.5%,and purified water 35%,which were simultaneously heated at 85 ℃ and stirred for 7 min.%以快速成熟干酪、蓝莓果浆为主要原料,通过单因素和正交试验对蓝莓果肉再制干酪工艺进行优化,确定最佳配方为:加入脱脂奶粉8%、黄油10%、蓝莓果浆20%、乳化盐1.5%、黄原胶0.3%、食盐1.5%、纯净水35%、加热温度85℃、搅拌时间7min。

  7. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes

  8. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco;

    2016-01-01

    and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic and N-aspartic acids, and 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender- and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...

  9. 金属离子对蓝莓花色苷的影响%Effects of metal ions on the blueberry anthocyanins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖畅; 齐凤元; 冯彦博

    2009-01-01

    Anthocyanins have important functional characteristic, but its stability was influenced by various physical-chemical factors. Metal ions have different influence on the stability of anthocyanins. Study on the effects of metal ions on the stability of blueberry anthocyanins to provide evidence for their industrialized production. The effects of metal ions on the blueberry anthocyanins were ascertained by absorbency in different metal ions solution. Results showed that the wavelength of absorption respectively was 279 nm and 520 nm in pH3.0 acid solvent. K+ had no effect on the stability of anthocyanins. Ca2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ had a certain effect of dour improvement, but no effect on the stability of anthocyanins. , Na+ , Zn2+ and Mn2+ could not noly strengthen the colour at higher concentration, but enhance the stability of blueberry anthocyanins. Fe2+, Fe3+ and Pb2+ were harmful to the stability of blueberry anthocyanins while Fe3+ and Pb2+ could lead to precipitate in blueberry anthocyanins solution.%花色苷具有重要的生理功能,但其稳定性易受各种理化因素的影响而发生变化.本试验系统地研究金属离子对其稳定性的影响,为蓝莓花色苷的加工生产提供理论指导.通过测定蓝莓花色苷在不同浓度金属溶液中的吸光度的变化,确定金属离子对蓝莓花色苷稳定性的影响.结果表明:蓝莓花色苷在酸性水溶液中的吸收峰分别在279,520 nm处.K+不能使花色苷的吸光度增加,对花色苷的稳定性也无显著影响;Ca2+、Cu2+、Al3+具有增色作用,对花色苷的稳定性无显著影响;高浓度Na+、Zn2+、Mn2+具有增色作用,而且能够增强花色苷的稳定性;Fe2+、Fe3+、Pb2+对花色苷具有破坏作用,使花色苷的稳定性下降,含Fe3+、Pb2+的花色苷溶液中有白色沉淀生成.

  10. Co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron(III-reducing enrichment culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiling eZheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methanosaeta harundinacea and Methanosarcina barkeri, known as classic acetoclastic methanogens, are capable of directly accepting electrons from Geobacter metallireducens for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane, having been revealed as direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET in the laboratory co-cultures. However, whether their co-occurrences are ubiquitous in the iron (III-reducing environments and the other species of acetoclastic methanogens such as Methanosarcina mazei are capable of DIET are still unknown. Instead of initiating the co-cultures with pure cultures, two-step cultivation was employed to selectively enrich iron (III-reducing microorganisms in a coastal gold mining river, Jiehe River, with rich iron content in the sediments. First, iron (III reducers including Geobacteraceae were successfully enriched by 3-months successive culture on amorphous Fe(III oxides as electron acceptor and acetate as electron donor. High-throughput Illumina sequencing, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP and clone library analysis based on 16S rRNA genes revealed that the enrichment cultures actively contained the bacteria belong to Geobacteraceae and Bacilli, exclusively dominated by the archaea belong to Methanosarcinaceae. Second, the enrichment cultures including methanogens and Geobacteraceae were transferred with ethanol as alternative electron donor. Remarkably, aggregates were successively formed in the enrichments after three transfers. The results revealed by RNA-based analysis demonstrate that the co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III-reducing enrichment culture. Furthermore, the aggregates, as close physical contact, formed in the enrichment culture, indicate that DIET could be a possible option for interspecies electron transfer in the aggregates.

  11. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  12. Mediterranean diet: a precious tool for fighting inflammatory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Catarino, Marcelo D.; Alves-Silva, Jorge M.; Olívia R. Pereira; Susana M. Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that populations who consume foods rich in specific polyphenols have lower incidence of inflammatory diseases. In turn, Mediterranean diet, claimed for its several health benefits, provides a wide range of foods which are particularly enriched sources of polyphenols, some of which known for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this context, various herbs, vegetables and fruits, as well as fruit derivative products, such as wine and virgin olive oil, are beli...

  13. Efecto de la ingesta de un preparado lácteo con fibra dietética sobre el estreñimiento crónico primario idiopático The effect of a fibre enriched dietary milk product in chronic primary idiopatic constipation

    OpenAIRE

    J. López Román; A. B. Martínez Gonzálvez; A. Luque; J. A. Pons Miñano; A. Vargas Acosta; Iglesias, J.R.; M Hernández

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar si la administración de un preparado lácteo enriquecido con un suplemento de fibra soluble (Naturfibra)®[inulina y maltodextrina resistente a la digestión (Fibersol 2®)], afecta a la sintomatología en el estreñimiento crónico primario idiopático. Ámbito: Sujetos de ambos sexos con estreñimiento según los criterios de Roma II. Sujetos: Se trata de un ensayo clínico doble ciego aleatorizado de intervención dietética realizado en 32 individuos con estreñimiento de ambos sexo...

  14. A Systematic Approach to Marital Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Carlson, Jon

    1986-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to enriching marital relationships. The history and current status of marital enrichment is reviewed. An Adlerian approach to marital enrichment is described. Applications of the program in enrichment groups, marriage therapy and couple groups are included. (Author)

  15. Advances in uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in gas centrifuges and development of the atomic vapour laser isotope separation process promise substantial reductions in the cost of enriched uranium. The resulting reduction in LWR fuel costs could seriously erode the economic advantage of CANDU, and in combination with LWR design improvements, shortened construction times and increased operational reliability could allow the LWR to overtake CANDU. CANDU's traditional advantages of neutron economy and high reliability may no longer be sufficient - this is the challenge. The responses include: combining neutron economy and dollar economy by optimizing CANDU for slightly enriched uranium fuel; developing cost-reducing improvements in design, manufacture and construction; and reducing the cost of heavy water. Technology is a renewable resource which must be continually applied to a product for it to remain competitive in the decades to come. Such innovation is a prerequisite to Canada increasing her share of the international market for nuclear power stations. The higher burn-up achievable with enriched fuel in CANDU can reduce the fuel cycle costs by 20 to 40 percent for a likely range of costs for yellowcake and separative work. Alternatively, some of the benefits of a higher fissile content can take the form of a cheaper reactor core containing fewer fuel channels and less heavy water, and needing only a single fuelling machine. An opportunity that is linked to this need to introduce an enriched uranium fuel cycle into CANDU is to build an enrichment business in Canada. This could offer greater value added to our uranium exports, security of supply for enriched CANDUs, technological growth in Canada and new employment opportunities. AECL has a study in progress to define this opportunity

  16. Uranium enrichment. 1980 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains data and related information on the production of enriched uranium at the gaseous diffusion plants and an update on the construction and project control center for the gas centrifuge plant. Power usage at the gaseous diffusion plants is illustrated. The report contains several glossy color pictures of the plants and processes described. In addition to gaseous diffusion and the centrifuge process, three advanced isotope separation process are now being developed. The business operation of the enrichment plants is described; charts on revenue, balance sheets, and income statements are included

  17. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  18. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  19. Vegetarian diets and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A

    1995-08-01

    Although the general health and development of vegan and vegetarian children seem to be normal, there may be subtle differences compared with omnivores. They are at increased risk of iron deficiency, and impaired psychomotor development associated with iron deficiency has been reported in macrobiotic infants. Fortunately, this impairment is not permanent, and follow-up studies have reported higher-than-average intelligence quotients among older macrobiotic children. Several other hazards of vegetarian diets have been identified, including vitamin B12 deficiency, rickets, and a bulky diet that can restrict energy intake in the first few years of life; however, these pitfalls can be avoided easily, and children can be successfully reared on vegetarian diets.

  20. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Tonstad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%] and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%] in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64–1.93, respectively. Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.01, not statistically significant while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.18. In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.03, not statistically significant. In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  1. 中国蓝浆果生产现状%THE PRESENT STATUS OF BLUEBERRY GROWING IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於虹; 王传永; 顾姻; 贺善安

    2005-01-01

    The general situation of blueberry (Vaccinium L. spp.) growing in China is reported. There are two major growing regions: one in the Northeast of China, mainly in Jilin Province, and the other in the vast territory of acidic red soils in the South of the Yangtze River. Wild species used as fruits are only distributed in the Northeast of China. Introduction of cultivated cultivars started in the 1980's and altogether more than 60 cultivars have been introduced. The capacity of propagation of seedlings by cuttings and tissue culture is more than one million per year in each of the two regions. Suitable cultivars have been selected for two regions and the yield and fruit quality of the plantations in both regions, including in Jilin, Jiangsu and Guizhou provinces are equal to the native products from North America respectively. This indicates the great potential for the development of blueberries in China.%全面报道了蓝浆果(Vaccinium L.spp.)在中国的生产情况,共分为南、北两大区域.北区是指以吉林省为主的东北地区,南区指长江以南广阔的酸性红壤土地区.果用野生种只分布在东北地区.自20世纪80年代起开始引种欧美栽培品种,共达60余个.在北区以吉林农业大学为主,在南区以江苏省·中国科学院植物研究所为主,采用组培和扦插方法繁殖,南、北两区均各有年产百万株以上苗木的能力.在南、北两区的适宜地区,如吉林、江苏和贵州等省,都已选出各自的适栽品种,栽培后的产量和果实质量分别均可达到国外优良水平,显示了蓝浆果在中国发展的巨大前景.

  2. Age/Radiation Parallels in the Effects of 56Fe Particle Irradiation and Protection by Berry Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, James; Bielinski, Donna; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    Exposing young rats to particles of high-energy and charge (HZE particles) enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2% blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats, perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A subsequent study has shown that whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation; these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets. The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information, while the blueberry-supplemented animals showed enhanced learning that was dependent on striatal functioning. Additional experiments in cell models to examine possible mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects have shown that, in addition to the well known free radical scavenging effects of berries, it appears that berry fruit can directly reduce stress signaling and enhance protective signals, suggesting the involvement of multiple mechanisms in the beneficial effects observed. Enhancements of "protective" signals (e.g., extracellular signal regulated kinase, ERK) include those that are involved in neuronal communication, neurogenesis, and learning and memory. Reductions in stress signaling include inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytokines, among others, induced by oxidative and inflammatory stressors. We have found these changes in both BV2 mouse microglial and hippocampal cells. We believe that the possible addition of colorful fruits such as berry fruits to the diet can possibly

  3. Carotenoid-enriched transgenic corn delivers bioavailable carotenoids to poultry and protects them against coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogareda, Carmina; Moreno, Jose A; Angulo, Eduardo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Portero, Manuel; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are health-promoting organic molecules that act as antioxidants and essential nutrients. We show that chickens raised on a diet enriched with an engineered corn variety containing very high levels of four key carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and lutein) are healthy and accumulate more bioavailable carotenoids in peripheral tissues, muscle, skin and fat, and more retinol in the liver, than birds fed on standard corn diets (including commercial corn supplemented with colour additives). Birds were challenged with the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella and those on the high-carotenoid diet grew normally, suffered only mild disease symptoms (diarrhoea, footpad dermatitis and digital ulcers) and had lower faecal oocyst counts than birds on the control diet. Our results demonstrate that carotenoid-rich corn maintains poultry health and increases the nutritional value of poultry products without the use of feed additives. PMID:25846059

  4. Low Folate and Selenium in the Mouse Maternal Diet Alters Liver Gene Expression Patterns in the Offspring after Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P.G. Barnett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, selenium (Se and folate requirements increase, with deficiencies linked to neural tube defects (folate and DNA oxidation (Se. This study investigated the effect of a high-fat diet either supplemented with (diet H, or marginally deficient in (diet L, Se and folate. Pregnant female mice and their male offspring were assigned to one of four treatments: diet H during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet L during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet H during gestation and lactation but diet L fed to offspring post-weaning; or diet L during gestation and lactation followed by diet H fed to offspring post-weaning. Microarray and pathway analyses were performed using RNA from colon and liver of 12-week-old male offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis of liver gene expression showed that diet L affected several pathways including regulation of translation (protein biosynthesis, methyl group metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism; this effect was stronger when the diet was fed to mothers, rather than to offspring. No significant differences in individual gene expression were observed in colon but there were significant differences in cell cycle control pathways. In conclusion, a maternal low Se/folate diet during gestation and lactation has more effects on gene expression in offspring than the same diet fed to offspring post-weaning; low Se and folate in utero and during lactation thus has persistent metabolic effects in the offspring.

  5. Suppression of Wnt1-induced mammary tumor growth and lower serum insulin in offspring exposed to maternal blueberry diet suggest early dietary influence on developmental programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the well-accepted notion that early maternal influences persist beyond fetal life and may underlie many adult diseases, the risks imposed by the maternal environment on breast cancer development and underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether earl...

  6. Meadow enriched ACP process algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra; C.A. Middelburg

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an ACP process algebra. The models of the axiom system ACP are the origin of this notion. ACP process algebras have to do with processes in which no data are involved. We also introduce the notion of a meadow enriched ACP process algebra, which is a simple generalization o

  7. Environmental Development Plan: uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Development Plan identifies and examines the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns and corresponding requirements associated with the DOE research, development, demonstration, and operation of the Uranium Enrichment program, including the gaseous diffusion process, the centrifuge process, centrifuge rotor fabrication, and related research and development activities

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, control chevon (goat meat and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P<0.05 in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  9. Chances and challenges of forest scale CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Rising CO2 is changing the biosphere's diet. As with any dietary change, both amount and quality of food matter. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment is clearly providing a rather one-sided, C-rich diet. Hence, the reaiistic experimental simulation of its effect on the single biggest C reservoir of the biosphere, that is forest, requires experimental conditions that resemble exactly that situation. In the past, trees where most commonly exposed to elevated CO2 while provided with ample other constituents of a plant's diet (soil nutrients), yielding exaggerated growth stimulation, unlikely to reflect real world responses. So, by either selecting fertile soils, disturbing the system by fire or planting activities, offering ample soil space to isolated individuals or even adding fertilizer, almost any CO2-response can be 'designed'. The 'art' of designing future Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments will be to avoid exactly these pitfalls. Plants can incorporate additional C only to the extent the provision of chemical elements other than C will permit, given the stoichiometry of life. Site selection (soil fertility), degree of canopy closure, recent disturbance regime or successional stage will influence CO2 effects. It is the fundamental dilemma in CO2-enrichment research that simple, homogenous, artificial test systems offer statistical power, while systems that account for 'naturalness' and species diversity do not. Any new FACE program needs to handle that tradeoff between precision and relevance. In this presentation I will advocate a pragmatic approach that will inevitably have to lean on individual tree responses, across a wide as possible range of neighborhoods, age and growth conditions, with the statistical power depending in obtaining the best possible pre-treatment traits and responses. By illustrating the results of 15 years of FACE with 30-40 m tall forest trees, I will caution against over-optimistic ecosystem scale approaches with just ONE technology

  10. The rock diet

    OpenAIRE

    Fordyce, Fiona; Johnson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    You may think there is little connection between rocks and our diet, indeed a serving of rocks may sound very unappetising! But rocks are a vital source of the essential elements and minerals we need to keep us healthy, such as calcium for healthy teeth and bones.

  11. Study on bioavailability of zinc for children's diet by using activable isotopic tracer 70Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioavailability of zinc for three groups (low amount of diet zinc, balance amount of diet zinc and high amount of diet zinc) of children's diet is studied by using activable isotopic tracer 70Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques. The results indicate that the fractional absorption of zinc from balance diet zinc group is the highest, up to 33.9%. A procedure of pre-irradiation concentration zinc for fecal samples using anion exchanger is developed, and the enriched 70Zn with isotopic abundance of 18.3% is used for tracer. The mass ratios between 70Zn and 68Zn or 64Zn and their contents between natural zinc and enriched zinc are used to calculate the bioavailability of zinc. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of 64Zn of each original fecal samples and pre-irradiation concentrated zinc samples are used to normalize the chemical yield in order to reduce the uncertainty during the chemical separation procedure

  12. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  13. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  14. Is Dieting OK for Kids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... Crushes What's a Booger? Is Dieting OK for Kids? KidsHealth > For Kids > Is Dieting OK for Kids? ...

  15. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Abreu, Maria T

    2015-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  16. Evaluation of the in vitro/in vivo potential of five berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) commonly used as herbal supplements to inhibit uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eu Jin; Park, Jung Bae; Yoon, Kee Dong; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated inhibitory potentials of popularly-consumed berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) as herbal supplements on UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 in vitro. We also investigated the potential herb-drug interaction via UGT1A1 inhibition by blueberry in vivo. We demonstrated that these berries had only weak inhibitory effects on the five UGTs. Bilberry and elderberry had no apparent inhibitions. Blueberry weakly inhibited UGT1A1 with an IC50 value of 62.4±4.40 μg/mL and a Ki value of 53.1 μg/mL. Blueberry also weakly inhibited UGT2B7 with an IC50 value of 147±11.1 μg/mL. In addition, cranberry weakly inhibited UGT1A9 activity (IC50=458±49.7 μg/mL) and raspberry ketones weakly inhibited UGT2B7 activity (IC50=248±28.2 μg/mL). Among tested berries, blueberry showed the lowest IC50 value in the inhibition of UGT1A1 in vitro. However, the co-administration of blueberry had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38, which was mainly eliminated via UGT1A1, in vivo. Our data suggests that these five berries are unlikely to cause clinically significant herb-drug interactions mediated via inhibition of UGT enzymes involved in drug metabolism. These findings should enable an understanding of herb-drug interactions for the safe use of popularly-consumed berries.

  17. Effects of adding various oils to the diet on growth, feed conversion and chemical composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, W; Wirth, M; Rennert, B

    1995-01-01

    The suitability of various vegetable and fish oils was tested as feed components for one-summer-old carp fingerlings. Five diets were used: a basal diet, which served as control feed, was supplemented with 10% corn-germ oil, 10% sunflower oil, 10% fish oil or 10% rapeseed oil, respectively. By means of the lipid supplementation the crude protein content decreased from 35.5% in the basal diet to 31.9% in the test diets, whereas the gross energy level increased from 16.3 to 18.9 MJ/kg. The diets were fed over a period of 84 feeding days and water temperature was 23 degrees C. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein utilization were superior in all groups of carp which received the fat-enriched high energy diets. Considering the gain in % of the initial weight, the control fish reached less than 400% whereas all carp in the test groups, which consumed the oil-enriched diets, reached 455 to 485%. A significant influence of the kind of lipid on growth and feed conversion could not be recognized. The lipid-enriched diets with higher energy content resulted in increased fat levels of the carp. Fatty acid composition of the carp reflected that of the diets. In the control group and the fish oil group the levels of palmitic, palmitoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were especially high corresponding to the fatty acid profile of the diets. In carp fed the diets supplied with corn-germ oil and sunflower oil linoleic acid was dominant whereas the carp fed the rapeseed diet were characterized by a high level of oleic acid.

  18. Ketogenic diet and astrocyte/neuron metabolic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamecq Joseph

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is an anticonvulsant diet enriched in fat. It provides the body with a minimal protein requirement and a restricted carbohydrate supply, the vast majority of calories (more than 80-90% being given by fat. Though anticonvulsant activity of ketogenic diet has been well documented by a large number of experimental and clinical studies, underlying mechanisms still remain partially unclear. Astrocyte-neuron interactions, among which metabolic shuttles, may influence synaptic activity and hence anticonvulsant protection. The astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttles may be themselves influenced by the availability in energetic substrates such as hydrates of carbon and fats. Historically, ketogenic diet had been designed to mimic changes such as ketosis occurring upon starvation, a physiological state already known to exhibit anticonvulsant protection and sometimes referred to as “water diet”. For this reason, a special attention should be paid to metabolic features shared in common by ketogenic diet and starvation and especially those features that might result in anticonvulsant protection. Compared to feeding by usual mixed diet, starvation and ketogenic diet are both characterised by increased fat, lowered glucose and aminoacid supplies to cells. The resulting impact of these changes in energetic substrates on astrocyte/neuron metabolic shuttles might have anticonvulsant and/or neuroprotective properties. This is the aim of this communication to review some important astrocyte/neuron metabolic interactions (astrocyte/neuron lactate shuttle, glutamateinduced astrocytic glycolysis activation, glutamate/glutamine cycle along with the neurovascular coupling and the extent to which the way of their alteration by starvation and/or ketogenic diet might result in seizure and/or brain protection.

  19. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) wine pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Zhang, Ling-Li; Yue, Xue-Yang; Liang, Jin; Jiang, Jun; Gao, Xue-Ling; Yue, Peng-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) of total anthocyanins (TA) and phenolics (TP) from Blueberry Wine Pomace (BWP) was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design was used to predict that the optimized conditions were an extraction temperature of 61.03°C, a liquid-solid ratio of 21.70mL/g and a sonication time of 23.67min. Using the modeled optimized conditions, the predicted and experimental yields of TA and TP were within a 2% difference. The yields of TA and TP obtained through the optimized UAE method were higher than those using a Conventional Solvent Extraction (CSE) method. Seven anthocyanins, namely delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, delphindin-3-O-arabinoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-arabinoside, were found in the BWP extract from both the UAE and CSE methods. PMID:26988477

  20. Determining Rooting Ability of Ennobled Blueberry Wood Pieces (Vaccinium corymbosum L. with Presence of Growth Regulators IBA and NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABRI BRAHA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ennobled blueberry (V. Corymbosum L. has many specific requirements for optimal growth, therefore, the increase of cultivated areas is limited. It requires acidic soils (pH 4,3-4,8, well drained, with full aeration and a constant moderate amount of moisture. The successful technique of asexual propagation will be necessary for rapid clonal propagation of selected cultivars. The objective of this experiment was to identify an efficient way to improve rooting with the help of growth regulators in the ‘Bluecrop’ cultivar using well-lignified one-year old wood pieces, collected at the end of winter, end of March prior to bud swelling. Treatments with various concentrations (1500, 3000, 4500 mg/l, show that treatment with IBA at 3000 mg/l has the highest rooting percentage in comparison to NAA. Whilst the torf-perlite substrate (at a 2:1 ratio, has produced a higher rooting percentage compared to the torf-only substrate, and the crucial factor for successful rooting is the time of collecting wood pieces. Treatment results have promoted higher rooting of wooden pieces compared to the control (untreated wooden pieces. The most efficient promotor in all concentrations was IBA.

  1. Short-term UV-B radiation affects photosynthetic performance and antioxidant gene expression in highbush blueberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2016-10-01

    The impact of increased artificial UV-B radiation on photosynthetic performance, antioxidant and SOD activities and molecular antioxidant metabolism responses in leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes was studied. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 W m(-2) of biologically-effective UV-B irradiance for 0-72 h. Our findings show that net photosynthesis (Pn) decreased significantly in Bluegold, accompanied by a reduction in the effective quantum yield (ФPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR), especially at the highest UV-B irradiation. On the other hand, Brigitta showed a better photosynthetic performance, as well as a clear increment in the antioxidant activity response that could be associated with increased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the early hours of induced UV-B stress in all treatments. At the molecular level, the expression of the three antioxidant genes evaluated in both genotypes had a similar tendency. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) expression was significantly increased (6-fold) in Bluegold compared to Brigitta. Thus, the reduction of Pn concomitant with a lower photochemical performance and a reduced response of antioxidant metabolism suggest that the Bluegold genotype is more sensitive to UV-B radiation, while Brigitta appears to tolerate better moderate UV-B irradiance in a short-term experiment.

  2. Short-term UV-B radiation affects photosynthetic performance and antioxidant gene expression in highbush blueberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2016-10-01

    The impact of increased artificial UV-B radiation on photosynthetic performance, antioxidant and SOD activities and molecular antioxidant metabolism responses in leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes was studied. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 W m(-2) of biologically-effective UV-B irradiance for 0-72 h. Our findings show that net photosynthesis (Pn) decreased significantly in Bluegold, accompanied by a reduction in the effective quantum yield (ФPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR), especially at the highest UV-B irradiation. On the other hand, Brigitta showed a better photosynthetic performance, as well as a clear increment in the antioxidant activity response that could be associated with increased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the early hours of induced UV-B stress in all treatments. At the molecular level, the expression of the three antioxidant genes evaluated in both genotypes had a similar tendency. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) expression was significantly increased (6-fold) in Bluegold compared to Brigitta. Thus, the reduction of Pn concomitant with a lower photochemical performance and a reduced response of antioxidant metabolism suggest that the Bluegold genotype is more sensitive to UV-B radiation, while Brigitta appears to tolerate better moderate UV-B irradiance in a short-term experiment. PMID:27343876

  3. The efficacy of blueberry and grape seed extract combination on triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chian-Sem; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Chen, Jui-Hao; Liu, Yuh-Hwa; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Traditional therapy with proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics is regarded as optimal for H. pylori eradication whereas, the eradication rate is unsatisfactory. Studies have reported that cranberry may inhibit H. pylori adhesion to the human gastric mucus but lack of other berry extracts have been evaluated in clinical study. Thus, a 9-week add-on randomised controlled trial was conducted to explore the impact of blueberry and grape seed extract (BGE) combinations traditional therapy for H. pylori eradication. In results, we found that there was no significant difference of eradication rate between the berry extract group and placebo group in the intention-to-treat analysis and in the per-protocol analysis (94.64% versus 84.62%, p = 0.085). Diarrhoea, constipation and epigastric pain were observed increasing during ingestion of the berry extract in some cases. In conclusion, this study indicated that no significant difference existed between the BGE extract group and placebo group in eradication rate under triple therapy.

  4. Contrafreeloading in grizzly bears: implications for captive foraging enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Ragen T S; Robbins, Charles T; Alldredge, J Richard; Newberry, Ruth C

    2010-01-01

    Although traditional feeding regimens for captive animals were focused on meeting physiological needs to assure good health, more recently emphasis has also been placed on non-nutritive aspects of feeding. The provision of foraging materials to diversify feeding behavior is a common practice in zoos but selective consumption of foraging enrichment items over more balanced "chow" diets could lead to nutrient imbalance. One alternative is to provide balanced diets in a contrafreeloading paradigm. Contrafreeloading occurs when animals choose resources that require effort to exploit when identical resources are freely available. To investigate contrafreeloading and its potential as a theoretical foundation for foraging enrichment, we conducted two experiments with captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). In Experiment 1, bears were presented with five foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples in ice, salmon, salmon in ice, and plain ice under two levels of food restriction. Two measures of contrafreeloading were considered: weight of earned food consumed and time spent working for earned food. More free than earned food was eaten, with only two bears consuming food extracted from ice, but all bears spent more time manipulating ice containing salmon or apples than plain ice regardless of level of food restriction. In Experiment 2, food-restricted bears were presented with three foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples inside a box, and an empty box. Although they ate more free than earned food, five bears consumed food from boxes and all spent more time manipulating boxes containing apples than empty boxes. Our findings support the provision of contrafreeloading opportunities as a foraging enrichment strategy for captive wildlife.

  5. Screening of Yeast Strains for Blueberry Wine and Study on Their Fermenting Performance%蓝莓果酒酵母筛选及发酵性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春光; 刘盈盈; 王莹; 向准; 孙超; 贺红早

    2015-01-01

    采集贵州麻江蓝莓栽培基地土壤、蓝莓叶、蓝莓鲜果、自然发酵的不同阶段发酵液为实验材料,通过选用不同培养基富集酵母,并进行蓝莓专用酵母筛选和发酵特性能研究.结果表明,共分离得46株酵母,其中从土壤共分离得6株酵母菌,蓝莓叶上分离得3株,果表皮分离得9株,自然发酵不同阶段发酵液分离到28株,富集酵母菌适合的培养基为酵母富集培养基、YEPD培养基和PDA培养基.进行复筛和发酵性能试验,筛选到的4株酵母菌均能发酵出蓝莓果香和酒香协调、酸味柔和、酒体丰满的蓝莓果酒,具有开发成优良商品果酒酵母的潜力.为今后酿造具有独特风格的蓝莓酒有非常重要的意义.%The soil, blueberry leaf, blueberry fruit, and blueberry at different natural fermentation stages were collected as the experimental ma-terials. Through the selection of different culture mediums for yeast strains accumulation, a total of 46 yeast strains was isolated successfully in-cluding 6 strains from the soil, 3 strains from blueberry leaf, 9 strains from blueberry fruit peel, and 28 strains from blueberry at different natu-ral fermentation stages. The culture mediums suitable for yeast strains accumulation included yeast accumulation culture medium, YEPD cul-ture medium, and PDA culture medium. After secondary screening and fermenting performance test, 4 yeast strains were finally obtained suit-able for producing blueberry wine with enjoyable taste, harmonious wine aroma and full wine body. Besides, they had the development poten-tials as commercial yeast strains. This study was of great significance in guiding the development of blueberry wine with special styles.

  6. Study on the Content Change of Anthocyanins in the Process of Blueberry Vinegar Fermentation%探究蓝莓果醋发酵过程中花青素含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪文艳; 蒋予箭

    2015-01-01

    Adopt vanillic aldehyde-sulfuric acid colorimetry to detect the content of anthocyanins during the process of alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation of blueberry vinegar.Based on the results,discuss the effects of blueberry vinegar fermentation process on anthocyanins.%采用香草醛-硫酸比色法测定蓝莓果醋发酵过程中酒精发酵和醋酸发酵阶段的花青素含量,根据实验结果分析探究蓝莓果醋发酵过程对花青素的影响。

  7. Association between Total Diet Cost and Diet Quality Is Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Andrea; Dong, Diansheng; Lino, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is a common perception that it costs more to eat a healthy diet than a less healthy one. We derive a panel data model that accounts for unobserved specific individual effects to estimate the relationship between diet quality and total daily food expenditure. Since total daily diet cost and diet quality are both calculated from the foods chosen in our data, we account for the fact that there is an endogenous relationship between diet quality and cost. We find that while total daily food ...

  8. Comparative Study of Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Blueberry Cultivars%不同蓝莓品种光合特性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晓鹰; 吕国华; 邵丽萍; 权俊萍; 孟娉

    2012-01-01

    以石河子地区引种栽培的3个北高灌蓝莓品种为研究对象,分析其光合-光响应曲线特征,测定比较光合相关参数(净光合速率、蒸腾速率、细胞间CO2浓度、气孔导度)变化,测定叶绿素含量,观察叶表皮特征及气孔形态差异,揭示不同蓝莓品种间光合差异,为蓝莓适宜品种的筛选和确定提供理论支持.结果表明:1)3个蓝莓品种叶绿素含量有显著性差异;2)蓝莓叶表皮特征表现为具有表皮毛,气孔均为椭圆形,3个蓝莓品种在气孔大小及气孔分布数量上表现出一定差异,蓝莓06的气孔大小及分布数量最多;3)3个蓝莓品种的光合速率与光合有效辐射、气孔导度、蒸腾速率呈正相关,与胞间CO2浓度呈负相关;4)蓝莓的光饱和点(LSP)和光补偿点(LCP)的分别为7.41(μmol/m2)/s~15.88(μmol/m2)/s和1.26(μmol/m2)/s~2.15(μmol/m2)/s,北高灌蓝莓属于阴性植物且光合能力差异显著,蓝莓10号光合能力综合表现较强,对光环境的适应性表现良好,蓝莓06号在光合能力及光适应方面表现较弱.%Three northern highbush blueberry varieties were uses as study object,which were introduced and cultivated in Shihezi. This research analyzed the photosynthesis characteristics of the photosynthetic light response curve, determined and compared the relevant parameters including net photosynthetic rate (Pn) , transpiration rate ( Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal conductance (Gs) ,determined the changes of chlorophyll content,and observed the characters of leaf epidermis and stomatal morphological differences. Results:1)Chlorophyll contents of the three blueberries were significantly different. 2)The leaf epidermal characters;they have tnchomes and ova! stoma; stomatal size and distribution quantity showed difference in the three varieties, with NO. 06 blueberry the largest in them. 3)The photosynthetic rate were positively correlated with active photosynthetic

  9. Job enrichment in job design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeng, B J

    1977-03-01

    For optimal operation in labor-intensive industries, such as foodservice, not only scientific management principles but also behavioral aspects (the people) must be considered in designing job content. Three psychologic states--work that is meaningful, responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of outcomes--are critical in motivating people. These, in turn encompass the core dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Job enrichment and job enlargement--related but not identical means of expanding job content--when combined, offer the likelihood of redesigned jobs in the core dimensions. Effective implementation of a job enrichment program hinges on diagnosing problems in the work system, actual changes in the work, and systematic evaluation of the changes. The importance of the contribution of the behavioral sciences to management cannot be neglected.

  10. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    OpenAIRE

    James D Stephenson; Lydia J Hallis; Kazuhide Nagashima; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest minera...

  11. Enrichment of lanthanides in aragonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿成利; 路波; 刘刚

    2009-01-01

    Using the constant addition technique,the coprecipitation of lanthanum,gadolinium,and lutetium with aragonite in seawater was experimentally investigated at 25 ℃.Their concentrations in aragonite overgrowths were determined by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer.All these lanthanides were strongly enriched in aragonite overgrowths.The amount of lanthanum,gadolinium,and lutetium incorporated into aragonite accounted for 57%-99%,50%-89%,and 40%-91% of their initial total amount,respectively.With the in...

  12. Environmental signatures of enrichment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental sampling is a potentially useful tool that could be used for the detection of undeclared enrichment facilities. However, this would be likely to require the use of sophisticated and expensive analytical techniques to evaluate 235U/238U ratios. It would be, therefore, unlikely to be an inexpensive approach to detect proliferation. The probability of detecting an enrichment operation will depend on the type of facility. A gaseous diffusion operation will be relatively difficult to detect in relation to an EMIS facility and a gaseous centrifuge plant will be more difficult still. Releases from an enrichment operation are likely to be restricted to atmospheric discharges. Aquatic discharges would be relatively easy to contain and it would be unwise to devise a sampling strategy based on the measurement of these. The detection of atmospheric discharges is likely to be dependent on meteorological conditions, in particular stability. Stable atmospheric conditions are the most favourable for detecting releases at significant distances from the plant. Given stable conditions, detection of an EMIS facility might be possible at a distance of several 10s of km

  13. Enrichment and aggression in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honess, P E; Marin, C M

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.

  14. Comparative Study of EPA-enriched Phosphatidylcholine and EPA-enriched Phosphatidylserine on Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Miaomiao; Du, Lei; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that EPA enriched PLs have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. Our previous study has demonstrated that the anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of EPA-PL were superior to DHA-PL. In the present study, we comparatively evaluated the effects of EPA-enriched phosphatidylcholine (EPA-PC) and EPA-enriched phosphatidylserine (EPA-PS) on lipid metabolism in mice. Both 2% dietary EPA-PC and EPA-PS significantly improved serum and hepatic lipid levels in mice. The HDL-c level in mice on EPA-PC diet was significantly higher than the other two groups. The level of DHA in hepatic TG and PL were significantly increased in both EPA-PC and EPA-PS fed groups (98.3 and 117.8%, respectively; p DHA in EPA-PS group was significantly higher than the EPA-PC group. EPA-PC and EPA-PS suppressed hepatic SREBP-1c mediated lipogenesis and activated PPARα mediated fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver. These data are the first to indicate that EPA-PS has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. PMID:27321119

  15. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  16. My New Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正I liked eat fast food before.But it was not healthy,so I changed my diet.Now let me tell you something about my new diet.At 6:30 a.m.,I have breakfast at home.For breakfast,I often eat an egg,some bread and a glass of milk.At 11:30 a.m.,I have lunch at school.I usually have a bowl of rice,some meat and vegetables,sometimes I eat some fish.I with my family often have supper at home in the evening.I usually eat porridge and some vegetables.Sometimes I eat noodles for supper.After supper,I usually have some fruit.Because I usually eat healthy food now,so I am much healthier than before.

  17. Diet and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders. PMID:8795935

  18. Diet-Regulated Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Murphy; Mercer, Julian G.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial proportion of noncommunicable disease originates in habitual overconsumption of calories, which can lead to weight gain and obesity and attendant comorbidities. At the other end of the spectrum, the consequences of undernutrition in early life and at different stages of adult life can also have major impact on wellbeing and quality of life. To help address some of these issues, greater understanding is required of interactions with food and contemporary diets throughout the life...

  19. Diet and Longevity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bingxian

    2000-01-01

    @@In 1985 the International Natural Medicine Society declared the Hoten area, Xinjiang (a province of China) as one of the areas of most pronounced longevity in the world. Why are there more elderly people in Hoten? There are many factors. On the basis of our many years of research, our claim is that diet is the most important factor. Now I will discuss the following factors to illustrate.

  20. Diet and gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Šipetić Sandra B.; Tomić-Kundaković Slađana; Vlajinac Hristina D.; Janković Slavenka M.; Marinković Jelena M.; Maksimović Jadranka M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years), gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, fol...

  1. Job Enrichment and the Mentally Retarded Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jerry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effect of job enrichment on the production rate of 14 mentally retarded adult workers was evaluated. Job enrichment led to increases in standard rates of production for high IQ Ss and lower rates for low IQ Ss. (Author)

  2. Uranium enrichment (a strategy analysis overview)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of available information on enrichment technology, separative work supply and demand, and SWU cost is presented. Estimates of present and future enrichment costs are provided for use in strategy analyses of alternate nuclear fuel cycles and systems. (auth)

  3. 甜型野生蓝莓酒澄清优化试验研究%Experimental Study on Clarification of Sweet Wild Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波

    2016-01-01

    The experiment made wild blueberry as the raw material to make into sweet blueberry wine and stud-ied gelatin,bentonite,PVPP,chitosan four clarification agent on the effects of the sweet blueberry wine clarifi-cation.Then single factor experiment and orthogonal test was made on compound clarifying agent. The results showed that the compound clarifying agent and cold treatment could achieve effect of clarification. The best ad-dition amount of bentonite and chitosan were 0.45 g/L and 0.25 g/L ,clarified for three days under-5℃,its lu-minousness could reach 98.40%,the alcohol content was 17.0% (vol) ,total sugar content more than 55 g/L and total acids content 6.8 g/L,The sweet blueberry wine showed bright ruby red colour,harmonious aroma and mellow taste.%以野生蓝莓为原料加工成甜型蓝莓原酒,分别研究了澄清剂:明胶、皂土、PVPP、壳聚糖对蓝莓果酒澄清效果的影响,然后对复合澄清剂进行了单因素试验和正交试验。结果表明:采用复合澄清剂并进行冷处理,可以达到更为理想的澄清效果。即皂土最佳添加量0.45 g/L、壳聚糖最佳添加量0.25 g/L、在-5℃下澄清3 d,其透光率可高达到98.40%,酒精度17.1%(vol),总糖≥55 g/L,总酸6.8 g/L.酒体呈明亮的宝石红,果香、酒香和谐,口感醇厚。

  4. 黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋饮料的研发%Study on Composite Fruit Vinegar Beverage of Blackcurrants and Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关莹; 张冬雪; 张军

    2011-01-01

    本试验采用二次发酵法,通过对黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋的酒精发酵及醋酸发酵的优化,最终确定黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋的酒精发酵最佳工艺为:黑加仑果汁与蓝莓果汁3∶2复合,在初始糖度8°Bx、初始pH3.8、28℃发酵6d、.醋酸发酵最佳条件为:发酵温度35℃,通风量为1∶0.10~0.15(V/V/min),酒精含量6.0%.接种量8.0%,初始pH5.5.黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋饮料配方:12%复合果醋、5.5%白砂糖、2%蜂蜜、0.1%食盐、0.06%复合香抖,评分为92分.工艺调整后的放大生产产品质量仍稳定、达标.产品具有食醋清香和黑加仑、蓝莓果香,酸味柔和,风味独特.%The tests used secondary fermentation on composite fruit vinegar beverage of blackcurrants and blueberry. From optimization of acetic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation ,the optimum alcoholic fermentation technology of composite juice of blackcurrants and blueberry was as follows: blackcurrant and blueberry fruit juice mixed with 3:2,initial sugar degree 18。 BX,fermentation temperature 28℃ ,fermentation time 6d,initial pH 3.8.The optimized fermentation conditions of acetic acid were as follows:temperature 35℃,ventilation quantity controlled between l:0.10_0.15(v/v)min,initial content of alcohol 6.0%,inoculum concentration 8.0%, initial pH 5.5.The formula of composite fruit vinegar beverage of blackcurrants and blueberry was as follows:composite fruit vinegar 12%,white sugar 5.5%,honey 2% ,common salt 0.1%,composite flavor 0.06%,a score of 92.The products' quality of amplification production after technique adjustment was still stable and could attain the standards.

  5. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica;

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative...... were collected and used to evaluate anthocyanin absorption (through mass spectrometry), endogenous and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in blood mononuclear cells (through the comet assay), and plasma nitric oxide concentrations (through a fluorometric assay). Peripheral arterial function was assessed...

  6. Acne and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ronni; Matz, Hagit; Orion, Edith

    2004-01-01

    Forbidden foods? "The first law of dietetics seems to be: If it tastes good, it's bad for you" (Isaac Asimov, Russian-born biochemist and science fiction writer). This was essentially the Magna Carta for dermatologists of the 1950s: anything coveted by the teenage palate was suspect for morning after acne. Today, half a century later, although the slant has shifted away for this line of thinking in our dermatologic textbooks, several articles on the beliefs and perceptions of acne patients showed that nothing much has changed and that they expect us to give them detailed instructions of what "acne-related" foods they should avoid. In one such study(1), diet was the third most frequently implicated factor (after hormones and genetics) as the cause of the disease, with 32% of the respondents selecting diet as the main cause, and 44% thinking that foods aggravate acne. In another study that analyzed knowledge about causes of acne among English teenagers, 11% of the responders blamed greasy food as the main cause of the disease(2), whereas in another study found that 41% of final-year medical students of the University of Melbourne chose diet as an important factor of acne exacerbation on a final examination.(3)

  7. [Diet and migraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leira, R; Rodríguez, R

    1996-05-01

    Some foods in our diet can spark off migraine attacks in susceptible individuals. Some foods can bring an attack on through an allergic reaction. A certain number such as citrus fruits, tea, coffee, pork, chocolate, milk, nuts, vegetables and cola drinks have been cited as possible allergens associated with migraine. This mechanism has however been criticized: an improvement in symptoms by eliminating some food(s) from our diet does not necessarily mean an immunologically based allergic reaction. The high IgE incidence rate is not greater in such patients than in the population at large. Other allergic reactions unrelated to diet may also be associated with migraine attacks. On the other hand substances in food may be the cause of modifications in vascular tone and bring migraine on in those so prone. Among such substances are tyramine, phenylalanine, phenolic flavonoids, alcohol, food additives (sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate, aspartame) and caffeine. Another recognized trigger for migraine is hypoglycemia. Such foods as chocolate, cheese, citrus fruits, bananas, nuts, 'cured' meats, dairy products, cereals, beans, hot dogs, pizza, food additives (sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate in Chinese restaurant food, aspartame as a sweetener), coffee, tea, cola drinks, alcoholic drinks such as red wine, beer or whisky distilled in copper stills, all may bring on a migraine attack. For every patient we have to assess which foodstuffs are involved in the attack (not necessarily produced by consuming the product concerned) in order to try to avoid their consumptions as a means of prophylaxis for migraine. PMID:8681169

  8. Diet, insulin resistance, and obesity: zoning in on data for Atkins dieters living in South Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Castro, Cristina; Garvey, W Timothy

    2004-09-01

    Insulin resistance is a central pathogenic factor for the metabolic syndrome and is associated with both generalized obesity and the accumulation of fat in the omental and intramyocellular compartments. In the context of the current obesity epidemic, it is imperative to consider diets in terms of their ability to both promote weight loss and ameliorate insulin resistance. Weight loss under any dietary formulation depends on hypocaloric intake, and only moderate weight loss (5-10%) is sufficient to augment insulin sensitivity. However, increments in insulin sensitivity may be more directly related to loss of intramyocellular or omental fat rather than loss of total body weight per se. The widespread acceptance of popular low-carbohydrate high-fat diets (e.g. Atkins Diet, Zone Diet, South Beach diet) further underscores the need to evaluate dietary interventions regarding their safety and metabolic effects. These high-fat diets have been shown to be safe in the short term; however, their long-term safety has not been established. With respect to insulin sensitivity, diets enriched in saturated fats can induce insulin resistance, whereas fat substitution with monounsaturated fats can enhance insulin sensitivity. On the other hand, high-fiber, high-carbohydrate diets comprised of foods with low caloric density can similarly be used for effective weight reduction and to ameliorate insulin resistance. Although some data suggest that low-glycemic index diets are most advantageous in this regard, these effects may have more to do with increments in dietary fiber than differences in available carbohydrates. Popular low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets are being fervently embraced as an alternative to challenging modifications in lifestyle and intentional calorie reduction. Current data do not support such unbridled enthusiasm for these diets, particularly in relationship to high-fiber, high-carbohydrate diets emphasizing intake of fresh vegetables and fruits. Long-term studies

  9. Enriched uranium sales: effect on supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (combined effect of low-enriched uranium (LEU) inventory sales and utility services enrichment contract terms); enrichment market overview; enrichment market dynamics; the reaction of the US Department of Energy; elimination of artificial demand; draw down of inventories; purchase and sale of LEU inventories; tails assay option; unfulfilled requirements for U3O8; conclusions. (U.K.)

  10. NEAT: an efficient network enrichment analysis test

    OpenAIRE

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C

    2016-01-01

    Background Network enrichment analysis is a powerful method, which allows to integrate gene enrichment analysis with the information on relationships between genes that is provided by gene networks. Existing tests for network enrichment analysis deal only with undirected networks, they can be computationally slow and are based on normality assumptions. Results We propose NEAT, a test for network enrichment analysis. The test is based on the hypergeometric distribution, which naturally arises ...

  11. Enriching Music and Language Arts Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on enriching music and language arts experiences of students. Music can enrich literature and language arts, poetry, theater arts, transitions, science, and math, as well as help meet special learner needs. A well-understood example of enrichment is the alphabet song. A music or classroom teacher using the alphabet song helps…

  12. How Did the IGM Become Enriched?

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, A; Aguirre, Anthony; Schaye, Joop

    2006-01-01

    The enrichment of the intergalactic medium with heavy elements is a process that lies at the nexus of poorly-understood aspects of physical cosmology. We review current understanding of the processes that may remove metals from galaxies, the basic predictions of these models, the key observational constraints on enrichment, and how intergalactic enrichment may be used to test cosmological simulations.

  13. Perspectives on Job Enrichment and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suojanen, Waino W., Ed.; And Others

    The book of reading focuses on the state of job enrichment in the United States today, as well as some of its international implications. Featured in the book are 20 selected working papers analyzing the development and use of job enrichment in various types of organizations, union response to job enrichment, and its outlook for the future. The…

  14. Enriching Orphans’ Potentials through Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Intelligence Enrichment Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulwahida Hj Azid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orphans are considered a minority and they should be given a greater emphasis so that they do not feel left out and can build their own lives without a sense of humility. This does not mean that the orphans should be pampered instead they should be given the confidence and motivation to strive for success in later life. Humility among orphans can be associated with interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of problem-solving activity treatment based on the interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. 46 students from two orphanages were involved as the treatment group. The research design used was a one-group pretest-posttest design applied through a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Enrichment activities that provided interpersonal and intrapersonal skills as evidenced in this study should be carried out regularly at orphanages. Our study has proven that orphans‟ rights to learn cannot be neglected and „no child left behind „policy needs to be carried through by everybody involved with orphans‟ well-being. Teachers and carers need to be trained to use these enrichment activities at their orphanages to help maximize the orphans‟ potentials.

  15. Occurrence and biology of Tolype innocens (Burmeister on blueberry Ocorrência e biologia de Tolype innocens (Burmeister em mirtilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salvador Louzada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 is reported for the first time damaging blueberry (Vaccinium ashei plants in Brazil having the caterpillars feeding on leaves and new shoots. T. innocens biology was studied on blueberry leaves in laboratory conditions and then a fertility life table was elaborated. Developmental time and viability of egg, larval and pupal stages and egg-adult period were 15.0 and 35.3, 33.3 and 84.5, 20.6 and 100, and 69.2 days and 45%, respectively. Average pupal weight was 0.840g for the females and 0.580g for the males. The sex ratio was 0.5. Pre-oviposition and oviposition time lasted 6.34 and 12.1 days, respectively. Mean fecundity was 251 eggs per female. Eggs were laid either individually or in masses. Longevity was 19.0 and 20.0 days for males and females, respectively. T. innocens population increased 47 times per generation, with a mean generation time of 77 days, and a finite rate of increase of 1.02. This data on biological parameters will be useful for establishing control strategies.A ocorrência de Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 (Lasiocampidae é relatada pela primeira vez danificando o mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei no Brasil, sendo que as lagartas se alimentam das folhas e ramos novos. Em laboratório, foi estudada a biologia em folhas de mirtilo em condições controladas de temperatura (25±1ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotofase (12h e elaborada a tabela de vida de fertilidade. A duração e a viabilidade dos estágios de ovo, lagarta e pupa, e período ovo-adulto foram de 15,0 e 35,3; 33,3 e 84,5; 20,6 e 100; e 69,2 dias e 45%, respectivamente. O peso médio de pupas foi de 0,840g para as fêmeas e 0,580g para os machos. A razão sexual foi de 0,5. Os períodos de pré-oviposição e oviposição foram de 6,34 e 12,1 dias, respectivamente. A fecundidade média foi de 251 ovos por fêmea, colocados de forma isolada ou em massas. A longevidade dos machos foi de 19,0 dias e das fêmeas de 20,0 dias. T

  16. Expression of proinflammatory, proatherogenic genes is reduced by the Mediterranean diet in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Cruz-Teno, Cristina; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Gutierrez-Mariscal, Francisco M; Lora-Aguilar, Pilar; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Fuentes-Jimenez, Francisco; Tinahones, Francisco Jose; Malagon, Maria M; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2012-08-01

    Ageing is an important determinant of atherosclerosis development rate, mainly by the creation of a chronic low-grade inflammation. Diet, and particularly its fat content, modulates the inflammatory response in the fasting and postprandial states. Our aim was to study the effects of dietary fat on the expression of genes related to inflammation (NF-κB, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), TNF-α and IL-6) and plaque stability (matrix metalloproteinase 9, MMP-9) during the postprandial state of twenty healthy, elderly people who followed three diets for 3 weeks each: (1) Mediterranean diet (Med Diet) enriched in MUFA with virgin olive oil; (2) SFA-rich diet; and (3) low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet enriched in n-3 PUFA (CHO-PUFA diet) by a randomised crossover design. At the end of each period, after a 12-h fast, the subjects received a breakfast with a composition similar to the one when the dietary period ended. In the fasting state, the Med Diet consumption induced a lower gene expression of the p65 subunit of NF-κB compared with the SFA-rich diet (P = 0·019). The ingestion of the Med Diet induced a lower gene postprandial expression of p65 (P = 0·033), MCP-1 (P = 0·0229) and MMP-9 (P = 0·041) compared with the SFA-rich diet, and a lower gene postprandial expression of p65 (P = 0·027) and TNF-α (P = 0·047) compared with the CHO-PUFA diet. Direct plasma quantification mostly reproduced the findings. Our data suggest that consumption of a Med Diet reduces the postprandial inflammatory response in mononuclear cells compared with the SFA-rich and CHO-PUFA diets in elderly people. These findings may be partly responsible for the lower CVD risk found in populations with a high adherence to the Med Diet. PMID:22085595

  17. EMIS: Enrichment Management Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the effort was the development of a calculational tool which would permit DOE to make realistic projections of the separative work demands of its customers as an aid in planning for the future operation of the enrichment facilities. The calculational methods were to recognize the flexibility in scheduling, etc., available to DOE customers under their enrichment contreacts as well as the ability to pool separative work withdrawn under two or more contracts. It was also to be designed to permit the user to add new customers or delete existing contracts as well as to allow variation of the estimated start-up dates for those reactors currently under construction. The output of the model was to display projections of separative work demand as SWU and in triplet form for several categories of reactors. These included, in addition to the total demand on the enrichment complex, separate totals for domestic and foreign customers, for reactors with Requirements and Adjustable Fixed Commitment contracts and for reactors in operation, under construction and projected new reactors designated by the user. The foundations upon which the system is based are described in this report. This includes a discussion of the available alternatives for customer management of separative work and the assumptions and guidelines established for development of the model. The report also contains a description of the computational procedures used in the model, and a description of the EMIS system itself, which also serves as a users' manual for the code. Finally, samples demonstrating the use of the system and indicating the form of the input and output are included

  18. Enrichment planting without soil treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1998-12-31

    Where enrichment planting had been carried out with either of the two species Picea abies and Pinus contorta, the survival of the planted seedlings was at least as good as after planting in a normal clear cut area treated with soil scarification. This was in spite of the fact that the seedlings were placed shallow in the humus layer without any soil treatment. However, they were sheltered from insects by treatment before planting. Where enrichment planting was carried out with Pinus sylvestris the survival in dense forest was poor, but in open forest the survival was good. The growth of planted seedlings was enhanced by traditional clearing and soil treatment. However, this was for Pinus sylvestris not enough to compensate for the loss of time, 1-2 years, caused by arrangement of soil scarification. The growth of seedlings planted under crown cover was directly related to basal area of retained trees. However, the variation in height growth among individual seedlings was very big, which meant that some seedlings grow well also under a fairly dense forest cover. The pioneer species Pinus sylvestris reacted more strongly to basal area of retained trees than did the shade tolerant species Picea abies. Enrichment planting seems to be a necessary tool for preserving volume productivity, at places where fairly intensive harvest of mature trees has been carried out in stands of ordinary forest type in central Sweden. If double seedlings, with one Picea abies and one Pinus sylvestris, are used, the probability for long term establishment is enhanced 13 refs, 20 figs, 4 tabs

  19. Design and sampling plan optimization for RT-qPCR experiments in plants: a case study in blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The qPCR assay has become a routine technology in plant biotechnology and agricultural research. It is unlikely to be technically improved, but there are still challenges which center around minimizing the variability in results and transparency when reporting technical data in support of the conclusions of a study. There are a number of aspects of the pre- and post-assay workflow that contribute to variability of results. Here, through the study of the introduction of error in qPCR measurements at different stages of the workflow, we describe the most important causes of technical variability in a case study using blueberry. In this study, we found that the stage for which increasing the number of replicates would be the most beneficial depends on the tissue used. For example, we would recommend the use of more RT replicates when working with leaf tissue, while the use of more sampling (RNA extraction replicates would be recommended when working with stems or fruits to obtain the most optimal results. The use of more qPCR replicates provides the least benefit as it is the most reproducible step. By knowing the distribution of error over an entire experiment and the costs at each step, we have developed a script to identify the optimal sampling plan within the limits of a given budget. These findings should help plant scientists improve the design of qPCR experiments and refine their laboratory practices in order to conduct qPCR assays in a more reliable-manner to produce more consistent and reproducible data.

  20. Design and Sampling Plan Optimization for RT-qPCR Experiments in Plants: A Case Study in Blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V; Roman, Belen; Flores, Fernando; Rowland, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    The qPCR assay has become a routine technology in plant biotechnology and agricultural research. It is unlikely to be technically improved, but there are still challenges which center around minimizing the variability in results and transparency when reporting technical data in support of the conclusions of a study. There are a number of aspects of the pre- and post-assay workflow that contribute to variability of results. Here, through the study of the introduction of error in qPCR measurements at different stages of the workflow, we describe the most important causes of technical variability in a case study using blueberry. In this study, we found that the stage for which increasing the number of replicates would be the most beneficial depends on the tissue used. For example, we would recommend the use of more RT replicates when working with leaf tissue, while the use of more sampling (RNA extraction) replicates would be recommended when working with stems or fruits to obtain the most optimal results. The use of more qPCR replicates provides the least benefit as it is the most reproducible step. By knowing the distribution of error over an entire experiment and the costs at each step, we have developed a script to identify the optimal sampling plan within the limits of a given budget. These findings should help plant scientists improve the design of qPCR experiments and refine their laboratory practices in order to conduct qPCR assays in a more reliable-manner to produce more consistent and reproducible data. PMID:27014296

  1. Anthocyanins extracted from Chinese blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) and its anticancer effects on DLD-1 and COLO205 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZU Xiao-yan; ZHANG Zhen-ya; ZHANG Xiao-wen; YOSHIOKA Masahiro; YANG Ying-nan; LI Ji

    2010-01-01

    Background Vaccinium uliginosum L. is a type of blueberry found in the Chinese Changbai Mountains. We extracted Vaccinium uliginosurn Anthocyanins (Av.uli) to investigate its bioactivity on suppressing cancer cells.Methods Av.uli was extracted under different conditions of temperature (10℃-35℃), pH 1.0-3.0, and diatomaceous earth (1.0 g-3.0 g), followed by a HPLC analysis for the determination of the ingredients. Its anticancer bioactivities on human colon and colorectal cancer cells (DLD-1 and COLO205) were compared with those on Lonicera caerulea Anthocyanins (AL.cae) and Vaccinium myrtillus Anthocyanins (Av.myr), using cell viability assays, DNA electrophoresis and nuclear morphology assays.Results The optimum process of Av.uliextraction involved conditions of temperature 20℃, pH 2.0, and diatomaceous earth 1.0 g/50 g of fruit weight. Av.uli contained 5 main components: delphinidin (40.70±1.72)%, cyanidin (3.40±0.68)%,petunidin (17.70±0.54)%, peonidin (2.90±0.63)% and malvidin (35.50±1.11)%. The malvidin percentage was significantly higher (P <0.05) than it in Av.myr. Av.uli complied with a dose-dependent repression of cancer cell proliferation with an IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) value of 50 μg/ml, and showed greater anticancer efficiency than AL. cae and Av. myr under the same cell treatment conditions. These observations were further supported by the results of nuclear assays.Conclusions The extraction protocol and conditions we used were effective for anthocyanin extraction. Av.uli could be a feasible practical research tool and a promising therapeutic source to suppress human colon or colorectal cancers.

  2. Blueberry treatment attenuated cirrhotic and preneoplastic lesions and oxidative stress in the liver of diethylnitrosamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingül, İlknur; Başaran-Küçükgergin, Canan; Aydın, A Fatih; Soluk-Tekkeşin, Merva; Olgaç, Vakur; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2016-09-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver cancer normally develops in stages that progress from cirrhosis and carcinoma. Increased oxidative stress is suggested to play a role in DEN-induced carcinogenicity. Blueberries (BB) contain high antioxidant capacity. We investigated the effect of BB supplementation on development of DEN-induced cirrhosis and neoplastic lesions in the liver. Rats were injected with DEN (200 mg/kg; i.p.) three times with an interval of 15 days at 4, 6, and 8 weeks and sacrificed 8 weeks after the last DEN injection. They were also fed on 8% BB (w/w) containing chow for 16 weeks. Hepatic damage markers in serum were determined together with hepatic histopathological examinations. Hydroxyproline (HYP), malondialdehyde (MDA), diene conjugate (DC), protein carbonyl (PC), and glutathione (GSH) levels, and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and their mRNA expressions were measured. Protein and mRNA expressions of glutathione transferase-pi (GST-pi) were evaluated as a marker of preneoplastic lesions. BB supplementation decreased hepatic damage markers in serum and hepatic MDA, DC, and PC levels, but SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities and their mRNA expressions remained unchanged in DEN-treated rats. BB attenuated cirrhotic changes and decreased hepatic HYP levels and GST-pi expressions. Our results indicate that BB is effective in decreasing development of DEN-induced hepatic cirrhosis and preneoplastic lesions by acting as an antioxidant (radical scavenger) itself without affecting activities and mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26684621

  3. INCLUDING RISK IN ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS:A STOCHASTIC SIMULATION MODEL FOR BLUEBERRY INVESTMENT DECISIONS IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMÁN LOBOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional method of net present value (NPV to analyze the economic profitability of an investment (based on a deterministic approach does not adequately represent the implicit risk associated with different but correlated input variables. Using a stochastic simulation approach for evaluating the profitability of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. production in Chile, the objective of this study is to illustrate the complexity of including risk in economic feasibility analysis when the project is subject to several but correlated risks. The results of the simulation analysis suggest that the non-inclusion of the intratemporal correlation between input variables underestimate the risk associated with investment decisions. The methodological contribution of this study illustrates the complexity of the interrelationships between uncertain variables and their impact on the convenience of carrying out this type of business in Chile. The steps for the analysis of economic viability were: First, adjusted probability distributions for stochastic input variables (SIV were simulated and validated. Second, the random values of SIV were used to calculate random values of variables such as production, revenues, costs, depreciation, taxes and net cash flows. Third, the complete stochastic model was simulated with 10,000 iterations using random values for SIV. This result gave information to estimate the probability distributions of the stochastic output variables (SOV such as the net present value, internal rate of return, value at risk, average cost of production, contribution margin and return on capital. Fourth, the complete stochastic model simulation results were used to analyze alternative scenarios and provide the results to decision makers in the form of probabilities, probability distributions, and for the SOV probabilistic forecasts. The main conclusion shown that this project is a profitable alternative investment in fruit trees in

  4. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, James D; Hallis, Lydia J; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  5. DOE enrichment plant hums ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's $10-billion gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant, after three years of construction, is rising on schedule near Piketon, Ohio. A detailed conceptual design, smart management, liberal design fees, hungry contractors and cooperative unions are combining to get the job done. One reason for completing the task is that this will be a far more efficient process - 135 MW will be required to operate the centrifuge plant vs more than 2100 MW to produce the same amount of fuel at the mile-square diffusion plant near Portsmouth, Ohio

  6. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Stephenson

    Full Text Available We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  7. Uranium enrichment plant risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for risk analysis of enrichment facilities is presented and applied to a small scale ultracentrifuge plant. Internal events are identified and the consequences of accidental releases of U F6 are quantified in terms of its toxicological and radiological impact. It is shown that releases in the feed and the cascade areas offers no hazards to the public . Releases of liquefied U F6 in the withdrawal areas, associated with failures in the building isolation systems, may cause undesirable consequences. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Effect of Different Yeast on Dry Blueberry Wine Sensory Quality and Polyphenols%不同酵母对干型蓝莓酒感官品质和多酚类物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于清琴; 孙玉霞; 史红梅; 韩晓梅; 王哲

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of polyphenols and sensory quality of dry blueberry wine were studied during the blueberry fermentation inoculated by three kinds of wine yeasts ,natural yeast and natural yeast adding pectinase .The natural fermentation was compared with by other kind of yeast .The result showed that the blueberry wines fermented by D 21 and RC212 had excellent performance and sensory quality .And the concentration of polyphenols was the highest .In addition , various physical and chemical indicators was moderate .D254 was excellent wine yeast ,not suitable for the fermentation of blueberry wine.%以蓝莓鲜果为原料,在酿造过程中,重点试验了3种葡萄酒酵母、自然发酵+果胶酶对干型蓝莓果酒多酚含量和感官品质的影响,以自然发酵作对照,结果显示:D21、RC212发酵蓝莓酒性能优良,成品酒感官品质优良,多酚含量最高,各种理化指标适中,为性能优良的干型蓝莓酒发酵酵母。 D254作为葡萄酒酿造的优良酵母而不适合发酵蓝莓酒。

  9. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of Polish blue-berried honeysuckle genotypes by HPLC-DAD-MS, HPLC postcolumn derivatization with ABTS or FC, and TLC with DPPH visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Piekarska, Anna; Mrugalska, Barbara; Konieczka, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek; Bartoszek, Agnieszka

    2012-02-22

    In this study, different Polish cultivars of blue-berried honeysuckles (Lonicera caerulea L.), wild and bog bilberry, were analyzed for bioactive compounds. The chemical properties verified included composition of anthocyanins and other polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and profiles of antioxidants by HPLC postcolumn derivatization or TLC. The antioxidant activities of different blue-berried honeysuckle cultivars were similar to that of wild-growing bilberries (ranging from 170 to 417 μmol TE/g dm in ABTS and from 93 to 166 μmol TE/g dm in DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu tests). The major anthocyanin in the blue-berried honeysuckle was cyanidin-3-glucoside, which constituted 84-92% of the total anthocyanins. The TLC and HPLC postcolumn antioxidant profiles indicated that anthocyanins are the major antioxidants in all berries studied. Wild berries and the cultivars of the blue-berried honeysuckles are also a similar source of such minerals as K, Mg, and Ca. PMID:22264130

  10. Lower concentrations of blueberry polyphenolic-rich extract differentially alter HepG2 cell proliferation and expression of genes related to cell-cycle, oxidation and epigenetic machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro cancer models have been used to study the effect of relatively high concentrations (>200 ug/ml) of phenolic plant extracts upon cell proliferation. In this study we report that the treatment of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells with lower concentrations of blueberry phenolic extract (6.5-10...

  11. Changes in Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Following Exposure to 56Fe Particles and Protection by Berry Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis; Carey, Amanda; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), such as 56 Fe, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals. Behaviors affected by radiation include deficits in motor performance, spatial learning and memory behavior, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, conditioned place preference, and operant conditioning. Berry fruit diets are high in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity, and prevent the occurrence of the neurochemical and behavioral changes that occur in aging and by exposure to 56 Fe particles. In the present study, we examined whether gene expression in the hippocampus, an area of the brain important in memory, is affected by exposure to 56 Fe particles 36 hours post-irradiation. We also evaluated whether the blueberry (BB) and strawberry (SB) diets could ameliorate irradiation-induced deficits in gene expression by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to radiation. Therefore, to measure gene expression, 4 rats/group were euthanized 36 hours post whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy or 2.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles. Alterations in gene expression profile induced by radiation were analyzed by pathway-focused microarrays on the inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in NF-κB signal transduction pathways. For the diet studies, 3 rats/group were irradiated with 2.5 Gy of 56 Fe following 8 weeks supplementation with either the 2% BB or the 2% SB diet. We found that genes that directly or indirectly interact in the regulation of growth and differentiation of neurons were changed following irradiation. Genes that regulate apoptosis were up-regulated whereas genes that modulate cellular proliferation were down-regulated, possibly to eliminate damaged cells and to stop cell proliferation to prevent

  12. Chemical, physical, and sensory properties of dairy products enriched with conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E L; Shingfield, K J; Kohen, C; Jones, A K; Lupoli, B; Grandison, A S; Beever, D E; Williams, C M; Calder, P C; Yaqoob, P

    2005-08-01

    Recent studies have illustrated the effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on human health. Ruminant-derived meat, milk and dairy products are the predominant sources of cis-9,trans-11 CLA in the human diet. This study evaluated the processing properties, texture, storage characteristics, and organoleptic properties of UHT milk, Caerphilly cheese, and butter produced from a milk enriched to a level of cis-9,trans-11 CLA that has been shown to have biological effects in humans. Forty-nine early-lactation Holstein-British Friesian cows were fed total mixed rations containing 0 (control) or 45 g/kg (on dry matter basis) of a mixture (1:2 wt/wt) of fish oil and sunflower oil during two consecutive 7-d periods to produce a control and CLA-enhanced milk, respectively. Milk produced from cows fed the control and fish and sunflower oil diets contained 0.54 and 4.68 g of total CLA/100 g of fatty acids, respectively. Enrichment of CLA in raw milk from the fish and sunflower oil diet was also accompanied by substantial increases in trans C18:1 levels, lowered C18:0, cis-C18:1, and total saturated fatty acid concentrations, and small increases in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The CLA-enriched milk was used for the manufacture of UHT milk, butter, and cheese. Both the CLA-enhanced butter and cheese were less firm than control products. Although the sensory profiles of the CLA-enriched milk, butter, and cheese differed from those of the control products with respect to some attributes, the overall impression and flavor did not differ. In conclusion, it is feasible to produce CLA-enriched dairy products with acceptable storage and sensory characteristics.

  13. Diet in dermatology: Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Kaimal Sowmya; Thappa Devinder

    2010-01-01

    Diet has an important role to play in many skin disorders, and dermatologists are frequently faced with the difficulty of separating myth from fact when it comes to dietary advice for their patients. Patients in India are often anxious about what foods to consume, and what to avoid, in the hope that, no matter how impractical or difficult this may be, following this dictum will cure their disease. There are certain disorders where one or more components in food are central to the pathogenesis...

  14. 河源南高丛蓝莓酒精发酵前后挥发性成分变化%Aroma compounds of southern high-bush blueberry in Heyuan area before and after alcohol fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继军; 肖更生; 徐玉娟; 陈卫东; 余元善; 张友胜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the key aroma compounds of southern high-bush blueberry varie-ties in Heyuan area and analyze the aroma compounds before and after alcohol fermentation.Methods By solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer-computer (GC-MS), the flavor compo-nents of Heyuan high-bush blueberry before and after alcohol fermentation were analyzed.Results The main aroma components of Heyuan southern high-bush blueberry wered-limonene and other kinds of alkenes and aldehydes. The main aroma compoents of blueberry wine were ethyl acetate, octanoic acid ethyl ester and other kinds of ester and alcohols.Conclusion There are some different aroma compounds between blueberry in Heyuan area and northern area. After blueberry fermented into blueberry drink olefins, aldehydes were signifi-cantly reduced or disappeared, and esters, alcohols, some long chain alkane and fatty acid esters increased sig-nificantly.%目的:明确广东河源地区南高丛蓝莓特征风味成分以及蓝莓发酵后香挥发性成分变化规律。方法采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用法分析了河源南高丛蓝莓的风味成分,以及发酵成蓝莓酒后的风味成分变化。结果河源南高丛蓝莓主要风味成分为柠檬烯以及其他烯烃、醛类等物质,发酵成蓝莓酒后主要特征风味成分为乙酸乙酯、辛酸乙酯等酯类和醇类物质。结论河源南高丛蓝莓在挥发性成分上与以往报道的温带地区蓝莓有一定的区别,蓝莓发酵成蓝莓酒后烯烃、醛类物质显著减少或消失,而酯类和醇类显著增加,同时生成了长链烷烃和脂肪酸酯类物质。

  15. Development of Preservation Technology of Blueberry in the World%国内外蓝莓保鲜技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱麟; 凌建刚

    2011-01-01

    综述了国内外蓝莓保鲜技术的研究进展,包括冷藏保鲜、气调保鲜、涂膜保鲜、1-MCP熏蒸保鲜、UV-C辐射保鲜等,特别是对应用性较强、易于产业化的气调保鲜技术研究现状作重点介绍,并结合生产实际,对我国蓝莓保鲜技术发展方向进行展望。%In this paper,the main development of preservation technology of blueberry in the world were reviewed, including cold storage,modified atmosphere packaging,edible coating,1-MCP and ultraviolet radiation,etc. The details of modified atmosphere packaging technology which is the most popular and easy-to-industrialization was introduced.Further more,the trend of the development in fresh blueberry storage technologies in our country were also prospected.

  16. 蓝莓枸杞发酵酒的生产工艺研究%Research on the Production Technology of Medlar-blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 孙波

    2015-01-01

    the healthy, nutritional and low alcoholic wine brewing technology in which blueberry and medlar are used as major raw materials, fermented by yeast without distillation, and honey is added was introduced. The wine made by this technology has the characteristics of fruit and wine fragrance, mellow and fresh taste, fusion of nutrition and function of medlar, blueberry and honey, low sugar, low alcohol and high nutritional value.%介绍了以蓝莓和枸杞作为主要原料,经酵母发酵,无需蒸馏,加入适量蜂蜜,生产低度营养保健酒的工艺.用此方法生产的保健酒具有蓝莓和枸杞的果香和酒香,口感醇厚、清爽,充分融合了蓝莓、枸杞及蜂蜜的营养和功效,具有糖分低、酒度低、营养价值高等特点.

  17. Development of a Lactic Acid Bacteria-Fermented Blueberry Dairy Beverage%乳酸发酵型蓝莓乳饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏伟; 简素平; 徐静

    2012-01-01

    Abstract : A nutritional beverage way developed by fermenting a mixture of blueberry juice and milk with mixed cultures of domesticated lactic acid bacteria. Orthogonal array design was used to determine optimal process parameters. The optimal fermentation substrate composition was composed of 60% milk, 14% blueberry juice and 6.5% sucrose. The optimal fermentation parameters were determined as 3.2% of inoculum size, 4.4 h of fermentation time and 42 °C of fermentation temperature.%以蓝莓汁、牛奶为原料,将其按一定比例混合,接种经驯化的乳酸混合菌进行发酵,由正交试验确定最佳工艺参数。结果表明:最佳原料配比为:牛奶60%、蓝莓汁添加量14%、蔗糖量6.5%;最佳发酵工艺参数为:接种量3.2%、发酵时间4.4h、温度42℃。

  18. Blanching improves anthocyanin absorption from highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) purée in healthy human volunteers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Brambilla, Ada; Gardana, Claudio; Rizzolo, Anna; Simonetti, Paolo; Bertolo, Gianni; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Porrini, Marisa

    2012-09-12

    Blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are rich sources of phenolics and anthocyanins (ACNs). We investigated the absorption of ACNs after consumption of one portion (300 g) of minimally processed blueberry purée (P) obtained from blanched (BL) or unblanched (NB) berries. A repeated-measures, crossover design study was conducted on healthy human volunteers. Blood was drawn between baseline and 24 h after BL-P or NB-P consumption, while urine were collected from the day before the experiment up to 48 h. Total plasma ACN content was not significantly different, while phenolics content was higher in BL-P with respect to NB-P. The maximum ACN absorption in plasma was observed after 1.5 h from the intake of the purées and was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) after the intake of BL-P. Both products increased the excretion of hippuric acid in urine. In conclusion, blanching had no significant effect on total ACN content and enhanced their absorption from minimally processed purées.

  19. Influence of Low Temperature Enzyme Maceration Techniques on Volatile Compounds of Semi-dry Wine Made with cv. Premier of Rabbiteye Blueberries (Vaccinium ashei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A low temperature enzyme maceration treatment was conducted during fermentation process of semi-dry cv. Premier blueberry wine. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maceration conditions on the wine aroma. As a pre-treatment, blueberry must was divided into 6 samples which were respectively treated by pectinase with 6 different maceration conditions at 6°C 1day, 6°C 2 days, 6°C 3 days, 16°C 1 day, 16°C 2 days and 16°C 3 days. After that wines were obtained by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Volatile compounds of wines were analyzed by GC-MS. Overall, the typical aroma compounds of semi-dry cv. Premier wines were constituted by three groups of organic compounds including esters, alcohols and fatty acids. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl decanoate, 2-phenethanol and 3-methylbutanoic acid, which occupied 60% of the typical volatile aromatic compounds, all had higher Odor Activity Values (OAVs in 6°C 3 days than other conditions. Maceration temperature and time had a significant effect on concentration and varieties of wines aroma substances. The results presented will help to better understand the aroma winemaking potential of this variety.

  20. Identification of aluminum-regulated genes by cDNA-AFLP analysis of roots in two contrasting genotypes of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Aquea, Felipe; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Alberdi, Miren; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of Al(3+)-stress in blueberry, a cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis was employed to identify Al-regulated genes in roots of contrasting genotypes of highbush blueberry (Brigitta, Al(3+)-resistant and Bluegold, Al(3+)-sensitive). Plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with 0 and 100 μM Al(3+) and collected at different times over 48 h. Seventy transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified as being Al(3+) responsive, 31 of which showed significant homology to genes with known or putative functions. Twelve TDFs were homologous to uncharacterized genes and 27 did not have significant matches. The expression pattern of several of the genes with known functions in other species was confirmed by quantitative relative real-time RT-PCR. Twelve genes of known or putative function were related to cellular metabolism, nine associated to stress responses and other transcription and transport facilitation processes. Genes involved in signal transduction, photosynthetic and energy processes were also identified, suggesting that a multitude of processes are implicated in the Al(3+)-stress response as reported previously for other species. The Al(3+)-stress response genes identified in this study could be involved in Al(3+)-resistance in woody plants.

  1. Inhibitory effect of Gardenblue blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) anthocyanin extracts on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Zhou, Qing; Yao, Yong; Li, Xing; Zhang, Jiu-Liang; Su, Guan-Hua; Deng, Ai-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins, which are associated with health benefits contributing to a reduced risk for many diseases. The present study identified the functional Gardenblue blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) anthocyanin extracts (GBBAEs) and evaluated their capacity and underlying mechanisms in protecting murine RAW 264.7 cells from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation in vitro. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit results showed that GBBAEs significantly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and interferon-γ (INF-γ). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis indicated that the mRNA expression levels of IL-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) were suppressed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the relative protein expression levels of COX-2 and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κBp65). All these results suggested the potential use of GBBAEs as a functional food for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27256676

  2. Study on the Blueberry Hawthorn Nectar Process and Optimization for the Recipe%蓝莓山楂果茶的研制及配方的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪慧华; 刘小飞; 汪长钢; 柳青; 徐雅君

    2014-01-01

    采用正交试验对蓝莓山楂果茶配方进行优化,确定稳定剂的配比及果茶的最佳配方,并通过不同杀菌条件比较其杀菌效果,优化果茶的杀菌参数。结果表明,果茶最佳的原料配方为:蓝莓与山楂混浆添加量为40%、白砂糖10%、柠檬酸0.08%、黄原胶0.03%和CMC0.03%。最佳杀菌时间和温度是85℃/20 min。%The paper reports the studies on the recipe optimization of blueberry hawthorn nectar, and ratios of stabilizers, the best ratios to the nectar components with an orthogonal statistical test method. By comparison with sterilization effects of various sterilization conditions, the optimization parameters are found. The results of the studies point out that the optimized ratios to nectar raw recipe are composed of a dosage of 40%blueberry and hawthorn mixing solutions, 10%sugar, 0.08%citric acid, 0.03%xanthan gum and 0.03%CMC. The best sterilization time and temperature is 85℃and 20 min.

  3. Reflection on Construction of Blueberry Demonstration Base in Tongshan%湖北通山县蓝莓示范基地建设的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付秋生; 红波; 李章武; 阮红恩; 田思思; 李万德

    2015-01-01

    蓝莓是联合国粮农组织推荐的人类五大健康食品之一,其果肉细腻,风味独特,营养丰富,具有调节血糖、改善视力、增强人体免疫力和抗氧化等特效,综合利用价值很高,发展蓝莓特色经济林,对美化城乡环境、建设生态文明,加快农村经济产业结构调整,促进财政增效,农民增收,提高人民生活水平等方面具有重要意义。%As one of five healthy food recommended by United Nations Food and Agriculture Or-ganization,blueberry has high comprehensive utilization value because it can regulate blood sug-ar,improve eyesight,enhance the human body immunity and have effects of anti-oxidation,as well as have delicate flesh,unique flavor and rich nutrition.Developing economic forest with blueberry characteristics has important significance in beautifying urban and rural environment, constructing ecological civilization,accelerating countryside economical structure and industrial structure ,improving financial efficiency,increasing farmers'income,and improving people's liv-ing standard.

  4. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.girgenti@unito.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Baudino, Claudio [AgrifruttaSoc. Coop. Agr., Via Beinette 6, 12016 Peveragno, CN (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. - Highlights: • LCA is a system for evaluating the environmental sustainability of products and processes. • The disposal of the packaging material is taken into account. • The LCA methodology has been applied to quantify the emissions of berry fruits. • Species index: blueberry and raspberry.

  5. Supplement of blueberry juice and its extracts to improve the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM as probiotic adjunct%蓝莓汁及其提取物对嗜酸乳杆菌NCFM体外生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕炜; 周方; 郝建新; 赵巧娇; 杨洋; 林雪娇; 张柏林

    2013-01-01

    Involvement of blueberry juice and its extracts including blueberry anthocyanin and polysaccharide in milk promoted the growth of Ladobacillus acidophilus NCFM, a well-known commercial probiotic bacteria which are used widely in dairy products and food industry for health improvement. The growth and viability of strain NCFM cultured at 37 ℃ for 24 h in MRS were investigated in the presences of blueberry juice and its extracts which have different concentrations. It was seen that addition of blueberry juice produced positive roles in improving the growth of strain NCFM.When 70% blueberry juice was added to medium, strain NCFM grew very well. Blueberry juice higher than 70% facilitated strain NCFM to have a stable growth, while the bacterial growth might be weakened in the presence of 100% blueberry juice. Moreover, blueberry anthocyanin extracted did not show any effect on the growth of L. acidophilus NCFM. Supplement of blueberry polysaccharide extracted, ac.100 μg/mL, to medium improved the growth of strain NCFM very good, and the viable counts of the probiotic bacteria reached 8.323×108 mL-1. This study proved that supplement of blueberry to fermented dairy products might be useful for the proliferation of probiotic bacteria.%蓝莓汁、蓝莓花青素和蓝莓多糖对嗜酸乳杆菌NCFM(Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM)体外生长影响表明,24 h培养期间,添加蓝莓汁会促进嗜酸乳杆菌NCFM的生长,蓝莓汁添加量低于70%时,随蓝莓汁添加量的增加益生茵NCFM的细胞活茵数上升;当蓝莓汁添加体积分数高于70%时,促进菌株NCFM生长的作用趋于稳定;当添加量达到100%时,促进益生菌NCFM生长的作用开始减弱.添加单一蓝莓花青素对嗜酸乳杆茵NCFM的生长无明显作用;蓝莓多糖添加量为100 mg/L时能较好的促进菌株NCFM的生长,37 ℃培养24 h,细胞活菌数可达到8.323× 108 mL-1.目前的工作表明,在发酵乳中添加适当浓度的蓝莓能促进益生茵数量的增殖.

  6. Defying birth defects through diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Crider, Krista S.; Lynn B. Bailey

    2011-01-01

    The risk of certain birth defects can be modified by maternal diet. A high-fat maternal mouse diet has recently been reported to substantially increase the penetrance of birth defects known to be associated with a deficiency of transcription factor Cited2 as well as induce cleft palate. These effects were associated with a more than twofold reduction in embryonic expression of Pitx2c. This investigation suggests the need to further explore this provocative gene-diet interaction in human studies.

  7. Ketogenic Diet in Epileptic Encephalopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvasini Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a medically supervised high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has been found useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. It has been shown to be effective in treating multiple seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. In this paper, we review the use of the ketogenic diet in epileptic encephalopathies such as Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  8. Diet, nutrition, and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, S.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence pertaining to the role of dietary factors in carcinogenesis comes from both epidemiological studies and laboratory experiments. In 1982, the Committee on Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer of the National Research Council conducted a comprehensive evaluation of this evidence. That assessment as well as recent epidemiological and laboratory investigations suggest that a high fat diet is associated with increased susceptibility to cancer of different sites, particularly the breast and colon, and to a lesser extent, the prostate. Current data permit no definitive conclusions about other dietary macroconstituents including cholesterol, total caloric intake, protein, carbohydrates and total dietary fiber. Specific components of fiber, however, may have a protective effect against colon cancer. In epidemiological studies, frequent consumption of certain fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits and carotene-rich and cruciferous vegetables, is associated with a lower incidence of cancers at various sites. The specific components responsible for these effects are not clearly identified, although the epidemiological evidence appears to be most consistent for a protective effect of carotene on lung cancer and less so for vitamins A and C and various cancer sites. The laboratory evidence is most consistent for vitamin A deficiency and enhanced tumorigenesis, and for the ability of various nonnutritive components in cruciferous vegetables to block in-vivo carcinogenesis. The data for minerals and carcinogenesis are extremely limited, although preliminary evidence from both epidemiological and laboratory studies suggests that selenium may protect against overall cancer risk. 402 references.

  9. Dieting Habits of Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O

    2016-08-01

    There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss. PMID:26758439

  10. Diet in dermatology: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaimal Sowmya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet has an important role to play in many skin disorders, and dermatologists are frequently faced with the difficulty of separating myth from fact when it comes to dietary advice for their patients. Patients in India are often anxious about what foods to consume, and what to avoid, in the hope that, no matter how impractical or difficult this may be, following this dictum will cure their disease. There are certain disorders where one or more components in food are central to the pathogenesis, e.g. dermatitis herpetiformis, wherein dietary restrictions constitute the cornerstone of treatment. A brief list, although not comprehensive, of other disorders where diet may have a role to play includes atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, psoriasis vulgaris, pemphigus, urticaria, pruritus, allergic contact dermatitis, fish odor syndrome, toxic oil syndrome, fixed drug eruption, genetic and metabolic disorders (phenylketonuria, tyrosinemia, homocystinuria, galactosemia, Refsum′s disease, G6PD deficiency, xanthomas, gout and porphyria, nutritional deficiency disorders (kwashiorkar, marasmus, phrynoderma, pellagra, scurvy, acrodermatitis enteropathica, carotenemia and lycopenemia and miscellaneous disorders such as vitiligo, aphthous ulcers, cutaneous vasculitis and telogen effluvium. From a practical point of view, it will be useful for the dermatologist to keep some dietary information handy to deal with the occasional patient who does not seem to respond in spite of the best, scientific and evidence-based therapy.

  11. Diet and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2004-09-01

    The ageing brain adapts to the accumulation of damage caused by oxidative stress and inflammation. Adaptive processes include neuroprotective and neurorestorative mechanisms. Individual differences in susceptibility to dementia arise when these mechanisms are impaired or are overwhelmed by the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Neuroprotection relies upon extrinsic and intrinsic defences. An adequate intake of antioxidant micronutrients (eg, vitamin C and vitamin E) and anti-inflammatory macronutrients (eg, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) forms an essential component of extrinsic defences against brain ageing. There are many epidemiological data to support an association between an inadequate intake of antioxidants and/or fish oils (an important source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) and a greater than expected incidence of late onset dementia. These associations are confounded by established links between poverty, poor diet and failing health, especially in old age. Such links may be sufficient to explain some of the effects of an inadequate diet on the retention of cognitive function and increased risk of dementia in old age. More compelling is the association between increased plasma homocysteine concentration and later increased risk of dementia. This association is possibly caused by an inadequate intake of vitamin B(12)/folate. PMID:15494103

  12. The modified Atkins diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L

    2008-11-01

    In 2003, a case series was published describing the benefits of a less restrictive ketogenic diet (KD) started as an outpatient without a fast and without any restrictions on calories, fluids, or protein. This "Modified Atkins Diet" (MAD) restricts carbohydrates to 10 g/day (15 g/day in adults) while encouraging high fat foods. Now 5 years later, there have been eight prospective and retrospective studies published on this alternative dietary therapy, both in children as well as adults. In these reports, 45 (45%) have had 50-90% seizure reduction, and 28 (28%) >90% seizure reduction, which is remarkably similar to the traditional KD. This review will discuss basics and tips to best provide the MAD, evidence for its efficacy, suggestions about the role of ketosis in dietary treatment efficacy, and its side effect profile. Lastly, the possible future benefits of this treatment for new-onset seizures, adults, neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, and developing countries of the world will be discussed.

  13. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  14. A High Linoleic Acid Diet does not Induce Inflammation in Mouse Liver or Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Roger A; Garrison, Richard L; Stamatikos, Alexis D; Kang, Minsung; Cooper, Jamie A; Paton, Chad M

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the pro-inflammatory effects of linoleic acid (LNA) have been re-examined. It is now becoming clear that relatively few studies have adequately assessed the effects of LNA, independent of obesity. The purpose of this work was to compare the effects of several fat-enriched but non-obesigenic diets on inflammation to provide a more accurate assessment of LNA's ability to induce inflammation. Specifically, 8-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice were fed either saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), LNA, or alpha-linolenic acid enriched diets (50 % Kcal from fat, 22 % wt/wt) for 4 weeks. Chow and high-fat, hyper-caloric diets were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant markers from epididymal fat, liver, and plasma were measured along with food intake and body weights. Mice fed the high SFA, MUFA, and high-fat diets exhibited increased pro-inflammatory markers in liver and adipose tissue; however, mice fed LNA for four weeks did not display significant changes in pro-inflammatory or pro-coagulant markers in epididymal fat, liver, or plasma. The present study demonstrates that LNA alone is insufficient to induce inflammation. Instead, it is more likely that hyper-caloric diets are responsible for diet-induced inflammation possibly due to adipose tissue remodeling.

  15. Uranium enrichment and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three gaseous diffusion plants comprise one of the largest industrial complexes in the free world. Since all of the enrichment is done inside a very large plumbing maze, the control of radioactivity does not present a serious problem. Conventional, nonexotic engineering and administrative measures adequately control the minor levels of radioactivity associated with support activities such as equipment decontamination and maintenance. The treatment and control of chemical waste streams to comply with Federal and state regulations has required the commitment of 47 million dollars since 1974. Through 1982, an additional 84 million dollars may be required. The high cost is not a reflection of initially poor conditions but is rather the result of providing large treatment systems to meet very low discharge limits. Examples that will be discussed include airborne particulate removal, recirculating cooling water treatment, and hazardous waste disposal concepts

  16. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  17. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  18. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Teens > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Print A A A Text Size What's in ... or the flu. With the right balance of nutrition, extra fat and calories , and prescribed supplements, though, ...

  19. DO HEALTHIER DIETS COST MORE?

    OpenAIRE

    Ranney, Christine K.; McNamara, Paul E.

    2002-01-01

    Do healthier diets cost more? We estimate a hedonic regression model of the U.S. diet. Given food expenditures and information on dietary intake we infer the marginal cost of improved quality. Meeting the Pyramid recommendations implies decreased expenditures from two of the seven food groups.

  20. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.