WorldWideScience

Sample records for blueberries

  1. Fighting phytophthora in blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  2. THE NECESSITY OF DEVELOPING BLUEBERRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina BADIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the advantages of cultivating blueberries, both economically and from an alimentary and therapeutic point of view. By calculating profit per hectare for the most productive varieties of blueberry, it was shown that this culture is particularly profitable for young farmers. In fact, blueberries have significant therapeutic value, being used in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Current Development Situation and Prospects of Blueberry in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia; GAO; Hualan; XIAO; Sen; LI; Fengmin; LIU; Aiqiong; MO

    2015-01-01

    With high nutrition and health value,blueberry receives much concern in recent years. Blueberry experts in the world are cultivating new blueberry varieties. They have come up with constructive theoretical support and planting technology researches and are constantly devoted to expanding blueberry planting latitudes. This paper elaborated researches of blueberry at home and abroad,current development situation of blueberry in China and Guangdong Province,analyzed strengths of planting blueberry in Guangdong. Besides,it came up with recommendations for development of blueberry industry. Finally,it discussed development prospects of blueberry planting in Guangdong.

  4. Effect of blueberry extract from blueberry pomace on the microencapsulated fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the addition of blueberry extract (BE) obtained from blueberry pomace on lipid oxidation of pollock liver oil (PO) during microencapsulation was evaluated. An emulsion containing PO and BE (EBE) was prepared and spray dried in a pilot scale spray dryer. Thiobarbituric acids (TBARS) of ...

  5. Prevalence and incidence of postharvest diseases of blueberries in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent establishment of low-chill southern highbush blueberry cultivars in California’s warm climate has significantly increased the acreage of blueberry production in the Central Valley of California, which is now a major southern highbush blueberry production region in the United States. The vast ...

  6. 75 FR 7985 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Withdrawal of a Proposed Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Withdrawal... 36955), to amend the Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) by increasing the..., development, advertising, and promotion of highbush blueberries in the marketplace. The Council...

  7. ‘Baby Blues’ highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

  8. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease, is increasing with the expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to mitigate this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominent...

  9. BBGD: an online database for blueberry genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Benjamin F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae family, which also includes closely related cranberry and more distantly related rhododendron, azalea, and mountain laurel. Blueberry is a major berry crop in the United States, and one that has great nutritional and economical value. Extreme low temperatures, however, reduce crop yield and cause major losses to US farmers. A better understanding of the genes and biochemical pathways that are up- or down-regulated during cold acclimation is needed to produce blueberry cultivars with enhanced cold hardiness. To that end, the blueberry genomics database (BBDG was developed. Along with the analysis tools and web-based query interfaces, the database serves both the broader Ericaceae research community and the blueberry research community specifically by making available ESTs and gene expression data in searchable formats and in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of cold acclimation and freeze tolerance in blueberry. Description BBGD is the world's first database for blueberry genomics. BBGD is both a sequence and gene expression database. It stores both EST and microarray data and allows scientists to correlate expression profiles with gene function. BBGD is a public online database. Presently, the main focus of the database is the identification of genes in blueberry that are significantly induced or suppressed after low temperature exposure. Conclusion By using the database, researchers have developed EST-based markers for mapping and have identified a number of "candidate" cold tolerance genes that are highly expressed in blueberry flower buds after exposure to low temperatures.

  10. 78 FR 29258 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... blueberry promotion by the USHBC has had a positive impact on the blueberry producers' price. Specifically... no generic blueberry promotion by the USHBC, the average producers' price would have been 8.4 cents...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research...

  11. Blueberry latent virus: An Amalgam of the Totiviridae and Partitiviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new, symptomless virus was identified in blueberry. The dsRNA genome of the virus, provisionally named Blueberry latent virus (BBLV), codes for two putative proteins and lacks a movement protein, a property only shared with cryptic viruses. More than 35 isolates of the virus from different cultiv...

  12. Susceptibility of highbush blueberry cultivars to Phytophthora root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  13. Salmonella spp. dynamics in wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...

  14. Identifying blueberry germplasm that is slow to get Blueberry shock virus in the Pacific Northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) is a serious problem in blueberry production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of North America. Infection occurs during bloom and the virus moves into other parts of the plant in an uneven but steady manner and may take several years to become fully systemic in mat...

  15. Blueberry fruit drop associated virus: A new member of the family Caulimoviridae isolated from blueberry exhibiting fruit drop symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes the nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a new DNA virus isolated from ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry plants named Blueberry fruit drop associated virus (BFDaV). Infected bushes lose nearly 100% of their fruit prior to harvest, and in springtime young leaves and flowers develop ...

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENT IN BLUEBERRIES IS INFLUENCED BY UV ILLUMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The levels of phytochemicals in blueberries were found to increase after illumination with UV-C light. Phytochemicals affected included resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol 3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, cy...

  17. A variant of blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus associated with red lesions in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu-Iris, M; Harmon, P F; Londoño, A; Polston, J E

    2013-10-01

    The complete genome of a variant of the multi-segmented (+) RNA virus blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus (BNRBV), which has not been assigned to a genus, was obtained from foliar red lesions on southern highbush blueberries grown in Alachua Co., Florida. The genome organization of this variant, BNRBV-RL, is the same as that of BNRBV: four genomic segments and seven ORFs (one ORF on each of RNA 1, RNA 2, and RNA 4 and as many as four ORFs on RNA 3). BLAST analysis revealed nucleic acid sequence identities of 89 %, 90 %, 90 % and 86 % to BNRBV RNA 1, RNA 2, RNA 3 and RNA 4, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence of the putative RdRp domain indicated that BNRBV-RL was closely related to BNRBV and less related to citrus leprosis virus type C and three other mite-transmitted viruses. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence differences between BNRBV-RL and BNRBV combined with differences in symptom expression in blueberry would suggest that BNRBV-RL is a strain of BNRBV.

  18. Antibacterial characteristics of anthocyanins extracted from wild blueberries against foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild blueberries have rich bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, phenolics and organic acids. Previous studies demonstrated the antibacterial activity of blueberries against the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial characteristics and mech...

  19. 76 FR 16324 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This... practice and procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Blueberry...

  20. 75 FR 12707 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Council administers a nationally coordinated program of research, development, advertising, and promotion... practice and procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Blueberry promotion... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order;...

  1. 75 FR 31279 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Council administers a nationally coordinated program of research, development, advertising, and promotion... practice and procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Blueberry promotion... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order;...

  2. A novel Caulimovirus associated with a complete fruit drop symptom in ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a novel virus in the family Caulimoviridae from ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry plants that exhibited fruit drop symptoms. The virus is tentatively named Blueberry fruit drop associated virus (BFDaV). Blueberry fruit drop disease (BFDD) was fi...

  3. 75 FR 7986 - Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Orders; Section 610 Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 1218 and 1219 Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and... (AMS) plans to review the Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Orders... mail: Maureen.Pello@ams.usda.gov regarding avocados. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Blueberry...

  4. Diagnosis and management of new and re-emerging diseases of highbush blueberries in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries are an important commodity in Michigan and disease management is crucial for production of high-quality fruit. Over the past 6 years, a number of new and re-emerging diseases have been diagnosed in the state. In 2009, Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV) and Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) were ...

  5. Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Roberta O; Trindade, Simone C; Maurer, Luana H; Bersch, Andriely M; Sautter, Claudia K; Penna, Neidi G

    2016-09-01

    Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate) and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose) on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar). The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.

  6. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V; Rowland, Lisa J

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  7. Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTA O. SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar. The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.

  8. conservation and nutritional quality of blueberry treated with eatable covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcibela Stülp

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lengthening the post-harvest life of fruits from temperate climates is one of the greatest challenges of modern agriculture, which aims at diminishing the losses and increasing the offer period of the product in national and international market. The use of eatable pellicles has been explored to cover fruits, since its usage represents an economical advantage, due to its low price and reduction of post-harvest losses. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of blueberry, cultivar Florida M, produced in an organic production system and covered with eatable covering based on kefir grains associated with different storage temperatures. Thus, it was observed that the most efficient treatment to reduce blueberry post-harvest loss was the combination of kefir grains in association with storage cooled at 5 ºC, not changing the chemical composition and nutritional of blueberry.

  9. Elevated Genetic Diversity in the Emerging Blueberry Pathogen Exobasidium maculosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Stewart

    Full Text Available Emerging diseases caused by fungi are increasing at an alarming rate. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry, caused by the fungus Exobasidium maculosum, is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA, severely reducing fruit quality in some plantings. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic diversity of E. maculosum in the southeastern USA to elucidate the basis of disease emergence and to investigate if populations of E. maculosum are structured by geography, host species, or tissue type. We sequenced three conserved loci from 82 isolates collected from leaves and fruit of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum, highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum, and southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum hybrids from commercial fields in Georgia and North Carolina, USA, and 6 isolates from lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium from Maine, USA, and Nova Scotia, Canada. Populations of E. maculosum from the southeastern USA and from lowbush blueberry in Maine and Nova Scotia are distinct, but do not represent unique species. No difference in genetic structure was detected between different host tissues or among different host species within the southeastern USA; however, differentiation was detected between populations in Georgia and North Carolina. Overall, E. maculosum showed extreme genetic diversity within the conserved loci with 286 segregating sites among the 1,775 sequenced nucleotides and each isolate representing a unique multilocus haplotype. However, 94% of the nucleotide substitutions were silent, so despite the high number of mutations, selective constraints have limited changes to the amino acid sequences of the housekeeping genes. Overall, these results suggest that the emergence of Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot is not due to a recent introduction or host shift, or the recent evolution of aggressive genotypes of E. maculosum, but more likely as a result of an increasing

  10. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.

  11. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing. Sale of the insured crop directly to consumers without the intervention of an intermediary such as a wholesaler, retailer, packer, processor, shipper or buyer. Examples of direct marketing include... percentage you elect. Prune. A cultural practice performed to increase blueberry production as follows:...

  12. Dissecting the microbiome to assess blueberry soil health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant rhizosphere is made up of not only soil, but a myriad of living organisms; these living organisms can both contribute to, and be indicators of, soil health. We explored the possibility of assaying the soil microbiome in areas where blueberry fields are declining, as compared to healthy fie...

  13. [Agrobacterium rubi strains from blueberry plants are highly diverse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamovich, Eliana; López, Ana C; Alippi, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of a collection of Agrobacterium rubi strains isolated from blueberries from different regions of Argentina was studied by conventional microbiological tests and molecular techniques. Results from biochemical and physiological reactions, as well as from rep-PCR and RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 23S rDNA showed high phenotypic and genotypic intraspecific variation.

  14. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  15. Manna in winter: indigenous Americans, huckleberries, and blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 35 species of blueberries (Vaccinium L.) and huckleberries (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia Kunth.) are indigenous to North America. The indigenous North American peoples, wise in the ways of survival, recognized the quality of these edible fruits and revered these plants. Beyond food needs, the...

  16. Herbivore-induced blueberry volatiles and intra-plant signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R

    2011-12-18

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are commonly emitted from plants after herbivore attack. These HIPVs are mainly regulated by the defensive plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its volatile derivative methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Over the past 3 decades researchers have documented that HIPVs can repel or attract herbivores, attract the natural enemies of herbivores, and in some cases they can induce or prime plant defenses prior to herbivore attack. In a recent paper, I reported that feeding by gypsy moth caterpillars, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage induce the emissions of volatiles from blueberry plants, albeit differently. In addition, blueberry branches respond to HIPVs emitted from neighboring branches of the same plant by increasing the levels of JA and resistance to herbivores (i.e., direct plant defenses), and by priming volatile emissions (i.e., indirect plant defenses). Similar findings have been reported recently for sagebrush, poplar, and lima beans. Here, I describe a push-pull method for collecting blueberry volatiles induced by herbivore (gypsy moth) feeding, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage. The volatile collection unit consists of a 4 L volatile collection chamber, a 2-piece guillotine, an air delivery system that purifies incoming air, and a vacuum system connected to a trap filled with Super-Q adsorbent to collect volatiles. Volatiles collected in Super-Q traps are eluted with dichloromethane and then separated and quantified using Gas Chromatography (GC). This volatile collection method was used in my study to investigate the volatile response of undamaged branches to exposure to volatiles from herbivore-damaged branches within blueberry plants. These methods are described here. Briefly, undamaged blueberry branches are exposed to HIPVs from neighboring branches within the same plant. Using the same techniques described above, volatiles emitted from branches after exposure to HIPVs are collected and

  17. Blueberry production in Chile: current status and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile has become a major actor in the blueberry industry as the most important supplier of off-season fresh fruit for the northern hemisphere. Blueberry exports passed from US$ 30 million (around 4,000 tons in 2000 to US$ 380 million (94,000 tons in 2011. The characteristics of the major blueberry growing regions (North, Central, South-central and South are presented in terms of acreage, varieties, management practices, extension of the harvest season, and soil and climatic conditions. Most fruit is from highbush varieties, picked by hand and exported fresh by boat to United States. Largest proportion of fruit is exported from mid December to late January, which coincides with lowest prices. The south-central region (latitudes 34º50' to 38º15' S was in 2007 the most important one with 5,075 ha (51.1% of area planted. Among the challenges for the Chilean blueberry industry in the near future are: 1. Lower profitability due to lower rates of currency exchange and higher costs, 2 - Greater scarcity and higher cost of labor, 3.- Need for higher productivity and sustainable production practices, 4- Fruit of high and consistent quality, and 5.- Greater investment in research. As a case study the article presents three approaches that can help identify areas with low availability of labor and improve its efficiency. The article shows the use of geomatic tools to establish labor availability, application of growth regulators to reduce crop load, increase fruit size and improve harvest efficiency, and the use of shakers to harvest fresh fruit for long distance markets. More research is needed to improve yields, reduce costs and give greater economical and ecological sustainability to the Chilean blueberry industry.

  18. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-15

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts.

  19. New and emerging viruses of blueberry and cranberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert R; Polashock, James J; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2012-11-06

    Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses as well as the appearance of new viruses. Many of the known viruses of these crops are latent or asymptomatic in at least some cultivars. Diagnosis and detection procedures are often non-existent or unreliable. Whereas new viruses can move into cultivated fields from the wild, there is also the threat that devastating viruses can move into native stands of Vaccinium spp. or other native plants from cultivated fields. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of blueberry and cranberry viruses, focusing not only on those that are new but also those that are emerging as serious threats for production in North America and around the world.

  20. The use of natural blueberry dye producing butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creamy сream - finishing semi-finished product in the manufacture of pastry products. Tinting cream mass in different shades of color can improve the aesthetic appearance of the product appearance and make it more attractive. Natural blueberry anthocyanin dye has antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-sclerotic, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, P-vitamin activity. The influence of the content of blueberry dye to change the chromaticity characteristics, organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, shape keeping capacity, antioxidant activity of the samples of butter cream after manufacture and during storage. Based on the analysis of the results to give a butter cream pleasant pink color can be recommended dosage blueberry dye - 2.5 g / kg, with anthocyanin dye in this case is used as an antioxidant and as its use in the recommended amounts increases the antioxidant activity of 12.5 mg / 100 g (62.8% (relative to unstained samples cream. Pastry with a creamy semi-finished product, colored with natural blueberry dye, demand on the food market of confectionery products, and they can be recommended as the first baby food, people with lowered immunity, the elderly and mass consumption, as products contain vitamin E - 30 mg / 100 g of product (satisfaction of the daily requirement for vitamin makes - 75% and a significant amount of antioxidants. The facts make it possible to expand the range of competitive confectionery functionality diversify colors shades of cream, to improve its taste and aroma properties, enhance the nutritional value and shelf life due to the large amount of co-antioxidants.

  1. Optimization of frozen wild blueberry vacuum drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum drying of frozen blueberries in order to preserve health benefits phytochemicals using response surface methodology. The drying was performed in a new design of vacuum dryer equipment. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and of pressure 38-464 mbar. Total solids, total phenolics, vitamin C, anthocyanin content and total color change were used as quality indicators of dried blueberries. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 60 °C and 100 mbar were established for vacuum drying of blueberries. Separate validation experiments were conducted at optimum conditions to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 3.70 mgCAE/100dw, vitamin C 59.79 mg/100gdw, anthocyanin content 2746.33 mg/100gdw, total solids 89.50% and total color change 88.83. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  2. 78 FR 59775 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... indicated that generic blueberry promotion by the USHBC has had a positive impact on producer prices. Specifically, had there been no generic blueberry promotion by the USHBC, the average producers' price would... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in...

  3. Effect of Infusion Method and Parameters on Mass Transfer in Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to obtain optimal processing conditions for producing infused blueberries with high solid gain, we investigated the infusion characteristics of blueberries under various processing parameters in sugar solutions with 1:1 ratio of solution and berries. Static batch constant concentration inf...

  4. Ranking cultivated blueberry for Mummy Berry Blight and Fruit Infection Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated the resistance of more than 100 blueberry cultivar to both phases of the disease...

  5. 75 FR 22551 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ..., Agricultural Research Service and the other from the American Frozen Food Institute. Both commenters stated... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries AGENCY: Agricultural... proposed revision to the United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries. After considering...

  6. Mortality of container-grown blueberry plants inoculated with Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted four studies to evaluate the effect of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates and inoculum delivery methods on root rot development and mortality of container-grown blueberry plants. Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates were obtained from the root zone of symptomatic blueberry plants and identifie...

  7. Characterization of Pseudomonas syringae from blueberry fields in Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae, is a common disease that kills buds and stems in blueberry fields in Oregon and western Washington. Management is primarily through application of copper; antibiotics are not registered for blueberry. Little is known about the diversity of P. syringa...

  8. Bioactive Compounds of Blueberries: Post-Harvest Factors Influencing the Nutritional Value of Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Michalska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries, besides having commonly-recognized taste properties, are also a valuable source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. For several decades, blueberries have gained in popularity all over the world, and recent years have seen not only an increase in fresh consumption, but also in the importance of blueberries for the processing industry. Blueberry processing mostly consists of freezing and juicing. Recently, more attention has been drawn to dewatering and drying, which are promising areas for developing novel blueberry products. Processing affects each biologically-active compound in a different way, and it is still unknown what changes those compounds undergo at the molecular level after the application of different processing technologies. This work presents the most recent state of knowledge about the pre-treatment and processing methods applied to blueberries and their influence on the content of biologically-active compounds. The presentation of methods is preceded by a brief overview of the characteristics of the blueberry species, a description of the chemical composition of the fruit and a short note about the main growing areas, production volumes and the management of fruit crops.

  9. Bioactive Compounds of Blueberries: Post-Harvest Factors Influencing the Nutritional Value of Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Łysiak, Grzegorz

    2015-08-10

    Blueberries, besides having commonly-recognized taste properties, are also a valuable source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. For several decades, blueberries have gained in popularity all over the world, and recent years have seen not only an increase in fresh consumption, but also in the importance of blueberries for the processing industry. Blueberry processing mostly consists of freezing and juicing. Recently, more attention has been drawn to dewatering and drying, which are promising areas for developing novel blueberry products. Processing affects each biologically-active compound in a different way, and it is still unknown what changes those compounds undergo at the molecular level after the application of different processing technologies. This work presents the most recent state of knowledge about the pre-treatment and processing methods applied to blueberries and their influence on the content of biologically-active compounds. The presentation of methods is preceded by a brief overview of the characteristics of the blueberry species, a description of the chemical composition of the fruit and a short note about the main growing areas, production volumes and the management of fruit crops.

  10. Occurrence and biology of Tolype innocens (Burmeister on blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salvador Louzada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 is reported for the first time damaging blueberry (Vaccinium ashei plants in Brazil having the caterpillars feeding on leaves and new shoots. T. innocens biology was studied on blueberry leaves in laboratory conditions and then a fertility life table was elaborated. Developmental time and viability of egg, larval and pupal stages and egg-adult period were 15.0 and 35.3, 33.3 and 84.5, 20.6 and 100, and 69.2 days and 45%, respectively. Average pupal weight was 0.840g for the females and 0.580g for the males. The sex ratio was 0.5. Pre-oviposition and oviposition time lasted 6.34 and 12.1 days, respectively. Mean fecundity was 251 eggs per female. Eggs were laid either individually or in masses. Longevity was 19.0 and 20.0 days for males and females, respectively. T. innocens population increased 47 times per generation, with a mean generation time of 77 days, and a finite rate of increase of 1.02. This data on biological parameters will be useful for establishing control strategies.

  11. Intermolecular binding of blueberry pectin-rich fractions and anthocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z; Fischer, J; Wicker, L

    2016-03-01

    Pectin was extracted from blueberry powder into three fractions of water soluble (WSF), chelator soluble (CSF) and sodium carbonate soluble (NSF). The fractions were incubated with cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a mixture of five anthocyanidins (cyanidin, pelargonidin, malvidin, petunidin and delphinidin) or blueberry juice at pH 2.0-4.5. Free anthocyanins and bound anthocyanin-pectin mixtures were separated by ultrafiltration. WSF bound the least amount of anthocyanin at all pH values. CSF had stronger anthocyanin binding ability at pH 2.0-3.6, while NSF had stronger anthocyanin binding ability at pH 3.6-4.5. The pectin and anthocyanin binding was lowest at pH 4.5 and higher at pH 2.0-3.6. Nearly doubling C3G pigment content increased bound anthocyanin percentage by 16-23% at pH 3.6, which favored anthocyanin aromatic stacking, compared to 3-9% increase at pH 2.0. Ionic interaction between anthocyanin flavylium cations and free pectic carboxyl groups, and anthocyanin stacking may be two major mechanisms for pectin and anthocyanin binding.

  12. Exploring Perceptions of Raspberries and Blueberries by Italian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Girgenti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers can be important active contributors to a sustainable society by selecting foods that are produced respecting environmental and socially ethical standards. In the fruit sector, sustainability issues are often associated with imprecisely defined concepts such as “locally grown”, “freshness” and “local product”. This study has investigated raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. purchases in order to identify how berry fruits choice attributes are ranked by consumers in two Italian Regions, using a choice experiment (best-worst methodology. Twelve attributes—that indirectly refer to the concept of environmental sustainability—have been investigated. According to the preferences expressed by our sample of retail purchasers (n = 669, the results show that the reasons for the purchase of berries are associated with numerous parameters among which freshness and product origin are the most important and price was not ranked as so relevant. These findings indirectly testify the consumer attention towards the sustainability of local production and the link between sustainability and territory. Therefore, we can presume that the improvement of consumer familiarity with attributes such as “locally grown” and “local product” could support more eco-friendly consumption of raspberries and blueberries.

  13. Changes of flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity in blueberries after UV-C illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    The levels of flavonoids in blueberries were found to increase after illumination with UV-C. Phytochemicals affected included resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol derivative, delphinidin-3-galactoside, cyaniding 3-galactoside, delphinidin 3-...

  14. Incresing antioxidant activity and reducing decay of blueberries by essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several naturally occurring essential oils including carvacrol, anethole, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, perillaldehyde, linalool, and p-cymene were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing decay and increasing antioxidant levels and activities in ‘Duke’ blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum). Carv...

  15. Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Using Antioxidants from Blackberry, Blueberry, Pomegranate, and Turmeric Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greener synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles is described using antioxidants from blackberry, blueberry, pomegranate, and turmeric extracts. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HR...

  16. 76 FR 11939 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Section 610 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Section 610 Review AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Confirmation of regulations. SUMMARY... Palmer, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS,...

  17. Phylogenetic, Morphological, and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria Species Associated with Fruit Rot of Blueberry in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L

    2015-12-01

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit.

  18. 蓝莓深加工技术研究进展%Progress of Blueberry Deep Processing Technique Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶春苗

    2015-01-01

    Blueberry has high nutrition value and economic value. Blueberry deep processing is an effective way for solving the problem of blueberry hard storage. In the article, it stated the progress of blueberry deep processing technique research from the aspects of blue-berry dairy product processing, blueberry fruit juice and wine processing, blueberry jam processing and blueberry preserved fruit pro-cessing, in order to provide a reference for the development of blueberry industry.%蓝莓具有很高的营养价值和经济价值.对蓝莓进行深加工处理是解决蓝莓不耐贮藏问题的有效途径.从蓝莓乳制品加工、蓝莓果汁果酒饮料加工、蓝莓酱加工、蓝莓果脯加工方面综述蓝莓深加工技术的研究进展,以期为蓝莓产业的发展提供参考.

  19. Effect of New Zealand blueberry consumption on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeay Yanita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD is accompanied by localized oxidative stress / inflammation which, in the short-term at least, is associated with impaired muscular performance. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to reduce excessive oxidative stress; however, their effectiveness in facilitating recovery following EIMD is not clear. Blueberries demonstrate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we examine the effect of New Zealand blueberries on EIMD after strenuous eccentric exercise. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 10 females consumed a blueberry smoothie or placebo of a similar antioxidant capacity 5 and 10 hours prior to and then immediately, 12 and 36 hours after EIMD induced by 300 strenuous eccentric contractions of the quadriceps. Absolute peak and average peak torque across the knee, during concentric, isometric, and eccentric actions were measured. Blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation were assessed at 12, 36 and 60 hours post exercise. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. Results A significant (p p = 0.047 interaction effect was seen for peak isometric tension suggesting a faster rate of recovery in the blueberry intervention group. A similar trend was observed for concentric and eccentric strength. An increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers was also observed in both treatment groups following EIMD. Although a faster rate of decrease in oxidative stress was observed in the blueberry group, it was not significant (p  Conclusions This study demonstrates that the ingestion of a blueberry smoothie prior to and after EIMD accelerates recovery of muscle peak isometric strength. This effect, although independent of the beverage’s inherent antioxidant capacity, appears to involve an up-regulation of adaptive processes, i.e. endogenous antioxidant processes, activated by the combined actions of the eccentric exercise

  20. Mummy Berry Fruit Rot and Shoot Blight Incidence in Blueberry: Prediction, Ranking, and Stability in a Long-term Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated blueberry cultivar resistance to both phases of the disease and, utilizing ‘stan...

  1. Effects of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolate, inoculum delivery method, flood, and drought on vigor, disease severity and mortality of blueberry plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four studies evaluated the effect of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates, inoculum delivery methods, and flood and drought conditions on vigor, disease severity scores, and survival of blueberry plants grown in pots in the greenhouse. Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates were obtained from blueberry plants ...

  2. Nondestructive Detection and Quantification of Blueberry Bruising using Near-infrared (NIR) Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Li, Changying; Takeda, Fumiomi

    2016-10-01

    Currently, blueberry bruising is evaluated by either human visual/tactile inspection or firmness measurement instruments. These methods are destructive, time-consuming, and subjective. The goal of this paper was to develop a non-destructive approach for blueberry bruising detection and quantification. Experiments were conducted on 300 samples of southern highbush blueberry (Camellia, Rebel, and Star) and on 1500 samples of northern highbush blueberry (Bluecrop, Jersey, and Liberty) for hyperspectral imaging analysis, firmness measurement, and human evaluation. An algorithm was developed to automatically calculate a bruise ratio index (ratio of bruised to whole fruit area) for bruise quantification. The spectra of bruised and healthy tissues were statistically separated and the separation was independent of cultivars. Support vector machine (SVM) classification of the spectra from the regions of interest (ROIs) achieved over 94%, 92%, and 96% accuracy on the training set, independent testing set, and combined set, respectively. The statistical results showed that the bruise ratio index was equivalent to the measured firmness but better than the predicted firmness in regard to effectiveness of bruise quantification, and the bruise ratio index had a strong correlation with human assessment (R2 = 0.78 ‑ 0.83). Therefore, the proposed approach and the bruise ratio index are effective to non-destructively detect and quantify blueberry bruising.

  3. Nondestructive Detection and Quantification of Blueberry Bruising using Near-infrared (NIR) Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Li, Changying; Takeda, Fumiomi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, blueberry bruising is evaluated by either human visual/tactile inspection or firmness measurement instruments. These methods are destructive, time-consuming, and subjective. The goal of this paper was to develop a non-destructive approach for blueberry bruising detection and quantification. Experiments were conducted on 300 samples of southern highbush blueberry (Camellia, Rebel, and Star) and on 1500 samples of northern highbush blueberry (Bluecrop, Jersey, and Liberty) for hyperspectral imaging analysis, firmness measurement, and human evaluation. An algorithm was developed to automatically calculate a bruise ratio index (ratio of bruised to whole fruit area) for bruise quantification. The spectra of bruised and healthy tissues were statistically separated and the separation was independent of cultivars. Support vector machine (SVM) classification of the spectra from the regions of interest (ROIs) achieved over 94%, 92%, and 96% accuracy on the training set, independent testing set, and combined set, respectively. The statistical results showed that the bruise ratio index was equivalent to the measured firmness but better than the predicted firmness in regard to effectiveness of bruise quantification, and the bruise ratio index had a strong correlation with human assessment (R2 = 0.78 − 0.83). Therefore, the proposed approach and the bruise ratio index are effective to non-destructively detect and quantify blueberry bruising. PMID:27767050

  4. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Gook KIM; Hong Lim KIM; Su Jin KIM; Kyo-Sun PARK

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon,Korea were analyzed for fruit size,soluble solids content,titratable acidity,total anthocyanin content,total phenolic content,and antioxidant activity.Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars.Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g,soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3°Brix,and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%.Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars.Among the 45 blueberry cultivars,high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols,and high antioxidant activity were observed in ‘Elliott’,‘Rubel’,‘Rancocas’,and ‘Friendship’.

  5. Development and Utilization of Wild Blueberries%野生蓝莓资源的开发与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊基胜; 吴林生; 张春龙; 王子迎

    2012-01-01

    Through studies on the distribution and morphology of wild blueberry tree,chemical compostion and nutritional value analysis of wild blueberry in China, discussed the potential value of the wild blueberries' processing. The advantages of development and utilization of wild blueberries were absorbed and the disadvantages of it were given up at the same time. The article focused on introduction ahout the research and development elements of the wild blueberries products, such as dipping liquor of blueberries, fermented wine of blueberries, snack foods of blueberries, anthocyanins of blueberries, health capsules of blueberries, blueberries tea and so on.%通过对我国野生蓝莓资源的分布、形态特征、蓝莓浆果的化学成分以及营养价值分析,探讨了野生蓝莓的潜在价值。吸收野生蓝莓资源开发和利用现状中的优点,总结了当前野生蓝莓资源开发和利用研究中的不足之处。并重点介绍了野生蓝莓深加工相关产品蓝莓浸渍酒、蓝莓发酵酒、蓝莓休闲系列、蓝莓花青素、蓝莓保健胶囊以及蓝莓叶茶等研发、制作要点。

  6. A novel water-assisted pulsed light processing for decontamination of blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaoxin; Chen, Haiqiang

    2014-06-01

    Sample heating and shadowing effect have limited the application of pulsed light (PL) technology for decontamination of fresh produce. In this study, a novel setup using water-assisted PL processing was developed to overcome these limitations. Blueberries inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella were either treated with PL directly (dry PL treatment) or immersed in agitated water during the PL treatment (wet PL treatment) for 5-60 s. Although both pathogens were effectively inactivated by the dry PL treatments, the appearance of the blueberries was adversely affected and a maximum temperature of 64.8 °C on the blueberry surface was recorded. On the other hand, the visual appearance of blueberries remained unchanged after wet PL treatments and sample heating was significantly reduced. The wet PL treatments were more effective than chlorine washing on inactivating both pathogens. After a 60-s wet PL treatment, the populations of E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on calyx and skin of blueberries were reduced by 3.0 and >5.8 log CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella on blueberry calyx and skin was reduced by 3.6 and >5.9 log CFU/g, respectively. No viable bacterial cells were recovered from the water used in the wet PL treatments, demonstrating that this setup could prevent the risk of cross-contamination during fresh produce washing. Our results suggest that this new water-assisted PL treatment could be a potential non-chemical alternative (residue free) to chlorine washing since it is both more effective and environmentally friendly than chlorine washing.

  7. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-yang HUANG; Hong-cheng ZHANG; Wen-xu LIU; Chun-yang LI

    2012-01-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants.In the present study,the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry,blackberry,and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated.Blueberry,with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW),exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods.Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC,9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW),total flavonoid content (TFC,36.08 mg rutin/g DW),and total anthocyanidin content (TAC,24.38 mg catechin/g DW).A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry,blackberry,and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid,protocatechuic acid,p-hydroxybenzoic acid,vanillic acid,caffeic acid,p-coumaric acid,ferulic acid,ellagic acid,and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone:luteolin; flavonols:rutin,myricetin,quercetrin,and quercetin; flavanols:gallocatechin,epigallocatechin,catechin,and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins:malvidin-3-galactoside,malvidin-3-glucoside,and cyanidin).In particular,the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins,which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical.

  8. Blueberry Supply Chain in Italy: Management, Innovation and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Peano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing trend market of fresh products is driven by a consumer oriented to new lifestyles and environmental issues. The berries market in Europe represents a good example of a consumer driven supply chain, due to the capacity to answer all the sequences of the system. To explore the process developed by fruit growers’ associated groups in Italy, the research is organized into four stages. The first stage provides a review of the organization of the fresh fruit supply chain (FFSC and the need to innovate it in light of the driven demand. The second section focuses on the innovation displayed towards storing, managing and maintaining the quality of fruit during the supply. The third section considers the case study. The manuscript concludes by summarising the main results and discussing the implications for future research. The use of a modified active packaging system (MAP with “green” films has enabled the maintenance of the quality of the fruits for two months, as well as the presence of the company blueberries market for longer periods, and has finally led to improving the exports, thus reaching new European countries, increasing the turnover of the associated group and better remuneration for the fruit growers as a consequence.

  9. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Aaron E; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora ('VcFT-Aurora'), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in 'VcFT-Aurora'. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all of these

  10. Blueberry Extracts Protect Testis from Hypobaric Hypoxia Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zepeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes oxidative damage to male rat reproductive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a blueberry extract (BB-4 in testis of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Morphometric analysis, cellular DNA fragmentation, glutathione reductase (GR, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were evaluated. Our results showed that supplementation of BB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation, decreased apoptosis, and increased GR and SOD activities in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia conditions . Therefore, this study demonstrates that blueberry extract significantly reduced the harmful effects of oxidative stress caused by hypobaric hypoxia in rat testis by affecting glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities.

  11. Research Progress on Breeding Technology and Application of Blueberry%蓝莓繁育技术及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁

    2012-01-01

    present, there are mainly three cultivated blueberry species: highbush blueberry, lowbush blueberry and labbiteye blueberry. Blueberry is rich in pectin, vitamins and other nutrients. It has the function of antioxidant effects, preventing and curing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, maintain- ing eye health,and preventing of visual impairment. Therefore, the cultivation technology and application of blueberry has become a research hotspot. In this paper, the author summarized the breeding technology of blueberry and its application in food.%目前,已栽培利用的蓝莓主要有三个种类:高丛蓝莓、矮丛蓝莓和兔眼蓝莓。蓝莓中含有丰富的果胶、维生素和花青素等营养成分,使其具有抗氧化性、预防和辅助治疗心脑血管疾病、维护眼睛健康、预防视力受损的作用,因此,蓝莓的繁育技术及其应用已成为研究热点。本文对不同种类蓝莓的栽培技术及其现阶段在食品中的应用进行了总结。

  12. Feeding blueberry diets dose-dependently inhibits bone resorption in young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional status is a critical factor that influences bone development. We previously reported that weanling rats fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry (BB) powder for only two weeks beginning on postnatal day 21 (PND21) significantly promoted bone formation. Howeve...

  13. Fungicide resistance phenotypes in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Understanding fungicide- resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of preharvest fungicide programs for contro...

  14. Development of a soilless growing system for blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum): nutrient demand and nutrient solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Dijk, van P.; Douven, F.; Maas, van der M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of blueberries in The Netherlands are soil grown, interest in soilless culture has increased recently. Modern cultivation with high yield and fruit quality needs maximum control of growth and crop development, which is expected to be achieved with irrigation and nutrient manage

  15. Management of Phytophthora cinnamomi root rot disease of blueberry with gypsum and compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rot disease of blueberry caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi is becoming more prevalent as a consequence of widespread adoption of drip irrigation. This creates higher moisture content in the root zone more conducive for the pathogen. Options for disease control under organic management are limi...

  16. 78 FR 79634 - Importation of Fresh Blueberry Fruit From Morocco Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... States. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before March 3, 2014. ADDRESSES: You... vegetables in Sec. 319.56-3, each consignment of blueberries would be subject to further inspection at the... validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) Enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of...

  17. Blueberries affect neuroinflammation and cognition differentially depending on individual cognitive baseline status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging and neurodegenerative diseases are thought to be the results of prolonged effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Previously, we have shown that daily supplementation of blueberries (BBs) was able to reverse age-related deficits in behavioral and neuronal function in aged rats. However, ...

  18. Effect of postharvest handling practices on phytochemical concentrations and bioactive potential in wild blueberry fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we quantified anthocyanin (ANC), proanthocyanidin (PAC), and chlorogenic acid (CA) concentrations in wild blueberry fruit (WBB) exposed to a variety of postharvest handling practices relevant to consumers and to industry. Additionally, we analyzed the bioactive potential of WBB subjec...

  19. Evaluation of Irrigation Methods for Highbush Blueberry. I. Growth and Water Requirements of Young Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in a new field of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Elliott') to determine the effects of different irrigation methods on growth and water requirements of uncropped plants during the first 2 years after planting. The plants were grown on mulched, raised beds...

  20. Suitable sources of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer for fertigation of northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many blueberry growers are switching from broadcasting granular fertilizers to using fertigation through a drip irrigation system. Fertigation increases growth and production without increasing the need for more fertilizer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different liquid sources ...

  1. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and fungicides on Botryosphaeria stem blight lesion development on detached blueberry stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botryosphaeria stem blight is a destructive disease of blueberries. Field observations indicate stem blight is more severe on vigorous plants than on slower growing plants. Two studies compared the effect of two types of fertilizers applied at four rates and nine fungicides on lesion development fo...

  2. Late-onset blueberry muffin lesions following recombinant erythropoietin administration in a premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vishal; Dummula, Krishna; Fraga, Garth; Parimi, Prabhu

    2012-10-01

    Recombinant erythropoietin is being used in premature population for anemia of prematurity. It is considered very safe in this population, although risks are still being evaluated. We report the first case of dermal erythropoiesis as a side effect of recombinant erythropoietin in an extremely prematurely born infant presenting with late-onset blueberry muffin lesions.

  3. Pollen viability and storage temperature for Southern highbush and Rabbiteye blueberry breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollen viability, as measured by tetrad germination, has been reported, but these studies focused on freshly collected pollen and did not address viability of pollen stored at different temperatures over time. Moreover, genetic differences in pollen viability have been reported in blueberry genotype...

  4. Irrigation and fertigation with drip and alternative micro irrigation systems in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation using conventional drip and alternative micro irrigation systems were evaluated in six cultivars of northern highbush blueberry. The drip system consisted of two laterals of drip tubing, with 2 L/h in-line emitters (point source) spaced every 0.45 m, on each s...

  5. Blueberries inhibit proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries (BB) have been reported to attenuate atherosclerosis in apoE deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of BB on proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages was investigated. ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G diet (...

  6. Qualitative analysis of volatiles in rabbiteye blueberry cultivars at various maturities using rapid solid-phase micro extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, superfruits, such as blueberries, have received much attention as scientists, marketers, and consumers push forward knowledge and demand for high antioxidant, healthier diets. Production and consumption are steadily increasing. Yet, there are very few studies detailing the aroma, astring...

  7. Antimicrobial effect of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extracts against the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the antimicrobial effects of berry extracts obtained from four cultivars (Elliott, Darrow, Bluecrop and Duke) of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal conc...

  8. THE PERFORMANCE OF SOME NORTHERN HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) VARIETIES IN NORTH EASTERN PART OF ANATOLIA

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to find out performance of some northern highbush blueberries in northeastern part of Turkey. Two years old plants of Berkeley, Ivanhoe, Jersey, Northland and Rekord blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) varieties planted in Ikizdere, Rize. Their phonological, morphological and yield properties were determined. Among cultivars ‘Ivanhoe’ had the highest (146.44 cm) and most extremely vigor bushes. ‘Berkeley’ gave shorter plants with short bushes (82.72 cm) but had bigger...

  9. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P. M.; Cline, W. O.; Agudelo, P.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Noe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum and its relationship to BRD warrants further investigation. PMID:23833323

  10. 蓝莓抑菌活性研究进展%Progress in Antibacterial Activity of Blueberries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 孙晓红; 曹奕; 赵勇; Vivian C.H.Wu; 潘迎捷

    2013-01-01

    越橘属的蓝莓含有酚类物质、有机酸类、花青素类和糖类等生物活性成分.较早研究表明,蓝莓具有抗感染、抗氧化、抗肿瘤等功能,而近年的研究表明蓝莓具有抑菌作用.本文介绍了蓝莓的抑菌活性,分析了蓝莓中的抑菌活性成分,同时概括了蓝莓提取物对各种菌体的抑菌机理.%Blueberry was belong to Vaccinium spp.,which contained the biological active component of phenolic substances,organic acids,anthocyan and sugars.Early it was researched that blueberries had the ftmction of anti-infection,oxidation,anti-tumor.But recently,it was suggested that blueberry had bacteriostasis.The activity of bacteriostasis in blueberry was covered in this paper.And the antibacterial activity ingredients in blueberries were analyzed.In addition,the antibacterial mechanism of blueberry extract to all kinds of bacteria was summarized.

  11. Correlation between species-specific metabolite profiles and bioactivities of blueberries (Vaccinium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sarah; Jung, Eun Sung; Do, Seon-Gil; Jung, Ga-Young; Song, Gwanpil; Song, Jung-Min; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2014-03-05

    Metabolite profiling of three blueberry species (Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb., V. oldhamii Miquel., and V. corymbosum L.) was performed using gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) combined multivariate analysis. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly showed metabolic differences among species. GC-TOF-MS analysis revealed significant differences in amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, sugars, and phenolic acids among the three blueberry species. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis indicated that anthocyanins were the major metabolites distinguishing V. bracteatum from V. oldhamii. The contents of anthocyanins such as glycosides of cyanidin were high in V. bracteatum, while glycosides of delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin were high in V. oldhamii. Antioxidant activities assessed using ABTS and DPPH assays showed the greatest activity in V. oldhamii and revealed the highest correlation with total phenolic, total flavonoid, and total anthocyanin contents and their metabolites.

  12. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  13. An efficient RNA isolation procedure and identification of reference genes for normalization of gene expression in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisth, Tripti; Johnson, Lisa Klima; Malladi, Anish

    2011-12-01

    Application of transcriptomics approaches can greatly enhance our understanding of blueberry physiology. The success of transcriptomics approaches is dependent on the extraction of high-quality RNA which is complicated by the abundance of polyphenolics and polysaccharides in blueberry. Additionally, transcriptomics requires the accurate quantification of transcript abundance. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a robust method to determine transcript abundance. Normalization of gene expression using stably expressed reference genes is essential in qRT-PCR. An evaluation of the stability of expression of reference genes has not yet been reported in blueberry. The objectives of this study were to develop an effective procedure for extracting RNA from different organs and to evaluate potential reference genes for qRT-PCR analyses in blueberry. RNA of high quality and yield was extracted from eight and six organs of rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberry, respectively, using a modified cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-based method. The expression stability of 12 reference genes was evaluated. UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME (UBC28), RNA HELICASE-LIKE (RH8), CLATHRIN ADAPTER COMPLEXES MEDIUM SUBUNIT FAMILY PROTEIN (CACSa), and POLYUBIQUITIN (UBQ3b) were the most stably expressed genes across multiple organs in both blueberry species. Further, the expression stability of the reference genes in the branch abscission zone following treatment with fruit abscission-inducing compounds was analyzed. CACSa, RH8, and UBC28 were the most stably expressed genes in the abscission zone under abscission-inducing conditions. We suggest a preliminary evaluation of UBC28, CACSa, RH8, and UBQ3b to identify the most suitable reference genes for the experimental conditions under consideration in blueberry.

  14. Identification and nutritional value of some wild materials of blueberry (Vaccinium spp)

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Bonilla, Vilma; Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The blueberry is a shrub of the family Ericaceae, genus Vaccinium. Its fruits are berries of dark, bluish or reddish coloration. Presents nutritional qualities and antioxidants which make it a fruit of high nutritional and medicinal value. During this study several wild materials identified as Vaccinium consanguinium were located, collected, identified and analyzed by the method of ORAC (antioxidant total capacity).  Chemical analysis showed high levels of antioxidants in the fruits ((Las Tor...

  15. Antimicrobial activity of controlled-release chlorine dioxide gas on fresh blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuxiu; Bai, Jinhe; Ference, Christopher; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yifan; Narciso, Jan; Zhou, Kequan

    2014-07-01

    The effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas on the safety and quality of blueberries was studied. In vitro studies revealed that both ClO2 gas fumigation and ClO2 direct contact in water killed food pathogen bacterium Escherichia coli and fruit decay pathogen fungus Colletotrichum acutatum. In vivo studies were conducted using noninoculated berries and berries inoculated with postharvest decay and foodborne pathogens. Berries were inoculated with either E. coli (5.2 log CFU/g) or C. acutatum (3.9 log CFU/g). Inoculated fruit were dried for 2 h at room temperature in a climate-controlled laboratory and packed in perforated commercial clamshells, with or without ClO2 pads, and stored at 10°C for up to 9 days. The effects of ClO2 on microbial populations and fruit firmness were monitored during storage. In the inoculation experiment, treatment with ClO2 reduced populations of E. coli and C. acutatum by 2.2 to 3.3 and 1.3 to 2.0 log CFU/g, respectively. For the noninoculated blueberries, the initial total aerobic bacteria count and the yeast and mold count were 4.2 and 4.1 log CFU/g, respectively. ClO2 treatment reduced total aerobic bacteria count and yeast and mold count by 1.5 to 1.8 and 1.3 to 1.7 log CFU/g, respectively. The firmness of both inoculated and noninoculated blueberries was maintained by ClO2 treatment. Thus, controlled-release ClO2 gas fumigation technology shows promise as an effective and practical antimicrobial agent in commercial clamshell packaging of blueberry and other fruits.

  16. Analysis of Organic Acids in Blueberry Juice and its Fermented Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxue Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid analytical method for simultaneous separation and determination of organic acids is of the essence for quality control of blueberry juice and its fermented wine. In this present study, a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method for separation and determination of organic acids (oxalic acid, gluconic acid, tartaric acid, formic acid, pyruvic acid, malic acid, isocitric acid, shikimic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid and propionic acid in blueberry juice and wine has been developed. The chromatographic separation was performed at 35°C by using an ammonium hydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 2.8 as mobile phase and 0.6 mL/min as the column flow rate. A C18 analytical column and Ultraviolet Detection (UV at &lembda = 210 nm were used for all acids above. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy and precision. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing organic acids in real samples of six species of blueberry juices and wines. The results show that species significantly affect distribution of organic acids in samples but not the kinds of organic acids between six species. Oxalic acid, gluconic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid and citric acid are detected in blueberry juice. Citric acid, which accounts for a percentage >75% of the whole content of organic acids, is the major acid in four kinds of tested species (Sharpblue, Misty, Anna and Bluecrop. In the other two species (Britewell and Premier, malic acid, gluconic acid and citric acid own a mean percentage of 40, 32 and 25%, respectively. After yeast fermentation and aging, several new organic acids (pyruvic acid, isocitric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid and propionic acid appear in wine.

  17. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) leaf infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piljac-Zegarac, J; Belscak, A; Piljac, A

    2009-06-01

    Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of leaf infusions prepared from six highbush blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), one wild lowbush blueberry cultivar (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), and one commercially available mix of genotypes were determined. In order to simulate household tea preparation conditions, infusions were prepared in water heated to 95 degrees C. The dynamics of extraction of polyphenolic antioxidants were monitored over the course of 30 minutes. Extraction efficiency, quantified in terms of the total phenol (TP) content, and antioxidant capacity of infusions, evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays, were compared with cultivar type and extraction time. The 30-minute infusions exhibited the highest TP content and antioxidant capacity according to all three assays. Wild blueberry infusion had the highest TP content (1,879 mg/L gallic acid equivalents [GAE]) and FRAP values (20,050 microM). The range of TP values for 30-minute infusions was 394-1,879 mg/L GAE with a mean of 986 mg/L GAE across cultivars; FRAP values fell between 3,015 and 20,050 microM with a mean of 11,234 microM across cultivars. All 30-minute infusions exhibited significant scavenging capacity for DPPH(*) and ABTS(*+) radicals, comparable to different concentrations of catechin, gallic acid, and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid. Overall, tested infusions showed significant reducing capacity as well as radical scavenging potential, which places blueberry leaf tea high on the list of dietary sources of antioxidants.

  18. Atmospheric cold plasma inactivation of aerobic microorganisms on blueberries and effects on quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Niemira, Brendan A; Gurtler, Joshua B; Fan, Xuetong; Sites, Joseph; Boyd, Glenn; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-04-01

    Cold plasma (CP) is a novel nonthermal technology, potentially useful in food processing settings. Berries were treated with atmospheric CP for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, or 120 s at a working distance of 7.5 cm with a mixture of 4 cubic feet/minute (cfm) of CP jet and 7 cfm of ambient air. Blueberries were sampled for total aerobic plate count (APC) and yeast/molds immediately after treatment and at 1, 2, and 7 days. Blueberries were also analyzed for compression firmness, surface color, and total anthocyanins immediately after each treatment. All treatments with CP significantly (P < 0.05) reduced APC after exposure, with reductions ranging from 0.8 to 1.6 log CFU/g and 1.5 to 2.0 log CFU/g compared to the control after 1 and 7 days, respectively. Treatments longer than 60s resulted in significant reductions in firmness, although it was demonstrated that collisions between the berries and the container contributed significantly to softening. A significant reduction in anthocyanins was observed after 90 s. The surface color measurements were significantly impacted after 120 s for the L* and a* values and 45 s for the b* values. CP can inactivate microorganisms on blueberries and could be optimized to improve the safety and quality of produce.

  19. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  20. Influence of three different concentration techniques on evaporation rate, color and phenolics content of blueberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elik, Aysel; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Maskan, Medeni; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of three different concentration processes open-pan, rotary vacuum evaporator and microwave heating on evaporation rate, the color and phenolics content of blueberry juice. Kinetics model study for changes in soluble solids content (°Brix), color parameters and phenolics content during evaporation was also performed. The final juice concentration of 65° Brix was achieved in 12, 15, 45 and 77 min, for microwave at 250 and 200 W, rotary vacuum and open-pan evaporation processes, respectively. Color changes associated with heat treatment were monitored using Hunter colorimeter (L*, a* and b*). All Hunter color parameters decreased with time and dependently studied concentration techniques caused color degradation. It was observed that the severity of color loss was higher in open-pan technique than the others. Evaporation also affected total phenolics content in blueberry juice. Total phenolics loss during concentration was highest in open-pan technique (36.54 %) and lowest in microwave heating at 200 W (34.20 %). So, the use of microwave technique could be advantageous in food industry because of production of blueberry juice concentrate with a better quality and short time of operation. A first-order kinetics model was applied to modeling changes in soluble solids content. A zero-order kinetics model was used to modeling changes in color parameters and phenolics content.

  1. Myo-Inositol content determined by myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation in blueberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fangyuan; Su, Hongyan; Yang, Nan; Zhu, Luying; Cheng, Jieshan; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Xianhao

    2016-11-01

    Myo-inositol metabolism in plant edible organs has become the focus of many recent studies because of its benefits to human health and unique functions in plant development. In this study, myo-inositol contents were analyzed during the development of two blueberry cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop'. Furthermore, two VcMIPS 1/2 (Vaccinium corymbosum MIPS) genes, one VcIMP (Vaccinium corymbosum IMP) gene and one VcMIOX (Vaccinium corymbosum MIOX) gene were isolated for the first time from blueberry. The expression patterns of VcMIPS2, VcIMP and VcMIOX genes showed a relationship with the change profiles of myo-inositol content during fruit ripening. The results were further confirmed by the analyses of the enzyme activity. Results indicated that both myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation played important roles in determining of myo-inositol levels during the development of blueberry. To our knowledge, this report is the first to discuss myo-inositol levels in fruits in terms of biosynthesis and catabolism.

  2. Stability and biological activity of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) polyphenols during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Betanzo, J; Allen-Vercoe, E; McDonald, J; Schroeter, K; Corredig, M; Paliyath, G

    2014-12-15

    Wild blueberries are rich in polyphenols and have several potential health benefits. Understanding the factors that affect the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of polyphenols is important for evaluating their biological significance and efficacy as functional food ingredients. Since the bioavailability of polyphenols such as anthocyanins is generally low, it has been proposed that metabolites resulting during colonic fermentation may be the components that exert health benefits. In this study, an in vitro gastrointestinal model comprising sequential chemostat fermentation steps that simulate digestive conditions in the stomach, small intestine and colon was used to investigate the breakdown of blueberry polyphenols. The catabolic products were isolated and biological effects tested using a normal human colonic epithelial cell line (CRL 1790) and a human colorectal cancer cell line (HT 29). The results showed a high stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins during simulated gastric digestion step with approximately 93% and 99% of recovery, respectively. Intestinal digestion decreased polyphenol- and anthocyanin- contents by 49% and 15%, respectively, by comparison to the non-digested samples. During chemostat fermentation that simulates colonic digestion, the complex polyphenol mixture was degraded to a limited number of phenolic compounds such as syringic, cinnamic, caffeic, and protocatechuic acids. Only acetylated anthocyanins were detected in low amounts after chemostat fermentation. The catabolites showed lowered antioxidant activity and cell growth inhibition potential. Results suggest that colonic fermentation may alter the biological activity of blueberry polyphenols.

  3. Multi-response Optimization of Pectinase Processing Conditions on Blueberry Juice Extraction by Desirability Function Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to analyze the effect of pectinase processing on Juice Yield (JY, Total Anthocyanin content (TA, Total Phenol content (TP and Total Flavonoid content (TF of blueberry juice. The processing conditions included enzyme dosage, hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time. For resolving multi-response optimization, desirability function method was used to integrate JY, TA, TP and TF into a new target D (Desirability value. Predicted values of JY, TA, TP, TF and D were found to be in good agreement with experimental values as indicated by the high R2 values of 0.9963, 0.9217, 0.9586, 0.9901 and 0.9933, respectively. The optimum conditions were: enzyme dosage of 0.6 mg/g, hydrolysis temperature of 51.6°C and hydrolysis time of 2.36 h. At this optimum point, JY, TA, TP, TF and D were 71.406%, 420.367 mg/L, 2.784 g/L, 3.121 g/L and 0.9206, respectively. The study showed that RSM was an effective technique to model the effect of pectinase processing on blueberry juice parameters and desirability function method could be used for multi-response optimization of blueberry juice extraction.

  4. Overexpression of blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with changes in the expression of phytohormone-related genes in blueberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuan; Walworth, Aaron E; Mackie, Charity; Song, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Flowering locus T (FT) is a primary integrator in the regulation of plant flowering. Overexpressing a blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) FT gene (VcFT) (herein VcFT-OX) resulted in early flowering and dwarfing in 'Aurora' plants (herein 'VcFT-Aurora'). In this study, we found that VcFT-OX reduced shoot regeneration from leaf explants. To investigate the potential roles of the phytohormone pathway genes associated with VcFT-OX, differentially expressed (DE) genes in leaf tissues of 'VcFT-Aurora' plants were annotated and analyzed using non-transgenic 'Aurora' plants as a control. Three DE floral genes, including the blueberry SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of constans 1 (VcSOC1) (gibberellin related), Abscisic acid responsive elements-binding factor 2 (VcABF2) and protein related to ABI3/VP1 (VcABI3/VP1) (ethylene-related), are present under both the phytohormone-responsive and the dwarfing-related Gene Ontology terms. The gene networks of the DE genes overall showed the molecular basis of the multifunctional aspects of VcFT overexpression beyond flowering promotion and suggested that phytohormone changes could be signaling molecules with important roles in the phenotypic changes driven by VcFT-OX.

  5. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Wild Blueberries (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. with Cultivated Blueberry Varieties (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in Artvin Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Saral

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. which are found naturally in most part of Blacksea Region, and Artvin are generally called bear grape, Trabzon tea, and likapa. In addition, different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. have been cultivated in Artvin region for 5 or 6 years. Blueberries contain appreciable levels of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and flavonols that have high biological activity. V. arctostaphylos and V. myrtillus show that natural distrubition with received V. corymbosum of different cultured species in Artvin region will be determined antioxidant activity in this study. In this study showed that wild species had a higher antioxidant effect than cultivated species. V. myrtillus had high total polyphenols (11.539-20.742 mg GAE/g dry sample, flavonoids (1.182-2.676 mg QE/g dry sample and anthocyanins (3.305-11.473 mg Cyn/g dry sample than V. corymbosum species. In addition, wild species had high CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH values. The antioxidant activities found with CUPRAC, expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity ranged from 0.143 to 0.297 mmol TEAC/g dry sample. Those determined with DPPH expressed as IC50 ranged from 0.229 to 1.178 mg/ml. Those determined with FRAP expressed as FeSO4.7H2O equivalent were in 130.719–346.115 µmol Fe/g dry sample range.

  6. Antimicrobial Effects of Blueberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Aqueous Extracts and their Effects on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Hazim O; Kamimoto, Maki; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry on 13 pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were determined before and after neutralization to pH 7.03 ± 0.15. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited by the non-neutralized berries. Blueberry was the best inhibitor, and Vibrio and Listeria were the most sensitive bacteria. After neutralization, blueberry affected only Vibrio and Listeria, whereas the antimicrobial activities of raspberry and strawberry were abolished. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the extracts were measured with colorimetric methods and were highest in strawberry, followed by raspberry, and then blueberry. We also studied the effects of sub-bactericidal concentrations of the three berry extracts on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three berry extracts effectively repressed the transcription of the tcpA gene. Raspberry also repressed the transcription of the ctxA gene, whereas blueberry and strawberry did not. However, the three berry extracts did not affect the transcription of toxT. These results suggest that the three berry extracts exert potent antimicrobial effects and inhibit the expression of the virulence factors of V. cholerae.

  7. 蓝莓果酒发酵工艺研究%Study on the Fermentation Technology of Blueberry Fruit Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗世芹; 姚万欣

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced blueberries and blueberry wine, and discussed blueberry wine fermentation process and control points in the process. Fermentation process and influencing factors were analyzed. Treatment of blueberries, sugar additives, different yeast, the main fermentation process, pectin decomposition would have impacts on the quality of blueberry wine. Factors influencing the fermentation process were discussed in details to optimize the fermentation process and improve product quality.%本文对蓝莓和蓝莓果酒进行了介绍,探讨了蓝莓果酒的发酵流程、发酵过程中的控制要点。并对发酵过程中的影响因素进行了分析,蓝莓的处理方法、糖类添加剂、不同的酵母、主发酵工艺、果胶分解均会对蓝莓果酒的质量产生影响。针对发酵过程中的影响因素进行了具体讨论,旨在优化发酵工艺,提高产品质量。

  8. Native bee diversity and pollen foraging specificity in cultivated highbush blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum) in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Zachary; Ginsberg, Howard; Alm, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    We identified 41 species of native bees from a total of 1,083 specimens collected at cultivated highbush blueberry plantings throughout Rhode Island in 2014 and 2015. Andrena spp., Bombus spp., and Xylocopa virginica (L.) were collected most often. Bombus griseocollis (DeGeer), B. impatiens Cresson, B. bimaculatus Cresson, B. perplexus Cresson, and Andrena vicina Smith collected the largest mean numbers of blueberry pollen tetrads. The largest mean percent blueberry pollen loads were carried by the miner bees Andrena bradleyi Viereck (91%), A. carolina Viereck (90%), and Colletes validus Cresson (87%). The largest mean total pollen grain loads were carried by B. griseocollis (549,844), B. impatiens (389,558), X. virginica (233,500), and B. bimaculatus (193,132). Xylocopa virginica was the fourth and fifth most commonly collected bee species in 2014 and 2015, respectively. They exhibit nectar robbing and females carried relatively low blueberry pollen loads (mean 33%). Overall, we found 10 species of bees to be the primary pollinators of blueberries in Rhode Island.

  9. Study on Technology of Blueberry Melon Seeds%蓝莓瓜子加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽; 孙汉巨; 康琳琳; 朱作朋; 刘天成; 谢慧明

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the optimum technology conditions for the blueberry melon seeds. [Method] With the pumpkin seed was the main raw material, matched with the blueberry fruit juice, the melon seeds with pure nature fruit juice was developed out. Taking the sense quality of the melon seeds as the evaluation standard, with the blueberries, sugar and citric acid as the factors, the orthogonal experiment on the blueberry fruit juice proportion and the test on the ratio of the fruit juice and anthocyanins in black rice were conducted. The effects of the fruit juice adding quantity, baking temperature and time and frying time on the quality of the melon seeds were studied and the optimum technology conditions for the blueberry melon seeds were confirmed. [ Result ] The factors influencing the taste of the compound blueberry fruit juice were in order of sugar > citric acid > blueberries. The optimum formula of the blueberry fruit juice was as follows: blueberries of 5% , sucrose of 8% and citric acid of 0.2%. The optimum ratio of blueberry juice to anthocyanins in the black rice was 1: 3 and the adding quantity of the blueberry fruit juice was 15 ml per 20 g seeds. The main technology conditions for producing the blueberry melon seeds were as follows; the stripping melon seeds were baked for 2 h at 80 ℃ and fried for 270 s at 160 ℃. [ Conclusion] The study provided the scientific basis for the development of the green fruit juice with pure nature.%[目的]探讨蓝莓瓜子的最佳加工工艺条件.[方法]以南瓜子为主要原料,复配以蓝莓果汁,开发纯天然的果汁瓜子.以瓜子的感官品质为评价标准,以蓝莓、白砂糖和柠檬酸为因素,进行蓝莓果汁配比的正交试验以及该果汁与黑米花青素的配比试验,研究果汁添加量、烘烤温度和时间及炒制时间对瓜子品质的影响,确定蓝莓瓜子的最佳工艺条件.[结果]影响蓝莓复配果汁风味的因素依次为:白砂糖>

  10. Testing and design of a passive container for the optimisation of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cold chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Beghi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to test a passive cooling system (PCS on highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. to verify cooling performances soon after harvest. Based on experimental results the cooling trend was modelled and a dedicated system was designed for the optimisation of blueberries cold chain. The evolution of qualitative characteristics of stored fruits was evaluated analysing the percentage of damaged berries, the weight loss, the texture, the titratable acidity and the total soluble solids content. The analysis of temperature profiles during transport using PCS shows how this device is not fast enough in tearing down the blueberries field heat. A computer simulation, using finite elements method modelling, considering the thermo-physical properties of materials used and the boundary conditions arising from experimental data collected was carried out. Computer modelling has provided the characteristics of geometry, thickness, type and density of the material to obtain the desired cooling performance.

  11. Intake of Wild Blueberry Powder Improves Episodic-Like and Working Memory during Normal Aging in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beracochea, Daniel; Krazem, Ali; Henkouss, Nadia; Haccard, Guillaume; Roller, Marc; Fromentin, Emilie

    2016-08-01

    The number of Americans older than 65 years old is projected to more than double in the next 40 years. Cognitive changes associated to aging can affect an adult's day-to-day functioning. Among these cognitive changes, reasoning, episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed decline gradually over time. Early memory changes include a decline in both working and episodic memory. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic (up to 75 days) daily administration of wild blueberry extract or a wild blueberry full spectrum powder would help prevent memory failure associated with aging in tasks involving various forms of memory. Both blueberry ingredients were used in a study comparing young mice (6 months old) to aged mice (18 months old). At this age, mice exhibit memory decline due to aging, which is exacerbated first by a loss in working and contextual (episodic-like) memory. Contextual memory (episodic-like memory) was evaluated using the contextual serial discrimination test. Working and spatial memory were evaluated using the Morris-Water maze test and the sequential alternation test. Statistical analysis was performed using an ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Supplementation with wild blueberry full spectrum powder and wild blueberry extract resulted in significant improvement of contextual memory, while untreated aged mice experienced a decline in such memory. Only the wild blueberry full spectrum powder significantly contributed to an improvement of spatial and working memory versus untreated aged mice. These improvements of cognitive performance may be related to brain oxidative status, acetylcholinesterase activity, neuroprotection, or attenuation of immunoreactivity.

  12. Blueberry husks and probiotics attenuate colorectal inflammation and oncogenesis, and liver injuries in rats exposed to cycling DSS-treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Håkansson

    Full Text Available Long-term colonic inflammation promotes carcinogenesis and histological abnormalities of the liver, and colorectal tumours frequently arise in a background of dysplasia, a precursor of adenomas. Altered colonic microbiota with an increased proportion of bacteria with pro-inflammatory characteristics, have been implicated in neoplastic progression. The composition of the microbiota can be modified by dietary components such as probiotics, polyphenols and dietary fibres. In the present study, the influence of probiotics in combination with blueberry husks on colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent liver damage was evaluated.Colorectal tumours were induced in rats by cyclic treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS. Blueberry husks and a mixture of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15159, Lactobacillus gasseri, DSM 16737 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313 supplemented a basic diet fortified with oats. The condition of the rats was monitored using a disease activity index (DAI. A qualitative and quantitative histological judgement was performed on segments of distal colon and rectum and the caudate lobe of the liver. The formation of short-chain fatty acids, bacterial translocation, the inflammatory reaction and viable count of lactobacilli and Enterobaceriaceae were addressed.Blueberry husks with or without probiotics significantly decreased DAI, and significantly reduced the number of colonic ulcers and dysplastic lesions. With a decreased proportion of blueberry husk in the diet, the probiotic supplement was needed to achieve a significant decrease in numbers of dysplastic lesions. Probiotics decreased faecal viable count of Enterobacteriaceae and increased that of lactobacilli. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics lowered the proportion of butyric acid in distal colon, and decreased the haptoglobin levels. Probiotics mitigated hepatic injuries by decreasing parenchymal infiltration and the incidence of stasis and

  13. Effects of Blueberry Extract on Antioxidant Capacity in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long TAN; Hai-qiang LI; Hong-peng YANG; Wei PANG; Wei LIU; Shou-dan SUN; Yu-gang JIANG

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of blueberry extract on antioxidant capacity in mice with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were adopted as the AD model and groups AD, AD+BB and control (CT) were set with ten mice in each group. The mice were given blueberry extract(BB) or saline for 16 weeks. The body weight gain and the food consumption were recorded weekly. The morphological changes in cortex were detected, and the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and the levels of GSH and MDA in the brain, liver, kidney and serum were determined.Results The food consumption did not show any significant difference among the three groups, and the AD mice treated with BB obtained a remarkable body weight gain during the experimental period. The morphological examination showed that an obvious neuronal loss appeared in the cortex of AD mice and improvement was noted in mice treated with BB. The biochemical detection showed that the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, and levels of GSH in the brain, liver and serum were significantly declined while the levels of MDA in these tissues and serum were increased in AD mice. After BB administration, the activity of SOD in brain was elevated significantly and the activities of GSH-Px and the levels of GSH in liver and serum were also recovered to some extent. Meanwhile, the levels of MDA in the brain, liver and serum were decreased obviously. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the level of MDA did not show significant change in kidney. Conclusion Brain is susceptive to oxidative stress in AD mice. Blueberry extract is effective in alleviating the oxidative damage in AD mice.

  14. Preterm infant with a late presentation of blueberry muffin lesions secondary to recombinant erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpara, Anand; Blackmon, Joseph; Laarman, Rachel; Skaggs, Robert; Liolios, Ana; Lui, Deede; Fraga, Garth

    2013-09-14

    Our patient is a 26-week-old preterm female infant delivered by caesarean section secondary to severe maternal preeclampsia who had been receiving subcutaneous recombinant erythropoietin (r-EPO) for anemia of prematurity. At 8 weeks of age after 8 doses of r-EPO, the infant developed numerous non-blanching erythematous macules and patches located on the back, posterior shoulder, and posterior arms, concerning for late-onset blueberry muffin lesions. Biopsy of the lesions confirmed dermal hematopoiesis. After r-EPO was discontinued all skin lesions gradually resolved over a period of 2 weeks and never recurred.

  15. Feeding blueberry diets to young rats dose-dependently inhibits bone resorption through suppression of rankl in stromal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that weanling rats fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry (BB) powder for two weeks beginning on postnatal day 21 (PND21) significantly increased bone formation at PND35. However, the minimal level of dietary BB needed to produce thes...

  16. Botrytis californica, a new cryptic species in the B. cinerea species complex causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S; Margosan, D; Michailides, T J; Xiao, C L

    2016-01-01

    The Botrytis cinerea species complex comprises two cryptic species, originally referred to Group I and Group II based on Bc-hch gene RFLP haplotyping. Group I was described as a new cryptic species B. pseudocinerea During a survey of Botrytis spp. causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes in the Central Valley of California, six isolates, three from blueberries and three from table grapes, were placed in Group I but had a distinct morphological character with conidiophores significantly longer than those of B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea We compared these with B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea by examining morphological and physiological characters, sensitivity to fenhexamid and phylogenetic analysis inferred from sequences of three nuclear genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the three partial gene sequences encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) supported the proposal of a new Botrytis species, B. californica, which is closely related genetically to B. cinerea, B. pseudocinerea and B. sinoviticola, all known as causal agents of gray mold of grapes. Botrytis californica caused decay on blueberry and table grape fruit inoculated with the fungus. This study suggests that B. californica is a cryptic species sympatric with B. cinerea on blueberries and table grapes in California.

  17. Effect of cultural practices and fungicide treatments on the severity of Phytophthora root rot of blueberries grown in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root rot is an important disease of blueberries, especially those grown in areas with poor drainage. Reliable cultural and chemical management strategies are needed for control of this disease. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of cultural practices and fungicide treat...

  18. USE OF EST-PCR MARKERS TO ANSWER THE QUESTION: DOES GENETIC RELATIONSHIP MATTER IN CROSSES BETWEEN LOWBUSH BLUEBERRY CLONES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) is a tetraploid hybrid (2n = 4x = 48) and is an economically important fruit crop of the northeast regions of North America. It is cultivated from wild stands and requires bees for pollination. The overall variation among individuals is very high wi...

  19. Short-term blueberry-enriched antioxidant diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective Previously, four months of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aged rats. Experiment 1 determined whether one and two-month BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the d...

  20. Fertilizer and soil management practices for improving the efficiency of nutrient uptake and use in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highbush blueberry is a long-lived perennial crop well-adapted to acidic soils. Plants acquire primarily NH4-N and tolerate relatively low concentrations of P and cations in the soil and high concentrations of plant available metals such as Al and Mn. Recently, we found that optimal leaf nutrient co...

  1. Survival and cardioprotective benefits of long-term blueberry enriched diet in dilated cardiomyopathy following myocardial infarction in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Despite remarkable progress in treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) over the last two decades, mortality, personal suffering and cost remain staggering. And effective interventions are still a challenge. Previously we reported that a blueberry-enriched diet (BD) attenuated necroapopt...

  2. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  3. Botrytis californica, a new cryptic species in the B. cinerea species complex causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea consists of two cryptic species, referred to as Group I and Group II based on Bc-hch gene RFLP haplotyping, and Group I has been described as a new cryptic species B. pseudocinerea. During a survey for Botrytis spp. causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes in the Central Va...

  4. A blueberry enriched diet attenuates nephropathy in a rat model of hypertension via reduction in oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To assess renoprotective effects of a blueberry-enriched diet in a rat model of hypertension. Background: Oxidative stress (OS) appears to be involved in the development of hypertension and related renal injury. Pharmacological antioxidants can attenuate hypertension and hypertension-indu...

  5. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Properties of Anthocyanin Rich Extracts from Blueberry and Blackcurrant Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative potential of anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARFs obtained from two commercially available juices (blueberry and blackcurrant juices on three tumor cell lines; B16F10 (murine melanoma, A2780 (ovarian cancer and HeLa (cervical cancer. Individual anthocyanin determination, identification and quantification were done using HPLC-MS. Antioxidant activity of the juices was determined through different mechanism methods such as DPPH and ORAC. For biological testing, the juices were purified through C18 cartridges in order to obtain fractions rich in anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins identified were glycosylated cyanidin derivatives. The antiproliferative activity of the fractions was tested using the MTT assay. The antiproliferative potential of ARF was found to be associated with those bioactive molecules, anthocyanins due to their antioxidant potential. The results obtained indicated that both blueberry and blackcurrants are rich sources of antioxidants including anthocyanins and therefore these fruits are highly recommended for daily consumption to prevent numerous degenerative diseases.

  6. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Andean clade and the placement of new Colombian blueberries (Ericaceae, Vaccinieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pedraza-Penalosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The blueberry tribe Vaccinieae (Ericaceae is particularly diverse in South America and underwent extensive radiation in Colombia where many endemics occur. Recent fieldwork in Colombia has resulted in valuable additions to the phylogeny and as well in the discovery of morphologically noteworthy new species that need to be phylogenetically placed before being named. This is particularly important, as the monophyly of many of the studied genera have not been confirmed. In order to advance our understanding of the relationships within neotropical Vaccinieae and advice the taxonomy of the new blueberry relatives, here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for the Andean clade. Anthopterus, Demosthenesia, and Pellegrinia are among the putative Andean genera recovered as monophyletic, while other eight Andean genera were not. The analyses also showed that genera that have been traditionally widely defined are non-monophyletic and could be further split into more discrete groups. Four newly discovered Colombian Vaccinieae are placed in the monophyletic Satyria s.s. and the Psammisia I clade. Although these new species are endemic to the Colombian Western Cordillera and Chocó biogeographic region and three are not known outside of Las Orquídeas National Park, they do not form sister pairs.

  7. Isolation of high-purity anthocyanin mixtures and monomers from blueberries using combined chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erlei; Yin, Yongguang; Xu, Caina; Liu, Jingbo

    2014-01-31

    Research on the isolation and preparation of anthocyanins has intensified in recent years because of the requirements of quantitative and bioactive analyses. However, simple and effective methods for the scale purification of pure anthocyanins from natural products are rarely reported. In this study, high-purity anthocyanin mixtures and monomers were successfully isolated from wild blueberries using a combination of column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. We established an effective elution system to separate high-purity anthocyanin mixtures with aqueous ethanol containing 0.01% HCl first in an Amberlite XAD-7HP column (ethanol/H2O=35:65) and then in a Sephadex LH-20 column (ethanol/H2O=25:75). Crude anthocyanin extracts were isolated using the Amberlite column, and a purity of 32% was obtained based on UV-vis analysis. Three fractions of anthocyanin mixtures were isolated from the crude extracts using the Sephadex column with purities ranging from 59% to 68%. Three pure monomeric anthocyanins of malvidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-O-glucoside were also isolated by semi-preparative HPLC and identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The purities of these anthocyanins were determined by analytical HPLC and estimated to be 97.7%, 99.3%, and 95.4%, respectively. The results of this study may help promote the purification of anthocyanins from most blueberry varieties as well as from other plant materials.

  8. Blueberry polyphenol oxidase: Characterization and the kinetics of thermal and high pressure activation and inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Delon, Antoine; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2015-12-01

    Partially purified blueberry polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in Mcllvaine buffer (pH=3.6, typical pH of blueberry juice) was subjected to processing at isothermal-isobaric conditions at temperatures from 30 to 80 °C and pressure from 0.1 to 700 MPa. High pressure processing at 30-50 °C at all pressures studied caused irreversible PPO activity increase with a maximum of 6.1 fold increase at 500 MPa and 30 °C. Treatments at mild pressure-mild temperature conditions (0.1-400 MPa, 60 °C) also caused up to 3 fold PPO activity increase. Initial activity increase followed by a decrease occurred at relatively high pressure-mild temperature (400-600 MPa, 60 °C) and mild pressure-high temperature (0.1-400 MPa, 70-80 °C) combinations. At temperatures higher than 76 °C, monotonic decrease in PPO activity occurred at 0.1 MPa and pressures higher than 500 MPa. The activation/inactivation kinetics of the enzyme was successfully modelled assuming consecutive reactions in series with activation followed by inactivation.

  9. Development of Blueberry and Carrot Juice Blend Fermented by Lactobacillus reuteri LR92

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Saori Ishii Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the blueberry and carrot juice blend as a fermentable substrate for Lactobacillus reuteri LR92, in order to develop a fermented non-dairy functional beverage. Analysis of cell viability, pH, and acidity were performed during the fermentation process. The resistance of the microorganism in the blend, under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in storage at 4 °C for 28 days, was evaluated at the same time as the antioxidant potential of the fermented juice. After 40 h of fermentation, the L. reuteri population presented a logarithmic growth of three cycles, reaching count records of 10.26 ± 0.23 log CFU/mL and after 28 days of storage at 4 °C, the bacterial population maintained elevated numbers of viable cell (8.96 ± 0.08 log CFU/mL, with increase in the antioxidant capacity of the fermented blend. However, in the test of gastric simulation, the L. reuteri population had a logarithmic reduction of five cycles. In the presence of bile salts, the viability was maintained even after 150 min of incubation. This way, the results suggested that the blueberry and carrot blend juice can be considered as a good medium for the growth of L. reuteri, providing microbiological stability during refrigerated storage with elevated antioxidant capacity, which allows for the development of a non-dairy probiotic beverage.

  10. Developing a Lactobacillus Fermented Beverage of Blueberry%蓝莓乳酸菌发酵饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宝

    2015-01-01

    The blueberry as raw materials, production of Lactobacillus fermented beverage, the optimal parameters for this beverage was determined by single factor and orthogonal experiment.The optimal fermentation conditions for:blueberry juice and skim milk ratio of 1:1.5,fermentation time 20 h, fermentation temperature 40 ℃, amount of vaccination 4 %. The optimum formula of blueberry lactobacillus fermented beverage was blueberry fermented original juice 80%, sugar 5%, citric acid 0.01%;composed of blueberry Lactobacillus fermented beverage a stabilizer of 0.15%xanthan gum,0.06%CMC-Na,0.07%sodium alginate.%以蓝莓为原料,制作乳酸菌发酵饮料,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定了该饮料的各项最佳工艺参数.发酵最佳工艺条件为蓝莓汁:脱脂牛奶的比例为1:1.5,发酵时间为20 h,发酵温度为40℃,菌种接种量为4%.蓝莓乳酸菌饮料最佳配方为原发酵汁添加量80%,白糖添加量5%,柠檬酸添加量0.01%;蓝莓乳酸菌饮料稳定剂添加量为黄原胶添加0.15%、CMC-Na添加0.06%、海藻酸钠添加0.07%.

  11. 蓝莓酸乳饮料的工艺研究%Study on processing technology of blueberry yogurt beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少庸; 费英敏

    2011-01-01

    以纯牛奶和蓝莓为主要原料,通过发酵、调配、均质、杀菌等加工工艺制成蓝莓酸乳饮料,通过单因素和正交实验法筛选出最佳工艺配方,采用CMC和黄原胶对其稳定性进行研究,优化并确定了最佳工艺配方为:酸奶30%,蓝莓汁12%,蔗糖12%,柠檬酸0.02%,乙基麦芽酚0.01%,苯甲酸钠0.10%,水45%(均为质量分数)时蓝莓酸乳饮料风味最佳;CMC质量分数为0.5%和黄原胶0.1%复配时蓝莓酸乳饮料稳定性最好.%The paper used fresh milk and blueberry as main ingrediengts, through fermentation, dispensation,homogenization,sterilization and etc, made the blueberry yogurt beverage .the optimum technological conditions were determined with single- factor test and orthogonal test. The stability was studied with two additives:CMC and Xanthan,the optimum formulation was optimized and determined:when the additive amount meet yoghurt 30%,blueberry juice 12%, sucrose 12%, lemon acid 0.02% Ethyl maltol 0.010%, Sodiun Bebzoate 0.1% and water 45% the blueberry yogurt beverage had a good flavor and taste; when the additive amount meet CMC 0.5% ,the mixture of Xanthan Gum 0.1% the blueberry yogurt beverage was considered to be the better stabilizer.

  12. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Blueberries in an Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezer, Philip J; Wilson, C Brad; Wilson, Leslie D; Nair, Anand R; J, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma and stressor-related disorder that results in a prolonged stress response. It is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC). The only approved therapy for PTSD is selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but their efficacy is marginal. Recently, we demonstrated that over-production of norepinephrine (NE) as the possible reason for the lack of efficacy of SSRIs. Hence, there is a need for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of PTSD. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of blueberries in modulating inflammatory markers and neurotransmitter levels in PTSD. Rats were fed either a blueberry enriched (2%) or a control diet. Rats were exposed to cats for one hour on days 1 and 11 of a 31-day schedule to simulate traumatic conditions. The rats were also subjected to psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized and the PFC and HC were isolated. Monoamines were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene and protein expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were also measured. In our PTSD model, NE levels were increased and 5-HT levels were decreased when compared to control. In contrast, a blueberry enriched diet increased 5-HT without affecting NE levels. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also studied and they confirmed our findings. The enhanced levels free radicals, gene and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines seen in the PTSD group were normalized with a blueberry enriched diet. Decreased anxiety in this group was shown by improved performance on the elevated plus-maze. These findings indicate blueberries can attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation and restore neurotransmitter imbalances in a rat model of PTSD.

  13. Computational identification of conserved microRNAs and their targets from expression sequence tags of blueberry (Vaccinium corybosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuyan; Hou, Yanming; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Wenhao; Quan, Chen; Cui, Yuhai; Bian, Shaomin

    2014-06-06

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, approximately 21nt in length, non-coding RNA, which mediate the expression of target genes primarily at post-transcriptional levels. miRNAs play critical roles in almost all plant cellular and metabolic processes. Although numerous miRNAs have been identified in the plant kingdom, the miRNAs in blueberry, which is an economically important small fruit crop, still remain totally unknown. In this study, we reported a computational identification of miRNAs and their targets in blueberry. By conducting an EST-based comparative genomics approach, 9 potential vco-miRNAs were discovered from 22,402 blueberry ESTs according to a series of filtering criteria, designated as vco-miR156-5p, vco-miR156-3p, vco-miR1436, vco-miR1522, vco-miR4495, vco-miR5120, vco-miR5658, vco-miR5783, and vco-miR5986. Based on sequence complementarity between miRNA and its target transcript, 34 target ESTs from blueberry and 70 targets from other species were identified for the vco-miRNAs. The targets were found to be involved in transcription, RNA splicing and binding, DNA duplication, signal transduction, transport and trafficking, stress response, as well as synthesis and metabolic process. These findings will greatly contribute to future research in regard to functions and regulatory mechanisms of blueberry miRNAs.

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Blueberry Anthocyanin%蓝莓花青素的抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 潘利华

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究蓝莓花青素的抗氧化活性.[方法]采用酸化乙醇提取蓝莓鲜果中的蓝莓花青素,并通过羟自由基、DPPH自由基、H2O2、超氧阴离子自由基及Fe3+清除率试验评价蓝莓花青素的抗氧化能力.[结果]蓝莓花青素对羟自由基、DPPH自由基、H2O2、超氧阴离子自由基及Fe3+清除率随着浓度的增大而增强,其抗氧化活性高于相同浓度的抗坏血酸.[结论]蓝莓花青素具有很高的抗氧化活性,可以作为天然抗氧化剂进行开发.%[Objective] To determine the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin from blueberry.[Method] The anthocyanin were extracted with acidified ethanol from the fresh blueberry and the antioxidant activities of blueberry anthocyanin were determined by · OH,DPPH ·,H2O2,superoxide anion and Fe3+ removal experiments.[Result] The · OH,DPPH ·,H2O2,superoxide anion and Fe3+ removal rates of blueberry anthocyanin increased with its concentrations and were superior to that of Vc at the same concentration.[Conclusion] Blueberry anthocyanin possessed high antioxidant activity,which can be developed as natural antioxidants.

  15. Mechanism analysis and simulation of blueberry harvest by vibration mode%振动式蓝莓采摘的机理分析与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海滨; 郭艳玲; 鲍玉冬; 耿雷

    2013-01-01

      为改变中国蓝莓人工采摘状况,实现高丛蓝莓的机械化采摘,该文研究了高丛蓝莓的采摘机理,并对所建立的数学模型进行仿真分析。首先分析蓝莓振动采摘机理,建立蓝莓植株采摘物理模型,推导得出动力学方程,采用数学物理微分方程求解得到蓝莓树枝稳态受迫振动输出解及采摘惯性力。运用MATLAB软件仿真分析蓝莓树枝稳态受迫振动时域仿真曲线及采摘力幅频特性仿真曲线,并进行了蓝莓采摘试验,试验数据与仿真结果一致:仿真结果满足蓝莓采摘条件的采摘频率为14~16rad/s,较优的采摘频率为15rad/s,该频率下的采摘效率为913颗/min,采摘生果率为2.99%,采摘果实损坏率为2.86%,未采净率为3.17%,机采人采效率比为10.14。研究结果可为高丛蓝莓采摘机的研制提供参考。%  Recently, the blueberry was served as the king of fruits, and people have been paying more attention to the health care effect, economic and medicinal value of the blueberry. Planting the blueberry is a new economic growth point in agriculture and forestry. The demand for blueberry exceeds the supply in the international market with high-speed growth demand. However, the blueberries are harvested depending entirely on hand picking in China with serious losses, and the picking cost accounts for 50%−70%of the total blueberry production cost. The old harvesting method restricts the widespread popularization and planting of blueberries. Research on blueberry picking machines and blueberry picking mechanisms is in its infancy in China. The price of blueberry picking machines is high. An experiment was conducted to change the artificial harvesting status of the blueberry, realize the mechanization of a high-bush blueberry-picking tool, and establish the theoretical guidance and design basis for the blueberry-picking machine for Chinese national conditions. We studied the

  16. Fungicide resistance profiling in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington and their impact on control of gray mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Sensitivities to boscalid, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, and pyraclostrobin, representing five different fungicide classes, were...

  17. Research Advance in the Development of Blueberry Dairy Products%蓝莓乳制品开发研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈小媛; 王芳; 贾强

    2012-01-01

    Blueberry dairy products are more popular with consumers, because blueberries have a variety of healthpromoting effects. This paper describes the nutrition value and health-promoting functions of blueberries, reviews the current status of development of blueberry dairy products and the recent advance in research on key production technologies, and explores future perspectives.%蓝莓具有多种保健功能,将其与牛乳组合开发新型蓝莓乳制品会倍受消费者青睐。本文对蓝莓营养价值、保健功能等进行概述,重点阐述蓝莓乳制品开发现状及其生产关键技术研究进展,并对其发展前景作出展望。

  18. A single serving of blueberry (V. corymbosum) modulates peripheral arterial dysfunction induced by acute cigarette smoking in young volunteers: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Fracassetti, Daniela; Campolo, Jonica; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes oxidative stress, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may prevent these conditions. We investigated the effect of a single serving of fresh-frozen blueberry intake on peripheral arterial function and arterial stiffness in young smokers. Sixteen male smokers were recruited for a 3-armed randomized-controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300 g of blueberry) + smoking; control treatment (300 mL of water with sugar) + smoking. Each treatment was separated by one week of wash-out period. The blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral arterial function (reactive hyperemia and Framingham reactive hyperemia), and arterial stiffness (digital augmentation index, digital augmentation index normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm) were measured before and 20 min after smoking with Endo-PAT2000. Smoking impaired the blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral arterial function, but did not affect the arterial stiffness. Blueberry consumption counteracted the impairment of the reactive hyperemia index induced by smoking (-4.4 ± 0.8% blueberry treatment vs. -22.0 ± 1.1% smoking treatment, p smoking treatment, p smoking treatment, mmHg, p smoking. No effect was observed for arterial stiffness and other vital signs. In conclusion, data obtained suggest a protective role of blueberry on reactive hyperemia, Framingham reactive hyperemia, and systolic blood pressure in subjects exposed to smoke of one cigarette. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  19. Generation and analysis of blueberry transcriptome sequences from leaves, developing fruit, and flower buds from cold acclimation through deacclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Lisa J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been increased consumption of blueberries in recent years fueled in part because of their many recognized health benefits. Blueberry fruit is very high in anthocyanins, which have been linked to improved night vision, prevention of macular degeneration, anti-cancer activity, and reduced risk of heart disease. Very few genomic resources have been available for blueberry, however. Further development of genomic resources like expressed sequence tags (ESTs, molecular markers, and genetic linkage maps could lead to more rapid genetic improvement. Marker-assisted selection could be used to combine traits for climatic adaptation with fruit and nutritional quality traits. Results Efforts to sequence the transcriptome of the commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cultivar Bluecrop and use the sequences to identify genes associated with cold acclimation and fruit development and develop SSR markers for mapping studies are presented here. Transcriptome sequences were generated from blueberry fruit at different stages of development, flower buds at different stages of cold acclimation, and leaves by next-generation Roche 454 sequencing. Over 600,000 reads were assembled into approximately 15,000 contigs and 124,000 singletons. The assembled sequences were annotated and functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO terms. Frequency of the most abundant sequences in each of the libraries was compared across all libraries to identify genes that are potentially differentially expressed during cold acclimation and fruit development. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm their differential expression patterns. Overall, 14 out of 17 of the genes examined had differential expression patterns similar to what was predicted from their reads alone. The assembled sequences were also mined for SSRs. From these sequences, 15,886 blueberry EST-SSR loci were identified. Primers were designed from 7,705 of the SSR-containing sequences

  20. Study on the Material of Blueberry Wine%蓝莓浸渍酒原料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊基胜; 吴林生; 张春龙; 王子迎

    2012-01-01

    Blueberry wine was produced by fresh blueben'ies and distilled spirits as original material, lemon and sugar as accessories. Blueberry was freezed and dipped at the room temperature, purificated, blended, after-ripened and then bottled. There is lots of factors influence the quality of blueberry wine, such as amount of blueberry, pretreatment of original material, raw liquor's alcohol degree and categories. The final plan of experiment was fixed by combined the above factors and comprehensive assessment of wine's sense, taste and nutrition function. The results show that the best method is adding 16%blueberries, blueberries were frozen before added to the 45% rice wine. 2% fresh lemon and 3% of the sugar was added to the raw liquor, dipping 30 d at the room temperature.%以新鲜的蓝莓浆果和大米酒为原料,新鲜的柠檬和冰糖为辅料,蓝莓冷冻、常温浸渍、过滤、勾兑、装瓶,生产蓝莓浸渍酒。通过蓝莓的添加量、原料的预处理、原料酒酒精度以及原料酒种类对蓝莓酒品质的影响试验,结合感官、口感及营养保健功能的综合评定,最终确定试验方案。试验结果表明蓝莓浸渍酒最佳用料为蓝莓添加量为16%左右,在原料添加前对蓝莓进行低温冷冻处理,选择酒精度为45°的大米酒,浸渍的过程中添加2%的新鲜柠檬和3%的冰糖,常温浸渍30d。

  1. Optimization of ultrasonic cell grinder extraction of anthocyanins from blueberry using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-Long; Yang, Jun-Li; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic cell grinder extraction (UCGE), using water as the solvent, was firstly applied to extract anthocyanins from blueberry. Extraction yield was related with four variables, including ratio of solution to solid, extraction power, buffer time, and extraction time. On the basis of response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal conditions were determined to be the ratio of solution to solid as 25:1(mL/g), the extraction power as 1500W, the buffer time as 3.0s, and the extraction time as 40min. The experimental yield of anthocyanins using UCGE was 2.89mg/g higher than that of conventional ultrasound-assisted extraction (CUAE). This study indicated that UCGE was an innovative, efficient, and environment friendly method in ultrasonic extraction fields, and had a potential to effectively extract other bioactive constituents.

  2. Antioxidants of therapeutic relevance in COPD from the neotropical blueberry Anthopterus wardii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gema; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Whalen, Kathleen; Pedraza-Peñalosa, Paola; Foronjy, Robert F.; D’Armiento, Jeanine M.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Four flavone C-glycosides, isoorientin (1), orientin (2), vitexin (3), and isovitexin (4), were isolated from the neotropical blueberry of Anthopterus wardii, a so-called “superfruit”, using antioxidant activity-guided fractionation. A dose-response relationship of compounds 1–4 was determined for their anti-inflammatory activity against interleukin-8 (IL-8) and for the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression, an inflammatory marker for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The four flavone C-glycosides exhibited inhibitory activity against IL-8 production and MMP-1 expression, with compounds 1, 3, and 4 having the most potent inhibitory activities in both assays at 100 μg/ml. The structures of compounds 1–4 were determined by spectroscopic methods. These flavone C-glycosides are reported for the first time in the Anthopterus genus. PMID:22363097

  3. Impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the (poly)phenol content of wild blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; George, Trevor W; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2014-05-07

    Accumulating evidence suggests that diets rich in (poly)phenols may have positive effects on human health. Currently there is limited information regarding the effects of processing on the (poly)phenolic content of berries, in particular in processes related to the baking industry. This study investigated the impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the anthocyanin, procyanidin, flavonol, and phenolic acid contents of wild blueberry using HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. Anthocyanin levels decreased during cooking, proving, and baking, whereas no significant changes were observed for total procyanidins. However, lower molecular weight procyanidins increased and high molecular weight oligomers decreased during the process. Quercetin and ferulic and caffeic acid levels remained constant, whereas increases were found for chlorogenic acid. Due to their possible health benefits, a better understanding of the impact of processing is important to maximize the retention of these phytochemicals in berry-containing products.

  4. How do consumer attitudes influence acceptance of a novel wild blueberry-soy product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, T; Dougherty, M P; Camire, M E

    2007-09-01

    Acceptance of healthful foods by consumers is not yet well understood. In this study, 3 formulations of frozen dessert bars were prepared containing both soy and wild blueberries. Soy content was controlled to provide an amount of soy protein that qualified for the health claim for soy and reduced risks for cardiovascular disease. Consumers were asked to complete the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS) and then evaluate the acceptability of the 3 frozen bar types using a 9-point hedonic scale. One week after the 1st session, the participants returned. Approximately half were given information to read regarding the health benefits of soy protein, the other participants were given no information. The samples were then presented a 2nd time and labeled with their soy protein content. Changes in hedonic scores between sessions were compared and correlated with HTAS ratings. Nutrition information generally did not affect acceptability scores.

  5. In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean blueberry(Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadira; Binte; Samad; Trishna; Debnath; Michael; Ye; Md.Abul; Hasnat; Beong; Ou; Lim

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean blueberry(Vaccinium corymbosum L.).Methods:Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the Korean blueberry water and ethanol extracts were determined before determining the potential of the extracts as antioxidant.Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by following some well established methods for free radical scavenging such as 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate,1,2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid),free radical induced DNA damage,superoxide dismutaselike and catalase assay etc.Furthermore,1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan and nitric oxide assay were performed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts.Results:Total phenolic contents were found(115.0±3.0) and(4.2±3.0) mg GAE/100 g fresh mass for both extracts,respectively and flavonoid contents were(1 942.8±7.0) and(1 292.1±6.0) mg CE/100 g fresh mass for water and ethonal extracts,respectively.Both the extracts displayed significant scavenging activity of some radicals such as 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate(IC50 at 1.8 mg/mL and 2.05 mg/mL,respectively),l,2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)(IC50 at1.5 mg/mL and 1.6 mg/mL,respectively) and nitrite(IC50 at 1.7 mg/mL and 1.5 mg/mL,respectively)etc.The extracts were found to prevent inflammation as well by reducing nitric oxide production and cytotoxicity in cell.Conclusions:The findings suggest that the fresh Korean blueberry could be used as a source of natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents.

  6. Examining the spatial distribution of flower thrips in southern highbush blueberries by utilizing geostatistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E; Grunwald, Sabine

    2011-08-01

    Flower thrips (Frankliniella spp.) are one of the key pests of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. x V. darrowii Camp), a high-value crop in Florida. Thrips' feeding and oviposition injury to flowers can result in fruit scarring that renders the fruit unmarketable. Flower thrips often form areas of high population, termed "hot spots", in blueberry plantings. The objective of this study was to model thrips spatial distribution patterns with geostatistical techniques. Semivariogram models were used to determine optimum trap spacing and two commonly used interpolation methods, inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK), were compared for their ability to model thrips spatial patterns. The experimental design consisted of a grid of 100 white sticky traps spaced at 15.24-m and 7.61-m intervals in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Thirty additional traps were placed randomly throughout the sampling area to collect information on distances shorter than the grid spacing. The semivariogram analysis indicated that, in most cases, spacing traps at least 28.8 m apart would result in spatially independent samples. Also, the 7.61-m grid spacing captured more of the thrips spatial variability than the 15.24-m grid spacing. IDW and OK produced maps with similar accuracy in both years, which indicates that thrips spatial distribution patterns, including "hot spots," can be modeled using either interpolation method. Future studies can use this information to determine if the formation of "hot spots" can be predicted using flower density, temperature, and other environmental factors. If so, this development would allow growers to spot treat the "hot spots" rather than their entire field.

  7. Effects of Power Ultrasound on Stability of Cyanidin-3-glucoside Obtained from Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Long Yao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Power ultrasound (US could potentially be used in the food industry in the future. However, the extent of anthocyanin degradation by US requires investigation. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu obtained from blueberry extracts was used as research material to investigate the effect of power ultrasound on food processing of anthocyanin-rich raw materials. The effects of ultrasonic waves on the stability of Cy-3-glu and on the corresponding changes in UV-Vis spectrum and antioxidant activity were investigated, and the mechanisms of anthocyanin degradation induced by ultrasonic waves were discussed. To explore Cy-3-glu degradation in different environments, we kept the Cy-3-glu solution treated with ultrasonic waves in four concentrations (0%, 10%, 20%, and 50% of ethanol aqueous solutions to simulate water, beer, wine, and liquor storage environment according to the chemical kinetics method. Results show that the basic spectral characteristics of Cy-3-glu did not significantly change after power ultrasound cell crusher application at 30 °C. However, with anthocyanin degradation, the intensity of the peak for Cy-3-glu at 504 nm significantly decreased (p < 0.05. The degradation kinetics of Cy-3-glu by ultrasonic waves (200–500 W frequency fitted well to first-order reaction kinetics, and the degradation rate constant of Cy-3-glu under power ultrasound was considerably larger than that under thermal degradation (p < 0.05. The sensitivity of the anthocyanins of blueberry to temperature increased with increasing ethanol concentration, and the longest half-life was observed in 20% ethanol aqueous solution.

  8. Anthocyanins and phenolic acids from a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) powder counteract lipid accumulation in THP-1-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    to counteract lipid accumulation in macrophages derived from monocytic THP-1 cells. In addition, we tested the capacity of pure ACNs and their metabolites to alter lipid accumulation. METHODS: THP-1-derived macrophages were incubated with fatty acids (500 μM oleic/palmitic acid, 2:1 ratio) and different......PURPOSE: Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins (ACNs) and phenolic acids (PA), which are hypothesized to protect against development of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of an ACN- and PA-rich fractions, obtained from a wild blueberry powder, on the capacity...... concentrations (from 0.05 to 10 μg mL(-1)) of ACN- and PA-rich fractions, pure ACN standards (malvidin, delphinidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside), and metabolites (syringic, gallic and protocatechuic acids). Lipid accumulation was quantified with the fluorescent dye Nile red. RESULTS: Lipid accumulation was reduced...

  9. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality.

  10. Cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and Blueberry Extracts Supplementation Improves Spatial Memory and Regulates Hippocampal ERK Expression in Senescence-accelerated Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Long; YANG Hong Peng; PANG Wei; LU Hao; HU Yan Dan; LI Jing; LU Shi Jun; ZHANG Wan Qi; JIANG Yu Gang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the antioxidation and the regulation on the Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinases (ERK) signaling pathway are involved in the protective effects of blueberry on central nervous system. Methods 30 Senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into three groups and treated with normal diet, blueberry extracts (200 mg/kg·bw/day) and cyaniding-3-O-galactoside (Cy-3-GAL) (50 mg/kg·bw/day) from blueberry for 8 weeks. 10 SAMR1 mice were set as control group. The capacity of spatial memory was assessed by Passive avoidance task and Morris water maze. Histological analyses on hippocampus were completed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and the expression of ERK were detected. Results Both Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts were shown effective functions to relieve cellular injury, improve hippocampal neurons survival and inhibit the pyramidal cell layer damage. Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts also increased SOD activity and reduced MDA content in brain tissues and plasma, and increased hippocampal phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) expression in SAMP8 mice. Further more, the passive avoidance task test showed that both the latency time and the number of errors were improved by Cy-3-GAL treatment, and the Morris Water Maze test showed significant decreases of latency were detected by Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts treatment on day 4. Conclusion Blueberry extracts may reverse the declines of cognitive and behavioral function in the ageing process through several pathways, including enhancing the capacity of antioxidation, altering stress signaling. Cy-3-GAL may be an important active ingredient for these biological effects.

  11. Optimization on Fermentation Technology of Blueberry Wine%蓝莓果酒发酵工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢洋洋; 李延红; 王传华; 樊友宏; 汪宏涛; 武佳斌

    2015-01-01

    The fermentation technology of blueberry wine was studied with blueberries as raw material and active dry wine yeast as fermentation bacteria. Firstly, the effect of initial sugar concentration, yeast inoculation concentration, fermentation temperature and initial pH on the fermentation of blueberry wine were investigated through single-factor experiments. On the basis of that, an orthogonal experiment (L9 (34)) was conducted to optimize the fermentation conditions in terms of the comprehensive sensory evaluation. The results showed that the optimal conditions for blueberry wine were initial sugar concentration 10°Bx, yeast inoculation concentration 0.1%, fermentation temperature 25℃and initial pH of 3.3.%以蓝莓为主要原料,安琪酿酒酵母为发酵菌株,通过单因素实验考察初糖浓度、酵母接种量、发酵温度、起始pH对蓝莓果酒发酵的影响。在单因素实验的基础上,以主发酵后的果酒感官综合评分为指标,通过L9(34)正交试验确定蓝莓果酒发酵工艺的最佳条件。结果表明蓝莓果酒的最佳工艺条件为:初始糖度为10°Bx,酵母接种量为0.1%,发酵温度为25℃,起始pH为3.3。

  12. The effects of long-term management on patterns of carbon storage in a northern highbush blueberry production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Denise; Lambrinos, John G; Strik, Bernadine C

    2017-02-01

    Perennial crops potentially provide a sink for atmospheric carbon. However, there is a poor understanding of how perennial crops differ in their carbon allocation patterns, and few studies have tested how agronomic practices such as fertilization influence long-term patterns of carbon allocation in actual production systems. In this study, we report results of a long-term field experiment that tested the individual and combined effects of organic matter incorporation and nitrogen fertilization on carbon allocation. The mature (nine-year-old) blueberry plants in this study had an average standing carbon stock of 1147gCm(-2) and average annual Net Primary Production (NPP) of 523gCm(-2)yr(-1), values that are similar to those reported for other woody crops. Forty-four percent of blueberry annual NPP was sequestered in persistent biomass, 19% was exported as harvested fruit, and 37% entered the detrital pathway. Nitrogen applied at rates typical for blueberry production throughout the span of the study had no significant effect on total plant or soil C. However, pre-planting organic matter incorporation and periodic mulching with sawdust significantly increased both soil organic matter and soil C. Pre-planting organic matter incorporation also increased total standing plant C nine years later at maturity. At the field scale, we estimate that fields receiving pre-planting organic matter incorporation would have 4.8% (4.5Mgha(-1)) more standing C relative to non-amended fields, although the difference is within the range of uncertainty of the estimated values. These results suggest that blueberry production can provide a valuable medium-term carbon store that is comparable in magnitude to that of temperate tree crops, but overall carbon budgets are influenced by management practices over the first decade after planting.

  13. Flowering and fruit set of six cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in the conditions of the Lublin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bożek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results presented in this paper relate to the time and duration of flowering of highbush blueberry as well as fruit set in the conditions of flower isolation and free visitation by pollinating insects. Observations were carried out in the years 2001- 2004 at a plantation located in Niemce near the city of Lublin. Six cultivars: 'Bluecrop', 'Bluejay', 'Croatan', 'Darrow', 'Northland' and 'Spartan', were covered by the study. The flowering period of the studied highbush blueberry cultivars was in May in three years of study, whereas in 2004 in May and June. Depending on the year, it lasted from 14 up to 21 days, on the average. Significant differences were found in the life span of a single flower which, depending on the cultivar and conditions prevailing during flowering, bloomed from 5 up to 10 days (the average for all the years for all the cultivars. With free access of pollinating insects, highbush blueberry set an average of 92 false-berries per 100 flowers, whereas only 40 during spontaneous self-pollination under the isolating cover. In each year of study, irrespective of atmospheric conditions prevailing during flowering as well as the time and duration of flowering, fruit set of the investigated cultivars in flowers freely accessible to pollinating insects should be considered to be good or very good.

  14. Effect of storage conditions on the biological activity of phenolic compounds of blueberry extract packed in glass bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anita; Akoh, Casimir C; Yi, Weiguang; Fischer, Joan; Krewer, Gerard

    2007-04-04

    Recent research suggests that blueberries are rich in total polyphenols and total anthocyanins. Phenolic compounds are highly unstable and may be lost during processing, particularly when heat treatment is involved. There is no systematic study available providing information on the fate of phenolic compounds during storage and how that affects their biological activity. We provide a systematic evaluation of the changes observed in total polyphenols (TPP), total anthocyanins (TACY), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), phenolic acids, and individual anthocyanins of blueberry extract stored in glass bottles and the ability of blueberry extract to inhibit cell proliferation. The extract was stored at different temperatures (-20 +/- 1, 6 +/- 1, 23 +/- 1, and 35 +/- 1 degrees C). Two cultivars, Tifblue and Powderblue, were chosen for the study. The recoveries of TPP, TACY, and TEAC in blueberry extract after pressing and heating were approximately 25, approximately 29, and approximately 69%, respectively, for both cultivars. The recovery of gallic acid, catechin, and quercetin was approximately 25%. Ferulic acid was not detected in the final extract in both Tifblue and Powderblue cultivars. The recovery of peonidin, malvidin, and cyanidin glycosides was approximately 20% in the final extract in both cultivars. Losses due to storage were less when compared with initial losses due to processing. At -20 degrees C, no statistically significant loss of TPP, TACY, and TEAC was observed up to 30 days (P glass bottles for Tifblue and Powderblue, respectively, when compared with other individual anthocyanins. A linear relationship was observed between TEAC values and total polyphenols or total anthocyanins. A cell viability assay was performed using HT-29 cancer cell lines and anthocyanins extracted from 30, 60, and 90 days of stored extract at 6 +/- 1 and 23 +/- 1 degrees C. A significant cell proliferation inhibition percentage was observed in 30 days, although this

  15. Potentiation of the bioavailability of blueberry phenolic compounds by co-ingested grape phenolic compounds in mice, revealed by targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudonné, Stéphanie; Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Dubé, Pascal; Varin, Thibault V; Calon, Frédéric; Desjardins, Yves

    2016-08-10

    The low bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds, resulting from poor absorption and high rates of metabolism and excretion, is a concern as it can limit their potential beneficial effects on health. Targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces of mice supplemented for 15 days with a blueberry extract, a grape extract or their combination revealed significantly increased plasma concentrations (3-5 fold) of blueberry phenolic metabolites in the presence of a co-ingested grape extract, associated with an equivalent decrease in their appearance in feces. Additionally, the repeated daily administration of the blueberry-grape combination significantly increased plasma phenolic concentrations (2-3-fold) compared to animals receiving only a single acute dose, with no such increase being observed with individual extracts. These findings highlight a positive interaction between blueberry and grape constituents, in which the grape extract enhanced the absorption of blueberry phenolic compounds. This study provides for the first time in vivo evidence of such an interaction occurring between co-ingested phenolic compounds from fruit extracts leading to their improved bioavailability.

  16. Anthocyanin determination in blueberry extracts from various cultivars and their antiproliferative and apoptotic properties in B16-F10 metastatic murine melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunea, Andrea; Rugină, Dumitriţa; Sconţa, Zoriţa; Pop, Raluca M; Pintea, Adela; Socaciu, Carmen; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Grootaert, Charlotte; Struijs, Karin; VanCamp, John

    2013-11-01

    Blueberry consumption is associated with health benefits contributing to a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the anthocyanin profile of blueberry extracts and to evaluate their effects on B16-F10 metastatic melanoma murine cells. Seven blueberry cultivars cultivated in Romania were used. The blueberry extracts were purified over an Amberlite XAD-7 resin and a Sephadex LH-20 column, in order to obtain the anthocyanin rich fractions (ARF). The antioxidant activity of the ARF of all cultivars was evaluated by ABTS, CUPRAC and ORAC assays. High performance liquid chromatography followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was used to identify and quantify individual anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content of tested cultivars ranged from 101.88 to 195.01 mg malvidin-3-glucoside/100g fresh weight. The anthocyanin rich-fraction obtained from cultivar Torro (ARF-T) was shown to have the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity, and inhibited B16-F10 melanoma murine cells proliferation at concentrations higher than 500 μg/ml. In addition, ARF-T stimulated apoptosis and increased total LDH activity in metastatic B16-F10 melanoma murine cells. These results indicate that the anthocyanins from blueberry cultivar could be used as a chemopreventive or adjuvant treatment for metastasis control.

  17. Crescimento de plantas de mirtilo a partir de mudas micropropagadas Growth of blueberry from micropropagation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Cristina Ristow

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mudas de mirtilo apresentam crescimento inicial lento e baixo índice de sobrevivência. Dentre os fatores envolvidos na produção de mudas, a qualidade do substrato é um fator de grande importância. O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de mirtilo, em diferentes composições de substrato, durante os meses de dezembro de 2005 a março de 2006. Foram utilizadas mudas da cultivar Georgiagem, do grupo highbush, oriundas de multiplicação in vitro. Foram utilizados sete diferentes substratos para a formação das mudas: T1 - Plantmax® (100%; T2 - Plantmax® + perlita (1:1; T3 - solo + composto industrial + perlita (1:1:1; T4 - solo + casca de arroz + terra (1:1:2; T5 - solo + composto industrial + vermiculita (1:1:1; T6 - casca de acácia + terra (1:2; T7 - acícula de pínus + terra - (1:2. Foram avaliados: altura das plantas; acúmulo de matéria seca da parte aérea e raiz, e análise química dos substratos. A composição do substrato influenciou no desenvolvimento das mudas de mirtilo. Os melhores resultados foram observados em substratos com pH ácido. Conclui-se que os substratos acícula de pínus + terra, Plantmax®, Plantmax® + perlita e casca de arroz + terra apresentaram melhores resultados.The blueberry presents slow development and low index of survival of the seedlings. Among the factors involved in the production of seedlings, the quality of the substrate is a factor of great importance. The work had as objective evaluates the development of blueberry seedlings in different substrate compositions, during the months of December 2005 to March 2006. It was used seedlings of the cultivar Georgiagem of the highbush group, originated from of multiplication in vitro. Seven different substrates were used for the formation of the seedlings: T1 - Plantmax® (100%; T2 - Plantmax® + Perlita (1: 1; T3 - Soil + industrial compost + Perlita (1: 1 :1; T4 - Soil + rice husks + Soil (1 : 1: 2; T5 - Soil

  18. Nonthermal inactivation of norovirus surrogates on blueberries using atmospheric cold plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Niemira, Brendan A; Gurtler, Joshua B; Sites, Joseph; Boyd, Glenn; Kingsley, David H; Li, Xinhui; Chen, Haiqiang

    2017-05-01

    Viruses are currently the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks, most of which are associated with foods consumed raw. Cold plasma (CP) is an emerging novel nonthermal technology that can be used to surface decontaminate foods. This study investigated CP technology for the nonthermal inactivation of human norovirus surrogates, Tulane virus (TV) and murine norovirus (MNV), on the surface of blueberries. Blueberries (5 g) were weighed into sterile 4 oz. glass jars and inoculated with TV, 5 log PFU/g. Samples were treated with atmospheric CP for 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 s at a working distance of 7.5 cm with 4 cubic feet/minute (cfm) of CP jet. Temperature readings were taken with an infrared camera prior to, and immediately following, CP treatments. In order to establish the impact of air flow during CP treatment (4 cfm), an additional 7 cfm jet of room temperature air was introduced from a separate nozzle. The experiment was repeated with 90 and 120 s as additional treatment time points. Viral titers were measured immediately after each treatment with a plaque assay using LLC-MK2 cells (TV) or RAW 264.7 cells (MNV). TV was significantly reduced 1.5 PFU/g compared to the control after treatment time of 45s, which was achieved regardless of temperature conditions. With the addition of 7 cfm of ambient air, the maximum log reduction for TV was 3.5 log PFU/g after 120s of treatment. MNV was significantly reduced by 0.5 log PFU/g compare to the control at 15s, and further treatment of MNV with ambient air brought the log reduction to greater than 5 log PFU/g at 90 s of treatment (Fig. 3). These results demonstrate that CP viral inactivation does not rely on thermal inactivation, and is therefore nonthermal in nature. With further optimization, CP may be used by food processors as a means of nonthermal inactivation of foodborne viruses.

  19. Hydrophilic carboxylic acids and iridoid glycosides in the juice of American and European cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and V. oxycoccos), lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea), and blueberries (V. myrtillus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Krogfelt, Karen A; Cornett, Claus;

    2002-01-01

    iridoid glucosides were shown to be monotropein and 6,7-dihydromonotropein by MS and NMR spectroscopy. A fast reversed-phase HPLC method for quantification of the hydrophilic carboxylic acids was developed and used for analyses of cranberry, lingonberry, and blueberry juices. The level of hydrophilic...... carboxylic acids in cranberries was 2.67-3.57% (w/v), in lingonberries 2.27-3.05%, and in blueberries 0.35-0.75%. In lingonberries both iridoid glucosides were present, whereas only monotropein was present in blueberries.......Analysis of the hydrophilic fraction of cranberry juice by reversed-phase HPLC using an Aqua LUNA column with diode array or MS detection revealed the presence of quinic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid, and citric acid. For the first time, two iridoid glucosides were found in the juice. The two...

  20. The Study of Artificial Hybridization Pollination Test and Hybrid Seedlings Cultivation of Blueberries%蓝莓人工杂交及幼苗培育技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘肖; 苏淑钗; 侯智霞; 雷雪敏

    2012-01-01

    To obtain hybrid fruit of blueberry cultivars, improve the efficiency of blueberry seedling nursery, select Chippewa, Bluecrop, Darrow, Northland, Duke, and Powderblue 6 different blueberry cultivated varieties as parents, artificial hybridization pollination test was taken and the hybrid seed breeding was proceeded. The results indicated that: low temperature and dry were useful for the preservation of blueberry pollen; blueberries of different haploidisations existed the phenomenon that they were not androlepsised; after the hybrid fruit mature the size and weight had difference; the germination rate of the hybrid pollination seed was 4%, GA3 could remarkably improve the emergence rate and the author generalized the blueberry artificial hybridization and seedling cultivation.%为了通过有性杂交、实生选种等方法对蓝莓进行遗传改良与种质创新,以获取蓝莓栽培品种杂交果实,提高蓝莓实生育苗效率,选取Chippewa、Bluecrop、Darrow、Northland、Duke和Powderblue 6种不同蓝莓栽培品种作为亲本,进行人工杂交授粉试验,并对杂交得到的种子进行幼苗培育.结果表明:低温干燥有利于蓝莓花粉的贮藏及活力保存;不同倍性蓝莓品种间存在杂交不亲和现象;杂交果实成熟后其横纵径和单果重存在差异;杂交授粉产生的种子出苗率为4%,使用赤霉素(GA3)能显著提高出苗率,并总结出蓝莓人工杂交与幼苗培育的方法.

  1. Blueberry effects on dark vision and recovery after photobleaching: placebo-controlled crossover studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalt, Wilhelmina; McDonald, Jane E; Fillmore, Sherry A E; Tremblay, Francois

    2014-11-19

    Clinical evidence for anthocyanin benefits in night vision is controversial. This paper presents two human trials investigating blueberry anthocyanin effects on dark adaptation, functional night vision, and vision recovery after retinal photobleaching. One trial, S2 (n = 72), employed a 3 week intervention and a 3 week washout, two anthocyanin doses (271 and 7.11 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents (C3g eq)), and placebo. The other trial, L1 (n = 59), employed a 12 week intervention and an 8 week washout and tested one dose (346 mg C3g eq) and placebo. In both S2 and L1 neither dark adaptation nor night vision was improved by anthocyanin intake. However, in both trials anthocyanin consumption hastened the recovery of visual acuity after photobleaching. In S2 both anthocyanin doses were effective (P = 0.014), and in L1 recovery was improved at 8 weeks (P = 0.027) and 12 weeks (P = 0.030). Although photobleaching recovery was hastened by anthocyanins, it is not known whether this improvement would have an impact on everyday vision.

  2. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Spent Osmotic Solution (SOS Generated from Osmotic Dehydration of Blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushlendra Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization of spent osmotic solution (SOS, a waste generated from osmotic dehydration of fruits, has the potential of transformation into hydrochars, a value-added product, while reducing cost and overall greenhouse gas emissions associated with waste disposal. Osmotic solution (OS and spent osmotic solution (SOS generated from the osmotic dehydration of blueberries were compared for their thermo-chemical decomposition behavior and hydrothermal carbonization. OS and SOS samples were characterized for total solids, elemental composition, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. In addition, hydrothermal carbonization was performed at 250 °C and for 30 min to produce hydrochars. The hydrochars were characterized for elemental composition, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, particle shape and surface morphology. TGA results show that the SOS sample loses more weight in the lower temperature range than the OS sample. Both samples produced, approximately, 40%–42% (wet-feed basis hydrochar during hydrothermal carbonization but with different properties. The OS sample produced hydrochar, which had spherical particles of 1.79 ± 1.30 μm diameter with a very smooth surface. In contrast, the SOS sample produced hydrochar with no definite particle shape but with a raspberry-like surface.

  3. Simultaneous determination of active ingredients in blueberry wine by CE-AD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Cheng Li; Lang Zhu Chi; Jin Kun Zhu; Yin Yan Zhang; Qing Jiang Wang; Pin Gang He; Yu Zhi Fang

    2011-01-01

    A method based on capillary electrophoresis coupled with amperometric detection (CE-AD) has been developed for the separation and determination of kaempferol, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid in blueberry wine for the first time. In order to get the optimum conditions of separation, the effects of working electrode potential, pH value and concentration of running buffer, separation voltage and injection time on CE-AD were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the analytes could be separated in Na2B4O7-KH2PO4 buffer at pH 7.8 within 18 min. A 300 μm diameter carbon disk electrode had good current responses at +0.95 V (vs. SCE) for all analytes. The responses were linear with concentrations over three orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N = 3) at 10-8 g/mL magnitude for the analytes and the recoveries were in the range of 95.8-106.7%. The method could be successfully applied to the analysis of real sample with satisfactory results and therefore recommended for use by the quality control departments of fruit wine producers.

  4. Biochemical and molecular changes in response to aluminium-stress in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Aquea, Felipe; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alberdi, Miren; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) stress is an important factor limiting crop yields in acid soils. Despite this, very little is known about the mechanisms of resistance to this stress in woody plants. To understand the mechanisms of Al-toxicity and response in blueberries, we compared the impact of Al-stress in Al-resistant and Al-sensitive genotypes using Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) as a plant model. We investigated the effect of Al-stress on the physiological performance, oxidative metabolism and expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes in two V. corymbosum cultivars maintained hydroponically with AlCl(3) (0 and 100 μM). Microscopic analyses of Al-treated root tips suggested a higher degree of Al-induced morphological injury in Bluegold (sensitive genotype) compared to Brigitta (resistant genotype). Furthermore, the results indicated that Brigitta had a greater ability to control oxidative stress under Al-toxicity, as reflected by enhancement of several antioxidative and physiological properties (radical scavenging activity: RSA, superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase: CAT; maximum quantum yield: Fv/Fm, effective quantum yield: ФPSII, electron transport rate: ETR and non-photochemical quenching: NPQ). Finally, we analyzed the expression of genes homologous to GST and ALDH, which were identified in a global expression analysis. In the resistant genotype, the expression of these genes in response to Al-stress was greater in leaves than in roots.

  5. Multistate Comparison of Attractants for Monitoring Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Blueberries and Caneberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrack, Hannah J; Asplen, Mark; Bahder, Luz; Collins, Judith; Drummond, Francis A; Guédot, Christelle; Isaacs, Rufus; Johnson, Donn; Blanton, Anna; Lee, Jana C; Loeb, Gregory; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; van Timmeren, Steven; Walsh, Douglas; McPhie, Douglas R

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumara, also referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, has recently expanded its global range with significant consequences for its primary host crops: blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, cherries, and strawberries. D. suzukii populations can increase quickly, and their infestation is difficult to predict and prevent. The development of effective tools to detect D. suzukii presence in new areas, to time the beginning of activity within a crop, to track seasonal activity patterns, and to gauge the effectiveness of management efforts has been a key research goal. We compared the efficiency, selectivity, and relationship to fruit infestation of a range of commonly used homemade baits and a synthetic formulated lure across a wide range of environments in 10 locations throughout the United States. Several homemade baits were more efficient than apple cider vinegar, a commonly used standard, and a commercially formulated lure was, in some configurations and environments, comparable with the most effective homemade attractant as well as potentially more selective. All alternative attractants also captured flies between 1 and 2 wk earlier than apple cider vinegar, and detected the presence of D. suzukii prior to the development of fruit infestation. Over half the Drosophila spp. flies captured in traps baited with any of the attractants were not D. suzukii, which may complicate their adoption by nonexpert users. The alternative D. suzukii attractants tested are improvement on apple cider vinegar and may be useful in the development of future synthetic lures.

  6. Flavor of fresh blueberry juice and the comparison to amount of sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, and physicochemical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett-Garber, Karen L; Lea, Jeanne M; Watson, Michael A; Grimm, Casey C; Lloyd, Steven W; Beaulieu, John C; Stein-Chisholm, Rebecca E; Andrzejewski, Brett P; Marshall, Donna A

    2015-04-01

    Six cultivars of southern highbush (SHB) and rabbiteye (RE) blueberry samples were harvested on 2 different dates. Each treatment combination was pressed 2 times for repeated measures. Fresh juice was characterized for 18 flavor/taste/feeling factor attributes by a descriptive flavor panel. Each sample was measured for sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, Folin-Ciocalteu, soluble solids (BRIX), titratable acidity (TA), and antioxidant capacity (ORACFL ). Flavors were correlated with the composition and physicochemical data. Blueberry flavor correlated with 3 parameters, and negatively correlated with 2. Strawberry correlated with oxalic acid and negatively correlated with sucrose and quinic acid. Sweet aroma correlated with oxalic and citric acid, but negatively correlated with sucrose, quinic, and total acids. Sweet taste correlated with 11 parameters, including the anthocyanidins; and negatively correlated with 3 parameters. Neither bitter nor astringent correlated with any of the antioxidant parameters, but both correlated with total acids. Sour correlated with total acids and TA, while negatively correlating with pH and BRIX:TA. Throat burn correlated with total acids and TA. Principal component analysis negatively related blueberry, sweet aroma, and sweet to sour, bitter, astringent, tongue tingle, and tongue numbness. The information in this component was related to pH, TA, and BRIX:TA ratio. Another principal component related the nonblueberry fruit flavors to BRIX. This PC, also divided the SHB berries from the RE. This work shows that the impact of juice composition on flavor is very complicated and that estimating flavor with physicochemical parameters is complicated by the composition of the juice.

  7. Application of water-assisted pulsed light treatment to decontaminate raspberries and blueberries from Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaoxin; Sido, Robert; Huang, Runze; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-09-02

    We developed and evaluated a small scaled-up water-assisted pulsed light (WPL) system, in which berries were washed in a flume washer while being irradiated by pulsed light (PL). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used in combination with PL as an advanced oxidation process and chlorine wash was used as a control. The effects of organic load, water turbidity, berry type and PL energy output on the inactivation of Salmonella using the WPL system were investigated. The combination of WPL and 1% H2O2 (WPL-H2O2) was the most effective treatment which reduced Salmonella on raspberries and blueberries by 4.0 and >5.6logCFU/g, respectively, in clear water. When high organic load and SiO2, as a soil simulator, were added in wash water, the free chlorine level in chlorinated water decreased significantly (P0.05) was observed for the decontamination efficacy of 1-min WPL-H2O2 treatment. Even in the presence of high organic load and water turbidity, no viable bacterial cells were recovered from the wash water, which showed that WPL-H2O2 could effectively prevent the risk of cross-contamination during treatment. Taken together, 1-min WPL treatment without H2O2 could provide a chemical free alternative to chlorine washing with similar and in some cases significantly higher bactericidal efficacy. Compared with chlorine washing, the combination of WPL and H2O2 resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) reduction of Salmonella on berries, providing a novel intervention for processing of small berries intended for fresh-cut and frozen berry products.

  8. Effect of blueberry juice on clearance of buspirone and flurbiprofen in human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Michael J; Masse, Gina; Harmatz, Jerold S; Cancalon, Paul F; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Court, Michael H; Greenblatt, David J

    2013-01-01

    Aim The present study evaluated the possibility of drug interactions involving blueberry juice (BBJ) and substrate drugs whose clearance is dependent on cytochromes P4503A (CYP3A) and P4502C9 (CYP2C9). Methods A 50:50 mixture of lowbush and highbush BBJ was evaluated in vitro as an inhibitor of CYP3A activity (hydroxylation of triazolam and dealkylation of buspirone) and of CYP2C9 activity (flurbiprofen hydroxylation) using human liver microsomes. In clinical studies, clearance of oral buspirone and oral flurbiprofen was studied in healthy volunteers with and without co-treatment with BBJ. Results BBJ inhibited CYP3A and CYP2C9 activity in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of less than 2%, but without evidence of mechanism-based (irreversible) inhibition. Grapefruit juice (GFJ) also inhibited CYP3A activity, but inhibitory potency was increased by pre-incubation, consistent with mechanism-based inhibition. In clinical studies, GFJ significantly increased area under the plasma concentration−time curve (AUC) for the CYP3A substrate buspirone. The geometric mean ratio (GMR = AUC with GFJ divided by AUC with water) was 2.12. In contrast, the effect of BBJ (GMR = 1.39) was not significant. In the study of flurbiprofen (CYP2C9 substrate), the positive control inhibitor fluconazole significantly increased flurbiprofen AUC (GMR = 1.71), but BBJ had no significant effect (GMR = 1.03). Conclusion The increased buspirone AUC associated with BBJ is quantitatively small and could have occurred by chance. BBJ has no effect on flurbiprofen AUC. The studies provide no evidence for concern about clinically important pharmacokinetic drug interactions of BBJ with substrate drugs metabolized by CYP3A or CYP2C9. PMID:22943633

  9. Evaluation of Blueberry Juice in Mouse Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Crypts and Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Álvarez-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry is a plant with a number of nutritional and biomedical capabilities. In the present study we initially evaluated the capacity of its juice (BJ to inhibit the number of aberrant crypts (AC induced with azoxymethane (AOM in mouse. BJ was administered daily by the oral route to three groups of animals during four weeks (1.6, 4.1, and 15.0 μL/g, respectively, while AOM (10 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected to the mentioned groups, twice a week, in weeks two and three of the assay. We also included two control groups of mice, one administered distilled water and the other the high dose of BJ. A significant increase of AC was observed in the AOM treated animals, and a mean protection of 75.6% was determined with the two low doses of BJ tested; however, the high dose of the juice administered together with AOM increased the number of crypts more than four times the value observed in animals administered only AOM. Furthermore, we determined the antioxidant potential of BJ with an ex vivo DPPH assay and found a dose-dependent decrease with a mean of 19.5%. We also determined the DNA oxidation/antioxidation by identifying 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine adducts and found a mean decrease of 44.3% with the BJ administration with respect to the level induced by AOM. Our results show a complex differential effect of BJ related to the tested doses, opening the need to further evaluate a number of factors so as to determine the possibility of a cocarcinogenic potential.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase genes and their association with fruit storage conditions in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2013-05-13

    Blueberry is a widely grown and easily perishable fruit crop. An efficient post-harvest handling is critical, and for that purpose gene technology methods have been part of ongoing programmes to improve crops with high food values such as blueberry. Here we report the isolation, cloning, characterization and differential expression levels of two cDNAs encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibitor Protein (PGIP) and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase (CCR) from blueberry fruits in relation to various storage conditions. The open reading frame of PGIP and CCR encodes a polypeptide of 329 and 347 amino acids, respectively. To assess changes in the expression of blueberry PGIP and CCR after harvest, a storage trial was initiated. The northern blots hybridization showed a clear differential expression level of PGIP and CCR between freshly harvested and stored fruits as well as between fruits stored under various storage conditions. Although the prospects of exploiting such a strategy for crop improvement are limited, the results provide further insight into the control of the quality over the storage period at the molecular level.

  11. Maternal metabolic changes with dietary intake of blueberry during pregnancy and lactation predispose adult progeny to lower mammary tumor growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown lower growth rates of tumors that developed from Wnt1-transgenic (Tg) offspring of dams consuming whole blueberry powder (3% BB) during pregnancy and lactation, compared to those of control (Casein) dams. Dietary exposure at post-weaning through lifetime did not mimic the effects of ea...

  12. Research Status of Blueberry Processing in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江省蓝莓加工研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉莉

    2013-01-01

    In order to promote the development of blueberry industry better in Heilongjiang province and further improve the blueberry processing products in the market ,products market share ,brand ,quantity and popularity of blueberry processed products in Heilongjiang province were investigated including beverage ,fruit wine and blueberries dairy products ,the processing industry present situation of processing enterprises ,the condition of product quality were analyzed ,and the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions were proposed to make leading enterprises ,strengthen product development and improve the quality guarantee system .%为了更好地带动黑龙江省蓝莓产业的发展,进一步完善蓝莓加工品的市场,对黑龙江省蓝莓加工品如饮料、果酒和乳制品的市场占有率,品牌数量及知名度进行了调查,对蓝莓加工产业现存的加工企业现状、产品品质状况进行了分析,并提出了相应的对策建议,即打造龙头企业、加大产品开发力度、健全质量保障体系。

  13. The Effect of Different Container on Young Blueberry Tree%不同容器对蓝莓幼苗培育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰冬灵; 李海玲; 王洁; 郎伟; 张长青

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, blueberry becomes a rapidly developing fruit tree. Yet, since its week and small body, poor root, and weak resistance to biotic or abiotic stress, its growing quality in field is always not high. To improve the effect of blueberry cultivation, a study of different container effects on blueberry was performed. The results show, a container with function on regulating root growth has a best effect, which proved a reference for the culture of young blueberry tree.%蓝莓是近年来发展迅速的一种果树,其幼苗矮小、根系差、抗逆性弱、种植质量不高。为改善蓝莓栽培效果,试验研究不同容器对蓝莓幼苗培育质量的影响。结果表明,快速控根容器是一种理想育苗容器。

  14. Different effects of anthocyanins and phenolic acids from wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) on monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells in a TNF-α stimulated proinflammatory environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Roursgaard, Martin; Porrini, Marisa;

    2016-01-01

    Scope: Monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium is a crucial step in the early stagesof atherogenesis. This study aims to investigate the capacity of an anthocyanin (ACN) andphenolic acid (PA) rich fraction (RF) of a wild blueberry, single ACNs (cyanidin, malvidin,delphinidin) and related...

  15. Effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink intervention on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in humans with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riso, Patrizia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Del Bo', Cristian;

    2013-01-01

    Wild blueberries (WB) (Vaccinium angustifolium) are rich sources of polyphenols, such as flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins (ACNs), reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. This study investigated the effect of regular consumption of a WB or a placebo (PL...

  16. Improving yield and berry quality for zygomorphic blooms of blueberry: the role of the plant growth regulators, gibberellic acid and coconut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A putative mutant gene(s) induces a high degree of zygomorphy that eliminates or deforms the tubular corollas of rabbiteye blueberries. Once thought to have a benign affect on V. ashei pollination and fruit set, zygomorphy is linked to greater seedlessness, lower fruit set, and is suspected to be a ...

  17. Erythritol and Lufenuron Detrimentally Alter Age Structure of Wild Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Populations in Blueberry and Blackberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on the efficacy of 0.5 M (61,000 ppm) Erythritol (E) in Truvia Baking Blend®, 10 ppm Lufenuron (L), and their combination (LE) to reduce egg and larval densities of wild populations of spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (SWD) infesting fields of rabbiteye blueberries (...

  18. Blueberries reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in mouse macrophages by inhibiting NF Kappa B activation and the MAPK pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries (BB) have been reported to attenuate atherosclerosis in apoE deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of BB in reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production in mouse macrophages. ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 1% fre...

  19. 蓝莓饮料总花色苷抗氧化性研究%Study on antioxidant capacity of total anthocyanin in blueberry beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐迹; 毛燕; 张宁; 闫林

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo make a comparison and analysis of the antioxidant capacity of total anthocyanin in blueberry beverage of different brands. MethodsThe liquid part and flesh part in blueberry beverage were separated by means of filtration, and their antioxidant capacity was compared by DPPH and ABTS spectroscopic ways. The extraction condition of blueberry flesh was optimized. Finally, the antioxidant capacity of total anthocyanin in several brands of blueberry beverage was compared. ResultsThe extraction condition of anthocyanin in blueberry flesh was by applying 60% acid ethanol solution to 30 min extracting with ultrasonic each time, with totally 5 times under 100% power. There are little differences of the antioxidant capacity of total anthocyanin among several commercially available brands of blueberry beverage.Conclusion The antioxidant capacity of total anthocyanin in different brands of blueberry beverage showed no obvious difference in the market of Jilin province.%目的:研究不同品牌蓝莓饮料总花色苷抗氧化性的差异。方法将蓝莓饮料中的液体和果肉通过过滤分离,通过DPPH和ABTS两种抗氧化性光谱检测方法检测液体和果肉的抗氧化性能力,优化了果肉中花色苷的提取条件,最后对比研究了不同品牌蓝莓饮料总花色苷抗氧化能力。结果蓝莓饮料中果肉里花色苷提取条件为:在100%超声功率下,用60%酸性乙醇溶液进行超声提取,30 min/次,提取5次。市售的蓝莓饮料,其总花色苷抗氧化性相差不大。结论目前吉林省市场上不同品牌蓝莓饮料的总花色苷抗氧化性无显著差异。

  20. The influence of microwave-assisted drying techniques on the rehydration behavior of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Markowski, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: (a) different drying methods, (b) hot air temperature in a convection oven, and (c) the moisture content of fruits dehydrated by multi-stage drying which involves a transition between different stages of drying, on the rehydration kinetics of dry blueberries. Models describing rehydration kinetics were also studied. Blueberries dehydrated by multi-stage microwave-assisted drying, which involved a hot air pre-drying step at 80 °C until the achievement of a moisture content of 1.95 kg H2O kg(-1)DM, were characterized by significantly higher rates of initial and successive rehydration as well as smaller initial loss of soluble solids in comparison with the samples dried by other methods. The highest initial rehydration rate and the smallest loss of soluble solids after 30 min of soaking were determined at 0.46 min(-1) and 0.29 kg DM kg(-1)DM, respectively. The Peleg model and the first-order-kinetic model fit the experimental data well.

  1. Evaluation of protective effect of freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder on acrylamide toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengyao; Liu, Xin; Luo, Yinghua; Guo, Huan; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2015-04-01

    Berries are dietary plants with high antioxidant activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of berries (strawberry, grape, and blueberry) against the acrylamide (AA)-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice model, respectively. Mice were treated with 50 mg/kg b.w./day AA intraperitoneal injection for 5 d after feeding control diet or diet containing freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder. The results showed that AA induced a significant general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice. Compared with the control diet, the diets containing berries could reverse the AA-induced alterations in liver antioxidant enzymes activities (P < 0.05). Moreover, the AA-induced genotoxicity could be prevented by the diet containing berries. The DNA damage in the lymphocyte and liver cells and the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cell were significantly alleviated (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the mice fed with diets containing berries showed a recovery in the sperm count, the sperm activity rate, sperm motility parameters, and the abnormal sperm rate (P < 0.05). Berry powders have remarkable intervention against the AA-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity. Abundant phenolics, especially anthocyanins, may contribute to the intervention.

  2. An efficient method for high-purity anthocyanin isomers isolation from wild blueberries and their radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorfa, Nasima; Savard, Sylvain; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2016-04-15

    An efficient process for the purification of anthocyanin monomeric isomers from wild blueberries of Lake Saint-Jean region (Quebec, Canada) was developed and easy scalable at industrial purpose. The blueberries were soaked in acidified ethanol, filtered, and the filtrate was cleaned by solid phase extraction using silica gel C-18 and DSC-SCX cation-exchange resin. Anthocyanin-enriched elutes (87 wt.%) were successfully fractionated by preparative liquid chromatography. The major anthocyanins mono-galactoside, -glucoside and -arabinoside isomers of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin were isolated with a purity up to 100% according to their LC-MS and (1)H NMR spectra. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the obtained pure anthocyanins was evaluated. Delphinidin-3-galactoside has the highest capacity (13.062 ± 2.729 μmol TE/μmol), and malvidin-3-glucoside the lowest (0.851 ± 0.032 μmol TE/μmol). A mechanistic pathway preview is suggested for the anthocyanins scavenging free radical activity by hydrogen transfer.

  3. Characterization of Changes in Polyphenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Physico-Chemical Parameters during Lowbush Blueberry Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gibson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in major polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and selected physico-chemical parameters were examined in lowbush blueberry during fruit ripening. Polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins, density, soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, and antioxidant capacity were determined in fruits of four maturities: green, pink/red, blue, and over-mature. Highest concentrations of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids were in green fruits: 168 ± 107, 119 ± 29 and 543 ± 91 mg/100 g dry weight (DW respectively. Highest anthocyanin levels were found in blue and over-mature fruits (1011–1060 mg/100 DW. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and quercetin-3-O-galactoside the most abundant flavonol in all maturities. Epicatechin was the most abundant flavan-3-ol in green fruits (80 ± 20 mg/100 DW, and catechin was the most abundant in other maturity stages. Increase of glucose and fructose and decrease of organic acids were observed during fruit ripening. Among six organic acids found, quinic acid (1.7–9.5 mg/100 mg DW was the most abundant throughout the fruit ontogeny. Soluble solids, pH, and density increased with maturity while, titratable acidity decreased. These findings can be helpful in optimizing harvest and processing operations in lowbush blueberry fruits.

  4. Ground and rove beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) are affected by mulches and weeds in highbush blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, J M; Lynch, D H; Cutler, G C; Mackenzie, K; Walde, S J

    2012-10-01

    Biological control of insects by predators may be indirectly influenced by management practices that change the invertebrate community in agroecosystems. In this study we examined effects that mulching and weeding have on predatory beetles (Carabidae and Staphylinidae) and their potential prey in a highbush blueberry field. We compared beetle communities in unweeded control plots to those that were weeded and/or received a single application of compost or pine needle mulch. Compost mulch and weeding significantly affected the carabid community while the staphylinid community responded to compost and pine needle mulches. Effects because of mulch tended to intensify in the year after mulch application for both families. Estimates of species richness and diversity for Carabidae and Staphylinidae were similar in all plot types, but rarefaction curves suggested higher Carabidae richness in unmulched plots despite fewer individuals captured. Carnivorous Carabidae, dominated by Pterostichus melanarius, were most frequently captured in compost plots both years, and omnivores were most frequently captured in unweeded compost. Density of millipedes, the most abundant potential prey, was generally greater in mulched plots, whereas seasonal abundance of small earthworms varied among mulch types. Our results have potential implications for biological control in mulched highbush blueberries depending on beetle consumption rates for key pests and how rates are affected by alternative prey.

  5. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed blueberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownmiller, C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of blueberries that were canned in syrup (CS), canned in water (CW), pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) assay using fluorescein (ORAC(FL)) were determined postprocessing after 1 d, and 1, 3, and 6 mo of storage. Thermal processing resulted in marked losses in total anthocyanins (28% to 59%) and ORAC(FL) values (43% to 71%) in all products, with the greatest losses occurring in clarified juices and the least in nonclarified juices. Storage at 25 degrees C for 6 mo resulted in dramatic losses in total anthocyanins, ranging from 62% in berries CW to 85% in clarified juices. This coincided with marked increases in percent polymeric color values of these products over the 6-mo storage. The ORAC(FL) values showed little change during storage, indicating that the formation of polymers compensated for the loss of antioxidant capacity due to anthocyanin degradation. Methods are needed to retain anthocyanins in thermally processed blueberries.

  6. Metal and PAH concentrations in fruit of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. (Lowbush Blueberry) : a comparison among Whitney Pier, North Sydney and supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Land Resource Science

    2004-07-01

    The concentration of various metals in the fruit harvested from Lowbush blueberry plants in Whitney Pier, Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS), North Sydney (NS) and supermarket were quantified in this report. The concentrations were compared among the 3 sources to determine whether the metal and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the blueberries from Whitney Pier were higher or lower compared to the reference blueberries from North Sydney and the supermarket. Mean values for each of the analytes were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study determined whether washed berries have lower concentrations of contaminants than unwashed berries. The risk to human health of exposure to metals and PAHs through consumption of blueberry samples was also calculated. It was concluded that concentrations of selenium and zinc are elevated in blueberries from Whitney Pier compared to berries from North Sydney and the supermarket, but are well within safe levels. Other elements such as arsenic, titanium, vanadium, lead, copper and molybdenum were similar, and only thallium was elevated in supermarket berries relative to those from Whitney Pier and North Sydney. Chromium was not detected in any samples. It was determined that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the metals analyzed, regardless of whether they were Whitney Pier samples or reference samples. Only 2 PAHs were detected in one of the unwashed samples from Whitney Pier. No PAHs were found in washed berries or unwashed berries from the supermarket or North Sydney. It was concluded that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the PAHs. Washed and unwashed samples had similar metal concentrations, indicating that surface contamination did not occur. A full methodology of the testing program was provided. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. AB-8大孔树脂对蓝莓花色苷的纯化研究%The purification study of blueberry anthocyanin on resin AB-8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄月鹏; 黄翠贤

    2012-01-01

    花色苷是一种水溶性的安全的天然色素。本论文以蓝莓花色苷提取液为原料。使用AB-8树脂对蓝莓花色苷精制工艺进行了研究。结果表明:AB-8树脂吸附流速为10mL/min,用40%乙醇洗脱,解吸流速为5mL/min。AB-8树脂饱和吸附量1.25mg/mL,树脂量是蓝莓花色苷量的3BV。蓝莓花色苷的纯度为38.1%。%Anthocyanin was a water-soluble, safe and natural pigment. Extraction of blueberry anthocyanin was used as raw material in this paper.lt was studied that technology of purifing resin AB-8 to blueberry anthocyanin. The results showed that the absorption speed of resin AB-8 was 10ml/min,the anthocyanin from blueberry was eluted with 40% ethanol at the flow rate of 5mL/min.The absorption capacity of the resin AB-8 was determined to be 1.25mg/mL. It revealed that ratio of resinAB-8 to blueberry anthocyanin solvent were 3BV. The purification of blueberry anthocyanin was 38.1%.

  8. 越橘果实花青苷含量及其不同发育阶段的变化%Contents and changes of anthocyanin in blueberry during fruit development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春雨; 王晶莹; 郭庆勋; 周连霞; 贾承国

    2012-01-01

    对25个高丛越橘,9个半高丛越橘品种和10个杂交后代的花青苷含量进行分析.结果表明,越橘品种花青苷含量在52.700~233.000 U·g1 FW之间,其中艾木蓝花青苷含量最高.高丛越橘品种平均为103.771 U·g-1FW,品种间的变异系数为29.48%,半高丛越橘品种平均为99.956U·g-1FW,品种间的变异系数为19.64%.杂交后代类型的花青苷平均含量为135.860U ·g-1 FW,高于高丛越橘和半高丛越橘平均值.对果实发育过程中花青苷含量变化进行分析显示,越橘果实花青苷主要存在于果皮中,粉色期是花青苷合成的主要时期,而50%蓝色期是越橘花青苷迅速合成期.%The contents of anthocyanin in 25 highbush blueberry, 9 half-highbush blueberry, and 10 blueberry hybrid progeny fruits were analyzed. The results showed that content of anthocyanin ranged from 52.700 to 233.000 U·g-1 FW, in which the content of Amblue anthocyanin was the highest. Average anthocyanin content of highbush blueberry and half-highbush blueberry was 103.771 and 99.956 U·g-1 FW, respectively. The coefficient of variation of anthocyanin contents was 29.48% between the highbush blueberry cultivars, and 19.64% between the half-highbush blueberry cultivars. Average anthocyanin content of hybrid progeny was 135.860 U·g-1 FW, which was higher than that of highbush blueberry and half-highbush blueberry. The change of anthocyanin content was detected during fruit development. The results showed that anthocyanin primarily lied in the skin for blueberry. Pink stage was the key syntheses stage and 50% blue stage was the rapid syntheses stage for blueberry.

  9. Rheological behavior of blueberry Comportamento reológico de mirtilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Colato Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and physicochemical characteristics of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus fruits produced in Brazil were analyzed. Rheological properties were measured at 5, 25, 45 and 65 °C, on a stress controlled rheometer equipped with grooved a stainless-steel parallel-plate in a shear rate range of 0-300 s-1, with the objective of determining the influence of temperature on the rheological properties. The pseudoplastic behavior with yield stress was well described by the Ostwald-de-Waele (Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley (HB and Mizhari Berk models. The yield stress and behavior index decreased with the increase in the temperatures for 5, 25, and 45 °C whereas for the temperature of 65 °C the effects were the opposite exhibiting elevated values. The viscosity decreased with an increase in temperature, and the Arrhenius equation described adequately the effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity of the puree, in which the activation energy (Ea determined at a shear rate of 100 s-1 was 9.36 kJ.mol-1.As características físicas e físico-químicas do mirtilo (Vaccinium myrtillus produzido no Brasil foram analisadas. As propriedades reológicas foram medidas em 5, 25, 45 e 65 °C, em um reômetro de tensão controlada equipado com geometria rugosa de placas paralelas com taxa de deformação variando de 0-300 s-1 com o objetivo de verificação da influência da temperatura no comportamento do fluido. O comportamento pseudoplástico com tensão residual foi bem descrito pelos modelos de Ostwald-de-Waele (Lei da Potência, Herschel-Bulkley (HB e Mizhari Berk. A tensão residual diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura para 5, 25 e 45 °C, enquanto que para 65 °C os efeitos foram contrários, exibindo elevados valores. A viscosidade diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura e a equação de Arrhenius apresentou uma boa descrição do efeito da temperatura na viscosidade aparente do mirtilo, e a energia de ativação (Ea determinada para uma taxa de

  10. Micro-modified atmosphere storage of blueberries%蓝莓微气调贮藏技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宋宋; 姜惠铁; 高海霞; 窦连登; 王宝刚

    2012-01-01

    Micro-modified atmosphere storage of blueberries was studied. Effects of different materials, the shelf life of blueberries by micro-modified atmosphere storage, and the changes of internal quality during storage were compared, and the storability of different varieties was discussed. Results showed that the effect of micro-modified atmosphere storage E was much better than other materials, and good fruit rate reached to 94% after 75 days' storage. There was no significant difference in internal quality of blueberries between harvest and storage, but sales under low temperature were needed to extend shelf life. Storability of "Bluecrop" was significantly higher than "Darrow" and "Elliott", and it was 14% and 20% higher after 60 days' storage, respectively. Conclusion: It could prolong the storage time for 30-45 days compared with other storage methods.%以蓝莓为试材,研究其微气调贮藏技术,比较不同微气调材料的贮藏效果,观察微气调贮藏后果实的货架期和贮藏期间果实内部品质的变化,并探讨品种的耐贮性。研究发现,微气调E的贮藏效果显著优于其他材料,贮藏75d好果率达94%,贮藏前后果实内部品质无显著性差异,但需低温销售延长贷架期;初步得出,蓝丰品种的耐贮性显著高于达柔、埃利奥特,贮藏60d好果率高出14%、20%。结论:应用微气调技术贮藏蓝莓可比其他方式延长贮藏期30~45d。

  11. Methods for RNA isolation from blueberry tissues%蓝莓组织 RNA 提取方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余柯达; 叶美娟; 陈文荣; 朱凯丽; 张常晶; 郭卫东

    2016-01-01

    为建立蓝莓组织RNA提取方法,以蓝莓幼果为材料,比较了5种RNA提取方法,建立了改良的十六烷基三甲基溴化铵-乙酸钾( CTAB-KAc)提取方法,并比较了CTAB-KAc法对蓝莓根、成熟叶、幼茎、花、幼果和成熟果实组织RNA的提取效果.结果表明:CTAB-KAc法提取RNA的过程只需3 h,蓝莓幼果RNA的A260/A280和A260/A230值分别达到2.02和2.46,且无基因组DNA污染,RNA产量达到143.37μg· g-1;用CTAB-KAc法成功提取了蓝莓成熟叶、幼茎、花、幼果和成熟果实组织的RNA,但是根的RNA提取方法还需优化.把上述RNA反转录成cDNA后进行PCR,扩增出预期大小的目的片段,可满足后续分子生物学实验的要求.%Tissues of blueberry were generally rich in polysaccharides, proteins, and polyphenols, resulting in the difficulties of RNA isolation with both high quantity and quality.To optimize the technology of RNA isola-tion from blueberry tissues, five methods for RNA extraction from immature fruit of blueberry were evaluated. The results showed that the most efficient technique for RNA isolation from blueberry fruits was the optimized CTAB-KAc-based method.A subsequent experiment showed that the optimized CTAB-KAc-based technique was also efficient in successful RNA isolation from full-expanded leaf, green stem, flower, immature fruit and mature fruit of blueberry, although protocol for roots still needed to be optimized.The method yielded 143.37μg· g-1 high-quality RNA without DNA contamination within 3 h.The ratios of A260/A280 and A260/A230 of the total RNA from immature fruit of blueberry were 2.02 and 2.46, respectively.Reverse transcription-PCR con-firmed that the isolated RNA was of appropriate quality and integrity for subsequent molecular biology studies.

  12. 蓝莓叶水提物的体外抗氧化活性%In Vitro Antioxidation Activity of Blueberry Leaf Water Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓红; 沈佳鑫; 马瑞; 徐丽珊

    2012-01-01

    通过对蓝莓叶水提物的还原力、DPPH·自由基的清除率及总抗氧化能力的测定,检测蓝莓叶水提物的体外抗氧化活性.同时以Vc和BHA为对照,并与等质量Vc,BHA混合,考察Vc和BHA对蓝莓叶水提物体外抗氧化效果的影响.结果表明,蓝莓叶水提物对DPPH·自由基的清除能力及还原力均弱于Vc和BHA,且差异达极显著水平.但在一定浓度范围内,蓝莓叶水提物的总抗氧化能力与BHA相近.在还原力上,Vc与蓝莓叶水提物之间存在协同作用.蓝莓叶水提物体外抗氧化活性虽弱于Vc和BHA,但将一定量的提取物混于BHA中可产生相近的抗氧化效果.因此,蓝莓叶水提物可减少化学合成抗氧化剂在食品中的添加.%The in vitro antioxidation activities of blueberry leaf water extracts were studied by detecting the reduction force, scavenging effects on DPPH ? radical and total antioxidant capacity. Taking combination of vitamin C and BHA as control group, with the same weight vitamin C and BHA mixture, the effects of Vc and BHA on in vitro antioxidation blueberry leaf water extracts were studied. The results showed that: scavenging capacity and reducing power of DPPH ? radical on water extracts of blueberry leaf were lower than vitamin C and BHA. But in a certain concentration range, total antioxidant capacity of water extracts of blueberry leaf was similar with BHA. In reduction of force, Vc and water extracts had cooperative effect. The antioxidant activity of water extracts of blueberry leaf was weak in Vc and BHA, but a certain amount extracts mixing, in BHA could have the similar antioxidant effect. Therefore, blueberry leaf water extracts could reduce chemical synthetic antioxidants additive in food.

  13. Carbon emission from the soil surface in a mature blueberry pine forest of the middle taiga (Republic of Komi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, A. F.

    2016-08-01

    Data on the input of plant falloff and organic matter decomposition on the surface of the peaty podzolic-gleyic humus-illuvial (Gleyic Podzol) soil under a mature blueberry pine forest in the middle taiga are presented. The fractional composition of the falloff was determined, and constants of decomposition for its components were calculated. The carbon flux to the atmosphere due to the mineralization of plant residues is estimated at 251 g/m2. A close positive correlation ( r = 0.71; P < 0.05) was found between the carbon dioxide emission measured using a gas analyzer and the soil temperature at the depth of 10 cm. The CO2 emission for a growing period calculated from the data on its dependence on soil temperature in different years varied from 243 to 313 g C/m2 and was related to weather conditions.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin-3-Glucoside and Malvidin-3-Galactoside in Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yang Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry fruits have a wide range of health benefits because of their abundant anthocyanins, which are natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry’s two main anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside on inflammatory response in endothelial cells. These two malvidin glycosides could inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α induced increases of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 production both in the protein and mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Mv-3-glc at the concentration of 1 μM could inhibit 35.9% increased MCP-1, 54.4% ICAM-1, and 44.7% VCAM-1 protein in supernatant, as well as 9.88% MCP-1 and 48.6% ICAM-1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05. In addition, they could decrease IκBα degradation (Mv-3-glc, Mv-3-gal, and their mixture at the concentration of 50 μM had the inhibition rate of 84.8%, 75.3%, and 43.2%, respectively, p < 0.01 and block the nuclear translocation of p65, which suggested their anti-inflammation mechanism was mediated by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB pathway. In general malvidin-3-glucoside had better anti-inflammatory effect than malvidin-3-galactoside. These results indicated that blueberry is good resource of anti-inflammatory anthocyanins, which can be promising molecules for the development of nutraceuticals to prevent chronic inflammation in many diseases.

  15. Effect of Microencapsulation by Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying Technique on the Antioxidant Properties of Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus Juice Polyphenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkowska Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry juice with high polyphenol concentration was spray- or freeze-dried using different coating materials: HP-β-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin. The quality of the obtained powders was characterised by their anthocyanin content, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. SEM was used for monitoring structures and size (2–20 μm of the microparticles. The losses of total phenolic compounds during spray-drying reached 76–78% on average, while these of anthocyanins about 57%. Freeze-dried powders showed better retention values of anthocyanins, which was about 1.5-fold higher than for the spray-dried counterparts. All blueberry preparations studied were characterised by very high radical scavenging activity.

  16. Study on Strong Seedling in Bottle of Four Varieties of Blueberry%四个蓝莓品种组培苗瓶内壮苗的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙书伟; 姚平; 黄国辉; 宋洁; 周文杰

    2016-01-01

    To explore the best strong seedling technology of tissue culture seedling of four varieties of blueberry of Bluecrop, Northblue, Northland and Darrow in bottle, effects of culture mediums with different kinds and con-centrations of hormones on the seedling height, coarseness, survival rate after seedling adaptation were tested. The results showed that the best culture medium for strong seedling of four varieties of blueberry was improved WPM culture medium +IAA0. 15 mg/L+ZT0. 05 mg/L. Survival rate after seedling adaptation of four varieties blueber-ry were significantly increased after strong seedling. Strong seedling culture of blueberry can applied as a conven-tional cultivation technique of in vitro rapid propagation.%为探索四个蓝莓品种组培苗瓶内壮苗最佳技术,检测不同激素种类和浓度的培养基处理蓝丰、北蓝、北陆和达柔四个蓝莓品种后,组培苗的高度、粗度、炼苗后成活率,结果表明:四个蓝莓品种复壮最佳培养基配方为改良WPM培养基+IAA0.15 mg · L-1+ZT0.05 mg · L-1。四个品种组培瓶苗复壮后比复壮前炼苗成活率有大幅提高。蓝莓复壮培养可以做为离体快繁的常规技术环节应用。

  17. Gene expression and metabolite profiling of developing highbush blueberry fruit indicates transcriptional regulation of flavonoid metabolism and activation of abscisic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Zaharia, L Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kennedy, James A; Constabel, C Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation of

  18. Study of the Process of Blueberry and Kudzuvine Root Compound Beverage%蓝莓葛根复合饮料的加工与研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕾; 鲍俊杰; 王辰龙; 闫晓明; 徐义流

    2013-01-01

    The processing of blueberry and kudzuvine root compound beverage was studied. The best Process con⁃ditions was established.In this study,preparation of flesh blueberry juice with pectinase,its reaction temperature is 40℃,enzyme loading of 0.3%,hydrolysis time of 5h.The flavor of juice processing technology was determined for the blueberry juice content of 140mL,adding sugar 8g and kudzuvine root 20mL,rose 10mL,VC 2.33%,Cit⁃ric acid 0.23%,Potassium sorbate 0.02%,Sugar acid ratio 40∶1. The flavor of the compound blueberry beverage was Fresh and delicious.%  研究了新型的蓝莓葛根复合饮料的生产工艺,确立了最佳的工艺条件。用果胶酶处理蓝莓汁的反应温度为40℃、加酶量0.3%、酶解5h。蓝莓原汁的添加量为140mL,白糖的添加量为8g,葛根汁的添加量为20mL,玫瑰花汁的添加量为10mL,VC的添加量为2.33%,柠檬酸的添加量为0.23%,山梨酸钾的添加量为0.02%,糖酸比为40∶1。复合蓝莓饮料清新宜人、风味俱佳,营养丰富。

  19. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  20. Parameterization of the InVEST Crop Pollination Model to spatially predict abundance of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) native bee pollinators in Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Shannon C.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Drummond, Frank; Bushmann, Sara; McGill, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native honeybees historically have been managed for crop pollination, however, recent population declines draw attention to pollination services provided by native bees. We applied the InVEST Crop Pollination model, developed to predict native bee abundance from habitat resources, in Maine's wild blueberry crop landscape. We evaluated model performance with parameters informed by four approaches: 1) expert opinion; 2) sensitivity analysis; 3) sensitivity analysis informed model optimization; and, 4) simulated annealing (uninformed) model optimization. Uninformed optimization improved model performance by 29% compared to expert opinion-informed model, while sensitivity-analysis informed optimization improved model performance by 54%. This suggests that expert opinion may not result in the best parameter values for the InVEST model. The proportion of deciduous/mixed forest within 2000 m of a blueberry field also reliably predicted native bee abundance in blueberry fields, however, the InVEST model provides an efficient tool to estimate bee abundance beyond the field perimeter.

  1. Optimization of Preparation Process for Processed Cheese Fortified with Blueberry Pulp%蓝莓果肉再制干酪工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 李浩; 田雪娇; 张建强; 张丽萍

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with process optimization for the preparation of processed cheese fortified with blueberry pulp from fast-ripened cheese and blueberry pulp using one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods.The optimal formulation for processed cheese was skimmed milk powder 8%,butter 10%,blueberry pulp 20%,emulsifying salt 1.0%,xanthan gum 0.3%,salt 1.5%,and purified water 35%,which were simultaneously heated at 85 ℃ and stirred for 7 min.%以快速成熟干酪、蓝莓果浆为主要原料,通过单因素和正交试验对蓝莓果肉再制干酪工艺进行优化,确定最佳配方为:加入脱脂奶粉8%、黄油10%、蓝莓果浆20%、乳化盐1.5%、黄原胶0.3%、食盐1.5%、纯净水35%、加热温度85℃、搅拌时间7min。

  2. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.), Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb.) and Blueberry Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hirotoshi; Kunitake, Hisato; Kawasaki-Takaki, Ryoko; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Masao; Komatsu, Haruki; Yukizaki, Chizuko

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.) was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.). The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract. PMID:27137366

  3. Study on the Brewing Process of Blueberry Dry Red Wine%蓝莓干红酒酿制工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱平; 吉平; 张文雅; 柯常毅; 李涛; 谭祥

    2013-01-01

    According to the blueberry juice initial sugar content, from 12° red blueberry wine will fill sugar is adjusted to 21%, the amount of SO2 was adjusted to 40mg/L. meanwhile, adding active dry yeast powder, the inoculation was 0.20%, at 25℃ temperature fermentation for 6 days, the main fermentation onto the end of low temperature aging, can make the residual sugar is low, moderate acidity, the wine body coordination, mellow taste, fruit suitable, deep ruby red in color, with blueberry special typical style of dry red wine.%根据蓝莓汁初始糖度,酿制12°干红蓝莓酒时将补糖量调整至21%,SO2添加量调整为40mg/L。同时,添加活性干酵母粉,其接种量为0.20%,在25℃条件下控温发酵6d,主发酵结束转入低温陈酿,能够酿制残糖较低、酸度适中、酒体协调、口感醇厚、果香适宜,色泽为深宝石红,具有蓝莓特有典型风格的蓝莓干红酒。

  4. Effect of high pressure processing on the qualities of blueberry juice%超高压处理对蓝莓汁品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寅; 陶晓赟; 陈健; 张师; 李路宁; 孙爱东

    2013-01-01

    The effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (200~500MPa for 5~15min)on the quality changes of blueberry juice were studied.The results showed that microorganisms in fresh blueberry juice could be inactivated effectively by HPP.Compared with the control samples, the color, the reducing sugar and the soluble solids in blueberry juice had no significant change treated by HPP treatment, while total sugars and total phenol were decreased after HPP treatment.Anthocyanins and Vc were well retained after HPP treatment.%以蓝莓汁为原料,采用200~500MPa高压分别对蓝莓汁处理5~15min,对处理后的蓝莓汁进行微生物和理化指标检测 研究结果表明:超高压处理杀菌效果显著,400MPa处理10min已无菌落检出;高压处理对蓝莓汁色泽、还原糖、可溶性固形物的影响较小,蓝莓汁中的花青素和Vc含量在高压处理后保留率达90%以上,而总酸和总酚含量略有下降.

  5. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq., Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb. and Blueberry Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotoshi Tsuda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.. The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract.

  6. 金属离子对蓝莓花色苷的影响%Effects of metal ions on the blueberry anthocyanins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖畅; 齐凤元; 冯彦博

    2009-01-01

    Anthocyanins have important functional characteristic, but its stability was influenced by various physical-chemical factors. Metal ions have different influence on the stability of anthocyanins. Study on the effects of metal ions on the stability of blueberry anthocyanins to provide evidence for their industrialized production. The effects of metal ions on the blueberry anthocyanins were ascertained by absorbency in different metal ions solution. Results showed that the wavelength of absorption respectively was 279 nm and 520 nm in pH3.0 acid solvent. K+ had no effect on the stability of anthocyanins. Ca2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ had a certain effect of dour improvement, but no effect on the stability of anthocyanins. , Na+ , Zn2+ and Mn2+ could not noly strengthen the colour at higher concentration, but enhance the stability of blueberry anthocyanins. Fe2+, Fe3+ and Pb2+ were harmful to the stability of blueberry anthocyanins while Fe3+ and Pb2+ could lead to precipitate in blueberry anthocyanins solution.%花色苷具有重要的生理功能,但其稳定性易受各种理化因素的影响而发生变化.本试验系统地研究金属离子对其稳定性的影响,为蓝莓花色苷的加工生产提供理论指导.通过测定蓝莓花色苷在不同浓度金属溶液中的吸光度的变化,确定金属离子对蓝莓花色苷稳定性的影响.结果表明:蓝莓花色苷在酸性水溶液中的吸收峰分别在279,520 nm处.K+不能使花色苷的吸光度增加,对花色苷的稳定性也无显著影响;Ca2+、Cu2+、Al3+具有增色作用,对花色苷的稳定性无显著影响;高浓度Na+、Zn2+、Mn2+具有增色作用,而且能够增强花色苷的稳定性;Fe2+、Fe3+、Pb2+对花色苷具有破坏作用,使花色苷的稳定性下降,含Fe3+、Pb2+的花色苷溶液中有白色沉淀生成.

  7. 高压脉冲电场和热处理对蓝莓汁品质的影响%Influence of pulsed electric field(PEF) and thermal treatments on quality of blueberry juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寅; 陶晓赟; 陈健; 张师; 李路宁; 孙爱东

    2012-01-01

    以蓝莓汁为原料,比较了高压脉冲电场(PEF)杀菌和热力杀菌处理对蓝莓汁中微生物和理化指标的影响,以及不同处理的蓝莓汁在贮藏期间的品质变化规律。结果表明:PEF可以有效杀灭蓝莓汁中的微生物;PEF杀菌对蓝莓汁色泽参数影响程度小;杀菌处理后,贮藏期内PEF处理和热处理对蓝莓汁的还原糖、总酸、可溶性固形物含量、总酚含量影响较小,PEF处理较热处理能更好地保持蓝莓汁中的VC和花青素含量。%The fresh blueberry was selected as the trial material.Two samples of blueberry juice were sterilized by pulsed electric field(PEF)and thermal treatments respectively and their qualities were analyzed and compared by microorganisms chemical evaluation.The change of fresh blueberry juice qualities during storage were studied.The results showed that microorganisms in fresh blueberry juice could be inactivated effectively by PEF.Less influence of PEF was observed on the color quality of blueberry juice.After sterilization,there was no significant change in the relative content of deoxidize sugar,total acid,soluble solid content and total phenol.Fresh blueberry juice treated with PEF sterilization was better than that with heat sterilization not only in VC,but also in anthocyanins.

  8. Evaluation of the in vitro/in vivo potential of five berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) commonly used as herbal supplements to inhibit uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eu Jin; Park, Jung Bae; Yoon, Kee Dong; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated inhibitory potentials of popularly-consumed berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) as herbal supplements on UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 in vitro. We also investigated the potential herb-drug interaction via UGT1A1 inhibition by blueberry in vivo. We demonstrated that these berries had only weak inhibitory effects on the five UGTs. Bilberry and elderberry had no apparent inhibitions. Blueberry weakly inhibited UGT1A1 with an IC50 value of 62.4±4.40 μg/mL and a Ki value of 53.1 μg/mL. Blueberry also weakly inhibited UGT2B7 with an IC50 value of 147±11.1 μg/mL. In addition, cranberry weakly inhibited UGT1A9 activity (IC50=458±49.7 μg/mL) and raspberry ketones weakly inhibited UGT2B7 activity (IC50=248±28.2 μg/mL). Among tested berries, blueberry showed the lowest IC50 value in the inhibition of UGT1A1 in vitro. However, the co-administration of blueberry had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38, which was mainly eliminated via UGT1A1, in vivo. Our data suggests that these five berries are unlikely to cause clinically significant herb-drug interactions mediated via inhibition of UGT enzymes involved in drug metabolism. These findings should enable an understanding of herb-drug interactions for the safe use of popularly-consumed berries.

  9. Determining Rooting Ability of Ennobled Blueberry Wood Pieces (Vaccinium corymbosum L. with Presence of Growth Regulators IBA and NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABRI BRAHA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ennobled blueberry (V. Corymbosum L. has many specific requirements for optimal growth, therefore, the increase of cultivated areas is limited. It requires acidic soils (pH 4,3-4,8, well drained, with full aeration and a constant moderate amount of moisture. The successful technique of asexual propagation will be necessary for rapid clonal propagation of selected cultivars. The objective of this experiment was to identify an efficient way to improve rooting with the help of growth regulators in the ‘Bluecrop’ cultivar using well-lignified one-year old wood pieces, collected at the end of winter, end of March prior to bud swelling. Treatments with various concentrations (1500, 3000, 4500 mg/l, show that treatment with IBA at 3000 mg/l has the highest rooting percentage in comparison to NAA. Whilst the torf-perlite substrate (at a 2:1 ratio, has produced a higher rooting percentage compared to the torf-only substrate, and the crucial factor for successful rooting is the time of collecting wood pieces. Treatment results have promoted higher rooting of wooden pieces compared to the control (untreated wooden pieces. The most efficient promotor in all concentrations was IBA.

  10. Short-term UV-B radiation affects photosynthetic performance and antioxidant gene expression in highbush blueberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2016-10-01

    The impact of increased artificial UV-B radiation on photosynthetic performance, antioxidant and SOD activities and molecular antioxidant metabolism responses in leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes was studied. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 W m(-2) of biologically-effective UV-B irradiance for 0-72 h. Our findings show that net photosynthesis (Pn) decreased significantly in Bluegold, accompanied by a reduction in the effective quantum yield (ФPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR), especially at the highest UV-B irradiation. On the other hand, Brigitta showed a better photosynthetic performance, as well as a clear increment in the antioxidant activity response that could be associated with increased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the early hours of induced UV-B stress in all treatments. At the molecular level, the expression of the three antioxidant genes evaluated in both genotypes had a similar tendency. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) expression was significantly increased (6-fold) in Bluegold compared to Brigitta. Thus, the reduction of Pn concomitant with a lower photochemical performance and a reduced response of antioxidant metabolism suggest that the Bluegold genotype is more sensitive to UV-B radiation, while Brigitta appears to tolerate better moderate UV-B irradiance in a short-term experiment.

  11. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  12. The Interacting Axes of Environmental, Health, and Social Justice Cumulative Impacts: A Case Study of the Blueberry River First Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislason, Maya K; Andersen, Holly K

    2016-10-18

    We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects. We use the case study to contemplate several mechanisms at the intersection of these axes whereby the negative effects of each not only add but also amplify through their interactions. For example, direct impact along the environmental axis indirectly amplifies other health and social justice impacts separately from the direct impacts on those axes. We conclude there is significant work still to be done to use cumulative indicators to study the impacts of extractive industry projects-like liquefied natural gas-on peoples, environments, and health.

  13. The Interacting Axes of Environmental, Health, and Social Justice Cumulative Impacts: A Case Study of the Blueberry River First Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya K Gislason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects. We use the case study to contemplate several mechanisms at the intersection of these axes whereby the negative effects of each not only add but also amplify through their interactions. For example, direct impact along the environmental axis indirectly amplifies other health and social justice impacts separately from the direct impacts on those axes. We conclude there is significant work still to be done to use cumulative indicators to study the impacts of extractive industry projects—like liquefied natural gas—on peoples, environments, and health.

  14. The efficacy of blueberry and grape seed extract combination on triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chian-Sem; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Chen, Jui-Hao; Liu, Yuh-Hwa; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Traditional therapy with proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics is regarded as optimal for H. pylori eradication whereas, the eradication rate is unsatisfactory. Studies have reported that cranberry may inhibit H. pylori adhesion to the human gastric mucus but lack of other berry extracts have been evaluated in clinical study. Thus, a 9-week add-on randomised controlled trial was conducted to explore the impact of blueberry and grape seed extract (BGE) combinations traditional therapy for H. pylori eradication. In results, we found that there was no significant difference of eradication rate between the berry extract group and placebo group in the intention-to-treat analysis and in the per-protocol analysis (94.64% versus 84.62%, p = 0.085). Diarrhoea, constipation and epigastric pain were observed increasing during ingestion of the berry extract in some cases. In conclusion, this study indicated that no significant difference existed between the BGE extract group and placebo group in eradication rate under triple therapy.

  15. Study on the Content Change of Anthocyanins in the Process of Blueberry Vinegar Fermentation%探究蓝莓果醋发酵过程中花青素含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪文艳; 蒋予箭

    2015-01-01

    Adopt vanillic aldehyde-sulfuric acid colorimetry to detect the content of anthocyanins during the process of alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation of blueberry vinegar.Based on the results,discuss the effects of blueberry vinegar fermentation process on anthocyanins.%采用香草醛-硫酸比色法测定蓝莓果醋发酵过程中酒精发酵和醋酸发酵阶段的花青素含量,根据实验结果分析探究蓝莓果醋发酵过程对花青素的影响。

  16. Screening of Yeast Strains for Blueberry Wine and Study on Their Fermenting Performance%蓝莓果酒酵母筛选及发酵性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春光; 刘盈盈; 王莹; 向准; 孙超; 贺红早

    2015-01-01

    采集贵州麻江蓝莓栽培基地土壤、蓝莓叶、蓝莓鲜果、自然发酵的不同阶段发酵液为实验材料,通过选用不同培养基富集酵母,并进行蓝莓专用酵母筛选和发酵特性能研究.结果表明,共分离得46株酵母,其中从土壤共分离得6株酵母菌,蓝莓叶上分离得3株,果表皮分离得9株,自然发酵不同阶段发酵液分离到28株,富集酵母菌适合的培养基为酵母富集培养基、YEPD培养基和PDA培养基.进行复筛和发酵性能试验,筛选到的4株酵母菌均能发酵出蓝莓果香和酒香协调、酸味柔和、酒体丰满的蓝莓果酒,具有开发成优良商品果酒酵母的潜力.为今后酿造具有独特风格的蓝莓酒有非常重要的意义.%The soil, blueberry leaf, blueberry fruit, and blueberry at different natural fermentation stages were collected as the experimental ma-terials. Through the selection of different culture mediums for yeast strains accumulation, a total of 46 yeast strains was isolated successfully in-cluding 6 strains from the soil, 3 strains from blueberry leaf, 9 strains from blueberry fruit peel, and 28 strains from blueberry at different natu-ral fermentation stages. The culture mediums suitable for yeast strains accumulation included yeast accumulation culture medium, YEPD cul-ture medium, and PDA culture medium. After secondary screening and fermenting performance test, 4 yeast strains were finally obtained suit-able for producing blueberry wine with enjoyable taste, harmonious wine aroma and full wine body. Besides, they had the development poten-tials as commercial yeast strains. This study was of great significance in guiding the development of blueberry wine with special styles.

  17. Comparative Study of Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Blueberry Cultivars%不同蓝莓品种光合特性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晓鹰; 吕国华; 邵丽萍; 权俊萍; 孟娉

    2012-01-01

    以石河子地区引种栽培的3个北高灌蓝莓品种为研究对象,分析其光合-光响应曲线特征,测定比较光合相关参数(净光合速率、蒸腾速率、细胞间CO2浓度、气孔导度)变化,测定叶绿素含量,观察叶表皮特征及气孔形态差异,揭示不同蓝莓品种间光合差异,为蓝莓适宜品种的筛选和确定提供理论支持.结果表明:1)3个蓝莓品种叶绿素含量有显著性差异;2)蓝莓叶表皮特征表现为具有表皮毛,气孔均为椭圆形,3个蓝莓品种在气孔大小及气孔分布数量上表现出一定差异,蓝莓06的气孔大小及分布数量最多;3)3个蓝莓品种的光合速率与光合有效辐射、气孔导度、蒸腾速率呈正相关,与胞间CO2浓度呈负相关;4)蓝莓的光饱和点(LSP)和光补偿点(LCP)的分别为7.41(μmol/m2)/s~15.88(μmol/m2)/s和1.26(μmol/m2)/s~2.15(μmol/m2)/s,北高灌蓝莓属于阴性植物且光合能力差异显著,蓝莓10号光合能力综合表现较强,对光环境的适应性表现良好,蓝莓06号在光合能力及光适应方面表现较弱.%Three northern highbush blueberry varieties were uses as study object,which were introduced and cultivated in Shihezi. This research analyzed the photosynthesis characteristics of the photosynthetic light response curve, determined and compared the relevant parameters including net photosynthetic rate (Pn) , transpiration rate ( Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal conductance (Gs) ,determined the changes of chlorophyll content,and observed the characters of leaf epidermis and stomatal morphological differences. Results:1)Chlorophyll contents of the three blueberries were significantly different. 2)The leaf epidermal characters;they have tnchomes and ova! stoma; stomatal size and distribution quantity showed difference in the three varieties, with NO. 06 blueberry the largest in them. 3)The photosynthetic rate were positively correlated with active photosynthetic

  18. Research Status and Prospects of Blueberry Anthocyanin%蓝莓花青苷的研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑红岩; 刘建兰; 高梦; 刘同方; 于华忠

    2014-01-01

    针对近几年来国内外蓝莓花青苷的发展现状以及未来的发展方向,从蓝莓花青苷的化学结构、理化性质、药理活性、检测方法、制备方法以及应用现状等方面进行了综述,指出蓝莓花青苷的提取方法主要有溶剂提取法、酶提取法、超声波提取法、超临界流体萃取法等,其中溶剂提取法最常见;检测方法主要有比色法、pH示差法、差减法和高效液相色谱法;蓝莓花青苷其具有抗氧化、抗突变、抗菌及保护心血管等作用,其主要应用于食品、医药、保健品、化妆品及嗜好品工业中。%In allusion to the development status of blueberry anthocyanin at home and abroad in recent years and the development direction in the future,the research progress of anthocyanin in blueberry was summarized,including chemical structure, physical and chemical properties, pharmacological activity, preparation methods, detection methods and application status of anthocyanin in blueberry, etc. In addition,the main extraction methods of anthocyanin in blueberry were pointed out, such as solvent extraction method,enzyme extraction method,ultrasonic extraction method,supercritical fluid extraction method.Herein to,the solvent extraction method was the most common;the detection methods mainly contained colorimetric method, minusing method, pH differential method and HPLC;Moreover, anthocyanin has the functions of antioxidation,antimutagenic effect,antibacterial effect and cardiovascular system protection.Mainly used in food, medicine, health care products, cosmetics and hobby goods industry.

  19. 黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋饮料的研发%Study on Composite Fruit Vinegar Beverage of Blackcurrants and Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关莹; 张冬雪; 张军

    2011-01-01

    本试验采用二次发酵法,通过对黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋的酒精发酵及醋酸发酵的优化,最终确定黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋的酒精发酵最佳工艺为:黑加仑果汁与蓝莓果汁3∶2复合,在初始糖度8°Bx、初始pH3.8、28℃发酵6d、.醋酸发酵最佳条件为:发酵温度35℃,通风量为1∶0.10~0.15(V/V/min),酒精含量6.0%.接种量8.0%,初始pH5.5.黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋饮料配方:12%复合果醋、5.5%白砂糖、2%蜂蜜、0.1%食盐、0.06%复合香抖,评分为92分.工艺调整后的放大生产产品质量仍稳定、达标.产品具有食醋清香和黑加仑、蓝莓果香,酸味柔和,风味独特.%The tests used secondary fermentation on composite fruit vinegar beverage of blackcurrants and blueberry. From optimization of acetic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation ,the optimum alcoholic fermentation technology of composite juice of blackcurrants and blueberry was as follows: blackcurrant and blueberry fruit juice mixed with 3:2,initial sugar degree 18。 BX,fermentation temperature 28℃ ,fermentation time 6d,initial pH 3.8.The optimized fermentation conditions of acetic acid were as follows:temperature 35℃,ventilation quantity controlled between l:0.10_0.15(v/v)min,initial content of alcohol 6.0%,inoculum concentration 8.0%, initial pH 5.5.The formula of composite fruit vinegar beverage of blackcurrants and blueberry was as follows:composite fruit vinegar 12%,white sugar 5.5%,honey 2% ,common salt 0.1%,composite flavor 0.06%,a score of 92.The products' quality of amplification production after technique adjustment was still stable and could attain the standards.

  20. 甜型野生蓝莓酒澄清优化试验研究%Experimental Study on Clarification of Sweet Wild Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波

    2016-01-01

    The experiment made wild blueberry as the raw material to make into sweet blueberry wine and stud-ied gelatin,bentonite,PVPP,chitosan four clarification agent on the effects of the sweet blueberry wine clarifi-cation.Then single factor experiment and orthogonal test was made on compound clarifying agent. The results showed that the compound clarifying agent and cold treatment could achieve effect of clarification. The best ad-dition amount of bentonite and chitosan were 0.45 g/L and 0.25 g/L ,clarified for three days under-5℃,its lu-minousness could reach 98.40%,the alcohol content was 17.0% (vol) ,total sugar content more than 55 g/L and total acids content 6.8 g/L,The sweet blueberry wine showed bright ruby red colour,harmonious aroma and mellow taste.%以野生蓝莓为原料加工成甜型蓝莓原酒,分别研究了澄清剂:明胶、皂土、PVPP、壳聚糖对蓝莓果酒澄清效果的影响,然后对复合澄清剂进行了单因素试验和正交试验。结果表明:采用复合澄清剂并进行冷处理,可以达到更为理想的澄清效果。即皂土最佳添加量0.45 g/L、壳聚糖最佳添加量0.25 g/L、在-5℃下澄清3 d,其透光率可高达到98.40%,酒精度17.1%(vol),总糖≥55 g/L,总酸6.8 g/L.酒体呈明亮的宝石红,果香、酒香和谐,口感醇厚。

  1. The High Yield Cultivation Techniques of Blueberry in Suitable Habitat of Anhui%安徽蓝莓适生地蓝莓丰产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊基胜; 蒋光月; 陶龙

    2012-01-01

    在安徽蓝莓适生地多年蓝莓栽培和管理基础上总结了蓝莓丰产栽培技术,从建园、管理到采收方面作了详细的描述,并阐述了病虫鸟害的防治.%The high yield cultivation techniques of blueberry in suitable habitat of Anhui based on years of cultivation and management were summarized. Moreover, the construction of orchard, field management and harvesting were described in detail, the prevention and cure of pest and disease damage were expounded.

  2. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica;

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative...... were collected and used to evaluate anthocyanin absorption (through mass spectrometry), endogenous and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in blood mononuclear cells (through the comet assay), and plasma nitric oxide concentrations (through a fluorometric assay). Peripheral arterial function was assessed...

  3. Occurrence and biology of Tolype innocens (Burmeister on blueberry Ocorrência e biologia de Tolype innocens (Burmeister em mirtilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salvador Louzada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 is reported for the first time damaging blueberry (Vaccinium ashei plants in Brazil having the caterpillars feeding on leaves and new shoots. T. innocens biology was studied on blueberry leaves in laboratory conditions and then a fertility life table was elaborated. Developmental time and viability of egg, larval and pupal stages and egg-adult period were 15.0 and 35.3, 33.3 and 84.5, 20.6 and 100, and 69.2 days and 45%, respectively. Average pupal weight was 0.840g for the females and 0.580g for the males. The sex ratio was 0.5. Pre-oviposition and oviposition time lasted 6.34 and 12.1 days, respectively. Mean fecundity was 251 eggs per female. Eggs were laid either individually or in masses. Longevity was 19.0 and 20.0 days for males and females, respectively. T. innocens population increased 47 times per generation, with a mean generation time of 77 days, and a finite rate of increase of 1.02. This data on biological parameters will be useful for establishing control strategies.A ocorrência de Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 (Lasiocampidae é relatada pela primeira vez danificando o mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei no Brasil, sendo que as lagartas se alimentam das folhas e ramos novos. Em laboratório, foi estudada a biologia em folhas de mirtilo em condições controladas de temperatura (25±1ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotofase (12h e elaborada a tabela de vida de fertilidade. A duração e a viabilidade dos estágios de ovo, lagarta e pupa, e período ovo-adulto foram de 15,0 e 35,3; 33,3 e 84,5; 20,6 e 100; e 69,2 dias e 45%, respectivamente. O peso médio de pupas foi de 0,840g para as fêmeas e 0,580g para os machos. A razão sexual foi de 0,5. Os períodos de pré-oviposição e oviposição foram de 6,34 e 12,1 dias, respectivamente. A fecundidade média foi de 251 ovos por fêmea, colocados de forma isolada ou em massas. A longevidade dos machos foi de 19,0 dias e das fêmeas de 20,0 dias. T

  4. Design and sampling plan optimization for RT-qPCR experiments in plants: a case study in blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The qPCR assay has become a routine technology in plant biotechnology and agricultural research. It is unlikely to be technically improved, but there are still challenges which center around minimizing the variability in results and transparency when reporting technical data in support of the conclusions of a study. There are a number of aspects of the pre- and post-assay workflow that contribute to variability of results. Here, through the study of the introduction of error in qPCR measurements at different stages of the workflow, we describe the most important causes of technical variability in a case study using blueberry. In this study, we found that the stage for which increasing the number of replicates would be the most beneficial depends on the tissue used. For example, we would recommend the use of more RT replicates when working with leaf tissue, while the use of more sampling (RNA extraction replicates would be recommended when working with stems or fruits to obtain the most optimal results. The use of more qPCR replicates provides the least benefit as it is the most reproducible step. By knowing the distribution of error over an entire experiment and the costs at each step, we have developed a script to identify the optimal sampling plan within the limits of a given budget. These findings should help plant scientists improve the design of qPCR experiments and refine their laboratory practices in order to conduct qPCR assays in a more reliable-manner to produce more consistent and reproducible data.

  5. Anthocyanins extracted from Chinese blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) and its anticancer effects on DLD-1 and COLO205 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZU Xiao-yan; ZHANG Zhen-ya; ZHANG Xiao-wen; YOSHIOKA Masahiro; YANG Ying-nan; LI Ji

    2010-01-01

    Background Vaccinium uliginosum L. is a type of blueberry found in the Chinese Changbai Mountains. We extracted Vaccinium uliginosurn Anthocyanins (Av.uli) to investigate its bioactivity on suppressing cancer cells.Methods Av.uli was extracted under different conditions of temperature (10℃-35℃), pH 1.0-3.0, and diatomaceous earth (1.0 g-3.0 g), followed by a HPLC analysis for the determination of the ingredients. Its anticancer bioactivities on human colon and colorectal cancer cells (DLD-1 and COLO205) were compared with those on Lonicera caerulea Anthocyanins (AL.cae) and Vaccinium myrtillus Anthocyanins (Av.myr), using cell viability assays, DNA electrophoresis and nuclear morphology assays.Results The optimum process of Av.uliextraction involved conditions of temperature 20℃, pH 2.0, and diatomaceous earth 1.0 g/50 g of fruit weight. Av.uli contained 5 main components: delphinidin (40.70±1.72)%, cyanidin (3.40±0.68)%,petunidin (17.70±0.54)%, peonidin (2.90±0.63)% and malvidin (35.50±1.11)%. The malvidin percentage was significantly higher (P <0.05) than it in Av.myr. Av.uli complied with a dose-dependent repression of cancer cell proliferation with an IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) value of 50 μg/ml, and showed greater anticancer efficiency than AL. cae and Av. myr under the same cell treatment conditions. These observations were further supported by the results of nuclear assays.Conclusions The extraction protocol and conditions we used were effective for anthocyanin extraction. Av.uli could be a feasible practical research tool and a promising therapeutic source to suppress human colon or colorectal cancers.

  6. INCLUDING RISK IN ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS:A STOCHASTIC SIMULATION MODEL FOR BLUEBERRY INVESTMENT DECISIONS IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMÁN LOBOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional method of net present value (NPV to analyze the economic profitability of an investment (based on a deterministic approach does not adequately represent the implicit risk associated with different but correlated input variables. Using a stochastic simulation approach for evaluating the profitability of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. production in Chile, the objective of this study is to illustrate the complexity of including risk in economic feasibility analysis when the project is subject to several but correlated risks. The results of the simulation analysis suggest that the non-inclusion of the intratemporal correlation between input variables underestimate the risk associated with investment decisions. The methodological contribution of this study illustrates the complexity of the interrelationships between uncertain variables and their impact on the convenience of carrying out this type of business in Chile. The steps for the analysis of economic viability were: First, adjusted probability distributions for stochastic input variables (SIV were simulated and validated. Second, the random values of SIV were used to calculate random values of variables such as production, revenues, costs, depreciation, taxes and net cash flows. Third, the complete stochastic model was simulated with 10,000 iterations using random values for SIV. This result gave information to estimate the probability distributions of the stochastic output variables (SOV such as the net present value, internal rate of return, value at risk, average cost of production, contribution margin and return on capital. Fourth, the complete stochastic model simulation results were used to analyze alternative scenarios and provide the results to decision makers in the form of probabilities, probability distributions, and for the SOV probabilistic forecasts. The main conclusion shown that this project is a profitable alternative investment in fruit trees in

  7. Effect of Different Yeast on Dry Blueberry Wine Sensory Quality and Polyphenols%不同酵母对干型蓝莓酒感官品质和多酚类物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于清琴; 孙玉霞; 史红梅; 韩晓梅; 王哲

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of polyphenols and sensory quality of dry blueberry wine were studied during the blueberry fermentation inoculated by three kinds of wine yeasts ,natural yeast and natural yeast adding pectinase .The natural fermentation was compared with by other kind of yeast .The result showed that the blueberry wines fermented by D 21 and RC212 had excellent performance and sensory quality .And the concentration of polyphenols was the highest .In addition , various physical and chemical indicators was moderate .D254 was excellent wine yeast ,not suitable for the fermentation of blueberry wine.%以蓝莓鲜果为原料,在酿造过程中,重点试验了3种葡萄酒酵母、自然发酵+果胶酶对干型蓝莓果酒多酚含量和感官品质的影响,以自然发酵作对照,结果显示:D21、RC212发酵蓝莓酒性能优良,成品酒感官品质优良,多酚含量最高,各种理化指标适中,为性能优良的干型蓝莓酒发酵酵母。 D254作为葡萄酒酿造的优良酵母而不适合发酵蓝莓酒。

  8. Lower concentrations of blueberry polyphenolic-rich extract differentially alter HepG2 cell proliferation and expression of genes related to cell-cycle, oxidation and epigenetic machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro cancer models have been used to study the effect of relatively high concentrations (>200 ug/ml) of phenolic plant extracts upon cell proliferation. In this study we report that the treatment of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells with lower concentrations of blueberry phenolic extract (6.5-10...

  9. 河源南高丛蓝莓酒精发酵前后挥发性成分变化%Aroma compounds of southern high-bush blueberry in Heyuan area before and after alcohol fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继军; 肖更生; 徐玉娟; 陈卫东; 余元善; 张友胜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the key aroma compounds of southern high-bush blueberry varie-ties in Heyuan area and analyze the aroma compounds before and after alcohol fermentation.Methods By solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer-computer (GC-MS), the flavor compo-nents of Heyuan high-bush blueberry before and after alcohol fermentation were analyzed.Results The main aroma components of Heyuan southern high-bush blueberry wered-limonene and other kinds of alkenes and aldehydes. The main aroma compoents of blueberry wine were ethyl acetate, octanoic acid ethyl ester and other kinds of ester and alcohols.Conclusion There are some different aroma compounds between blueberry in Heyuan area and northern area. After blueberry fermented into blueberry drink olefins, aldehydes were signifi-cantly reduced or disappeared, and esters, alcohols, some long chain alkane and fatty acid esters increased sig-nificantly.%目的:明确广东河源地区南高丛蓝莓特征风味成分以及蓝莓发酵后香挥发性成分变化规律。方法采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用法分析了河源南高丛蓝莓的风味成分,以及发酵成蓝莓酒后的风味成分变化。结果河源南高丛蓝莓主要风味成分为柠檬烯以及其他烯烃、醛类等物质,发酵成蓝莓酒后主要特征风味成分为乙酸乙酯、辛酸乙酯等酯类和醇类物质。结论河源南高丛蓝莓在挥发性成分上与以往报道的温带地区蓝莓有一定的区别,蓝莓发酵成蓝莓酒后烯烃、醛类物质显著减少或消失,而酯类和醇类显著增加,同时生成了长链烷烃和脂肪酸酯类物质。

  10. Blanching improves anthocyanin absorption from highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) purée in healthy human volunteers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Brambilla, Ada; Gardana, Claudio; Rizzolo, Anna; Simonetti, Paolo; Bertolo, Gianni; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Porrini, Marisa

    2012-09-12

    Blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are rich sources of phenolics and anthocyanins (ACNs). We investigated the absorption of ACNs after consumption of one portion (300 g) of minimally processed blueberry purée (P) obtained from blanched (BL) or unblanched (NB) berries. A repeated-measures, crossover design study was conducted on healthy human volunteers. Blood was drawn between baseline and 24 h after BL-P or NB-P consumption, while urine were collected from the day before the experiment up to 48 h. Total plasma ACN content was not significantly different, while phenolics content was higher in BL-P with respect to NB-P. The maximum ACN absorption in plasma was observed after 1.5 h from the intake of the purées and was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) after the intake of BL-P. Both products increased the excretion of hippuric acid in urine. In conclusion, blanching had no significant effect on total ACN content and enhanced their absorption from minimally processed purées.

  11. Effect of cadmium on phenolic compounds, antioxidant enzyme activity and oxidative stress in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) plantlets grown in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manquián-Cerda, K; Escudey, M; Zúñiga, G; Arancibia-Miranda, N; Molina, M; Cruces, E

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) can affect plant growth due to its mobility and toxicity. We evaluated the effects of Cd(2+) on the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant response of Vaccinium corymbosum L. Plantlets were exposed to Cd(2+) at 50 and 100µM for 7, 14 and 21 days. Accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the antioxidant enzyme SOD was determined. The profile of phenolic compounds was evaluated using LC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test (FRAP). Cd(2+) increased the content of MDA, with the highest increase at 14 days. The presence of Cd(2+) resulted in changes in phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compound found in blueberry plantlets was chlorogenic acid, whose abundance increased with the addition of Cd(2+) to the medium. The changes in the composition of phenolic compounds showed a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity measured using FRAP. Our results suggest that blueberry plantlets produced phenolic compounds with reducing capacity as a selective mechanism triggered by the highest activity of Cd(2+).

  12. 野生蓝莓汁乳酸菌饮料的研究%STUDY ON WILD BLUEBERRY JUICE LACTIC ACID BACTERIA BEVERAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马珦玻; 李宝库; 李爱军

    2009-01-01

    Through on orthogonal design L9(34),the technology of blueberry Juice fermented by lactobacillus was studied.The results showed that the optimum formulation was the blueberry Juice 8 %, the suger 9 %, the fermentation milk 25 %, the stable preparation 0.30 %, 42℃, 4 h, ratio of lactic acid bacteria 1:1, inoculation quantity 2.5 %, VC 25 g/L.%通过采用四因素三水平的正交试验,对野生蓝莓汁乳酸菌饮料的最佳工艺配方进行研究.结果表明:蓝莓汁8%、白砂糖9%、发酵乳25%、乳化稳定剂0.30%,42℃发酵4 h.菌种比1:1,接种量2.5%,VC含量高达25 g/L.

  13. Development of a Lactic Acid Bacteria-Fermented Blueberry Dairy Beverage%乳酸发酵型蓝莓乳饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏伟; 简素平; 徐静

    2012-01-01

    Abstract : A nutritional beverage way developed by fermenting a mixture of blueberry juice and milk with mixed cultures of domesticated lactic acid bacteria. Orthogonal array design was used to determine optimal process parameters. The optimal fermentation substrate composition was composed of 60% milk, 14% blueberry juice and 6.5% sucrose. The optimal fermentation parameters were determined as 3.2% of inoculum size, 4.4 h of fermentation time and 42 °C of fermentation temperature.%以蓝莓汁、牛奶为原料,将其按一定比例混合,接种经驯化的乳酸混合菌进行发酵,由正交试验确定最佳工艺参数。结果表明:最佳原料配比为:牛奶60%、蓝莓汁添加量14%、蔗糖量6.5%;最佳发酵工艺参数为:接种量3.2%、发酵时间4.4h、温度42℃。

  14. Activity of broad-spectrum and reduced-risk insecticides on various life stages of cranberry fruitworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in highbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John C; Jenkins, Paul E; Poppen, Ryan Vander; Isaacs, Rufus

    2010-10-01

    Laboratory and semifield bioassays were conducted to determine the life-stage activity of insecticides for controlling cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii Riley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a key lepidopteran pest of highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L. The organophosphates azinphosmethyl and phosmet, the pyrethroid esfenvalerate, and the carbamate methomyl were lethal to all life stages. The neonicotinoids thiacloprid and acetamiprid demonstrated strong larvicidal and ovicidal activity but were somewhat weaker adulticides than the conventional broad-spectrum compounds. Bacillus thuringiensis, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate were shown to control A. vacinii primarily through their larvicidal activity. Spinosad was toxic to all life stages, including eggs laid on top of residues and those that were treated topically, but larvicidal activity was short lived. The growth regulators pyriproxyfen and novaluron had strong ovicidal activity when eggs were laid on top of residues but had limited larvicidal activity. Tebufenozide was not directly toxic to eggs, but demonstrated larvicidal activity, and ovilarvicidal activity when topically applied to eggs. Azinphosmethyl, phosmet, indoxacarb, thiacloprid, and acetamiprid were all toxic to the egg parasitoid Trichogramma minutum Riley. In contrast pyriproxyfen, emamectin benzoate, methomyl, novaluron, and spinosad did not negatively affect the survival of T. minutum within Acrobasis vacinii eggs. These results help inform the ongoing development of integrated strategies for insect management in blueberry.

  15. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.girgenti@unito.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Baudino, Claudio [AgrifruttaSoc. Coop. Agr., Via Beinette 6, 12016 Peveragno, CN (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. - Highlights: • LCA is a system for evaluating the environmental sustainability of products and processes. • The disposal of the packaging material is taken into account. • The LCA methodology has been applied to quantify the emissions of berry fruits. • Species index: blueberry and raspberry.

  16. Influence of Low Temperature Enzyme Maceration Techniques on Volatile Compounds of Semi-dry Wine Made with cv. Premier of Rabbiteye Blueberries (Vaccinium ashei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A low temperature enzyme maceration treatment was conducted during fermentation process of semi-dry cv. Premier blueberry wine. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maceration conditions on the wine aroma. As a pre-treatment, blueberry must was divided into 6 samples which were respectively treated by pectinase with 6 different maceration conditions at 6°C 1day, 6°C 2 days, 6°C 3 days, 16°C 1 day, 16°C 2 days and 16°C 3 days. After that wines were obtained by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Volatile compounds of wines were analyzed by GC-MS. Overall, the typical aroma compounds of semi-dry cv. Premier wines were constituted by three groups of organic compounds including esters, alcohols and fatty acids. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl decanoate, 2-phenethanol and 3-methylbutanoic acid, which occupied 60% of the typical volatile aromatic compounds, all had higher Odor Activity Values (OAVs in 6°C 3 days than other conditions. Maceration temperature and time had a significant effect on concentration and varieties of wines aroma substances. The results presented will help to better understand the aroma winemaking potential of this variety.

  17. Identification of aluminum-regulated genes by cDNA-AFLP analysis of roots in two contrasting genotypes of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Aquea, Felipe; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Alberdi, Miren; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of Al(3+)-stress in blueberry, a cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis was employed to identify Al-regulated genes in roots of contrasting genotypes of highbush blueberry (Brigitta, Al(3+)-resistant and Bluegold, Al(3+)-sensitive). Plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with 0 and 100 μM Al(3+) and collected at different times over 48 h. Seventy transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified as being Al(3+) responsive, 31 of which showed significant homology to genes with known or putative functions. Twelve TDFs were homologous to uncharacterized genes and 27 did not have significant matches. The expression pattern of several of the genes with known functions in other species was confirmed by quantitative relative real-time RT-PCR. Twelve genes of known or putative function were related to cellular metabolism, nine associated to stress responses and other transcription and transport facilitation processes. Genes involved in signal transduction, photosynthetic and energy processes were also identified, suggesting that a multitude of processes are implicated in the Al(3+)-stress response as reported previously for other species. The Al(3+)-stress response genes identified in this study could be involved in Al(3+)-resistance in woody plants.

  18. Study on the Blueberry Hawthorn Nectar Process and Optimization for the Recipe%蓝莓山楂果茶的研制及配方的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪慧华; 刘小飞; 汪长钢; 柳青; 徐雅君

    2014-01-01

    采用正交试验对蓝莓山楂果茶配方进行优化,确定稳定剂的配比及果茶的最佳配方,并通过不同杀菌条件比较其杀菌效果,优化果茶的杀菌参数。结果表明,果茶最佳的原料配方为:蓝莓与山楂混浆添加量为40%、白砂糖10%、柠檬酸0.08%、黄原胶0.03%和CMC0.03%。最佳杀菌时间和温度是85℃/20 min。%The paper reports the studies on the recipe optimization of blueberry hawthorn nectar, and ratios of stabilizers, the best ratios to the nectar components with an orthogonal statistical test method. By comparison with sterilization effects of various sterilization conditions, the optimization parameters are found. The results of the studies point out that the optimized ratios to nectar raw recipe are composed of a dosage of 40%blueberry and hawthorn mixing solutions, 10%sugar, 0.08%citric acid, 0.03%xanthan gum and 0.03%CMC. The best sterilization time and temperature is 85℃and 20 min.

  19. 蓝莓枸杞发酵酒的生产工艺研究%Research on the Production Technology of Medlar-blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 孙波

    2015-01-01

    the healthy, nutritional and low alcoholic wine brewing technology in which blueberry and medlar are used as major raw materials, fermented by yeast without distillation, and honey is added was introduced. The wine made by this technology has the characteristics of fruit and wine fragrance, mellow and fresh taste, fusion of nutrition and function of medlar, blueberry and honey, low sugar, low alcohol and high nutritional value.%介绍了以蓝莓和枸杞作为主要原料,经酵母发酵,无需蒸馏,加入适量蜂蜜,生产低度营养保健酒的工艺.用此方法生产的保健酒具有蓝莓和枸杞的果香和酒香,口感醇厚、清爽,充分融合了蓝莓、枸杞及蜂蜜的营养和功效,具有糖分低、酒度低、营养价值高等特点.

  20. 超高压和热处理对蓝莓汁品质的影响%Influence of Ultra High Pressure and Thermal Treatments on the Quality of Blueberry Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晓赟; 王寅; 张蒙; 李路宁; 张师; 孙爱东

    2012-01-01

    以蓝莓汁为原料,进行了超高压(UHP)和热力处理对蓝莓汁微生物和理化指标的影响,以及贮藏期内蓝莓汁品质变化的研究。结果表明:超高压可以有效杀灭蓝莓汁中的微生物;超高压处理后,蓝莓汁表现出更诱人的颜色;贮藏期内超高压和热处理对蓝莓汁的总酸、还原糖、可溶性固形物含量影响较小;与热处理相比,超高压处理能更好的保持蓝莓汁中的Vc和花青素含量。%The fresh blueberry was selected as the trial material. Two samples of blueberry juice were sterilized by ultra high pressure (UI-IP) and thermal treatments respectively. The physicocbemical property were analyzed and compared during the storage. The results showed that microorganisms in fresh blueberry juice could be inactivated ef- fectively by UHP. Blueberry Juice showed better color after UHP. UI-IP had no significant effect on titratable acids, reducing sugar, Brix. Fresh blueberry juice treated with UHP was better than that with heat sterilization not only on Vc, but also on anthocyanins.

  1. Impacto de los sistemas de riego por goteo en arándanos Impact of drip irrigation systems in blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pannunzio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo examinó los efectos de diferentes sistemas de riego por goteo en el rendimiento de la variedad O´Neal de arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L. El estudio se realizó en Zarate (33º 41’ S y 59º 41’ W, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El cultivo se implantó en agosto de 2001, la primera cosecha se efectuó en octubre de 2003. El objetivo fue determinar cual era el sistema de riego por goteo que maximizaba el rendimiento, siendo los tratamientos, un lateral de tubería de goteo por fila de plantas con goteros a 40 cm (T1 y dos laterales de tubería de goteo con goteros a 20 cm por fila de plantas (T2. El porcentaje de suelo mojado por sistema se incrementa a medida que aumenta el número de emisores por metro lineal. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completamente aleatorizados, con bloques de cinco plantas y cinco repeticiones por tratamiento. La cosecha de 2003, reportó rendimientos de 2436 kg ha-1 para el tratamiento T1 y de 4335 kg ha-1 para tratamiento T2. El mojado parcial del suelo que realiza el tratamiento T1, de menor cantidad de goteros por metro lineal, no es suficiente para mojar un porcentaje de suelo compatible con altos rendimientos.The experiment examined the effects of different drip irrigation systems in an O´Neal variety of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. It was contucted at Zarate (33º 41’ S and 59º 41’ W, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Plants of the experiment were planted in August of 2001, after one year in nursery. The first harvest was realized in October of 2003. The main scope of the experiment was to find the irrigation system which maximized yields. Treatments were: one drip irrigation line with drippers at 40 cm (T1 and two laterals with drippers at 20 cm per row (T2. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design, each one with 5 plants and 5 replications. During the harvest of October and November of 2003, reported yields were 2436 kg ha-1 for the treatment T1 and

  2. Blueberry treatment antagonizes C-2 ceramide-induced stress signaling in muscarinic receptor-transfected COS-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, James A; Bielinski, Donna F; Fisher, Derek R

    2010-03-24

    Previous research has shown that muscarinic receptors (MAChRs) show loss of sensitivity in aging and AD and are selectively sensitive to oxidative stress (OS). Thus, COS-7 cells transfected (tn) with MAChR subtype M1 show > OS sensitivity [as reflected in the ability of the cell to extrude or sequester Ca(2+) following depolarization (recovery) by oxotremorine (oxo) and exposure to dopamine (DA) or amyloid beta (Abeta)] than M3-transfected COS-7 cells. Blueberry (BB) extract pretreatment prevented these deficits. Research has also indicated that C2 ceramide (Cer) has several age-related negative cellular effects (e.g., OS). When these cells were treated with Cer, the significant decrements in the ability of both types of tn cells to initially respond to oxo were antagonized by BB treatment. Present experiments assessed signaling mechanisms involved in BB protection in the presence or absence of DA, Abeta, and/or Cer in this model. Thus, control or BB-treated M1 and M3 tn COS-7 cells were exposed to DA or Abeta(42) in the presence or absence of Cer. Primarily, results showed that the effects of DA or Abeta(42) were to increase stress (e.g., PKCgamma, p38MAPK) and protective signals (e.g., pMAPK). Cer also appeared to raise several of the stress and protective signals in the absence of the other stressors, including PKCgamma, pJNK, pNfkappaB, p53, and p38MAPK, while not significantly altering MAPK, or Akt. pArc was, however, increased by Cer in both types of transfected cells. The protective effects of BB when combined with Cer generally showed greater protection when BB extract was applied prior to Cer, except for one protective signal (pArc) where a greater effect was seen in the M3 cells exposed to Abeta(42.) In the absence of the Abeta(42) or DA, for several of the stress signals (e.g., pNfkappaB, p53), BB lowered their Cer-induced increases in M1- and M3-transfected cells. We are exploring these interactions further, but it is clear that increases in ceramide

  3. 蓝莓酒中菌落总数测量不确定度的分析%Uncertainty Analysis of Total Colony Count in Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雯; 薛巍

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the national standard GB 4789.2-2010,national standard for food safety,food microbiology detection and standard for total colony number detection,the factors which affect uncertainty of total colony count in blueberry wine detection was evaluated.Furthermore,the accuracy of total bacterial colony detection process which was affected by uncertainty was verified.%依据GB 4789.2-2010《食品安全国家标准食品微生物学检验菌落总数测定方法标准》,通过对蓝莓酒中菌落总数的测量结果,对不确定度的因素进行评估,研究了测量不确定度对细菌总数检验过程准确性的验证。

  4. Neurochemical differences in learning and memory paradigms among rats supplemented with anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets and exposed to acute doses of 56Fe particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Bielinski, Donna F.; Kelly, Megan E.; Miller, Marshall G.; Thanthaeng, Nopporn; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries (BB) on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress, which can lead to ;accelerated aging.; One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, consisting of high-energy and -charge particles (HZE), which are known to cause cognitive dysfunction and deleterious neurochemical alterations. We recently tested the behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute exposure to HZE particles such as 56Fe, within 24-48 h after exposure, and found that radiation primarily affects memory and not learning. Importantly, we observed that specific brain regions failed to upregulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in response to this insult. To further examine these endogenous response mechanisms, we have supplemented young rats with diets rich in BB, which are known to contain high amounts of antioxidant-phytochemicals, prior to irradiation. Exposure to 56Fe caused significant neurochemical changes in hippocampus and frontal cortex, the two critical regions of the brain involved in cognitive function. BB supplementation significantly attenuated protein carbonylation, which was significantly increased by exposure to 56Fe in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Moreover, BB supplementation significantly reduced radiation-induced elevations in NADPH-oxidoreductase-2 (NOX2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Overall results indicate that 56Fe particles may induce their toxic effects on hippocampus and frontal cortex by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overload, which can cause alterations in the neuronal environment, eventually leading to hippocampal neuronal death and subsequent impairment of cognitive function. Blueberry supplementation provides an effective preventative measure to reduce the ROS load on the CNS in an event of acute HZE exposure.

  5. Application of pulsed electric field in the production of juice and extraction of bioactive compounds from blueberry fruits and their by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobinaitė, Ramunė; Pataro, Gianpiero; Lamanauskas, Nerijus; Šatkauskas, Saulius; Viškelis, Pranas; Ferrari, Giovanna

    2015-09-01

    The influence of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) pre-treatment of blueberry fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), both on the extraction yield and antioxidant properties of juice obtained by pressing and on the on the recovery of bioactive compounds from berry by-products (press cake) by extraction with solvent, was investigated. PEF treatments carried out at field strengths of 1, 3, and 5 kV/cm and an energy input of 10 kJ/kg achieved a cell disintegration index (Z p ) of 0.70, 0.80, and 0.87, respectively. Mechanical pressing (1.32 bar for 8 min) of PEF-treated berries (1, 3, and 5 kV/cm at 10 kJ/kg) significantly increased the juice yield (+28 %) compared with the untreated sample. The juice obtained from PEF pre-treated berries also had a significantly higher total phenolic content (+43 %), total anthocyanin content (+60 %) and antioxidant activity (+31 %). However, PEF treatment intensity higher than 1 kV/cm did not significantly improve the quantitative or qualitative characteristics of the juice. Compared to the untreated sample, higher amounts of total phenolics (+63 %), total athocyanins (+78 %) and antioxidant activity (+65 %) were detected in the press cake extracts. PEF treatment of higher intensity resulted in better extractability of bioactive compounds from blueberry press cake. The results obtained from this study demonstrate the potential of PEF as a mild pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of the industrial processing of berry fruits.

  6. Studies on Optimization for the Compound Stabilizer Formulation of Hawthorn Blueberry Nectar%山楂蓝莓果茶复合稳定剂配方的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪慧华; 罗红霞; 汪长钢; 刘小飞; 柳青

    2014-01-01

    In the studies, compound formulation stabilizers were tested to improve stabilization of hawthorn blueberry nectar in optimal conditions. An orthogonal statistical test method was used to compare its stability for experiments. As a result for the hawthorn blueberry nectar, the optimized stabilizer formulation was the ratios of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC) 0.02%, xanthan gum 0.03%, gelatin 0.03%in the component of stabilizers.%采用正交试验对山楂蓝莓果茶复合稳定剂配方进行优化,并进行稳定性比较实验,结果表明:最佳稳定剂配方为:羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)0.02%、黄原胶0.03%、明胶0.03%。

  7. EMS诱变越橘的研究%A Preliminary Study of Mutagenesis in Blueberry Plants with EMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文娟; 石佳; 任广炼; 李政; 李凌

    2012-01-01

    The shoot tips of the test-tube plantlets of blueberry (Vaccinium spp. ) cultivars Bluecrop and Darrow were treated with EMS (ethyl methane sulphonate) at different concentrations and subjected to PEG (polyethylene glycol)-simulated drought, to determine the optimum chemical mutagenesis combination and the critical PEG concentration. Principal component analysis and membership function analysis were made to evaluate the drought resistance and water-logging tolerance of the materials before and after the treatment. The results showed that the best combination of chemical mutagenesis was EMS treatment at 3% and for 2 h and the critical PEG concentration of simulated drought was 10%. By principal component analysis and membership function analysis, the factors of chlorophyll and osmotic adjustment were shown to be the two principal components and the drought tolerance of the plantlets studied were in the order of non-EMS-treated Darrow> non-EMS-treated Bluecrop>EMS-treated Bluecrop>EMS-treated Darrow; and chlorophyll, antioxidant enzymes and osmotic adjustment were the three principal components for water-logging-resistance, which was in the order of EMS-treated Darrow>non-EMS-treated Darrow> EMS-treated Bluecrop>non- EMS-treated Bluecrop.%用甲基磺酸乙酯和聚乙二醇处理蓝丰越橘组培苗茎尖,筛选诱变处理的最佳组合和模拟干旱处理的临界浓度,并应用主成分及隶属函数分析法对诱变前后的蓝丰、达柔组培苗进行耐旱性和耐水淹能力评价.结果表明: 诱变处理的最佳组合为3%EMS处理4h,聚乙二醇的临界浓度为10%;通过主成分分析,耐旱性指标可归纳成叶绿素因子和渗透调节因子2个主成分,越橘的耐旱性由强到弱为:未经处理的达柔、未经处理的蓝丰、诱变处理后的蓝丰、诱变处理后的达柔;耐水淹能力指标可归纳成叶绿素因子、抗氧化酶因子和渗透调节因子3个主成分,越橘的耐水淹能力由强到弱为:

  8. 不同提取方法对蓝莓色素得率及抗氧化活力的影响研究%Effects of extraction methods on yield and antioxidant capacity of blueberry pigments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘利华; 贺元康

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究不同提取方法对蓝莓色素得率、抗氧化活力的影响及得率与抗氧化活力间的关系。方法分别以乙醇、甲醇、丙酮为浸提溶剂,常规溶剂浸提、超声辅助浸提、微波辅助浸提3种提取方式,测定浸提液色素得率及其清除DPPH·、·O·-2、·OH的能力;分析色素得率与抗氧化活力的关系。结果不同提取溶剂对蓝莓色素得率的影响差异不显著(P>0.05),但不同提取方式对蓝莓色素得率的影响差异显著(P0.05), but the yields and scavenging capacities to DPPH·, ·O·-2 and ·OH of blueberry pigments extracted by conventional solvent extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction or microwave-assisted extraction were significantly different (P<0.05). There were significant positive correlations between the yields and scavenging capacities to DPPH· and ·OH of blueberry pigments, respectively (R=0.793, 0.944;P<0.05). Conclusion The yields and scavenging capacities of blueberry pigments obtained by different extraction methods with the same extraction solvent are significantly different. The yields are significantly correlated with scavenging capacities of DPPH· and ·OH. It will help to get blueberry pigments with higher yield and higher antioxidant activity by ultrasonic assisted ethanol extraction.

  9. Determination of free amino acids and 18 elements in freeze-dried strawberry and blueberry fruit using an Amino Acid Analyzer and ICP-MS with micro-wave digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Hai-Tian; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Dong, Ai-Jun; Jing, Jing; Wang, Jing

    2014-03-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the level of 18 trace elements of two freeze-dried samples from the Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and the Strawberry (Fragaria × Ananassa). The total free amino acid composition in the blueberry and strawberry was determined by an Amino Acid Analyzer. Eleven free amino acids were found in both berries. The trace elements in each dried fruit sample were determined by ICP-MS with microwave digestion. The linearity range of the standard curves was 0-1250.0 μg L(-1) (Mg, P, K, Ca),while in all cases, except for B, Na, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Pb, Ge and As, which was 125.0 μg mL(-1), all related coefficients were above 0.9999; recovery was in the range of 79.0-106.8%. Minor concentrations of nutritional elements were found in each freeze-dried berry. In sum, the toxic trace element analysis found the content of toxic trace elements in each freeze-dried berry sample was safe for human consumption and that the overall quality of the blueberry surpassed that of the strawberry. The results certify that the two freeze-dried berries have potential for human consumption in value-added products and have a certain theoretical and practical significance.

  10. Effects of Temperature, pH-value, and Light on Stability of Anthocyanin in Blueberry Juice%温度、pH值和光照对蓝莓汁花色苷稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆卿卿; 张丽霞; 刘小莉; 董明盛; 周剑忠

    2012-01-01

    The effects of temperature, pH - value, and light source on the stability of anthocyanin in the blueberry juice were studied in this paper. The results showed that anthocyanin maintained its red color only in acidic circumstance, but was not stable in alkaline circumstance. Blueberry juice anthocyanin faded faster in natural light than in dark condition. Blueberry juice anthocyanin had a higher stability at the temperature of 60 T. After being heated for 4 hours, the residual rate of anthocyanin stayed above 80%.%研究了温度、pH值、光照对蓝莓汁花色苷稳定性的影响,结果表明:花色苷在酸性介质中保持其本色——红色,而在碱性介质中则相对较不稳定;蓝莓花色苷在自然光直射下褪色较快,在避光条件下褪色相对较慢;蓝莓汁中的花色苷在60℃以下的热稳定性较好,加热4h后,其花色苷残留率达80%以上.

  11. Optimizing of main composition changes and extraction conditions of blueberry juice wine%蓝莓露酒主要成分变化及浸提条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方堃; 陆胜民; 夏其乐; 杨颖

    2013-01-01

    目的:优化蓝莓露酒主要成分变化及浸提条件。方法以新鲜蓝莓为原料,用不同纯度的乙醇溶液浸提,并对浸提过程中溶出的总酚、黄酮、花色苷、总酸、可溶性固形物和维生素C进行动态分析。在多个单因素试验的基础上采用正交试验考察乙醇溶液和蓝莓的比例(A)、浸提用乙醇溶液的纯度(B)、浸提前超声处理时间(C)和浸提时间(D)对蓝莓酒抗氧化能力的影响。结果和结论最佳的浸提条件为料液比1:1,浸提用乙醇溶液的乙醇含量60%(v/v),超声处理时间40 min,浸提时间为30 d,在此条件下其DPPH自由基清除率为66.30%。%Objective To optimize the main composition changes and extraction conditions of blueberry juice wine. Methods Blueberry integrated alcoholic beverage was produced by immersing the fresh blueberry fruits into different concentrations of alcohol. Some ingredients, like total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, total acid, soluble solids and Vitamin C, of blueberry fruits dissolved into the alcohol solution during immer-sion process were dynamically monitored. Orthogonal test was used to determine the effect of solid-liquid ratio (A), alcohol concentration (B), ultrasonic time (C) as well as immersion time (D) on the antioxidant capacity of the blueberry integrated alcoholic beverage. Results and Conclusion The best combination of factors was the ratio of fruit to liquid 1:1, alcohol concentration 60%(v/v) , ultrasonic time 40 min, impregnation time 30 d, and the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of the alcoholic beverage was determined to 66.30%.

  12. 不同蒸馏次数对蓝莓白兰地香气成分影响%Effects of Different Distillation Times on Aroma Components of Blueberry Brandy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆印; 陈亮; 胡仙妹; 李燕

    2016-01-01

    Aroma components of blueberry brandy distilled two times from blueberry fermented wine were analyzed by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction(SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that 66 of aroma components were detected in the blueberry brandy, of which 3 kinds of alcohols, 20 kinds of esters, 1 kind of acid, 9 kinds of phenol species, 22 kinds of alkanes and 11 of other kinds. Esters relative content was the highest , of which one time distillation and two distillations were 42.3 % and 29.43 % respectively. Ester compounds were the main aroma components of blueberry brandy. According to sensory evaluation, one time distilled brandy in the sensory score was superior to the two distillation brandy. One time distilled brandy's color was clear, transparent, and bright. It had not suspension and precipitation. It's taste was mellow and of pure fruity , with harmonious blueberry characteristic flavor.%采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术对蓝莓发酵酒进行两次蒸馏得到的蓝莓白兰地香气成分进行分析。结果表明蓝莓白兰地中共检出66种香气成分,其中醇类3种、酯类20种、酸类1种、苯酚类9种、烃类22种、其他类11种,酯类在两次蒸馏白兰地中含量最高,一次蒸馏和二次蒸馏分别为42.3%和29.43%,表明酯类化合物是蓝莓白兰地的主要香气成分。基于感官评价,一次蒸馏白兰地的感官评分要优于二次蒸馏的白兰地,其色泽清澈透明、晶亮,无悬浮物、无沉淀,果香纯正,口味醇厚、爽净,具有和谐的蓝莓特征风味。

  13. Application of immobilized yeast in blueberry wine fermentation%酵母的固定化及在蓝莓酒发酵中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄艳秋; 张秀玲

    2012-01-01

    To study the superiority of immobilized yeast, immobilized yeast was compared with free yeast.Chitosansodium alginate carrier together with SiO2 and Al2O3 and PVA-sodium alginate carrier together with SiQ and Al2O3 was used to test to select the better carrier.In the experiment, detecting the optimal dosage of sodium aiginate, PVA,SiO2 and Al2O3 ,and determining the optimum condition by orthogonaI.The result was that fermentation was the best,fermentation period was 3 days and blueberry wine flavor was the best,when concentration of sodium alginate was 1.5% ,the dosage of PVA was 0.6% ,the dosage of Al2O3 was 0.8% ,the dosage of SiO2 was 1.4%.So the nature of all aspects of blueberry wine fermented by PVA-sodium alginate carrier together with SiO2 and Al2O3 were the best.%为了研究固定化酵母的优越性,将固定化酵母与游离酵母进行比较。用加有SiO2和Al2O3的壳聚糖-海藻酸钠和加有SiO2和Al2O3的PVA-海藻酸钠载体进行实验,确定较优的载体。测定海藻酸钠、PVA、SiO2和Al2O3的最适添加量,通过正交实验,确定最佳工艺条件。结果表明:海藻酸钠浓度为1.5%,PVA添加量为0.6%,Al2O3添加量为0.8%,SiO2添加量为1.4%时,发酵效果最好,发酵周期短,为3d,蓝莓酒风味也最好。因此,用加有SiOz和Al2O3的PVA-海藻酸钠载体发酵得到的蓝莓酒各方面性质最好。

  14. Soil Nutrient Availability, Plant Nutrient Uptake, and Wild Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Yield in Response to N-Viro Biosolids and Irrigation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitazaz A. Farooque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the impact of surface broadcasted N-Viro biosolids and inorganic fertilizer (16.5% Ammonium sulphate, 34.5% Diammonium phosphate, 4.5% Potash, and 44.5% s and/or clay filler applications on soil properties and nutrients, leaf nutrient concentration, and the fruit yield of lowbush blueberry under irrigated and nonirrigated conditions during 2008-2009 at Debert, NS, Canada. Application rates of N-Viro biosolids were more than double of inorganic fertilizer applied at a recommended N rate of 32 kg ha−1. The experimental treatments NI: N-Viro with irrigation, FI: inorganic fertilizer with irrigation, N: N-Viro without irrigation, and F: inorganic fertilizer without irrigation (control were replicated four times under a randomized complete block design. The NI treatment had the highest OM (6.68% followed by FI (6.32%, N (6.18%, and F (4.43% treatments during the year 2008. Similar trends were observed during 2009 with the highest soil OM values (5.50% for NI treatment. Supplemental irrigation resulted in a 21% increase in the ripe fruit yield. Nonsignificant effect of fertilizer treatments on most of the nutrient concentrations in soil and plant leaves, and on ripe fruits yield reflects that the performance of N-Viro was comparable with that of the inorganic fertilizer used in this study.

  15. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele; Baudino, Claudio

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact.

  16. Effects of UV-B radiation on anatomical characteristics, phenolic compounds and gene expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway in highbush blueberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Arellano, Alejandro; Latsague, Mirtha; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren

    2014-12-01

    The effects of increased doses of UV-B radiation on anatomical, biochemical and molecular features of leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes were investigated. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 Wm(-2) of biologically effective UV-B radiation for up to 72 h. Leaf thickness and the adaxial epidermis thickness fell more than 3-fold in both genotypes at the highest UV-B dose. Moreover, in Bluegold an evident disorganization in the different cell layers was observed at the highest UV-B radiation. A significant decrease in chlorophyll a/b after 6 h in Brigitta under the greater UV-B doses was observed. Anthocyanin and total phenolics were increased, especially at 0.19 Wm(-2), when compared to the control in both genotypes.Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in Brigitta, and was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than in Bluegold leaves. Regarding the expression of phenylpropanoid genes, only the transcription factor VcMYBPA1 showed a significant and sustained induction at higher doses of UV-B radiation in both genotypes compared to the controls. Thus, the reduction of leaf thickness concomitant with a lower lipid peroxidation and rapid enhancement of secondary metabolites, accompanied by a stable induction of the VcMYBPA1 transcription factor suggest a better performance against UV-B radiation of the Brigitta genotype.

  17. 蓝莓的组织培养及快速繁殖%Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of the Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜冬; 张利萍

    2012-01-01

      对蓝莓的组培快繁技术进行了研究.结果表明:茎段在1/3MS + BA1.5 mg/L + NAA0.2 mg/L+ ZT1.5 mg/L 培养基上继代一次即可出苗,繁苗系数8倍以上;生根培养以1/4MS + IBA0.5 mg/L 培养基为最好,生根率达100%,并且每株可达5~10条根;移栽基质以腐苔藓为最好,成活率达80%以上%  Cell culture was made of the blueberry for its rapid propagation .Orthogonal design indicated that 1/3MS + 6-BA 1 .5mg/L + NAA 0 .2mg/L + ZT 1 .5 mg/L was the best culture medium to induce proliferation buds from its tuber .Propagation coefficient was eight times .The best culture medium for multiplication of cluster shoots was 1/4 MS + IBA 0 .5 mg/L .Rooting rate 100% ,every plant root 5-10 ;When micropropagated plantlets with well-developed root systems were transferred to planting bed of moss in a greenhouse ,80% of the plantlets survived .

  18. 叶黄素-蓝莓功能性饮料乳化性能和稳定性研究%Emulsifying properties and stability of xanthophyll-blueberry functional beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文; 王振宇; 程翠林; 贠可力; 田双起

    2014-01-01

    In order to enhance the function of blueberry drinks, and provide a new way for utilization of lutein and blueberry resource as wel , we made xanthophol s and blueberry fruit into lutein-blueberry beverage. Two kinds of emulsifiers cal ed Span 80 and Tween 80 were chosen. The optimum HLB value was determined by single factor experiment with turbidity method. Under the optimal HLB condition, five kinds of hydrophilic emulsifier, that was, sucrose esters of fatty acids, diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono-and diglycerides, octyl and decyl glycerate, sodium stearoyl lactate, tripolyglycerol monostearates were filtered out to find the best emulsified group. Mixed emulsifier, xanthan gum, guar gum and sodium alginate were used as variables to design the four factors and three levels response surface with Design-expert software, and investigate the relationship between the amount of additives and the stability of xanthophol s-blueberry beverage. As a result, the optimum HLB value was 10.9;42%sucrose esters of fatty acids plused 58% Octyl and decyl glycerate compounds emulsifier had the best emulsifying effect; When adding 0.12% emulsifier, 0.15% xanthan gum, 0.05% guar gum, 0.15% sodium alginate into the xanthophol s-blueberry beverage, and we could get the optimal stability.%为丰富蓝莓饮料的功能性,同时为叶黄素、蓝莓果资源的利用提供新途径,以叶黄素和蓝莓果果汁为主要原料,制成叶黄素-蓝莓果汁饮料。选择Span80和Tween80两种乳化剂,应用浊度法进行单因素试验确定最适HLB值。选择蔗糖脂肪酸单酯、双乙酰酒石酸单甘油酯、辛奎酸甘油酯、硬脂酰乳酸钠、三聚甘油单硬脂酸酯五种亲水型的食品乳化剂在最适HLB下两两复配,筛选出乳化性能最好的复合乳化剂。以乳化剂、黄原胶、瓜尔胶、海藻酸钠为变量,用Design-expert软件设计4因素3水平响应面优化试验探究乳化剂和稳定剂的用量对叶黄素-蓝莓

  19. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on Sterilization and Quality of Blueberry Juice%高压脉冲电场对蓝莓汁杀菌效果及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晓赟; 王寅; 陈健; 李路宁; 孙爱东

    2012-01-01

    The study evaluated the sterilizing effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on Escherichia coli in blueberry juice and its impact on physicochemical property of blueberry juice. The results showed that the inactivation effect of Escherichia coli was enhanced when the electric field strength and total treatment time were increased. With PEF treatments at 35 kV/cm and 82 ~s, the reduction of Escherichia coli was 5. 12 logarithms. When the electric field strength was constant and the electric conductivity was increased, the inactivation effect of Escherichia coli declined slightly. PEF had no significant effect on the content of vitamin C, anthocyanin, total phenols, titratable acids, re- ducing sugar, and Brix in blueberry juice and its color.%研究了高压脉冲电场(PEF)对蓝莓汁的杀菌效果及其对蓝莓汁理化性质的影响。结果显示:随电场强度、处理时间的增大,PEF对蓝莓汁中大肠杆菌的杀灭效果增强。当电场强度为35kV/cm,处理时间为82μs时,蓝莓汁中大肠杆菌致死率为5.12个对数。电场强度一定时,电导率增大,PEF对大肠杆菌的钝化效果略微下降。PEF对蓝莓汁Vc、花青素、总酚、可滴定酸、还原糖、可溶性固形物及色泽等理化性质没有影响。

  20. 响应面法优化蓝莓澄清型果汁饮料工艺%Formulation Optimization for Clarified Blueberry Juice Beverage by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛英亮; 马艳秋

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the optimization of stabilizer formulation by orthogonal array design and the optimization of clarified blueberry juice beverage formulation by response surface methodology. The best stabilizer formulation was composed of xanthan, sodium alginate and β-cyclodextrin at a mass ratio of 1:1:1. The best clarified blueberry juice beverage formulation consisted of blueberry juice 12%, sugar 2%, citric acid 0.15%, and complex stabilizer 0.05%. The resulting beverage showed a mellow blue color, a palatable balance between sweet and tart, and abundant nutrients and had certain healthcare functions.%采用正交试验和响应面法对蓝莓澄清型饮料配方及加工工艺进行优化,确定蓝莓澄清型饮料稳定剂的最佳配比及蓝莓澄清型饮料的最佳配方。结果表明:以黄原胶、海藻酸钠和β-环状糊精作为蓝莓澄清型果汁饮料的稳定剂,添加比例为1:1:1(m/m)时,稳定效果较好。蓝莓澄清果汁饮料配方(质量分数):12%蓝莓汁、12%白砂糖、0.15%柠檬酸和0.05%复合稳定剂,可以得到具有色泽蓝润、酸甜适口、营养丰富、并具有一定保健功能的蓝莓澄清型果汁饮料。

  1. 黑莓蓝莓复合浊汁饮料加工技术研究%Research on the Processing Technology of Compound Cloudy Beverage of Blackberry and Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金华; 王玉; 马立志

    2015-01-01

    对榨汁工艺、饮料配方及稳定性等方面进行综合研究。结果表明:蓝莓、黑莓冻果解冻,蒸汽热烫3 min后采用直压方式进行榨汁,果汁澄清且出汁率高;用纯水在80℃,40 min条件下对果渣进行浸提,浸提液中花色苷含量最高;将浸提液添加到饮料中,能有效地改善饮料的感官品质;饮料的最佳配方为:黑莓原汁20%,蓝莓原汁10%,糖含量8%,CMC0.105%,藻酸丙二醇酯0.613%,黄原胶0.015%,由此配方制得的饮料感官评价最高,稳定性最好。%The paper comprehensive study the squeezing technological , formula and the choice of stabilizer of blackberry and blueberry compound cloudy beverage. The resurt showed that after the frozen blackberry and blueberry thawed out, exposed in Steam 3 min,then juiced by using direct pressure,the juice clear and the juice yield higher. The pomace soaked for 40 min in 80 Celsius hot water for 3 minutes ,the content of anthocyanin highest in pomace water extract.Added the pomace water extract to beverage could improve the sensory quality of blackberry and blueberry compound cloudy beverage. The optimum formula were 20 % blackberry juice , 10%blueberry juice, the total soluble sugar content was 8%,0.105%cmc, 0.613%propylene glycol alginate (PGA) and 0.015 % xanthan. This drink won the highest marks in the sensory evaluation and the greatest stability.

  2. 蓝莓果干粉制备工艺中载体添加及干燥技术的影响%Effect of carrier and drying techniques on the process of blueberry powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林西; 吕兆林; 张柏林; 郭弘璇; 侯智霞

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of making blueberry powder with rich nutrition and good appearance, different drying techniques(Oven drying and freeze drying)and carrier(maltodextrin and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose( CMC)) were taken to make blueberry powder.By the contrast of appearance,moisture content,anthocyanin content and antioxidant ability of each blueberry powder,the result showed that;freeze-drying adding maltodextrin could get crisp and dry blueberry powder;the moisture content was 1.65%±0.34%(<5%);the total anthocyanin content was 132mg/100g fresh weight,decreased 22mg/100g fresh weight;antioxidant capacity was 5.816mgVc/g fresh weight and the retention rate was 96.45%.%以制备营养价值高、外观干燥细腻的高品质蓝莓果干粉为目标,分别对比了添加麦芽糊精、羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)为载体,经烘箱干燥法、冷冻干燥法干燥的蓝莓果干粉制备工艺,以感官评价为指标评价了蓝莓果干粉外观形态,以含水率、花色苷含量、抗氧化能力为指标评价了蓝莓果干粉品质,同时考察了活性成分的保留情况.结果表明:添加麦芽糊精的冷冻干燥工艺最优,能够得到外观结构酥松、干燥的蓝莓果干粉;蓝莓果干粉含水率为1.65%±0.34%(均干燥至低于5%);蓝莓果干粉总花青素含量为132mg/100g鲜重,与鲜果花色苷154 mg/100g鲜重相比仅下降了22mg/100g鲜重,营养价值保持良好;蓝莓果干粉抗氧化能力为5.816mgVC/g鲜重,保持率为96.45%.

  3. 蓝莓提取物对金黄色葡萄球菌的抑制作用研究%The Extracts of Blueberries against Growth of Staphyloccocus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈潇; 孙晓红; 赵勇; 谢庆超; 吴启华; 潘迎捷

    2012-01-01

    本文以四种栽培蓝莓为主要研究对象,通过与山梨酸钾抑菌效果的比较,研究了蓝莓提取物对金黄色葡萄球菌(AB91093)的抑制作用,并测定了蓝莓中总酚酸和还原糖的含量.结果表明,蓝莓对金黄色葡萄球菌具有显著的抑菌效果.四种蓝莓提取物中,Elliott和Darrow提取物对金黄色葡萄球菌的抑制效果显著,分别在300 mg/mL和350 mg/mL时可明显抑制金黄色葡萄球菌的生长,450 mg/mL时能完全杀死金黄色葡萄球菌.蓝莓的抑菌能力与其酚酸含量正相关,与还原糖含量负相关.而山梨酸钾对金黄色葡萄球菌的MIC和MBC分别为100 mg/mL和200 mg/mL.%Blueberry fruits from four commercial cultivars grown under same conditions at the same location and possition were analyzed for antimicrobial activity against Staphyloccocus aureus. We also investigated the content of total phenolic compounds and reducing surge of four blueberries. The results demonstrated that four blueberries could inhibit the growth of S. aureus. Elliott and Darrow were the best inhibitor to 5. aureus,and Elliott and Darrow can inhibit S. aureus at 300 mg/mL and 350 mg/mL, respectively. They can kill S. aureus at 450 mg/mL. All tested blueberries extracts showed very good antimicrobial activity with dose-effect dependent, and antimicrobial activity were positive correlation among the content of total phenolics. The negative correlation among the content of reducing sugar and antimicrobial activity was also observed. However,the MIC and MBC of potassium sorbate against S. aureus was 100 mg/mL and 200 mg/mL,respectively.

  4. 基于低温浸渍处理技术的蓝莓酒酿造工艺研究%Processing technology of blueberry wine based on cold maceration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奔; 刘卉; 高学玲; 胡勇

    2011-01-01

    The blueberry wine was made from blueberries through beating it to jam , adding pectinase (0.02g·kg-1) and yeast(0.05g·kg-1), and pre-fermentation with cold maceration at 16℃. After that, a technological process including adjusting composition, inoculating yeast, aging and clarification were followed. The effects of winemaking strains, inoculation volume, fermentation temperature and sulfur dioxide amount on the qulity of brewing blueberry wine were analyzed through single factor test and orthogonal experiment, and the results show that, in a condition of pre-fermentation with cold maceration at 16℃ for 72 h, taken Y13 as the wine seed yeast,adding 0.2 g·L-1 inoculation volume, fermentation at 25℃ and sulfur dioxide amount controlling at 40 mg·L-1, a new-type blueberry wine can be made, which presents a deep ruby red color and clarification, mellow tastes, and smells like deep floral aroma of roses.%蓝莓果实经打浆、添加果胶酶0.02 g·kg-1及酵母0.05 g·kg-1于16℃条件下进行低温浸渍预发酵处理后,再经调整成分、接种酵母发酵、陈酿、澄清等工艺酿制蓝莓果酒.通过单因素及正交试验设计考察了酿酒菌种、接种量、发酵温度及SO2用量对酿造蓝莓酒品质的影响,结果显示,发酵原料经16℃浸渍预发酵72 h后,以Y13为酿酒酵母,在接种总量为0.2 g·L-1,发酵温度25℃,SO2用量40 mg·L-1的条件下酿造的蓝莓酒,经陈酿后酒液呈深宝石红色,澄清透明,口感醇厚,且带有浓郁的玫瑰花香.

  5. 葡萄糖氧化酶对蓝莓酒贮藏过程中香气成分的影响%Effectiveness of Glucose Oxidase on the Aromatic Composition of Blueberry Wine during Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰蓉; 李双石; 辛秀兰

    2015-01-01

    Using blueberry wine as samples,we tested several different glucose oxidase treatment methods for their effectiveness on aromatic compositions.Blueberry wines were treated with three kinds of treatment methods including combined treatment of glucose oxidase and catalase ,single treatment of glucose oxidase , combined treatment of glucose oxidase and sodium pyrosulfite ,and treatment of sterile distilled water as a control. All groups were preserved at 4 ℃.Using the method of SPME coupled with GC-MS , changes in aromatic compositions were determined after six months' storage. We report here that three kinds of blueberry wines treated with different methods were superior to the control group at the keeping of the contents of total aromatic compositions, esters, typical aromatic compositions having positive contribution to the aroma of fruit wine and that combined treatment of glucose oxidase and catalase is the best choice and more favorable for the storage of blueberry wine.%以树莓酒为试材,分别以3种方式(葡萄糖氧化酶和过氧化氢酶联合处理、葡萄糖氧化酶单独处理、葡萄糖氧化酶和焦亚硫酸钠联合处理)处理,以无菌蒸馏水处理为对照,4℃下贮藏6个月后,采用顶空固相微萃取(SPME)结合气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析了蓝莓酒香气成分的变化。结果表明:3种不同方式处理的蓝莓酒,在香气物质总量、酯类成分含量、对果酒香气质量呈正向贡献的典型香气成分的保持效果方面均优于对照组,其中葡萄糖氧化酶和过氧化氢酶联合处理的蓝莓酒保持效果最好,更有益于蓝莓酒的贮藏。

  6. 蓝莓叶多酚与蓝莓果渣多酚提取物抗氧化活性研究%Antioxidant activity of polyphenolics extracted from the leaves and pomace of Rabbiteye blueberry(Vaccinium ashei reade)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春阳; 冯进

    2013-01-01

    通过7种方法比较了蓝莓叶多酚(Blueberry leaves polyphenols,BBLP)提取物、蓝莓果渣多酚(Blueberry pomace polyphenols,BBPP)提取物以及对照品Rutin的抗氧化活性.在ABTS+清除能力、还原力、亚硝酸盐清除能力、FRAP值、ORAC值方面,BBLP与BBPP均高于Rutin或者与其相当.而三种样品DPPH·清除能力顺序为BBLP> Rutin>BBPP,·OH清除能力顺序为Rutin> BBLP> BBPP.除亚硝酸盐清除能力和ORAC值与BBPP相当、·OH清除能力弱于BBPP外,BBLP在其余4种方法中表现出的抗氧化活性均强于BBPP.结果表明,BBLP与BBPP具有较强的抗氧化作用,可用于开发天然抗氧化剂.%7 methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Blueberry Leaves Polyphenols( BBLP)extract, Blueberry Pomace Polyphenols(BBPP)extracts and Rutin.The ABTS+ scavenging activity,reducing power,nitrite scavenging activity,FRAP value,ORAC value of BBLP and BBPP extracts were higher than or equal with that of Rutin.However,the DPPH · scavenging acticity decreased in the order of BBLP > Rutin > BBPP, and the · OH activity scavenging activity decreased in the order of Rutin > BBLP > BBPP. The nitrite scavenging activity and ORAC value of BBLP was equal with that of BBPP, and the · OH scavenging activity of BBLP was weaker than that of BBPP. But BBLP exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than BBPP significantly (p < 0.05) using other four methods.Results showed that both BBLP and BBPP possessed strong antioxidant activity,which could be used to develop natural antioxidants.

  7. Effect of explant density and volume of cultivation medium on in-vitro multiplication of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. varieties "Brigitta" and "Legacy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rodríguez Beraud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the in-vitro multiplication of two varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L., “Brigitta” and “Legacy” in response to five explants densities (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 and four flask volumes (10, 20, 30 and 40 mL for cultivation. For both varieties the cultivation medium WPM (Woody Plant Medium was used. The experiment was completely randomized with 20 treatments and 12 repetitions per treatment. After 45 days of cultivation we evaluated the height of shoots, number of shoots/explant, number of nodes/shoot and number of shoots/flask. Variety “Brigitta” had highest shoots at higher densities and flask volumes, while variety “Legacy” had the highest average shoot height with intermediate densities and high volumes. Regarding the number of shoots/explant, the volume of the medium had no influence on “Brigitta”, however, higher plant densities affected this parameter. With variety “Legacy” the maximum number of shoots was achieved with lower plant densities and intermediate culture volumes per flask. In relation to the number of nodes per explant "Brigitta had lower numbers as compared to “Legacy”, but with both varieties the number of nodes decresed with smaller volumes of medium in the flasks. For the number of shoots per flask, “Brigitta” responsed best at higher densities exceeding 40 shoots per flask. In contrast, “Legacy” produced maximum results at density of 25 explants in 30 mL of medium. It is concluded that for the optimum multiplication of both varieties the correct selection of both, the planting density and the volume of multiplication medium are important.

  8. Determination of Total Anthocyanin in Blueberry Rice Wine%蓝莓米酒中总花色苷含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张采; 沈晓同

    2014-01-01

    采用消光系数和pH示差2种方法对自制蓝莓米酒中总花色苷含量进行测定,测定值分别为16.82(±0.36)mg/100mL和17.48(±0.40)mg/100mL。2种方法均较为准确地反映了样品在溶液体系中的浓度,消光系数法所测值略小于pH示差法,后者操作难度比前者大。建议相关产品研发时可选用较为简便的消光系数法,最终产品选用较为准确的pH示差法。%Total anthocyanin content in blueberry rice wine was determined by the extinction coefficient and pH-differential methods,measured values were 16.82(± 0.36)mg/100mL and 17.48(± 0.40)mg/100mL. Both methods were more accurate reflection of the sample concentration in the solution of the system. The con-tent tested by extinction coefficient was slightly smaller than the pH-differential method,the latter operation was more difficult than the former. We suggested product development time can be used extinction coeffi-cient method,it was more simple,and the final product selected pH-differential method,it was more accurate.

  9. Processing Technology of Sarah Pear-Blueberries Wine%新型宝珠梨蓝莓酒加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建兰

    2011-01-01

    Fresh Sarah Pear and Blueberries were used as the main raw material to ferment wine with yeast. The key factors influencing the quality of cider such as inoculation quantity, initial Ph and fermentation temperature were explored, through monitoring sensory quality, alcohol concentration, residual sugar of cider during and after the fermentation. The optimal conditions of cider fermentation were investigation by L9(34) orthogonal design. The conclusion could be summarized as follows: 100g of pears adding water 50mL were fermented with 8% yeast at 28℃ and the initial Ph was 7. The significance inspection showed that the results were good, which could offer certain theoretical foundation for the fermentation of high quality cider.%本文使用新鲜宝珠梨为主要原料,添加新鲜蓝莓汁,利用酵母酿造果洒,选取加入酵母量、发酵时间、初始pH、发酵温度等影响果酒品质的4个关键因子,分别以感官评分、酒精度和残糖量等3个质量指标,应用L9(34)交试验设计优化了苹果酒发酵工艺条件,得到以下结论:100g梨加水50mL粉碎过滤,滤液加入酵母量为8%,初始pH=7,控制温度为28℃,最终酿造出品质优良,酒液透亮,且具有浓郁香味的果酒,为优质果酒的研究和开发提供了理论依据.

  10. Comparative effects of nitrogen fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil nitrogen during establishment of highbush blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eBryla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Bluecrop’. Treatments included four methods of N application (weekly fertigation, split fertigation, and two non-fertigated controls and four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg•ha-1 N. Fertigation treatments were irrigated by drip and injected with a liquid urea solution; weekly fertigation was applied once a week from leaf emergence to 60 d prior to the end of the season while split fertigation was applied as a triple split from April to June. Non-fertigated controls were fertilized with granular ammonium sulfate, also applied as a triple split, and irrigated by drip or microsprays. Weekly fertigation produced the smallest plants among treatments at 50 kg•ha-1 N in year 1 but the highest canopy cover at 150 kg•ha-1 N in both years 1 and 2. The other application methods required less N to maximize growth but were less responsive than weekly fertigation to additional N fertilizer applications. In fact, 44-50% of the plants died when granular fertilizer was applied at 150 kg•ha-1 N. By comparison, none of the plants died with weekly fertigation. Plant death with granular fertilizer was associated with high ammonium ion concentrations (up to 650 mg•L-1 and electrical conductivity (>3 dS•m-1 in the soil solution. Early results indicate that fertigation may be less efficient (i.e., less plant growth per unit of N applied at lower N rates than granular fertilizer application but is also safer (i.e., less plant death and promotes more growth when high amounts of fertilizer is applied.

  11. Molecular characterisation of a calmodulin gene, VcCaM1, that is differentially expressed under aluminium stress in highbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, C; Aquea, F; Loyola, R; Slovin, J; Josway, S; Rengel, Z; Reyes-Díaz, M; Alberdi, M; Arce-Johnson, P

    2013-11-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a small acidic protein, is one of the best characterised Ca(2+) sensors in eukaryotes. This Ca(2+) -regulated protein plays a critical role in decoding and transducing environmental stress signals by activating specific targets. Many environmental stresses elicit changes in intracellular Ca(2+) activity that could initiate adaptive responses under adverse conditions. We report the first molecular cloning and characterisation of a calmodulin gene, VcCaM1 (Vaccinium corymbosum Calmodulin 1), in the woody shrub, highbush blueberry. VcCaM1 was first identified as VCAL19, a gene induced by aluminium stress in V. corymbosum L. A full-length cDNA of VcCaM1 containing a 766-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 149 amino acids was cloned from root RNA. The sequence encodes four Ca(2+) -binding motifs (EF-hands) and shows high similarity (99%) with the isoform CaM 201 of Daucus carota. Expression analyses showed that following Al treatment, VcCaM1 message level decreased in roots of Brigitta, an Al-resistant cultivar, and after 48 h, was lower than in Bluegold, an Al-sensitive cultivar. VcCAM1 message also decreased in leaves of both cultivars within 2 h of treatment. Message levels in leaves then increased by 24 h to control levels in Brigitta, but not in Bluegold, but then decreased again by 48 h. In conclusion, VcCaM1 does not appear to be directly involved in Al resistance, but may be involved in improved plant performance under Al toxicity conditions through regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and antioxidant systems in leaves.

  12. Quercetin glycosides and chlorogenic acid in highbush blueberry leaf decoction prevent cataractogenesis in vivo and in vitro: Investigation of the effect on calpains, antioxidant and metal chelating properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Makri, Olga E; Mermigki, Penelope G; Lamari, Fotini N; Georgakopoulos, Constantinos D

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigates whether highbush blueberry leaf polyphenols prevent cataractogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, rutin, isoquercetin and hyperoside were quantified in Vaccinium corymbosum leaf decoction (BBL) using HPLC-DAD. Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with 20 μmol selenite (Na2SeO3)/kg body weight on postnatal (PN) day 10 (Se, n = 8-10/group) only or also intraperitoneally with 100 mg dry BBL/kg body weight on PN days 11 and 12 (SeBBL group, n = 10). Control group received only normal saline (C). Cataract evaluation revealed that BBL significantly prevented lens opacification. It, also, protected lens from selenite oxidative attack and prevented calpain activation, as well as protein loss and aggregation. In vitro studies showed that quercetin attenuated porcine lens turbidity caused by [Formula: see text] or Ca(2+) and interacted efficiently with those ions according to UV-Vis titration experiments. Finally, rutin, isoquercetin and hyperoside moderately inhibited pure human μ-calpain. Conclusively, blueberry leaf extract, a rich source of bioactive polyphenols, prevents cataractogenesis by their strong antioxidant, chelating properties and through direct/indirect inhibition of lens calpains.

  13. Screening of a Yeast Strain for the Production of Blueberry Fruit Wine and Study on Its Properties%酿造蓝莓果酒的酵母菌筛选和发酵特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方亮; 吴文龙; 李维林

    2015-01-01

    Yeast strains separated from naturally fermented blueberry fruit were used as the starting strains and then a yeast strain CNBG002 was obtained through three-level screening. The growth characteristics of CNBG002 in malt extract were studied. The optimum growth temperature was at 26℃and the best growth pH value was 2.5~4.5. The strain displayed good resistance to high concentration alcohol (as high as 15%vol) and SO2 (150 mg/L). It was an ideal yeast strain for the production of blueberry fruit wine.%以从蓝莓自然发酵物中分离得到的酵母作为出发菌,经过三级筛选,得到了1株适宜蓝莓果酒发酵的菌株,命名为CNBG002,并研究了该菌株在麦芽汁中的生长特性。该酵母的最适生长温度为26℃,最适生长pH值为2.5~4.5。该菌耐酒精能力较高,可达到15%vol,耐SO2能力可达150 mg/L,是一株优良的蓝莓果酒酿造酵母。

  14. Study on the Extraction, Purification and Microencapsulation of Blueberry Anthocyanins%蓝莓花青素的提取、分离及微胶囊化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚银花; 刘悦; 刘茜茜; 杨敏; 冯贵涛; 马义虔

    2015-01-01

    Using alcohol as solvent, ultrasonic-assisted extraction was performed to extract anthocyanins from blueberry. Seven extraction parameters were examined, such as ethanol content, extraction times, ratio of solid to solvent, ultrasonic time, pH, extraction temperature, different acids. The extraction solution was concentrated, purified with AB-8 macroporous resin, and the parts containing anthocyanins were concentrated and microencapsulated with orifice method. The parameters of purification, and microencapsulation were tested. The technological process of the extraction, purification, and microencapsulation of blueberry anthocyanins were achieved.%用乙醇作溶剂对蓝莓果中花青素进行了超声提取,考察了乙醇体积分数、提取次数、料液比、时间、 pH 值、温度、酸的种类7个因素对提取蓝莓果花青素的影响。提取液经浓缩后,通过AB-8大孔树脂纯化,浓缩后,采用锐孔法制备微胶囊,考察了纯化和微囊化的相关参数,实现了蓝莓花青素的提取、分离及微胶囊化的工艺过程。

  15. 氮肥对蓝莓树体生长及果实品质的影响%The Effect of N Application on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞薇; 侯智霞; 李国雷; 刘勇; 刘淑慧; 华星; 刘万平

    2012-01-01

    为了提高蓝莓果实的产量与品质,采用大田法开展不同氮用量对5年生北高丛蓝莓‘蓝丰’品种的生长、产量和品质影响的研究.不同氮用量处理为:不施氮0g/株(CK)、109/株(N1)、209/株(N2)、30g/株(N3).结果表明:N1的单株产量高出CK3.5%,N2、N3则比CK低;总酚、花青素在N2时最高,分别为1.51、3.38mg/(g·FW),分别高出CK7.09%、19%,而处理N3则低于CK;葡萄糖、果糖、可溶性糖含量随施氮量的增加呈递增趋势.总之,施用N肥对蓝莓产量及果实品质均呈显著性影响,对叶片含氮量影响不显著.一定范围内,施氮肥可显著提高果实品质.%In order to improve the yield and quality of blueberry fruit, the author found that nitrogen was one of the most important mineral elements in the growth of blueberries. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the growth, yield and quality of 5-year-old northern highbush blueberries 'Bluecrop'. Different nitrogen dosage was: no N 0 g/plant (CK), 10 g/plant (Nl), 20 g/plant (N2), 30 g/plant (N3). The results showed that the yield per plant of Nl higher than CK by 3.5%, the same time, N2 and N3 was lower than that of CK. The phenolics and anthocyanins contents were the highest in N2, respectively of 1.51 mg/(g-FW) and 3.38 mg/(g-FW), higher than CK by 7.09% and 19%, but the two contents of N3 were lower than CK. As glucose, fructose, and soluble sugar content increased with the nitrogen application rate, and showed an increasing trend. In conclusion, the application of N fertilizer on blueberry yield and fruit quality were tested significant effects, but had no significant effects on leaf nitrogen content. Within a certain range, N fertilization could significantly improve the fruit quality of blueberry.

  16. Expression of IL-22 in hepatic steatosis intervened by blueberry probiotic serum%IL-22在蓝莓益生菌血清干预肝细胞脂肪变性实验中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝娟娟; 程明亮

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨蓝莓益生菌血清通过对 IL-22表达的影响改善非酒精性脂肪肝的作用机制。方法血清药理学方法制备大鼠10%蓝莓益生菌低、中、高剂量血清。建立游离脂肪酸(FFA)诱导的正常肝细胞株 L-02细胞脂肪变性模型,设立正常组、模型组、蓝莓益生菌低、中、高剂量血清组。油红 O 染色检测细胞内的脂质沉积;定量检测细胞内三酰甘油(TG)含量;RT-PCR 检测各组 IL-22基因表达;Western blot 及免疫荧光法检测各组 IL-22蛋白表达。结果 FFA 诱导刺激24 h 后,模型组细胞内可见大量脂质沉积,且 TG 含量明显高于正常组(P =0.000),IL-22的基因及蛋白表达均较正常组明显减弱(P =0.000);与模型组相比,蓝莓益生菌低、中、高剂量血清组的 TG 逐渐降低(P =0.000),细胞内的脂肪沉积逐渐减轻;高剂量血清组 IL-22的基因和蛋白表达较模型组、低剂量血清组、中剂量血清组显著增强(P =0.000),但蓝莓益生菌低、中剂量血清组之间 IL-22的基因表达和蛋白表达差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论蓝莓益生菌血清能上调IL-22的表达,参与改善非酒精性脂肪肝的作用机制。%Objective To investigate mechanism of blueberry probiotic in treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)via affecting expression of interlukin-22 (IL-22 ).Methods Serum from rats treated with saline,and low, medium and high dose of blueberry probiotic by gavage were collected,respectively.Cell steatosis model was constructed by stimulating normal liver cell line L-02 with free fatty acid (FFA).Serum from different dose blueberry probiotic treated rats were added into cell culture medium as 10% concentration for the L-02 steatosis model,respectively.Intracellular lipid deposition was observed by oil red O staining and level of triglyceride (TG)was quantitatively determined.Gene expression of

  17. Brazilian ground pearl damaging blackberry, raspberry and blueberry in Brazil Pérola-da-terra causando danos em amoreira-preta, framboeseira e mirtileiro no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Fábio Stoffel Efrom

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922 (Hemiptera: Margarodidae, is a subterranean, polyphagous scale insect native of Southern Brazil that feeds on a variety of different vineyard plant species (Vitis spp.. In this study, it is reported three new plant hosts of the species. In 2007 and 2010, infested plants were documented in the towns of Farroupilha (29°14'34"S, 51°23'20"W and Vacaria (28°26'30"S, 50°52'59"W in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specimens of the ground pearl were found in the roots of three cultivated berry plants: blackberry (Rubus spp., raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberry (Vaccinium sp.. Observed symptoms included: chlorotic leaves, gradual wasting, reduced production, and mortality. Given the increasing popularity of berry orchards in the region, this study serves as an alert for farmers to avoid establishing them in areas infested with the ground pearl and to check for the insects in the root cuttings used to establish berry crops.A pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922 (Hemiptera: Margarodidae é uma cochonilha subterrânea, polífaga, nativa do sul do Brasil, que se alimenta de diversas espécies vegetais causando prejuízos, principalmente à cultura da videira (Vitis spp.. Nesta comunicação, três espécies vegetais são relatadas como novos hospedeiros da praga. Em 2007 e 2010, plantas infestadas foram registradas nos municípios de Farroupilha (29°14'34"S e 51°23'20"W e Vacaria (28°26'30"S e 50°52'59"W, RS. Exemplares da cochonilha foram encontrados em raízes de amoreira-preta (Rubus spp., framboeseira (Rubus idaeus L. e mirtileiro (Vaccinium sp.. Os sintomas observados foram folhas cloróticas, definhamento progressivo, diminuição na produção e morte das plantas. Devido à ampliação do cultivo de pequenas frutas na região, essa informação serve de alerta aos produtores para que evitem o plantio em áreas infestadas com a cochonilha e observem a presen

  18. Lowbush blueberries, Vaccinium angustifolium, modulate the functional potential of nutrient utilization and DNA maintenance mechanisms in the rat proximal colon microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Lacombe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The core gut microbiota encodes for a metabolic capacity that often surpasses the metabolic potential of its host. Lowbush wild blueberries (LWB are a rich source of bioactive compounds, and the gut microbiota is an important modulator of their activity. The objective of this research is to study the effect of a diet enriched with LWB on the gastrointestinal microbiota’s metabolic potential. Methods: Nine three-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups. The control group (N=4 was placed on the AIN93 diet, and the treatment group (N=5 was fed the same diet with 8% (w/w LWB powder substituting for dextrose. The animals consumed the diets for six weeks, after which they were sacrificed. Functional profiles and metabolic potential of the colon microbiota in response to diet were analyzed using deep whole genome sequencing (WGS. Results: Proteins predicted from WGS DNA sequences were assigned to 3,746 COG, 5,577 KEGG, and 4,474 Pfam families. Statistical comparisons of the protein-coding genes revealed significant changes in 25 Gene Ontology (GO, 186 KEGG, and 20 Pfam protein families representing 2.1%, 3.3%, and 0.02% of all hits identified, respectively. Overall, the combined inquires into these databases represented an emphasis on membrane trafficking, DNA regulation, modification and repair, and nutrient metabolism. Protein families that significantly increased by the enrichment of LWBs were involved with amino acid metabolism, 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, metal ion binding, glutamate synthase, REDOX homeostasis, and aryl transferases. In Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(6:228-241 contrast, protein families involved with integrase/recombinase, reverse transcriptase, and transposon/transposase were at a lower abundance. Conclusions: The results from this study reflect the potential impact that LWBs have on the functional repertoire of bacterial communities in the proximal colon. The results

  19. Differential protection among fractionated blueberry polyphenolic families against DA-, Abeta(42)- and LPS-induced decrements in Ca(2+) buffering in primary hippocampal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Brewer, Gregory J; Weikel, Karen A; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Fisher, Derek R

    2010-07-28

    It has been postulated that at least part of the loss of cognitive function in aging may be the result of deficits in Ca(2+) recovery (CAR) and increased oxidative/inflammatory (OX/INF) stress signaling. However, previous research showed that aged animals supplemented with blueberry (BB) extract showed fewer deficits in CAR, as well as motor and cognitive functional deficits. A recent subsequent experiment has shown that DA- or Abeta(42)-induced deficits in CAR in primary hippocampal neuronal cells (HNC) were antagonized by BB extract, and (OX/INF) signaling was reduced. The present experiments assessed the most effective BB polyphenol fraction that could protect against OX/INF-induced deficits in CAR, ROS generation, or viability. HNCs treated with BB extract, BB fractions (e.g., proanthocyanidin, PAC), or control medium were exposed to dopamine (DA, 0.1 mM), amyloid beta (Abeta(42), 25 muM) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 microg/mL). The results indicated that the degree of protection against deficits in CAR varied as a function of the stressor and was generally greater against Abeta(42) and LPS than DA. The whole BB, anthocyanin (ANTH), and PRE-C18 fractions offered the greatest protection, whereas chlorogenic acid offered the lowest protection. Protective capabilities of the various fractions against ROS depended upon the stressor, where the BB extract and the combined PAC (high and low molecular weight) fraction offered the best protection against LPS and Abeta(42) but were less effective against DA-induced ROS. The high and low molecular weight PACs and the ANTH fractions enhanced ROS production regardless of the stressor used, and this reflected increased activation of stress signals (e.g., P38 MAPK). The viability data indicated that the whole BB and combined PAC fraction showed greater protective effects against the stressors than the more fractionated polyphenolic components. Thus, these results suggest that, except for a few instances, the lesser the

  20. Enraizamento in vitro de mirtilo em condições fotoautotróficas In vitro rooting of blueberry under photoautotrophic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Roberta Damiani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do enraizamento fotoautotrófico de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei Reade, cultivar 'Delite', comparando o efeito da luz natural (casa de vegetação e da luz artificial (sala de crescimento durante duas épocas do ano (verão e inverno, bem como o efeito de três concentrações de sacarose (0; 15 e 30g L-1 adicionadas ao meio de cultura e de diferentes tipos de vedação dos frascos de cultivo (alumínio, algodão e filme plástico. Após 60 dias de enraizamento in vitro em meio de cultura WPM, contendo 9µM L-1 de AIB, observou-se que o enraizamento em meio de cultura livre de sacarose promoveu o aumento do número de raízes e da porcentagem de enraizamento e, quando associado ao fechamento dos frascos com algodão, favoreceu, também, o incremento do comprimento das raízes e da massa fresca total. Quanto ao ambiente de cultivo e às épocas do ano, concluiu-se que o enraizamento pode ser realizado com sucesso de forma fotoautotrófica e, durante o verão, independentemente do ambiente de cultivo, verifica-se um aumento do comprimento de raízes, da porcentagem de enraizamento e da massa fresca total.The aim of this research was to assess the photoautotrofic rooting efficiency of blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade, cultivar 'Delite' by comparing the effect between natural light (greenhouse and artificial light (growth room in two seasons (summer and winter, as well as the effect of different three sucrose concentrations (0; 15 or 30g L-1 added to the culture medium and different types of flasks closure (aluminum, cotton and plastic film. After 60 days of in vitro rooting on WPM medium culture containing 9µM L-1 AIB, rooting in free-sucrose culture medium promoted an increased in the number of roots and rooting percentage; and, whether associated to cotton closed, there was an increase in length of roots and in the total fresh weight. Regarding environment growth and season, rooting could be

  1. 4株蓝莓酵母菌株的耐受性研究%Tolerance Research of 4 Blueberry Yeast Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春光; 王莹; 刘盈盈; 王芳; 向准; 孙超; 贺红早

    2015-01-01

    通过前期复筛和发酵性能试验,对筛选到的4株酿酒酵母菌(LMF15、LMF17、LMF24、LMF27)进行耐受性试验(包括温度、酒精浓度、高糖浓度、低pH值、高浓度二氧化硫)。通过菌落的生长法观察在不同浓度或温度梯度水平下菌落生长的情况。结果表明,4株蓝莓酵母菌株均表现出不同的耐受性,其中LMF-27菌株耐受酒精最高为15%vol、温度33℃、耐糖35°Bx、pH2、SO2浓度250 mg/L,LMF-27菌株均优于其他菌株,因此,将LMF-27菌株判定为具有优良的耐酸、耐酒精、耐高温、耐高糖、耐高浓度SO2的酿酒特性的菌株。旨在为今后蓝莓果酒的产业化开发及大工业化生产蓝莓果酒专用酵母提供前期技术储备和实践理论依据。%Through early screening and fermentation performance test, the tolerance of 4 yeast strains(LMF15,LMF17,LMF24,LMF27) to tem-perature, alcohol concentration, sugar concentration, low pH and high concentrations of SO2 was determined. Then the growth of colony was determined under different concentration or temperature levels of the 5 factors. The results showed that the 4 yeast strains exhibited different tolerance, and strain LMF-27 showed better performance than all the other strains, with alcohol tolerance up to 15%vol, temperature tolerance up to 33℃, sugar tolerance up to 35 °Bx, pH tolerance of 2, and SO2 tolerance up to 250 mg/L. Therefore, LMF-27 was judged to have excel-lent wine-producing ability, with high tolerance to acid, alcohol, temperature, sugar and SO2. This study has provided technical reserves and the-oretical basis for the industrial development and mass production of blueberry wine.

  2. 浙江省适栽蓝莓品种筛选试验初报%Preliminary report on adaptability selection of 10 blueberry varieties in Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华江; 陈伟平; 李建华; 周伟东; 曹雪丹

    2013-01-01

    以引进浙江省诸暨市的蓝美1号、夏普蓝、密斯梯、奥尼尔、戴安娜、灿烂、顶峰、粉蓝、园蓝、巴尔德温等10个蓝莓品种为试材,进行植株性状、成熟期、丰产性、果实外观性状、质地、风味的观测,及果实维生素C、总糖、总酸以及花色苷含量的测定分析.结果表明:南高丛品种夏普蓝、密斯梯、戴安娜,以及兔眼品种巴尔德温生长势较强、成熟期早、丰产性好和果实性状优良,适宜鲜食品种发展;兔眼品种园蓝生长势强、深蓝果色、花色苷含量高、营养成分较高以及丰产性好,作为加工首选品种;南高丛品种蓝美1号成熟期较早、果型适中、丰产性好,以及花色苷含量丰富、营养价值较高,作为鲜食与加工兼用品种发展.%Using 10 introduced varieties of blueberry in Zhuji City Zhejiang Province as experimental materials,such as Bluebeauty No.1,Sharpblue,Misty,O'Neal,Diana,Brightwell,Climax,Powderblue,Gardenblue and Baldwin,the plant character,mature period,high yield,fruit character,texture,flavor and content of Vc,sugar,acid and anthocyanins were determined respectively.The results showed that the plant character,mature period,high yield and fruit character of Sharpblue,Misty,Diana and Baldwin were better than other varieties,these four varieties were suitable for fresh-eating.Gardenblue was better not only in plant growth vigor,high yield,but also in content of anthocyanins and other nutrients,and suitable for juice processing.Blue-beauty No.1 matured earlier,with medium fruit type,higher yield and anthocyanin content,which can be used for fresh-eating or processing concurrently.

  3. Comparative Effects of Nitrogen Fertigation and Granular Fertilizer Application on Growth and Availability of Soil Nitrogen during Establishment of Highbush Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, David R.; Machado, Rui M. A.

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. “Bluecrop”). Treatments included four methods of N application (weekly fertigation, split fertigation, and two non-fertigated controls) and four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg·ha−1 N). Fertigation treatments were irrigated by drip and injected with a liquid urea solution; weekly fertigation was applied once a week from leaf emergence to 60 d prior to the end of the season while split fertigation was applied as a triple-split from April to June. Non-fertigated controls were fertilized with granular ammonium sulfate, also applied as a triple-split, and irrigated by drip or microsprinklers. Weekly fertigation produced the smallest plants among the four fertilizer application methods at 50 kg·ha−1 N during the first year after planting but the largest plants at 150 kg·ha−1 N in both the first and second year. The other application methods required less N to maximize growth but were less responsive than weekly fertigation to additional N fertilizer applications. In fact, 44–50% of the plants died when granular fertilizer was applied at 150 kg·ha−1 N. By comparison, none of the plants died with weekly fertigation. Plant death with granular fertilizer was associated with high ammonium ion concentrations (up to 650 mg·L−1) and electrical conductivity (>3 dS·m−1) in the soil solution. Early results indicate that fertigation may be less efficient (i.e., less plant growth per unit of N applied) at lower N rates than granular fertilizer application but is also safer (i.e., less plant death) and promotes more growth when high amounts of N fertilizer is applied. PMID:22639596

  4. Study on Ultrasonic-microwave Synergistic Extraction and Antioxidantion of Anthocyanins from Blueberries%新疆蓝莓中花青素的超声-微波提取及抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿依努尔·阿不都如苏里; 努尔皮达·阿卜拉江; 迪丽努尔·马里克

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins from blueberries were extracted by ultrasonic-microwave synergistic method and an⁃tioxidative activity was also studied. Using catechin as standard, the effects of different factors, such as ethanol con⁃centration, Solid-liquid ratio, microwave power as well as the extraction time were examined via single factor ex⁃periments towards yield of Anthocyanins blueberries. Besides, The antioxidative activities of the Anthocyanins were determined by hydroxyl free radical, DPPh free radical, superoxide anion free radical and reducing power. The or⁃thogonal experiment shows that the optimal conditions were as follows:ethanol concentration was 50%, solid-liquid ratio was 1:60 g/mL, ultrasonic power was 50W, microwave power was 100W and extraction time was 180s. The yield of total Anthocyanins was up to 9.93% through orthogonal experiments under these optimal conditions. Antiox⁃idant activity testing showed that the anthocyanins from blueberries had a certain scavenging activity on superoxide anion, DPHH· as well as ·OH radicals.%优选蓝莓中花青素的超声-微波提取工艺,并研究其抗氧化活性。以儿茶素为标准品,选取乙醇浓度、料液比、微波功率、提取时间等考察因素,以花青素提取率为指标,在单因素试验的基础上,通过正交试验筛选出最佳的提取工艺条件。以VC 为对照,通过清除羟自由基、DPPH·自由基和超氧阴离子自由基等实验来评价蓝莓中花青素体外抗氧化能力。乙醇浓度50%,液料比1∶60,超声功率50W,微波功率100W,提取时间180s时蓝莓中花青素的提取率最高,其含量达9.93%。蓝莓中花青素对羟自由基,DPPH·和超氧阴离子自由基都有一定清除能力。且在实验所选浓度范围内,抗氧化能力随浓度的增加而增强。

  5. GC-MS analysis of volatiles variation in blueberry wine before and after primary fermentation%蓝莓酒主发酵前后挥发性成分变化的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雪丹; 李二虎; 方修贵; 赵凯; 周伟东

    2015-01-01

    To research the changes in the volatile components in blueberry wine before and after primary fermentation,the volatiles of blueberry wine were investigated by headspace soild phase microextraction(SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).The results showed that 36 kinds of volatile components were detected before primary fermentation,mainly including terpenes (11),alcohols (12),esters (8) and acids (3).Furthermore,46 kinds of volatile components were detected after primary fermentation,mainly including alcohols (7),esters (13),terpenes (13),acids (4) and hydrocarbon (8).During primary fermentation,21 kinds of volatile components were disappeared,and 31 kinds of volatile components were emerged,only 15 kinds of compounds were detected both before and after fermentation.Research showed that the primary fermentation process was an important stage for aroma changes from blueberry juice into wine.%为研究蓝莓酒主发酵前、后挥发性成分的变化,采用固相微萃取(SPME)结合气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用技术,分别测定了蓝莓主发酵前、后的挥发性成分.结果表明:主发酵前共检出挥发性成分36种,主要为萜类(11种)、醇类(12种)、酯类(8种)和酸类(3种)等;主发酵后共检出挥发性成分46种,主要为醇类(7种)、酯类(13种)、萜类(13种)、酸类(4种)和烃类(8种)等.与主发酵前相比,主发酵后有21种化合物消失,有31种新增的化合物,还有15种化合物在主发酵前后均有检出.研究表明,主发酵过程是完成蓝莓酒由果汁到果酒的主要香气变化阶段.

  6. Pollen Quantity and Viability of Five Rabbiteye Blueberry Varieties%5个兔眼蓝莓品种的花粉量与花粉活力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芩; 廖优江; 任永权; 田栋伟; 蔡陈; 刘宗朝; 李性苑; 张文华

    2013-01-01

    为了给兔眼蓝莓品种栽培搭配合适授粉树及开展人工辅助授粉提供科学依据,以我国南方地区主栽的5个兔眼蓝莓品种为材料,对其花粉量和花粉活力进行测定.结果表明,5个兔眼蓝莓品种的花粉量和花粉活力均有显著差异,其中杰兔的花粉量与花粉活力分别为600.34粒和79.84%,均显著高于其他4个品种,同时梯扶蓝和巴尔德温两品种的花粉量均高于450粒,花粉活力均高于65%.因此,杰兔、梯扶蓝和巴尔德温可作为兔眼蓝莓的栽培授粉品种,并可与其他相互亲和品种搭配建园;而S13的花粉量(324.32粒)最少,花粉活力(22.66%)最低,不宜作为授粉树.%The pollen quantity and pollen viability of five main rabbiteye blueberry varieties were determined to provide the scientific basis for selecting appropriate pollinizers and artificial supplementary pollination in cultivation of rabbiteye blueberry.The results showed that there were significant differences in pollen quantity and pollen viability between five varieties,the pollen quantity and pollen viability of Premier variety was 600.34 and 79.84%,significantly higher than other four varieties respectively and the pollen quantity and pollen viability of Tifblue and Baldwin varieties both was over 450 and 65%,which indicates that Premier,Tifblue and Baldwin varieties can be used as pollination varieties for cultivation of rabbiteye blueberry.

  7. An Empirical Study on Consumers' Intention and Influence Factors on Blueberry Products——On the Basis of Survey of Customers in Jilin Province%消费者对蓝莓产品的购买意愿及其影响因素的实证研究——基于吉林省消费者调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽敏; 吴林; 郝庆升

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] On the basis of survey of consumers in Jilin Province, consumers' purchasing willingness and influencing factors on blueberry products were analyses in this paper. [Method] In terms of econometric model, the latest model-Logistic was utilized. [Result] The results showed that the consumers' purchasing of blueberry products could be affected by many kinds of factors, among which the consumers' gender, family monthly income, taste of blueberry products, brand image and fashionable promotion had a positive effect on consumer's purchasing intention; and consumers' marital status, comparative purchasing behavior, attention degree to gifts, package and health products were negative. [Conclusion]According to the results, the consumers' cognition regarding the blueberry products should be strengthened, the blueberry market should be segmented by gender,quality and function, the mid-market and high-end market should be erected, then the demand for blueberry product will be increased.%[目的]考察消费者购买蓝莓产品的意愿及其影响因素.[方法]采用Logi stic计量模型,设计变量,对消费者购买蓝莓产品的意愿及其影响因素进行分析.[结果]多种因素影响消费者购买蓝莓产品,其中消费者性别、家庭月收入、蓝莓产品口感、品牌形象、时尚宣传对消费者购买意愿有正向影响;而消费者婚姻状况、比较购买行为,对礼品、包装和保健品关注程度对消费者购买意愿有负向影响.[结论]选择性别、档次,功能作为标准进行市场细分,打造中,高端市场,进而加强消费者对于蓝莓产品的认知,拉动需求.

  8. Preparation and Biological Activities of Crude Extract from Blueberry Wine Lees%蓝莓酒泥粗提物的制备及其生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳弘; 刘照亭; 李亚辉; 张宏志; 黄开红

    2016-01-01

    采用超声波辅助酶法提取制备蓝莓酒泥粗提物,研究粗提物的制备工艺并分析粗提物的抗氧化性及其对大鼠肝星状细胞HSC-T6细胞生长的影响。通过单因素试验和正交试验优化制备工艺,检测粗提物对1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼(1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl,DPPH)自由基、•OH的清除能力,并通过四甲基偶氮唑蓝增殖实验、Hoechst33258荧光染色、流式细胞术研究其对HSC-T6细胞增殖与凋亡的影响。结果表明:制备蓝莓酒泥粗提物的最佳超声条件为超声功率500 W、料液比1∶20(g/mL)、超声时间50 min、提取温度60℃,在此条件下多糖和花色苷的提取量分别为14.24 mg/g和6.13 mg/g。所制备的蓝莓酒泥粗提物对DPPH自由基和•OH具有一定的清除效果,并可显著抑制HSC-T6细胞增殖、诱导HSC-T6细胞凋亡,且在一定的质量浓度范围内,呈现出剂量-时间效应关系,表明蓝莓酒泥粗提物具有良好的抗氧化活性,并对HSC-T6细胞生长具有明显的抑制作用,具有潜在的抗肝纤维化能力。通过诱导HSC-T6细胞凋亡是蓝莓酒泥粗提物抑制细胞生长的作用途径之一。%The study focused on the preparation of crude extract from blueberry wine lees by ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction. The antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HSC-T6 cells of the crude extract on were also evaluated. The optimization of the extraction conditions was performed using one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design. Subsequently, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacities were measured to evaluate antioxidant activity, and the growth inhibitory effect of crude extracts on HSC-T6 cells was assessed by methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay, Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining, and flow cytometry. The optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: ultrasonic power

  9. Effect of winter protection methods on the microenvironment and winter hardiness of blueberry%防寒措施对越橘越冬微环境和越冬性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌凤章; 王贺新; 韩慧; 郭峰

    2012-01-01

    以高丛越橘蓝丰为试材,研究了不同防寒措施对大连地区越橘生长微环境变化规律和越冬性的影响。结果表明.2007—2008年冬春大连地区露地极端最低温度、冷驯化及脱驯化期间的最低温度均高于同期越橘能够忍受的最低温度,但露地防寒越橘越冬伤害严重,枝条长度枯死率达53.46%,花芽完全枯死。与对照相比,黑塑料袋外置稻草、黑塑料袋防寒对越冬期间日最低温度、日平均温度、日最高温度影响不大,但明显提高了空气相对湿度,枝条含水量保持在较高水平,1a生枝条长度及花芽枯死率均较低,防寒效果较好;透明塑料套袋降低了日最低温度,提高了日平均温度、日最高温度和日温度变幅,空气相对湿度略高于对照,越冬后枝条含水量略高于对照,枝条长度及花芽枯死率较高,防寒效果较差。这说明影响大连地区越橘越冬的主要原因是水分胁迫。%Taking high-bush blueberry Bluecrop as test materials, the effect of different winter protection methods on the microenvironmental changes and 6verwintering ability of blueberry in Dalian was studied in this paper. The results show that, in winter and spring from 2007 to 2008 in Dalian, the extreme mini- mum outdoor temperature and the minimum temperature during cold acclimation and deacclimation were higher than the minimum temperature tolerated by blueberry in the same period, but outdoor planting may cause serious injury to the overwintering blueberry in such an extent that the shoot length death rate might achieve 53.46%, and the flower buds might be completely dead. Compared with controls, the cold-proof- ing with straw outside black plastic bag or with black plastic bags had little effect on the minimum daily temperature, the average daily temperature and the maximum daily temperature during the overwintering, but significantly improved the relative air humidity, so that

  10. Thirty-five Years of Research and Industry Development of Blueberry in China%中国蓝莓35年 ——科学研究与产业发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林

    2016-01-01

    It is a long tradition for Chinese people to eat berries of Vaccinium uliginosun L. and in the 1980s people began to process the berries from Xing′anling Area and Changbai Mountain Area in Northeastern China for wine and juice. In 1981, Prof. Hao Rui from Jilin Agricultural University in-troduced blueberry cultivars from the United States. And since 2000, the industrial cultivation has been carried out in Qingdao city, Shandong province. Till the year of 2015, over twenty provinces have been cultivating blueberry, the total area of which is approximately 30 000 hectares, and the yield of which reaches 25 000 tons in China. During the industrial development period, twenty-two cultivars have been selected from the total over one hundred cultivars introduced and cultivated as main cultivars. Seedlings have been produced through the way of tissue culture and cuttage. And key techniques of soil adjusting, pH decreasing, cultivation and management, disease and pest control-ling, storage and processing, sales and industry economy have been studied and used. Based on the reviews and analyses of researches and industry development of blueberry through the past thirty-five years ( from 1981 to 2015) in China, the development path of good cultivar selection and technique use, standard cultivation, product commercialization, and information collection through the Internet of Things ( IOT) for the blueberry industry in China was advised in this paper.%中国一直有笃斯越桔的食用传统,在20世纪80年代,将原产大小兴安岭和长白山区的笃斯越桔加工成酒、汁产品并销售. 1981年,吉林农业大学郝瑞教授从美国引种蓝莓,2000年在山东青岛实现产业化种植. 2015年全国超过20个省市区开展蓝莓种植,总面积约3万hm2 ,产量约2. 5万t. 筛选审定了22个品种,实现了组织培养工厂化育苗和扦插育苗,解决了土壤改良及调酸、栽培管理、病虫害防治、贮藏加工、销售等关键技

  11. Identificación y valor nutricional de algunos materiales nativos de arándano (Vaccinium spp Identification and nutritional value of some wild materials of blueberry (Vaccinium spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Jiménez-Bonilla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El arándano es un arbusto de la familia de las ericáceas del género Vaccinium. Sus frutos son bayas de color oscuro, azuladas o rojizas. Presenta cualidades nutricionales y antioxidantes que lo hace un fruto de alto valor medicinal y nutricional. En el curso de este estudio se localizaron, recolectaron, identificaron y analizaron por el método de ORAC (capacidad antioxidante total varios materiales silvestres identificados como Vaccinium consanguinium. Los análisis químicos mostraron los altos índices de antioxidantes presentes en los frutos (Las Torres 1, 131,58; Las Torres 2, 156,20; Villa Mills 112,84 y Quetzales 112,84 μM de Trolox equivalente/g muestra fresca, valores mayores a los indicados en la literatura para alimentos reconocidos por su potencial antioxidante.  Debido al alto valor nutricional de los arándanos silvestres mostrado en este estudio, se recomienda incentivar y apoyar los esfuerzos nacionales para su domesticación y posterior siembra comercial.The blueberry is a shrub of the family Ericaceae, genus Vaccinium. Its fruits are berries of dark, bluish or reddish coloration. Presents nutritional qualities and antioxidants which make it a fruit of high nutritional and medicinal value. During this study several wild materials identified as Vaccinium consanguinium were located, collected, identified and analyzed by the method of ORAC (antioxidant total capacity.  Chemical analysis showed high levels of antioxidants in the fruits ((Las Torres1 131.58, Las Torres2 156.20, Villa Mills 112.84 and Quetzales 112.84 μM Trolox equivalent/g fresh fruits, values greater than those specified in the literature for food recognized by its antioxidant potential. Due to high nutritional value of wild blueberry showed on this study, it is recommended to encourage and support national efforts for their domestication and subsequent commercial planting.

  12. Optimization of Process Conditions of Total Flavonoids Extraction from Blueberry Leaves by Ultrasonic Method%超声波法提取蓝树莓叶黄酮类物质的工艺条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青峰; 张琴琴; 冯丽娟

    2012-01-01

    为明确提取蓝树莓叶中黄酮类物质的最佳工艺条件,利用超声波法提取蓝树莓叶中的总黄酮,研究超声时间、乙醇浓度、料液比3个因素对总黄酮提取率的影响,并通过正交试验确定了提取的最佳工艺条件.结果表明,蓝树莓最佳提取工艺为超声时间70 min,乙醇浓度50.0%,料液比1:20,总黄酮的提取率为23.178%.说明,该提取工艺简单、合理,可以用于测定蓝树莓总黄酮的含量.%To optimize the extraction conditions of total flavonoids from raspberry leaves by ultrasonic method. Total flavonoids was extracted from blueberry by ultrasonic method. The effects of four factors including ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time, ethanol concentration, solid-liquid ratio on the yield of total flavonoids were investigated. The optimum technological conditions of total flavonoids extraction were confirmed through the orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimum exaction technology conditions of blueberry were as follows; ultrasonic power for high stall, ultrasonic time of 70 min, 50% ethanol concentrationand solid-liquid ratio of 1 : 20, the yield of total flavonoids was 23. 178%. The extraction process was simple, reasonable, and could be used for determining the content of total flavonoids from raspberry.

  13. Chemical and Isotopic Characterization of Waters in Rio Tinto, Spain, Shows Possible Origin of the Blueberry Haematite Nodules in Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M. L.; Hubbard, C. G.; Mielke, R. E.; Black, S.

    2005-12-01

    at low pH. Ground water migration could produce evaporitic ponds where various bedded sulfate mineral sediments could form. The intergranular pore-spaces would be water filled. Most terrestrial spheroidal nodular concretions form by radial diffusion in pore-water of a chemical component of a very different oxidation state from that of the surrounding water. A nodular concretion is most usually formed by the reaction of the diffusive component with others in the pore-water. There are two main possible reaction sets for formation of the Blueberries that are consistent with all current data. 1. Local concentrations of organic matter (pre-biotic or biotic) formed reduction spots in which a small amount of Fe3+ either in solution or from evaporite mineral salts, was reduced to Fe2+ and then diffused radially to form an iron oxide nodule by reaction with inwardly diffusing dissolved oxygen. 2. Similar local concentrations of organic matter could also have engendered sulfate reduction and consequent outward diffusion of dissolved sulfide reacted with iron in solution to produce an iron sulfide nodule, subsequently oxidized in situ to hematite (maybe via goethite). Our current work is successfully identifying chemical and stable isotopic characteristics for both microbial and abiotic modes of all relevant reactions.

  14. Study on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Highbush Blueberry in Greenhouse%设施高灌蓝莓光合特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏海蓉; 刘庆忠; 张庆霞; 宗晓娟; 王甲威; 张道辉

    2014-01-01

    Using Vaccinium corymbosum‘Sierra’ as material, the photosynthetic characteristics of high-bush blueberry in greenhouse were studied .The results showed that the photosynthetically active radiation ( PAR) and leaf temperature ( TL) reached the maximum at 12∶00 and 13∶00 respectively .The net photosyn-thetic rate ( Pn ) reached the maximum at 8∶00 , and then decreased steadily .There was a small upturn at 15∶00~16∶00 and then decreased again .The daily variation of the stomatal conductance ( Gs) was the same with that of Pn, but that of intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was on the contrary.The light saturation point was 600 μmol/(m2· s), the light compensation point was 62.6 μmol/(m2· s) and the CO2 compensation point was 129 .8 μL/L.Temperature was the major limiting factor of Pn under high temperature and low light conditions.When the temperature was higher than 28℃, the photosynthesis was seriously restrained , which was caused by the multi -effects of stoma and non -stoma restriction factors .%以高灌蓝莓品种‘喜来’(Vaccinium corymbosum‘Sierra’)为试材,对设施高灌蓝莓的光合特性进行了研究。结果表明,设施内光合有效辐射( PAR)及叶面温度( TL)分别于12∶00和13∶00达到最大值,高灌蓝莓叶片的净光合速率( Pn)于早晨8∶00达到最大值,之后持续降低,在15∶00~16∶00有小量回升,之后再次降低。气孔导度( Gs)日变化与Pn变化趋势相同,而细胞间隙二氧化碳浓度( Ci)的变化趋势与之相反。高灌蓝莓叶片的光饱和点为600μmol/(m2· s),光补偿点为62.6μmol/(m2· s),CO2补偿点为129.8μL/L,在温室高温弱光环境下,温度是Pn的主要限制因子,温度在28℃以上时高灌蓝莓的光合作用受到严重抑制,该抑制是气孔因素与非气孔因素共同影响的结果。

  15. 消费者购买蓝莓果汁行为及影响因素实证分析——以吉林省为例%An Empirical Study on Consumers' Behavior of Purchasing Blueberry Fruit Juice and Its Influencing Factors ——Basis of Survey of Customers in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽敏; 吴林; 郝庆升

    2011-01-01

    在对吉林省消费者调查基础上.采用logistic计量模型,对吉林省消费者购买蓝莓果汁的行为及影响因素进行了实证分析.结果表明:多种因素影响消费者购买蓝莓果汁,其中消费者是否有购买饮料习惯、是否喜欢纯果汁、对蓝莓果汁品牌的关注度、对媒体广告的关注度对消费者的购买行为有正向影响,消费者对蓝莓果汁口感的关注度对消费者的购买行为有负向影响.%On the basis of survey of consumers in Jilin province, with the latest model-Logistic, consumers’ behavior of purchasing blueberry fruit juice and its influencing factors were analyzed.The results showed that consumers' purchase of blueberry fruit juice could be affected by many kinds of factors, among which consumers' usual practice of beverage purchase, their taste in pure fruit juice, their concern over brand and media advertisement had positive effect on consumers' purchasing behavior while concern over taste of blueberry fruit juice was negative.

  16. 蓝莓果实中脂肪酸的组成及冷藏期间的变化%Composition and change of fatty acid in blueberry during cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周倩; 纪淑娟; 马超; 刘秀英

    2013-01-01

    采用索氏提取法对蓝莓果实中的脂肪酸成分进行提取,经甲酯化后运用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)进行分析和鉴定,经峰面积归一化法并通过MSD化学工作站数据处理系统得出蓝莓果实脂肪酸成分组成并分析其在冷藏期间的变化.结果表明:蓝莓果实中含有8种脂肪酸,分别为亚油酸(41.874%)、棕榈酸(27.343%)、亚麻酸(14.680%)、油酸(9.285%)、花生酸(1.437%)、13-十八碳烯酸(1.204%)、十六碳烯酸(0.555%)和硬脂酸(0.411%);其不饱和脂肪酸以亚油酸、亚麻酸和油酸为主,相对百分比含量高达67.598%;在0℃贮藏期间,随贮藏时间的延长,脂肪酸的组成并未发生变化,但不饱和脂肪酸含量逐渐减低,45d后下降显著,饱和脂肪酸含量逐渐升高,且脂肪酸的不饱和指数与不饱和度均出现了下降趋势.%Fatty acid in blueberry fruit was extracted by Soxhlet and its methyl ester product was analyzed by GCMS.The fatty acid composition and changes of blueberry fruit during cold storage was determined by peak area normalization method and data processing systems of MSD chemistry workstation.Results indicated that there were eight fatty acids in blueberry.The major components were linoleic acid(41.874%),palmitic acid(27.343%),linolenic acid(14.680%),oleic acid (9.285%),arachidic acid (1.437%),13-octadecenoic acid(1.204%),hexadecenoic acid(0.555%) and stearic acid(0.411%).Linoleic acid,linolenic acid and oleic acid were the major components of unsaturated fatty acids and their relative percentage content was 67.598%.During the cold storage at 0℃,the composition of fatty acid had not changed,but the content of unsaturated fatty acid decreased gradually and the saturated fatty acid increased.The content of unsaturated fatty acid decreased significantly after 45d.The index of unsaturated fatty acids and unsaturation degree both decreased during cold storage.

  17. 蓝莓不同多酚物质的分离与抑制细胞氧化损伤功能的比较%Separation of different polyphenols in blueberries and comparison of their protective activity on cellular oxidative damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翼翔; 吴永沛; 陈俊; 籍保平

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies reveal that diets rich in fruits and vegetables can reduce the incidence of chronic diseases,such as ageing,cardiovascular disease and cancer,et al.According to previous reports,oxidative stress is closely related with the occurrence and development of chronic diseases.Therefore,antioxidative compounds derived from plant foods are gaining more interest in ameliorating adverse health risks because of their low toxicity and few side effects.The World Health Organization has emphasized that phenolic components,especially from colorful fruits,play an important role in preventing diseases that seriously threaten people's health,including cardiovascular diseases,diabetes,cancer,and obesity.Blueberries are highly recommended because of their abundant anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds.Furthermore,wild blueberries contain usually more polyphenol content than the cultivars.In China,the Greater Hinggan Mountains in Northeast China is the main producing area of wild blueberries,and the annual yield is about 100 to 200 thousand tons.Therefore,Chinese wild blueberries have great value of development and utilization.However,there are few literatures available about the nutritional compounds and anti-oxidative activity of the Chinese wild blueberries.In this study,contents of functional compounds in fresh wild blueberries,such as total phenols,total anthocyanins and vitamin C,were analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu method,pH-differential method and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method,respectively.Moreover,in order to understand the compositions of polyphenols and the main anti-oxidative components in wild blueberries,blueberry polyphenols were separated and purified.After being purified sequentially by Amberlite XAD-7 column and Sephadex LH-20 column,polyphenols from blueberries were subsequently separated into three fractions:anthocyanin-rich fraction,phenolic acid-rich fraction,and flavonoid-rich fraction.The conditions of 2,2 '-azobis

  18. Multiplicação fotoautotrófica de mirtilo através do uso de luz natural Photoautotrophic multiplication of blueberry by using natural light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Roberta Damiani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de minimizar os custos da multiplicação in vitro convencional de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei Reade e otimizar a produção de mudas micropropagadas desta espécie, este trabalho comparou o efeito da luz natural à artificial, através do cultivo dos explantes em diferentes locais de crescimento (casa de vegetação e sala de crescimento, durante duas estações do ano: verão e inverno, bem como o efeito de diferentes concentrações de sacarose adicionadas ao meio de cultura e diferentes tipos de vedação dos frascos de cultivo. Aos 60 dias de multiplicação in vitro, foram avaliados o número médio de brotações, o número médio de folhas, o comprimento médio das brotações, a taxa de multiplicação e a massa fresca total. Através dos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que o uso de diferentes materiais na vedação dos frascos não altera o comprimento das brotações, porém promove diferentes respostas na taxa de multiplicação, no número médio de folhas e, principalmente, na quantidade de massa fresca total. Explantes desenvolvidos em frascos fechados com filme plástico ou alumínio aumentam o número de folhas e a taxa de multiplicação. Por outro lado, explantes desenvolvidos em frascos fechados com algodão e em condições fotoautotróficas aumentam em grande escala a quantidade de massa fresca total. Em condições de micropropagação convencional, a adição de 15 g.L-1 de sacarose ao meio de cultura favorece o aumento do número de folhas, a taxa de multiplicação, a massa fresca total e o desenvolvimento das brotações; no entanto, para a maioria das variáveis, não há diferença significativa do cultivo em ausência de sacarose. O desenvolvimento dos explantes, em diferentes locais de crescimento e em diferentes épocas do ano, apresenta respostas distintas em função da variável analisada.Aiming to minimize the costs of in vitro conventional multiplication of blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade and to

  19. Determination of soluble solids content of blueberries with near infrared spectroscopy%基于近红外光谱技术检测蓝莓可溶性固形物含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姗姗; 孙红男; 陈健; 孙爱东

    2012-01-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the rapid and non-destructive measurement of soluble solids content in blueberry samples using near infrared diffuse reflection spectrum.Six varieties of blueberries("Elliott","Darrow","Patriot","Duke","Northblue" and "Bluecrop")were selected,which collected from Liaoning.The original spectrum averaged was preprocessed by the 1st derivative.By means of principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares(PLS),the calibration mathematics model for total soluble solids was established.The relative coefficient was 0.91518,the calibration standard deviation was 0.801,and the prediction standard deviation was 1.06.The method was rapid accurate and non-destructive,which was available for rapid accurate determination of SSC in blueberries.%采用近红外漫反射光谱技术对辽宁丹东蓝莓基地的六个蓝莓品种(埃利奥特、达柔、爱国者、北蓝、杜克、蓝丰)进行光谱分析,快速无损测定蓝莓可溶性固形物含量,利用一阶导数进行光谱预处理,主成分分析(PCA)和偏最小二乘法(PLS)建立蓝莓可溶性固形物预测模型。结果表明,所建模型的相关系数(Corr.Coeff.)为0.91518、校正集标准偏差(RMSEC)为0.801、预测集标准偏差(RMSEP)为1.06。该方法快速、准确、无损,能准确地预测蓝莓中可溶性固形物含量。

  20. Anthocyanin from Blueberry Wine Pomace:Extraction Optimization and Stability Test%蓝莓酒渣中花色苷提取工艺的优化及其稳定性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀菊; 杜金华; 马磊; 赵静

    2009-01-01

    Pomace of blueberry wine is abundant in phenolic compounds and anthocyanin. The extraction conditions from the blueberry wine pomace were optimized and the stability of the pigment as a kind of food additive were studied. The results showed that the maximum absorption wavelength of the pigment was 520 nm. The optimum conditions of the extraction were as follows: the ethanol content 70%,the ratio of dry pomace to extracting solution 1:25,extracting 60min,at 70 ℃. Under the optimum conditions,6. 26 mg anthocyanin was obtained from 1 g pomace. The pigment solution lost its brilliant red hue when pH value was higher than 4. 0. The pigment solution showed certain thermal stability. It was sensitive to Vitamin C,oxidant (Peroxide),reducer (Sodium Sulfite),preservative (Sodium Benzoate) at room temperature. The pigment solution was not stable to light but was not affected by sucrose and glucose solution.%蓝莓酒渣富含酚类物质和花色苷,为酚类抗氧化剂或食品添加剂的丰富来源.文中以蓝莓发酵后的皮渣为材料,研究了其花色苷最佳提取工艺条件及理化性质.结果表明:蓝莓酒渣中所提花色苷在可见光范围内的最大吸收波长为520 nm,最佳提取条件为以体积分数70%的含1%HCl酸化乙醇为提取溶剂、料液比1∶25(g∶mL)、提取时间60 min、提取温度70℃,在最佳提取工艺条件下每克蓝莓酒渣可提取6.26 mg花色苷;该色素在pH≥4后红色素吸光度值急剧下降,不酎室外强光,具有一定温度稳定性,常温下对抗坏血酸、氧化剂(过氧化氢)、还原剂(亚硫酸钠)、防腐剂(苯甲酸钠)敏感,葡萄糖、蔗糖溶液对其温度稳定性影响小.

  1. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira Biology of South American fruit fly in blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Bisognin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei, amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp., araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotófase (12 horas, para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o ciclo biológico em todos hospedeiros estudados, embora os frutos nativos (pitanga e araçá ofereçam melhores condições para seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros biológicos determinados para as fases imaturas foram semelhantes nos quatro hospedeiros. Insetos criados em pitanga e araçá apresentam, na fase adulta, maior período de oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade de fêmeas, em comparação aos criados em mirtilo e amora‑preta. O ritmo diário de oviposição é mais prolongado e uniforme nos insetos criados em araçá e pitanga, o que mostra que A. fraterculus está mais bem adaptada a estas frutas, nativas da região Sul.The objective of this work was to describe the biology of Anastrepha fraterculus in blueberry (Vaccinium ashei, blackberry (Rubus spp., strawberry guava (Psidium cattleyanum and Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora fruits. The experiment was carried out in laboratory under controlled conditions of temperature (25±2ºC, relative humidity (70±10%, and photophase (12 hours to determine insect biological parameters in immature and adult development stages. Anastrepha fraterculus finishes its biological cycle in all studied hosts; however, the Brazilian native fruits (strawberry guava and Surinam cherry provide better conditions for development of the insect. Biological parameters determined for immature development stadium were similar in the four hosts. Insects reared in Surinam cherry and strawberry guava showed, in the

  2. Study on stability and oxygen radicals scavenging capacity of acylated blueberries anthocyanins%酰基化蓝莓花色苷的稳定性和对氧自由基清除能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖畅; 李冰心; 吕春茂; 孟宪军

    2012-01-01

    The instability of natural anthocyanins was a big obstacle for its usage in food as colorants.In order to improve the stability of anthocyanins, molecular modification was used.The molecular modification of blueberry anthocyanins by acylation, the light, thermal stability and scavenging oxygen radicals of acylated anthocyanins were studied.The UV absorption spectrum and infrared spectrum showed that the blueberry anthocyanins had been acylated.Light and heat stability of acylated anthocyanins were significantly increased being compared with no acylated anthocyanins, but the capability of acylated anthocyanins on scavenging the hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical were weaker than those no acylated anthocyanins.lC~0 of scavenging hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion was 0.74,3.14mg/mL, respectively.%由于天然花色苷稳定性差,严重阻碍了其在食品工业中的广泛应用。为了改善花色苷的稳定性,采用分子修饰的方法,通过酰基化反应修饰蓝莓花色苷,并研究酰化后蓝莓花色苷的光、热稳定性和对氧自由基的清除能力。通过紫外吸收光谱和红外光谱表明蓝莓花色苷已经酰基化。相对未酰化的蓝莓花色苷,酰基化蓝莓花色苷的光、热稳定性显著提高,但清除羟基自由基、超氧阴离子自由基的能力略有下降,清除羟自由基、超氧阴离子自由基的IC,。分别为0.74、3.14mg/mL。

  3. Simultaneous model of acquisition and degradation of anthocyanin extracted from blueberry powder by microwave technology%微波萃取蓝莓中花青素获取和降解的同步模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑先哲; 陶岩; 李秀伟; 刘秉欣

    2014-01-01

    In order to reveal the mechanism of microwave extracting anthocyanin from powdered blueberry, the process of simultaneous acquisition and degradation of anthocyanin by microwave technology was characterized. Based on Fick's law and the theory of the electromagnetic field enhanced diffusion, the effects of extraction temperature on the acquisition and degradation of anthocyanin were analyzed as anthocyanin acquisition rate higher than its degradation in extraction temperature of 30-60 ℃ and anthocyanin degradation rate higher than its acquisition in extraction temperature of 60-70 ℃. A kinetic model of microwave-assisted extraction blueberry anthocyanin was established describing simultaneous process of acquisition and degradation of anthocyanin extracted from blue berry powder. The results indicated that the model might predict the concentration of anthocyanin under the extraction system, which contributed to improving efficiency in the production practice, and provided theoretical basis for achieving optimal control of the active ingredient of microwave-assisted extraction process.%为同步表征微波萃取蓝莓过程中花青素获取和降解过程,揭示微波萃取蓝莓中花青素的传递机理,依据Fick扩散定律和电磁场增强扩散理论,探究微波萃取温度对蓝莓花青素萃取率及降解率的影响,在低温范围内(30~60℃)花青素萃取速度高于降解速度,在高温范围内(60~70℃)花青素降解速度高于萃取速度。建立描述微波萃取过程中花青素获取与降解同步模型,为在生产实践中提高效率、实现对微波辅助萃取有效成分工艺系统的最优控制提供理论依据。

  4. 高灌蓝莓 CBF 基因的单核苷酸多态性分析%Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis of CBF Gene in Highbush Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王甲威; 林科; 魏海蓉; 刘庆忠

    2014-01-01

    With 21 highbush blueberry cultivars as materials , the VcCBF gene was cloned and its single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs) were analyzed based on sequencing .Totally, 123 non repetitive sequences were cloned and 120 SNPs were identified with the SNPs occurrence rate as one SNP every 695 bp and the nu-cleotide diversity value (Pi) as 0.01251.In 120 SNPs, 62 of them were singleton mutant sites, 55 were double mutant sites and 3 were triple mutant sites .The analysis on base substitution ways showed 91 transi-tions and 26 transversions with the ratio of Ti/Tv as 3.5.Five haplotypes of VcCBF gene were identified from the 21 blueberry cultivars .%本研究以21个高灌蓝莓品种为试材,克隆VcCBF基因,测序后分析其单核苷酸多态性( SNP),共克隆到123个非重复序列,发现120个SNP位点,单核苷酸多态性发生频率为1/695bp,核苷酸多态性值(Pi)为0.01251。在120个SNP位点中,单态突变位点62个;简约信息位点58个,其中双突变55个,三突变3个。对其碱基替换方式进行分析发现,转换91个,颠换26个,转换与颠换的发生比率为3.5∶1。通过单倍型分析发现,21个蓝莓品种的VcCBF基因存在5种单倍型。

  5. Micropropagação como técnica de rejuvenescimento em mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei Reade cultivar climax Micropropagation as a rejuvenation technique in rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade cultivar climax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Wulff Schuch

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar o rejuvenescimento do material vegetal através da técnica de micropropagação na produção de mudas de mirtilo, cv. Climax. Os tratamentos aplicados constituíram-se de dois tipos de citocininas (zeatina e 2iP, em quatro concentrações (0; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5 mg.L-1 e duas fontes de explantes (plantas micropropagadas e plantas obtidas através da germinação de sementes in vitro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x4x2. Aos 60 dias após a instalação do experimento avaliou-se o número médio de brotos e de gemas por explante, o comprimento médio dos brotos e a taxa de multiplicação. Concluiu-se que plantas de mirtilo, micropropagadas na presença de citocinina e submetidas a sucessivas repicagens, demonstram elevada habilidade de rejuvenescimento in vitro do material adulto, podendo ser comparadas às plantas obtidas de semente, tanto na capacidade de emitir novas brotações, quanto no número de gemas e taxa de multiplicação.This experiment was installed aiming to evaluate the plant rejuvenation capacity of rabbiteye blueberry seedlings cultivar Climax by using micropropagation technique. The treatments consisted of two cytokinin types (zeatin and 2iP, in four concentrations (0; 2.5; 5.0 and 7.5 mg.L-1 and two sources of explants (micropropagated plants and plants from in vitro seeds germination. The experiment was carried out in a 2x4x2 factorial arranged in a randomized complete design. After 60 days from experiment installation it was assessed the shoots average number and shoots average length, buds average number and the multiplication rate. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the micropropagated rabbiteye blueberry plants in the presence of cytokinin and submitted at successive cuttings showed a high in vitro rejuvenation ability of the adult material, which might be compared to the plants germinated in vitro, in the

  6. Biological Aerated Filter(BAF) in the Treatment of Waste–water from Blueberry Wine%曝气生物滤池(BAF)在处理蓝莓果酒废水中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤林; 赵春娟; 刘磊

    2011-01-01

    Blueberry wine production waste–water of water quality,water quantity seasonal differences are large,higher concentrations of pollutants,in the case of concentrated organic wastewater,emissions will directly cause serious pollution to the environment.By using Biological Aerated Filter technology,CODcr,BOD5 and SS in waste–water removal rate up to 95%,97% and 89% respectively.System is stable,better handling.%蓝莓果酒生产废水的水质、水量季节性差异很大,污染物浓度较高,属中浓度有机废水,直接排放将对环境造成严重污染。采用曝气生物滤池工艺废水中CODcr、BOD5、SS去除率分别可达95%、97%、89%,系统运行稳定,处理效果较好。

  7. Influence on longevity of blueberry, cinnamon, green and black tea, pomegranate, sesame, curcumin, morin, pycnogenol, quercetin, and taxifolin fed iso-calorically to long-lived, F1 hybrid mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Stephen R; Mote, Patricia L; Flegal, James M; Teter, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice. We tested extracts of blueberry, pomegranate, green and black tea, cinnamon, sesame, and French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol and taxifolin), as well as curcumin, morin, and quercetin for their effects on the life span of mice. While many of these phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of model organisms, we found no significant effect on the life span of male F1 hybrid mice, even though the dosages used reportedly produce defined therapeutic end points in mice. The compounds were fed beginning at 12 months of age. The control and treatment groups were iso-caloric with respect to one another. A 40% calorically restricted and other groups not reported here did experience life span extension. Body weights were un-changed relative to controls for all but two supplemented groups, indicating most supplements did not change energy absorption or utilization. Tea extracts with morin decreased weight, whereas quercetin, taxifolin, and Pycnogenol together increased weight. These changes may be due to altered locomotion or fatty acid biosynthesis. Published reports of murine life span extension using curcumin or tea components may have resulted from induced caloric restriction. Together, our results do not support the idea that isolated phytonutrient anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories are potential longevity therapeutics, even though consumption of whole fruits and vegetables is associated with enhanced health span and life span.

  8. Formulación de un helado dietético sabor arándano con características prebióticas Formulation of a diet blueberry ice-cream with prebiotic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Barrionuevo

    2011-03-01

    características nutricionales y sensoriales.Introduction:The inulin is a prebiotic which has nutritional and technological properties, and it can be added to products like ice-creams. The aim of this work was to formulate a diet blueberry ice-cream (low in calories, carbohydrates and lipids with prebiotic characteristics, to evaluate it sensorially and analyze its physico-chemical composition. Materials and Methods:The ingredients used were inulin powder, skimmed milk powder; additives; dehydrated egg white and scalded and processed blueberries. The fruits were scalded in 20, 40 and 60 %, in order to define the percentage to be utilized, using the preference test (Newel and Mac Farlane. The ice- cream was mixed, pasteurized (63ºC; 30 minutes, cooled (4°C; 4,5 minutes, matured (4ºC; 2 hours beaten and frozen in an icy machine (-6ºC; 50 minutes. Then it was packed and stored (-16ºC; 12hours. The chosen ice-cream was evaluated sensorially through acceptability. Chemical analysis of humidity, proteins, carbohydrates, total dietary fiber, ashes, calcium, sodium, phosphorus and physic: overrun were carried out. The label was designed in accordance with the CAA (Argentine Food Code. Results:Acceptability was expressed in percentage and determinations in terms of average standard deviation. The favorite fruit concentration was 40%. Acceptability 86%. Attractive and purple color. Sweet- acid taste and aroma, blueberry like. Creamy texture, without ice crystals. Firm consistency, slow melting and spongy body. Humidity 68,13; protein 8,4; carbohydrates 10,51; total dietary fiber 12,51; insoluble 5,82; soluble 6,69; ashes 0,45 g %; calcium 148,56; sodium 133,96 and phosphorus 167,50 mg %; overrun 71% respectively. It was labelled "low- calorie diet food"; "0 % fat"; "without sugar additives" and "high amount of alimentary fiber". Conclusion:The Diet Blueberry Ice-Cream (low in calories, carbohydrates and lipids with inulin has been feasible, presenting good sensorial and

  9. First records of Chrysomelidae (Insecta, Coleoptera on blueberries in Argentina: new associations between native chrysomelids and an exotic crop Primeros registros de Chrysomelidae (Insecta, Coleoptera sobre arándanos en Argentina: nuevas asociaciones entre crisomélidos nativos y un cultivo exótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Cabrera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae, is a shrub native to the northern Hemisphere introduced in Argentina, where it occupies small cultivated areas mainly in the provinces of Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos and Tucumán. At present, little is known about insects associated with this crop in Argentina. The aim of this study was to identify the species of Chrysomelidae present in blueberry crops in different regions of Argentina, and to present new chrysomelids-blueberry associations. Identification diagnosis, geographical distribution, association with other plants and aspects of their biology is given for each species. Seven species of crop-damaging Chrysomelidae were recorded in blueberry crops of Buenos Aires and Entre Rios. They belong to the subfamilies Galerucinae: Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, Disonychodes exclamationis (Boheman, Caeporis stigmula Germar, and Cacoscelis melanoptera Germar; Eumolpinae: Percolaspis varia (Lefèvre, and Spintherophyta semiaurata (Klug; and Cryptocephalinae: Lexiphanes coenobita Suffrian.El arándano, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae, es un arbusto nativo del hemisferio Norte, que fue introducido en la Argentina donde ocupa pequeñas áreas cultivadas, principalmente en las provincias de Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos y Tucumán. Hasta la actualidad, se conoce poco sobre los insectos asociados con este cultivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es relevar las especies de crisomélidos presentes en los cultivos de arándano de diferentes regiones, y aportar nuevas asociaciones crisomélidos-arándano para la Argentina. Para cada especie registrada, se brinda la diagnosis para su reconocimiento, su distribución geográfica, la asociación con otras plantas y algunos aspectos de su biología. Se registraron siete especies de Chrysomelidae que utilizan el arándano como recurso alimenticio en las provincias de Buenos Aires y Entre Ríos: subfamilia Galerucinae: Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, Disonychodes

  10. 黑加仑蓝莓复合果酒发酵及澄清条件的工艺优化%Optimization of Fermentation and Clarification Technology of Compound Fruit Wine of Blackcurrant and Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢亮

    2014-01-01

    为丰富果酒种类,满足消费者对果酒的口味及营养要求,以黑加仑和蓝莓为原料,对黑加仑蓝莓复合果酒的生产工艺进行研究。在确定黑加仑汁和蓝莓汁最佳体积比为1∶1及单因素试验的基础上,根据中心组合试验设计原理,以接种量、SO2添加量、发酵温度、初始糖度4个因素为自变量,黑加仑蓝莓复合果酒酒精度为响应值,设计响应面优化试验。结果表明:黑加仑蓝莓复合果酒发酵最佳工艺条件为接种量6.7%,SO2添加量67.3 mg/L,发酵温度29.9℃,初始糖度14.0%,发酵14 d;通过正交试验确定黑加仑蓝莓复合果酒澄清剂的最优组合为添加明胶0.03 g/L、硅藻土0.6 g/L、壳聚糖0.3 g/L,该条件下,黑加仑蓝莓复合果酒透光率为96.4%,酒精度为13.9%,且果香突出,口味柔和。%The processing technology including inoculum size,SO2 adding amount,fermentation temperature and initial sugar degree of compound fruit wine of blackcurrant and blueberry was optimized to meet consumer's taste and nutritional demand.The results showed that the inoculum size,SO2 adding amount,fermentation temperature,initial sugar degree and fermentation days of the optimum fermentation processing technology for compound fruit wine of blackcurrant and blueberry is 6.7%,67.3 mg/L, 29.9℃,14.0% and 14d respectively,and the light transmittance and alcoholic strength of the compound fruit wine with excellent fruity flavor and gentle taste under the optimum combination of clarifying agents (0.03 g/L gelatin,0.6 g/L diatomite and 0.3 g/L chitosan)is 96.4% and 13.9% separately.

  11. 蓝莓花青素超声提取工艺优化及在卷烟中的应用研究%Technology Optimization for Extracting Anthocyanins from Blueberry by Ultrasonic Extraction and Its Application in Cigarette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍锦鸣; 卓浩廉; 普元柱; 刘丽芬; 李仙

    2012-01-01

    The ultrasonic extraction technique of anthocyanins from blueberry was analyzed and optimized by response surface method and its efficacy in cigarette application was evaluated. A series of central composite design experiments were conducted for developing a mathematical regression model for anthocyanins yield as a response of four variables (namely ultrasonic power, ration of liquid and material, extraction time and extraction temperature). Besides, based on this, response surface and contour plots were drawn for analyzing the in(eractive effects of the above variables on anthocyanins yield. Results indicated that the optimal extraction process was obtained as follows: ultrasonic power of 730 W, ration of liquid and material of 1 : 18, extraction time of 40 min, extraction temperature of 55℃, under such conditions the extraction rate could be up to 5.79% at thrice extraction, which is close to the predictive value of 5.87%. The sensory evaluation revealed that the role of anthocyanins from blueberry are significantly increasing a sense of sweet, enhancing the clarity of incense smoke, reducing the stimulus, strengthening the fruit savory rhyme, enhancing the savory cream fragrant and sweet rhyme, and the layers of note.%为研究蓝莓花青素的超声提取工艺条件及其在卷烟中的应用价值,采用响应面法分析优化蓝莓花青素超声提取工艺,并对蓝莓花青素进行成品卷烟加香试验。试验根据中心组合设计(centralcompositedesign,CCD)试验设计原理采用四因素五水平的响应面分析法,在分析各个因素的显著性和交互作用后,模拟得到二次多项式回归方程的预测模型,得出蓝莓花青素的最佳提取条件为:超声功率730W、料液比1:18、提取时间40min、提取温度55℃,此工艺条件下花青素提取率为5.79%,与预测值5.87%相近。卷烟加香试验表明:蓝莓花青素能明显增加甜润感及烟香清

  12. Simultaneous amperometric detection of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in orange, blueberry and kiwi juice, by a telemetric system coupled with a fullerene- or nanotubes-modified ascorbate subtractive biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Antonio; Spissu, Ylenia; Fadda, Angela; Azara, Emanuela; Bazzu, Gianfranco; Marceddu, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Sanna, Daniele; Schirra, Mario; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2015-05-15

    Four fullerenes- or nanotubes-modified graphite sensor-biosensor systems (SBs), coupled with a dual-channel telemetric device, based on an ascorbate oxidase (AOx) biosensor, were developed for on line simultaneous amperometric detection of ascorbic acid (AA) and antioxidant capacity in blueberry, kiwi and orange juice. Fullerene C60 (FC60), fullerene C70 (FC70), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCN) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCN) increased the sensitivity of graphite toward AA and phenols 1.2, 1.5, 5.1 and 5.1 times respectively. Fullerenes combined with AOx improved the selectivity toward AA more than nanotubes, being able to hold a higher number of AOx molecules on the biosensor surface. The SBs work at an applied potential of +500 mV, in a concentration range between the LOD and 20 μM, with a response time of two minutes. The LOD is 0.10, 0.13, 0.20 and 0.22 μM for SBs modified with FC60, FC70, SWCN and MWCN respectively. Biosensors register lower AA currents than the sensors due to the enzyme capability to oxidize AA before it reaches the transductor surface. Phenols currents registered by sensors and biosensors did not differ. Based on the difference between sensor and biosensor recorded currents a AA selectivity index was developed as an indicator of specificity toward AA and of the capacity to distinguish between AA and phenols contribution to the antioxidant capacity. This value is almost zero for fullerene-modified SBs, 0.13 and 0.22 for SWCN- and MWCN-modified SBs respectively. The results of juices analysis performed with SBs were in accordance with reference methods.

  13. Determination of 9 Organic Acids in Blueberry Juice and Wine by HPLC%HPLC法同时测定蓝莓汁及其发酵酒中9种有机酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小露; 刘卉; 鲁宁; 刘佳; 高学玲

    2012-01-01

    A simple HPLC method was developed to determine organic acids (oxalic, tartaric, malic, isocitric, shikimic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acids) in blueberry juice and wine. The HPLC separation was achieved on Cls column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) at room temperature. The mobile phase (pH 2.0) was 4% NH4H2PO4 at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The detection wavelength was set as 210 nm. The average recovery rate of this method was 99.52% with RSD of 0.019%.%采用高效液相色谱法测定蓝莓汁及其发酵酒中有机酸含量。色谱条件为:色谱柱:Waters symmetry C1 8(4.6mm×250mm,5μm);流动相:NH4H2PO4(4g/100mL)溶液(磷酸调pH值为2.0);流速:1.0mL/min;检测波长:210nm;柱温:室温。通过该方法检测蓝莓汁及其发酵酒中9种主要有机酸:草酸、酒石酸、苹果酸、异柠檬酸、莽草酸、乳酸、乙酸、柠檬酸、琥珀酸,其平均回收率为99.52%,平均相对标准偏差为0.019%。

  14. Morphological Characteristics and Molecular Biology Identification of Yeast Strains Exclusively Used for Blueberry Wine%蓝莓果酒专用酵母菌形态特征及分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春光; 康超; 龙云川; 王莹; 王芳; 唐军; 孙超; 贺红早

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 4 yeast strains including LMF-15, LMF-17, LMF-24 and LMF-27 were selected as the research objects through early screening and fermentation performance test. Then molecular biology identification was carried out by microscopic morphology observation, electron microscope scanning, ITS1—5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequence analysis, and phylogenetic dendrogram construction.LMF-15 and LMF-17 were identified as Candida.sp due to their high Candiada similarity, and LMF-24 and LMF-27 were identified as S. cerevisiae due to their high S.cerevisiae similarity. This study could provide a reference for the construction of engineering yeast strains and the large-scale production of yeast strains exclusively used for blueberry wine.%以自选复筛的酵母菌LMF-15、LMF-17、LMF-24、LMF-27为材料,利用显微形态、电镜扫描和5.8S-ITS rDNA序列分析及构建系统发育树,进行分子生物学鉴定.结果表明,LMF-15菌株和LMF-17两菌株同Can-dida相似度最高;LMF-24和LMF-27两菌株同Saccharomyces cerevisiae最高.因此,将LMF-15菌株和LMF-17鉴定为假丝酵母属(Candida.sp);LMF-24和LMF-27鉴定为酿酒酵母菌(Saccharomyces cerevisiae).旨在为后期酵母菌工程菌构建和蓝莓果酒专用酵母菌在工业上规模化生产提供参考.

  15. Relationship of Flower Age to Stigma Receptivity and Pollen Viability in Blueberry%花龄对蓝莓柱头可授性及花粉活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芩; 任永权; 廖优江; 蔡陈; 田栋伟; 赵俊; 李性苑

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of flower age to stigma receptivity and pollen viability of 'Lanyv' blueberry was investigated. Results showed that the development of male and female organs is synchronous, which favors pollination and fruit set. Pollen viability reaches a relatively high level 1~5 days after flower opening. The peak pollen viability period is from 2d to 4d after flowering when more than 50% of the pollens are capable of germination. This period should be the best time to collect pollen. Similarly the stigma receptivity reaches the highest point 2d to 4d after flower opening on which it should be the best time to do artificial pollination,%以南高丛蓝莓“蓝雨”(Vaccinium australe)为试材,研究了花龄对柱头可授性和花粉活力的影响.结果表明,蓝雨蓝莓雌雄性器官的育性具有同步性.从花后第1~5天花粉活力都较高,特别是花后第2~4天,花粉活力保持在50%以上,是人工辅助授粉收集花粉的良好时期;花后第2~4天柱头分泌黏液较多,此期柱头具有较强可授性,是开展人工辅助授粉的最佳时期.

  16. Identification of fruit volatiles from green hawthorn (Crataegus viridis) and blueberry hawthorn (Crataegus brachyacantha) host plants attractive to different phenotypes of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. In a companion paper, we showed that R. pomonella flies infesting two different mayhaw species (Crataegus opaca and C. aestivalis) can discriminate between volatile blends developed for each host fruit, and that these blends are different from previously constructed blends for northern fly populations that infest domestic apple (Malus domestica), downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis), and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Here, we show by using coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and flight tunnel bioassays, that two additional southern hawthorn fly populations infesting C. viridis (green hawthorn) and C. brachyacantha (blueberry hawthorn) also can discriminate between volatile blends for each host fruit type. A 9-component blend was developed for C. viridis (3-methylbutan-1-ol [5%], butyl butanoate [19.5%], propyl hexanoate [1.5%], butyl hexanoate [24%], hexyl butanoate [24%], pentyl hexanoate [2.5%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.5%], pentyl butanoate [2.5%], and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) [20.5%]) and an 8-component blend for C. brachyacantha (3-methylbutan-1-ol [0.6%], butyl acetate [50%], pentyl acetate [3.5%], butyl butanoate [9%], butyl hexanoate [16.8%], hexyl butanoate [16.8%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.3%], and pentyl butanoate [3%]). Crataegus viridis and C. brachyacantha-origin flies showed significantly higher levels of upwind oriented flight to their natal blend in flight tunnel assays compared to the alternate, non-natal blend and previously developed northern host plant blends. The presence of DMNT in C. viridis and butyl acetate in C. brachyacantha appeared to be largely responsible for driving the differential response. This sharp behavioral distinction underscores the diversity of odor response phenotypes in the southern USA, points to possible host race formation in these

  17. Formulación de una Pasta Gelificada a Partir del Descarte de Arándanos (Vaccinium corymbosum Formulation of a Gelling Paste from the remainders of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Stückrath

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio para formular una pasta gelificada de bajas calorías que permita aumentar su valor añadido de descartes de arándanos. Se realizaron ocho formulaciones después de efectuar la caracterización del fruto, la que muestra una adecuada relación entre calcio y pectina, de gran importancia en el mecanismo de gelificación. Los resultados muestran tres formulaciones sin diferencias significativas en su vida útil de alrededor de 40 días. De ellas se eligió la formulación 8 (pH 4.3, 1 g/kg de sorbato de potasio y 2% de glicerol, que presenta la mejor condición de pH para la gelificación de los iones calcio. Esta formulación presenta una curva típica en el análisis de perfil de textura (TPA con una elevada dureza. Además presenta un contenido calorífico de 26.04 kcal/100g que indica características hipocalóricas. El estudio muestra que es posible obtener formulaciones con una razonable vida útil y distinta consistencia que permite su uso en diversas preparaciones alimentarias según los requerimientos.A study was developed to formulate a low calorie gelling paste that allows giving aggregate value to discarding blueberries. Eight formulations were done after the characterization of the fruit that shows a high proportion of calcium/pectin, of great importance in the gelation capacity. The results show three formulations without significant differences in their shelf life of around forty days, From them, the formulation 8 (pH 4.3, 1 g/kg of potassium sorbate and 2% of glycerol presents the best condition of pH for calcium gelation. This formulation presents a typical curve of the texture profile analysis (TPA with a high hardness and a caloric content of 26.04 kcal/100g that indicates that its hypocaloric characteristics. The study shows that it is possible to obtain formulations with a reasonable shelf life and different consistency to be used in diverse alimentary preparations according to requirements.

  18. ANDEAN BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium Meridionale Swartz SEED STORAGE BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERIZATION UNDER LOW TEMPERATURE CONSERVATION CATEGORIZACIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO DE LAS SEMILLAS DE MORTIÑO (Vaccinium Meridionale Swartz EN ALMACENAMIENTO A BAJA TEMPERATURA

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    María Isabel Hernández Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A study was conducted to categorize harvest stage, maximun dry weigth and tolerance to desiccation at low temperature storage of seeds of the promising species "andean blueberry", Vaccinium meridionale Swartz. The aim was to determine the long term conservation possibility of a duplicate of the current Colombian Andean Highland field collection in cool storage rooms, as well as that of newly collected local populations from the mentioned highland region, which are in danger of genetic erosion due to human intervention and the ongoing global climate change. Both maximum dry weight and the highest germination percentages were observed to be associated in seeds extracted from deep purple (fully ripe berries. The seeds exhibited orthodox storage behavior, which indicates the possibility for long-term cold storage of a duplicate of the current metapopulation of the species in the country.Resumen. Se realizó un estudio para categorizar el estado de cosecha, máximo peso seco de la semilla y la tolerancia de ésta a la desecación y almacenamiento a bajas temperaturas, en la especie promisoria mortiño, Vaccinium meridionale Swartz. El objetivo fue establecer el potencial de conservar un duplicado de la colección de campo y rescatar y almacenar poblaciones espontáneas de la zona alto andina colombiana, en peligro de pérdida por intervención humana y el cambio climático, que pueden causar erosión de la diversidad genética de la especie. El máximo peso seco se logró a partir de semillas extraídas de bayas de color morado oscuro, con obtención de germinación superior en éstas y una relación directa entre el peso seco y el porcentaje de germinación. La semilla exhibió comportamiento ortodoxo, lo cual indica la posibilidad de almacenamiento a largo plazo de un duplicado de la metapoblación de la especie, existente en el país.

  19. Tipo de ramo e efeito do ácido indal acético (AIA no estabelecimento in vitro de três cultivares de mirtilo Branch type and the effect of Indole acetic acid (IAA on in vitro establishment of three blueberry cultivars

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    Luciane Couto da Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O mirtilo é uma promissora alternativa econômica que se adapta muito bem a pequenas propriedades. No entanto, o preço e a disponibilidades das mudas é o principal entrave desta atividade. A micropropagação é a técnica que vem sendo utilizada com sucesso para propagação de mudas de mirtilo. Com o objetivo de estabelecer in vitro cultivares de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei Reade para a micropropagação, foram realizados dois experimentos. No experimento I, testou-se a fonte de explante, (segmentos nodais retirados de ramos herbáceos lenhosos em três cultivares de mirtilo. No experimento II verificou-se o comportamento dos explantes originados de ramos herbáceos na presença e ausência do regulador de crescimento AIA adicionado ao meio de cultivo, dentre sete cultivares. Aos 7, 14 e 21 dias de cultivo avaliou-se a percentagem de contaminação fúngica e bacteriana, além da percentagem de explantes oxidados. Aos 30 e 45 dias de cultivo, além das variáveis analisadas anteriormente, foi avaliado a sobrevivência e o estabelecimento dos explantes. Os resultados permitiram concluir que explantes originados de ramos herbáceos apresentaram menor oxidação fenólica e baixa percentagem de contaminação fúngica e bacteriana, proporcionando um elevado índice de estabelecimento para as cultivares testadas. A adição do regulador de crescimento AIA no meio de cultivo favoreceu o estabelecimento in vitro de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei Reade.Blueberry is a promising economic alternative that adapts very well in small farms. Nevertheless, the seedlings price and availability are the major obstacles of this field. Micropropagation is the more successful used technique for blueberry propagation. Therefore, two trials were carried aiming to establish in vitro some cultivars of 'blueberry' (Vaccinium ashei Reade for further micropropagation. In the first trial, the source of explant of three cultivars was tested (nodal segments from herbaceous and

  20. Blueberry anthocyanins induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of oral cancer KB cells through down-regulation methylation of p53%蓝莓花青素通过下调p53基因DNA甲基化抑制口腔癌KB细胞增殖及诱导细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琦; 李少伟; 贾宇臣; 王利

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries are an excellent source of dietary polyphenols such as anthocyanins and phenolic acids. In this study, we investigated the ability of anthocyanins from the wild blueberries of Inner Mongolia to suppress the growth of the oral cancer cell line KB. The blueberry anthocyanins were extracted with methanol-containing 0.1%(v/v) hydrochloric acid. Fourteen unique anthocyanins were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The anticancer bioactivity of the extracts on KB cells was analyzed using methylthiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT), flow cytometry (FCM) and immunocytochemistry. It was shown that the blueberry anthocyanins suppressed the prolifera-tion of KB cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of oral cancer KB cells. Immunocytochemistry analysis showed that the expression of caspase-9 and cytochrome c were obviously increased after the anthocyanins treatment. Western blot analysis also indicated that the expression of p53 was increased. Methyla-tion-specific PCR (MSP) showed that the amount of unmethylated p53 increased, indicating that the anthocyanins can down-regulate the methylation of p53.%文章从内蒙古野生蓝莓(Vaccinium uliginosum Lim)中提取花青素,观察其对口腔癌细胞株KB的增殖及凋亡的作用,探讨其作用机制与p53基因甲基化的相关性。利用含0.1%盐酸的甲醇提取花青素,用高效液相色谱-质谱(High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, HPLC-MS )鉴定花青素的成分。利用四甲基偶氮唑蓝(Methylthiazolyl-tetrazolium, MTT)比色法、流式细胞术、免疫荧光法、免疫细胞化学法和Western blot法分析蓝莓花青素对 KB 细胞增殖、细胞周期、细胞凋亡和 p53蛋白表达的影响;利用甲基化特异性 PCR 法(Methylation-specific PCR, MSP)分析蓝莓花青素诱导细胞凋亡与p53基因甲基化的关系。结果显示,内蒙古自治区

  1. Application of Quantitative Descriptive Analysis(QDA) Method in Sensory Evaluation of Clarified Blueberry Juice Beverage%定量描述分析法(QDA)在澄清型蓝莓汁饮料感官评定中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明月; 王凯

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method was adopted to do the sensory evaluation and to estabish QDA data and spider web-shaped graphs of the three Blueberry Juice Beverage.The results showed that it could distinguish the sensory characteristics of the three beverage. Also which was used to evaluate the sensory quality of the beverage.%采用定量描述法(QDA)对三种市售澄清型蓝莓汁饮料进行了感官评价,并绘制了此三种饮料QDA数据的蜘蛛网图,结果表明,此方法能区别三种澄清型蓝莓汁饮料的感官特性,适用于澄清型蓝莓汁饮料的感官品质评价。

  2. Changes in Microstructure and Physiological-Biochemical Characteristics of Hyperhydric Shoots of Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) in Vitro%蓝莓玻璃化试管苗的显微结构及生理生化特性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕敏; 夏秀英; 徐品三; 李波; 郭照东

    2014-01-01

    研究了蓝莓试管苗玻璃化的显微结构、超微结构以及生理生化特性的影响。与正常试管苗相比,蓝莓玻璃化苗的茎、叶显微结构发生了明显的改变:叶片表皮细胞松散、不连续;气孔结构难以辨认;叶片增厚;缺少栅栏组织,海绵组织细胞间隙变大,部分细胞解体;茎的维管组织发育不良;亚显微结构观察发现,玻璃化苗叶肉细胞体积增大,细胞壁变薄;部分细胞缺少细胞核及线粒体;叶绿体数目减少,类囊体解体,缺乏淀粉体。玻璃化试管苗的生理生化特性也发生了显著的改变:玻璃化苗组织含水量显著增加;叶绿素、可溶性糖及可溶性蛋白含量显著降低; O2·ˉ产生速率、H2O2积累量、MDA含量及相对电导率显著升高;活性氧清除酶系中POD活性显著升高, SOD和CAT活性显著降低;PAL活性下降。蓝莓玻璃化苗的形态结构异常,水分及物质代谢紊乱,活性氧清除能力降低,表明玻璃化与氧化胁迫相关。%This research was performed to investigate the effects of hyperhydricity on morphology, subcellular ultrastructure and physiology of leaves during micro-propagation of blueberry plants. The results showed that compared with healthy leaves, hyperhydric leaves showed abnormal microstructure. The development of the epidermis was often discontinuous and the intercellular space was large. Stomata were dififcult to identify. The leaf lamina appeared thickened and was characterized by the absence of palisade mesophyll tissue and the mal-formation of spongy mesophyll tissue. Vascular tissue of stem developed poorly. On the aspect of ultrastructure, the size of mesophyll cell and the thickness of cell wall increased, the nucleus and mitochondria were missed in some mesophyll cells in the hyperhydric leaves. Hyperhydric leaves had a signiifcantly lower chloroplast num-ber per cell and chloroplasts showed collapsed thylakoid

  3. Kinetic Study of Convective Drying of Blueberry Variety O’neil (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Estudio de la Cinética del Secado Convectivo de Arándano Variedad O’Neil (Vaccinium corymbosum L.

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    A Vega-Gálvez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study and to model the drying kinetics of the blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum L. at three temperatures (60, 70 and 80 ºC with an airflow of 2.0 ± 0.2 m s-1. Modeling of the desorption isotherm was carried out with the GAB (Guggenheim, Anderson and de Boer equation, showing a good fit to experimental moisture data, giving as a result a monolayer moisture level of 0.084 g water g-1 dm. Newton, Henderson-Pabis, Page, Modified Page and Logarithmic mathematical models were applied in the study and in the modeling of the drying kinetics of this fruit. Kinetic parameters k of each model showed dependence on temperature, and were evaluated by an Arrhenius-type equation, with an activation energy of between 36.2 and 54.5 kJ mol-1. Logarithmic and Modified Page models gave the best fits for each drying curve, based on the statistical test determination coefficient, sum square error, root mean sum errors and Chi-square. In consequence, both models are excellent tools for estimating the drying time of this product.El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar y modelar la cinética de secado del arándano ( Vaccinium corymbosum L. a tres temperaturas (60, 70 y 80 ºC con un flujo de aire de 2,0 ± 0,2 m s-1. El modelado de la isoterma de desorción se llevó a cabo con la ecuación de GAB (Guggenheim, Anderson y de Boer, mostrando un buen ajuste sobre los datos experimentales de humedad, dando como resultado una humedad de la monocapa de 0,084 g de agua g-1 ms. Se aplicaron los modelos matemáticos de Newton, Henderson-Pabis, Page, Page modificado y Logarítmico para el modelado de la cinética de secado de esta fruta. Los parámetros cinéticos k de cada modelo presentaron dependencia con la temperatura, evaluadas por una ecuación de tipo Arrhenius, con una energía de activación entre 36,2-54,5 kJ mol-1. Los modelos Logarítmico y Page modificado obtuvieron el mejor ajuste para cada curva de secado, basado en las

  4. 6个蓝莓品种花粉特性和花粉育性的比较%Comparison of pollen characteristics and fertility of six cultivars of blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江华; 吕芳德; 王森; 郭雨帆; 姜寒冰; 黄梦真; 常双双

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore lfower shape feature and compare pollen viability of different cultivars of blueberry at the blueberry introduction areas of Hunan, and to provide a basis for introduction, cultivation and arranging cultivars for pollination in the southern region of China, the differences of characteristics, number, viability, germination rate and other aspects of pollens in the six cultivars were compared and studied by using cellulose dissolution method, staining method andin vitro culture techniques, including ‘Legacy’, ‘Brigitta’, ‘Sharpblue’, ‘Misty’, ‘Powderblue’, and ‘Tifblue’, which were suitable to plant at the southern areas. The results showed that:①Pollen number of the cultivars had some differences. The pollen number of ‘Legacy’, ‘Brigitta’, ‘Sharpblue’, ‘Misty’, ‘Powderblue’, and ‘Tifblue’ respectively was 162, 250, 178, 166, 141, 170 grains per anther, number of ‘Brigitta’ pollens was the largest, ‘Sharpblue’ was the second, and ‘Powderblue’ was the least;② Pollen viability of the cultivars has some differences. The pollen viability of the six cultivars respectively was 30.87%, 26.79%, 31.34%, 23.83%, 18.80%, 24.83%, pollen viability of ‘Brigitta’ was the largest, ‘Sharpblue’ was the second, and ‘Powderblue’ was the least;③ The optimum sucrose concentrations for pollen germination of the six cultivars were different. The pollen germination rates of ‘Legacy’ (25.60%), ‘Brigitta’ (9.10%) and ‘Misty’ (27.20%) were the highest, when the sucrose concentration was 10%. The pollen germination rate of‘Sharpblue’(26.20%), ‘Powderblue’(21.20%) and ‘Tifblue’ (61.40%) were highest, when the sucrose concentration was 15%;④The optimum concentration of boric acid for pollen germination of ‘sharpblue’was 300 µg/L, while the optimal concentration for the other cultivars was 200 µg/L;⑤ The optimum cultivation temperature for pollen germination of the six

  5. CARACTERIZACIÓN FISICOQUÍMICA Y ORGANOLÉPTICA DEL FRUTO DE AGRAZ (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ANDEAN BLUEBERRY FRUIT (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz STORED AT 2ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Guillermo Ávila Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de hallar algunas características fisicoquímicas del fruto del agraz, del cual existen pocos conocimientos sobre su calidad, se recolectaron frutos provenientes de Chiquinquirá (Boyacá los cuales fueron empacados en cajas plásticas de 125 g y almacenados durante 9 días en un cuarto frío a una temperatura de 2ºC, con una humedad relativa del 90 %. Cada 3 días fueron medidas las variables sólidos solubles totales (SST, pH, acidez total titulable (ATT, ácidos cítrico, málico y ascórbico, diámetro del fruto y pérdida de peso. La mayoría de los cambios fisicoquímicos fueron de muy poca magnitud, las siguientes mediciones presentaron una tendencia permanente a la disminución: el peso fresco (de 0,58 a 0,55 g, el diámetro del fruto (de 0,99 a 0,93 cm y el pH (de 3,12 a 3,05, mientras que aumentaron la ATT (de 1,44 a 1,52 % y los SST (de 14,13 a 14,73 ºBrix. Los análisis con HPLC arrojaron que el ácido predominante fue el acido cítrico, seguido por el acido málico (1.899 mg y 1.396 mg/100 g fruto, respectivamente los cuales aumentaron a partir del día 6 de almacenamiento. El ácido ascórbico (8 mg/100 g presentó una leve disminución durante los días 3 a 6 del almacenamiento. Es posible que el aumento de los SST, la ATT y los ácidos orgánicos hacía el día 9 del almacenamiento haya sido debido a un efecto de concentración. En el análisis sensorial, se identificó que los frutos frescos obtuvieron una buena aceptación tanto en apariencia, aroma, sabor y en textura, mientras que los almacenados durante 9 días aún calificaron en aroma y sabor.With the purpose to find out some physiochemical characteristics of Andean blueberry fruits from which exist few knowledge about its quality, fruits were collected from Chiquinquirá (Boyacá, and packed in plastic boxes of 125 g and stored during 9 days (at 2ºC and 90% relative humidity. Each 3 days variables as total soluble solids (TSS, pH, total titratable

  6. 南高丛越橘品种‘Sapphire’和北高丛品种‘Berkeley’正反交后代果实糖酸组分含量的遗传倾向%Inheritance Tendency of Sugar and Acid Contents in the Reciprocal Cross Progenies’ Fruits of Southern× Northern High Bush Blueberry (Vaccinium)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘有春; 魏永祥; 王兴东; 刘成; 蒋明三; 张舵; 袁兴福; 陶承光

    2014-01-01

    inheritance of sugar and acid contents in blueberry fruit, to provide a basis for selecting parents in cross breeding.[Method] Sugar and acid contents of southern high bush blueberry ‘Sapphire’ ( high sugar and high acid type), northern high bush blueberry ‘Berkeley’ (middle sugar and low acid type) and their reciprocal cross progenies were investigated with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method.[Result] Fructose and glucose were the major components of sugar, while citric acid and tartaric acid were the major components of acid. The reciprocal populations exhibited a wide phenotypic variation in fructose, glucose, total sugar, tartaric acid, citric acid and total acid contents where the coefficient of variation (CV) of sugar and acid contents were more than 15% and 30%, respectively, and the range of acid contents was higher than that of sugar contents, indicating that there was a bigger selecting potential for acid content. Mean sugar and acid contents of reciprocal cross progenies were lower than mid-parental values, showing a tendency of depression. The mean sugar contents of progenies inclined to low sugar parent, while the mean acid contents inclined to paternal parent value. The individual and total sugar contents presented a normal distribution, implying sugar contents are quantitative traits and controlled by polygenenes, while individual and total acid presented a skewed distribution, implying acid contents are quantitative traits and may be controlled by both major gene and polygenes. The broad sense heritability (H2) of fructose, glucose, total sugar, citric acid and total acid contents were ranged from 0.66 to 0.86, in which the highest was fructose (0.84 and 0.86 in the reciprocal populations, respectively), indicating that the variations of these traits mainly resulted from inheritance, and they were mainly affected by additive effect, while theH2 of tartaric acid was the lowest (0.22 and 0.30 in the reciprocal populations, respectively

  7. Analysis of Antioxidants Metabolic Pathway and Expression of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes in Blueberry Flower and Fruit%越橘花果抗氧化物代谢通路及花青素合成酶基因表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长青; 丁元亮

    2016-01-01

    以越橘花、幼果、成熟果为试材,基于转录组测序开展了抗氧化物代谢通路和花青素生物合成酶基因表达研究。结果表明,抗氧化物代谢通路中,黄酮类、苯丙素类合成通路是活跃的,叶酸类、类胡萝卜素、二苯乙烯类、二芳基庚酸类、姜酚、二萜类化合物的合成通路是部分支路活跃的,而其他抗氧化物通路是不活跃的。花青素合成酶基因中,苯丙氨酸裂解酶、肉桂酸羟化酶、查尔酮合成酶、4-羟查尔酮异构酶、黄烷酮-3-羟化酶、二氢黄酮醇-4-还原酶、花青素合成酶、类黄酮3,5-糖苷转移酶是幼果或成熟果中表达上调的。%Studies on metabolism pathway of antioxidants and expression of anthocyanin biosyn-thetic genes are carried out by using transcriptome sequencing technology to blueberry flower, young fruit and ripe fruit.The results show that,among antioxidant metabolic pathways,the biosynthesises of flavonoids and phenylpropanoid are active,and the biosynthesises of folate,ca-rotenoid,stilbenoid,diarylheptanoid,gingerol,and diterpenoid are partly active,while the other antioxidant pathways are inactive.They also show that,among the enzymes related to anthocy-anin biosynthesis,phenylalanine ammonia-lyase,cinnamate 4-hydroxylase,chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase,flavanone 3-hydroxylase,dihydroflavanol 4-reductase,anthocyanidin syn-thase,and anthocyanidin/flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase are up-regulated in young fruit or ripe fruit,compared with flower.

  8. Repression of mammosphere formation in breast cancer cells by soy isoflavone genistein and blueberry polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological evidence implicates diets rich in fruits and vegetables in breast cancer prevention due to their phytochemical components, yet mechanisms for their anti-tumor activities are not well-understood. A small population of mammary epithelial cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), may be re...

  9. Effect of blueberries and insulin on glucose induced neurotoxicity in brain cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Literature had shown that disruption in glucose metabolism seen in metabolic syndrome maybe responsible for neuronal cell-death. Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation (INF) triggered by the impaired metabolic process are considered to be the primary factors for the toxic neuronal atmos...

  10. Assessing Students' Structured Programming Skills with Java: The "Blue, Berry, and Blueberry" Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xihui

    2010-01-01

    Java is an object-oriented programming language. From a software engineering perspective, object-oriented design and programming is used at the architectural design, and structured design and programming is used at the detailed design within methods. As such, structured programming skills are fundamental to more advanced object-oriented…

  11. Effects of dietary blueberry on cognition and in vivo and in vitro inflammatory status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic inflammation is thought to play a role in age-related cognitive decline. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that dietary intervention with darkly pigmented berry fruit can reduce systemic and central biomarkers of inflammation while reversing behavioral impairments in aged rats....

  12. Differential effects of blueberry polyphenols on age-associated neuroinflammation and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammatory insults are thought to contribute to the decrements in cognitive performance seen in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various dark-colored berry fruits in reversing age-related de...

  13. 波兰的越橘产业%Blueberry Production in Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林

    2001-01-01

    @@ 越橘属于杜鹃花科(Ericaceae)越橘属(Vaccinium)植物,为一多年生灌木小浆果果树.其果实营养丰富,除含有糖、酸、VC外,还含有丰富的氨基酸及Ca、P、Fe、Zn等微量元素,以及SOD、VE、VA、熊果甙、黄酮类化合物等其他果品中少有的特殊成分.据研究越橘果实具有强心、延缓大脑衰老和抗癌的功效.

  14. Composition Analysis of Anthocyanidins in Blueberry Wine Lees, Blueberries and Blueberry Wine and Comparison of Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanidins in Blueberries and Wine Lees%蓝莓酒渣、果、酒中花色苷成分鉴定及酒渣与果中花色苷抗氧化活性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杨; 谢笔钧; 孙智达

    2016-01-01

    采用XAD-7HP大孔树脂对蓝莓果及蓝莓酒渣花色苷进行纯化,用固相微萃取小柱对蓝莓酒花色苷进行纯化浓缩.通过高效液相色谱-二极管阵列-电喷雾-串联质谱法鉴定了蓝莓果、酒渣、酒中花色苷的组成,并对蓝莓果和蓝莓酒渣花色苷的抗氧化性进行了评价.结果表明:通过XAD-7HP大孔树脂纯化所得的蓝莓果、蓝莓酒渣及利用固相微萃取小柱纯化所得的蓝莓酒中花色苷含量分别为(210.52±5.74)、(151.12±0.88)、(8.93±0.14) mg/g.蓝莓果中鉴定出11种花色苷;蓝莓酒渣中鉴定出12种花色苷,其中包括3种酰化花色苷;蓝莓酒中鉴定出9种花色苷,其中包含1种酰化花色苷.蓝莓果和蓝莓酒渣花色苷抗氧化性实验结果表明,蓝莓果和蓝莓酒渣花色苷清除2,2-联氮-二(3-乙基-苯并噻唑-6-磺酸)二铵盐自由基IC50值分别为(1.43±0.02)、(1.19±0.03) μg/mL,清除1,1-二苯基-2-苦基肼自由基IC5o值分别为(3.28±0.03)、(2.41±0.01) μg/mL;蓝莓果和蓝莓酒渣花色苷清除自由基能力及还原力均显著优于VC,蓝莓酒渣花色苷抗氧化性显著强于蓝莓果花色苷.

  15. 蓝莓充气米酒%Blueberry Inflatable Rice Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐聪; 赵云财; 王佐民; 孙波; 李娜

    2016-01-01

    传统的米酒虽然营养丰富,但其发酵过程中产生的所谓"发酵味"是不容易被人们接受的,尤其是不容易被年轻人、女士等群体所接受.为了能让我国传统的米酒产品被更多的人接受和喜爱,开发了蓝莓充气米酒,通过添加蓝莓原汁、蜂蜜等辅料改善口味,通过充二氧化碳气体增加爽口性,将米酒的营养性与蓝莓的功能性及充气带来的清新口感进行了有机结合,产品将会有良好的市场开发前景.

  16. Characterization of Alternaria strains from Argentinean blueberry, tomato, walnut and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Fernández Pinto, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species have the ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolite, which plays important roles in food safety. Argentina is the second largest exporter of fresh and processed food products to Europe, however, fewstudies on Alternaria mycotoxins and other bioactive secondary...

  17. First report of Botrytis pseudocinerea causing gray mold on blueberry in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea has been shown to consist of two sibling species, referred to Group I and Group II, and the two groups can be differentiated by a PCR-RFLP on the Bc-hch gene (vegetative incompatibility locus). Group I has recently been described as a new species B. pseudocinerea. Gray mold caused b...

  18. Comparative wood anatomy of the blueberry tribe (Vaccinieae, Ericaceae s.l.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Kron, K.A.; Luteyn, J.L.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Wood samples of 111 Vaccinieae specimens (Vaccinioideae, Ericaceae s.l.) representing 98 species and 26 genera are investigated with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The wood structure of Vaccinieae delivers taxonomically important characters that can be used to define some subclad

  19. Ultrasonic Spray Drying vs High Vacuum and Microwaves Technology for Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia-Muñoz, N.; Ramirez-Bunster, M.; Vargas-Hernández, Y.; Gaete-Garretón, L.

    Interest in high quality foods: good taste and a high content of nutrients with healthy beneficial effects are increasing. Fruits have good properties but, they are lost because the oxidation process, additionally, for different reasons a 40% of harvested fruit are lost. To conserve the fruit properties an ultrasonic assisted spray dryer was developed and tested, comparing its results with microwave-vacuum drying technology. Results did shown taste, color, smell, particle shape and size distribution better than the conventional one. The antioxidants conservation were quite good except in the anthocyanins, in which the microwave and vacuum technology shown best results.

  20. Atmospheric cold plasma iactivation of norovirus surrogates and native microbiota on blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold plasma (CP) is an emerging, novel, nonthermal technology that can be used for surface decontamination of foods. This study investigated CP technology for the nonthermal inactivation of the human norovirus surrogates, Tulane virus (TV) and Murine Norovirus (MNV), as well as for background microb...

  1. The Quality of Blueberry Ice-wine and Blueberry Wine and DPPH Clearance Rate%蓝莓冰酒和蓝莓果酒的品质和DPPH清除率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕佳宁; 邱利利; 刘子菱; 张玲; 曹思明; 金铁岩

    2015-01-01

    以冰冻蓝莓和鲜蓝莓为原料分别制作蓝莓冰酒和蓝莓果酒.通过对发酵过程中pH、可溶性固形物、酒精度及成品的感官评价和DPPH清除率进行测定分析.结果表明:蓝莓冰酒的pH和酒精度分别为2.95和10%vol均低于蓝莓果酒,而蓝莓冰酒的可溶性固形物含量和DPPH的消除能力分别为10%和68.81%均高于蓝莓果酒,同时蓝莓冰酒的感官分也优于蓝莓果酒.所以综合以上结果,蓝莓冰酒的品质及DPPH清除率均优于蓝莓果酒.

  2. GC-MS Analysis of Flavoring Components of Blueberry Juice and Blueberry Wine%兔眼蓝莓果汁果酒香气成分GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严红光; 张文华; 丁之恩

    2013-01-01

    利用气相质谱分析杰兔·兔眼蓝莓果汁及其被AS2.316酵母菌发酵为蓝莓酒后香气成分的差异.结果表明,蓝莓果汁中鉴定出11种香气物质,而发酵成蓝莓果酒后则含有44种香气物质.蓝莓果酒发酵后杂环类物质显著减少,同时新产生8种醇类、14种酯类、2种烯类、4种酮类香气物质.研究结果表明,酵母菌种发酵是影响果酒香气成分组成的关键因素之一.

  3. 一株蓝莓菌根真菌的鉴定及对蓝莓生长的影响%Identification of blueberry mycorrhizal fungi and its effect on blueberry growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肇莹; 杨涛; 孙进杰; 杨镇; 王红; 肖军

    2015-01-01

    文章明确了一株能够明显促进蓝莓生长的菌根真菌的分类地位,通过形态观察结合18S rRNA测序比对结果表明该菌株为品粒鬼伞菌种(Coprinus micaceus).同时在蓝莓不同生长期接种该菌,系统研究该菌对蓝莓各生长时期生理生长方面的影响,结果表明接种该菌后,蓝莓组培苗、驯化苗株高分别比对照高出30.0%,56.1%,盆栽苗生长量比对照高出 34.54%.蓝莓顶端叶片激素含量是对照的23倍,蓝莓N,P吸收率显著提高,分别比对照增加12.8%,15.3%.接种菌根菌晶粒鬼伞菌对蓝莓的生长起到明显的促进作用.因此该菌株具有较好的应用前景,可以作为蓝莓生产储备菌株.

  4. The effects of blueberry and strawberry serum metabolites on age-related oxidative and inflammatory signaling in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related decrements in cognition are thought to result from the increased susceptibility to and accumulating effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Berry fruits contain a variety of bioactive polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, that exhibit potent antioxidant and anti-inflammator...

  5. Study on Primary Fermentation Technology of Blueberry Wine%蓝莓果酒主发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨曙方; 汪金杰; 周伟东; 高光权; 王向阳; 曹雪丹

    2013-01-01

    以冷冻蓝莓为原料,对蓝莓果酒主发酵工艺进行实验.测定了发酵结束时酒精度和糖含量.结果表明:料液比1:2、调原料糖度21°Bx、pH 3.4~3.6、酵母添加量0.075%~0.1%、SO2添加量40~60mg/kg、发酵温度24℃,在此条件下发酵7d,可得酒度为12%(体积比)左右、最终白利糖度6° Bx左右的蓝莓主发酵后的果酒.

  6. 蓝莓酒分批发酵动力学研究%Batch Fermentation Kinetics for Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良; 李斌; 许平妍; 孟宪军

    2015-01-01

    为建立蓝莓酒分批发酵动力学模型,以“蓝丰”为原料,研究初始pH值、接种量对蓝莓酒发酵酒精量的影响;不同初始含糖量对菌种量、产酒量、残糖量的影响.通过对符合菌体生长的Logistic方程、产物生成的Luedeking-Piret方程和基质消耗的物料衡算方程进行最优参数估计和非线性拟合,分别得到了相应的动力学模型和最佳模型参数值,并对动力学模型的拟合曲线进行分析,发现模型的计算值与实验值能较好地拟合,说明本试验建立的分批发酵动力学模型能较好地反映蓝莓酒分批发酵过程.

  7. Selection of clarifying agent of fermented blueberry wine%蓝莓发酵酒澄清剂的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋秀芳; 张建炀; 熊建军; 邹大维; 李祥

    2014-01-01

    以自制蓝莓发酵酒为原料,采用明胶、单宁、硅藻土、膨润土、壳聚糖、果胶酶对蓝莓果酒进行一系列单一澄清剂和复合澄清剂的澄清实验,对最优澄清剂处理后的蓝莓发酵酒进行透光率、酒精度、酸度、花青素、可溶性固形物含量进行测定.研究结果表明:添加不同种类、含量的澄清剂,蓝莓果酒的澄清效果不同;单一澄清剂中,膨润土是一种较为理想的澄清剂,最佳添加量为6%,透光率77.3%;复合澄清剂中,明胶/单宁/膨润土澄清效果最好,最佳添加量为明胶溶液2%、单宁溶液2%、膨润土溶液3.0%,透光率94.5%.澄清剂对蓝莓发酵酒的主要成分和感官品质无明显影响,成品酒果香怡人、酒体澄清丰满.

  8. Screening of brewing yeasts for blueberry wine%蓝莓酒酿造酵母的筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖禹含; 张东升; 李亚东; 辛秀兰; 王彦辉

    2010-01-01

    研究了3株酵母菌在蓝莓酒发酵过程中的生长速率、总糖、总酸和酒精度等理化指标的变化规律,并对蓝莓酒进行感官评定,筛选出酿造蓝莓酒的优良菌株.结果表明,酿酒酵母1203生长繁殖快,酸度小,降糖和产酒精能力强.其果汁发酵结束后总糖为5.6 g/L,总酸8.37g/L,酒精度12.2%vol,感官评分得分93分.确定酿酒酵母1203为蓝莓酒酿造的优良菌株.

  9. Fermentation Technology of Blueberry Dry Wine%蓝莓干酒发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永强; 王辉; 王鑫; 魏婧; 李秀娟

    2015-01-01

    蓝莓干酒是以天然野生植物蓝莓为原料,采用一系列先进的加工工艺精制而成.发酵期15~30 d,品温控制18~ 22℃,该果酒芳香清雅,风格独特,是一种营养价值很高的保健饮料酒.

  10. Inhibitory effects of Blueberry Extract on the Production of Inflammatory Mediators in LPS-activated BV2 Microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustained microglial activation in the central nervous system (CNS) has been extensively investigated in age-related neurodegenerative diseases and has been postulated to lead to neuronal cell loss in these conditions. Recent studies have shown that anti-inflammatory drugs may suppress microglial ac...

  11. Somewhere Over the Rainbow… - a few hundred nanometres above and perhaps much higher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christian Buhl; Jensen, Bjarke B. E.; Eriksen, René Lynge;

    The dream: Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Graphene as versatile sensor platform Blueberry dye based optical sensor......The dream: Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Graphene as versatile sensor platform Blueberry dye based optical sensor...

  12. 7 CFR 1218.16 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.16 Producer... is engaged in the business of producing, or causing to be produced for any market, blueberries...

  13. The Effect of Blueberry Wine on Lifespan of C.elegans%蓝莓果酒对秀丽隐杆线虫寿命的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾敏; 魏焘; 李柯; 王传花; 陈稠薇; 王远亮

    2016-01-01

    探讨蓝莓果酒延缓秀丽隐杆线虫寿命的活性物质.以秀丽隐杆线虫为模式生物,喂食原花青素(proanthocyanidin,PC)(0、1、2、3、4、5mg/mL)和食用乙醇(0%、5%、10%、15%、20%、25%、30%)的蓝莓果酒,测定线虫寿命、生殖能力和运动能力.与对照组比较,酒精度14%、不同浓度的原花青素的蓝莓果酒对线虫寿命均具有延缓作用,3mg/mL浓度后线虫寿命延长(P<0.05);对生殖能力和运动能力均有不同程度的增强效果(P<0.05),但5mg/mL后,效果不明显;喂食原花青素3 mg/mL、不同酒精度的蓝莓果酒的线虫寿命均会缩短,其作用与酒精度呈正相关关系,生殖能力和运动能力均有不同程度的减弱.蓝莓果酒中的原花青素具有延缓线虫寿命的作用,浓度在3 mg/mL到5 mg/mL作用明显;酒精的影响会随着添加浓度的增加而加速线虫的死亡.

  14. The Extraction and Qualitative Analysis of Total Flavoniods from Blueberry Leaves%蓝莓叶总黄酮的提取及其定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖畅; 吕艳芳

    2012-01-01

      以蓝莓叶为原料,采用溶剂法对蓝莓叶总黄酮进行提取和定性分析.比较不同溶剂对蓝莓叶总黄酮的提取效果,确定乙醇为最佳提取溶剂.考察了乙醇浓度、料液比、浸提时间、浸提温度对蓝莓叶总黄酮提取的影响,确定乙醇提取蓝莓叶总黄酮的最佳提取工艺参数:乙醇体积分数为70%,料液比为1∶20(g/mL),浸提时间为120min,浸提温度为70℃.在此条件下进行提取,蓝莓叶黄酮提取率为6.95%.通过颜色反应和紫外-可见光谱确定蓝莓叶提取物为黄酮类物质.%10.3969/j.issn.1674-506X.2012.04-009

  15. Impact of multiple genetic polymorphisms on effects of a 4-week blueberry juice intervention on ex vivo induced lymphocytic DNA damage in human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, L.C.; Boots, A.W.; Boer, de V.C.J.; Maas, L.M.; Pachen, M.F.A.; Gottschalk, W.H.; Ketelslegers, H.B.; Godschalk, R.W.L.; Haenen, R.M.M.; Schooten, F.J.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a decrease in cancer incidence and cardiovascular disease, presumably caused by antioxidants. We designed a human intervention study to assess antioxidative and possible anti-genotoxic properties of fruit-borne antioxidants. We hypothesiz

  16. Summary of Natural Community and Flora Findings for the Nulhegan Basin of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge and Blueberry Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the survey efforts of natural communities and rare plants for the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge and...

  17. Effects of clarifiers on clarification of fermented blueberry wine%不同澄清剂对蓝莓发酵酒澄清效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛秀兰; 盖禹含; 刘俊英; 李亚东

    2010-01-01

    采用明胶、硅藻土、壳聚糖3种澄清剂对蓝莓发酵原酒进行了单一澄清剂和复合澄清剂的澄清试验,对加入澄清剂处理后的蓝莓发酵酒进行透光率、酒精度、残糖、总酸、可溶性固形物含量的测定并进行比较.研究结果表明:在单一澄清剂中,壳聚糖是一种较为理想的澄清剂,最佳添加量为0.2g/L,透光率为96.43%.在复合澄清剂中,明胶(单宁)与壳聚糖的澄清效果最好,最佳添加量为明胶0.55g/L,单宁1.45g/L,壳聚糖2.5g/L,透光率可达到97.21%.

  18. Development of blueberry wine and its quality evaluation%蓝莓发酵酒的研制及品质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祥; 隋秀芳; 张建炀; 熊建军; 邹大维

    2015-01-01

    该文介绍一种蓝莓发酵果酒的制作工艺,并对产品进行理化指标及香气成分的测定.结果表明:蓝莓发酵果酒成品呈紫红色,酒体澄清透明,酒香浓郁.酒精度12.6%v01;总酸(以乙酸计)6.10 g/L:总糖(以葡萄糖计)2.5 g/L;铁<0.2 mg/L;铜<0.1 mg/L;可溶性固形物(20℃以折光计)7.8%;微生物指标符合标准;前花青素含量0.311 g/L.采用GC-MS分析蓝莓果酒香气成分,共提取香气成分40种,其中酯类12种,醇类8种,烃类6种,酸类3种,其他香气成分11种.蓝莓发酵果酒的主要挥发性芳香成分是:反式二甲基环丙烷,1,5-庚二烯-3-炔,1,2,3-三氯丙烷,2-(3-羟基苯基)乙醇,4-羟基丁酸乙酰酯.

  19. 蓝靛果蓝莓复合果酒抗氧化能力的研究%Antioxidant activity of Lonicera edulis and blueberries compound wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛桂新

    2014-01-01

    蓝靛果与蓝莓均含有丰富的营养成分和保健功能,为了更好的开发利用蓝靛果蓝莓资源,本实验对不同蓝莓添加量的蓝靛果蓝莓复合果酒进行了研制,还研究了不同蓝莓添加量的复合果酒在陈酿期间抗氧化能力变化趋势.结果表明:蓝靛果蓝莓复合果酒中蓝莓添加量不同其抗氧化能力也不同,蓝莓添加量为10%的复合果酒其抗氧化能力最好;随着陈酿时间的延长蓝靛果蓝莓复合果酒抗氧化能力下降很快,陈酿5个月后其抗氧化能力下降幅度为40%以上.

  20. 二氧化碳浸渍法在蓝莓酒酿造中的应用%Application of carbonic maceration method in blueberry wine brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴皓玥; 董莹璨; 刘雪平; 战吉宬

    2015-01-01

    利用二氧化碳浸渍法酿造蓝莓酒,对比二氧化碳浸渍法和传统酿造法酿造的蓝莓酒在各理化指标方面的不同,探究该方法对蓝莓酒品质的影响.同时利用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定CO2不同浸渍时间对于蓝莓酒中10种有机酸酸、9种酚酸含量的影响.结果表明,蓝莓酒中含量最高的有机酸是柠檬酸,最主要的酚酸是绿原酸;二氧化碳浸渍法相比于传统酿造法能够降低蓝莓酒的酸度(P<0.05),但浸渍时间越长,有机酸含量越高;二氧化碳浸渍法蓝莓酒总酚含量低于传统法(P<0.05),但能提高总黄酮和酚酸类物质的浸出.

  1. 不同酵母菌酿造蓝莓酒的成分变化研究%Compositional Variation of Blueberry Wine by Different Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虹; 霍奕璇; 徐扬; 刘兆芳; 孔繁东

    2013-01-01

    以蓝莓为原料,分别添加4种不同酵母茵酿造蓝莓酒.在发酵过程中,跟踪测定了总糖,酒精,总酸,总黄酮,色度的变化,并对其进行感官评价.结果表明,总糖含量由24%下降到3%;酒精由0上升至12°;总酸含量整体增加,最高为2.658 5 g/L;黄酮含量缓慢增加,最终在3.3 g/L左右.花青苷整体减少,聚合色度增加,并且伴有褐变反应.经感官评定,由葡萄酒酵母发酵的蓝莓酒优于其他三种菌种.最终确定葡萄酒酵母酿造出的蓝莓酒最优.

  2. Study on Processing Technology of Fermented Blueberry and Honeysuckle Wine%蓝莓金银花发酵酒加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    以蓝莓和金银花为原料,以LM-8酵母菌为菌种,根据不同加糖量、柠檬酸添加量和酵母菌接种量,在相同温度、pH条件下发酵4个月得出不同酒精度与糖度比的蓝莓金银花酒.经过7位专家品评鉴定得出适合国人口味的蓝莓金银花酒酒精度和糖度分别为:酒精度12%和糖度6%.其工艺参数为加糖量16.7%,柠檬酸添加量0.15%,酵母菌接种量0.15%.

  3. 蓝莓酒酵母固定化载体的研究%Study On the immobilization carrier to immobilize blueberry wine yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满都日娃; 张巧云; 孙迪; 刘文娟; 周雅男; 王冰雪; 张秀玲

    2009-01-01

    以游离酵母为对照,测定海藻酸钠-壳聚糖和加有SiO_2、Al_2O_3的海藻酸钠-壳聚糖为载体的蓝莓酒酵母固定化颗粒的机械强度、发酵后的酒精度和残糖量的变化、使用寿命及果酒风味,选出良好的固定化载体.结果表明,强化后的载体机械强度提高10.9%,酒精和糖度变化快,发酵周期为3 d,果酒风味提高,最佳浓度配比为壳聚糖0.8%、SiO_2 1.4%、Al_2O_30.8%.证明强化后的栽体机械强度强,发酵效果好,稳定性高,使用寿命长,在实践生产中有利于生产成本的降低,发酵产品风味的改善.

  4. 蓝莓酒渣中多酚提取工艺的研究%Extraction Process of Polyphenols from Blueberry Wine Pomace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文静; 徐婉蒙; 王成玉; 李丹丹; 王超; 郭德军; 阮长青

    2016-01-01

    为充分利用蓝莓酒渣中的多酚资源,在单因素试验基础上,采用溶剂提取法对蓝莓酒渣中多酚的提取工艺进行了研究.结果表明,蓝莓酒渣中多酚的最优提取工艺为:提取剂0.1%盐酸的60%乙醇水溶液,料液比1∶40(g∶mL),提取温度80℃,提取时间3h.此条件下蓝莓酒渣中多酚提取量为8.89 mg·g-1,粗提取物得率22.1%,总酚纯度为5.69%.为蓝莓酒渣的利用及生物活性成分研究提供了依据.

  5. 蓝莓果酒发酵工艺条件的研究%Studies on Fermentation Technology of Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖禹含; 辛秀兰; 李浡; 李亚东

    2010-01-01

    以蓝莓为主要原料,以酿酒酵母1203作为菌种发酵,研制发酵型果酒,并对影响蓝莓酒发酵的因素进行优化研究.采用正交试验确定其最佳工艺条件为:接种量4%,起始糖度20°Bx,发酵温度24℃,起始pH3.3.

  6. Study on Production Technology of Blueberry Fruit Wine%蓝莓果酒生产工艺技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭意如; 刘明; 王欣颖

    2014-01-01

    以种植和野生蓝莓果实为原料,采用发酵法酿制蓝莓果酒,优化高档蓝莓果酒的生产工艺.通过不同发酵工艺的对比试验表明,蓝莓带皮发酵和清汁发酵原酒在-5~-3℃下冷冻浓缩30%,可提高种植蓝莓果酒干浸出物浓度40%以上,口感丰满醇厚,果香浓郁;苹-乳发酵和鸭梨酒调兑(鸭梨原酒∶野生蓝莓原酒为2∶8)可以有效降低野生蓝莓果酒的总酸浓度,使酒体均匀,口感柔顺,果香突出.

  7. Study on the Flavoring Components of Blueberry Fruit Wine%蓝莓果酒香气成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉宁; 马立志; 王瑞; 刘志刚; 刘晓燕; 谢国芳; 王俊

    2014-01-01

    针对3个市售蓝莓果酒样品,开展了感官评价及香气成分之间的关联分析(HP-SPME-GC/MS).首先,通过不同年龄阶段的人群对3个果酒样品的色、香、味进行感官评价,结果表明,样品B蓝莓果酒色泽暗沉、香气浓郁、口感醇厚,是3个样品中感官评价最高的果酒;再通过HP-SPME-GC/MS技术对3个样品的香气成分进行了系统分析,其中,酯类和醇类化合物为主要香气成分,含量分别为(A)43.96%和10.24%,(B)61.58%和14.29%,(C)49.83%和15.19%.异戊酸乙酯、琥珀酸二乙酯、乳酸乙酯、苯甲酸乙酯、正己醇、苯乙醇、4-乙基愈创木酚为3个样品的主要香气成分,样品B的香气主要由苯甲酸乙酯(16.83%)、琥珀酸二乙酯(9.81%)和苯乙醇(9.29%)构成.感官评价与香气成分之间的关联为蓝莓果酒酿造提供了科学依据.

  8. Study on Clarification Technology of Blueberry Resemble Ice Wine%蓝莓类冰酒澄清工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳晓晨; 张秀玲; 刘茜茜

    2015-01-01

    以壳聚糖、明胶、硅藻土、果胶酶和蛋清五种澄清剂对蓝莓类冰酒进行澄清处理,分析比较了各种澄清剂的澄清效果,发现壳聚糖和明胶联用,效果优于单一澄清剂.澄清后得到的蓝莓类冰酒的澄清度和稳定性都得到较大的提高.

  9. Extraction Research on Anthocyanins of Blueberry Wine Pomace%蓝莓酒渣花色苷提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 刘文静; 郭德军; 徐婉蒙; 王成玉; 李丹丹; 阮长青

    2016-01-01

    为探究大兴安岭野生蓝莓酒渣中的生物活性成分,以乙醇为提取剂,考察了乙醇浓度、盐酸浓度、料液比、提取时间和提取温度对蓝莓酒渣花色苷提取量的影响,并通过正交实验优化提取条件.结果表明:在乙醇浓度为40%,盐酸浓度为0.1%,提取温度为30℃,提取时间为1h,料液比为1∶40时为最佳提取条件,此条件下蓝莓酒渣中花色苷含量为3.03 mg·g-1,粗提物经浓缩冻干后为黑色粉末,得率为22.1%,花色苷纯度为1.37%.通过实验可知野生蓝莓酒渣中含有大量花色苷等活性物质,对蓝莓酒渣进行萃取可减少废物排放,提高蓝莓鲜果资源的综合利用率,并为工业化生产提供指导.

  10. 蓝莓果酒专用酵母的分离、筛选及鉴定%Separation, screening and identification of special yeast for blueberry wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍鹤; 李珂; 赵琳; 刘安然; 王远亮

    2014-01-01

    为筛选得到适合蓝莓果酒发酵的酵母菌株,对来自不用品种的蓝莓成熟果实、蓝莓叶及蓝莓果园的土壤进行筛选,共分离得到122株酵母菌;采用镜检和杜氏管发酵法初筛,产酒精能力、耐性能力复筛,并选用葡萄酒酿酒酵母(K酵母)对比,最终确定BBF-17为最优菌株.采用18S rDNA序列鉴定以及系统发育树分析,对选定酵母菌进行分子生物学鉴定,结果显示BBF-17与酿酒酵母(EU649672.1)最为接近,相似度达99%,该菌株鉴定为酿酒酵母.

  11. 蓝莓酒发酵过程中主要成分变化规律研究%Changes of main components in blueberry wine fermentation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈祖满

    2014-01-01

    研究了蓝莓酒主发酵过程中总糖、总酸、挥发酸、花色苷、单宁、乙醇、甲醇、高级醇和酯等主要物质含量的变化.结果表明,蓝莓通过加糖9.6%发酵,原酒酒精度可达到11.8%(体积分数),总酸7.53g/L,pH2.95;花色苷含量逐渐减少,发酵结束后达0.615g/100g;单宁含量变化较小;挥发酸含量随着发酵时间的延长而逐渐上升,主发酵期间上升较快,但最终可控制在国标(≤1.2g/L)允许范围以内;甲醇在刚开始发酵时就存在,发酵前期略有上升,后略有下降,含量相对稳定;高级醇中的异丁醇和苯乙醇是蓝莓酒的主要香气成分,约占香气成分的60%以上,苯甲酸乙酯、乙酸乙酯、己酸乙酯、癸酸乙酯是蓝莓酒香气的主要成分,在发酵过程中高级醇和酯都不断增加,发酵过程中还检测到一些未知成分.

  12. 蓝莓类冰酒发酵工艺研究%Study on fermentation technology of blueberry resemble ice wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳晓晨; 张秀玲; 李赛男; 容晨曦

    2015-01-01

    冰酒受自然因素影响很大,因此价格高昂.文中对人工制冷冰冻的工艺进行优化,通过3种不同的酵母菌在蓝莓类冰酒发酵过程中理化指标的变化规律,并对蓝莓类冰酒进行感官评定,筛选出酿造蓝莓类冰酒的优良菌株.最终确定酿酒酵母1970为蓝莓类冰酒酿造的优良菌株.利用筛选出来的酵母菌发酵酿制蓝莓类冰酒,研究了酵母添加量、温度、初始酸度、初始糖度等因素对发酵的影响.通过正交实验确定了蓝莓类冰酒的最佳发酵条件为酵母添加量5%、温度25℃、初始pH3.4、初始糖度18°Bx.产品果香浓郁、酒质净爽,具有典型的冰酒品质.

  13. 正交法优化蓝莓-葡萄复合果酒%Orthogonal Method Optimization the Blueberry and Grape Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏俊烽; 程建军; 刘宏杰

    2010-01-01

    以蓝莓发酵汁、赤霞珠葡萄发酵汁、山葡萄发酵汁为原料,经调配后,制成既具有浓郁果香、酒香,又有一定保健功能的新型复合果酒.结果表明:蓝莓复合果酒的最优水平组合为蓝莓发酵汁与葡萄发酵汁体积比3∶7、山葡萄发酵汁2%、乙酸乙酯600 μL/L;在最优水平组合中,蓝莓发酵汁与葡萄发酵汁体积比对蓝莓复合果酒影响最大,其次为山葡萄发酵汁添加量,乙酸乙酯添加量影响最小.

  14. 野生蓝莓酒加工工艺条件的研究%Research on the Processing Conditions of Wild Blueberry Fruit Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛桂新; 刘小国

    2010-01-01

    以野生蓝莓为试验材料,通过均匀设计试验和拟水平正交试验,分别对蓝莓果最佳酶解条件和蓝莓酒酿造工艺条件进行了研究.确定最佳酶解条件为:果胶酶用量为0.3 mL/kg、酶解温度35 ℃、酶解时间为150 min,出汁率为 78.43 %.蓝莓酒酒精度实验结果表明,最佳发酵工艺条件为采用Fermivin酵母,酵母用量为1.1 g/L,发酵温度24 ℃,发酵酒精度为12.4 %vol.

  15. 不同蓝莓品种酿造果酒适性的比较研究%APPROPRIATE COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF BLUEBERRIES BREWING WINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 姜雯翔; 袁晔; 彭常安; 韩永斌

    2014-01-01

    果酒品质与新鲜果品原料质量密切相关.本文分析了Tifblue、Premier、Brightwell、Garden blue、Powder Blue5个蓝莓品种的营养组分及果酒发酵过程中酒精度、花色苷含量、总酚指数和颜色变化的差异,旨在寻找适宜于酿酒的蓝莓品种.结果表明:Garden blue中的碳水化合物、还原糖、可溶性蛋白含量均显著高于其他4个品种.不同蓝莓品种其酚类物质及花色苷含量差异显著,Garden blue花色苷和酚类物质含量分别是其他4个蓝莓品种的1.17~1.97倍和1.15 ~1.89倍.酒精发酵过程中果酒中总酚指数均显著上升,而花色苷含量均显著下降,其中Gardenblue花色苷含量下降最少,且其酚类物质含量上升最多.经稀释3倍的蓝莓汁调味发酵,发酵结束后Garden blue总酚指数含量最高达79.9,是其他4个品种的1.30~2.08倍,花色苷含量为25.27 mg/L,比其他品种高出1.25~8.1倍.结论:综合蓝莓营养成分及发酵前后酚类物质含量等因素,发现Garden blue更适于酿造高品质蓝莓果酒.

  16. 蓝莓果酒发酵期间抗氧化成分及活性研究%Antioxidant compositions and activity of blueberry wine during fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 杨志勇; 辛秀兰; 王佳; 吴志明; 路梅

    2013-01-01

    对蓝莓果酒发酵期间的花色苷含量、总酚含量、自由基清除率、还原力的动态变化进行了监测,并用R2.5.1相关性分析对所测指标进行相关性分析、聚类分析、回归分析、残差自相关性诊断.结果表明,发酵期间花色苷及总酚的含量缓慢下降;还原力和自由基清除能力与总酚和花色苷含量的变化规律一致,主要呈递减趋势;花色苷含量、总酚含量、自由基清除率、还原力有显著的相关性(p<0.01);在聚类树状图上总酚与自由基清除率、还原力距离更近;以总酚含量预测抗氧化活性效果最佳,其与自由基清除率和还原力的回归方程依次为Y1=0.2976X+11.2918和Y2=2.052× 10-3X+0.4608.

  17. 蓝莓红酒发酵醪中酵母菌株的筛选%Screening on Yeast Strains from the Fermented Mash of Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹雪; 李然洪; 吴天祥

    2013-01-01

    采集贵州省麻江县蓝莓产区新鲜成熟蓝莓,添加40 mg/L浓度的SO2,经室温发酵后从发酵醪中分离出13个菌株.通过香气实验及酒精实验,再经过耐乙醇、耐高糖、耐低pH值、耐高温、耐SO2系列实验筛选得到5个菌株.将此5个菌株结合商业酵母71B与D254进行蓝莓红酒发酵,结果表明,其中Z2菌种发酵酒精度为7.27 %vol,总糖为4.83 g/L,总酸为6.5882 g/L,总酯为0.669 g/L,所得酒液感官评定好,符合红酒生产菌株的条件,最终选择Z2供后续试验.

  18. Analysis on the Catechins of Tea Polyphenols in Leaves of Blueberry%蓝莓叶片儿茶素类茶多酚含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连润; 刘家迅; 梁明泰; 高正清; 陶磅; 万红; 潘丽云

    2014-01-01

    [目的]分析蓝莓幼嫩芽叶中的儿茶素类茶多酚成分含量.[方法]应用高效液相色谱(HPLC)技术,对南高丛蓝莓“夏普蓝”叶片儿茶素类茶多酚含量进行了分析.[结果]试验表明,蓝莓幼嫩芽叶含有5种主要儿茶素类茶多酚,分别为儿茶素(C)、表儿茶素(EC)、表儿茶素没食子酸酯(ECG)、表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)、没食子酸(GA),此外还含有咖啡因(CAF).[结论]研究可为蓝莓作为一种理想的茶用资源植物提供科学依据及植物化学方面的证据.

  19. Suppression of Wnt1-induced mammary tumor growth and lower serum insulin in offspring exposed to maternal blueberry diet suggest early dietary influence on developmental programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the well-accepted notion that early maternal influences persist beyond fetal life and may underlie many adult diseases, the risks imposed by the maternal environment on breast cancer development and underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether earl...

  20. Comparison of total phenolics, total flavonoids, DPPH among blueberry fermented wine, soaked wine and blueberry fruit%比较蓝莓发酵酒、浸泡酒和蓝莓果间总酚、总黄酮及DPPH的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 左广垒; 刘子菱; 吕佳宁; 金铁岩; 曹思明

    2015-01-01

    以蓝莓(Semen trigonellae)为原料,将其分别加工成蓝莓发酵酒、蓝莓浸泡酒和蓝莓果果浆,然后分别测定其一般理化指标、总多酚、总黄酮含量和DPPH清除率.结果表明:蓝莓果果浆中的总多酚含量最高为3.97 mg/mL,总黄酮含量也最高为0.36 mg/mL,蓝莓发酵酒的DPPH清除率最高为89.55%.

  1. 7 CFR 1218.18 - Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., marketability, production, product development, or quality of blueberries, including research relating to nutritional value, cost of production, new product development, varietal development, nutritional...

  2. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1218.17 Section 1218.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17...

  3. 7 CFR 1218.7 - First handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.7 First handler... the Order. This definition includes those engaged in the business of buying, selling and/or...

  4. Stilbenes and anthocyanins reduce stress signaling in BV-2 mouse microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries contain an array of phytochemicals that may decrease both inflammatory and oxidative stress. We determined if pterostilbene, resveratrol, and two anthocyanins commonly found in blueberries, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-glucoside, would be efficacious in protecting microglia...

  5. 7 CFR 1218.9 - Importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importer. 1218.9 Section 1218.9 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.9 Importer. Importer... importer of record for such blueberries....

  6. 7 CFR 1218.40 - Establishment and membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... States production of blueberries and the quantity of imports. The review will be conducted through an audit of state crop production figures and Council assessment records. If warranted, the Council will... geographical distribution of domestic blueberry production and the quantity of imports. If the level of...

  7. Repression of mammosphere formation of human breast cancer cells by soy isoflavone genistein and blueberry polyphenolic acids suggests diet-mediated targeting of cancer stem-like/progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells are undifferentiated epithelial cells which initiate mammary tumors and render them resistant to anticancer therapies, when deregulated. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables are implicated in breast cancer risk reduction, yet underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we ad...

  8. 笃斯越橘果实中黄酮类化合物的分离鉴定%Separation and Identification of the Flavoniods in the Fruit of Vaccinium uliginosum L. Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂霞; 范海林; 郑毅男; 李亚东

    2005-01-01

    采用柱色谱技术对笃斯越橘(Vaccinium uliginosum L.)果实中黄酮类化合物进行分离、提纯.分离提纯出3种黄酮类化合物,并通过1H-NMR、13C-NMR等表征了结构.结果表明:这3种化合物分别为二甲花翠素-3-O-葡糖苷(Ⅰ),矢车菊-3-O-半乳糖苷(Ⅱ),杨梅黄素(Ⅲ),均为首次从该果实中分离得到.

  9. Identificación y valor nutricional de algunos materiales nativos de arándano (Vaccinium spp) Identification and nutritional value of some wild materials of blueberry (Vaccinium spp)

    OpenAIRE

    Vilma Jiménez-Bonilla; Ana Abdelnour-Esquivel

    2013-01-01

    El arándano es un arbusto de la familia de las ericáceas del género Vaccinium. Sus frutos son bayas de color oscuro, azuladas o rojizas. Presenta cualidades nutricionales y antioxidantes que lo hace un fruto de alto valor medicinal y nutricional. En el curso de este estudio se localizaron, recolectaron, identificaron y analizaron por el método de ORAC (capacidad antioxidante total) varios materiales silvestres identificados como Vaccinium consanguinium. Los análisis químicos mostraron los alt...

  10. 蓝莓对D-半乳糖模型小鼠学习记忆及抗氧化的研究%The study on memory and antioxidantion of blueberry to the D-galactose model of mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵君操

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨蓝莓对D-半乳糖致衰老小鼠学习记忆能力及抗氧化作用的影响.方法:连续给小鼠注射D-半乳糖6周,同时从第3周起给模型鼠灌胃蓝莓,给药结束后,进行学习记忆行为测定,采血清测定超氧化歧化酶(SOD),丙二醛(MDA)含量.结果:蓝莓组小鼠的学习、记忆获得和记忆消退的错误次数明显少于衰老模型组(P<0.05);与模型组比较,蓝莓组小鼠血清SOD活性显著性降低.结论:蓝莓能改善D-半乳糖致衰老小鼠的学习记忆能力,提高体内SOD活性,增强其对自由基的清除能力,抑制脂质过氧化作用.

  11. GC-MS Analysis of Aromatic Composition of Blueberry Wine Fermented with Different Species of Yeast Strains%不同酵母发酵的蓝莓酒香气成分GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖禹含; 辛秀兰; 杨国伟; 李亚东

    2010-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱.质谱联用技术进行分析,以不同酵母发酵的蓝莓酒为原料,对3种不同酵母发酵的蓝莓酒主要香气成分进行分析,共鉴定出76种香气成分.其中酿酒活性干酵母、葡萄酒活性干酵母和酿酒酵母1203发酵的蓝莓酒中分别检测到56、50、47种香气成分,其中30种是3者共有的.酿酒活性干酵母和酿酒酵母1203发酵的蓝莓酒的主要香气成分为3-甲基-1-丁醇,相对含量分别为18.98%、37.64%;葡萄酒活性干酵母发酵的蓝莓酒的主要香气成分为辛酸乙酯,其相对含量为18.68%.

  12. 果胶酶处理对蓝莓半甜红酒风味成分影响的研究%Effects of Pectinase Addition on the Flavoring Components of Blueberry Semi-sweet Red Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹雪; 李然洪; 周靖; 吴天祥

    2013-01-01

    研究了不同浓度果胶酶对蓝莓半甜红酒风味成分的影响,以日本蓝莓半甜红酒作对照,测定其添加果胶酶处理后各指标的变化.结果表明,添加果胶酶处理后蓝莓半甜红酒的总酸、甲醇、杂醇油比未添加果胶酶时的 6.5272 g/L、850.19 mg/L、437.18 mg/L分别提升到7.158 g/L、2384.92 mg/L、566.58 mg/L;酒精度、色度值以及单宁、甲醇含量均随着果胶酶浓度的增高而增高;甲醇、花色苷、杂醇油均明显高于日本蓝莓半甜红酒,其中,花色苷均量200 mg/L,明显高于日本的(26.2 mg/L);色调、单宁、总酚低于日本蓝莓半甜红酒;DPPH自由基清除率略高于未添加果胶酶半甜蓝莓红酒和日本半甜蓝莓红酒;酒体澄清透明有光泽,香气浓郁,明显优于未添加果胶酶的蓝莓半甜红酒和日本半甜蓝莓红酒.

  13. 添加蜂蜜和白糖对蓝莓果酒品质的影响%Effect of adding honey and white sugar on the quality of blueberry wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子菱; 李影; 韩立杰; 吕佳宁; 金铁岩

    2013-01-01

    主要通过对添加蔗糖和蜂蜜的样品在发酵过程中pH、可溶性固形物、酒精度变化趋势的研究以及对发酵结束后的色度和DPPH消除率进行测定,并根据测定结果和感官评定,确定适合制作蓝莓果酒的糖类.结果表明:2组样品发酵后最终pH较接近,分别为3.84和3.92;添加白糖制作的蓝莓果酒在可溶性固形物方面略低于添加蜂蜜制作的蓝莓果酒;酒精度方面则高于添加蜂蜜制作的蓝莓果酒;色度方面,添加蜂蜜制造的蓝莓果酒其CIE L*值、CIE a*值和CIE b*值均明显高于添加白糖制造的果酒;抗氧化性方面,添加蜂蜜制作的样品优于添加白糖的样品;感官评定方面,添加蜂蜜制作的蓝莓果酒色、香、味和综合嗜好度均为最佳.从理化特性、感官特性和抗氧化性角度来看添加蜂蜜更有利于蓝莓果酒的酿造.

  14. 蓝莓果酒发酵过程与品质关系研究%Study on the Relationship between Blueberry Fruit Wine Fermentation Process and the Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 王姝; 任春光; 贺红早; 唐军

    2013-01-01

    以贵州省麻江县蓝莓为酿酒原料,采用发酵法生产蓝莓果酒,选取加入酵母量、发酵时间、初始pH、发酵温度等影响果酒品质的4个关键因子,分别以感官评分、酒精度等质量指标,采用正交试验设计优化蓝莓果酒发酵工艺条件.得到以下结论:最佳发酵工艺条件为酵母用量为1.0 g/L,发酵时间为7d,初始pH为7,发酵温度25℃,发酵酒精度为12.7%vol.最终酿造出品质优良,酒液透亮,且具有浓郁香味的蓝莓果酒,为优质蓝莓果酒的研究和开发提供了理论依据.

  15. Dynamic Changes in Phenolics and Their Antioxidant Activities during the Fermentation of Blueberry Wine%蓝莓酒发酵过程中酚类物质动态变化及其抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王行; 张海宁; 马永昆; 叶华; 张龙; 李俊芳; 于怀龙

    2015-01-01

    以兔眼蓝莓为对象,研究其发酵过程中酚类物质和抗氧化活性的变化.结果表明:蓝莓酒发酵过程中,总酚、总黄酮和花色苷含量以及铁还原力、DPPH自由基清除率和羟自由基清除率呈先增加后减少的趋势;颜色分析显示L*值先增加后减少,后酵阶段波动上升,a*值逐渐上升,后酵期间波动下降,a*值变化正相关于花色苷含量的变化,b*值变化正相关于总酚、总黄酮含量的变化;蓝莓酒发酵过程中p-羟基苯甲酸未检出,香草酸含量显著上升(p<0.05),而没食子酸、原儿茶酸、龙胆酸、绿原酸、咖啡酸、丁香酸、p香豆酸、阿魏酸、芥子酸等9种酚酸含量主发酵期间均显著上升(p<0.05),发酵结束时含量均显著下降(p<0.05),但显著高于各自初始含量(p<0.05),对羟基苯甲酸、对羟基肉桂酸和总酚酸含量均呈先增加后减少的趋势.

  16. 蓝莓果酒专用酵母的筛选、鉴定与性能研究%Screening, Identification and Study of the Fermentation Properties of Yeast Strains for Exclusive Use of Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 严红光; 袁亮

    2015-01-01

    本研究为筛选适合蓝莓果酒发酵用性能优良的专用酵母,采用初筛与复筛的方法从蓝莓自然发酵旺盛期分离筛选出产酒性能优良、产品感官评价分数较高、编号为Y201505的菌株.对Y201505菌株进行形态、生理特征分析,并与《酵母菌的特征与鉴定手册》中酵母特征比较,结果显示此菌株与裂殖酵母属中的粟酒裂殖酵母形态与生理特征一致,初步判定该菌株是粟酒裂殖酵母,并命名为粟酒裂殖酵母Y201505(Schizosaccharomyces pombe Y201505).

  17. Study on the Clarification Effect of Fish Glue and Chitosan in Blueberry Fruit Wine%鱼胶和壳聚糖对蓝莓发酵酒澄清效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程旺开; 刘永; 彭常安; 许月明

    2014-01-01

    采用鱼胶、壳聚糖作为澄清剂对蓝莓发酵酒进行澄清处理,在考察鱼胶、壳聚糖澄清条件的基础上,通过正交试验,确定鱼胶和壳聚糖复合澄清剂的最佳添加量是鱼胶0.04%,壳聚糖0.02%,经混合后澄清3h,能够有效地提高蓝莓发酵酒的品质.

  18. Effect of different types of yeast on the quality of blueberry wine%不同种类酵母对蓝莓果酒品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李影; 韩立杰; 刘子菱; 吕佳宁; 金铁岩

    2014-01-01

    以蓝莓为原料,添加蜂蜜,利用3种不同酵母(ST、F33、Fermivin)在相同的条件下发酵制作蓝莓果酒.通过对发酵期间pH值、总酸、总糖、酒精度及发酵结束后的色度、DPPH消除率的测定分析,综合感官评价结果确定适合制作蓝莓果酒的最佳酵母.经测定,分别利用酵母ST、F33、Fermivin制作的果酒的最终pH值分别为4.16、4.36和4.40,总酸分别为1.19%、1.10%和1.07%,总糖分别为0.60%、0.82%和0.93%,酒精度分别为14.33%、14.93%和15.13%.3种果酒的色度明度上Fermivin制作的果酒明显高于其他2种果酒且具有显著性差异(P<0.05),而在红色度和黄色度上虽有差异并不显著(P>0.05);而在对DPPH的清除率方面,酵母Fermivin制作的果酒也高于其他2种果酒.色泽、香气、口味及综合评价的感官评定结果表明,利用酵母Fermivin制作的蓝莓果酒有最佳嗜好度.因此综合理化特性、抗氧化性及感官评价结果,利用酵母Fermivin制作的蓝莓果酒品质最好,酵母Fermivin最适于制作蓝莓果酒.

  19. 不同发酵工艺对蓝莓酒中花青素含量的影响%Effect of Different Fermentation Processes on Anthocyanin Content in Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁原春; 范文广; 韩双; 姚春艳; 王芳; 曲艺

    2014-01-01

    为降低蓝莓加工产品中花青素的损失,研究了蓝莓酒酿制过程中不同的发酵工艺及工艺参数对蓝莓酒中花青素含量的影响.结果表明,花青素含量在蓝莓酒发酵过程中呈下降趋势,陈酿阶段的损失大于主发酵阶段;不同发酵工艺条件下酿制的蓝莓酒中花青素含量不同,低温浸渍发酵酿造工艺可比传统工艺保存更多的花青素;添加3%的3#酿酒酵母时,可更好地保存蓝莓酒中的花青素;发酵温度在20~25℃、SO2添加量为150 mg/L时,蓝莓酒中的花青素损失较小.

  20. Effect of CO2 maceration method on aromatic compounds of blueberry wine%二氧化碳浸渍法对于蓝莓酒香气成分影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董莹璨; 吴皓玥; 刘雪平; 战吉宬

    2015-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,分析传统法和二氧化碳浸渍法酿造的蓝莓酒中的香气成分,共检测出80种香气物质,其中传统法中检测到61种香气物质,在二氧化碳浸渍10d、15d、20 d的蓝莓酒中分别检测到55种、65种、61种香气物质.采用气相色谱峰面积归一定量法计算两种方法所酿造的蓝莓酒香气成分的相对含量,发现两者香气组成差别较大,并且浸渍15d为宜.二氧化碳浸渍法酿造的蓝莓酒中酯类和萜烯类含量高于传统法,较传统法蓝莓酒更具有清新优雅的特点.

  1. 微波辅助提取蓝莓酒糟中花青素的研究%Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction process for anthocyanin from blueberry wine lees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖婷婷; 石彬; 肖兵; 许定; 胡咏梅

    2015-01-01

    通过单因素试验和正交试验对蓝莓酒糟中花青素的提取工艺进行了研究.结果表明,各因素对花青素提取量的影响从大到小依次为乙醇体积分数>微波提取时间>柠檬酸含量>微波功率>液固比;最佳提取条件为乙醇体积分数60%,柠檬酸含量0.6%,液固比60:1 (mL:g),微波功率420W,微波提取时间20 s.在此最佳提取条件下,从蓝莓酒糟中可提取花青素(1.847± 0.079) mg/g,1次提取率达84.22%.

  2. Effects of oak chips on the aroma of blueberry wine by GC-MS%气质联用测定分析橡木片对蓝莓果酒香气的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周增群; 朱永峰

    2015-01-01

    利用顶空固相微萃取(SPME)结合气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术分析橡木片的添加对蓝莓果酒中主要香气物质的影响.结果表明:通过GC-MS检测两种果酒,未添加橡木片的蓝莓果酒中共检测到26种挥发性物质,其中醇类3种,酯类17种,其他6种(包括醛类、酸类、酮类);而添加了橡木片的蓝莓果酒共检测到29种挥发性物质,其中醇类4种,酯类18种,其他7种(包括醛类、酸类、酮类).结果表明,添加橡木片的蓝莓果酒获得了更多的香气物质如辛酸乙酯、顺-1,3-二甲基环戊烷、3-甲基丁酸乙酯等,使得添加橡木片的蓝莓果酒香气也更加浓郁,提高了蓝莓果酒的品质.

  3. pH示差法测定蓝莓酒中花色苷条件的优化%Optimization of analytical condition of determining anthocyanins content in blueberry wine by pH-differential method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婧超; 刘玉田; 赵玉平; 欧燕; 庞少华

    2011-01-01

    The analytical conditions of the pH-differential method to determine anthocyanin content in buleberry wine were optimized in this paper. pH was set at 1.0 and 4.5 when determined the absorbance. pH value was adjusted to 3.0 when determined the samples. The temperature and balanced time of reaction were 40℃ and 20min, respectively. The colorimetric time was controlled in 30min. The average relative standard deviation of precision was 0.52%. The average recovery rate of the method was 101.64%, which was increased by 15% compared to that of the original analytical method.%讨论优化pH示差法用于测定蓝莓酒花色苷含量的分析条件.测定吸光度时的pH值选定为1.0和4.5;样品需调整到pH值为3.0条件下测定;反应平衡温度优化为40C;平衡20min,30min内比色.精密度测定结果的平均标准偏差为0.52%;方法的平均加标回收率为101.64%,相比未优化分析条件测定的回收率提高了15%.

  4. Research of the change rules of antioxidant substances of blueberry wines during fermentation%蓝莓酒发酵过程中抗氧化物质变化规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓杰; 柴哲; 杨钟燕; 刘禹嘉

    2013-01-01

    研究蓝莓酒酿造过程中抗氧化物质、抗氧化活性和颜色的变化规律及其作用机理,结果表明:酿造过程中,总花色苷、总酚和总黄酮含量均先增加后减少;DPPH自由基清除率和还原力变化一致,主发酵、后发酵期间均先增加后降低;L*值的变化滞后于总花色苷含量的变化、a*值变化与总花色苷含量变化一致,b*变化与总酚、总黄酮含量变化一致.

  5. Determination of Aroma Compounds in Blueberry Wine by GC-MS%应用GC-MS分析越橘酒中主要香气成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪; 吴林; 李刚

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究越橘酒中主要香气成分.[方法]利用水蒸气蒸馏萃取法对3个地区越橘酒的挥发性成分进行萃取,采用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)技术进行分析.[结果]在3个地区的样品中共检测到主要挥发性物质40种,其中普遍存在的成分有21种.[结论]苯乙醇在所有样品中含量最高,是越橘酒香气的主要成分.

  6. 果酒的保健功效及蓝莓果酒发展分析研究%The Health Benefits of Fruit Wine and Analysis of the Blueberry Wine's Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋本庆; 高铭坤

    2015-01-01

    果酒是以果品为原料酿造出的酒精含量低、酸度适宜、抗氧化能力强的保健型果酒饮品,简要概述了果酒分类及果酒的保健功效,分析了国内外蓝莓果酒现状,并对发展前景进行展望,为工业化生产提供理论依据与研究基础.

  7. 蓝莓酒中5种黄烷-3-醇单体高效液相色谱检测研究%Detection of five monomeric flavon-3-ols in blueberry wine by high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁芳华; 温鹏飞; 黄卫东

    2006-01-01

    采用LiChrosphet 100 RP-18e色谱柱(250×4.0mmi.d.,5μm),冰乙酸:水溶液为流动相,梯度洗脱,流速为1.0mL/min,柱温30℃,检测波长280nm,直接进样,同时分离了C、EgC、EgCg、EC和EcG 5种黄烷-3-醇单体,并对蓝莓酒中黄烷-3-醇单体含量进行了测定.

  8. 忠芝蓝莓酒香气成分的气相色谱-质谱分析%Analysis of Aroma Components in Zhongzhi Blueberry Wine by Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤宏梅; 李凤琴; 俞志刚

    2014-01-01

    利用溶剂和固相萃取法进行分离和富集,采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术对忠芝蓝莓酒香气成分进行分析.分别从忠芝蓝莓酒的二氯甲烷萃取物和极性氨基柱萃取物洗脱液中共分离并鉴定了65种物质.所鉴定的65种物质中,酯类25种,相对含量总和占所有香气成分的60.899%;烷烃类10种,占6.903%;醇类6种,占11.733%;酸类6种,占2.833%;醛类3种,占4.835%;酮类7种,占6.581%;醚类1种,占0.236%;胺类2种,占2.117%;酰氯类1种,占0.154%;噻唑类1种,占0.163%;肟类1种,占1.113%;酚类1种,占1.926%;脲类1种,占0.467%.所含主要成分为2-羟基-1,2,3-己三酸三乙酯、丁二酸二乙酯、苯乙醇、羟基丁二酸二乙酯和邻苯二甲酸二甲酯,共占总香气成分的56.287%,构成了忠芝蓝莓酒香气成分的骨架.

  9. Optimization of clarification and cold treatment for blueberry wine using response surface methodology%蓝莓发酵酒澄清和冷稳定处理的响应面优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚辉; 马艳弘; 黄开红; 张宏志; 刘晨; 乔月芳

    2015-01-01

    研究了蓝莓发酵酒的澄清和稳定处理方法.以澄清度和色度为指标,利用响应面法对蓝莓酒澄清稳定处理条件进行了优化.结果显示,最佳处理条件为:皂土添加量0.80 mg/mL、澄清时间8d、冷处理时间6d,在此条件下处理后蓝莓酒的澄清度和色度分别为0.749和1.128.与没经过处理、只进行了澄清处理或冷处理的样品相比,利用优化条件处理的蓝莓酒具有较好的澄清度,无潜在的蛋白破败和色素沉淀,且在长时间瓶储中具有良好的澄清度和色度稳定性.此研究为蓝莓酒的工业化生产提供了一定的理论依据和技术支持.

  10. Detection of 11 Phenolic Acids of Blueberry Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%蓝莓酒中11种酚酸的高效液相色谱测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁芳华; 陈建业; 温鹏飞; 黄卫东

    2006-01-01

    实验采用LiChrospher100RP-18e色谱柱(250×4.0mmID,5μm),以甲醇:乙酸:水溶液为流动相,流速为1.0ml/min梯度洗脱,SPD-6AV紫外检测器,30℃柱温,紫外检测波长为280nm.建立了一种新的同时测定蓝莓酒中11种酚酸含量的高效液相色谱法,并测定了蓝莓酒发酵样中酚酸的含量.

  11. Influence on aromatic compounds of blueberry wine by different yeast fermentation%不同酵母菌发酵对蓝莓果酒香气物质影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严红光; 张文华; 丁之恩

    2013-01-01

    利用顶空固相微萃取结合气质联用仪分析3种酵母菌酿造的蓝莓酒中主要香气物质.3种酒中共检出29种香气物质.酿酒酵母Y4酿造的蓝莓果酒中有20种香气物质,主要香气物质是39.2%的3-甲基-1-丁醇.酿酒酵母AS2.316酿造的蓝莓果酒中有22种香气物质,主要香气物质是51.92%的3-甲基-1-丁醇.安琪RA-4酵母酿造的蓝莓果酒中有21种香气物质,主要香气物质是34.57%的2-甲基-1-丁醇和22.97%的3-甲基-1-丁醇.研究结果显示酵母菌种是影响果酒香气物质组成的关键因素之一.

  12. 北方蓝莓高档果酒制作工艺条件的研究%Research on Production Conditions of High-grade Wine from Northern Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炎赫; 黄鑫宝; 王浩; 徐文文; 谭秀山

    2016-01-01

    为探讨北方蓝莓高档果酒最佳的酿造工艺,在查阅了蓝莓酒制造工艺文献的基础上,提出 了新的工艺流程,包括原料-榨汁-加入果胶酶等辅料-主发酵过程加入酵母-后发酵-冷热变温处理-杀菌-包装-成品,并依据国家标准和行业标准对产品的感官指标,理化指标,卫生指标进行检验,结果表明,北方蓝莓果浆最佳酵母添加量为1.1 g/L,发酵温度22℃,果胶酶添加量为0.3 ml/kg,亚硫酸100 ppm,酒成品的酒精度调至15.6°,冷热交替代替了过去的用澄清剂去除胶体杂质,酿造成品酒醇香、口感好、色泽好.

  13. Screening and Identification of Superior Yeasts from Natural Fermented Blueberry Wine%蓝莓自然发酵酒中优良酵母菌的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 周剑忠; 朱佳娜; 马艳弘; 黄开红

    2013-01-01

    从自然发酵蓝莓果酒中分离筛选优良酵母,为开发蓝莓果酒提供酵母菌资源.采用镜检和杜氏管发酵法初筛,分离出19株酵母菌.通过产酒精能力、耐性能力测试进行复筛,最终确定LM-8为最优菌株.采用18SrDNA序列测定及系统发育分析,对所筛选菌株进行分子生物学鉴定,结果酵母菌LM-8与酿酒酵母(Z75578)的遗传距离最近,两者之间的同源性为99%.该菌株被鉴定为酵母属的酿酒酵母.

  14. 甜型蓝莓酒的研制及抗氧化能力的评价%Development of sweet blueberry fruit wine and evaluation of antioxidant capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时磊; 刘玉田; 王建刚; 赵玉平

    2010-01-01

    通过正交实验对甜型蓝莓酒的发酵工艺进行了优化,最佳工艺参数为:发酵温度24℃,加糖量15%,酵母添加量0.15%.再经陈酿、澄清处理得到风味独特的蓝莓甜酒,成品酒精度16.0%(vol),总糖≥65g/L,总酸6~8g/L.采用FeCl_3/K_3Fe(CN)_6还原力测定体系分析维生素C和葡萄酒样的抗氧化能力,结果显示蓝莓甜酒的还原能力高.

  15. 大孔树脂纯化蓝莓果渣多酚及其组成分析%Macroporous Resin Purification of Polyphenols from Blueberry Pomace and Its Composition Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晓婷; 周涛; 李春阳; 王兴娜

    2013-01-01

    采用大孔树脂对蓝莓果渣多酚进行纯化,并采用HPLC-DAD-MS分析其多酚组成.结果表明:AB-8树脂的吸附量为24.38mg/g,解吸率为95.49%,并且达到吸附平衡与解吸平衡的时间较短,较适合蓝莓果渣多酚的纯化.最佳吸附条件为上样溶液多酚质量浓度2.6mg/mL、pH2、上样流速2mL/min;最佳洗脱条件为乙醇体积分数60%、洗脱流速2mL/min,在此条件下,蓝莓果渣多酚纯度由11.05%提高到59.29%.HPLC-DAD-MS检测结果显示,蓝莓果渣多酚主要组分为7种花色苷,分别为飞燕草色素-3-半乳糖苷、飞燕草色素-3-葡萄糖苷、矢车菊色素-3-半乳糖苷、牵牛花色素-3-半乳糖苷、牵牛花色素-3-葡萄糖苷、锦葵色素-3-半乳糖苷、锦葵色素-3-葡萄糖苷.

  16. Macroporous Resin Purification and Composition Analysis of Polyphenols from Blueberry Leaves%大孔树脂纯化蓝莓叶多酚及其组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯进; 李敏; 曾晓雄; 李春阳

    2013-01-01

    比较8种大孔树脂对蓝莓叶多酚的静态吸附与解吸效果,HPD400树脂吸附量为52.95mg/g,解吸率为95.96%,并且达到吸附平衡与解吸平衡的时间较短,最适合蓝莓叶多酚的纯化.当上样质量浓度3mg/mL、pH2、上样流速2mL/min、上样体积140mL时,树脂带到动态吸附饱和;用80mL 40%的乙醇,以1mL/min的流速进行洗脱,可以洗脱完全,解吸率为90.50%.经过HPD400树脂的纯化,蓝莓叶多酚的纯度由原来的38.75%提高到69.38%.HPLC-DAD-MS的分析结果显示,蓝莓叶多酚含有丰富的咖啡酰奎宁酸与槲皮素甙.

  17. Determination of Polyphenol Content in Different Varieties Blueberry Leaves by Folin-Ciocalteu Colorimetry%Folin-Ciocalteu法测定不同品种蓝莓叶中多酚含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖畅; 吕艳芳; 励建荣

    2014-01-01

    目的:系统研究Folin-Ciocalteu法测定蓝莓叶中多酚含量的最佳反应奈件,为进一步开发利用蓝莓叶资源提供有效的测试手段.方法:以蓝莓叶的乙醇提取液为研究对象,研究碳酸钠溶液加入量、Folin-Ciocalteu显色剂加入量、反应温度及反应时间对吸光度大小的影响;以没食子酸为标准品,对蓝莓叶多酚进行定量.结果:在1 mL蓝莓叶多酚提取液中加入Folin-Ciocalteu试剂1 mL,10% Na2CO3 3 mL,于30℃条件下反应150min,测定其在750 nm波长处的吸光度,结果多酚质量浓度在1~7 μg/L范围内与吸光度呈良好的线性关系.根据此线性回归方程测定蓝莓叶中多酚含量,4个品种蓝莓叶中多酚含量从高到低的顺序依次为北陆蓝莓叶>野生蓝莓叶>美登蓝莓叶>蓝星蓝莓叶.结论:Folin-Ciocalteu比色法简便、灵敏度高、稳定性好、重复性好,可用于蓝莓叶多酚含量的测定.

  18. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  19. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  20. Bloody or tarry stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blueberries can also cause black stools. Beets and tomatoes can sometimes make stools appear reddish. In these ... if you notice blood or changes in the color of your stool. You should see your provider ...

  1. 7 CFR 1218.54 - Programs, plans, and projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing of fresh and processed blueberries, and the creation of new products thereof, to the end that the... program, plan, or project including advertising shall be false or misleading or disparaging...

  2. Kuuekümnes Cannes'i filmifestival alustas rullumist / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2007-01-01

    Algas 60. Cannes'i filmifestival. Pikemalt avafilmist - Wong Kar-Wai "My Blueberry Nights", festivali ajaloost ja korraldusest, eestlaste osalemisest (K. Kõusaar filmiga "Magnus", filmiturul "Klass" ja "Sügisball")

  3. "Nutrizione e Rischio Cardiovascolare"

    OpenAIRE

    C. Del Bo'; Riso, P.; Klimis-Zacas, D.; Martini, D.; Campolo, J; Vendrame, S.; Moller, P.; S. Loft; De Maria, R; Porrini, M

    2011-01-01

    Wild blueberries are rich sources of polyphenols such as anthocyanins capable of counteracting oxidative stress, influencing vasomotor tone and modulating gene expression associated with disease processes such as cardiovascular disease.

  4. Can transcriptomics provide insight into the underlying chemopreventive mechanisms of complex mixtures of phytochemicals in humans?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, van S.G.; Wilms, L.C.; Gaj, S.; Briedé, J.J.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Kleinjans, J.C.; Kok, de T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries contain relatively large amounts of different phytochemicals which are suggested to have chemopreventive properties, but little information is available on the underlying molecular modes of action. This study investigates whole genome gene expression changes in lymphocytes of 143 humans

  5. 75 FR 78203 - Privacy Act of 1974: New System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Information Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7411-7425) (Blueberries, Honey Packers and Importers, Lamb, Mangos, Peanuts...: Cotton and Tobacco, Dairy, Fruit and Vegetable, Livestock and Seed, Poultry, Science and...

  6. Energy Density and Weight Loss: Feel Full on Fewer Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blueberries to your cereal in the morning. Try mango or peach slices on whole-wheat toast with ... monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats in your diet. Nuts, seeds and oils, such as olive, flaxseed and safflower ...

  7. Tennessee Army National Guard (TNARNG) Range Expansion at Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee. Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Vaccinium fuscatum - (Viburnum nudum) / Carex (barrattii, intumescens) Forest Willow Oak – White Oak / Black Highbush Blueberry – (Wild Raisin...Barratt Sedge , Bladder Sedge ) Forest G1G2 MK-19 Range: 28.37 .50 caliber Range:2.16 CEGL007364 Subtotal (All areas combined) 30.53 CEGL007247...Black Highbush Blueberry- TNARNG TrairoirogArea 2, Post Oak (Scarlet Oak)/Biackjack Oak/ - (Wild Raisiro)/(Barratt Sedge , Bladder Sedge ) D Proposed

  8. Estudio de los procesos biotecnológicos de acetificación para la producción de vinagre de naranja y vinagre de arándanos.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies,Cristina Verónica

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The province of Entre Ríos, in Argentina, has been characterized by citrus production for decades and more recently, by blueberry production. A high percentage (15-25 %) of Argentinian orange production has been derived to industry due to the difficulty to commercialize in more profitable trades, in the last five years. In addition, the increasing volume of blueberries not suitable to export, with limited presence in the domestic market and few industrialization possibilities, has caused...

  9. Comparative transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of Vaccinium corymbosum during fruit and color development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lingli; Zhang, Hehua; Liu, Zhongshuai; Cui, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yanfang; Zhang, Lingyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Blueberry is an economically important fruit crop in Ericaceae family. The substantial quantities of flavonoids in blueberry have been implicated in a broad range of health benefits. However, the information regarding fruit development and flavonoid metabolites based on the transcriptome level is still limited. In the present study, the transcriptome and gene expression profiling over berry development, especially during color development were initiated. Results A total of approxim...

  10. 以秀丽隐杆线虫为模式生物的蓝莓果酒抗氧化及抗衰研究%Study on antioxidant and anti-aging analysis of blueberry wine in C.elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏焘; 曾敏; 李珂; 王远亮

    2016-01-01

    为探讨不同组分的蓝莓果酒对秀丽隐杆线虫抗氧化性能与抗细胞凋亡的影响,从而确定蓝莓果酒中主要物质的浓度及食用功能特性.以秀丽隐杆线虫(Caenorhabditis elegans)为模式生物,a组在蓝莓果酒的酒精度(体积分数)为14%的基础上,通过改变其原花青素(proant hocyanidin,PC)含量设置6个喂食组,b组在蓝莓果酒的原花青素含量为3 mg/mL的基础上,通过改变其酒精度设置7个喂食组,对照组线虫以大肠杆菌OP50喂养,检测各组线虫的抗氧化酶活力以及细胞凋亡情况.结果表明:蓝莓酒中的原花青素是延缓衰老的有效成分,低浓度酒精(<10%)也能延缓衰老,但是当酒精度(体积分数)高于10%时,则具有反作用,原花青素浓度为3 mg/mL、酒精度(体积分数)为10%的蓝莓果酒对线虫的抗衰老作用最佳.

  11. 不同品种蓝莓酒抗氧化能力及其多酚含量分析%Correlation between antioxidation and content of total phenolics, total flavonoids,proanthocyanidin and total anthocyanin in different cultivars' blueberry wines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晨; 张倩雯; 盛启明; 潘枭; 游义琳; 战吉宬

    2013-01-01

    本实验对6个不同品种的蓝莓酒的总酚、总类黄酮、原花青素、总花色苷和总抗氧化能力及其相关性进行了分析,结果发现,不同品种的总酚、总类黄酮、原花青素、总花色苷和总抗氧化能力变幅和变异系数较大,存在显著差异(p<0.05);蓝莓酒总抗氧化能力与总酚、总类黄酮、原花青素和总花色苷含量之间存在显著性的相关性(p<0.01),其中与原花青素的相关性最强,达到0.898.

  12. Separation and determination of organic acids by ion-exclusion chromatography with direct conductivity detection in the blueberry wine%离子排斥色谱-直接电导检测法分析都柿酒中的有机酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原小寓; 于泓; 王艳; 张巍

    2011-01-01

    研究离子排斥色谱-直接电导检测法分离测定都柿酒中多种有机酸.以Shim-pack SCR-102H柱为分离柱,确定最佳色谱条件为:2.0 mmol·L-1 p-甲苯磺酸:乙腈(v/v,91/9)为流动相,流速1.0 mL·min-1,柱温50℃,pH 2.8.对所测有机酸的检出限在0.06~1.05 mg·L-1之间,相对标准偏差在3.3%以下(n=5),加标回收率在97.2%~103%之间.

  13. Exploitative Actualities and Developmental Strategies of Chinese Blueberry Sightseeing Orchards——Using the Developmental Patterns of French Wine Manors for Reference%蓝莓观光果园的开发现状与发展对策研究——借鉴法国葡萄酒庄园发展模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海霞

    2016-01-01

    中国的蓝莓观光果园在近几年来犹如雨后春笋般纷纷涌现,随之而来的各种问题也是层出不穷,严重影响了蓝莓观光果园的长远发展.法国的葡萄酒庄园享誉世界,在生产模式、管理体系以及文化传承等方面值得我国学习和借鉴.在总结法国葡萄酒庄园成功发展经验的基础上,针对国内3个比较典型的蓝莓观光果园,进行了开发现状与发展对策研究,提出了适合其长远发展的合理化建议.

  14. [Contents of tannins and oxalic acid in the selected forest fruits depending on the harvest site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembratowicz, Iwona; Ognik, Katarzyna; Rusinek, Elzbieta; Truchliński, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Contents of anti-nutritional components (tannins and oxalic acid) were determined in samples of forest fruits: blueberry, raspberry and wild strawberry harvested in Lublin region from areas considered as potentially not exposed to pollution (Skierbieszów Landscape Park) and potentially polluted areas (Cement Factory Rejowiec S.A.). Study revealed that blueberry and raspberry fruits collected on potentially polluted area were characterized by higher tannins contents than those harvested on potentially not polluted area. Oxalic acid level in studied material indicated its significantly higher concentration in wild strawberry fruits collected both from not exposed and polluted areas as compared to raspberry and blueberry. Tannins and oxalic acid contents in analyzed berries may be accepted as low and safe for human's health.

  15. [Content of selected metals in forest fruits depending on the harvest site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek, Elzbieta; Sembratowicz, Iwona; Ognik, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    Contents of selected metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn) were determined in samples of forest fruits: blueberry, raspberry and wild strawberry harvested in Lublin region from areas considered as potentially not exposed to pollution (Skierbieszów Landscape Park) and potentially polluted areas (Cement Factory Rejowiec S.A.). Analyzed fruits originating from stands more exposed to pollution were characterized by higher lead (except from raspberry) as well as other metals contents than those from Krasiczyn commune. Among studied fruits, blueberry was distinguished by the lowest contents of Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, wild strawberry contained the highest levels of Pb, Zn and Mn. Cadmium content in analyzed plant materials was high.

  16. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and fungicides on Botryosphaeria stem blight lesion development on detached stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Botryosphaeria stem blight is a destructive disease of blueberries that has not been well managed with fungicides. Field observations showed that stem blight is more severe on vigorously growing plants than on slower growing plants. Detached stem assays were used to compare the effect of fertil...

  17. 7 CFR 1218.10 - Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information. 1218.10 Section 1218.10 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.10 Information. Information means information and programs that are designed to increase efficiency in processing and...

  18. Rational design of a monomeric and photostable far-red fluorescent protein for fluorescence imaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Dong, Zhiqiang; Gustafson, William Clay; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Signor, Luca; Marzocca, Fanny; Borel, Franck; Klassen, Matthew P; Makhijani, Kalpana; Royant, Antoine; Jan, Yuh-Nung; Weiss, William A; Guo, Su; Shu, Xiaokun

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are powerful tools for cell and molecular biology. Here based on structural analysis, a blue-shifted mutant of a recently engineered monomeric infrared fluorescent protein (mIFP) has been rationally designed. This variant, named iBlueberry, bears a single mutation that shifts both excitation and emission spectra by approximately 40 nm. Furthermore, iBlueberry is four times more photostable than mIFP, rendering it more advantageous for imaging protein dynamics. By tagging iBlueberry to centrin, it has been demonstrated that the fusion protein labels the centrosome in the developing zebrafish embryo. Together with GFP-labeled nucleus and tdTomato-labeled plasma membrane, time-lapse imaging to visualize the dynamics of centrosomes in radial glia neural progenitors in the intact zebrafish brain has been demonstrated. It is further shown that iBlueberry can be used together with mIFP in two-color protein labeling in living cells and in two-color tumor labeling in mice.

  19. Building Resilient Warriors: Taking the Canadian Army’s Resilience Training Beyond the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    living off the land, they became excellent foragers. “It was amazing how good crushed crackers in hot water with instant creamer and wild blueberries... Martin , Commanding Officer Tactics School (Army lead for Resilience Training Implementation). Interview with author. Telephone interview. Gagetown

  20. 7 CFR 1218.61 - Books and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Books and records. 1218.61 Section 1218.61..., AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Reports, Books, and Records § 1218.61 Books and records. Each first handler, producer, and importer subject to this subpart...

  1. Cutting type affects rooting percentage of asexually propagated Sparkleberry (Vaccinium arborem)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial blueberries, particularly Vaccinium corymbosum, have very specific needs for optimum growth; hence, growing sites are limited. They require acidic soil (pH 4.0-5.5), good drainage, thorough aeration, and a constant moderate amount of moisture. To overcome these restrictions, they could be...

  2. They Raise Them Differently Up North - Different Production Practices in Australian Growing Areas May Affect Mycorrhizae

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report briefly summarizes the results from a survey to determine cultural blueberry practices and production differences used in New South Wales (NSW), Victoria, Tasmania, and Queensland. The purpose of the survey was to collect information on a number of production practices that had been s...

  3. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behavior, and neuronal function in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry or blueberry supplementations, when fed to rats from 19-21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenol...

  4. Paper Chromatography and UV-Vis Spectroscopy to Characterize Anthocyanins and Investigate Antioxidant Properties in the Organic Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Novak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A variety of fruits and vegetables, including raspberries, blueberries, Concord grapes, blackberries, strawberries, peaches, eggplant, red cabbage, and red onions, contain flavonoid compounds known as anthocyanins that are responsible for the blue-red color and the astringent taste associated with such foods. In addition, anthocyanins exhibit a…

  5. Kuula. Kuu artist Lenny Kravitz / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2008-01-01

    Ameerika rockmuusikust. Heliplaatidest: Liisi Koikson "Väikeste asjade võlu", Nelly Furtado "Loose the Concert", "My Blueberry Nights", OneRepublic "Dreaming Out Loud", Margus Kappel "Kauneimad vene meloodiad", Eskimo "PSST!" Pole sõnu sõnumiks tarvis!"

  6. Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments of Some Military Munitions and Obscurant-related Compounds for Selected Threatened and Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Daisies, dandelion, thistles Plant 8 Bromeliaceae Bromiliads Plant 5.1 Cyperaceae Sedges Plant 3 Ericaceae Rhododendron, heather, blueberry Plant...grama Grass Plant 2 Sedge Grass Plant 1 Bush muhly Grass Plant 6 Slender janusia Shrub Plant 4 Redstem filaree Herb Plant 8 Common winterfat Sage

  7. Behavioral responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to visual stimuli under laboratory, semi-field, and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...

  8. Volatiles released from Vaccinium corymbosum were attractive to Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an olfactometric bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Leonardo; Mutis, Ana; Ceballos, Ricardo; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of host volatiles in the relationship between a blueberry plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. and the raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the principal pest of blueberry in the south of Chile. Volatiles from the aerial part of different phenological stages of the host were collected on Porapak Q and analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several chemical groups were identified including green leaf volatiles, aromatic compounds, and terpenes. The olfactometric responses of A. superciliosus toward different odor sources were studied in a four-arm olfactometer. Blueberry shoots at the phenological stages of fruit set, and blue-pink fruit color elicited the greatest behavioral responses from weevils. Five compounds (2-nonanone, eucalyptol, R- and S-limonene, and 4-ethyl benzaldehyde) elicited an attractant behavioral response from A. superciliosus. The results suggest the host location behavior of A. superciliosus could be mediated by volatiles derived from V. corymbosum. This work has identified a number of compounds with which it is possible to develop a lure for the principal pest of blueberry in southern Chile.

  9. Potential global and regional geographic distribution of Phomopsis vaccinii on Vaccinium species projected by two species distribution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narouei-Khandan, H.A.; Harmon, C.L.; Harmon, P.; Olmstead, J.; Zelenev, V.V.; Werf, van der W.; Worner, S.P.; Senay, S.D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccinium twig blight (caused by Phomopsis vaccinii, teleomorph Diaporthe vaccinii) is a major endemic disease on blueberries and cranberries in the Eastern and Northwestern USA and Canada. It has also been found in Europe, Chile and China. Publications on its occurrence in the USA and Canada ind

  10. 75 FR 26673 - Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities... Headquarters, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ... residue field trial data for blueberry jointly and submitted these data to the Pest Management...

  11. 7 CFR 1218.8 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1218.8 Section 1218.8 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.8 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means a calendar year from January 1 through December 31, or such other period as...

  12. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. A Review of Bird Pests and Their Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    cherries, sour cherries, and lowbush and highbush blueberries (Krzysik 1987). 0 Application rate is 1.7 to 2.2 kg/ha (Besser 1985). 121. The effectiveness of...9.9 kg/ha respectively. The usual 0 distribution strategy is two to five applications, each applied every four to seven days during the milk and dough

  13. 10 Tips for Traveling with Your Loved One

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer’s? Slow Walking Speed May Predict Alzheimer’s Onset Yoga and Meditation May Help Ward Off Alzheimer’s Blueberries May Be Good for the Brain A Healthy Lifestyle May Mean a Healthy Brain Group Counseling Benefits People With Early Alzheimer’s Swim, Jog or Dance: ...

  14. Continuing Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer’s? Slow Walking Speed May Predict Alzheimer’s Onset Yoga and Meditation May Help Ward Off Alzheimer’s Blueberries May Be Good for the Brain A Healthy Lifestyle May Mean a Healthy Brain Group Counseling Benefits People With Early Alzheimer’s Swim, Jog or Dance: ...

  15. Home Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer’s? Slow Walking Speed May Predict Alzheimer’s Onset Yoga and Meditation May Help Ward Off Alzheimer’s Blueberries May Be Good for the Brain A Healthy Lifestyle May Mean a Healthy Brain Group Counseling Benefits People With Early Alzheimer’s Swim, Jog or Dance: ...

  16. How to Assemble a Caregiving Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer’s? Slow Walking Speed May Predict Alzheimer’s Onset Yoga and Meditation May Help Ward Off Alzheimer’s Blueberries May Be Good for the Brain A Healthy Lifestyle May Mean a Healthy Brain Group Counseling Benefits People With Early Alzheimer’s Swim, Jog or Dance: ...

  17. Diet, Exercise and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer’s? Slow Walking Speed May Predict Alzheimer’s Onset Yoga and Meditation May Help Ward Off Alzheimer’s Blueberries May Be Good for the Brain A Healthy Lifestyle May Mean a Healthy Brain Group Counseling Benefits People With Early Alzheimer’s Swim, Jog or Dance: ...

  18. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  19. Koomiksivestern / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2004-01-01

    Prantsuse näitleja Vincent Cassel mängib nimiosa prantsuse koomiksipõhises mängufilmis "Blueberry" : režissöör Jan Kounen. Koomiksi, millest filmi on jõudnud üpris vähe, lõid 1960-ndatel Jean-Michel Charlier ja Jean Girard

  20. Micropropagation. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning micropropagation of various plants. Topics examine micropropagation culture media, automation systems, use of growth stimulants and cytokinins, industrial micropropagation, and production of disease-free plants. Micropropagation of ornamental trees, potato, blueberry, apple, algae, citrus, grape, and gymnosperms are described. (Contains a minimum of 61 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. PÖFF käib vaikselt edasi / Margit Adorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adorf, Margit, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    PÖFFi filme: Wong Kar-Wai mängufilm "Mu mustikakarva ööd" ("My Blueberry Nights") : Hongkong - Hiina - Prantsusmaa 2007 ja loodusfilm "Arktika lugu" ("Arctic Tale") : režissöörid Sarah Robertson, Adam Ravetch : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007

  2. Cannes loodab häid üllatusi Ida-Euroopast / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2007-01-01

    Algas 60. Cannes'i filmifestival. Eestit esindav Kadri Kõusaare filmi "Magnus" peaks esilinastuma 18. mail, kui kohtuotsus näitamiskeelu kohta seda ei takista. Pikemalt avafilmist - Wong Kar-Wai "My Blueberry Nights", ka venelase Andrei Zvjagintsevi filmist "Pagendus"

  3. Olukorrast Cannes'i rindel, edukast / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    Algas 60. Cannes'i filmifestival. Pikemalt avafilmist - Wong Kar-Wai "My Blueberry Nights", venelase Andrei Zvjagintsevi filmist "Izgnanije"(artikli autoril "Karistus"), David Fincheri kriminaalfilmist "Zodiac", rumeenlase Christian "Mungiu filmist "Neli kuud, kolm nädalat ja kaks päeva"

  4. Kinolevi filme tutvustab Tiit Tuumalu / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Põnevusfilm "Eela orus" ("In the Valley of Elah") : režissöör Paul Haggis : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007 ja Wong Kar-Wai mängufilm "Minu mustikakarva ööd" ("My Blueberry Nights") : Hiina - Hongkong - Prantsusmaa 2007

  5. Environmental Impact Research Program. Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). Section 4.7.1, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Palmetto Sabal spp. Pawpaw Asimina triloba Pecan Carya illinoensis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Pine Pinus app. Loblolly pine P. taeda Red mulberry...grandifotia Bitter pecan Carya aquatica Blackberry Rubus app. Black cherry Prunus serotina Blackgum Nyssa sylvatica Black walnut Jugtans nigra Blueberry...americana Hickory Carya Spp. Bitternut hickory C. cordiformis Shagbark hickory C. ovata Shellbark hickory C. Zaciniosa Hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana

  6. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  7. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  8. Microsatellite Markers Assess Genetic Diversity of Wild Southeastern American Vaccinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS)-National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon, USA preserves genetic resources of many temperate fruit crops, including blueberry. This genebank contains > 1,750 Vaccinium accessions from 39 cou...

  9. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China World Hotel Berry Cool at the Lobby Lounge! China World Hotel's Lobby Lounge whips berries into a sweet summer storm sensa- tion, with pastries and confectionery from the dessert buffet topped by all kinds of berries-strawberries, blueberries, raspberries and blackberries. Paired with

  10. 78 FR 3420 - Pesticide Emergency Exemptions; Agency Decisions and State and Federal Agency Crisis Declarations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ...: EPA concurred with Louisiana on the crisis use of imidacloprid on sugarcane to control West Indian..., Food and Rural Resources Crisis Exemption: EPA concurred with Maine on the crisis use of malathion on...: EPA concurred with New Jersey on the crisis use of malathion on blueberries to control spotted...

  11. Evaluation of the Ration, Cold Weather during a 10-Day Cold Weather Field Training Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-15

    Bars Oatmeals Strawberry Granola Bars Oatmeal Cookies Cookies, Choco Covered Kaielnut Crunch Blueberry Bars Chocolate Bars Cider Orange...Chicken a la King Oatmeal, Maple Granola Bare OatBcal Cookias Cookies, Choco Covered Raisinut Crunch Fig Bars Chocolate Bars Cider. Orange

  12. Proceedings of the Ninth International Vaccinium Symposium Vol.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ISHS 9th International Vaccinium Symposium had 51 oral and 86 poster presentations. Scientists from 35 countries participated in the meeting. From these 120 manuscripts were published in this book. This book contains the state of blueberry research and breeding from a global view. Volume 2 conta...

  13. Proceedings of the Ninth International Vaccinium Symposium Vol. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ISHS 9th International Vaccinium Symposium had 51 oral and 86 poster presentations. Scientists from 35 countries participated in the meeting. From these 120 manuscripts were published in this book. This book contains the state of blueberry research and breeding from a global view. Volume 1 conta...

  14. The potential of Dark Septate Endophytes to form root symbioses with ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal middle European forest plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Lukešová

    Full Text Available The unresolved ecophysiological significance of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE may be in part due to existence of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species in the most common Phialocephala fortinii s. l.--Acephala applanata species complex (PAC. We inoculated three middle European forest plants (European blueberry, Norway spruce and silver birch with 16 strains of eight PAC cryptic species and other DSE and ectomycorrhizal/ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and focused on intraradical structures possibly representing interfaces for plant-fungus nutrient transfer and on host growth response. The PAC species Acephala applanata simultaneously formed structures resembling ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM and DSE microsclerotia in blueberry. A. macrosclerotiorum, a close relative to PAC, formed ectomycorrhizae with spruce but not with birch, and structures resembling ErM in blueberry. Phialocephala glacialis, another close relative to PAC, formed structures resembling ErM in blueberry. In blueberry, six PAC strains significantly decreased dry shoot biomass compared to ErM control. In birch, one A. macrosclerotiorum strain increased root biomass and the other shoot biomass in comparison with non-inoculated control. The dual mycorrhizal ability of A. macrosclerotiorum suggested that it may form mycorrhizal links between Ericaceae and Pinaceae. However, we were unable to detect this species in Ericaceae roots growing in a forest with presence of A. macrosclerotiorum ectomycorrhizae. Nevertheless, the diversity of Ericaceae mycobionts was high (380 OTUs with individual sites often dominated by hitherto unreported helotialean and chaetothyrialean/verrucarialean species; in contrast, typical ErM fungi were either absent or low in abundance. Some DSE apparently have a potential to form mycorrhizae with typical middle European forest plants. However, except A. applanata, the tested representatives of all hitherto described PAC cryptic species formed typical DSE

  15. The potential of Dark Septate Endophytes to form root symbioses with ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal middle European forest plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukešová, Tereza; Kohout, Petr; Větrovský, Tomáš; Vohník, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The unresolved ecophysiological significance of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) may be in part due to existence of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species in the most common Phialocephala fortinii s. l.--Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). We inoculated three middle European forest plants (European blueberry, Norway spruce and silver birch) with 16 strains of eight PAC cryptic species and other DSE and ectomycorrhizal/ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and focused on intraradical structures possibly representing interfaces for plant-fungus nutrient transfer and on host growth response. The PAC species Acephala applanata simultaneously formed structures resembling ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM) and DSE microsclerotia in blueberry. A. macrosclerotiorum, a close relative to PAC, formed ectomycorrhizae with spruce but not with birch, and structures resembling ErM in blueberry. Phialocephala glacialis, another close relative to PAC, formed structures resembling ErM in blueberry. In blueberry, six PAC strains significantly decreased dry shoot biomass compared to ErM control. In birch, one A. macrosclerotiorum strain increased root biomass and the other shoot biomass in comparison with non-inoculated control. The dual mycorrhizal ability of A. macrosclerotiorum suggested that it may form mycorrhizal links between Ericaceae and Pinaceae. However, we were unable to detect this species in Ericaceae roots growing in a forest with presence of A. macrosclerotiorum ectomycorrhizae. Nevertheless, the diversity of Ericaceae mycobionts was high (380 OTUs) with individual sites often dominated by hitherto unreported helotialean and chaetothyrialean/verrucarialean species; in contrast, typical ErM fungi were either absent or low in abundance. Some DSE apparently have a potential to form mycorrhizae with typical middle European forest plants. However, except A. applanata, the tested representatives of all hitherto described PAC cryptic species formed typical DSE colonization without

  16. Influence of Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction on the Anthocyanin Profile of Different Vaccinium Species in the Context of Statistical Models for Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffels, Peter; Weber, Fabian; Schieber, Andreas

    2015-09-02

    Anthocyanins are frequently discussed as marker compounds for fruit product authenticity. Proper analysis including sample preparation for the determination of anthocyanin concentrations is crucial for the comparability of authenticity data. The present study determined the influence of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), using two different solvent compositions on the anthocyanin profile of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.), and American cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.). Besides differences in total anthocyanin concentrations in the extracts, significant deviations (p ≤ 0.05) in the individual anthocyanin concentration were observed, resulting in differing anthocyanin proportions. Linear discriminant analysis comparing the differences caused by the extraction method to the natural differences within a set of 26 bilberry and lowbush blueberry samples of different origins was conducted. It revealed that profile variations induced by the extraction methods are in a similar scale to profile variations as a result of geographic and climatic differences.

  17. Dietary modulation of the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.

    On exploratory missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays composed of protons and heavy particles, such as 56Fe. Long-term exposure to these particles can cause cancer. However, there are significant uncertainties in the risk estimates for the probability of developing heavy particle-induced cancer, and in the amount of shielding needed to provide an adequate level of radiation protection. The results of this preliminary study, using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays, show reduced tumorigenesis in rats maintained on diets containing blueberry or strawberry extract prior to exposure to 56Fe particles. Because the study was not initially designed to evaluate tumorigenesis following exposure to 56Fe particles, additional research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of strawberry and blueberry supplementation. However, the preliminary results presented in this study suggest that diets containing antioxidant phytochemicals can provide additional radiation protection on interplanetary voyages.

  18. Roy Fuentes: Fuentes Berry Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As president of Fuentes Berry Farms, Rogelio (Roy) Fuentes is one of many independent growers producing organic berries for Driscoll’s—a company that was initiated more than a century ago by two strawberry farmers on California’s Central Coast, and has since evolved into an international concern devoted to research, breeding, production, sales and distribution of conventionally and organically farmed strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries. Driscoll’s CEO Miles Reiter and his ...

  19. 40 CFR 180.213 - Simazine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....20 Plum 0.20 Raspberry 0.20 Sheep, meat 0.03 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.03 Strawberry 0.25 Walnut 0.2... Apple 0.20 Avocado 0.20 Blackberry 0.20 Blueberry 0.20 Cattle, meat 0.03 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.03....25 Corn, sweet, stover 0.25 Cranberry 0.25 Currant 0.25 Egg 0.03 Goat, meat 0.03 Goat,...

  20. 40 CFR 180.182 - Endosulfan; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or on the following food commodities: Commodity Parts per million Alfalfa, forage 0.3 Alfalfa, hay 1..., straw 0.4 Bean 2.0 Blueberry 0.3 Broccoli 3.0 Brussels sprouts 2.0 Cabbage 4.0 Carrot, roots 0.2 Cattle..., meat byproducts, except liver 1.0 Spinach 2.0 Strawberry 2.0 Sugarcane, cane 0.5 Sweet potato, roots...

  1. 40 CFR 180.408 - Metalaxyl; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equivalents, in or on the following food commodities: Commodity Parts per million Alfalfa, forage 6.0 Alfalfa....0 Avocado 4.0 Beet, garden, roots 0.1 Beet, garden, tops 0.1 Beet, sugar 0.1 Beet, sugar, molasses 1.0 Beet, sugar, roots 0.5 Beet, sugar, tops 10.0 Blueberry 2.0 Broccoli 2.0 Brussels sprouts...

  2. Fecal carriage of CTX-M β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in nursing homes in the Kinki region of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Ulzii-Orshikh Luvsansharav,1 Itaru Hirai,1 Marie Niki,1 Arisa Nakata,1 Aya Yoshinaga,1 Akira Yamamoto,2 Mayumi Yamamoto,3 Hiroyuki Toyoshima,4,† Fusao Kawakami,5 Nariaki Matsuura,6 Yoshimasa Yamamoto1,7,8 1Department of Bioinformatics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 2Blueberry, Amagasaki Health Care Facilities for the Elderly, Hyogo, 3Health Administration Center, Gifu University, Gifu, 4Nursing home Minoh, Osaka, 5Nursing home Itami, Hyogo, 6Department of Mol...

  3. 全发酵蓝莓干红精深加工的关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕾; 鲍俊杰; 王辰龙; 闫晓明; 徐义流

    2013-01-01

    以蓝莓为主要原料,经过低温浸渍预发酵处理后,研制全发酵型干红蓝莓酒,并对影响蓝莓干红发酵的因素进行优化研究。采用单因素及正交试验设计考察酵母添加量、亚硫酸添加量、起始pH值和发酵温度对酿造的蓝莓干红品质的影响。结果表明,发酵蓝莓浆在起始pH值为3.0,酿酒酵母的添加量为0.15 g/L,亚硫酸添加量为10 mL,主发酵温度22℃的条件下经过酿造并陈酿,可获得呈宝石红色、澄清透明、酒香和谐且具有馥郁花香的蓝莓干红。%Blueberry is used as main material to produce fermentation blueberry wine based on cold maceration, and the factors influencing the fermentation are studied. The effects of winemaking strains, sulfur dioxide amount, initiative pH, fermentation temperature and on the quality of brewing blueberry wine are analyzed through single factor test and orthogonal experiment, and the results show that at the initiative pH 3.0, adding 0.15 g/L inoculation volume, sulfur dioxide amount controlling 10 mL, fermentation at 22 ℃ and a new type blueberry wine can be made, which presents a deep ruby red color and clarification, mellow tastes, and smells like deep floral aroma.

  4. Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1. Proposed High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Picea mariana Bog blueberry Vaccinium Labrador tea Ledwn groenlandicum Sedges Cyperaceae Sphagnum moss Sphagnum sp. Tamarack Larix laricina White...of 25 to 60%. A wet herbaceous vegetation association occurs in wet areas with grasses and sedges and is analogous to Cowardin et al.’s (1979...wetlands dominated by sedges and rushes. Minimal amounts of palustrine aquatic bed are present. Forested wetlands (equivalent to palustrine forested

  5. Host range and genetic relatedness of Colletotrichum acutatum isolates from fruit crops and leatherleaf fern in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, S J; Peres, N A; Barquero, M P; Arauz, L F; Timmer, L W

    2009-05-01

    Isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum were collected from anthracnose-affected strawberry, leatherleaf fern, and Key lime; ripe-rot-affected blueberry; and postbloom fruit drop (PFD)-affected sweet orange in Florida. Additional isolates from ripe-rot-affected blueberry were collected from Georgia and North Carolina and from anthracnose-affected leatherleaf fern in Costa Rica. Pathogenicity tests on blueberry and strawberry fruit; foliage of Key lime, leatherleaf fern, and strawberry; and citrus flowers showed that isolates were highly pathogenic to their host of origin. Isolates were not pathogenic on foliage of heterologous hosts; however, several nonhomologous isolates were mildly or moderately pathogenic to citrus flowers and blueberry isolates were pathogenic to strawberry fruit. Based on sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region of the rDNA repeat, the glutaraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase intron 2 (G3PD), and the glutamine synthase intron 2 (GS), isolates from the same host were identical or very similar to each other and distinct from those isolated from other hosts. Isolates from leatherleaf fern in Florida were the only exception. Among these isolates, there were two distinct G3PD and GS sequences that occurred in three of four possible combinations. Only one of these combinations occurred in Costa Rica. Although maximum parsimony trees constructed from genomic regions individually displayed little or no homoplasy, there was a lack of concordance among genealogies that was consistent with a history of recombination. This lack of concordance was particularly evident within a clade containing PFD, Key lime, and leatherleaf fern isolates. Overall, the data indicated that it is unlikely that a pathogenic strain from one of the hosts examined would move to another of these hosts and produce an epidemic.

  6. Interstitial Area Final Range Environmental Assessment, Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    salinity , wetness, degree of erosion, and other characteristics that affect their use (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995). These soil series are...Blueberry Vaccinium spp. Florida Black Bear Ursus americanus floridanus Yaupon Ilex vomitoria Fox Squirrel Sciurus niger Gallberry Ilex glabra Least Shrew...Hairy Woodpecker - - Rynchops niger Black Skimmer LS - Sterna antillarum Least Tern LT - Sterna caspia Caspian Tern - - Sterna maxima Royal Tern

  7. 蓝莓桑葚复合饮料的加工与研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕾; 王辰龙; 鲍俊杰; 闫晓明

    2014-01-01

    研究新型蓝莓桑葚复合饮料的生产工艺,确定最佳工艺条件。用果胶酶酶解,酶用量为0.3%,酶解时间为5 h,酶解温度为40℃。蓝莓汁的添加量为140 mL,白砂糖的添加量为8 g,桑葚汁的添加量为40 mL,玫瑰花汁的添加量为10 mL, VC的添加量为2.33%,柠檬酸的添加量为0.13%,山梨酸钾的添加量为0.02%。蓝莓桑葚复合饮料清新淡雅、酸甜适口,营养丰富。%The processing of blueberry and mulberry compound beverage is studied. The best process conditions are established. In this study, preparation of flesh blueberry juice with pectinase, its reaction temperature is 40 ℃, enzyme loading of 0.3%, hydrolysis time of 5 h. The flavor of juice processing technology is determined for the blueberry juice content of 140 mL, adding sugar 8 g and mulberry juice 40 mL, rose 10 mL, VC 2.33%, citric acid 0.13%, potassium sorbate 0.02%. The flavor of the compound blueberry beverage is fresh and delicious.

  8. The History of American Settlement at Camp Atterbury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Fisher 1852:55). The under- story consists of ferns, wildflowers , and under the chestnut oaks green- brier, black huckleberry, blueberry, and painted...Kathleen M. 2002. Women of the Klan: Racism and Gender in the 1920s. Berkeley: University of California Press. Branigin, Elba L. 1913. History of...Bartholomew County Historical Society. David, Bruno, and Julian Thomas, eds. 2008. Handbook of Landscape Archaeology. Walnut Creek, California : Left Coast

  9. Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technological Applications for Site-specific Management of Fruit and Nut Crops: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel O. Paz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Site-specific crop management (SSCM is one facet of precision agriculture which is helping increase production with minimal input. It has enhanced the cost-benefit scenario in crop production. Even though the SSCM is very widely used in row crop agriculture like corn, wheat, rice, soybean, etc. it has very little application in cash crops like fruit and nut. The main goal of this review paper was to conduct a comprehensive review of advanced technologies, including geospatial technologies, used in site-specific management of fruit and nut crops. The review explores various remote sensing data from different platforms like satellite, LIDAR, aerial, and field imaging. The study analyzes the use of satellite sensors, such as Quickbird, Landsat, SPOT, and IRS imagery as well as hyperspectral narrow-band remote sensing data in study of fruit and nut crops in blueberry, citrus, peach, apple, etc. The study also explores other geospatial technologies such as GPS, GIS spatial modeling, advanced image processing techniques, and information technology for suitability study, orchard delineation, and classification accuracy assessment. The study also provides an example of a geospatial model developed in ArcGIS ModelBuilder to automate the blueberry production suitability analysis. The GIS spatial model is developed using various crop characteristics such as chilling hours, soil permeability, drainage, and pH, and land cover to determine the best sites for growing blueberry in Georgia, U.S. The study also provides a list of spectral reflectance curves developed for some fruit and nut crops, blueberry, crowberry, redblush citrus, orange, prickly pear, and peach. The study also explains these curves in detail to help researchers choose the image platform, sensor, and spectrum wavelength for various fruit and nut crops SSCM.

  10. Monitoring of radiation in the environment in the Netherlands. Results in 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Knetsch, G J

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the Dutch environment in 2001. The measurements were carried out by RIVM, RIZA, RIKZ and Inspectorate for Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health. Radioactivity measurements were carried out on airborne particles, deposition, surface water, seawater, drinking water and food (honey, powdered milk, game, poultry, blueberry and chanterelle). Results for ambient dose equivalent rates were obtained from the National Radioactivity Monitoring Network. The levels of radioactivity in the Dutch environment were not elevated in 2001

  11. 40 CFR 180.472 - Imidacloprid; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Lychee 3.0 Mango 1.0 Milk 0.10 Mustard, black, seed 0.05 Mustard, field, seed 0.05 Mustard, Indian, seed..., molasses 0.30 Beet, sugar, roots 0.05 Beet, sugar, tops 0.50 Biriba 0.30 Blueberry 3.5 Borage, seed 0.05 Caneberry, subgroup 13-A 2.5 Canistel 1.0 Canola, seed 0.05 Cattle, fat 0.30 Cattle, meat 0.30 Cattle,...

  12. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF HONEYBEE POLLINATION MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Rucker, Randal R.; Thurman, Walter N.; Burgett, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Pollination by honeybees plays an important role in modern agriculture. Some crops are greatly dependent on honeybees (almonds, apples, avocados, blueberries, and cherries are examples) while the yields and quality of other crops are significantly enhanced by honeybee pollination. The importance of understanding pollination markets has increased recently due to changes brought on by the twin scourges of Varroa and tracheal mites. Both are infestations of feral and domestic bees that imply gre...

  13. Diversity of rhizosphere associated entomopathogenic fungi of perennial herbs, shrubs and coniferous trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joanna J; Rehner, Stephen A; Bruck, Denny J

    2011-02-01

    Understanding habitat selection of fungal entomopathogens is critical to improve the efficacy, persistence and cost of these fungi as microbial insecticides. This study sought to determine the prevalence of Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. isolated from the rhizosphere of strawberry, blueberry, grape and Christmas tree crops in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Entomopathogenic fungi were assigned to thirteen species based on molecular phylogenetic criteria. Four species of Metarhizium were isolated including Metarhizium brunneum, Metarhizium guizhouense, Metarhizium robertsii, and Metarhizium flavoviride var. pemphigi. Nine Beauveria species were isolated including, Beauveria brongniartii, an undescribed species referred to as Clade C and seven phylogenetic species of Beauveria bassiana. Strawberries and blueberries were significantly associated with M. brunneum and Christmas trees with M. guizhouense and M. robertsii. Grapes were significantly associated with B. bassiana phylogenetic species Bbas-16. All of the Metarhizium isolates screened were pathogenic to Otiorhynchus sulcatus larvae in laboratory bioassays but only M. brunneum and M. robertsii caused significant levels of infection. The study results suggest that certain species of Metarhizium and Beauveria are significantly associated with the strawberry, blueberry and Christmas tree rhizosphere and could potentially provide better control of O. sulcatus.

  14. Antioxidant Activity and Cardioprotective Effect of a Nonalcoholic Extract of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz during Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin E. Lopera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to assess the antioxidant properties and the effects against the reperfusion injury of a nonalcoholic extract obtained by fermentation from the Colombian blueberry, mortiño (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz, Ericaceae. Antioxidant properties were assessed by in vitro systems. To examine the postischemic myocardial function, isolated rat hearts were treated 10 min before ischemia and during the first 10 min of reperfusion with the extract. To analyze the participation of nitric oxide (NO, other experiments were performed in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. In cardiac tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS concentration, reduced glutathione (GSH content, endothelial NOS (eNOS, and Akt expression were also measured. The blueberry extract showed higher total phenols and anthocyanins contents, scavenging activity of superoxide radical and systolic and diastolic function was improved, TBARS diminished, GSH was partially preserved, and both NOS and Akt expression increased in hearts treated with the extract. These beneficial effects were lost when eNOS was inhibited. In resume, these data show that the increase of eNOS expression via Akt and the scavenging activity contribute to the cardioprotection afforded by acute treatment with Colombian blueberry extract against ischemia and reperfusion injury.

  15. In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Contreras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH• scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (ESI-QqQ. All ethanolic extracts from in vitro blueberry cultivars displayed antioxidant activity, with Legacy, Elliott and Bluegold cultivars being the most active. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the extracts is related to the content of chlorogenic acid myricetin, syringic acid and rutin, and tissue culture of blueberry seedlings is a good tool to obtain antioxidant extracts with reproducible profile of compounds.

  16. In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Rodrigo A; Köhler, Hans; Pizarro, Marisol; Zúiga, Gustavo E

    2015-04-09

    The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH•) scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP) and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (ESI-QqQ)). All ethanolic extracts from in vitro blueberry cultivars displayed antioxidant activity, with Legacy, Elliott and Bluegold cultivars being the most active. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the extracts is related to the content of chlorogenic acid myricetin, syringic acid and rutin, and tissue culture of blueberry seedlings is a good tool to obtain antioxidant extracts with reproducible profile of compounds.

  17. Diel periodicity of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard K.; Toews, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an economically important pest of blueberry and other thin-skinned fruits, persists and prolifically reproduces under seemingly lethal climatic conditions in the field. However, behavioral and physiological mechanisms employed by D. suzukii to tolerate such extreme climatic conditions in the field are unknown. The primary objective of this project was to investigate diel periodicity of D. suzukii and their reproductive success under field conditions as related by climatic factors such as temperature and relative humidity. Results show that D. suzukii reproductive success was significantly higher during the night (including dawn and dusk periods) than the day in terms of oviposition, pupation, adult eclosion, and the number of progeny per female. Female D. suzukii reproductive success was not significantly different between specific regions of a blueberry bush in relation to the amount of shade provided by the canopy. Our studies indicate that D. suzukii flight activity is crepuscular and is sensitive to fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity. Results also suggest that the majority of fly activity during peak hours is concentrated in areas around the border and within the center of blueberry orchards with little activity in the surrounding wooded areas. These findings suggest that D. suzukii prefers microclimate with mild temperatures and high humidity, and does not function well when exposed to direct sunlight with extreme heat. The authors propose that D. suzukii management strategies should be implemented during the early morning and immediately before darkness to maximize efficacy. PMID:28187140

  18. Contribution of Anthocyanin Composition to Total Antioxidant Capacity of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Gil; Vance, Terrence M; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Dae-Ok; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthocyanin composition to the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of berries having different anthocyanin composition; blackberry, black currant, and blueberry. Blackberry demonstrated the highest TAC, while it had the lowest total anthocyanin content among the three berries in both of the phenolic extract and anthocyanin fractions. On the other hand, black currant had the highest total anthocyanin content, but the lowest TAC. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (cya-3-glc) accounted for 94% of blackberry anthocyanins, and as one of the strongest antioxidants present in these three berries, it substantially contributed to the TAC of blackberry anthocyanin fraction (96.0%). Delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside in black currant had lower antioxidant capacities compared with delphinin-3-O-glucoside and cya-3-glc, resulting in its lowest TAC among berry anthocyanin fractions examined. Malvidin derivatives, major anthocyanins of blueberry, had considerably lower antioxidant capacity than other anthocyanidin derivatives, such as cyanidin or delphinidin, resulting in lower TAC of blueberry compared with blackberry. Our findings indicate that anthocyanin composition as well as the antioxidant capacity of individual anthocyanins contributes to the TAC of berries rich in distinct anthocyanins.

  19. Effects of four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on tolerance of Vaccinium corymbosum to drought stress%4种丛枝菌根真菌对南高丛蓝莓抗旱性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许庆龙; 刘晓敏; 徐小兵; 李晴晴; 张红; 肖家欣

    2016-01-01

    采用盆栽试验研究摩西球囊霉(Glomus mosseae)、地表球囊霉(G.versiforme)、根内球囊霉(G. intraradices)和幼套球囊霉(G.etunicatum)4种丛枝菌根(arbuscular mycorrhizal,AM)真菌接种南高丛蓝莓(Vaccinium corymbosum)品种薄雾对干旱胁迫的生理生化反应.结果表明:干旱胁迫降低了叶片相对含水量与叶绿素含量,增加了可溶性糖含量、超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)活性与丙二醛(malondialdehyde, MDA)含量,但对菌根侵染率的影响较小;在干旱胁迫下,4种 AM 真菌尤其是摩西球囊霉接种株相对含水量、叶绿素和可溶性糖含量、叶片 SOD 活性均显著高于未接种株,而接种株叶片 MDA 含量相对低于未接种株;另外, AM 真菌接种处理能够提高蓝莓植株根、茎、叶的磷和钾含量以及根围土壤酸性磷酸酶、脲酶和过氧化氢酶活性,尤以摩西球囊霉处理最为明显.总之,4种 AM 真菌接种处理提高了蓝莓品种薄雾植株的抗旱性,以摩西球囊霉的效果最好.%Summary Blueberry(Vaccinium spp.)is well known for its rich anthocyanins and other bioactive compounds, which helps preventing from cardiovascular disease and other chronic illnesses.Over the past decades,blueberry has been cultured in many areas of China,thus became the fastest-growing species in fruit production,potentially making China one of the largest blueberry-producing countries in the world.However,blueberry growth and production were severely affected by drought events in areas of Yangtze River.Vaccinium plants preferred acidic soils and spontaneously formed mutualistic symbiotic associations mainly with soil fungi of the phylum Ascomycota,called ‘ericoid mycorrhizae”.However,some reports have indicated that the absence of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi inoculum may allowVaccinium plants to associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM)fungi,and AM fungi inoculation significantly enhanced growth of Vaccinium plants

  20. Mechanosensory Neuron Aging: Differential Trajectories with Lifespan-Extending Alaskan Berry and Fungal Treatments in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerbak, Courtney; Vayndorf, Elena M.; Hernandez, Alicia; McGill, Colin; Taylor, Barbara E.

    2016-01-01

    Many nutritional interventions that increase lifespan are also proposed to postpone age-related declines in motor and cognitive function. Potential sources of anti-aging compounds are the plants and fungi that have adapted to extreme environments. We studied the effects of four commonly consumed and culturally relevant Interior Alaska berry and fungus species (bog blueberry, lowbush cranberry, crowberry, and chaga) on the decline in overall health and neuron function and changes in touch receptor neuron morphology associated with aging. We observed increased wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan and improved markers of healthspan upon treatment with Alaskan blueberry, lowbush cranberry, and chaga extracts. Interestingly, although all three treatments increased lifespan, they differentially affected the development of aberrant morphologies in touch receptor neurons. Blueberry treatments decreased anterior mechanosensory neuron (ALM) aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths and abnormal cell bodies) while lowbush cranberry treatment increased posterior mechanosensory neuron (PLM) aberrations, namely process branching. Chaga treatment both decreased ALM aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths) and increased PLM aberrations (i.e., process branching and loops). These results support the large body of knowledge positing that there are multiple cellular strategies and mechanisms for promoting health with age. Importantly, these results also demonstrate that although an accumulation of abnormal neuron morphologies is associated with aging and decreased health, not all of these morphologies are detrimental to neuronal and organismal health. PMID:27486399