WorldWideScience

Sample records for blueberries

  1. Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatigue syndrome (CFS), colic, fever, varicose veins, and hemorrhoids. Blueberry is also used for improving circulation, and ... fatigue syndrome (CFS). Fever. Sore throat. Varicose veins. Hemorrhoids. Bad circulation. Diarrhea. Constipation. Labor pains. Other conditions. ...

  2. 'Blueberry' Exposed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic of five images taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sol 87 shows the hole drilled by the rover's rock abrasion tool into the rock dubbed 'Pilbara.' A sliced 'blueberry,' or spherule, which is darker and harder than the rest of the rock, can be seen near the center of the hole. The rock abrasion process left a pile of rock powder around the side of the hole, and to a lesser degree, inside the hole. The hole is 7.2 millimeters (about 0.28 inches) deep and 4.5 centimeters (about 1.8 inches) in diameter. Because the original images of this hole had areas of bright sunlight as well as shadow, the images making up this mosaic have been arranged to hide as much of the sunlit area as possible. The white spot is one area that could not be covered by other images. It is possible to stretch the image so that features in this white spot are visible, but this makes the rest of the mosaic harder to view. The bright streaks on the bottom part of the hole are most likely reflections from various parts of the robotic arm. The geometric and brightness seams have been corrected in this image.

  3. Fighting phytophthora in blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  4. Resources for blueberry growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local extension agents and USDA-ARS research scientists are excellent resources for various aspects of blueberry production, but several print and web-based resources are also available to help commercial blueberry growers. Growers are encouraged to consider the source for all web-based information....

  5. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinium consists of approximately 450 species, of which highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is one of the three major Vaccinium fruit crops (i.e., blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry) domesticated in the twentieth century. In blueberry the adventitious shoot regeneration using leaf explants has been the most desirable regeneration system to date; Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is the major gene delivery method and effective selection has been reported using either the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (nptII) or the bialaphos resistance (bar) gene as selectable markers. The A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol described in this chapter is based on combining the optimal conditions for efficient plant regeneration, reliable gene delivery, and effective selection. The protocol has led to successful regeneration of transgenic plants from leaf explants of four commercially important highbush blueberry cultivars for multiple purposes, providing a powerful approach to supplement conventional breeding methods for blueberry by introducing genes of interest.

  6. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Scorch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV), which is vectored by aphids, can infect blueberry and cranberry. Once a plant is infected, symptoms may take 1 to 2 years or more to develop. This makes early detection vital for controlling the disease. The virus was first observed in a ‘Berkeley’ blueberry plant...

  7. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  8. 7 CFR 1218.2 - Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Blueberries means cultivated blueberries grown in or imported into the United States of the genus Vaccinium Corymbosum and Ashei, including the northern highbush, southern highbush, rabbit eye varieties, and any hybrid, and excluding the lowbush (native) blueberry Vaccinium Angustifolium. ...

  9. Prince Rabbiteye Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Prince' is a new early ripening rabbiteye blueberry released by the U.S. Depaertment of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service. Prince was selected from a cross of MS 598 and FL 80-11 in 1996, and tested in field plantings at McNeil and Stone County, MS beginning in 2000. Prince flowers and...

  10. 7 CFR 1218.15 - Processed blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed blueberries. 1218.15 Section 1218.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.15...

  11. THE NECESSITY OF DEVELOPING BLUEBERRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina BADIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the advantages of cultivating blueberries, both economically and from an alimentary and therapeutic point of view. By calculating profit per hectare for the most productive varieties of blueberry, it was shown that this culture is particularly profitable for young farmers. In fact, blueberries have significant therapeutic value, being used in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  12. 'Blueberry' Triplets Born in Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic image, taken at the outcrop region dubbed 'Berry Bowl' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, shows the sphere-like grains or 'blueberries' that fill Berry Bowl. Of particular interest is the blueberry triplet, which indicates that these geologic features grew in pre-existing wet sediments. Other sphere-like grains that form in the air, such as impact spherules or ejected volcanic material called lapilli, are unlikely to fuse along a line and form triplets. This image was taken by the rover's microscopic imager on the 46th martian day, or sol, of its mission.

  13. An emerging disease in blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new disorder was observed on southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in several southeastern states. Symptoms included irregularly shaped circular spots or blotches with green centers on the top and bottom of leaves. The disease was reported initially in the state ...

  14. Microbial communities in blueberry soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial communities thrive in the soil of the plant root zone and it is clear that these communities play a role in plant health. Although blueberry fields can be productive for decades, yields are sometimes below expectations and fields that are replanted sometimes underperform and/or take too lo...

  15. Wild Vietnamese relatives of blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    rom 25 October to 14 November 2015, wild relatives of cultivated blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum, were collected during a Vietnamese-US cooperative expedition in Northern Vietnam. The exploration involved representatives of the Plant Resources Center, Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences, in Han...

  16. 'Blueberry' Layers Indicate Watery Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic image, taken at the outcrop region dubbed 'El Capitan' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, reveals millimeter-scale (.04 inch-scale) layers in the lower portion. This same layering is hinted at by the fine notches that run horizontally across the sphere-like grain or 'blueberry' in the center left. The thin layers do not appear to deform around the blueberry, indicating that these geologic features are concretions and not impact spherules or ejected volcanic material called lapilli. Concretions are balls of minerals that form in pre-existing wet sediments. This image was taken by the rover's microscopic imager on the 29th martian day, or sol, of its mission. The observed area is about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

  17. Crop evapotranspiration and irrigation scheduling in blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are currently 139,000 ha of blueberry worldwide, including 66,000 ha of highbush [comprises northern highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum), southern highbush (Vaccinium sp.), and rabbiteye (V. virgatum formerly V. asheii) cultivars] and 73,000 ha of lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium). The majority...

  18. Applying new technologies to transform blueberry harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth of the blueberry industry in the past three decades has been remarkable. However, labor shortage for hand harvesting, increasingly high labor costs, and low harvest efficiencies are becoming bottlenecks for sustainable development of the fresh market blueberry production. In this study ...

  19. EFFICIENT MARKETING OF BLUEBERRIES IN MISSISSIPPI AND LOUISIANA

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Safdar; Allen, Albert J.

    2000-01-01

    Fresh blueberries are sold through a marketing cooperative of the blueberry industry in Mississippi and Louisiana. Blueberry producers have numerous alternatives in assembling blueberries, and the cooperative needs to know the costs of different systems for assembling berries in order to provide better services to its members. The main objective of this study was to determine an efficient system for handling blueberries in Mississippi and Louisiana. Sixteen models with different combinations ...

  20. Blueberries extract supplementation improves physical performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... active ingredients of blueberries contain anthocyanins, polyphenols and ... blood lactate evaluation in bouldering elite athletes. J. Sports Med. Phys. ... production and antioxidant defences in soccer players. Br. J. Sports. Med.

  1. Toxigenic Alternaria species from Argentinean blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, M; Patriarca, A; Terminiello, L; Fernández Pinto, V; Pose, G

    2012-03-15

    Blueberries are traditionally consumed in North America, some European countries and Japan. In Argentina, the blueberry crop is profitable because production starts in November, when the northern hemisphere lacks fresh fruit. Fungal contaminants can grow and produce mycotoxins in fresh fruit. The aims of this work were to identify the main genera of the mycobiota of blueberries grown in Argentina and to determine the toxicogenic potential, pathogenicity and host specificity of the species isolated. The genus Alternaria was the main component of the blueberry mycobiota (95%); minor proportions of Phoma spp. (4%) and Penicillium spp. (1%) were also isolated. According to their sporulation patterns, 127 Alternaria isolates belonged to the Alternaria tenuissima species-group, 5 to the Alternaria alternata species-group and 2 to the Alternaria arborescens species-group. The last mentioned species-group was not isolated at 5°C. Of the 134 isolates, 61% were toxicogenic in autoclaved rice; 97% of these produced alternariol (AOH) in a range from 0.14 to 119.18 mg/kg, 95% produced alternariol methylether (AME) in a range from 1.23 to 901.74 mg/kg and 65% produced tenuazonic acid (TA) in a range from 0.13 to 2778 mg/kg. Fifty two isolates co-produced the three mycotoxins. According to the size of the lesion that they caused on blueberries, the isolates were classified as slightly pathogenic, moderately pathogenic and very pathogenic. No significant differences in pathogenicity were found on different blueberry varieties. In this work, high incidence and toxicogenic potential of the Alternaria isolates from blueberries were demonstrated. Thus, more studies should be done to evaluate the health risk posed by the presence of the Alternaria toxins in blueberries and in the manufactured by-products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cronobacter sakazakii reduction by blueberry proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Snehal S; Howell, Amy B; D'Souza, Doris H

    2014-05-01

    Blueberry juice and blueberry polyphenols reportedly have antimicrobial properties against foodborne pathogens, without much currently known on their effects against Cronobacter sakazakii. This study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of blueberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) and commercial blueberry juice (BJ) against two strains of C. sakazakii, ATCC 29004 and 29544. BJ (pH 2.8), blueberry PAC (5 mg/ml) and controls (phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, and malic acid pH 3.0) were mixed with equal volumes of washed overnight cultures of C. sakazakii and incubated for 30 min, 1 h, 3 h and 6 h at 37°C. Reductions of ∼1 and 1.50 log CFU/ml were obtained for strains 29004 and 29544, respectively after 30 min with BJ or blueberry PAC. Both C. sakazakii strains 29004 and 29544 were reduced to undetectable levels from 8.25 ± 0.12 log CFU/ml and 8.48 ± 0.03 log CFU/ml, respectively with BJ (pH 2.8) or blueberry PAC after 1 h, while malic acid (pH 3.0) showed ∼1.3 log CFU/ml reduction for both strains. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed differences in cell membrane morphology with clumping and formation of blebs of the treated strains compared to untreated controls. These results warrant further in vivo studies with blueberry bioactives to determine potential for preventing and treating C. sakazakii infections. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effect of blueberry extract from blueberry pomace on the microencapsulated fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the addition of blueberry extract (BE) obtained from blueberry pomace on lipid oxidation of pollock liver oil (PO) during microencapsulation was evaluated. An emulsion containing PO and BE (EBE) was prepared and spray dried in a pilot scale spray dryer. Thiobarbituric acids (TBARS) of ...

  4. Challenges with mechanical harvesting of blueberries for the fresh market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern highbush blueberries (SHB) (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive and costly. Efforts are under way to develop blueberry genotypes that will develop less bruising after impact with hard surfaces on the harv...

  5. Prevalence and incidence of postharvest diseases of blueberries in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent establishment of low-chill southern highbush blueberry cultivars in California’s warm climate has significantly increased the acreage of blueberry production in the Central Valley of California, which is now a major southern highbush blueberry production region in the United States. The vast ...

  6. Variation in nuclear DNA content and chromosome numbers in blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial blueberry production in the U.S. relies on cultivars derived from combinations of different blueberry species. Interspecific hybridization continues to be a vital strategy for blueberry breeding, especially in regards to improving abiotic and biotic stress tolerance to expand the range of...

  7. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as follows...

  8. FRUIT QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME BLUEBERRY GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ancu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the blueberry breeding program started in 1982 and till now was conducted by dr. Paulina Mladin. For inducing the variability, different genetic resources of American blueberry cultivars (V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium were involved in a high number of crosses. For identify the genotype with the best fruit quality, some biometric quality indicators (average fruit weight, size index and basically chemical compounds of fruits including ascorbic acid, dry matter, ash, soluble solids, total sugar, titratable acidity, tanoid substances, pectic substances, protein crude, phosphorus and potassium were determined. Of the eleven chemical studied properties who reflected the fruits quality, for five of them were found no statistically significant differences. The purpose of this paper work was to evaluate fruit quality and to identify the valuable genotypes resulted from Romanian blueberry breeding program.

  9. Rabbiteye blueberry prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wu, Shou-Mian; Xu, Zhi-Yuan; Ou-Yang, Sheng

    2014-08-08

    It has been forecasted that the rabbiteye blueberry could inhibit osteoporosis. However, the inhibition and prevention of osteoporosis via rabbiteye blueberry are still elusive. This study was aim to evaluate the anti-osteoporosis effects of rabbiteye blueberry in ovariectomized rats. Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups of ten rats each as follows: sham-operated group (SG), ovariectomized model control group (OMG), and ovariectomized rabbiteye blueberry treatment group (OBG). The blood mineral levels, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) level were determined. The expression analyses of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were performed. Besides, the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone histomorphometry (BH) were measured. The ALP activity in SG and OBG was significantly lower than that in OMG. For the OPG level, the significant increase of OPG level in OBG was indicated compared with the other groups. The mRNA expression levels of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and FAK in OMG were significantly lower than those in other groups. The BMD in OMG were all significantly lower than those in SG and OBG. For BH, blueberry significantly improved the trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, mean trabecular bone number, and bone formation rate, and decreased the trabecular separation, the percent of bone resorption perimeter, and mean osteoclast number in OBG compared with OMG. The rabbiteye blueberries had an effective inhibition in bone resorption, bone loss, and reduction of bone strength of ovariectomized rats and could improve the BMD, osteogenic activity, and trabecular bone structure.

  10. Evaluation of anthocynin changes in blueberries and in blueberry jam after the processing and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Czako; Ľubomír Mendel; Martina Fikselová; Andrea Mendelová

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is worldwide famous as the healthy and desirable fruit. The most valuable nutritional components of fruits are polyphenols, which include anthocyanins. The aim of the study was to assess the content of anthocyanin dyes in selected varieties of blueberry fruit. We evaluated the changes in the content of colorants that occur after treatment for fruit jam and its subsequent storage at 21°C under the light. Varieties Ramcocas, Record, Iranka, Nelson, Pemberton,...

  11. ‘Baby Blues’ highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

  12. ‘Norman’ southern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Norman’ is the third cultivar released from the University of Arkansas blueberry breeding program, which began in the late 1970s and has involved cooperative efforts with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Previous cultivars released from this breeding program were ‘Ozarkblue’ and ‘Summit’....

  13. Cooking does not decrease hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of wild blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rebecca Ree; Renfroe, Michael H; Brevard, Patricia Bowling; Lee, Robert E; Gloeckner, Janet W

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of domestic cooking methods on the hydrophilic antioxidant activity (HAA) of wild blueberries. Baked, microwaved, simmered, and pan-fried frozen wild blueberries, and a thawed uncooked control, were analyzed for HAA using an ABTS/H(2)O(2)/HRP decoloration method. All cooking treatments were derived from recipes using wild blueberries, and were performed in triplicate. A randomized block design was used to determine whether there were statistical differences in antioxidant content after cooking and between each of the trials. There were no statistically significant decreases after cooking the thawed berries. On both a fresh weight and a dry weight basis, pan-fried blueberries had significantly higher HAA than baked, simmered, and control blueberries (Pcooked berries retained significant HAA. Cooked wild blueberries can be recommended as a good source of dietary antioxidants.

  14. DEMAND FOR WILD BLUEBERRIES AT FARM AND PROCESSOR LEVELS

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hsiang-Tai; Peavey, Stephanie R.; Kezis, Alan S.

    2000-01-01

    The wild blueberry crop harvested in Maine and eastern Canada has increased considerably in recent years. The purpose of this study is to understand the recent trends in demand for wild blueberries with particular attention to the effects of production and the marketing of wild and cultivated blueberries. A price response model was developed to analyze farm-gate price and the processor price, using annual data from 1978 through 1997. Key explanatory variables in the model include quantity of ...

  15. Blueberries? Impact on Insulin Resistance and Glucose Intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Stull, April J.

    2016-01-01

    Blueberries are a rich source of polyphenols, which include anthocyanin bioactive compounds. Epidemiological evidence indicates that incorporating blueberries into the diet may lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These findings are supported by pre-clinical and clinical studies that have shown improvements in insulin resistance (i.e., increased insulin sensitivity) after obese and insulin-resistant rodents or humans consumed blueberries. Insulin resistance was assessed by hom...

  16. Eritroblastozis fetalise bağlı Blueberry muffin bulgusu

    OpenAIRE

    CANPOLAT1, Filiz; 2, Fuat Emre CANPOLAT; 3, Hasan TEZER; 1, Fatma ESK?O?LU

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Blueberry Muffin sign due to erythroblastosis fetalis Blueberry muffin sign is a cutaneous manifestation characterized by widespread reddish-blue maculopapular lesions. The eruptions are often generalized but favor the trunk, head, and neck. Blueberry muffin skin lesions are manifestations of dermal haematopoiesis and are associated with both intra-uterine infections and hematological disorders with chronic and severe anaemia. TORCH (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalo-virus, he...

  17. BBGD: an online database for blueberry genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Benjamin F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae family, which also includes closely related cranberry and more distantly related rhododendron, azalea, and mountain laurel. Blueberry is a major berry crop in the United States, and one that has great nutritional and economical value. Extreme low temperatures, however, reduce crop yield and cause major losses to US farmers. A better understanding of the genes and biochemical pathways that are up- or down-regulated during cold acclimation is needed to produce blueberry cultivars with enhanced cold hardiness. To that end, the blueberry genomics database (BBDG was developed. Along with the analysis tools and web-based query interfaces, the database serves both the broader Ericaceae research community and the blueberry research community specifically by making available ESTs and gene expression data in searchable formats and in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of cold acclimation and freeze tolerance in blueberry. Description BBGD is the world's first database for blueberry genomics. BBGD is both a sequence and gene expression database. It stores both EST and microarray data and allows scientists to correlate expression profiles with gene function. BBGD is a public online database. Presently, the main focus of the database is the identification of genes in blueberry that are significantly induced or suppressed after low temperature exposure. Conclusion By using the database, researchers have developed EST-based markers for mapping and have identified a number of "candidate" cold tolerance genes that are highly expressed in blueberry flower buds after exposure to low temperatures.

  18. Blueberries for the Upper Piedmont and Mountain Regions. Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Bratsch, Tony

    2008-01-01

    This publication reviews the main strategies for growing blueberries as a specialty crop, including planting, mulching, irrigation, fertilizing, pruning, harvesting, marketing, and predation, weed, insect and disease control.

  19. Blueberries for the Upper Piedmont and Mountain Regions. Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Bratsch, Tony

    2008-01-01

    This publication reviews the main strategies for growing blueberries as a specialty crop, including planting, mulching, irrigation, fertilizing, pruning, harvesting, marketing, and predation, weed, insect and disease control.

  20. Microbial degradation of phosmet on blueberry fruit and in aqueous systems by indigenous bacterial flora on lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, K M; Bushway, A A; Bushway, R J; Davis-Dentici, K

    2007-10-01

    Phosmet-adapted bacteria isolated from lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium) were evaluated for their ability to degrade phosmet on blueberry fruit and in minimal salt solutions. Microbial metabolism of phosmet by isolates of Enterobacter agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens resulted in significant reductions (P blueberries and in minimal salt solutions. Thus, the role of adapted strains of E. agglomerans and P. fluorescens in degrading phosmet on blueberries represents an extensive plant-microorganism relationship, which is essential to determination of phosmet persistence under pre- and postharvest conditions.

  1. Pollination Reservoirs in Lowbush Blueberry (Ericales: Ericaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Venturini, E. M.; Drummond, F. A.; Hoshide, A. K.; Dibble, A. C.; Stack, L. B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pollinator-dependent agriculture heavily relies upon a single pollinator?the honey bee. To diversify pollination strategies, growers are turning to alternatives. Densely planted reservoirs of pollen- and nectar-rich flowers (pollination reservoirs, hereafter ?PRs?) may improve pollination services provided by wild bees. Our focal agroecosystem, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), exists in a simple landscape uniquely positioned to benefit from PRs. First, we contrast b...

  2. Blueberry Galaxies: The Lowest Mass Young Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Wang, Junxian

    2017-09-01

    Searching for extreme emission line galaxies allows us to find low-mass metal-poor galaxies that are good analogs of high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. These low-mass extreme emission line galaxies are also potential Lyman-continuum leakers. Finding them at very low redshifts (z≲ 0.05) allows us to be sensitive to even lower stellar masses and metallicities. We report on a sample of extreme emission line galaxies at z≲ 0.05 (blueberry galaxies). We selected them from SDSS broadband images on the basis of their broadband colors and studied their properties with MMT spectroscopy. From the entire SDSS DR12 photometric catalog, we found 51 photometric candidates. We spectroscopically confirm 40 as blueberry galaxies. (An additional seven candidates are contaminants, and four remain without spectra.) These blueberries are dwarf starburst galaxies with very small sizes (<1 kpc) and very high ionization ([O III]/[O II] ˜ 10-60). They also have some of the lowest stellar masses ({log}(M/{M}⊙ )˜ 6.5{--}7.5) and lowest metallicities (7.1< 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})< 7.8) of starburst galaxies. Thus, they are small counterparts to green pea galaxies and high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies.

  3. Evaluation of alternative mulches for blueberry over five production seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is a calcifuge (acid-loving) plant that responds favorably to mulching with organic matter (OM). Until recently, most blueberry plantings in our region were grown with a mulch of douglas-fir sawdust, with additional nitrogen (N) fertilizer applied to comp...

  4. Chemical characteristics of custom compost for highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent development of markets for blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) produced under Organic certification has stimulated interest in production of composts specifically tailored to its edaphic requirements. Blueberry is a calcifuge (acid-loving) plant that responds favorably to mulching and incorpo...

  5. Effect of fermentation and sterilization on anthocyanins in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qixing; Feng, Lei; Hu, Jielun; Wang, Sunan; Chen, Haihong; Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xiong, Tao; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-03-01

    Blueberry products have various health benefits due to their high content of dietary anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fermentation and sterilization on total anthocyanin content, composition and some quality attributes of blueberry puree. The blueberry puree used here was fermented for 40 h at 37 °C by Lactobacillus after sterilization. The method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimized for the rapid analysis of anthocyanins. Quality attributes including pH, color, total soluble solids and viscosity were measured. A total of 21 anthocyanins and five anthocyanidins were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Fermented blueberry had reduced total anthocyanin content (29%) and levels of individual anthocyanins compared with fresh blueberry. Total anthocyanin content was decreased 46% by sterilization, and different degradation behavior of individual anthocyanin was appeared between fermented and sterilized-fermented blueberry puree. Fermentation and sterilization decreased the total soluble solids and pH and changed color parameters, while minimally influencing viscosity. The loss of total anthocyanin content by fermentation was related to the unstable structure of blueberry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are sensitive to temperature (>80 °C), and degradation of anthocyanins by sterilization in blueberry should be considered in the fermentation procedure. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Salmonella spp. dynamics in wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...

  7. Identifying blueberry germplasm that is slow to get Blueberry shock virus in the Pacific Northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) is a serious problem in blueberry production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of North America. Infection occurs during bloom and the virus moves into other parts of the plant in an uneven but steady manner and may take several years to become fully systemic in mat...

  8. Blueberry necrotic ring blotch, a new blueberry disease caused by a virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel symptoms have been observed on southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in several southeastern states. Affected plants show irregularly shaped circular spots or blotches with green centers on the top and bottoms of leaves. Diagnostic tests failed to isolate a...

  9. Applying New Technologies to Transform Blueberry Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiomi Takeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the blueberry industry in the past three decades has been remarkably robust. However, a labor shortage for hand harvesting, increasingly higher labor costs, and low harvest efficiencies are becoming bottlenecks for sustainable development of the fresh market blueberry production. In this study, we evaluated semi-mechanical harvesting systems consisting of a harvest-aid platform with soft fruit catching surfaces that collected the fruit detached by portable, hand-held, pneumatic shakers. The softer fruit catching surfaces were not glued to the hard sub-surfaces of the harvest-aid platform, but suspended over them. Also, the ergonomic aspect of operating powered harvesting equipment was determined. The pneumatic shakers removed 3.5 to 15 times more fruit (g/min than by hand. Soft fruit catching surfaces reduced impact force and bruise damage. Fruit firmness was higher in fruit harvested by hand compared to that by pneumatic shakers in some cultivars. The bruise area was less than 8% in fruit harvested by hand and with semi-mechanical harvesting system. The percentage of blue, packable fruit harvested by pneumatic shakers comprised as much as 90% of the total, but less than that of hand-harvested fruit. The ergonomic analysis by electromyography showed that muscle strain in the back, shoulders, and forearms was low in workers operating the light-weight, pneumatic shakers that were tethered to the platform with a tool balancer. The new harvesting method can reduce the labor requirement to about 100 hour/hectare/year and help to mitigate the rising labor cost and shortage of workers for harvesting fresh-market quality blueberries.

  10. Evaluation of anthocynin changes in blueberries and in blueberry jam after the processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Czako

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. is worldwide famous as the healthy and desirable fruit. The most valuable nutritional components of fruits are polyphenols, which include anthocyanins. The aim of the study was to assess the content of anthocyanin dyes in selected varieties of blueberry fruit. We evaluated the changes in the content of colorants that occur after treatment for fruit jam and its subsequent storage at 21°C under the light. Varieties Ramcocas, Record, Iranka, Nelson, Pemberton, Jersey and Coville were observed. Content of anthocyanins was determined spectrophotometrically. In fresh fruits anthocyanin content ranged from 9.878 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 18.555 g kg-1 of dry matter (Nelson variety. After treatment there was found a decrease in the anthocyanins content, in the product's content were determined in the amount 1.645 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 3.476 g kg-1 of dry matter (variety Ramcocas. The decrease was due to decomposition of anthocyans at high temperatures in processed products and also by the replacement of dry matter by sucrose in the product. Mean color decrease in blueberry jam was 84.5%. After storage of the product, there were found further degradations of colorants, evaluated at 34.9%. The content of anthocyanin in jam was found to be 1.089 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 2.199 g kg-1 of dry matter (Ramcocas variety.

  11. Mechanism of tolerance of blueberry (Vaccinium sp) to hexazinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-trazine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) was applied as a soil drench to 1-year-old rooted hardwood cuttings of highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) blueberry plants. No differences in susceptibility to hexazinone were detected among 10 highbush and 3 rabbiteye cultivars grown in a fine sandy soil. The tolerance of two highbush and two rabbiteye cultivars to hexazinone were studied in low, medium, and high organic matter soils. Hexazinone at 1 or 2 kg/ha had no inhibitory effect on blueberry growth in the high organic matter soil, inhibited growth slightly on the medium organic matter soil, and caused severe injury in the low organic matter soil. Hexazinone toxicity, absorption, translocation, metabolism, and effect on photosynthesis were investigated with highbush and rabbiteye blueberry and goldenrod (Solidago fistulosa Miller), which were growing in hydroponic culture. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberry plants were three times more tolerant to root applications of hexazinone than was goldenrod. Blueberry plants absorbed an average of 7.9% of the root applied 14 C-hexazinone and the goldenrod absorbed an average of 10.1%. An average of 6.8% of the root absorbed hexazinone ( 14 C-label) was translocated from the root system of the blueberry plants to stem and leaves. Radioactivity in the goldenrod plants was equally distributed between the roots and shoots. The majority of the radioactivity in blueberry and goldenrod plants was recovered in the form of hexazinone. Root absorbed hexazinone caused a rapid inhibition of photosynthesis in intact goldenrod leaves at rates of 10 μM. Root absorbed hexazinone inhibited photosynthesis in intact blueberry leaves at hexazinone concentrations of 100 μM

  12. Mechanism of tolerance of blueberry (Vaccinium sp) to hexazinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-trazine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) was applied as a soil drench to 1-year-old rooted hardwood cuttings of highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) blueberry plants. No differences in susceptibility to hexazinone were detected among 10 highbush and 3 rabbiteye cultivars grown in a fine sandy soil. The tolerance of two highbush and two rabbiteye cultivars to hexazinone were studied in low, medium, and high organic matter soils. Hexazinone at 1 or 2 kg/ha had no inhibitory effect on blueberry growth in the high organic matter soil, inhibited growth slightly on the medium organic matter soil, and caused severe injury in the low organic matter soil. Hexazinone toxicity, absorption, translocation, metabolism, and effect on photosynthesis were investigated with highbush and rabbiteye blueberry and goldenrod (Solidago fistulosa Miller), which were growing in hydroponic culture. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberry plants were three times more tolerant to root applications of hexazinone than was goldenrod. Blueberry plants absorbed an average of 7.9% of the root applied /sup 14/C-hexazinone and the goldenrod absorbed an average of 10.1%. An average of 6.8% of the root absorbed hexazinone (/sup 14/C-label) was translocated from the root system of the blueberry plants to stem and leaves. Radioactivity in the goldenrod plants was equally distributed between the roots and shoots. The majority of the radioactivity in blueberry and goldenrod plants was recovered in the form of hexazinone. Root absorbed hexazinone caused a rapid inhibition of photosynthesis in intact goldenrod leaves at rates of 10 ..mu..M. Root absorbed hexazinone inhibited photosynthesis in intact blueberry leaves at hexazinone concentrations of 100 ..mu..M.

  13. Performance of blueberry cultivars under mild winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilberto Sousa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of yield performance is important to find the most adapted blueberry cultivars in a particular region. This research aimed to evaluate the flowering and hasvesting periods, the production per plant, and fruit quality of eight rabbiteye blueberry cultivars (Aliceblue, Bluebelle, Bluegem, Briteblue, Climax, Delite, Powderblue, and Woodard and two highbush blueberries (Georgiagem and O’Neal, in mild winter conditions in Pinhais-PR. Flowering and harvesting periods, production, berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio and color of the fruits were evaluated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons, when the plants had two and three years old, respectively. Cultivars flowered from August to September, and harvest was concentrated in November and December. Berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids and acidity varied among the cultivars. The average ratios of 14.97 and 13.39 for each crop proved that the cultivars have good fruit quality. There was little variation in fruit color in the two years evaluated. Blueberry cultivars showed the staining characteristics and physical and chemical attributes of quality compatible to blueberry from other traditional regions. Under mild winter conditions, young plants of rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, Climax, Delite, Bluegem and Powderblue, are the most productive, while the highbusch cultivars bear few fruits.

  14. 76 FR 16324 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0095] Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... information, Marketing agreements, Blueberry promotion, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Authority: 7...

  15. Breeding highbush blueberry cultivars adapted to machine harvest for the fresh market

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, world blueberry production has been split evenly between processing and fresh fruit markets. Machine harvest of highbush blueberry [northern highbush (NHB, Vaccinium corymbosum L.), southern highbush (SHB, Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids), and rabbiteye (RE, Vaccinium vi...

  16. Specialty Crop Profile: Blueberries for the Upper Piedmont and Mountain Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Bratsch, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Discusses blueberries as a small fruit crop for the upper Piedmont and mountain regions of Virginia. Provides information about best ways to plant the blueberries, mulching, irrigation, fertilization, pruning, harvesting and handling, marketing and more.

  17. Antibacterial characteristics of anthocyanins extracted from wild blueberries against foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild blueberries have rich bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, phenolics and organic acids. Previous studies demonstrated the antibacterial activity of blueberries against the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial characteristics and mech...

  18. Blueberries and Tofu: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ascoli, Jennifer; Lee, Susanne

    2004-03-01

    Two flavonoids, naringenin and genistein found in blueberries and soybeans, respectively, scavenge free radicals and exhibit anti- breast and prostate cancer properties. When consumed in foods, these flavonoids usually are subject to heat, yet all biological studies have been performed with unheated molecules. We have explored and will report on the three-dimensional, molecular structure changes we have thermally-induced in naringenin and genistein. We have measured and will discuss the flavonoids' thermodynamic properties as a function of temperature. Several endothermic transformations were observed along with a marked color change that remained when the flavonoids were dissolved in a solvent, indicating their molecular structures had been altered by the heat. Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy, and proton and carbon 1-D nuclear magnetic resonance will be presented that show the change was associated with a decrease in electron localization within the molecules. We will explain how such modified structures could scavenge free radicals more effectively and affect breast cancer cell proliferation.

  19. 75 FR 7985 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Withdrawal of a Proposed Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ..., advertising, and promotion of highbush blueberries in the marketplace. The Council recommended increasing the...-09-0021; FV-09-704] Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Withdrawal of a Proposed... amend the Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) by increasing the assessment rate...

  20. Mechanical harvesting of blueberries with extended shelf life: impact damage and suggestions for reducing bruise injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern highbush blueberries (SHB) (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive (over 500 hours/acre) and costly. With the uncertainty of labor availability in the near future, efforts are under way to develop blueberry ...

  1. First report of leaf rust of blueberry caused by Thekopsora minima in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is becoming an important crop in the states of Jalisco and Michoacan in Mexico. As the area under blueberry cultivation increases, new diseases causing severe losses are appearing. Leaf rust is one of the most destructive diseases of blueberry in Mexico. Sori on t...

  2. Propagation of Vaccinium arboreum for use as a rootstock for commercial blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been an increase in consumer demand for fresh blueberries throughout the year, which also increases the demand for sites suitable for growing blueberries. Commercial blueberries, particularly Vaccinium corymbosum, have very specific needs for optimum growth; hence, growing...

  3. Diagnosis and management of new and re-emerging diseases of highbush blueberries in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries are an important commodity in Michigan and disease management is crucial for production of high-quality fruit. Over the past 6 years, a number of new and re-emerging diseases have been diagnosed in the state. In 2009, Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV) and Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) were ...

  4. 75 FR 22551 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ...] United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries. After considering the comments received... . The United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries are available by accessing the AMS Web...

  5. Xylella fastidiosa in rabbiteye blueberry: A newly studied host of an old foe

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa causes a number of plant diseases, including bacterial leaf scorch of southern highbush blueberry. In Louisiana, X. fastidiosa has been detected in rabbiteye blueberry orchards, and we wanted to know if it affected yield in rabbiteye blueberry plants. We detected X...

  6. 7 CFR 1218.23 - U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council. 1218.23 Section 1218... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions...

  7. A novel Caulimovirus associated with a complete fruit drop symptom in ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a novel virus in the family Caulimoviridae from ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry plants that exhibited fruit drop symptoms. The virus is tentatively named Blueberry fruit drop associated virus (BFDaV). Blueberry fruit drop disease (BFDD) was fi...

  8. Predicting abundance and productivity of blueberry plants under insect defoliation in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin Reich; Nathan Lojewski; John Lundquist; Vanessa Bravo

    2018-01-01

    Unprecedented outbreaks of defoliating insects severely damaged blueberry crops near Port Graham on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska from 2008-2012. The Native people in this region rely heavily on gathered blueberries and other foods for sustenance and nourishment. Influences of topography and stand structure on blueberry abundance and fruiting were examined and used to...

  9. Purified blueberry anthocyanins and blueberry juice alter development of obesity in mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Ronald L; E Wilkes, Samuel; R Rogers, Theodore; Khanal, Ramesh C; Wu, Xianli; Howard, Luke R

    2010-04-14

    Male C57BL/6J mice (25 days of age) were fed either a low-fat diet (10% kcal from fat) (LF) or a high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat) (HF45) for a period of 72 days. Blueberry juice or purified blueberry anthocyanins (0.2 or 1.0 mg/mL) in the drinking water were included in LF or HF45 treatments. Sucrose was added to the drinking water of one treatment to test if the sugars in blueberry juice would affect development of obesity. Total body weights (g) and body fat (%) were higher and body lean tissue (%) was lower in the HF45 fed mice compared to the LF fed mice after 72 days, but in mice fed HF45 diet plus blueberry juice or blueberry anthocyanins (0.2 mg/mL), body fat (%) was not different from those mice fed the LF diet. Anthocyanins (ACNs) decreased retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissue weights. Fasting serum glucose concentrations were higher in mice fed the HF45 diet. However, it was reduced to LF levels in mice fed the HF45 diet plus 0.2 mg of ACNs/mL in the drinking water, but not with blueberry juice. beta cell function (HOMA-BCF) score was lowered with HF45 feeding but returned to normal levels in mice fed the HF45 diet plus purified ACNs (0.2 mg/mL). Serum leptin was elevated in mice fed HF45 diet, and feeding either blueberry juice or purified ACNs (0.2 mg/mL) decreased serum leptin levels relative to HF45 control. Sucrose in drinking water, when consumption was restricted to the volume of juice consumed, produced lower serum leptin and insulin levels, leptin/fat, and retroperitoneal and total fat (% BW). Blueberry juice was not as effective as the low dose of anthocyanins in the drinking water in preventing obesity. Additional studies are needed to determine factors responsible for the differing responses of blueberry juice and whole blueberry in preventing the development of obesity.

  10. The Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanins from Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins from highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. have tremendous potential as natural colorants and functional food with pharmaceutical purposes in food applications. To exploit the potential for food applications, the stability and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins present in blueberries have been studied. The results indicate that anthocyanins from blueberry were stable against the low pH (≤5.0, NaCl (0.125–0.500 mol/L, sucrose (0.584–2.336 mol/L and preservative (sodium benzoate, 0.035–0.140 mol/L, but were sensitive to alkaline conditions (≥7.0, high temperature (≥80 °C, light (natural light, oxidizing agent (H2O2, 0.5–2.0 % and reducing agent (Na2SO3, 0.005–0.040 mol/L. At concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL, anthocyanins from blueberry could protect ECV-304 cells against oxidative damage induced by H2O2. These results suggest that anthocyanins from blueberry can be regarded as a potential colorant for some acidic (pH≤5.0 food products and could be used as health food to prevent diseases arising from oxidative processes.

  11. Superior Cross-Species Reference Genes: A Blueberry Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V.; Rowland, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well. PMID:24058469

  12. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    Full Text Available The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  13. Effects of freezing conditions on quality changes in blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuehui; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhao, Dongyu; Zhu, Danshi; Li, Jianrong

    2018-03-12

    Freezing preservation is one of the most effective methods used to maintain the flavour and nutritional value of fruit. This research studied the effects of different freezing conditions, -20 °C, -40 °C, -80 °C, and immersion in liquid nitrogen, on quality changes of freeze-thawed blueberries. The water distribution estimates of blueberries were measured based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) analysis. The pectin content, drip loss, and fruit texture were also detected to evaluate quality changes in samples. The freezing curves of blueberry showed super-cooling points at -20 °C and - 40 °C, whereas super-cooling points were not observed at -80 °C or in liquid nitrogen. After freeze-thaw treatment, the relaxation time of the cell wall water (T 21 ), cytoplasm water and extracellular space (T 22 ), and vacuole water (T 23 ) were significantly shortened compared to fresh samples, which suggested a lower liquidity. Although the freezing speed for samples immersed in liquid nitrogen was faster than other treatments, samples treated at -80 °C showed better quality regarding vacuole water holding, drip loss, and original pectin content retention. This study contributed to understanding how freezing temperature affects the qualities of blueberries. The super-fast freezing rate might injure fruit, and an appropriate freezing rate could better preserve blueberries. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTA O. SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar. The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.

  15. Dietary Blueberry and Bifidobacteria Attenuate Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats by Affecting SIRT1-Mediated Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tingting; Huang, Chao; Cheng, Mingliang

    2014-01-01

    NAFLD model rats were established and divided into NAFLD model (MG group), SIRT1 RNAi (SI group), blueberry juice (BJ group), blueberry juice + bifidobacteria (BJB group), blueberry juice + SIRT1 RNAi (BJSI group), and blueberry juice + bifidobacteria + SIRT1 RNAi groups (BJBSI group). A group with normal rats was a control group (CG). BJB group ameliorated NAFLD, which was better than BJ group (P Blueberry juice and bifidobacteria improve NAFLD by activating SIRTI-mediating signaling pathway. PMID:25544867

  16. Distribution and phenology of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Michigan blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Noel G; Isaacs, Rufus

    2012-06-01

    The blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson, is a serious pest of rabbiteye blueberries in Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi, and a potential pest of southern and northern highbush blueberries. Its damage has been observed with increasing frequency in highbush blueberry plantings in the Great Lakes region, including in Wisconsin and in Michigan. Unlike in rabbiteye blueberry plantings, where blueberry gall midge primarily damages flowering buds, it is found to damage only the vegetative shoots of northern highbush blueberry. In this study, farms throughout Michigan were surveyed for the presence of blueberry gall midge and it was found in 43 of 46 sampled farms in 11 counties. From 2009-2011, several monitoring techniques, including yellow sticky traps, emergence traps, observational sampling, and vegetative shoot dissections were used to determine the ecology of this species in blueberry fields in southwest Michigan. Emergence traps were most useful in early detection of blueberry gall midge in April, and observational sampling for damage symptoms and vegetative shoot dissections revealed multiple population peaks throughout July and August. Infestation was detected in vegetative shoot tips in all parts of the bushes, with initial infestation greatest at the base of bushes. Degree day accumulations until first midge detection and peak infestation suggest some potential for predicting key events in the pest's phenology. This information about the distribution and timing of infestation will be useful in developing management strategies for blueberry gall midge infestation.

  17. Effects of different plant growth regulators on blueberry fruit quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. C.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Wang, Y. N.; Luo, C.; Wang, X.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on blueberry fruit growth, various concentrations of Abscisic acid (ABA), Methyl jasmonate (MJ), Brassinolide (BR), Melatonin (MT) were sprayed on blueberry cv. ‘Brigita’ fruits. The results showed that all the PGRs put into effect on improving the quality of blueberry fruit. Comparing with the control plants no PGR spraying,300 mg/L of MT treatment promoted effectively accumulation of the soluble sugar. ABA 20mg/L treatment in-creased effectively accumulation of anthocyanin, and significantly decreased titratable acid content. The treatment of MJ 10mg/L improved significantly the soluble solid content. The effect of the four PGRs treatments on appearance did not show obvious difference.

  18. A new ophiovirus is associated with blueberry mosaic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekke-Veetil, Thanuja; Ho, Thien; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2014-08-30

    Blueberry mosaic disease (BMD) was first described more than 60 years ago and is caused by a yet unidentified graft transmissible agent. A combination of traditional methods and next generation sequencing disclosed the presence of a new ophiovirus in symptomatic plants. The virus was detected in all BMD samples collected from several production areas of North America and was thus named blueberry mosaic associated virus. Phylogenetic analysis, supported by high bootstrap values, places the virus within the family Ophioviridae. The genome organization resembles that of citrus psorosis virus, the type member of the genus Ophiovirus. The implications of this discovery in BMD control and blueberry virus certification schemes are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CAN BE BLUEBERRIES THE RISK FOOD AND RAW MATERIAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Medvecký2

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of the highbush blueberries are popular for their beneficial effects on human health and for their excellent sweet-vine taste. Our work is focused on risk assessment of selected elements in relation to the content of bioactive compounds in wild and cultivated of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.. Anthocyanins are polyphenols that are widely distributed in plants, and contribute to the brilliant blue, red or purple colour in leaves, flowers or fruits. In the samples the antioxidant capacity by the method of Brand – Williams using DPPH (2,2–difenyl-1-pikrylhydrazyl and the content of anthocyanins by the modified method Lapornik in two samples of wild blueberries from different areas of Slovakia (Čertovica and Oravské Veselé and in 6 cultivated varieties highbush blueberry (Bluejay, Bluecrop, Patriot, Berkeley, Brigitta, Nelson were determined. The contents of risky elements - Cd, Pb were assessed by AAS method. The contents of Pb were in all observed samples higher than the maximum limit given by the legislation (cultivated: 0.5612 – 0.9912 mg.kg-1, wild: 0.792 – 0.874 mg.kg-1. The measured content values of Cd were in all samples of blueberries lower than hygienic limit. The highest content of anthocyanins from analysed samples was in wild blueberries from surrouding Čertovica 4870.125 ± 22.803 mg.dm-3, but in this sample was simultaneously the lowest antioxidant capacity of 61.15 ± 1.002 %. The highest antioxidant capacity was measured in sample of cultivated variety Bluejay 87.175 ± 0.45 %. It is important to carry out monitoring of heavy metals to consumption of safe food raw materials and foodstuffs.

  20. Elevated Genetic Diversity in the Emerging Blueberry Pathogen Exobasidium maculosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jane E.; Brooks, Kyle; Brannen, Phillip M.; Cline, William O.; Brewer, Marin T.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging diseases caused by fungi are increasing at an alarming rate. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry, caused by the fungus Exobasidium maculosum, is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA, severely reducing fruit quality in some plantings. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic diversity of E. maculosum in the southeastern USA to elucidate the basis of disease emergence and to investigate if populations of E. maculosum are structured by geography, host species, or tissue type. We sequenced three conserved loci from 82 isolates collected from leaves and fruit of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum), highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum), and southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum hybrids) from commercial fields in Georgia and North Carolina, USA, and 6 isolates from lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium) from Maine, USA, and Nova Scotia, Canada. Populations of E. maculosum from the southeastern USA and from lowbush blueberry in Maine and Nova Scotia are distinct, but do not represent unique species. No difference in genetic structure was detected between different host tissues or among different host species within the southeastern USA; however, differentiation was detected between populations in Georgia and North Carolina. Overall, E. maculosum showed extreme genetic diversity within the conserved loci with 286 segregating sites among the 1,775 sequenced nucleotides and each isolate representing a unique multilocus haplotype. However, 94% of the nucleotide substitutions were silent, so despite the high number of mutations, selective constraints have limited changes to the amino acid sequences of the housekeeping genes. Overall, these results suggest that the emergence of Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot is not due to a recent introduction or host shift, or the recent evolution of aggressive genotypes of E. maculosum, but more likely as a result of an increasing host population

  1. Elevated Genetic Diversity in the Emerging Blueberry Pathogen Exobasidium maculosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Stewart

    Full Text Available Emerging diseases caused by fungi are increasing at an alarming rate. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry, caused by the fungus Exobasidium maculosum, is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA, severely reducing fruit quality in some plantings. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic diversity of E. maculosum in the southeastern USA to elucidate the basis of disease emergence and to investigate if populations of E. maculosum are structured by geography, host species, or tissue type. We sequenced three conserved loci from 82 isolates collected from leaves and fruit of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum, highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum, and southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum hybrids from commercial fields in Georgia and North Carolina, USA, and 6 isolates from lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium from Maine, USA, and Nova Scotia, Canada. Populations of E. maculosum from the southeastern USA and from lowbush blueberry in Maine and Nova Scotia are distinct, but do not represent unique species. No difference in genetic structure was detected between different host tissues or among different host species within the southeastern USA; however, differentiation was detected between populations in Georgia and North Carolina. Overall, E. maculosum showed extreme genetic diversity within the conserved loci with 286 segregating sites among the 1,775 sequenced nucleotides and each isolate representing a unique multilocus haplotype. However, 94% of the nucleotide substitutions were silent, so despite the high number of mutations, selective constraints have limited changes to the amino acid sequences of the housekeeping genes. Overall, these results suggest that the emergence of Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot is not due to a recent introduction or host shift, or the recent evolution of aggressive genotypes of E. maculosum, but more likely as a result of an increasing

  2. Elevated Genetic Diversity in the Emerging Blueberry Pathogen Exobasidium maculosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jane E; Brooks, Kyle; Brannen, Phillip M; Cline, William O; Brewer, Marin T

    2015-01-01

    Emerging diseases caused by fungi are increasing at an alarming rate. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry, caused by the fungus Exobasidium maculosum, is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA, severely reducing fruit quality in some plantings. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic diversity of E. maculosum in the southeastern USA to elucidate the basis of disease emergence and to investigate if populations of E. maculosum are structured by geography, host species, or tissue type. We sequenced three conserved loci from 82 isolates collected from leaves and fruit of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum), highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum), and southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum hybrids) from commercial fields in Georgia and North Carolina, USA, and 6 isolates from lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium) from Maine, USA, and Nova Scotia, Canada. Populations of E. maculosum from the southeastern USA and from lowbush blueberry in Maine and Nova Scotia are distinct, but do not represent unique species. No difference in genetic structure was detected between different host tissues or among different host species within the southeastern USA; however, differentiation was detected between populations in Georgia and North Carolina. Overall, E. maculosum showed extreme genetic diversity within the conserved loci with 286 segregating sites among the 1,775 sequenced nucleotides and each isolate representing a unique multilocus haplotype. However, 94% of the nucleotide substitutions were silent, so despite the high number of mutations, selective constraints have limited changes to the amino acid sequences of the housekeeping genes. Overall, these results suggest that the emergence of Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot is not due to a recent introduction or host shift, or the recent evolution of aggressive genotypes of E. maculosum, but more likely as a result of an increasing host population

  3. Pollination Reservoirs in Lowbush Blueberry (Ericales: Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, E M; Drummond, F A; Hoshide, A K; Dibble, A C; Stack, L B

    2017-04-01

    Pollinator-dependent agriculture heavily relies upon a single pollinator-the honey bee. To diversify pollination strategies, growers are turning to alternatives. Densely planted reservoirs of pollen- and nectar-rich flowers (pollination reservoirs, hereafter "PRs") may improve pollination services provided by wild bees. Our focal agroecosystem, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), exists in a simple landscape uniquely positioned to benefit from PRs. First, we contrast bee visitation rates and use of three types of PR. We consider the effects of PRs on wild bee diversity and the composition of bumble bee pollen loads. We contrast field-level crop pollination services between PRs and controls four years postestablishment. Last, we calculate the time to pay for PR investment. Social bees preferentially used clover plantings; solitary bees preferentially used wildflower plantings. On average, bumble bee pollen loads in treatment fields contained 37% PR pollen. PRs significantly increased visitation rates to the crop in year 4, and exerted a marginally significant positive influence on fruit set. The annualized costs of PRs were covered by the fourth year using the measured increase in pollination services. Our findings provide evidence of the positive impact of PRs on crop pollination services. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.

  5. Extraction, Separation, and Purification of Blueberry Anthocyanin Using Ethyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry contains many substances that are important to the human body and can prevent cardiovascular diseases, protect the retina, and soften blood vessels. Anthocyanin, which is extracted from blueberry, can activate the retina, strengthen vision, reduce serum cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein, and protect cell nucleus tissues from radical oxidation; hence, blueberry is of importance to scientists from different countries. In this study, anthocyanin was extracted and separated from blueberry using ethyl alcohol to investigate the effects of factors, such as ethyl alcohol volume ratio on anthocyanin extraction and separation technologies. The extracting solution was then purified using the macroreticular resin purification method to investigate the effects of ethyl alcohol concentration and eluent dosage on anthocyanin extraction during purification. The research results demonstrated that 60 % ethyl alcohol volume fraction, 1 : 10 mass ratio of solid to liquid, and 60 °C ultrasonic temperature were the best conditions for anthocyanin extraction. The best purification conditions were 95 % ethyl alcohol, which had been acidized by 0.3 % hydrochloric acid and 70 ml of eluent. This work provides a reference for the application of ethyl alcohol in anthocyanin extraction.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of blueberry using 454 EST sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a major berry crop in the United States, and one that has great nutritional and economical value. Next generation sequencing methodologies, such as 454, have been demonstrated to be successful and efficient in producing a snap-shot of transcriptional activities du...

  7. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Hancock, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  8. Inferior Blueberries and Other Excuses I've Heard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, David

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author relates the blueberry story, as one of many excuses for barely advancing the status quo, and suggests a workable framework that is common to both education and business. Unfortunately, many business and education leaders seem intent on fixing specific issues and fail to acquire a systemic perspective. These isolated…

  9. The effects of blueberries on cognition and neuroplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been demonstrated that consuming blueberries can prevent and even reverse the occurrence of neurochemical and behavioral changes associated with aging. Recent research suggests that consuming a high-fat diet (HFD) may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. T...

  10. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Lobos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last hundred years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent.

  11. Detection of internally bruised blueberries using hyperspectral transmittance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The consumption of the blueberries all over the world has been constantly increasing over the past three decades due to its health benefits. The internal bruising damage during harvesting and postharvest handling lower overall quality and cause significant economic losses. The main goal of this st...

  12. Pollen loads and specificity of native pollinators of lowbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan-Deserres, J; Girard, M; Chagnon, M; Fournier, V

    2014-06-01

    The reproduction of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) is closely tied to insect pollination, owing to self-incompatibility. Many species are known to have greater pollination efficiency than the introduced Apis mellifera L., commonly used for commercial purposes. In this study, we measured the pollen loads of several antophilous insect species, mostly Apoidea and Syrphidae, present in four lowbush blueberry fields in Lac-St-Jean, Québec. To measure pollen loads and species specificity toward V. angustifolium, we net-collected 627 specimens of pollinators, retrieved their pollen loads, identified pollen taxa, and counted pollen grains. We found that the sizes of pollen loads were highly variable among species, ranging from a few hundred to more than 118,000 pollen grains per individual. Bombus and Andrena species in particular carried large amounts of Vaccinium pollen and thus may have greater pollination efficiency. Also, two species (Andrena bradleyi Viereck and Andrena carolina Viereck) showed nearly monolectic behavior toward lowbush blueberry. Finally, we identified alternative forage plants visited by native pollinators, notably species of Acer, Rubus, Ilex mucronata, Ledum groenlandicum, and Taraxacum. Protecting these flowering plants should be part of management practices to maintain healthy pollinator communities in a lowbush blueberry agroecosystem.

  13. Factors affecting arsenic injury to lowbush blueberry foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, I V; Lockhart, C L; Newbery, R J; Wood, G W

    1971-01-01

    In a laboratory study calcium arsenate dust applied at 70% relative humidity did not cause any appreciable injury to foliage of lowbush blueberry. At 90% relative humidity there was marked burning and considerable defoliation. There was no apparent difference in the amount of injury when the dust was applied at 8.9, 17.8, or 26.7 kg/ha.

  14. Herbivore-induced blueberry volatiles and intra-plant signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R

    2011-12-18

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are commonly emitted from plants after herbivore attack. These HIPVs are mainly regulated by the defensive plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its volatile derivative methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Over the past 3 decades researchers have documented that HIPVs can repel or attract herbivores, attract the natural enemies of herbivores, and in some cases they can induce or prime plant defenses prior to herbivore attack. In a recent paper, I reported that feeding by gypsy moth caterpillars, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage induce the emissions of volatiles from blueberry plants, albeit differently. In addition, blueberry branches respond to HIPVs emitted from neighboring branches of the same plant by increasing the levels of JA and resistance to herbivores (i.e., direct plant defenses), and by priming volatile emissions (i.e., indirect plant defenses). Similar findings have been reported recently for sagebrush, poplar, and lima beans. Here, I describe a push-pull method for collecting blueberry volatiles induced by herbivore (gypsy moth) feeding, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage. The volatile collection unit consists of a 4 L volatile collection chamber, a 2-piece guillotine, an air delivery system that purifies incoming air, and a vacuum system connected to a trap filled with Super-Q adsorbent to collect volatiles. Volatiles collected in Super-Q traps are eluted with dichloromethane and then separated and quantified using Gas Chromatography (GC). This volatile collection method was used in my study to investigate the volatile response of undamaged branches to exposure to volatiles from herbivore-damaged branches within blueberry plants. These methods are described here. Briefly, undamaged blueberry branches are exposed to HIPVs from neighboring branches within the same plant. Using the same techniques described above, volatiles emitted from branches after exposure to HIPVs are collected and

  15. Blueberry production in Chile: current status and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile has become a major actor in the blueberry industry as the most important supplier of off-season fresh fruit for the northern hemisphere. Blueberry exports passed from US$ 30 million (around 4,000 tons in 2000 to US$ 380 million (94,000 tons in 2011. The characteristics of the major blueberry growing regions (North, Central, South-central and South are presented in terms of acreage, varieties, management practices, extension of the harvest season, and soil and climatic conditions. Most fruit is from highbush varieties, picked by hand and exported fresh by boat to United States. Largest proportion of fruit is exported from mid December to late January, which coincides with lowest prices. The south-central region (latitudes 34º50' to 38º15' S was in 2007 the most important one with 5,075 ha (51.1% of area planted. Among the challenges for the Chilean blueberry industry in the near future are: 1. Lower profitability due to lower rates of currency exchange and higher costs, 2 - Greater scarcity and higher cost of labor, 3.- Need for higher productivity and sustainable production practices, 4- Fruit of high and consistent quality, and 5.- Greater investment in research. As a case study the article presents three approaches that can help identify areas with low availability of labor and improve its efficiency. The article shows the use of geomatic tools to establish labor availability, application of growth regulators to reduce crop load, increase fruit size and improve harvest efficiency, and the use of shakers to harvest fresh fruit for long distance markets. More research is needed to improve yields, reduce costs and give greater economical and ecological sustainability to the Chilean blueberry industry.

  16. Xylella fastidiosa in rabbiteye blueberry in Louisiana is genetically similar to a strain found in Southern highbush blueberry in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past ten years, Xylella fastidiosa has been confirmed as a pathogen of Southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in Georgia and Florida. Recent work in Louisiana has shown that it is also associated with reduced yield and altered fruit quality in ‘Tifblue’ ...

  17. Oviposition efficacy of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on different cultivars of blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hirotoshi; Kunimi, Yasuhisa; Ban, Takuya; Nakai, Madoka

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an important pest of thin-skinned fruits including blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, and cherry. Blueberry was introduced into Japan in the 1950s, and severe economic losses attributable to D. suzukii were first reported in 2002. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether oviposition behavior varies among blueberry cultivars having different firmness of fruit. Fruit firmness in 12 cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) was determined using a rheometer. More eggs tended to be laid in berries of cultivars possessing softer fruits than in those having firmer fruits. Choice tests, where one female was allowed to oviposit on blueberry fruits with different firmness, showed that softer fruits were more vulnerable to D. suzukii females than firmer fruits.

  18. Quality factors, antioxidant activity, and sensory properties of jet-tube dried rabbiteye blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Laura A; Pegg, Ronald B; Kerr, William L

    2013-06-01

    Rabbiteye blueberries are an excellent source of nutrients and phytochemicals. They are often dried, which can degrade health-promoting compounds. Means of shortening exposure to high-temperature drying air are desirable. Five cultivars of rabbiteye blueberries ('Premier', 'Tifblue', 'Brightwell', 'Alapaha', and 'Powderblue') were dried in a jet-tube fluidized bed air dryer with varying pretreatments including mechanical abrasion and osmotic dehydration. Drying time ranged from 66 to 95 min at 107 °C, achieving a final water activity of 0.347-0.605. Prior osmotic dehydration significantly reduced the drying time. Vacuum osmotic dehydration for 70 min achieved similar moisture contents to soaking blueberries for 24 h. Jet-tube dried blueberries exhibited greater color saturation than commercially available blueberries. While drying reduced the total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) content, this occurred to a lesser extent than by other processing methods. The total phenolics content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (H-ORACFL values) increased after drying. 'Premier' was the most preferred vacuum-infused dried blueberry, with a water activity (aw) of 0.53 and 157 g H2O kg(-1). 'Tifblue' was most preferred amongst the overnight-infused and also unsweetened dried blueberries. Jet-tube drying can substantially reduce drying times while yielding blueberries with good color, sensory properties, TMA, TPC, and H-ORACFL values. Furthermore, some cultivars produce better-quality dried blueberries than others. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Field type, trap type and field-edge characteristics affect Rhagoletis mendax captures in lowbush blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Justin M; Cutler, G Christopher; Gaul, Sonia O

    2014-11-01

    Blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of blueberries in eastern North America. Insecticide use in fruit-bearing lowbush blueberry fields could be reduced with management strategies focused on vegetative fields. Fly distribution and fruit infestation levels were assessed where fruit-bearing and vegetative fields adjoin and along forested edges of vegetative fields. Along adjoining edges, immature female flies were captured in fruiting fields and mature females in vegetative fields throughout the season. Male fly captures and fruit infestation levels were greater at 5 m than at 30 m from the edge. Along forested edges, fly captures were best predicted by densities of ripe lowbush blueberries and large coniferous trees. Maggot infestation level in lowbush blueberries was best predicted by blueberry density and small deciduous trees. Bunchberry, Cornus canadensis L., was the only non-crop host in which blueberry maggot was found. We have shown that relatively high numbers of flies occur in vegetative fields and at edges of fruiting fields. Ripe blueberries and certain vegetation in forested edges affect fly distribution and probably maintain populations. These results may help to predict where controls for blueberry maggot should be targeted and suggest that management strategies focused on vegetative fields and field edges may be worthwhile. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. LC-MS/MS and UPLC-UV evaluation of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins during rabbiteye blueberry juice processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry juice processing includes multiple steps and each affect the chemical composition of the berries, including thermal degradation of anthocyanins. Not from concentrate juice was made by heating and enzyme processing blueberries before pressing followed by ultrafiltration and pasteurization. ...

  1. New and Emerging Viruses of Blueberry and Cranberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Polashock

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses as well as the appearance of new viruses. Many of the known viruses of these crops are latent or asymptomatic in at least some cultivars. Diagnosis and detection procedures are often non-existent or unreliable. Whereas new viruses can move into cultivated fields from the wild, there is also the threat that devastating viruses can move into native stands of Vaccinium spp. or other native plants from cultivated fields. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of blueberry and cranberry viruses, focusing not only on those that are new but also those that are emerging as serious threats for production in North America and around the world.

  2. New and Emerging Viruses of Blueberry and Cranberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert R.; Polashock, James J.; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E.

    2012-01-01

    Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses as well as the appearance of new viruses. Many of the known viruses of these crops are latent or asymptomatic in at least some cultivars. Diagnosis and detection procedures are often non-existent or unreliable. Whereas new viruses can move into cultivated fields from the wild, there is also the threat that devastating viruses can move into native stands of Vaccinium spp. or other native plants from cultivated fields. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of blueberry and cranberry viruses, focusing not only on those that are new but also those that are emerging as serious threats for production in North America and around the world. PMID:23202507

  3. Consumer acceptance of fresh blueberries in bio-based packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, Eva; Samsudin, Hayati; Auras, Rafael; Harte, Janice

    2010-05-01

    Instrumental analyses have shown that non-vented bio-based containers made from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) have the capability to enhance blueberry shelf life as compared with commercial vented petroleum-based clamshell containers. However, consumer preference has not been explored so far. In this study, two sensory evaluations, triangle and paired preference tests, were performed after storing fruit in both containers at 3 and 10 degrees C for 7 and 14 days. In addition, physicochemical analyses were performed after each tasting in order to correlate instrumental findings with consumer preference. The results of the triangle test showed the capability of the consumer to differentiate (P consumer preference for flavour, texture, external appearance and overall quality (P Consumers distinguished between blueberries from different packages and preferred those packaged in the PLA containers. The instrumental analyses showed that the usable life of the berries was extended in the PLA containers. A correlation between consumer preference and instrumental evaluations was found.

  4. Identification of Conserved and Novel MicroRNAs in Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyang Yue

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small endogenous RNAs that play important regulatory roles in cells by negatively affecting gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. There have been extensive studies aiming to identify miRNAs and to elucidate their functions in various plant species. In the present study, we employed the high-throughput sequencing technology to profile miRNAs in blueberry fruits. A total of 9,992,446 small RNA tags with sizes ranged from 18 to 30 nt were obtained, indicating that blueberry fruits have a large and diverse small RNA population. Bioinformatic analysis identified 412 conserved miRNAs belonging to 29 families, and 35 predicted novel miRNAs that are likely to be unique to blueberries. Among them, expression profiles of five conserved miRNAs were validated by stem loop qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the potential target genes of conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted and subjected to Gene Ontology (GO annotation. Enrichment analysis of the GO-represented biological processes and molecular functions revealed that these target genes were potentially involved in a wide range of metabolic pathways and developmental processes. Particularly, anthocyanin biosynthesis has been predicted to be directly or indirectly regulated by diverse miRNA families. This study is the first report on genome-wide miRNA profile analysis in blueberry and it provides a useful resource for further elucidation of the functional roles of miRNAs during fruit development and ripening.

  5. [Agrobacterium rubi strains from blueberry plants are highly diverse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamovich, Eliana; López, Ana C; Alippi, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of a collection of Agrobacterium rubi strains isolated from blueberries from different regions of Argentina was studied by conventional microbiological tests and molecular techniques. Results from biochemical and physiological reactions, as well as from rep-PCR and RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 23S rDNA showed high phenotypic and genotypic intraspecific variation. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of natural blueberry dye producing butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creamy сream - finishing semi-finished product in the manufacture of pastry products. Tinting cream mass in different shades of color can improve the aesthetic appearance of the product appearance and make it more attractive. Natural blueberry anthocyanin dye has antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-sclerotic, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, P-vitamin activity. The influence of the content of blueberry dye to change the chromaticity characteristics, organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, shape keeping capacity, antioxidant activity of the samples of butter cream after manufacture and during storage. Based on the analysis of the results to give a butter cream pleasant pink color can be recommended dosage blueberry dye - 2.5 g / kg, with anthocyanin dye in this case is used as an antioxidant and as its use in the recommended amounts increases the antioxidant activity of 12.5 mg / 100 g (62.8% (relative to unstained samples cream. Pastry with a creamy semi-finished product, colored with natural blueberry dye, demand on the food market of confectionery products, and they can be recommended as the first baby food, people with lowered immunity, the elderly and mass consumption, as products contain vitamin E - 30 mg / 100 g of product (satisfaction of the daily requirement for vitamin makes - 75% and a significant amount of antioxidants. The facts make it possible to expand the range of competitive confectionery functionality diversify colors shades of cream, to improve its taste and aroma properties, enhance the nutritional value and shelf life due to the large amount of co-antioxidants.

  7. Edible Neotropical Blueberries: Antioxidant and Compositional Fingerprint Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DASTMALCHI, KEYVAN; FLORES, GEMA; PETROVA, VANYA; PEDRAZA-PEÑALOSA, PAOLA; KENNELLY, EDWARD J.

    2012-01-01

    Edible blueberry species are well recognized for their potential health benefits. Ericaceae fruits including the North American highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and five less common edible blueberry relatives from the New World tropics, Anthopterus wardii Ball, Cavendishia grandifolia Hoerld, Macleania coccoloboides A. C. Sm., Sphyrospermum buxifolium Poepp. & Endl., and Sphyrospermum cordifolium Benth, were investigated for their antioxidant properties and phenolic profiles. The Neotropical berries C. grandifolia and A. wardii exhibited significantly higher DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging and iron chelation activities than V. corymbosum. Total phenolic content and HPLC-PDA compositional fingerprint analyses were also carried out. Significant correlations were observed among total phenolic contents, DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging, and iron chelation activities. Using HPLC-PDA, the phenolic constituents in the berries were identified as chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, isoorientin, isovitexin, orientin and vitexin. Principal components analysis reduced the dimensions of antioxidant and total phenolic data to two components, which accounted for 95% of total variation among the six fruits. Each fruit species formed its own cluster, and therefore the antioxidant profile of each species was shown to be distinct. PMID:21391608

  8. Optimization of frozen wild blueberry vacuum drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum drying of frozen blueberries in order to preserve health benefits phytochemicals using response surface methodology. The drying was performed in a new design of vacuum dryer equipment. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and of pressure 38-464 mbar. Total solids, total phenolics, vitamin C, anthocyanin content and total color change were used as quality indicators of dried blueberries. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 60 °C and 100 mbar were established for vacuum drying of blueberries. Separate validation experiments were conducted at optimum conditions to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 3.70 mgCAE/100dw, vitamin C 59.79 mg/100gdw, anthocyanin content 2746.33 mg/100gdw, total solids 89.50% and total color change 88.83. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  9. Quality Parameters of Six Cultivars of Blueberry Using Computer Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Matiacevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blueberries are considered an important source of health benefits. This work studied six blueberry cultivars: “Duke,” “Brigitta”, “Elliott”, “Centurion”, “Star,” and “Jewel”, measuring quality parameters such as °Brix, pH, moisture content using standard techniques and shape, color, and fungal presence obtained by computer vision. The storage conditions were time (0–21 days, temperature (4 and 15°C, and relative humidity (75 and 90%. Results. Significant differences (P<0.05 were detected between fresh cultivars in pH, °Brix, shape, and color. However, the main parameters which changed depending on storage conditions, increasing at higher temperature, were color (from blue to red and fungal presence (from 0 to 15%, both detected using computer vision, which is important to determine a shelf life of 14 days for all cultivars. Similar behavior during storage was obtained for all cultivars. Conclusion. Computer vision proved to be a reliable and simple method to objectively determine blueberry decay during storage that can be used as an alternative approach to currently used subjective measurements.

  10. Postharvest storage quality of gamma-irradiated 'climax' rabbiteye blueberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; Mitcham, E.J.; McDonald, R.E.; King, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Postharvest quality of 'Climax' rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Read) was evaluated after exposure to dosages of 0, 0.75,1.5,2.25, or 3.0 kGy gamma irradiation (0.1 18 kGy-min-1) and after subsequent storage. Irradiation did not affect weight loss, but irradiated berries were softer than nontreated berries. There was also a trend toward increased decay as dose increased. Irradiation had no effect on powdery bloom or surface color; total soluble solids concentration, acidity, and pH were affected slightly. Flavor preference was highest for nonirradiated berries and generally declined as dosage increased. Irradiation at 2.25 and 3.0 kGy resulted in increased levels of xylosyl residues in cell walls, and xylosyl residues were the most abundant cell-wall neutral sugar detected in blueberries. There was no evidence of cell wall pectin loss in irradiated berries. Irradiation at 1.5 kGy lowered the quality of fresh-market 'Climax' blueberries

  11. Anti-Tumor Activity of a Polysaccharide from Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyun Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (Vaccinium spp. are rich in bioactive compounds. However, the biological activity of polysaccharides from blueberry has not been reported so far. This study evaluated the anti-tumor and immunological activities of a polysaccharide (BBP3-1 from blueberry in S180-bearing mice. The experimental results indicated that BBP3-1 (100 mg·kg−1·d−1 inhibited the tumor growth rate by 73.4%. Moreover, this group, compared with the model control, had shown an effect of increasing both the spleen and thymus indices (p < 0.05, increasing phagocytosis by macrophages (p < 0.05, boosting the proliferation and transformation of lymphocytes (p < 0.01, promoting the secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 (p < 0.05 and improving NK cell activity (p < 0.01. From this study, we could easily conclude that BBP3-1 has the ability to inhibit tumor progression and could act as a good immunomodulator.

  12. Managed bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) caged with blueberry bushes at high density did not increase fruit set or fruit weight compared to open pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Campbell; J. O' Brien; J. H. Irvin; C. B. Kimmel; J. C. Daniels; J. D. Ellis

    2017-01-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of...

  13. 75 FR 31279 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ..., Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Blueberry promotion, Reporting and recordkeeping... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 [Document Number AMS-FV-09-0022; FV-09-705] Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership AGENCY...

  14. Grow tubes reduce root and crown growth but not early production during establishment of highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In blueberry, grow tubes have been used by some growers to establish new plantings and to replace plants within older plantings. We conducted two experiments at a commercial northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) farm over three years using four cultivars (Aurora, Elliott, Liberty, Oz...

  15. Evaluation of critical temperatures for heat damage in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhead sprinklers are often used to cool blueberry fields in the Pacific Northwest, but more information is needed to determine exactly when cooling is needed. The objective of this study was to identify the critical temperatures for heat damage in northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum...

  16. Effects of salinity induced by ammonium sulfate fertilizer on root and shoot growth of highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonium sulfate fertilizer is commonly used in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), but due to a high salt index, it often causes salt damage, particularly in young plants, when too much of the fertilizer is applied. A study was done to determine the sensitivity of blueberry to ammonium su...

  17. Root production, distribution, and turnover in conventional and organic northern highbush blueberry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is a shallow-rooted crop with very fine, fibrous roots. Recently, we installed minirhizotrons (root observation tubes) in a conventional and an organic blueberry planting in western Oregon. We wanted to know exactly when and where new roots were ...

  18. Changes in Cuticular Wax Composition of Two Blueberry Cultivars during Fruit Ripening and Postharvest Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Wu, Weijie; Fang, Xiangjun

    2018-03-21

    Cuticular wax plays an important role for the quality of blueberry fruits. In this study, the cuticular wax composition of two blueberry cultivars, 'Legacy' ( Vaccinium corymbosum) and 'Brightwell' ( Vaccinium ashei), was examined during fruit ripening and postharvest cold storage. The results showed that wax was gradually deposited on the epidermis of blueberry fruits and the content of major wax compounds, except that for diketones, increased significantly during fruit ripening. The total wax content was 2-fold greater in 'Brightwell' blueberries than that in 'Legacy' blueberries during fruit ripening. The total wax content of both cultivars decreased during 30 days of storage at 4 °C, and the variation of cuticular wax composition was cultivar-dependent. The content of diketones decreased significantly in 'Legacy' blueberries, while the content of triterpenoids and aliphatic compounds showed different fold changes in 'Brightwell' blueberries after 30 days of storage at 4 °C. Overall, our study provided a quantitative and qualitative overview of cuticular wax compounds of blueberry fruits during ripening and postharvest cold storage.

  19. Changes in energy metabolism accompanying pitting in blueberries stored at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Chunlei; Cheng, Shunchang; Wei, Baodong; Liu, Xiuying; Ji, Shujuan

    2014-12-01

    Low-temperature storage and transport of blueberries is widely practiced in commercial blueberry production. In this research, the storage life of blueberries was extended at low temperature, but fruit stored for 30 d at 0°C pitted after 2d at room-temperature. Fruit cellular structure and physiological parameters accompanying pitting in blueberries were changed. The objective of this research was to characterise properties of energy metabolism accompanying pitting in blueberries during storage, including adenosine phosphates and mitochondrial enzymes involved in stress responses. Physiological and metabolic disorders, changes in cell ultrastructure, energy content and ATPase enzyme activity were observed in pitting blueberries. Energy shortages and increased activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were observed in fruit kept at shelf life. The results suggested that sufficient available energy status and a stable enzymatic system in blueberries collectively contribute to improve chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating pitting and maintaining quality of blueberry fruit in long-term cold storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Toward a semi-mechanical harvesting platform system for harvesting blueberries with fresh-market quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major concerns related to harvesting blueberries for fresh market with over-the-row (OTR) harvesters are that the quality of the fruit harvested with OTR machines is generally low and ground loss is excessive. Machine-harvested blueberries have more internal bruise and usually soften rapidly in col...

  1. Processes of Origin and Duration of Growth of Blueberries at Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M.

    2007-07-01

    The process behind blueberries needs to be understood. The questions why did they form, and why are they round, can be answered by: chemical energy and radial diffusion. Blueberry growth energy is olivine serpentinization for two possible precursors, FeS or FeO.OH with modeled 830 yrs to grow.

  2. Inhibition of Tulane Virus replication via exposure to lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) fractional components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulane Virus (TV) is a common viral surrogate for human norovirus in lab studies. In the present study, the phenotypic response of TV when exposed to fractional components extracted from lowbush blueberries was investigated. Lowbush blueberry extract (F1) was separated using a C-18 Sep-Pak cartridge...

  3. P38 MAPK / beta-catenin canonical wnt signaling mediated bone formation effects of blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate nutrition is one of the critical factors that influences bone development. We studied the effects of dietary blueberry supplementation on bone growth in weanling rats. Weanling male and female rats were fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry powder for 14 a...

  4. Wnt/RANKL-mediated bone growth promoting effects of blueberries in weanling rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the effects of dietary blueberry supplementation on bone growth in weanling rats. Weanling male and female rats were fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry powder for 14 and 30 days beginning on PND 21. In both sexes tibial bone mineral density and content a...

  5. Biosynthesis of flavonoids in bilberry and blueberry - possibilities of the gene level information for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakola, Laura

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the biosynthesis of flavonoids in various tissues of naturally growing European blueberry (bilberry) and the blueberry cultivar 'Northblue'. Focus has also been on the biosynthesis of flavonoids in developing bilberry fruits as well as on the control genes regulating fruit development.

  6. Evaluation of 405 nm monochromatic light for inactivation of tulane virus on blueberry surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of 405 nm light as an intervention for virus contaminated blueberries. Tulane virus-contaminated-blueberries were treated with 4.2 mW/sq cm of 405 nm light for 5 to 30 min. To mitigate thermal heating due to the intense light, a dry ice-chilled ni...

  7. Impact of processing on the bioavailability and vascular effects of blueberry (poly)phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Del Pino-García, Raquel; George, Trevor W; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Heiss, Christian; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2014-10-01

    Blueberries are a rich source of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Currently, little information is available regarding the impact of processing on the bioavailability and the bioactivity of blueberry (poly)phenols. In a randomized, controlled crossover trial, ten healthy volunteers consumed (a) blueberry-containing baked products, (b) an unprocessed blueberry drink containing the same amount of freeze-dried blueberry powder as used in the baked products, and (c) matched control baked products. Endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma samples taken at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postconsumption. Although processing did not significantly change the total (poly)phenolic amount, the processed products contained significantly less anthocyanins (-42%), more chlorogenic acid (23%), no flavanol nonamers or decamers, and significantly more flavanol dimers and trimers (36% and 28%, respectively). FMD increased after 1, 2, and 6 h consumption of the baked products to a similar degree as the unprocessed blueberries, despite significant differences in the levels of individual plasma metabolites. No changes were observed after the consumption of the control product. Careful processing can preserve important biological activities of blueberries despite changing the blueberry (poly)phenol composition and plasma metabolite profile. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Blueberry Cultivars Differ in Susceptibility to the Elephant Weevil, Orthorhinus cylindrirostris (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Gregory; Clift, Alan D; Mansfield, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    The accumulated damage from elephant weevil larvae, Orthorhinus cylindrirostris (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces blueberry yield and shortens the productive lifespan of blueberry plants by several years. Selective breeding to develop pest-resistant blueberry cultivars is a possible control option, but the relationship between O. cylindrirostris populations, plant damage, and blueberry yield has not been described. A field survey of 17 blueberry cultivars was conducted on a commercial farm to measure O. cylindrirostris populations (emergence holes and adult numbers) and yield from plants of different ages (2-12 yr). Blueberry plants accumulated damage over time, that is, older plants tended to have more O. cylindrirostris emergence holes than younger plants. All cultivars received some level of O. cylindrirostris attack but this did not always lead to yield losses. Newer cultivars that have been in production since 2000 were less susceptible to O. cylindrirostris than older cultivars. Removal of highly susceptible cultivars from commercial blueberry farms may reduce O. cylindrirostris populations. There is potential for selective breeding to increase plant resistance to O. cylindrirostris if the specific resistance mechanisms can be identified in blueberry. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Complete genome sequences of blueberry red ringspot virus (Caulimoviridae) isolates from the Czech Republic and Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrzik, Karel; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Mavrič-Pleško, I.; Špak, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 10 (2011), s. 1901-1903 ISSN 0304-8608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Complete genome * blueberry virus * highbush blueberry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2011

  10. First report of anthracnose fruit rot of blueberry caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose fruit rot is the most important disease of blueberry in New Jersey. Most fungicide applications in New Jersey and other blueberry growing regions is for the control of this disease. The causal agent of this disease has been reported to be Colletotrichum acutatum and other species in the ...

  11. Ranking cultivated blueberry for Mummy Berry Blight and Fruit Infection Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated the resistance of more than 100 blueberry cultivar to both phases of the disease...

  12. 78 FR 36507 - Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... treatment schedule for blueberries at a temperature of 60[emsp14][deg]F at a dosage rate of 2 lbs gas/1,000...] Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries... and Quarantine Treatment Manual an additional treatment schedule for methyl bromide fumigation of...

  13. Effects of spray drying on antioxidant capacity and anthocyanidin content of blueberry by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kar; Ma, Mitzi; Dolan, Kirk D

    2011-09-01

    The effect of spray drying on degradation of nutraceutical components in cull blueberry extract was investigated. Samples collected before and after spray drying were tested for antioxidant capacity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL) ) and total phenolics; and for individual anthocyanidins. In Study 1, four different levels of maltodextrin (blueberry solids to maltodextrin ratios of 5: 95, 10: 90, 30: 70, and 50: 50) were spray dried a pilot-scale spray dryer. There was significantly higher retention of nutraceutical components with increased levels of maltodextrin indicating a protective effect of maltodextrin on the nutraceutical components during spray drying. In Study 2, the air inlet temperature of the spray dryer was kept constant for all runs at 150 °C, with 2 different outlet temperatures of 80 and 90 °C. The degradation of nutraceutical components was not significantly different at the 2 selected outlet temperatures. ORAC(FL) reduction for blueberry samples after spray drying was 66.3% to 69.6%. After spray drying, total phenolics reduction for blueberry was 8.2% to 17.5%. Individual anthocyanidin reduction for blueberry was 50% to 70%. The experimental spray dried powders compared favorably to commercial blueberry powders. Results of the study show that use of blueberry by-products is feasible to make a value-added powder. Results can be used by producers to estimate final nutraceutical content of spray-dried blueberry by-products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Shoot Blight and Leaf Spot of Blueberry Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum

    OpenAIRE

    Shigenobu, YOSHIDA; Takao, TSUKIBOSHI; National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences; National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences

    2002-01-01

    Shoot blight and leaf spots were found on highbush blueberry trees in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, in 1999. The causal fungus was identified morphologically as Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds ex Simmonds. This is the first report of blueberry anthracnose caused by C. acutatum in Japan.

  15. 75 FR 7986 - Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Orders; Section 610 Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... importer assessment is remitted by Customs. Exports of domestic Hass avocados are exempt from assessments... Numbers AMS-FV-10-0006; AMS-FV-10-0007] Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information... review the Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Orders (Orders). Both reviews...

  16. Vaccinium corymbosum L. (blueberry) extracts exhibit protective action against cadmium toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Eliza; Ruta, Lavinia L; Nicolau, Ioana; Popa, Claudia V; Neagoe, Aurora D; Farcasanu, Ileana C

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are a rich source of antioxidants and their consumption is believed to contribute to food-related protection against oxidative stress. In the present study, the chemoprotective action of blueberry extracts against cadmium toxicity was investigated using a cadmium-hypersensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four varieties of blueberries were used in the study, and it was found that the extracts with high content of total anthocyanidins exhibited significant protective effect against the toxicity of cadmium and H2O2. Both the blueberry extracts and pure cyanidin exhibited protective effects against cadmium in a dose-dependent manner, but without significantly interfering with the cadmium accumulation by the yeast cells. The results imply that the blueberry extracts might be a potentially valuable food supplement for individuals exposed to high cadmium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of harvest season on antioxidant activity and constituents of rabbiteye blueberry ( Vaccinium ashei ) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liancai; Liu, Xi; Tan, Jun; Wang, Bochu

    2013-11-27

    To select rabbiteye blueberry leaves from an appropriate harvest season to develop functional foods, this paper studied the bioactive secondary metabolites and the antioxidant capacity of rabbiteye blueberry leaves from May, September, and November. The results showed the leaves from May had the highest content of total flavonoids (114.21 mg/g) and the leaves from November had the highest content of total polyphenols and proanthocyanidins (425.24 and 243.29 mg/g, respectively). It was further found that blueberry leaves from different seasons have similar bioactive constituents, but their contents are obviously different by HPLC. The rabbiteye blueberry leaves from November had the highest antioxidant capacity, which was well correlated with their highest proanthocyanidin content. The results clarify that the blueberry leaves from different seasons have different contents of bioactive secondary metabolites and different antioxidant activities, which implied that leaves from November should be selected first for utilization in functional foods.

  18. Valorisation of blueberry waste and use of compression to manufacture sustainable starch films with enhanced properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchese, Cláudia Leites; Uranga, Jone; Spada, Jordana Corralo; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina; de la Caba, Koro

    2018-08-01

    Blueberry waste from juice processing was valorised to develop starch films by compression moulding. The compression process resulted in hydrophobic films with water contact angles even higher than 100° for the films prepared with the highest blueberry waste content. Additionally, the film solubility was reduced by the incorporation of blueberry waste, regardless of the solution pH. These films also exhibited good barrier properties against UV light due to the aromatic compounds present in the blueberry waste. Furthermore, films showed a homogenous surface, although some pores appeared in the cross-section for the films with the highest blueberry waste content. Results highlighted the use of thermo-mechanical processes such as compression to manufacture sustainable films with enhanced properties through waste valorisation by the techniques actually employed at industrial scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Exobasidium maculosum, a new species causing leaf and fruit spots on blueberry in the southeastern USA and its relationship with other Exobasidium spp. parasitic to blueberry and cranberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Marin Talbot; Turner, Ashley N; Brannen, Phillip M; Cline, William O; Richardson, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus) is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA. To determine whether this disease is caused by a new species of Exobasidium, we studied the morphology and phylogenetic relationship of the causal fungus compared with other members of the genus, including the type species E. vaccinii and other species that parasitize blueberry and cranberry (V. macrocarpon). Both scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy were used for morphological characterization. For phylogenetic analyses, we sequenced the large subunit of the rDNA (LSU) from 10 isolates collected from leaf or fruit spots of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum), highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium interspecific hybrid) from Georgia and North Carolina and six isolates from leaf spots of lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium) from Maine and Nova Scotia, Canada. LSU was sequenced from isolates causing red leaf disease of lowbush blueberry and red leaf spot (E. rostrupii) and red shoot (E. perenne) of cranberry. In addition, LSU sequences from GenBank, including sequences with high similarity to the emerging parasite and from Exobasidium spp. parasitizing other Vaccinium spp. and related hosts, were obtained. All sequences were aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results indicated that the emerging parasite in the southeastern USA differs morphologically and phylogenetically from other described species and is described herein as Exobasidium maculosum. Within the southeastern USA, clustering based on host species, host tissue type (leaf or fruit) or geographic region was not detected; however, leaf spot isolates from lowbush blueberry were genetically different and likely represent a unique species. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  20. Incidence of viruses in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale survey for highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. viruses in Serbia was performed from 2011 to 2015. A total of 81 leaf samples from 15 locations were collected and analyzed for the presence of 8 viruses. Serological ELISA assay was performed to determine the presence of: Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV, Blueberry shock virus (BlShV, Blueberry shoestring virus (BSSV, Blueberry leaf mottle virus (BLMoV, Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV and Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV. All samples were tested for the presence of Blueberry red ringspot virus (BRRV by PCR and for Blueberry mosaic-associated virus (BlMaV by RT-PCR test. The analyses confirmed the presence of BlMaV in 8 (9.9% samples and BRRV in 1 (1.2% sample. No BlScV, BlShV, BLMoV, BSSV, TRSV or ToRSV viruses were detected in any of the analyzed samples.

  1. Differential iridoid production as revealed by a diversity panel of 84 cultivated and wild blueberry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Kamileen, Mohamed O; Conway, Megan E; O'Connor, Sarah E; Buell, C Robin

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium darrowii, and Vaccinium virgatum) is an economically important fruit crop native to North America and a member of the Ericaceae family. Several species in the Ericaceae family including cranberry, lignonberry, bilberry, and neotropical blueberry species have been shown to produce iridoids, a class of pharmacologically important compounds present in over 15 plant families demonstrated to have a wide range of biological activities in humans including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory. While the antioxidant capacity of cultivated blueberry has been well studied, surveys of iridoid production in blueberry have been restricted to fruit of a very limited number of accessions of V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium and V. virgatum; none of these analyses have detected iridoids. To provide a broader survey of iridoid biosynthesis in cultivated blueberry, we constructed a panel of 84 accessions representing a wide range of cultivated market classes, as well as wild blueberry species, and surveyed these for the presence of iridoids. We identified the iridoid glycoside monotropein in fruits and leaves of all 13 wild Vaccinium species, yet only five of the 71 cultivars. Monotropein positive cultivars all had recent introgressions from wild species, suggesting that iridoid production can be targeted through breeding efforts that incorporate wild germplasm. A series of diverse developmental tissues was also surveyed in the diversity panel, demonstrating a wide range in iridoid content across tissues. Taken together, this data provides the foundation to dissect the molecular and genetic basis of iridoid production in blueberry.

  2. Bioactive Compounds of Blueberries: Post-Harvest Factors Influencing the Nutritional Value of Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Michalska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries, besides having commonly-recognized taste properties, are also a valuable source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. For several decades, blueberries have gained in popularity all over the world, and recent years have seen not only an increase in fresh consumption, but also in the importance of blueberries for the processing industry. Blueberry processing mostly consists of freezing and juicing. Recently, more attention has been drawn to dewatering and drying, which are promising areas for developing novel blueberry products. Processing affects each biologically-active compound in a different way, and it is still unknown what changes those compounds undergo at the molecular level after the application of different processing technologies. This work presents the most recent state of knowledge about the pre-treatment and processing methods applied to blueberries and their influence on the content of biologically-active compounds. The presentation of methods is preceded by a brief overview of the characteristics of the blueberry species, a description of the chemical composition of the fruit and a short note about the main growing areas, production volumes and the management of fruit crops.

  3. Bioactive Compounds of Blueberries: Post-Harvest Factors Influencing the Nutritional Value of Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Łysiak, Grzegorz

    2015-08-10

    Blueberries, besides having commonly-recognized taste properties, are also a valuable source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. For several decades, blueberries have gained in popularity all over the world, and recent years have seen not only an increase in fresh consumption, but also in the importance of blueberries for the processing industry. Blueberry processing mostly consists of freezing and juicing. Recently, more attention has been drawn to dewatering and drying, which are promising areas for developing novel blueberry products. Processing affects each biologically-active compound in a different way, and it is still unknown what changes those compounds undergo at the molecular level after the application of different processing technologies. This work presents the most recent state of knowledge about the pre-treatment and processing methods applied to blueberries and their influence on the content of biologically-active compounds. The presentation of methods is preceded by a brief overview of the characteristics of the blueberry species, a description of the chemical composition of the fruit and a short note about the main growing areas, production volumes and the management of fruit crops.

  4. Bioactive Compounds of Blueberries: Post-Harvest Factors Influencing the Nutritional Value of Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Łysiak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Blueberries, besides having commonly-recognized taste properties, are also a valuable source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. For several decades, blueberries have gained in popularity all over the world, and recent years have seen not only an increase in fresh consumption, but also in the importance of blueberries for the processing industry. Blueberry processing mostly consists of freezing and juicing. Recently, more attention has been drawn to dewatering and drying, which are promising areas for developing novel blueberry products. Processing affects each biologically-active compound in a different way, and it is still unknown what changes those compounds undergo at the molecular level after the application of different processing technologies. This work presents the most recent state of knowledge about the pre-treatment and processing methods applied to blueberries and their influence on the content of biologically-active compounds. The presentation of methods is preceded by a brief overview of the characteristics of the blueberry species, a description of the chemical composition of the fruit and a short note about the main growing areas, production volumes and the management of fruit crops. PMID:26266408

  5. Storage effects on anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant activity of thermally processed conventional and organic blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamaladevi, Roopesh M; Andrews, Preston K; Davies, Neal M; Walters, Thomas; Sablani, Shyam S

    2012-03-15

    Consumer demand for products rich in phytochemicals is increasing as a result of greater awareness of their potential health benefits. However, processed products are stored for long-term and the phytochemicals are susceptible to degradation during storage. The objective of this study was to assess the storage effects on phytochemicals in thermally processed blueberries. Thermally processed canned berries and juice/puree were analysed for phytochemicals during their long-term storage. The phytochemical retention of thermally processed blueberries during storage was not influenced by production system (conventional versus organic). During 13 months of storage, total anthocyanins, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity in canned blueberry solids decreased by up to 86, 69 and 52% respectively. In canned blueberry syrup, total anthocyanins and total antioxidant activity decreased by up to 68 and 15% respectively, while total phenolic content increased by up to 117%. Similar trends in phytochemical content were observed in juice/puree stored for 4 months. The extent of changes in phytochemicals of thermally processed blueberries during storage was significantly influenced by blanching. Long-term storage of thermally processed blueberries had varying degrees of influence on degradation of total anthocyanins, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity. Blanching before thermal processing helped to preserve the phytochemicals during storage of blueberries. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Blueberry muffin syndrome | Benmiloud | Pan African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le Blueberry Muffin Baby est un syndrome cutané rare observé en période néonatale. Il est caractérisé par des papulo-nodules disséminés inflammatoires traduisant des réactions d'hématopoïèse dermique. Plusieurs causes doivent être recherchées, notamment les infections congénitales, une hémolyse sévère et les ...

  7. The ex vitro rooting of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. microcuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacholczak Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing demand for blueberry fruit has necessitated the development of an efficient propagation method of this species that would provide large quantities of planting material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 50 mg dm−3, the commercial rooting powder Rhizopon containing 1% IBA, and salicylic acid (50 mg dm−3 on the in vivo rooting of microcuttings of Vaccinium corymbosum ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’. The contents of chlorophyll a + b, soluble proteins, free amino acids, as well as total soluble and reducing sugars were determined in rooted cuttings. All of the treatments increased the degree and percentage of rooting in the cuttings of both cultivars. While improving rhizogenesis in blueberry, salicylic acid did not perform as a cofactor of the auxin IBA. Foliar applications of IBA or salicylic acid (SA increased the contents of soluble proteins, free amino acids and sugars, but no effects on chlorophyll levels were observed.

  8. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiq, M; Dolan, K D

    2017-03-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted and characterized from high-bush blueberries. PPO showed an optimum activity at pH 6.1-6.3 and 35°C, with the enzyme showing significant activity over a wide temperature range (25-60°C). Catechol was the most readily oxidized substrate followed by 4-methylcatechol, DL-DOPA, and dopamine. Blueberry PPO showed a K m of 15mM and V max of 2.57 ΔA 420 nm/min×10 -1 , determined with catechol. PPO was completely inactivated in 20min at 85°C, however, after 30minat 75°C it showed about 10% residual activity. Thermal treatment at 55 and 65°C for 30min resulted in the partial inactivation of PPO. Ascorbic acid, sodium diethyldithiocarbamic acid, L-cysteine, and sodium metabisulfite were effective inhibitors of PPO at 1.0mM. Benzoic acid and cinnamic acid series inhibitors showed relatively weak inhibition of PPO (21.8-27.6%), even at as high as 2.0mM concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring Perceptions of Raspberries and Blueberries by Italian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Girgenti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers can be important active contributors to a sustainable society by selecting foods that are produced respecting environmental and socially ethical standards. In the fruit sector, sustainability issues are often associated with imprecisely defined concepts such as “locally grown”, “freshness” and “local product”. This study has investigated raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. purchases in order to identify how berry fruits choice attributes are ranked by consumers in two Italian Regions, using a choice experiment (best-worst methodology. Twelve attributes—that indirectly refer to the concept of environmental sustainability—have been investigated. According to the preferences expressed by our sample of retail purchasers (n = 669, the results show that the reasons for the purchase of berries are associated with numerous parameters among which freshness and product origin are the most important and price was not ranked as so relevant. These findings indirectly testify the consumer attention towards the sustainability of local production and the link between sustainability and territory. Therefore, we can presume that the improvement of consumer familiarity with attributes such as “locally grown” and “local product” could support more eco-friendly consumption of raspberries and blueberries.

  10. Thermal and high pressure inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Delon, Antoine; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2017-10-01

    This study for the first time investigated the stability and inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase in model systems (McIlvaine buffer, pH=3.6, the typical pH of blueberry juice) during thermal (40-80°C) and combined high pressure-thermal processing (0.1-690MPa, 30-90°C). At 70-80°C, the thermal inactivation kinetics was best described by a biphasic model with ∼61% labile and ∼39% stable fractions at temperature between 70 and 75°C. High pressure inhibited the inactivation of the enzyme with no inactivation at pressures as high as 690MPa and temperatures less than 50°C. The inactivation kinetics of the enzyme at 60-70°C, and pressures higher than 500MPa was best described by a first order biphasic model with ∼25% labile fraction and 75% stable fraction. The activation energy values at atmospheric pressure were 548.6kJ/mol and 324.5kJ/mol respectively for the stable and the labile fractions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 12707 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... personal information provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeanette Palmer, Marketing Specialist..., Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Blueberry promotion, Reporting and recordkeeping... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 [Document Number AMS-FV...

  12. Composition and morphology of cuticular wax in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Cao, Shifeng; Fang, Xiangjun; Chen, Hangjun; Xiao, Shangyue

    2017-03-15

    The chemical composition and morphology of cuticular wax in mature fruit of nine blueberry cultivars were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Triterpenoids and β-diketones were the most prominent compounds, accounting for on average 64.2% and 16.4% of the total wax, respectively. Ursolic or oleanolic acid was identified as the most abundant triterpenoids differing in cultivars. Two β-diketones, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione, were detected in cuticular wax of blueberry fruits for the first time. Notably, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione were only detected in highbush (V. corymbosum) and rabbiteye (V. ashei) blueberries, respectively. The results of SEM showed that a large amount of tubular wax deposited on the surface of blueberry fruits. There was no apparent difference in wax morphology among the nine cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Utah Marbles and Mars Blueberries: Comparitive Terrestrial Analogs for Hematite Concretions on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M. A.; Beitler, B.; Parry, W. T.; Ormö, J.; Komatsu, G.

    2005-03-01

    Compelling comparisons show why Utah iron oxide-cemented "marbles" are a good analog for Mars hematite "blueberries". Terrestrial examples offer valuable models for interpreting the diagenetic history and importance of water on Mars.

  14. Transformation of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in blueberries during high-temperature processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Typek, Rafal

    2014-11-12

    Chlorogenic acid (CQA), an ester of caffeic with quinic acid, is a natural compound found in a wide array of plants. Although coffee beans are most frequently mentioned as plant products remarkably rich in CQAs, their significant amounts can also be found in many berries, for example, blueberries. This paper shows and discusses the thermal stability of the main CQA representative, that is, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), during high-temperature processing of blueberries (as in the production of blueberry foods) in systems containing sucrose in low and high concentration. It has been found that up to 11 components (5-CQA derivatives and its reaction product with water) can be formed from 5-CQA during the processing of blueberries. Their formation speed depends on the sucrose concentration in the processed system, which has been confirmed in the artificial system composed of 5-CQA water solution containing different amounts of the sugar.

  15. Do Martian Blueberries Have Pits? -- Artifacts of an Early Wet Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, L.

    2005-03-01

    Early Martian weather cycles would have supported organic chemical self-organization, the assumed predecessor to an independent "origin" of Martian life. Artifacts of these processes are discussed, including the possibility that Martian blueberries nucleated around organic cores.

  16. Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Using Antioxidants from Blackberry, Blueberry, Pomegranate, and Turmeric Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greener synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles is described using antioxidants from blackberry, blueberry, pomegranate, and turmeric extracts. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HR...

  17. Organ-specific distribution of phenolic compounds in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and 'northblue' blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum x V. angustifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihinen, Kaisu; Jaakola, Laura; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Hohtola, Anja

    2008-09-01

    Blueberries and bilberries are recognized as some of the best sources of flavonoids, especially anthocyanins. The contents of flavonoids (anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols) and hydroxycinnamic acids in the flower, fruit skin and pulp, leaf and rhizome of bilberry and the blueberry cultivar 'Northblue' were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode-array detection. The most striking difference in the fruits was the predominance of hydroxycinnamic acids in blueberry, whereas in bilberry the anthocyanin content was much higher, particularly in the pulp. Differences in flavonoid contents of fruits were already apparent at the flower stage. Bilberry and blueberry leaves both contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Blueberry rhizomes accumulated high amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids. All plant parts of bilberry and blueberry are potential sources of phenolic compounds for use either as dietary botanicals or by the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Variation of anthocyanins and other major phenolic compounds throughout the ripening of four Portuguese blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sara; Costa, Eduardo M; Coelho, Marta C; Morais, Rui M; Pintado, Manuela E

    2017-01-01

    Blueberries are widely recognised as one of the richest sources of bioactive compounds, among which are anthocyanins, though the ripeness of berries has been reported as affecting the phytochemical composition of fruits. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate the variation of anthocyanins, and other major phenolics, throughout five ripening stages in four blueberry cultivars. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content increased during ripening, reaching the highest values when the blueberries are collected from bunches comprised of 75% ripe blueberries. Antagonistically, the amount of phenolic acid decreases, while the quercetin-3-glucoside levels remain stable. Furthermore, Goldtraube blueberries appear to possess, systematically, higher amounts of phenolic compounds than the other cultivars studied. Thus, when seeking the highest yield of anthocyanins, the preferred harvest should occur in bunches that contain ca 75% of ripe blueberries and, considering the cultivars assayed, the Goldtraube cultivar appears to be the richest in phenolic compounds.

  19. Phylogenetic, Morphological, and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria Species Associated with Fruit Rot of Blueberry in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L

    2015-12-01

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit.

  20. Acetobacter strains isolated during the acetification of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, C; García, D; Romero, J; Mas, A; Torija, M J; Mateo, E

    2013-09-01

    Highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are known to have positive health benefits. The production of blueberry vinegar is one method to preserve this seasonal fruit and allow extended consumption. In this study, blueberry wine acetification was performed with naturally occurring micro-organisms and with an inoculated Acetobacter cerevisiae strain. Acetifications were carried out in triplicate using the Schützenbach method. The successful spontaneous processes took up to 66% more time than the processes involving inoculation. The isolation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and the analysis of these AAB using molecular methods allowed the identification of the main genotypes responsible of the blueberry acetification. Although the Acet. cerevisiae strain was the predominant strain isolated from the inoculated process samples, Acetobacter pasteurianus was isolated from samples for both processes and was the only species present in the spontaneous acetification samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the identification and variability of AAB isolated during blueberry acetification. The isolated Acet. pasteurianus strains could be used for large-scale blueberry vinegar production or as a starter culture in studies of other vinegar production methods. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Assessing the Economic Importance of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Northern Highbush Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Noel G; Isaacs, Rufus

    2015-08-01

    Infestation by blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson, is common in northern highbush blueberries, but its effects on crop productivity are unknown. We examined whether infestation by blueberry gall midge reduces flower bud production when compared with uninfested shoots, and how infestation at different times affects the crop response. From the fall of 2009 to the spring of 2011, the number of flower buds on infested and uninfested shoots of blueberry bushes was counted and compared. Despite causing branching of vegetative growth, there was no significant effect of infestation on flower bud production. During the summer of 2010, damaged shoots were marked throughout the growing season in June, July, or August. The number of flower buds set per shoot declined with later infestation dates, and shoots damaged in August had significantly fewer buds than those damaged in June and July. We discuss the implications of these findings for management of blueberry gall midge in northern highbush blueberry. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Plasma and Urinary Phenolic Profiles after Acute and Repetitive Intake of Wild Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. Feliciano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that blueberries may have cardiovascular and cognitive health benefits. In this work, we investigated the profile of plasma and urine (polyphenol metabolites after acute and daily consumption of wild blueberries for 30 days in 18 healthy men. The inter-individual variability in plasma and urinary polyphenol levels was also investigated. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 2 h post-consumption on day 1 and day 30. Twenty-four-hour urine was also collected on both days. A total of 61 phenolic metabolites were quantified in plasma at baseline, of which 43 increased after acute or chronic consumption of blueberries over one month. Benzoic and catechol derivatives represented more than 80% of the changes in phenolic profile after 2 h consumption on day 1, whereas hippuric and benzoic derivatives were the major compounds that increased at 0 and 2 h on day 30, respectively. The total (polyphenol urinary excretion remained unchanged after 30 days of wild blueberry intake. The inter-individual variability ranged between 40%–48% in plasma and 47%–54% in urine. Taken together, our results illustrate that blueberry (polyphenols are absorbed and extensively metabolized by phase II enzymes and by the gut microbiota, leading to a whole array of metabolites that may be responsible for the beneficial effects observed after blueberry consumption.

  3. Changes in the Quality of Black Mulberry and Blueberry Sherbets During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsen Rayman Ergün

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was evaluated the quality properties of traditional drink sherbets that are prepared from black mulberry and blueberry fruits. After production sherbets were investigated to determine their pH, acidity, °brix and colour values, total sugar, phenolic, anthocyanin and antioxidant contents. Moreover the sherbets stored at 4°C during 2 months and the changes in these quality properties were examined per month. As a result statistically significant changes were observed in the quality properties of these sherbets of black mulberry and blueberry fruits which are known with their rich content of phytochemical compounds. The results show that in blueberry sherbet the degradation of phenolics was faster than black mulberry sherbet. Anthocyanins that are higher in black mulberry sherbets after production were preserved better in blueberry sherbets at the end of 2nd month. L*and a* values decreased for blackberry and blueberry sherbets during storage. b* value decreased from 5.59 to 4.92 for blackberry sherbet while it increased from 0.62 to 0.79 for blueberry sherbet at the end of the storage time.

  4. Evaluation of the quality and shelf life of gamma irradiated blueberries by quarantine purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lires, Carla M. L.; Docters, Andrea; Horak, Celina I.

    2018-02-01

    Fresh blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are considered one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds and are appreciated for their high antioxidant capacity. But they are hosts in Argentina of the quarantine pests Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, and have to be treated to avoid its spreading. Irradiation is being introduced in the Agricultural World trade, increasing exponentially on the last years. In order to guarantee the success of this process, it is required previous to the rutinary treatment, to define the irradiation dose range to be applied. The minimum dose for these pests has been already approved in the IPPC standard 28. The maximum dose depends on the tolerance of the fruit cultivars, maturity, pre-harvest conditions, harvest time, storage conditions, and interactions among these factors. The postharvest quality of Argentina´s blueberry treated with irradiation doses of 150 (generic quarantine dose used for fruit flies) and 300 Gy (to evaluate tolerance) was evaluated. The studies included blueberries from different harvest seasons 2009-2012). Misty, O'Neal and Emeral varieties were chosen, because they represent the biggest volume of exported blueberry from Argentina. The results indicated that irradiation at 150 Gy and 300 Gy did not significantly affect the postharvest quality and slightly improved shelf life of the different blueberries varieties. Therefore, it is possible to use irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment for Argentina´s blueberries, establishing a dose range appropriate to be applied on a commercial irradiation facility.

  5. Identifying Breeding Priorities for Blueberry Flavor Using Biochemical, Sensory, and Genotype by Environment Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jessica L.; Guthart, Matthew J.; Gezan, Salvador A.; Pisaroglo de Carvalho, Melissa; Schwieterman, Michael L.; Colquhoun, Thomas A.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.; Sims, Charles A.; Clark, David G.; Olmstead, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding for a subjective goal such as flavor is challenging, as many blueberry cultivars are grown worldwide, and identifying breeding targets relating to blueberry flavor biochemistry that have a high degree of genetic control and low environmental variability are priorities. A variety of biochemical compounds and physical characters induce the sensory responses of taste, olfaction, and somatosensation, all of which interact to create what is perceived flavor. The goal of this study was to identify the flavor compounds with a larger genetic versus environmental component regulating their expression over an array of cultivars, locations, and years. Over the course of three years, consumer panelists rated overall liking, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor intensity of 19 southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum hybrids) genotypes in 30 sensory panels. Significant positive correlations to overall liking of blueberry fruit (Panalysis was used to identify sugars, acids, and volatile compounds contributing to liking and sensory intensities, and revealed strong effects of fructose, pH, and several volatile compounds upon all sensory parameters measured. To assess the feasibility of breeding for flavor components, a three year study was conducted to compare genetic and environmental influences on flavor biochemistry. Panelists could discern genotypic variation in blueberry sensory components, and many of the compounds affecting consumer favor of blueberries, such as fructose, pH, β-caryophyllene oxide and 2-heptanone, were sufficiently genetically controlled that allocating resources for their breeding is worthwhile. PMID:26378911

  6. Plasma and Urinary Phenolic Profiles after Acute and Repetitive Intake of Wild Blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Rodrigo P; Istas, Geoffrey; Heiss, Christian; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana

    2016-08-25

    Recent studies have shown that blueberries may have cardiovascular and cognitive health benefits. In this work, we investigated the profile of plasma and urine (poly)phenol metabolites after acute and daily consumption of wild blueberries for 30 days in 18 healthy men. The inter-individual variability in plasma and urinary polyphenol levels was also investigated. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 2 h post-consumption on day 1 and day 30. Twenty-four-hour urine was also collected on both days. A total of 61 phenolic metabolites were quantified in plasma at baseline, of which 43 increased after acute or chronic consumption of blueberries over one month. Benzoic and catechol derivatives represented more than 80% of the changes in phenolic profile after 2 h consumption on day 1, whereas hippuric and benzoic derivatives were the major compounds that increased at 0 and 2 h on day 30, respectively. The total (poly)phenol urinary excretion remained unchanged after 30 days of wild blueberry intake. The inter-individual variability ranged between 40%-48% in plasma and 47%-54% in urine. Taken together, our results illustrate that blueberry (poly)phenols are absorbed and extensively metabolized by phase II enzymes and by the gut microbiota, leading to a whole array of metabolites that may be responsible for the beneficial effects observed after blueberry consumption.

  7. Inactivation of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enterica on Blueberries in Water Using Ultraviolet Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuhan; Huang, Yaoxin; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-07-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) has antimicrobial effects, but the shadowing effect has limited its application. In this study, a novel setup using UV processing in agitated water was developed to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on blueberries. Blueberries were dip- or spot-inoculated with E. coli or Salmonella. Blueberries inoculated with E. coli were treated for 2 to 10 min with UV directly (dry UV) or immersed in agitated water during UV treatment (wet UV). E. coli was most easily killed on spot-inoculated blueberries with a 5.2-log reduction after 10-min wet UV treatment. Dip-inoculated blueberries were the most difficult to be decontaminated with only 1.6-log reduction after 10-min wet UV treatment. Wet UV treatment generally showed higher efficacies than dry UV treatment, achieving an average of 1.4 log more reduction for spot-inoculated blueberries. For dip-inoculated blueberries, chlorine washing and UV treatments were less effective, achieving blueberries were UV-treated while being immersed in agitated water containing 100 ppm SDS, 0.5% levulinic acid or 10 ppm chlorine. The 3 chemicals did not significantly enhance the wet UV treatment. Findings of this study suggest that UV treatment could be used as an alternative to chlorine washing for blueberries and potentially for other fresh produce. A novel UV light system for decontamination of blueberries in water was developed and evaluated. Results demonstrated that the decontamination efficacy of this system was generally as effective as chlorine washing, indicating that it could potentially be used as an alternative to chlorine washing for blueberries and other fresh produce. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Differential iridoid production as revealed by a diversity panel of 84 cultivated and wild blueberry species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney P Leisner

    Full Text Available Cultivated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium darrowii, and Vaccinium virgatum is an economically important fruit crop native to North America and a member of the Ericaceae family. Several species in the Ericaceae family including cranberry, lignonberry, bilberry, and neotropical blueberry species have been shown to produce iridoids, a class of pharmacologically important compounds present in over 15 plant families demonstrated to have a wide range of biological activities in humans including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory. While the antioxidant capacity of cultivated blueberry has been well studied, surveys of iridoid production in blueberry have been restricted to fruit of a very limited number of accessions of V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium and V. virgatum; none of these analyses have detected iridoids. To provide a broader survey of iridoid biosynthesis in cultivated blueberry, we constructed a panel of 84 accessions representing a wide range of cultivated market classes, as well as wild blueberry species, and surveyed these for the presence of iridoids. We identified the iridoid glycoside monotropein in fruits and leaves of all 13 wild Vaccinium species, yet only five of the 71 cultivars. Monotropein positive cultivars all had recent introgressions from wild species, suggesting that iridoid production can be targeted through breeding efforts that incorporate wild germplasm. A series of diverse developmental tissues was also surveyed in the diversity panel, demonstrating a wide range in iridoid content across tissues. Taken together, this data provides the foundation to dissect the molecular and genetic basis of iridoid production in blueberry.

  9. Natural Enemy Abundance in Southeastern Blueberry Agroecosystems: Distance to Edge and Impact of Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, T Seth; Sial, Ashfaq A; Schmidt, Jason M

    2018-02-08

    Natural enemies are valuable components of agroecosystems as they provide biological control services to help regulate pest populations. Promoting biocontrol services can improve sustainability by decreasing pesticide usage, which is a major challenge for the blueberry industry. Our research is the first to compare natural enemy populations in managed (conventional and organic) and unmanaged blueberry systems, in addition to the effects of non-crop habitat. We conducted our study in 10 blueberry orchards during the growing season across the major blueberry producing counties in Georgia, United States. To estimate the spatial distribution of natural enemies, we conducted suction sampling at three locations in each orchard: within the forested border, along the edge of blueberry orchard adjacent to forested border, and within the interior of the blueberry orchard. Natural enemies maintained higher abundance over the season in unmanaged areas when compared with organic or conventional production systems. In the conventional orchards, natural enemies were more abundant in the surrounding non-crop area compared with the interior of the orchard. Populations were more evenly distributed in less intensive systems (organic and unmanaged). Our results indicate spatial structure in natural enemy populations is related to management practice, and less intensive management can retain higher abundance of natural enemies in blueberry systems. Considerations must be made towards promoting ecologically based management practices to sustain natural enemy populations and potentially increase the delivery of biological control services. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Antioxidant properties, phenolic composition and potentiometric sensor array evaluation of commercial and new blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and bog blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas; Pukalskas, Audrius; Česonienė, Laima; Daubaras, Remigijus

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant properties of juices of newly bred and known blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) genotypes and wild bog blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) were evaluated by ABTS(+) scavenging capacity (RSC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) assays. TPC varied in the range of 0.85-2.81 mg gallic acid equiv./mL, RSC, FRAP and ORAC values were 6.38-20.9, 3.07-17.8 and 4.21-45.68 μmol Trolox equiv./g, respectively. New blueberry genotypes and bog blueberry demonstrated stronger antioxidant properties and TAC than other studied genotypes. The content of quinic (203-3614 μg/mL), chlorogenic (20.0-346.8 μg/mL) acids and rutin (0.00-26.88 μg/mL) measured by UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS varied depending on the genotype. Juices were evaluated by electronic tongue; PCA score plot showed that the method discriminates different genotypes although some juice samples were located very closely and overlapping. Significant differences were observed between L(∗), a(∗), b(∗) colour parameters of some genotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of assembling methods on determination of whole genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa blueberry bacterial leaf scorch strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry bacterial leaf scorch (BBLS) disease, a threat to blueberry production in the Southern USA and potentially elsewhere, is caused by Xylella fastidiosa. Efficient control of BBLS requires knowledge of the pathogen. However, this is challenging because Xylella fastidiosa is difficult to cultu...

  12. Comparison of trap types, placement, and colors for monitoring Anthonomus musculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults in highbush blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of highbush blueberries in the northeast USA. To date, however, no trapping system has been developed to successfully monitor this pest. In 2012-2014, studies were conducted in commercial blueberry farms in New Jers...

  13. Next generation sequencing of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum 'Premier') and transcriptome comparisons to highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum) genomic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium virgatum (syn V. ashei) is commonly known as rabbiteye blueberry and native to the Southeastern United States. Cultivars are typically grown from North Carolina south to Florida and west to Texas for commercial blueberry production. In the Southeast, plants exhibit superior environmental ...

  14. Comparative study of anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdulis, Deividas; Sarkinas, Antanas; Jasutiené, Ina; Stackevicené, Elicija; Nikolajevas, Laurynas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous comparison of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) fruits for their anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity is reported. The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in bilberry and blueberry fruits and their skins. The investigations revealed that the highest amount of total anthocyanins was observed in fruits skins of blueberry cultivars. The results, obtained by chromatographic analysis, indicated that cyanidin is a dominant anthocyanidin in bilberry and malvidin in blueberry samples. Extracts of "Herbert", "Coville", "Toro" blueberry cultivars and bilberry fruits revealed antimicrobial properties. Citrobacter freundii (ATCC 8090) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212) were the most sensitive among eight tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Significant differences between berry and skin extracts were not established. Studies with fruits showed that the strongest antioxidant activity possesses blueberry cultivar "Berkeley" (82.13 +/- 0.51%). Meanwhile, the amount of quenched free radicals in bilberry samples was 63.72 +/- 1.11%, respectively. The lowest antioxidant activity was estimated in blueberry cultivar "Coville". Accordingly, the strongest antiradical properties were estimated in blueberry cultivar "Ama" fruit skins. Bilberry fruit skin samples possess strong antiradical activity as well (82.69 +/- 0.37%).

  15. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  16. GC-O, volatile and qualitative differences in locally grown rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberries, and juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern and southeastern US production of blueberries has increased markedly in recent years. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and volatile and semi-volatile compounds are seldom reported in rabbiteye blueberry (RAB). Few comparisons have been made between the organoleptic differences betwe...

  17. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide-generating pads and modified atmosphere packaging for control of postharvest diseases in blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest diseases are a limiting factor of storage and shelf life of blueberries. Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest diseases in blueberries grown in California. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2)-generating pads (designated ...

  18. Consumption of blueberries with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast decreases postprandial serum markers of oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Bryan C; Snyder, Shannon M; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2013-05-01

    We sought to determine whether consumption of blueberries could reduce postprandial oxidation when consumed with a typical high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Participants (n 14) received each of the three treatments over 3 weeks in a cross-over design. Treatments consisted of a high blueberry dose (75 g), a low blueberry dose (35 g) and a control (ascorbic acid and sugar content matching that of the high blueberry dose). Serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), serum lipoprotein oxidation (LO) and serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were measured at fasting, and at 1, 2 and 3 h after sample consumption. The mean serum ORAC was significantly higher in the 75 g group than in the control group during the first 2 h postprandially, while serum LO lag time showed a significant trend over the 3 h for both blueberry doses. Changes in serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were not significantly different among the groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report that has demonstrated that increased serum antioxidant capacity is not attributable to the fructose or ascorbate content of blueberries. In summary, a practically consumable quantity of blueberries (75 g) can provide statistically significant oxidative protection in vivo after a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Though not tested directly, it is likely that the effects are due to phenolic compounds, either directly or indirectly, as they are a major family of compounds in blueberries with potential bioactive activity.

  19. Effects of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolate, inoculum delivery method, flood, and drought on vigor, disease severity and mortality of blueberry plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four studies evaluated the effect of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates, inoculum delivery methods, and flood and drought conditions on vigor, disease severity scores, and survival of blueberry plants grown in pots in the greenhouse. Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates were obtained from blueberry plants ...

  20. Suitability of sphagnum moss, coir, and douglas fir bark as soilless substrates for container production of highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the suitability of different soilless substrates for container production of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). Young plants of ‘Snowchaser’ blueberry were grown in 4.4-liter pots filled with media containing 10% perlite and varying proportions of...

  1. Association of Xylella fastidiosa with Yield Loss and Altered Fruit Quality in a Naturally Infected Rabbiteye Blueberry Orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a number of plants in the southeastern United States, including southern highbush blueberry, but little was known concerning its potential impact in rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum). In a naturally infected orchard in Louisiana, mean yields of X. fastidi...

  2. Mummy Berry Fruit Rot and Shoot Blight Incidence in Blueberry: Prediction, Ranking, and Stability in a Long-term Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated blueberry cultivar resistance to both phases of the disease and, utilizing ‘stan...

  3. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Khomenko, Iuliia; Grisenti, Marcella; Ajelli, Matteo; Betta, Emanuela; Algarra, Alberto Alarcon; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco; Giongo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruit consumption has increased over the last 5 years, becoming the second most important soft fruit species after strawberry. Despite the possible economic and sensory impact, the blueberry volatile organic compound (VOC) composition has been poorly investigated. Thus, the great impact of the aroma on fruit marketability stimulates the need to step forward in the understanding of this quality trait. Beside the strong effect of ripening, blueberry aroma profile also varies due to the broad genetic differences among Vaccinium species that have been differently introgressed in modern commercial cultivars through breeding activity. In the present study, divided into two different activities, the complexity of blueberry aroma was explored by an exhaustive untargeted VOC analysis, performed by two complementary methods: SPME-GC-MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry). The first experiment was aimed at determining the VOC modifications during blueberry ripening for five commercially representative cultivars (“Biloxi,” “Brigitta Blue,” “Centurion,” “Chandler,” and “Ozark Blue”) harvested at four ripening stages (green, pink, ripe, and over-ripe) to outline VOCs dynamic during fruit development. The objective of the second experiment was to confirm the analytical capability of PTR-ToF-MS to profile blueberry genotypes and to identify the most characterizing VOCs. In this case, 11 accessions belonging to different Vaccinium species were employed: V. corymbosum L. (“Brigitta,” “Chandler,” “Liberty,” and “Ozark Blue”), V. virgatum Aiton (“Centurion,” “Powder Blue,” and “Sky Blue”), V. myrtillus L. (three wild genotypes of different mountain locations), and one accession of V. cylindraceum Smith. This comprehensive characterization of blueberry aroma allowed the identification of a wide pull of VOCs

  4. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Farneti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium spp. fruit consumption has increased over the last 5 years, becoming the second most important soft fruit species after strawberry. Despite the possible economic and sensory impact, the blueberry volatile organic compound (VOC composition has been poorly investigated. Thus, the great impact of the aroma on fruit marketability stimulates the need to step forward in the understanding of this quality trait. Beside the strong effect of ripening, blueberry aroma profile also varies due to the broad genetic differences among Vaccinium species that have been differently introgressed in modern commercial cultivars through breeding activity. In the present study, divided into two different activities, the complexity of blueberry aroma was explored by an exhaustive untargeted VOC analysis, performed by two complementary methods: SPME-GC-MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry. The first experiment was aimed at determining the VOC modifications during blueberry ripening for five commercially representative cultivars (“Biloxi,” “Brigitta Blue,” “Centurion,” “Chandler,” and “Ozark Blue” harvested at four ripening stages (green, pink, ripe, and over-ripe to outline VOCs dynamic during fruit development. The objective of the second experiment was to confirm the analytical capability of PTR-ToF-MS to profile blueberry genotypes and to identify the most characterizing VOCs. In this case, 11 accessions belonging to different Vaccinium species were employed: V. corymbosum L. (“Brigitta,” “Chandler,” “Liberty,” and “Ozark Blue”, V. virgatum Aiton (“Centurion,” “Powder Blue,” and “Sky Blue”, V. myrtillus L. (three wild genotypes of different mountain locations, and one accession of V. cylindraceum Smith. This comprehensive characterization of blueberry aroma allowed the identification of a wide

  5. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Khomenko, Iuliia; Grisenti, Marcella; Ajelli, Matteo; Betta, Emanuela; Algarra, Alberto Alarcon; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco; Giongo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Blueberry ( Vaccinium spp.) fruit consumption has increased over the last 5 years, becoming the second most important soft fruit species after strawberry. Despite the possible economic and sensory impact, the blueberry volatile organic compound (VOC) composition has been poorly investigated. Thus, the great impact of the aroma on fruit marketability stimulates the need to step forward in the understanding of this quality trait. Beside the strong effect of ripening, blueberry aroma profile also varies due to the broad genetic differences among Vaccinium species that have been differently introgressed in modern commercial cultivars through breeding activity. In the present study, divided into two different activities, the complexity of blueberry aroma was explored by an exhaustive untargeted VOC analysis, performed by two complementary methods: SPME-GC-MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry). The first experiment was aimed at determining the VOC modifications during blueberry ripening for five commercially representative cultivars ("Biloxi," "Brigitta Blue," "Centurion," "Chandler," and "Ozark Blue") harvested at four ripening stages (green, pink, ripe, and over-ripe) to outline VOCs dynamic during fruit development. The objective of the second experiment was to confirm the analytical capability of PTR-ToF-MS to profile blueberry genotypes and to identify the most characterizing VOCs. In this case, 11 accessions belonging to different Vaccinium species were employed: V . corymbosum L. ("Brigitta," "Chandler," "Liberty," and "Ozark Blue"), V. virgatum Aiton ("Centurion," "Powder Blue," and "Sky Blue"), V. myrtillus L. (three wild genotypes of different mountain locations), and one accession of V. cylindraceum Smith. This comprehensive characterization of blueberry aroma allowed the identification of a wide pull of VOCs, for the most aldehydes, alcohols, terpenoids

  6. Shelf Life Determination of Fresh Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum Stored under Controlled Atmosphere and Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Concha-Meyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh blueberries are commonly stored and transported by refrigeration in controlled atmospheres to protect shelf life for long periods of storage. Ozone is an antimicrobial gas that can extend shelf life and protect fruit from microbial contamination. Shelf life of fresh highbush blueberries was determined over 10-day storage in isolated cabinets at 4°C or 12°C under different atmosphere conditions, including air (control; 5% O2 : 15% CO2 : 80% N2 (controlled atmosphere storage (CAS; and ozone gas (O3 4 ppm at 4°C or 2.5 ppm at 12°C, at high relative humidity (90–95%. Samples were evaluated for yeast and molds growth, weight loss, and firmness. CAS and O3 did not delay or inhibit yeast and molds growth in blueberries after 10 days at both temperatures. Fruit stored at 4°C showed lower weight loss values compared with 12°C. Blueberries stored under O3 atmosphere showed reduced weight loss at 12°C by day 10 and loss of firmness when compared to the other treatments. Low concentrations of ozone gas together with proper refrigeration temperature can help protect fresh blueberries quality during storage.

  7. Effects of southern highbush blueberry cultivar and treatment threshold on flower thrips populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E; England, Gary K

    2012-04-01

    In Florida, southern highbush (SHB) blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. x Vaccinium darrowi Camp) are grown for a highly profitable early season fresh market. Flower thrips are the key pest of SHB blueberries, and Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) is the most common species found. Flower thrips injure blueberry flowers by feeding and ovipositing in all developing tissues. These injuries can lead to scarring of developing fruit. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between thrips and yield in different SHB blueberry cultivars and to determine an action threshold. Experiments were conducted during early spring 2007 and 2008 on four farms; a research farm in Citra, FL; and three commercial farms, two in Hernando Co., FL., and one in Lake Co., FL. At the Citra farm, 'Emerald', 'Jewel', 'Millennia', and 'Star' blueberries were compared in 2007, and all but Star were compared in 2008. On the Hernando and Lake Co. farms, two treatment thresholds (100 and 200 thrips per trap) and an untreated control and four cultivars (Emerald, Jewel, Millennia, and 'Windsor') were compared. Emerald consistently had more thrips per trap and per flower than the other cultivars on all four farms. However, this did not always lead to an increase in fruit injury. Thrips numbers exceeded the threshold on only one farm in 2007, and there was a significantly lower proportion of injured and malformed fruit in the 100 thrips per trap threshold treatment compared with the control on this farm.

  8. The Change of Total Anthocyanins in Blueberries and Their Antioxidant Effect After Drying and Freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virachnee Lohachoompol

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of freezing, storage, and cabinet drying on the anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Fresh samples were stored for two weeks at 5∘C while frozen samples were kept for up to three months at −20∘C. There were two drying treatments, one including osmotic pretreatment followed by cabinet drying and the other involving only cabinet drying. Total anthocyanins found in fresh blueberries were 7.2±0.5 mg/g dry matter, expressed as cyanidin 3-rutinoside equivalents. In comparison with fresh samples, total anthocyanins in untreated and pretreated dried blueberries were significantly reduced to 4.3±0.1 mg/g solid content, 41% loss, and 3.7±0.2 mg/g solid content, 49% loss, respectively. Osmotic treatment followed by a thermal treatment had a greater effect on anthocyanin loss than the thermal treatment alone. In contrast, the frozen samples did not show any significant decrease in anthocyanin level during three months of storage. Measurement of the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin extracts from blueberries showed there was no significant difference between fresh, dried, and frozen blueberries.

  9. The Change of Total Anthocyanins in Blueberries and Their Antioxidant Effect After Drying and Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srzednicki, George

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of freezing, storage, and cabinet drying on the anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L). Fresh samples were stored for two weeks at 5°C while frozen samples were kept for up to three months at −20°C. There were two drying treatments, one including osmotic pretreatment followed by cabinet drying and the other involving only cabinet drying. Total anthocyanins found in fresh blueberries were 7.2 ± 0.5 mg/g dry matter, expressed as cyanidin 3-rutinoside equivalents. In comparison with fresh samples, total anthocyanins in untreated and pretreated dried blueberries were significantly reduced to 4.3 ± 0.1 mg/g solid content, 41% loss, and 3.7 ± 0.2 mg/g solid content, 49% loss, respectively. Osmotic treatment followed by a thermal treatment had a greater effect on anthocyanin loss than the thermal treatment alone. In contrast, the frozen samples did not show any significant decrease in anthocyanin level during three months of storage. Measurement of the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin extracts from blueberries showed there was no significant difference between fresh, dried, and frozen blueberries. PMID:15577185

  10. Shelf Life Determination of Fresh Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) Stored under Controlled Atmosphere and Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Meyer, Anibal; Eifert, Joseph D; Williams, Robert C; Marcy, Joseph E; Welbaum, Gregory E

    2015-01-01

    Fresh blueberries are commonly stored and transported by refrigeration in controlled atmospheres to protect shelf life for long periods of storage. Ozone is an antimicrobial gas that can extend shelf life and protect fruit from microbial contamination. Shelf life of fresh highbush blueberries was determined over 10-day storage in isolated cabinets at 4°C or 12°C under different atmosphere conditions, including air (control); 5% O2 : 15% CO2 : 80% N2 (controlled atmosphere storage (CAS)); and ozone gas (O3) 4 ppm at 4°C or 2.5 ppm at 12°C, at high relative humidity (90-95%). Samples were evaluated for yeast and molds growth, weight loss, and firmness. CAS and O3 did not delay or inhibit yeast and molds growth in blueberries after 10 days at both temperatures. Fruit stored at 4°C showed lower weight loss values compared with 12°C. Blueberries stored under O3 atmosphere showed reduced weight loss at 12°C by day 10 and loss of firmness when compared to the other treatments. Low concentrations of ozone gas together with proper refrigeration temperature can help protect fresh blueberries quality during storage.

  11. Cooked blueberries: anthocyanin and anthocyanidin degradation and their radical-scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla; Amaro, L Filipe; Pinho, Olivia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2010-08-25

    This study examined anthocyanin and anthocyanidin composition and radical-scavenging activity of three cultivars of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L., cv. Bluecrop, Bluetravel, and Ozarkblue) before and after cooking. A total of 13 anthocyanins were separated and monitored in methanolic extracts of raw fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector (HPLC/DAD). Principal component analysis using the anthocyanin profile as variables revealed differences according to cultivar origin. Of the six common anthocyanidins, four were identified and quantified in the hydrolysates, namely, malvidin, the most abundant, followed by cyanidin, petunidin, and delphynidin. A systematic evaluation of the degradation of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins of blueberries cooked in stuffed fish was performed. The percentage of anthocyanin degradation in cooked blueberries (by progressive heating from 12 to 99 °C for 60 min) ranged between 16 and 30% for Bluecrop, 30-42% for Bluetravel, and 12-41% for Ozarkblue. However, cooked blueberries maintained or increased radical-scavenging activity when evaluated by the 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Overall, results show that cooked blueberries can serve as a good source of bioactive phytochemicals.

  12. Evidence that Blueberry Floral Extracts Influence Secondary Conidiation and Appressorial Formation of Colletotrichum fioriniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Timothy J; Vaiciunas, Jennifer; Constantelos, Christine; Oudemans, Peter V

    2018-05-01

    Blueberry anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae, is a pre- and postharvest disease of cultivated highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). During disease development, the pathogen undergoes several lifestyle changes during host colonization, including epiphytic, quiescent, and necrotrophic phases. It is not clear, however, what if any host signals alter the pattern of colonization during the initial epiphytic phase and infection. This research investigated the role of blueberry floral extracts (FE) on fungal development. Results show that FE significantly increased both the quantity and rate of secondary conidiation and appressorial formation in vitro, suggesting that floral components could decrease the minimum time required for infection. Activity of FE was readily detected in water collected from field samples, where secondary conidiation and appressorial formation decreased as rainwater collections were further removed from flowers. A comparison of FE from four blueberry cultivars with different levels of field susceptibility revealed that appressorial formation but not secondary conidiation significantly increased with the FE from susceptible cultivars versus resistant cultivars. Inoculum supplemented with FE produced higher levels of disease on ripe blueberry fruit as compared with inoculum with water only. Flowers from other ericaceous species were found to also induce secondary conidiation and appressorial formation of C. fioriniae. This research provides strong evidence that flowers can contribute substantially to the infection process of C. fioriniae, signifying the importance of the bloom period for developing effective disease management strategies.

  13. A study of glycaemic effects following acute anthocyanin-rich blueberry supplementation in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L; Lamport, D J; Butler, L T; Williams, C M

    2017-09-20

    The postprandial response to ingested carbohydrate is recognised as a marker of metabolic health. Postprandial hyperglycaemia is observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus and is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cognitive deficits are also associated with type 2 diabetes. Therefore interventions which moderate postprandial glucose profiles are desirable. Here we investigated the impact of anthocyanin-rich wild blueberries on postprandial glucose response. Seventeen healthy young adults consumed a range of doses of freeze-dried wild blueberry powder, in smoothie form, in both sugar-matched and no-added-sugar conditions. Plasma glucose was determined by a capillary sampling method at baseline and at regular intervals up to 2.5 hours postprandially. Blueberries were observed to significantly extend the postprandial glucose response beyond the period observed for a sugar-matched control, characteristic of a beneficial glycaemic response. Furthermore, blueberries were observed to reduce peak postprandial glucose levels, although statistical significance was not achieved. The findings suggest a tempering of the postprandial glucose response in the presence of anthocyanin-rich blueberry, and are discussed with reference to likely glucoregulatory mechanisms of action and their implications for cognitive and type 2 diabetes research.

  14. Mechanistic insights into the vascular effects of blueberries: Evidence from recent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Brett Ronald; Petersen, Chrissa; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Dietary habits influence a variety of cardiovascular complications such as peripheral artery disease, heart failure, and kidney disease. We along with others have previously reported the cardiovascular beneficial effects of dietary flavonoids. Anthocyanins, one class of flavonoids widely available in berries, have recently drawn wide scientific attention because of their diverse health benefits. Epidemiological, clinical, and animal studies indicate that blueberry anthocyanins exert protection against cardiovascular complications by acting on multiple targets in the vascular system. These include activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling, reducing oxidative stress, improving inflammatory pathways, and ameliorating dyslipidemia. Anthocyanins are extensively metabolized in humans suggesting that their vascular benefits are likely mediated by their circulating metabolites. However, the bioactivities of blueberry metabolites are unknown. Evaluating the bioactivities of metabolites, analyzing their structure-activity relationship, and well-designed human trials are needed to understand the potential vascular effects of blueberries and their metabolites. Understanding the vascular effects will provide a solid scientific foundation to recommend blueberries to improve vascular health. This review highlights the recent developments in the understanding of the vascular effects of blueberries with special emphasis on the molecular mechanisms involved. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Preferences for berries among consumers in southern Chile: blueberries are produced but are they consumed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán

    2011-09-01

    Blueberry plantations in Chile are oriented exclusively towards exports to northern hemisphere countries; however, this fruit has recently been introduced into the domestic market due to the increased supply and a fall in export market prices. Based on the previously mentioned, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate consumer preferences for 3 species of berries (blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries), sold loose (unpackaged) as opposed to packaged and branded, at different prices, in one of the principal blueberry producing areas of Chile; and to distinguish consumer segments by their preferences. To do this a survey was applied to 400 people in the Araucanía Region of southern Chile, who were responsible for purchasing fruit for their households. Conjoint analysis showed a preference for raspberries and strawberries over blueberries, packaged and branded, at the lowest price. Total of 2 principal segments were distinguished by cluster analysis: "price sensitive" (42.7%), who preferred strawberries, and "sensitive to species of berry" (47.5%), who preferred raspberries and strawberries. The segments presented different profiles in their demographic make-up and fruit consumption behavior. Strategies are discussed that might reverse the low acceptance of blueberries in the Chilean domestic market. This study presents information on the introduction of new fresh foods into the market. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-07

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  17. Identifying Breeding Priorities for Blueberry Flavor Using Biochemical, Sensory, and Genotype by Environment Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jessica L; Guthart, Matthew J; Gezan, Salvador A; Pisaroglo de Carvalho, Melissa; Schwieterman, Michael L; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Sims, Charles A; Clark, David G; Olmstead, James W

    2015-01-01

    Breeding for a subjective goal such as flavor is challenging, as many blueberry cultivars are grown worldwide, and identifying breeding targets relating to blueberry flavor biochemistry that have a high degree of genetic control and low environmental variability are priorities. A variety of biochemical compounds and physical characters induce the sensory responses of taste, olfaction, and somatosensation, all of which interact to create what is perceived flavor. The goal of this study was to identify the flavor compounds with a larger genetic versus environmental component regulating their expression over an array of cultivars, locations, and years. Over the course of three years, consumer panelists rated overall liking, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor intensity of 19 southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum hybrids) genotypes in 30 sensory panels. Significant positive correlations to overall liking of blueberry fruit (Pblueberry sensory components, and many of the compounds affecting consumer favor of blueberries, such as fructose, pH, β-caryophyllene oxide and 2-heptanone, were sufficiently genetically controlled that allocating resources for their breeding is worthwhile.

  18. Blueberry polyphenols prevent cardiomyocyte death by preventing calpain activation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Xavier Lieben; Thandapilly, Sijo Joseph; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Melinda; Aloud, Basma Milad; Raj, Pema; Yu, Liping; Le, Hoa; Netticadan, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an aqueous wild blueberry extract and five wild blueberry polyphenol fractions on an in vitro model of heart disease. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were pretreated with extract and fractions, and then exposed to norepinephrine (NE). Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cell death, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cardiomyocyte contractile function as well as the activities of calpain, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in cardiomyocytes treated with and without NE and blueberry fraction (BF). Four of five blueberry fractions prevented cell death and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by NE. Total phenolic fraction was used for all further analysis. The NE-induced increase in oxidative stress, nuclear condensation, calpain activity and lowering of SOD and CAT activities were prevented upon pretreatment with BF. Reduced contractile function was also significantly improved with BF pretreatment. Blueberry polyphenols prevent NE-induced adult cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. The protective effects of BF may be in part attributed to a reduction in calpain activity and oxidative stress.

  19. Interspecific variation in anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity among genotypes of highbush and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium section cyanococcus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalt, W; Ryan, D A; Duy, J C; Prior, R L; Ehlenfeldt, M K; Vander Kloet, S P

    2001-10-01

    Recent interest in the possible protective effects of dietary antioxidant compounds against human degenerative disease has prompted investigation of foods such as blueberries (Vaccinium sp.), which have a high antioxidant capacity. Fruit obtained from genotypes of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) were analyzed for their antioxidant capacity, their content of anthocyanins, and total phenolic compounds, to evaluate the intraspecific and interspecific variation in these parameters. The method of extraction influenced the composition of fruit extracts; the highest anthocyanin and total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity were found in extracts obtained using a solvent of acidified aqueous methanol. Regardless of the method, lowbush blueberries were consistently higher in anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity, compared with highbush blueberries. There was no relationship between fruit size and anthocyanin content in either species.

  20. Complex formation of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) anthocyanins during freeze-drying and its influence on their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Betanzo, Julieta; Padmanabhan, Priya; Corredig, Milena; Subramanian, Jayasankar; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2015-03-25

    Biological activity of polyphenols is influenced by their uptake and is highly influenced by their interactions with the food matrix. This study evaluated the complex formation of blueberry polyphenols with fruit matrixes such as pectin and cellulose and their effect on the biological and antiproliferative properties of human colon cell lines HT-29 and CRL 1790. Free or complexed polyphenols were isolated by dialyzing aqueous or methanolic blueberry homogenates. Seven phenolic compounds and thirteen anthocyanins were identified in blueberry extracts. Blueberry extracts showed varying degrees of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, as well as α-glucosidase activity. Fruit matrix containing cellulose and pectin, or purified polygalacturonic acid and cellulose, did not retain polyphenols and showed very low antioxidant or antiproliferative activities. These findings suggest that interactions between polyphenols and the food matrix may be more complex than a simple association and may play an important role in the bioefficacy of blueberry polyphenols.

  1. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-09-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'.

  2. Comparison of Cultivars and Seasonal Variation in Blueberry (Vaccinium Species) Leaf Extract on Adult T-Cell Leukemia Cell Line Growth Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Hisahiro; Fuse, Takuichi; Kunitake, Hisato; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Matsuno, Koji

    2014-06-30

    The inhibitory effects of blueberry leaves on the proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines have previously been reported. A comparison of blueberry leaf extracts from different cultivars and seasonal variation were investigated regarding their effects on ATL cell line proliferation. The inhibitory effects of 80% ethanol leaf extracts from different blueberry cultivars collected from April to December in 2006 or 2008 were evaluated using two ATL cell lines. The bioactivities of leaf extracts of rabbit-eye blueberry ( Vaccinium virgatum Aiton; RB species), southern highbush blueberry ( V. spp.; SB species), northern highbush blueberry ( V. corymbosum L.; NB species), and wild blueberry ( V. bracteatum Thunb.; WB species) were compared. Of these, leaves of the RB species collected in December showed a significantly stronger inhibitory effect in both cell lines than the SB, NB, or WB species. These results suggest elevated biosynthesis of ATL-preventative bioactive compounds in the leaves of the RB species before the defoliation season.

  3. Atmospheric cold plasma inactivation of aerobic microorganisms on blueberries and effects on quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Niemira, Brendan A; Gurtler, Joshua B; Fan, Xuetong; Sites, Joseph; Boyd, Glenn; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-04-01

    Cold plasma (CP) is a novel nonthermal technology, potentially useful in food processing settings. Berries were treated with atmospheric CP for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, or 120 s at a working distance of 7.5 cm with a mixture of 4 cubic feet/minute (cfm) of CP jet and 7 cfm of ambient air. Blueberries were sampled for total aerobic plate count (APC) and yeast/molds immediately after treatment and at 1, 2, and 7 days. Blueberries were also analyzed for compression firmness, surface color, and total anthocyanins immediately after each treatment. All treatments with CP significantly (P blueberries and could be optimized to improve the safety and quality of produce. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effects of cuticular wax on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Fang, Xiangjun; Zheng, Yonghua

    2018-01-15

    The blueberry fruit has a light-blue appearance because its blue-black skin is covered with a waxy bloom. This layer is easily damaged or removed during fruit harvesting and postharvest handling. We investigated the effects of wax removal on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit and their possible mechanisms. The removal of natural wax on the fruit was found to accelerate the postharvest water loss and decay, reduce the sensory and nutritional qualities, and shorten the shelf-life. Wax removal decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants, and accelerated accumulation of ROS and lipid peroxidation, especially at the later period of storage. Moreover, the organellar membrane structure was disrupted in fruit with wax removed. These results indicate that cuticular wax plays an important role in maintaining the postharvest quality and delaying fruit senescence. The results should improve our understanding for better preservation of postharvest quality of blueberry fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence of anthracnose on highbush blueberry caused by colletotrichum species in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Choi, Hyo Won; Lee, Young Kee

    2009-12-01

    A total of 82 isolates of Colletotrichum species were obtained from anthracnose symptoms of highbush blueberry trees grown in the Gochang area of Korea during a disease survey in 2008. Out of the isolates, 75 were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the others as C. acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Twenty six of C. gloeosporioides isolates produced their teleomorph Glomerella cingulata in PDA culture. Three isolates of each C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum caused anthracnose symptoms on the leaves by artificial inoculation, which were similar to what was observed in the orchards. Previously in Korea, only C. gloeosporioides has been reported as causing anthracnose in blueberries. This is the first report that C. acutatum causes anthracnose in the highbush blueberry in Korea.

  6. Mycorrhizal colonisation of highbush blueberry and its native relatives in central Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KASURINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Transmission electromicroscopy, trypan blue staining in combination with stereomicroscope analysis and biochemical ergosterol assay were used to study the mycorrhizal symbionts in wild bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus, bog whortleberry (Vaccinium uliginosum and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum roots. TEM-analysis showed that in all species ericoid mycorrhizas formed hyphae coil inside the epidermal root cells. In stereomicroscopic viewing the highest mycorrhizal colonisation was observed in the roots of wild bilberries (51%, whereas according to the ergosterol assay the highest total fungal biomass of roots was found in bog whortleberries (209 mg g-1 of root d. wt. Both ergosterol and microscopical method showed that the mycorrhizal associations in blueberry cultivars and their wild relatives growing on natural soil medium are frequent, although ericoid mycorrhiza formation of highbush blueberries was somewhat weaker than that of wild bilberries and bog whortleberries.

  7. Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity of Healthy Female Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml...... of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also......-120 min. This corresponded to a 30% increase in vitamin C and a small but significant increase in total phenols in plasma. Consumption of blueberry juice had no such effects. CONCLUSION: The increase in plasma antioxidant capacity following consumption of cranberry juice could mainly be accounted...

  8. Study of the effects of 1-MCP to blueberry under cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shenchen; Chu, Huailiang; Chen, Xiaomin; Yuan, Huwei; Qiu, Lingling; Zhao, Liang; Yan, Daoliang; Zheng, Bingsong

    2017-04-01

    Blueberry is one of the thinnest exocarp fruits in the world, which is difficult to keep fresh due to the special structure of its skin. 1-Methlcyclopropene (1-MCP) is able to combine with ethylene(ETH) receptor. In this study we investigated the effect of 1-MCP on rotting rate, weight loss ratio, soluble sugar content, titratable acid content, antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosun ‘O Neal’ and ‘North Road’) under cold storage. 1-MCP reduced the rotting rate, weight loss ratio and MDA content, while keeping high-leveled stability in antioxidant enzyme activities, soluble sugar content and titratable acid content. These results showed the role of 1-MCP in alleviating the negative effects of blueberry and suggested that 1-MCP could be used as a preservative for keeping thin exocarp fruit in fresh.

  9. Identifying Breeding Priorities for Blueberry Flavor Using Biochemical, Sensory, and Genotype by Environment Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Gilbert

    Full Text Available Breeding for a subjective goal such as flavor is challenging, as many blueberry cultivars are grown worldwide, and identifying breeding targets relating to blueberry flavor biochemistry that have a high degree of genetic control and low environmental variability are priorities. A variety of biochemical compounds and physical characters induce the sensory responses of taste, olfaction, and somatosensation, all of which interact to create what is perceived flavor. The goal of this study was to identify the flavor compounds with a larger genetic versus environmental component regulating their expression over an array of cultivars, locations, and years. Over the course of three years, consumer panelists rated overall liking, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor intensity of 19 southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum hybrids genotypes in 30 sensory panels. Significant positive correlations to overall liking of blueberry fruit (P<0.001 were found with sweetness (R2 = 0.70, texture (R2 = 0.68, and flavor (R2 = 0.63. Sourness had a significantly negative relationship with overall liking (R2 = 0.55. The relationship between flavor and texture liking was also linear (R2 = 0.73, P<0.0001 demonstrating interaction between olfaction and somatosensation. Partial least squares analysis was used to identify sugars, acids, and volatile compounds contributing to liking and sensory intensities, and revealed strong effects of fructose, pH, and several volatile compounds upon all sensory parameters measured. To assess the feasibility of breeding for flavor components, a three year study was conducted to compare genetic and environmental influences on flavor biochemistry. Panelists could discern genotypic variation in blueberry sensory components, and many of the compounds affecting consumer favor of blueberries, such as fructose, pH, β-caryophyllene oxide and 2-heptanone, were sufficiently genetically controlled that allocating resources for their

  10. Preparative separation of chlorogenic acid by centrifugal partition chromatography from highbush blueberry leaves (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Shang, Ya Fang; Um, Byung-Hun

    2010-01-01

    Blueberries (genus Vaccinium) have gained worldwide focus because of the high anthocyanin content of their fruits. In contrast, the leaves of blueberry have not attracted any attention, even though they contain large quantities of chlorogenic acid, a strong antioxidant compound. The aim of this investigation was the quantification and preparative isolation of chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-CQA) from blueberry leaves using a new separation scheme, centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). A water fraction containing a high concentration of 5-CQA (14.5% of dry weight extract) was obtained by defatting a crude methanol extract from blueberry leaves. CPC was applied to isolate 5-CQA from this water fraction using a two-phase solvent system of ethyl acetate-ethanol-water at a volume ratio 4:1:5 (v/v/v). The flow-rate of mobile phase was 2 mL/min with the ascending mode while rotating at 1200 rpm. The eluate was monitored at 330 nm. The structure of chlorogenic acid in the CPC fraction was confirmed with HPLC, UV, ESI/MS and NMR spectra. The HPLC chromatogram showed that the fractions collected by CPC contained chlorogenic acid with 96% purity based on peak area percentage. The total amount of chlorogenic acid isolated from 0.5 g of a water fraction was 52.9 mg, corresponding to 10.6% of the water fraction. The isolated compound was identified successively as 5-CQA with MS (parent ion at m/z 355.1 [M + H](+)) and (1)H NMR spectra [caffeoyl moiety in the down field (δ 6.0-8.0 ppm) and quinic acid moiety in the up field (δ 2.0-5.5 ppm)]. 5-CQA was successfully isolated from blueberry leaves by the CPC method in a one-step procedure, indicating a further potential use for blueberry leaves. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A novel water-assisted pulsed light processing for decontamination of blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaoxin; Chen, Haiqiang

    2014-06-01

    Sample heating and shadowing effect have limited the application of pulsed light (PL) technology for decontamination of fresh produce. In this study, a novel setup using water-assisted PL processing was developed to overcome these limitations. Blueberries inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella were either treated with PL directly (dry PL treatment) or immersed in agitated water during the PL treatment (wet PL treatment) for 5-60 s. Although both pathogens were effectively inactivated by the dry PL treatments, the appearance of the blueberries was adversely affected and a maximum temperature of 64.8 °C on the blueberry surface was recorded. On the other hand, the visual appearance of blueberries remained unchanged after wet PL treatments and sample heating was significantly reduced. The wet PL treatments were more effective than chlorine washing on inactivating both pathogens. After a 60-s wet PL treatment, the populations of E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on calyx and skin of blueberries were reduced by 3.0 and >5.8 log CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella on blueberry calyx and skin was reduced by 3.6 and >5.9 log CFU/g, respectively. No viable bacterial cells were recovered from the water used in the wet PL treatments, demonstrating that this setup could prevent the risk of cross-contamination during fresh produce washing. Our results suggest that this new water-assisted PL treatment could be a potential non-chemical alternative (residue free) to chlorine washing since it is both more effective and environmentally friendly than chlorine washing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contrasting Pollinators and Pollination in Native and Non-Native Regions of Highbush Blueberry Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gibbs

    Full Text Available Highbush blueberry yields are dependent on pollination by bees, and introduction of managed honey bees is the primary strategy used for pollination of this crop. Complementary pollination services are also provided by wild bees, yet highbush blueberry is increasingly grown in regions outside its native range where wild bee communities may be less adapted to the crop and growers may still be testing appropriate honey bee stocking densities. To contrast crop pollination in native and non-native production regions, we sampled commercial 'Bluecrop' blueberry fields in British Columbia and Michigan with grower-selected honey bee stocking rates (0-39.5 hives per ha to compare bee visitors to blueberry flowers, pollination and yield deficits, and how those vary with local- and landscape-scale factors. Observed and Chao-1 estimated species richness, as well as Shannon diversity of wild bees visiting blueberries were significantly higher in Michigan where the crop is within its native range. The regional bee communities were also significantly different, with Michigan farms having greater dissimilarity than British Columbia. Blueberry fields in British Columbia had fewer visits by honey bees than those in Michigan, irrespective of stocking rate, and they also had lower berry weights and a significant pollination deficit. In British Columbia, pollination service increased with abundance of wild bumble bees, whereas in Michigan the abundance of honey bees was the primary predictor of pollination. The proportion of semi-natural habitat at local and landscape scales was positively correlated with wild bee abundance in both regions. Wild bee abundance declined significantly with distance from natural borders in Michigan, but not in British Columbia where large-bodied bumble bees dominated the wild bee community. Our results highlight the varying dependence of crop production on different types of bees and reveal that strategies for pollination improvement in

  13. Dual action of highbush blueberry proanthocyanidins on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and the host inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lagha, Amel; LeBel, Geneviève; Grenier, Daniel

    2018-01-10

    The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) has a beneficial effect on several aspects of human health. The present study investigated the effects of highbush blueberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) on the virulence properties of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and macrophage-associated inflammatory responses. PACs were isolated from frozen highbush blueberries using solid-phase chromatography. A microplate dilution assay was performed to determine the effect of highbush blueberry PACs on A. actinomycetemcomitans growth as well as biofilm formation stained with crystal violet. Tight junction integrity of oral keratinocytes was assessed by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), while macrophage viability was determined with a colorimetric MTT assay. Pro-inflammatory cytokine and MMP secretion by A. actinomycetemcomitans-stimulated macrophages was quantified by ELISA. The U937-3xκB-LUC monocyte cell line transfected with a luciferase reporter gene was used to monitor NF-κB activation. Highbush blueberry PACs reduced the growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans and prevented biofilm formation at sub-inhibitory concentrations. The treatment of pre-formed biofilms with the PACs resulted in a loss of bacterial viability. The antibacterial activity of the PACs appeared to involve damage to the bacterial cell membrane. The PACs protected the oral keratinocytes barrier integrity from damage caused by A. actinomycetemcomitans. The PACs also protected macrophages from the deleterious effect of leukotoxin Ltx-A and dose-dependently inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL8, TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-3, MMP-9), and sTREM-1 by A. actinomycetemcomitans-treated macrophages. The PACs also inhibited the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of highbush blueberry PACs as well as their ability to protect the oral keratinocyte barrier and neutralize leukotoxin

  14. Contrasting Pollinators and Pollination in Native and Non-Native Regions of Highbush Blueberry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jason; Elle, Elizabeth; Bobiwash, Kyle; Haapalainen, Tiia; Isaacs, Rufus

    2016-01-01

    Highbush blueberry yields are dependent on pollination by bees, and introduction of managed honey bees is the primary strategy used for pollination of this crop. Complementary pollination services are also provided by wild bees, yet highbush blueberry is increasingly grown in regions outside its native range where wild bee communities may be less adapted to the crop and growers may still be testing appropriate honey bee stocking densities. To contrast crop pollination in native and non-native production regions, we sampled commercial 'Bluecrop' blueberry fields in British Columbia and Michigan with grower-selected honey bee stocking rates (0-39.5 hives per ha) to compare bee visitors to blueberry flowers, pollination and yield deficits, and how those vary with local- and landscape-scale factors. Observed and Chao-1 estimated species richness, as well as Shannon diversity of wild bees visiting blueberries were significantly higher in Michigan where the crop is within its native range. The regional bee communities were also significantly different, with Michigan farms having greater dissimilarity than British Columbia. Blueberry fields in British Columbia had fewer visits by honey bees than those in Michigan, irrespective of stocking rate, and they also had lower berry weights and a significant pollination deficit. In British Columbia, pollination service increased with abundance of wild bumble bees, whereas in Michigan the abundance of honey bees was the primary predictor of pollination. The proportion of semi-natural habitat at local and landscape scales was positively correlated with wild bee abundance in both regions. Wild bee abundance declined significantly with distance from natural borders in Michigan, but not in British Columbia where large-bodied bumble bees dominated the wild bee community. Our results highlight the varying dependence of crop production on different types of bees and reveal that strategies for pollination improvement in the same crop can

  15. Weather during bloom affects pollination and yield of highbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuell, Julianna K; Isaacs, Rufus

    2010-06-01

    Weather plays an important role in spring-blooming fruit crops due to the combined effects on bee activity, flower opening, pollen germination, and fertilization. To determine the effects of weather on highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., productivity, we monitored bee activity and compared fruit set, weight, and seed number in a field stocked with honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and common eastern bumble bees, Bombus impatiens (Cresson). Flowers were subjected to one of five treatments during bloom: enclosed, open, open during poor weather only, open during good weather only, or open during poor and good weather. Fewer bees of all types were observed foraging and fewer pollen foragers returned to colonies during poor weather than during good weather. There were also changes in foraging community composition: honey bees dominated during good weather, whereas bumble bees dominated during poor weather. Berries from flowers exposed only during poor weather had higher fruit set in 1 yr and higher berry weight in the other year compared with enclosed clusters. In both years, clusters exposed only during good weather had > 5 times as many mature seeds, weighed twice as much, and had double the fruit set of those not exposed. No significant increase over flowers exposed during good weather was observed when clusters were exposed during good and poor weather. Our results are discussed in terms of the role of weather during bloom on the contribution of bees adapted to foraging during cool conditions.

  16. Quality of 'Climax' blueberries after low dosage electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.; McCollum, T.G.; Smittle, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fruit of 'Climax' rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade) were irradiated by a linear accelerator at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 kGy and evaluated for various quality attributes after storage for 1, 3, 7, or 14 days at 1C plus 2 days at 15C, respectively. Weight loss increased during storage and averaged 4.2% after the final inspection and was not affected by irradiation dosage. About 5% of total berries were decayed after 14 days at 1C, about 6% after the final inspection at 15C, but decay was not affected by the level of irradiation. Electrolyte leakage, skin color, total soluble solids, acidity, and pH were also not affected by irradiation dosage. There was a significant decline in berry firmness, flavor, and texture as dosage increased. Berries treated at 1.0 kGy or above were softer and had lower flavor and texture preference scores than berries treated at lower dosages or nontreated berries

  17. Blueberry Supply Chain in Italy: Management, Innovation and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Peano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing trend market of fresh products is driven by a consumer oriented to new lifestyles and environmental issues. The berries market in Europe represents a good example of a consumer driven supply chain, due to the capacity to answer all the sequences of the system. To explore the process developed by fruit growers’ associated groups in Italy, the research is organized into four stages. The first stage provides a review of the organization of the fresh fruit supply chain (FFSC and the need to innovate it in light of the driven demand. The second section focuses on the innovation displayed towards storing, managing and maintaining the quality of fruit during the supply. The third section considers the case study. The manuscript concludes by summarising the main results and discussing the implications for future research. The use of a modified active packaging system (MAP with “green” films has enabled the maintenance of the quality of the fruits for two months, as well as the presence of the company blueberries market for longer periods, and has finally led to improving the exports, thus reaching new European countries, increasing the turnover of the associated group and better remuneration for the fruit growers as a consequence.

  18. Survival and inactivation of human norovirus surrogates in blueberry juice by high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horm, Katie Marie; Davidson, P Michael; Harte, Federico M; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2012-11-01

    Human noroviruses (HNoV) have been implicated in gastrointestinal outbreaks associated with fresh produce, juices, and ready-to-eat foods. In order to determine the risk of HNoV transmission by contaminated blueberry juice, survival characteristics of cultivable HNoV surrogates (murine norovirus, MNV-1; feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; and bacteriophage MS2) in blueberry juice (pH = 2.77) after 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 days at refrigeration temperatures (4°C) were studied. High-pressure homogenization (HPH) was studied as a novel processing method for noroviral surrogate inactivation in blueberry juice. Blueberry juice or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2 as control) was inoculated with each virus, stored over 21 days at 4°C or subjected to HPH, and plaque assayed. FCV-F9 (∼5 log(10) PFU/mL) was undetectable after 1 day in blueberry juice at 4°C. MNV-1 (∼4 log(10) PFU/ml) showed minimal reduction (1 log(10) PFU/mL) after 14 days, with greater reduction (1.95 log(10) PFU/mL; p PFU/mL) showed significant reduction (1.93 log(10) PFU/mL; p PFU/mL reduction), while MNV-1 and MS2 survived after 21 days (1.08 and 0.56 log(10) PFU/mL reduction, respectively). Intriguingly, FCV-F9 and bacteriophage MS2 showed reduction after minimal homogenization pressures in blueberry juice (pH = 2.77), possibly due to the combination of juice pH, juice components, and mechanical effects. MNV-1 in blueberry juice was only slightly reduced at 250 (0.33 log(10) PFU/mL) and 300 MPa (0.71 log(10) PFU/mL). Virus surrogate survival in blueberry juice at 4°C correlates well with the ease of HNoV transmission via juices. HPH for viral inactivation in juices is dependent on virus type, and higher homogenization pressures may be needed for MNV-1 inactivation.

  19. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron E Walworth

    Full Text Available In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L., a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora ('VcFT-Aurora', which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT. Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in 'VcFT-Aurora'. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5 gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2, a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5, and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1, may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1, LEAFY-like (VcLFY, APETALA1-like (VcAP1, CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1, and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all of

  20. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Aaron E.; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora (‘VcFT-Aurora’), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in ‘VcFT-Aurora’. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all

  1. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Aaron E; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora ('VcFT-Aurora'), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in 'VcFT-Aurora'. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all of these

  2. Blueberry pollination in southern Brazil and their influence on fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Madruga Telesca da Silveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium ashei is a relatively new crop in cultivation under Southern Brazil conditions. The first collection introduced in the area was formed by rabbiteye cultivars which need insect pollinators and also pollinizers. The aim of this work was to observe if there were differences between pollinizers on fruit quality of the commercial cultivar and also to observe the most effective and frequent insect pollinators, under natural conditions. It was concluded that pollen source has an effect on quality of blueberry fruits. Bumblebees are the most efficient pollinators; however the species found in southern Brazil are different from the ones mentioned in the U.S. literature.

  3. Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity of Healthy Female Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml ...... for by an increase in vitamin C rather than phenolics. This also accounted for the lack of an effect of the phenolic-rich but vitamin C-low blueberry juice. Sponsorship: Funded by the Scottish Executive Rural Affairs Department and the Danish Government....

  4. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged...

  5. Transcriptomic changes reveal gene networks responding to the overexpression of a blueberry DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 gene in transgenic blueberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Qing; Gao, Xuan

    2017-06-19

    Constitutive expression of the CBF/DREB1 for increasing freezing tolerance in woody plants is often associated with other phenotypic changes including dwarf plant and delayed flowering. These phenotypic changes have been observed when Arabidopsis DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 (DDF1) was overexpressed in A. thaliana plants. To date, the DDF1 orthologues have not been studied in woody plants. The aim of this study is to investigate transcriptomic responses to the overexpression of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) DDF1 (herein, VcDDF1-OX). The VcDDF1-OX resulted in enhanced freezing tolerance in tetraploid blueberry plants and did not result in significant changes in plant size, chilling requirement, and flowering time. Comparative transcriptome analysis of transgenic 'Legacy-VcDDF1-OX' plants containing an overexpressed VcDDF1 with non-transgenic highbush blueberry 'Legacy' plants revealed the VcDDF1-OX derived differentially expressed (DE) genes and transcripts in the pathways of cold-response, plant flowering, DELLA proteins, and plant phytohormones. The increase in freezing tolerance was associated to the expression of cold-regulated genes (CORs) and the ethylene pathway genes. The unchanged plant size, dormancy and flowering were due to the minimal effect of the VcDDF1-OX on the expression of DELLA proteins, flowering pathway genes, and the other phytohormone genes related to plant growth and development. The DE genes in auxin and cytokinin pathways suggest that the VcDDF1-OX has also altered plant tolerance to drought and high salinity. A DDF1 orthologue in blueberry functioned differently from the DDF1 reported in Arabidopsis. The overexpression of VcDDF1 or its orthologues is a new approach to increase freezing tolerance of deciduous woody plant species with no obvious effect on plant size and plant flowering time.

  6. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Qing; Sink, K C

    2004-12-01

    Transient expression studies using blueberry leaf explants and monitored by beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assays indicated Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 was more effective than LBA4404 or GV3101; and the use of acetosyringone (AS) at 100 microM for inoculation and 6 days co-cultivation was optimum compared to 2, 4, 8, 10 or 12 days. Subsequently, explants of the cultivars Aurora, Bluecrop, Brigitta, and Legacy were inoculated with strain EHA105 containing the binary vector pBISN1 with the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and an intron-interrupted GUS gene directed by the chimeric super promoter (Aocs)3AmasPmas. Co-cultivation was for 6 days on modified woody plant medium (WPM) plus 100 microM AS. Explants were then placed on modified WPM supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) thidiazuron, 0.5 mg l(-1) alpha-naphthaleneacetic, 10 mg l(-1) kanamycin (Km), and 250 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. Selection for Km-resistant shoots was carried out in the dark for 2 weeks followed by culture in the light at 30 microE m(-2) s(-1) at 25 degrees C. After 12 weeks, selected shoots that were both Km resistant and GUS positive were obtained from 15.3% of the inoculated leaf explants of cultivar Aurora. Sixty-eight independent clones derived from such shoots all tested positive by the polymerase chain reaction using a nptII primer. Eight of eight among these 68 clones tested positive by Southern hybridization using a gusA gene derived probe. The transformation protocol also yielded Km-resistant, GUS-positive shoots that were also PCR positive at frequencies of 5.0% for Bluecrop, 10.0% for Brigitta and 5.6% for Legacy.

  7. Organic Highbush Blueberry Production Systems Research – Management of Plant Nutrition, Irrigation Requirements, and Weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 0.4 ha planting of blueberry was established in October 2006 to evaluate the effects of cultivar (Duke and Liberty), bed type (flat versus raised beds), weed management (sawdust mulch and hand-weed control; sawdust+compost mulch with acetic acid, flaming, and hand control used as needed; and weed ...

  8. 76 FR 11939 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Section 610 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... electronic mail: [email protected] . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeanette Palmer, Marketing... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 [Document Number AMS-FV-10-0006] Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Section 610 Review AGENCY...

  9. Effects of post-harvest handling techniques on the retention of phytochemicals in wild blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild blueberries (WBB) are known to have a unique phytochemical profile that boasts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. Polyphenolic compounds in WBB conclusively demonstrate human health benefits ranging from decreases in cardiovascular risk factors and improving insulin sensitivity to bat...

  10. Organic blueberry production systems: management of plant nutrition, irrigation requirements, and weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A long-term systems trial was established to evaluate management practices for organic production of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). The factorial experiment included two planting bed treatments (flat and raised beds), source and rate of fertilizer (feather meal and fish emuls...

  11. Tomato ringspot virus and Tobacco ringspot virus in Highbush Blueberry in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars Patriot and Bluecrop showing virus-like symptoms and decline in vigor in New York was conducted to assess the occurrence of viruses. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic bushes reacted positively to Tobacco ringspot virus ...

  12. Evaluation of Irrigation Methods for Highbush Blueberry. I. Growth and Water Requirements of Young Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in a new field of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Elliott') to determine the effects of different irrigation methods on growth and water requirements of uncropped plants during the first 2 years after planting. The plants were grown on mulched, raised beds...

  13. ‘Razz’ highbush blueberry: A specialty cultivar with raspberry-flavored fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Razz’ is a midseason-ripening, tetraploid, highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) with unique raspberry flavor overtones that has been released by the cooperative breeding program of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘Razz’ represents a distinct a...

  14. Nutrient requirements, leaf tissue standards, and new options for fertigation of northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The differences between fertigation and granular fertilizer were compared using different sources of N fertilizer during the first 5 years of fruit production in northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). Soil pH was slightly lower with granular fertilizers than with fertigation. However, l...

  15. Effects of nitrogen rate and application method on early production and fruit quality in highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted to examine the effects of nitrogen (N) rate and method of N fertilizer application on growth, yield, and fruit quality in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) during the first 4 years after planting in south-coastal BC. Nitrogen was applied at 0-150% of current pr...

  16. An emerging disease in blueberry caused by a novel RNA virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new disorder was observed on southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in several southeastern states. Symptoms included irregularly shaped circular spots or blotches with green centers on the top and bottom of leaves. The disease was reported initially in the state ...

  17. Development of a soilless growing system for blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum): nutrient demand and nutrient solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Dijk, van P.; Douven, F.; Maas, van der M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of blueberries in The Netherlands are soil grown, interest in soilless culture has increased recently. Modern cultivation with high yield and fruit quality needs maximum control of growth and crop development, which is expected to be achieved with irrigation and nutrient

  18. Home-based preparation approaches altered the availability of health beneficial components from carrots and blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of different home food preparation methods on the availability of the total phenolic contents (TPC) and radical scavenging components, as well as the selected health beneficial compounds from fresh blueberries and carrots. High performance liquid chromatography (...

  19. Effects of pulsed electrical field processing on microbial survival, quality change and nutritional characteristics of blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole fresh blueberries were treated using a parallel pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment chamber and a sanitizer solution (60 ppm peracetic acid [PAA]) as PEF treatment medium with square wave bipolar pulses at 2 kV/cm electric field strength, 1us pulse width, and 100 pulses per second for 2, 4, ...

  20. Testing the origin of Martian 'blueberries': magnetic measurements may be key to the answer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adachi, T.; Kletetschka, Günther; Mikula, V.; Chan, M.; Adamovič, Jiří; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Fuller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 5 (2007), s. 11-11 ISSN 0016-7592. [Rocky Mountain Section - Annual Meeting /59./. 07.05.2007-09.05.2007, St. George] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Mars * blueberries * magnetic * magnetism Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2007RM/finalprogram/abstract_121678.htm

  1. Nonchemical, cultural management strategies to suppress phytophthora root rot in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi causes root rot of highbush blueberry and decreases plant growth, yield, and profitability for growers. Fungicides can suppress root rot, but cannot be used in certified organic production systems and fungicide resistance may develop. Alternative, non-chemical, cultural manag...

  2. Dietary supplementation of blueberry juice enhances hepatic expression of metallothionein and attenuates liver fibrosis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of blueberry juice intake on rat liver fibrosis and its influence on hepatic antioxidant defense.Rabbiteye blueberry was used to prepare fresh juice to feed rats by daily gastric gavage. Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and feeding a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and collagen III (Col III were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA in liver homogenates were determined. Metallothionein (MT expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques.Blueberry juice consumption significantly attenuates CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with elevated expression of metallothionein (MT, increased SOD activity, reduced oxidative stress, and decreased levels of α-SMA and Col III in the liver.Our study suggests that dietary supplementation of blueberry juice can augment antioxidative capability of the liver presumably via stimulating MT expression and SOD activity, which in turn promotes HSC inactivation and thus decreases extracellular matrix collagen accumulation in the liver, and thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis.

  3. Humidity implications for populations of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature and humidity affect insect physiology, survival, fecundity, reproductive status and behavior. Drosophila suzukii is an invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit and can cause severe economic losses in a wide range of susceptible crops. This study was conducted on blueberries to determine the e...

  4. Radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of extracts from black chokeberry and blueberry cultivated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seok Joon; Yoon, Won Byong; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Cha, Seung Ju; Kim, Jong Dai

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant properties of the extracts from black chokeberry and blueberry cultivated in Korea. The 70% ethanol extracts were prepared from black chokeberry and blueberry, and evaluated for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, total proanthocyanidin content, and antioxidative activities, using various in vitro assays, such as DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid)) radical-scavenging activity, FRAP(ferric-reducing antioxidant power) and reducing power. The major phenolic compounds, including cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, neochlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1, were analysed by HPLC with a photodiode array detector. Results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of black chokeberry extract were higher than those of blueberry extract. In addition, black chokeberry extract exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity and reducing power than did blueberry extract. Cyanidin-3-galactoside was identified as a major phenolic compound, with considerable content in black chokeberry, that correlated with its higher antioxidant and radical-scavenging effects. These results suggest that black chokeberry extracts could be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and functional food ingredients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative genetic mapping reveals synteny and collinearity between the American cranberry and diploid blueberry genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberry (section Oxcycoccus) and blueberry (section Cyanococcus), are closely related and recently domesticated fruit crops in the genus Vaccinium (family Ericaceae). Both the Oxycoccus and Cyanococcus sections are presumed to have an American origin and likely evolved from a common ancestor; howe...

  6. Suitable sources of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer for fertigation of northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many blueberry growers are switching from broadcasting granular fertilizers to using fertigation through a drip irrigation system. Fertigation increases growth and production without increasing the need for more fertilizer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different liquid sources ...

  7. Low-Temperature Blanching as a Tool to Modulate the Structure of Pectin in Blueberry Purees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Laura M; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Angers, Paul; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2017-09-01

    Blueberry composition was characterized for 6 cultivars. It contains a good amount of dietary fiber (10% to 20%) and pectin (4% to 7%) whose degree of methylation (DM) is sensitive to food processing. A low temperature blanching (LTB: 60 °C/1 h) was applied on blueberry purees to decrease pectin DM, in order to modulate puree properties and functionalities (that is, viscosity and stability), and to enhance pectin affinity toward other components within food matrices. Fiber content, viscosity, pectin solubility, DM, and monosaccharide composition were determined for both pasteurized, and LTB+pasteurized blueberry purees. The results showed that neither the amount of fiber, nor the viscosity were affected by LTB, indicating that this treatment did not result in any significant pectin depolymerization and degradation. LTB caused a decrease both in pectin DM from 58-67% to 45-47% and in the amount of water-soluble pectin fraction, the latter remaining the major fraction of total pectin at 52% to 57%. A LTB is a simple and mild process to produce blueberry purees with mostly soluble and low-methylated pectin in order to extend functionality and opportunities for interactions with other food ingredients. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Potassium fertigation in highbush blueberry increases availability of K and other nutrients in the root zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertigation with nitrogen (N) increases growth and production relative to granular N applications in blueberry, but little information is available on whether there is any benefit to fertigating with other nutrients. The plants were grown on raised beds and irrigated using two lines of drip tubing p...

  9. Dietary Supplementation of Blueberry Juice Enhances Hepatic Expression of Metallothionein and Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Cheng, Mingliang; Zhang, Baofang; Nie, Fei; Jiang, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of blueberry juice intake on rat liver fibrosis and its influence on hepatic antioxidant defense. Methods Rabbiteye blueberry was used to prepare fresh juice to feed rats by daily gastric gavage. Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX) was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and feeding a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen III (Col III) were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates were determined. Metallothionein (MT) expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. Results Blueberry juice consumption significantly attenuates CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with elevated expression of metallothionein (MT), increased SOD activity, reduced oxidative stress, and decreased levels of α-SMA and Col III in the liver. Conclusion Our study suggests that dietary supplementation of blueberry juice can augment antioxidative capability of the liver presumably via stimulating MT expression and SOD activity, which in turn promotes HSC inactivation and thus decreases extracellular matrix collagen accumulation in the liver, and thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23554912

  10. Metabolic fate of blueberry anthocyanins after chronic supplementation in healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant derived anthocyanin rich foods play a protective role against chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Anthocyanins are absorbed in their intact form and can be metabolized to a wide array of phenolic metabolites/conjugates. Blueberries...

  11. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05 – 10 μg/μL of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24% - 74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23220243

  12. Chemigation with micronized sulfur rapidly reduces soil pH in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern highbush blueberry is adapted to low soil pH in the range of 4.5–5.5. When pH is higher, soil is usually acidified by incorporating elemental sulfur (S) prior to planting. A study was conducted to determine the potential of applying micronized S by chemigation through the drip system to red...

  13. Evaporative cooling with sprinklers to reduce heat-related fruit damage in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot and sunny weather can cause a considerable amount of fruit damage in blueberries and results in millions of dollars of crop loss each year. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using sprinklers to reduce the damage. The study was conducted for 2 years in a mature planting ...

  14. Genome-scale examination of NBS-encoding genes in blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry is an important crop worldwide. It is, however, susceptible to a variety of diseases, which can lead to losses in yield and fruit quality. Although screening studies have identified resistant germplasm for some important diseases, still little is known about the molecular basis underlying...

  15. Not-from-concentrate blueberry juice extraction utilizing frozen fruit, heated mash, and enzyme processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juice production is a multibillion dollar industry and an economical way to use fruit past seasonal harvests. To evaluate how production steps influence not-from-concentrate (NFC) blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) juice recovery, bench top and pilot scale experiments were performed. In bench-top, southern h...

  16. Association between plasma phenolics and improved cognition in blueberry-supplemented older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research in both human and animals has demonstrated that cognitive function decreases during aging. These functional declines may be caused by long-term increases in and susceptibility to oxidative stress and inflammation. A growing body of research shows that dietary supplementation with blueberrie...

  17. Effects of Chitosan-Essential Oil Coatings on Safety and Quality of Fresh Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan coating plus different essential oils was developed and applied to fresh blueberries, in order to find environmentally friendly and healthy treatments to preserve fresh fruit quality and safety during postharvest storage. Studies were first performed in vitro where wild-type Escherichia col...

  18. Chemopreventive and therapeutic activity of dietary blueberry against estrogen-mediated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Aqil, Farrukh; Munagala, Radha; Annamalai, Lakshmanan; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2014-05-07

    Berries are gaining increasing importance lately for their chemopreventive and therapeutic potential against several cancers. In earlier studies, a blueberry-supplemented diet has shown protection against 17β-estradiol (E2)-mediated mammary tumorigenesis. This study tested both preventive and therapeutic activities of diet supplemented with whole blueberry powder (50:50 blend of Tifblue and Rubel). Animals received 5% blueberry diet, either 2 weeks prior to or 12 weeks after E2 treatment in preventive and therapeutic groups, respectively. Both interventions delayed the tumor latency for palpable mammary tumors by 28 and 37 days, respectively. Tumor volume and multiplicity were also reduced significantly in both modes. The effect on mammary tumorigenesis was largely due to down-regulation of CYP 1A1 and ER-α gene expression and also favorable modulation of microRNA (miR-18a and miR-34c) levels. These data suggest that the blueberry blend tested is effective in inhibiting E2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in both preventive and therapeutic modes.

  19. Effect of pine-bark mulch on lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) growers seeking an alternative and/or a complement to supplemental irrigation require accurate crop-specific information on the water conserving benefits of mulch. Twenty-eight weighing lysimeters equipped with soil moisture monitors were used at 5 sites ...

  20. Construction of a SNP and SSR linkage map in autotetraploid blueberry using genotyping by sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mapping population developed from a cross between two key highbush blueberry cultivars, Draper × Jewel (Vaccinium corymbosum), segregating for a number of important phenotypic traits, has been utilized to produce a genetic linkage map. Data on 233 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 1794 sing...

  1. 78 FR 29258 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Commission and the Food and Drug Administration requirements for the advertising of food. The USHBC uses its... effectiveness of the USHBC's promotion program. The studies were conducted by Dr. Harry M. Kaiser at Cornell... domestic promotion activities on blueberry disappearance (a measure of demand), an econometric demand model...

  2. Application of water-assisted ultraviolet light processing on the inactivation of murine norovirus on blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuhan; Li, Xinhui; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-12-02

    In this study, a novel set-up using water-assisted UV processing was developed and evaluated for its decontamination efficacy against murine norovirus (MNV-1) inoculated on fresh blueberries for both small and large-scale experimental setups. Blueberries were skin-inoculated with MNV-1 and treated for 1-5 min with UV directly (dry UV) or immersed in agitated water during UV treatment (water-assisted UV). The effect of the presence of 2% (v/v) blueberry juice or 5% crushed blueberries (w/w) in wash water was also evaluated. Results showed that water-assisted UV treatment generally showed higher efficacies than dry UV treatment. With 12,000 J/m(2) UV treatment in small-scale setup, MNV reductions of >4.32- and 2.48-log were achieved by water-assisted UV and dry UV treatments, respectively. Water-assisted UV showed similar inactivating efficacy as 10-ppm chlorine wash. No virus was detected in wash water after UV treatment or chlorine wash. MNV-1 was more easily killed on skin-inoculated blueberries compared with calyx-inoculated berries. When clear water was used as wash water in the large-scale setup, water-assisted UV treatment (UV dose of 12,000 J/m(2)) resulted in >3.20 log and 1.81 log MNV-1 reductions for skin- and calyx-inoculated berries, respectively. The presence of 2% blueberry juice in wash water decreased the decontamination efficacy of water-assisted UV and chlorine washing treatments. To improve the inactivation efficacy, the effect of combining water-assisted UV treatment with chlorine washing was also evaluated. The combined treatment had better or similar inactivation efficacy compared to water-assisted UV treatment and chlorine washing alone. Findings of this study suggest that water-assisted UV treatment could be used as an alternative to chlorine washing for blueberries and potentially for other fresh produce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phenolics in Slovenian bilberries ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moze, Spela; Polak, Tomaz; Gasperlin, Lea; Koron, Darinka; Vanzo, Andreja; Poklar Ulrih, Natasa; Abram, Veronika

    2011-07-13

    Phenolics from bilberries ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) sampled from seven different locations and highbush blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) from one location in Slovenia were analyzed. In samples of both species 15 anthocyanins were identified by LC-MS/MS. Their contents were expressed as cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents (C3GE); bilberries contained 1210.3 ± 111.5 mg C3GE/100 g fw and blueberries 212.4 ± 14.1 mg C3GE/100 g fw. Glycosides of delphinidin and cyanidin were predominant (488.5 vs 363.6 mg C3GE/100 g fw) in the bilberries and glycosides of malvidin (108.0 vs 100.8 mg C3GE/100 g fw) in the blueberries, whereas the contents of peonidin were lowest (74.5 vs 4.8 mg C3GE/100 g fw) in both berries. The contents of flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes were determined by LC-MS. For the first time, rutin was identified (bilberries, 0.2 ± 0.0 mg/100 g fw; blueberries, 3.1 ± 0.1 mg/100 g fw). Chlorogenic acid (as 3-caffeoylquinic acid) was the most abundant among the phenolic acids (23.1 ± 1.0 mg/100 g fw in bilberries and 70.0 ± 3.4 mg/100 g fw in blueberries). Statistical analysis shows that the content of 27 individual flavonoids, phenolic acids, and stilbenes can be used to identify the picking region of these Slovenian bilberries.

  4. Evaluation of gaseous chlorine dioxide for the inactivation of Tulane virus on blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, David H; Pérez-Pérez, Rafael E; Niemira, Brendan A; Fan, Xuetong

    2018-05-20

    To determine the effectiveness of gaseous chlorine dioxide (gClO 2 ) against a human norovirus surrogate on produce, gClO 2 was generated and applied to Tulane virus-coated blueberries in a 240 ml-treatment chamber. gClO 2 was produced by an acidifying sodium chlorite solution. Initial assessments indicated that blueberries treated with gClO 2 generated from ≤1 mg acidified sodium chlorite in the small chamber appeared unaffected while gClO 2 generated from ≥10 mg of acidified sodium chlorite solution altered the appearance and quality of the blueberries. Treatments of inoculated blueberries with gClO 2 generated from 0.1 mg sodium chlorite reduced the virus populations by >1 log after exposure for 30 to 330 min. For the 1 mg sodium chlorite treatments, the virus populations were reduced by >2.2 log after 15 min exposure and to non-detectable levels (>3.3 logs reductions) after 180 min exposure. Measured concentrations of gClO 2 peaked in the treatment chamber at 0.9 μg/l after 10 min for 0.1 mg treatments and 600 μg/l after around 20 min for 1 mg treatment. Overall results indicate that gClO 2 could be a feasible waterless intervention for blueberries and other produce. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Quality of 'Brightwell' and 'Tifblue' blueberries after gamma irradiation for quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Blueberries must be subjected to a quarantine treatment of methyl bromide fumigation when shipped to certain domestic or export markets. The principle insects that inhibit distribution of blueberries are the apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)], blueberry maggot (R. mendax Curran), and plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)]. Methyl bromide fumigation is the only approved quarantine treatment for blueberries and it is scheduled to be phased out by the year 2001. Highbush blueberries’ tolerance to low-dose irradiation is cultivar-dependent (Eaton et al., 1970). Two main cultivars grown in Florida, ‘Climax’ and ‘Sharpblue’, will tolerate irradiation up to 0.75 kGy without loss of fruit market quality (Miller et al., 1994a, 1994b, 1995). A 1.0-kGy dose is the maximum allowed (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1986) for treatment of fresh fruit or vegetables, and reportedly (personal communications, J. Sharp and G. Hallman) »0.3 kGy is sufficient for control of blueberry insects requiring quarantine certification. Two or three times the minimum dose may, however, be required to assure that the minimum dose is absorbed by all berries during commercial application. Therefore, it is most important to determine the tolerance of berries to irradiation stress. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of low-dose irradiation on the quality and condition of ‘Brightwell’ and ‘Tifblue’, two major rabbiteye cultivars grown in Georgia. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (P £ 0.05) on a split-block experimental design, with harvest dates for ‘Brightwell’, and randomized sample sets as replications for ‘Tifblue’ berries. The data were tested for the main effect of irradiation dosage on quality attributes

  6. Effects of chitosan-essential oil coatings on safety and quality of fresh blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuxiu; Narciso, Jan; Wang, Zhe; Ference, Christopher; Bai, Jinhe; Zhou, Kequan

    2014-05-01

    Chitosan coating plus different essential oils was developed and applied to fresh blueberries in order to find more natural treatments to preserve fresh fruit quality and safety during postharvest storage. Studies were 1st performed in vitro where wild-type Escherichia coli and Penicillium digitatum were grown in suitable media, and then subjected to 6 essential oils. Three compounds, carvacrol (CAR), cinnamaldehyde (CIN), and trans-cinnamaldehyde (ECIN) had high antimicrobial capacity and were selected for an in vivo study for postharvest storage of blueberries. The selected essential oils, 0.5% each, were added into a chitosan solution and coated on fresh blueberries. After storage at 5, 10, and 20 °C for various days, fruit firmness and microbial populations were evaluated. The chitosan coating substantially decreased bacteria and yeasts/molds on the fruit, and all 3 essential oils added to the antimicrobial activities. Further dosage experiments showed that the antimicrobial activity remained even when lowering CAR concentration to 0.1% and ECIN to 0.2%. Chitosan, CAR, and ECIN also maintained fruit firmness. Our results suggest that chitosan coatings containing essential oils are effective in extending the shelf life of fresh blueberries. Blueberries are high-value fruit with strong antioxidant capacity and other health-promoting benefits. However, microbial food safety is an increasing concern, and decay and softening limits their storability. A combination of ≥ 0.1% CAR or ≥ 0.2% ECIN with a chitosan coating effectively reduced softening of fresh berries and decay by inhibiting microbial growth. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Antimicrobial effect of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extracts against the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the antimicrobial effects of berry extracts obtained from four cultivars (Elliott, Darrow, Bluecrop and Duke) of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal conc...

  8. Development of a distilled-like alcoholic drink from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cv. Brigitta, and sensory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Eduardo Loyola López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to develop a distilled-like alcoholic beverage using blueberry from the Brigitta cultivar, either juice, skin or the mixture of both components according to the Law of alcohols Nº 18.455 from Chile, testing the alcoholic grade and sensory attributes such as; flavour, color, aroma and acceptability. The development consisted of two parts. Firstly, an alcoholic fermentation, and secondly, the distillation of the beverage. Before bottling and labelling, the final product was filtrated. Determinations such as; alcoholic fermentation, temperature, density and soluble solids were performed. Resulting values were subjected to analysis of variance and multiple comparison Tukey tests. It is feasible to obtain a dis-tilled alcoholic beverage from frozen blueberries. Sensory attributes better identified for T1: Blueberry juice fermentation, by panelists, were flavour and color. However, liquors from the treatment T3: fermentation blueberry skin, were identified by panelists as having a better aroma.

  9. New host records for four species of tortricid moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on cultivated blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericaceae), in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of tortricids were reared from cultivated blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae), from four field sites in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: Clarkeulia bourquini (Clarke, 1949), Clarkeulia deceptiva (Clarke, 1949), Argyrotaenia spheralopa (Meyrick, 1909), and Platynota ...

  10. Iron Isotopes in Spherical Hematite and Goethite Concretions from the Navajo Sandstone (Utah, USA): A Prospective Study for "Martian Blueberries"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busigny, V.; Dauphas, N.

    2006-03-01

    Iron isotopes of terrestrial hematite and goethite concretions provide clues on fluid transport, reservoir sizes, redox variations and biotic versus abiotic processes. This opens several avenues of research for future work on Martian blueberries.

  11. Effects of blueberry supplementation on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Sun, J; Lu, W; Wang, X; Wang, X; Han, Z; Qiu, C

    2017-03-01

    Blueberries belong to the genus Vaccinium of the family Ericaceae. A series of epidemiological studies have demonstrated that blueberry polyphenols, particularly blueberry anthocyanins provide significant beneficial effects for humans. However, the findings of clinical studies have been equivocal. Therefore, we sought to assess the potential anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry supplementation through a meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, The Cochrane Library, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database), Embase, Web of Science, Wanfang Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were performed to identify potential studies published before June 2015. The standardized mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as summary statistics. Net changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between the blueberry and placebo groups were calculated by subtracting the values at the end of follow-up from those at baseline. Meta-regression was used to identify potential moderators of effect size. Six RCT studies with 204 participants were included in our meta-analysis. There was no significant effect of blueberry supplementation on changes in blood pressure (BP) relative to baseline, and there was a mean difference of -0.28 (95% CI: -1.11 to 0.56, I 2 =87%) and -0.5 (95% CI: -1.24 to 0.24, I 2 =84%) mmHg for SBP and DBP, respectively. In summary, the results from this meta-analysis do not favor any clinical efficacy of blueberry supplementation in improving BP. Further well-designed larger RCTs are required to verify the association between blueberry supplementation and BP.

  12. Comparison of Cultivars and Seasonal Variation in Blueberry (Vaccinium Species) Leaf Extract on Adult T-Cell Leukemia Cell Line Growth Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Kai, Hisahiro; Fuse, Takuichi; Kunitake, Hisato; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Matsuno, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of blueberry leaves on the proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines have previously been reported. A comparison of blueberry leaf extracts from different cultivars and seasonal variation were investigated regarding their effects on ATL cell line proliferation. The inhibitory effects of 80% ethanol leaf extracts from different blueberry cultivars collected from April to December in 2006 or 2008 were evaluated using two ATL cell lines. The bioactivities of ...

  13. Antioxidant and metabolite profiling of North American and neotropical blueberries using LC-TOF-MS and multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunhui; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Flores, Gema; Wu, Shi-Biao; Pedraza-Peñalosa, Paola; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-04-10

    There are many neotropical blueberries, and recent studies have shown that some have even stronger antioxidant activity than the well-known edible North American blueberries. Antioxidant marker compounds were predicted by applying multivariate statistics to data from LC-TOF-MS analysis and antioxidant assays of 3 North American blueberry species (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, and a defined mixture of Vaccinium virgatum with V. corymbosum) and 12 neotropical blueberry species (Anthopterus wardii, Cavendishia grandifolia, Cavendishia isernii, Ceratostema silvicola, Disterigma rimbachii, Macleania coccoloboides, Macleania cordifolia, Macleania rupestris, Satyria boliviana, Sphyrospermum buxifolium, Sphyrospermum cordifolium, and Sphyrospermum ellipticum). Fourteen antioxidant markers were detected, and 12 of these, including 7 anthocyanins, 3 flavonols, 1 hydroxycinnamic acid, and 1 iridoid glycoside, were identified. This application of multivariate analysis to bioactivity and mass data can be used for identification of pharmacologically active natural products and may help to determine which neotropical blueberry species will be prioritized for agricultural development. Also, the compositional differences between North American and neotropical blueberries were determined by chemometric analysis, and 44 marker compounds including 16 anthocyanins, 15 flavonoids, 7 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, 5 triterpene glycosides, and 1 iridoid glycoside were identified.

  14. Enhanced task-related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowtell, Joanna L; Aboo-Bakkar, Zainie; Conway, Myra E; Adlam, Anna-Lynne R; Fulford, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain perfusion, task-related activation, and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Participants were randomised to consume either 30 mL blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5 female, 7 male; age 67.5 ± 3.0 y; body mass index, 25.9 ± 3.3 kg·m -2 ) or isoenergetic placebo (8 female, 6 male; age 69.0 ± 3.3 y; body mass index, 27.1 ± 4.0 kg·m -2 ). Pre- and postsupplementation, participants undertook a battery of cognitive function tests and a numerical Stroop test within a 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanner while functional magnetic resonance images were continuously acquired. Quantitative resting brain perfusion was determined using an arterial spin labelling technique, and blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Significant increases in brain activity were observed in response to blueberry supplementation relative to the placebo group within Brodmann areas 4/6/10/21/40/44/45, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and insula/thalamus (p blueberry versus placebo supplementation (p = 0.05). Supplementation with an anthocyanin-rich blueberry concentrate improved brain perfusion and activation in brain areas associated with cognitive function in healthy older adults.

  15. Xylella fastidiosa Isolates from Both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa Cause Disease on Southern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2015-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium.

  16. Blueberries improve endothelial function, but not blood pressure, in adults with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, April J; Cash, Katherine C; Champagne, Catherine M; Gupta, Alok K; Boston, Raymond; Beyl, Robbie A; Johnson, William D; Cefalu, William T

    2015-05-27

    Blueberry consumption has been shown to have various health benefits in humans. However, little is known about the effect of blueberry consumption on blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in humans. The present study investigated the role of blueberry consumption on modifying blood pressure in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In addition, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity (secondary measurements) were also assessed. A double-blind and placebo-controlled study was conducted in 44 adults (blueberry, n = 23; and placebo, n = 21). They were randomized to receive a blueberry or placebo smoothie twice daily for six weeks. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity were assessed pre- and post-intervention. The blood pressure and insulin sensitivity did not differ between the blueberry and placebo groups. However, the mean change in resting endothelial function, expressed as reactive hyperemia index (RHI), was improved significantly more in the group consuming the blueberries versus the placebo group (p = 0.024). Even after adjusting for confounding factors, i.e., the percent body fat and gender, the blueberry group still had a greater improvement in endothelial function when compared to their counterpart (RHI; 0.32 ± 0.13 versus -0.33 ± 0.14; p = 0.0023). In conclusion, daily dietary consumption of blueberries did not improve blood pressure, but improved (i.e., increased) endothelial function over six weeks in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  17. Blueberry juice causes potent relaxation of rat aortic rings via the activation of potassium channels and the H₂S pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, Louise A; Holohan, Catherine A; Lawless, Gráinne A; Murtagh, Melissa A; Williams, Carmel T; Webster, Christina M

    2013-02-26

    The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of blueberry juice on healthy rat aortic rings, and to explore the roles of potassium channels and of the hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) pathway in mediating the effects of blueberry juice. Firstly, the antioxidant capacity of blueberry juice was compared to other popular juice drinks using the Folin-Ciocalteu and the DPPH assays. Blueberry juice had significantly higher total polyphenol content than any of the other drinks studied (p blueberry juice on noradrenaline-contracted aortic rings was then observed, and the juice caused significant inhibition of noradrenaline-induced contractions (p blueberry juice (p blueberry juice (p blueberry juice has potent vasorelaxing properties, and thus may be a useful dietary agent for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. This study also provides strong evidence that Kv channels and the CSE/H(2)S pathway may be responsible, at least in part, for mediating the effects of blueberry juice.

  18. Inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 on blueberries by electrolyzed water, ultraviolet light, and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chyer; Hung, Yen-Con

    2012-04-01

    Increased interest in blueberries due to their nutritional and health benefits has led to an increase in consumption. However, blueberries are consumed mostly raw or minimally processed and are susceptible to microbial contamination like other type of fresh produce. This study was, therefore, undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of electrostatic spray of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water, UV light, ozone, and a combination of ozone and UV light in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on blueberries. A 5-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 were inoculated on the calyx and skin of blueberries and then subjected to the treatments. Electrostatic EO water spray reduced initial populations of E. coli O157:H7 by only 0.13 to 0.24 log CFU/g and 0.88 to 1.10 log CFU/g on calyx and skin of blueberries, respectively. Ozone treatment with 4000 mg/L reduced E. coli O157:H7 by only 0.66 and 0.72 log CFU/g on calyx and skin of blueberries, respectively. UV light at 20 mW/cm² for 10 min was the most promising single technology and achieved 2.14 and greater than 4.05 log reductions of E. coli O157:H7 on the calyx and skin of blueberries, respectively. The combination treatment of 1 min ozone and followed by a 2 min UV achieved more than 1 and 2 log additional reductions on blueberry calyx than UV or ozone alone, respectively. Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses have been associated with consumption of fresh produce. Many methods for removing pathogens as well as minimizing their effect on quality of treated produce have been investigated. UV technology and its combination with ozone used in this study to inactive E. coli O157:H7 on blueberries was found effective. Results from this study may help producers and processors in developing hurdle technologies for the delivery of safer blueberries to consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Effect of Harvest Year and Altitude on Nutritional and Biometric Characteristics of Blueberry Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Correia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the consumption of small fruits has increased continuously and knowledge about the more suitable production requirements is essential. This study aims to evaluate the influence of harvest year and altitude on chemical composition of four blueberry cultivars, in order to create rentable opportunities for producers and minimize eventual losses in quality fruits. Dry mass, protein, fat, energy, free sugars, organic acids, and vitamin C contents were determined using HPLC-UV-DAD and spectrophotometric methods. Differences (p0.05 influence. Citric acid was the main organic acid and fructose the most abundant sugar in blueberries. Fruits of “Ozarkblue” had the highest mass and volume whilst the “Bluecrop” was the cultivar with highest crude protein and fat contents. “Goldtraube” showed the highest content of sucrose and organic acids and “Duke” had the highest content of fructose.

  20. Fruit quality attributes of low chilling requirement ‘Snowchaser’ blueberry cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Maria Jimenes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil there are still few studies on the post-harvest quality of low-chill blueberry cultivars, which have been recently introduced in the country. ‘Snowchaser’ blueberries were evaluated during a six-day storage period regarding fruit physical and chemical properties, and its antioxidant capacity. During fruit storage there was an increased weight loss and maintenance of some skin color properties such as luminosity (L* and b*, whereas the values of parameter a* decreased and chroma (C values increased. The levels of anthocyanins and flavonoids in the pulp increased, as well as the antioxidant activity. Maximum fruit shelf life at room temperature was six days without reduction on the antioxidant activity along the period, which is beneficial to consumers’ health.

  1. Effect of electron beam on quality and physiological metabolism of blueberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huijuan; Ye Zhengwen; Zhang Xueying; Su Mingshen; Du Jihong; Zhang Minqian

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore safe, simple and effective storage technology, experiment was conducted with 'ai li ao te' blueberry for studying the effect of electron beam on quality and physiological metabolism. Fruit was stored at temperature of (1 ± 0.5)℃, with RH of 80% ∼ 85%, and treated with electron beam of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 kGy. The results showed that the proper dose of electron beam could decline the bad fruit rate and weightlessness, restrain respiration intensity, alleviate the decline of soluble solids, acid and Vc content. Meanwhile it did not have significant negative effects on pulp colour. All these showed that electron beam of 1 kGy treatment could keep the best storage quality of blueberry, keep the sound berry and weightlessness rate at > 90% and < 10% respectively, prolong the effective storage time from 30d to 60d. (authors)

  2. Data on blueberry peroxidase kinetic characterization and stability towards thermal and high pressure processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet Shiferaw Terefe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to a research article entitled ‘Thermal and high pressure inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase’ (Terefe et al., 2017 [1]. In this article, we report original data on the activity of partially purified blueberry peroxidase at different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and phenlylenediamine as substrates and the effects of thermal and high pressure processing on the activity of the enzyme. Data on the stability of the enzyme during thermal (at temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C and combined thermal-high pressure processing (100–690 MPa, 30–90 °C are included in this report. The data are presented in this format in order to facilitate comparison with data from other researchers and allow statistical analyses and modeling by others in the field.

  3. Correlation between species-specific metabolite profiles and bioactivities of blueberries (Vaccinium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sarah; Jung, Eun Sung; Do, Seon-Gil; Jung, Ga-Young; Song, Gwanpil; Song, Jung-Min; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2014-03-05

    Metabolite profiling of three blueberry species (Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb., V. oldhamii Miquel., and V. corymbosum L.) was performed using gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) combined multivariate analysis. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly showed metabolic differences among species. GC-TOF-MS analysis revealed significant differences in amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, sugars, and phenolic acids among the three blueberry species. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis indicated that anthocyanins were the major metabolites distinguishing V. bracteatum from V. oldhamii. The contents of anthocyanins such as glycosides of cyanidin were high in V. bracteatum, while glycosides of delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin were high in V. oldhamii. Antioxidant activities assessed using ABTS and DPPH assays showed the greatest activity in V. oldhamii and revealed the highest correlation with total phenolic, total flavonoid, and total anthocyanin contents and their metabolites.

  4. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) stored under controlled atmosphere and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Meyer, Anibal; Eifert, Joseph; Williams, Robert; Marcy, Joseph; Welbaum, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that represents a high risk for consumers because it can grow under refrigeration conditions and can also develop acid tolerance. Fresh blueberries are hand-picked, packed, and transported under refrigeration without receiving a microbial inactivation treatment. The aim of this work was to study the survival of L. monocytogenes in fresh highbush blueberries stored at 4 or 12 °C under different controlled atmosphere conditions, including air (control); 5% O2, 15% CO2, 80% N2 (controlled atmosphere storage [CAS]); or ozone gas (O3), 4 ppm at 4 °C or 2.5 ppm at 12 °C, at high relative humidity (90 to 95%) for a total of 10 days. Fresh blueberries inside a plastic clamshell were spot inoculated with the bacteria and were stored at 4 or 12 °C in isolated cabinets under air, CAS, and O3 atmospheric conditions. Samples were evaluated on days 0, 1, 4, 7, and 10 for microbial growth using modified Oxford agar. CAS did not delay or inhibit L. monocytogenes growth in fresh blueberries after 10 days. O3 achieved 3- and 2-log reductions when compared with air treatment at 4 and 12 °C, respectively. Low concentrations of O3 together with proper refrigeration temperature can ensure product safety throughout transportation. O3 is a strong antimicrobial that safely decomposes to oxygen and water without leaving residues and can be used as an alternative method to prevent bacterial growth during a long transport period.

  5. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) leaf infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piljac-Zegarac, J; Belscak, A; Piljac, A

    2009-06-01

    Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of leaf infusions prepared from six highbush blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), one wild lowbush blueberry cultivar (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), and one commercially available mix of genotypes were determined. In order to simulate household tea preparation conditions, infusions were prepared in water heated to 95 degrees C. The dynamics of extraction of polyphenolic antioxidants were monitored over the course of 30 minutes. Extraction efficiency, quantified in terms of the total phenol (TP) content, and antioxidant capacity of infusions, evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays, were compared with cultivar type and extraction time. The 30-minute infusions exhibited the highest TP content and antioxidant capacity according to all three assays. Wild blueberry infusion had the highest TP content (1,879 mg/L gallic acid equivalents [GAE]) and FRAP values (20,050 microM). The range of TP values for 30-minute infusions was 394-1,879 mg/L GAE with a mean of 986 mg/L GAE across cultivars; FRAP values fell between 3,015 and 20,050 microM with a mean of 11,234 microM across cultivars. All 30-minute infusions exhibited significant scavenging capacity for DPPH(*) and ABTS(*+) radicals, comparable to different concentrations of catechin, gallic acid, and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid. Overall, tested infusions showed significant reducing capacity as well as radical scavenging potential, which places blueberry leaf tea high on the list of dietary sources of antioxidants.

  6. Lack of pollinators limits fruit production in commercial blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Faye E; Winfree, Rachael

    2014-12-01

    Modern agriculture relies on domesticated pollinators such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), and to a lesser extent on native pollinators, for the production of animal-pollinated crops. There is growing concern that pollinator availability may not keep pace with increasing agricultural production. However, whether crop production is in fact pollen-limited at the field scale has rarely been studied. Here, we ask whether commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) production in New Jersey is limited by a lack of pollination even when growers provide honey bees at recommended densities. We studied two varieties of blueberry over 3 yr to determine whether blueberry crop production is pollen-limited and to measure the relative contributions of honey bees and native bees to blueberry pollination. We found two lines of evidence for pollen limitation. First, berries receiving supplemental hand-pollination were generally heavier than berries receiving ambient pollination. Second, mean berry mass increased significantly and nonasymptotically with honey bee flower visitation rate. While honey bees provided 86% of pollination and thus drove the findings reported above, native bees still contributed 14% of total pollination even in our conventionally managed, high-input agricultural system. Honey bees and native bees were also similarly efficient as pollinators on a per-visit basis. Overall, our study shows that pollination can be a limiting factor in commercial fruit production. Yields might increase with increased honey bee stocking rates and improved dispersal of hives within crop fields, and with habitat restoration to increase pollination provided by native bees.

  7. Investigation on the essential mineral element contentents of cultivated and wild blueberry fruits in latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Pormale, Jolanta; Osvalde, Anita; Karlsons, Andis

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference “Environmentally friendly and safe technologies for quality of fruit and vegetables”, held in Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal, on January 14-16, 2009. This Conference was a join activity with COST Action 924. Wild blueberry (Vaccinium murtillus) is one of the most popular wild-harvested fruit in Latvia, traditionally used in folk-medicine and food. Unfortunately there are wide fluctuations in yields. The recent years mark a tr...

  8. MICROCLONAL PROPAGATION OF THE VARIETIES OF HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    OpenAIRE

    N. Y. Yavorska; O. V. Lobachevska; Ya. D. Khorkavtsіv; N. Ya Kyyak

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work was to determine optimal conditions for clonal reproduction, growth and development of different varieties of Vaccinium corymbosum from the foreign selection. The objects of research were 5 varieties of highbush blueberry: Bluejay, of early ripening period; Bluecrop, Bluegold, Legacy, of average ripening; Aurora, of late ripening. Optimal conditions of explant surface sterilization have been selected depending on their type and effectiveness of used disinfectants. Maximum ...

  9. Chemical variability and antioxidant activity of the leaves of chosen highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Janiuk M.; Najda A.; Gantner M.; Błażewicz-Woźniak M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of two highbush blueberry varieties: ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Northland’. The study revealed differences in the content of the analyzed components. Leaves of cv. ‘Bluecrop’ were characterized by a higher content of chlorophyll, flavonoids and anthocyanins, while the leaves of cv. ‘Northland’ contained more reducing sugars and total phenolic acids, tannins, and essential oils. Capacity of neutrali...

  10. Pollen Foraging Differences Among Three Managed Pollinators in the Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) Agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobiwash, Kyle; Uriel, Yonathan; Elle, Elizabeth

    2018-02-09

    Highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum (Gray), production in British Columbia is dependent upon insect pollination for fruit yield with particular cultivars demonstrating low yields due to poor pollination. New managed species of pollinators are being developed to provide farmers with managed pollinator options beyond Apis mellifera (Linnaeus). Pollinators in highbush blueberry agricultural systems encounter a variety of nontarget floral resources that may affect the pollination received by the crop. Our study analyzed the differences in pollen foraging of honey bees and two species of managed bumblebees across nine farm sites. Corbicular pollen loads from pollen foraging workers were removed and identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible. Of the three managed pollinators, the corbicular pollen loads of Bombus huntii (Greene) contained the most blueberry pollen (52.1%), three times as much as the two other managed bee species. Fifteen morphotypes of pollen were identified from all foraging workers with Rosaceae being the most frequently gathered overall pollen type (n = 74). The noncrop pollen identified in our samples derived from plant species not common as weedy species in the agroecosystem suggesting that floral resource diversity outside of the farm boundaries is important to pollinators. The three managed species in our blueberry fields utilized floral resources differentially underscoring the importance of pollinator species' characteristics and large-scale floral resource landscape in developing new managed pollinators and pollination strategies. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Protective Effect of Anthocyanins Extract from Blueberry on TNBS-Induced IBD Model of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Hua Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of anthocyanins extract of blueberry on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD model of mice. The study employed female C57BL/6 mice (n = 50, and colitis was induced by intracolonic injection of 0.5 mg of TNBS dissolved in 50% ethanol–phosphate buffered solution. The mice were divided into five groups (n = 10: vehicle, TNBS control and anthocyanins groups that received different doses of anthocyanins extract (10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1 daily for 6 days. Both increase in body weight and diarrhea symptoms were monitored each day. After 6 days, the animals were killed, and the following parameters were assessed: colon length, morphological score, histological score and biochemical assay (NO, myeloperoxidase (MPO, interleukin (IL-12, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interferon (IFN-γ. The results showed that the anthocyanins extract of blueberry rendered strong protection against TNBS-induced colonic damage at a dosage of 40 mg kg-1. When compared with the control, anthocyanins extract significantly prevented loss of body weight and ameliorated the scores of diarrhea, morphology and histology. Treatment with anthocyanins extract restored IL-10 excretion, as well as caused reduction in the levels of NO, MPO, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Our research revealed the protective effect of anthocyanins extract from blueberry on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in mice, as well as examined whether high levels of dietary blueberries would lower the risk or have protective effects on human IBD, which may require further investigation.

  12. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Economic Risk of Bee Pollination in Maine Wild Blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Eric; Hoshide, Aaron K; Drummond, Francis A; Criner, George K; Chen, Xuan

    2017-10-01

    Recent pollinator declines highlight the importance of evaluating economic risk of agricultural systems heavily dependent on rented honey bees or native pollinators. Our study analyzed variability of native bees and honey bees, and the risks these pose to profitability of Maine's wild blueberry industry. We used cross-sectional data from organic, low-, medium-, and high-input wild blueberry producers in 1993, 1997-1998, 2005-2007, and from 2011 to 2015 (n = 162 fields). Data included native and honey bee densities (count/m2/min) and honey bee stocking densities (hives/ha). Blueberry fruit set, yield, and honey bee hive stocking density models were estimated. Fruit set is impacted about 1.6 times more by native bees than honey bees on a per bee basis. Fruit set significantly explained blueberry yield. Honey bee stocking density in fields predicted honey bee foraging densities. These three models were used in enterprise budgets for all four systems from on-farm surveys of 23 conventional and 12 organic producers (2012-2013). These budgets formed the basis of Monte Carlo simulations of production and profit. Stochastic dominance of net farm income (NFI) cumulative distribution functions revealed that if organic yields are high enough (2,345 kg/ha), organic systems are economically preferable to conventional systems. However, if organic yields are lower (724 kg/ha), it is riskier with higher variability of crop yield and NFI. Although medium-input systems are stochastically dominant with lower NFI variability compared with other conventional systems, the high-input system breaks even with the low-input system if honey bee hive rental prices triple in the future. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  14. [Effects of blueberry on apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in HSC-T6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuang; Cheng, Mingliang; Yang, Demeng; Liu, Yang; Guan, Li; Wu, Jun

    2015-08-18

    To investigate the effects of blueberry on the apoptosis, expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in rat hepatic stellate cell (HSC-T6). 10% blueberry serum at low, middle and high dose, 10% Fu-Fang-Bie-Jia-Ruan-Gan tablet serum and 10% saline serum were prepared by method of serum pharmacology. Subcultured HSC-T6 was divided into saline serum control group, blueberry serum at low, middle, high dose and Fu-Fang-Bie-Jia-Ruan-Gan tablet serum group, and then was respectively incubated at different dose of 10% blueberry serum, 10% Fu-Fang-Bie-Jia-Ruan-Gan tablet serum and 10% saline serum for 72 hours.Apoptosis of HSC-T6 was detected using flow cytometry with annexin V FITC/PI double staining. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in HSC-T6 were examined using immunocytochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. There was no significant difference for HSC-T6 Bax protein expression in the low, middle and high dose blueberry serum groups, compared with saline serum control group, respectively.In the high-dose blueberry serum group HSC-T6 early and total apoptosis rate increased significantly compared with the saline serum control group (5.55% ± 0.98% vs 2.53% ± 0.46%, 7.01% ± 1.05% vs 2.96% ± 0.81%, both Pblueberry serum group showed no significant difference with the saline serum control group. Blueberry can induce HSC-T6 apoptosis by down-regulating Bcl-2 expression and decreasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in HSC-T6 cells, so it may have potential interference effects on hepatic fibrosis.

  15. Chemical Characterization and Cytotoxic Activity of Blueberry Extracts (cv. Misty) Cultivated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarotto, Giovana; Barcellos, Thiago; Garcia, Charlene Silvestrin Celi; Brandalize, Ana Paula Carneiro; Moura, Sidnei; Schwambach, Joséli; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Roesch-Ely, Mariana

    2016-08-01

    Vaccinium corymbosum (L.) varieties cultivation is relatively recent in Brazil, but its production has been intensified given its good adaptability to the Southern Brazil climate. Blueberries are a rich source of phenolic compounds and contain significant levels of anthocyanins, flavonols, chlorogenic acids, and procyanidins, which lead to different biological activities. Chemical identification of skin and whole hydroalcoholic blueberry extracts (ExtSB and ExtWB) revealed the presence of anthocyanins concentrated in the skin and others chemicals compounds as quercetin glycosides, proanthocyanins dimers, citric, and chlorogenic acid in the pulp. Selectivity for tumor cell lines (Hep-2, HeLa, HT-29) using ExtSB and ExtWB extracts was observed through MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay after 24 h of treatment when compared to nontumor cells (MRC-5). Morphological changes and late stages of apoptotic and necrosis process were seen in HT-29 cell line after ExtWB treatment, compared to nontumor cell line MRC-5. These results are in agreement with other studies that indicate the activity of compounds such as anthocyanins and other molecules found in Southern Highbush blueberry variety, attributed to promote beneficial effects on health that may respond as cytotoxic natural agent and contribute to cancer treatment. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Myo-Inositol content determined by myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation in blueberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fangyuan; Su, Hongyan; Yang, Nan; Zhu, Luying; Cheng, Jieshan; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Xianhao

    2016-11-01

    Myo-inositol metabolism in plant edible organs has become the focus of many recent studies because of its benefits to human health and unique functions in plant development. In this study, myo-inositol contents were analyzed during the development of two blueberry cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop'. Furthermore, two VcMIPS 1/2 (Vaccinium corymbosum MIPS) genes, one VcIMP (Vaccinium corymbosum IMP) gene and one VcMIOX (Vaccinium corymbosum MIOX) gene were isolated for the first time from blueberry. The expression patterns of VcMIPS2, VcIMP and VcMIOX genes showed a relationship with the change profiles of myo-inositol content during fruit ripening. The results were further confirmed by the analyses of the enzyme activity. Results indicated that both myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation played important roles in determining of myo-inositol levels during the development of blueberry. To our knowledge, this report is the first to discuss myo-inositol levels in fruits in terms of biosynthesis and catabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methyl jasmonate affects phenolic metabolism and gene expression in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocetta, Giacomo; Rossoni, Mara; Gardana, Claudio; Mignani, Ilaria; Ferrante, Antonio; Spinardi, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a fruit very much appreciated by consumers for its antioxidant potential and health-promoting traits. Its beneficial potential properties are mainly due to a high content of anthocyanins and their amount can change after elicitation with methyl jasmonate. The aim of this work is to evaluate the changes in expression of several genes, accumulation of phenolic compounds and alterations in antioxidant potential in two different blueberry cultivars ('Duke' and 'Blueray') in response to methyl jasmonate (0.1 mM). Results showed that 9 h after treatment, the expression of phenylalanine ammonium lyase, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase genes was stimulated more in the 'Blueray' variety. Among the phenols measured an increase was recorded also for epicatechin and anthocyanin concentrations. 'Duke' is a richer sourche of anthocyanins compared to 'Blueray', treatment with methyl jasmonate promoted in 'Blueray' an increase in pigments as well as in the antioxidant potential, especially in fully ripe berries, but treated 'Duke' berries had greater levels, which were not induced by methyl jasmonate treatment. In conclusion, methyl jasmonate was, in some cases, an effective elicitor of phenolic metabolism and gene expression in blueberry, though with different intensity between cultivars. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of blueberry extract (Vaccinium corymbosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Eliane; Lemos, Marivane; Caliari, Vinícius; Kassuya, Cândida A L; Bastos, Jairo K; Andrade, Sérgio F

    2007-04-01

    Blueberries are among the edible fruits that are recognized best for their potential health benefits. The crude extract from Vaccinium corymbosum was assessed in anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive models. The crude hydroalcoholic extract was administered orally at doses of 100, 200 or 300 mg kg (-1) for all the assays. In the carrageenan test, the crude extract reduced rat paw oedema by 9.8, 28.5 and 65.9%, respectively. For the histamine assay, the reductions of oedema were 70.1, 71.7 and 81.9%, respectively. In the myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay, 300 mg kg (-1) crude extract produced a significant inhibition of the MPO activity, at 6 h and 24 h after injection of carrageenan, by 42.8 and 46.2%, respectively. With the granulomatous tissue assay dexamethasone displayed significant activity, whereas the blueberry extract was inactive. For the abdominal constriction test, inhibitions of 49.0, 54.5, 53.5%, respectively, were observed for the crude extract, and 61.4% for indometacin. In the formalin test, the crude extract (200 and 300 mg kg (-1)) and indometacin inhibited only the second phase by 36.2, 35.3 and 45.8%, respectively. Considering that the crude extract of blueberry displayed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, its consumption may be helpful for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.

  19. Microbial Quality and Shelf Life of Blueberry Purée Developed Using Cavitation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lihua; Martynenko, Alex; Doucette, Craig; Hughes, Timothy; Fillmore, Sherry

    2018-03-01

    Blueberry purée was developed using hydrodynamic cavitation technology. The product was made from entire blueberries without adding any food additives. In this study, microbial reduction following each processing stage (at the industry setting) and after product pasteurization at 86, 88, 90, 92, 94, and 96 °C was investigated. Microbial quality including total plate counts, yeast and molds, and heat-resistant molds counts was determined. Shelf life of pasteurized products stored for up to 24 weeks at room temperature were assessed for microbial quality, soluble solids (°Brix), titratable acidity (citric acid %), pH, viscosity (cP) and flow rate (cm/30 s). Our results indicated that heat-resistant molds, initially present in frozen blueberries with counts at 2.03 log CFU/200g, were totally inactivated at 94 to 96 °C with 1 to 2 min holding time. Shelf life study showed that no product spoilage was caused by bacteria, yeasts and heat-resistant molds along with non-significant changes of textural characteristics. This study provided useful information for the food industry to develop variety of fruit purée products with no wastes of fruit materials. This study provides useful information for the food industry to develop safe liquid food products using cavitation technology without wasting any raw materials. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Effects of Acute Blueberry Flavonoids on Mood in Children and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundus Khalid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of flavonoids (usually via fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased risk of developing depression. One plausible explanation for this association is the well-documented beneficial effects of flavonoids on executive function (EF. Impaired EF is linked to cognitive processes (e.g., rumination that maintain depression and low mood; therefore, improved EF may reduce depressionogenic cognitive processes and improve mood. Study 1: 21 young adults (18–21 years old consumed a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink and a matched placebo in a counterbalanced cross-over design. Study 2: 50 children (7–10 years old were randomly assigned to a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink or a matched placebo. In both studies, participants and researchers were blind to the experimental condition, and mood was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule before and 2 h after consumption of the drinks. In both studies, the blueberry intervention increased positive affect (significant drink by session interaction but had no effect on negative affect. This observed effect of flavonoids on positive affect in two independent samples is of potential practical value in improving public health. If the effect of flavonoids on positive affect is replicated, further investigation will be needed to identify the mechanisms that link flavonoid interventions with improved positive mood.

  1. Pupation Behavior and Predation on Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Pupae in Maine Wild Blueberry Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballman, Elissa S; Collins, Judith A; Drummond, Francis A

    2017-12-05

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive vinegar fly and pest of soft fruits in North America, including wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) in Maine. Despite its presence in the continental United States for 9 yr, little is known about its natural enemy complex. Here we report the results of a 3-yr study designed to identify naturally-occurring predators in Maine's wild blueberry fields. Experiments were conducted to determine pupation site and pupation depth to understand D. suzukii's predation vulnerability. Predation rates in the field of fully-exposed, caged, and buried pupae were measured. Pitfall traps were deployed to identify the potential predator assemblage, and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how many pupae were consumed by commonly occurring ground beetle species (Carabidae) and field crickets (Gryllus pennsylvanicus Burmeister). The most commonly collected predators were ants, ground beetles, harvestmen, and field crickets. Significantly more pupae were found to occur in the soil compared to blueberry fruit, with most pupae in the top 0.5 cm layer of soil. Pupal predation rates in the field were high, with higher rates of predation on exposed pupae compared to buried pupae. Laboratory studies revealed that ground beetles and field crickets are likely predators of D. suzukii pupae. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Development of blueberry liquor: influence of distillate, sweetener and fruit quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ilda; Lopes, Daniel; Delgado, Teresa; Canas, Sara; Anjos, Ofélia

    2018-02-01

    In this work different formulations of blueberry liquor were tested and characterised based on their physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Three factors were evaluated: the distillate used to produce the liquor (wine spirit or grape marc spirit); the sweetener (white sugar or honey) and the fruit quantity (two doses). For each liquor, pH, total acidity, dry soluble solids content, dry extract, alcoholic strength, reducing sugars, colour intensity, methanol content, acetaldehyde and fusel alcohols were determined. Sensory tests were carried out with a trained panel. The three factors studied significantly influenced the physico-chemical features of the liquors, being the quantity of fruit the most discriminating factor, except for the volatile compounds which were mainly influenced by the distillate. As regards the sensory analysis, it was found that the most appreciated liquor was that prepared with wine spirit, sugar and a lower dose of blueberry, and the less appreciated formulation was the one made with grape marc spirit, honey and a lower quantity of blueberry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Protection of polyphenols in blueberry juice by vacuum-assisted block freeze concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Palma, Patricio; Petzold, Guillermo; Pierre, Lissage; Pensaben, José Manuel

    2017-11-01

    Block freeze concentration allows produces high-quality cryoconcentrates with important protection of valuable components from fresh fruit juices. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of vacuum-assisted block freeze concentration under different experimental conditions to protect polyphenols in the elaboration of concentrated blueberry juice. Fresh blueberry juice was radial or unidirectional frozen at -20 and -80 °C for 12 h and vacuum process was performed at 80 kPa during 120 min. Results showed a significant solute increased in the concentrated fraction in all treatments, and the best treatment was - 20 °C/unidirectional with a value of ≈63 °Brix, equivalent to an increase of 3.8 times in the total polyphenol content (76% of retention). The color of concentrated samples was darker than the initial sample, with ΔE* values of >25 CIELab units in all treatments. The vacuum-assisted block freeze concentrations was an effective technology for protecting polyphenols and obtain a concentrated with a higher concentration of solids from blueberry juice, as well as interesting values of process parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of NPK fertilization and elemental sulphur on growth and yield of lowbush blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. STARAST

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of fertilizers on the pH of former arable soils and on the growth and the yield of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.. Lowbush blueberry fertilization experiments were established in 1999 at two locations – at Kärla, Saaremaa, West Estonia and at Vasula, Tartu County, South Estonia. Experimental sites were situated on different soils: soil pHKCl at Kärla was 5.5 and at Vasula 6.2. Elemental sulphur and acidifying fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate and superphosphate were used in both plantations. Fertilizers were applied based on nutrient in the soil and sulphur was applied at 100 g m–2. Plant growth was recorded in 2001, 2002 and 2003. A positive influence of NPK fertilization on yield was found in both Kärla and Vasula, and yield were 336 g and 41 g higher compared to the control, respectively. The vegetative growth and yield of blueberry depended significantly on soil pH. Elemental sulphur increased soil acidity and on loamy sand soil did not increase plant productivity. The sulphur effect on soil pH began to decrease three years after application. Sulphur can be recommended to increase soil acidity in nutrient-rich soil but, not nutrient poor soil with light texture, where only NPK fertilizers were effective.;

  5. Influence of three different concentration techniques on evaporation rate, color and phenolics content of blueberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elik, Aysel; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Maskan, Medeni; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of three different concentration processes open-pan, rotary vacuum evaporator and microwave heating on evaporation rate, the color and phenolics content of blueberry juice. Kinetics model study for changes in soluble solids content (°Brix), color parameters and phenolics content during evaporation was also performed. The final juice concentration of 65° Brix was achieved in 12, 15, 45 and 77 min, for microwave at 250 and 200 W, rotary vacuum and open-pan evaporation processes, respectively. Color changes associated with heat treatment were monitored using Hunter colorimeter (L*, a* and b*). All Hunter color parameters decreased with time and dependently studied concentration techniques caused color degradation. It was observed that the severity of color loss was higher in open-pan technique than the others. Evaporation also affected total phenolics content in blueberry juice. Total phenolics loss during concentration was highest in open-pan technique (36.54 %) and lowest in microwave heating at 200 W (34.20 %). So, the use of microwave technique could be advantageous in food industry because of production of blueberry juice concentrate with a better quality and short time of operation. A first-order kinetics model was applied to modeling changes in soluble solids content. A zero-order kinetics model was used to modeling changes in color parameters and phenolics content.

  6. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  7. A single serving of blueberry (V. corymbosum) modulates peripheral arterial dysfunction induced by acute cigarette smoking in young volunteers: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Fracassetti, Daniela; Campolo, Jonica; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes oxidative stress, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may prevent these conditions. We investigated the effect of a single serving of fresh-frozen blueberry intake on peripheral arterial function and arterial stiffness in young smokers. Sixteen male smokers were recruited for a 3-armed randomized-controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300 g of blueberry) + smoking; control treatment (300 mL of water with sugar) + smoking. Each treatment was separated by one week of wash-out period. The blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral arterial function (reactive hyperemia and Framingham reactive hyperemia), and arterial stiffness (digital augmentation index, digital augmentation index normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm) were measured before and 20 min after smoking with Endo-PAT2000. Smoking impaired the blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral arterial function, but did not affect the arterial stiffness. Blueberry consumption counteracted the impairment of the reactive hyperemia index induced by smoking (-4.4 ± 0.8% blueberry treatment vs. -22.0 ± 1.1% smoking treatment, p blueberry treatment vs. -42.8 ± 20.0% smoking treatment, p blueberry treatment vs. +13.1 ± 0.02% smoking treatment, mmHg, p blueberry on reactive hyperemia, Framingham reactive hyperemia, and systolic blood pressure in subjects exposed to smoke of one cigarette. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  8. Effectiveness of different antimicrobial washes combined with freezing against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    To ensure the microbial safety of produce including blueberries, sanitization is a critical step. This study evaluated the efficacy of sanitizers when coupled with frozen storage, in inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on wild blueberri...

  9. Characterization and molecular differentiation of 16SrI-E and 16SrIX-E phytoplasmas associated with blueberry stunt disease in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nested PCR assay was employed to detect the presence of phytoplasmas associated with 127 symptomatic blueberry plants collected during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons from 11 commercial farms predominantly located in two major blueberry-growing counties in New Jersey, USA. Ninety plants exhibit...

  10. Overexpression of blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with changes in the expression of phytohormone-related genes in blueberry plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuan; Walworth, Aaron E; Mackie, Charity; Song, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    Flowering locus T (FT) is a primary integrator in the regulation of plant flowering. Overexpressing a blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) FT gene (VcFT) (herein VcFT-OX) resulted in early flowering and dwarfing in ‘Aurora’ plants (herein ‘VcFT-Aurora’). In this study, we found that VcFT-OX reduced shoot regeneration from leaf explants. To investigate the potential roles of the phytohormone pathway genes associated with VcFT-OX, differentially expressed (DE) genes in leaf tissues of ‘VcFT-Aurora’ plants were annotated and analyzed using non-transgenic ‘Aurora’ plants as a control. Three DE floral genes, including the blueberry SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of constans 1 (VcSOC1) (gibberellin related), Abscisic acid responsive elements-binding factor 2 (VcABF2) and protein related to ABI3/VP1 (VcABI3/VP1) (ethylene-related), are present under both the phytohormone-responsive and the dwarfing-related Gene Ontology terms. The gene networks of the DE genes overall showed the molecular basis of the multifunctional aspects of VcFT overexpression beyond flowering promotion and suggested that phytohormone changes could be signaling molecules with important roles in the phenotypic changes driven by VcFT-OX. PMID:27818778

  11. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Wild Blueberries (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. with Cultivated Blueberry Varieties (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in Artvin Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Saral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. which are found naturally in most part of Blacksea Region, and Artvin are generally called bear grape, Trabzon tea, and likapa. In addition, different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. have been cultivated in Artvin region for 5 or 6 years. Blueberries contain appreciable levels of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and flavonols that have high biological activity. V. arctostaphylos and V. myrtillus show that natural distrubition with received V. corymbosum of different cultured species in Artvin region will be determined antioxidant activity in this study. In this study showed that wild species had a higher antioxidant effect than cultivated species. V. myrtillus had high total polyphenols (11.539-20.742 mg GAE/g dry sample, flavonoids (1.182-2.676 mg QE/g dry sample and anthocyanins (3.305-11.473 mg Cyn/g dry sample than V. corymbosum species. In addition, wild species had high CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH values. The antioxidant activities found with CUPRAC, expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity ranged from 0.143 to 0.297 mmol TEAC/g dry sample. Those determined with DPPH expressed as IC50 ranged from 0.229 to 1.178 mg/ml. Those determined with FRAP expressed as FeSO4.7H2O equivalent were in 130.719–346.115 µmol Fe/g dry sample range.

  12. Overexpression of blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with changes in the expression of phytohormone-related genes in blueberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuan; Walworth, Aaron E; Mackie, Charity; Song, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Flowering locus T ( FT ) is a primary integrator in the regulation of plant flowering. Overexpressing a blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) FT gene ( VcFT ) (herein VcFT -OX) resulted in early flowering and dwarfing in 'Aurora' plants (herein 'VcFT-Aurora'). In this study, we found that VcFT -OX reduced shoot regeneration from leaf explants. To investigate the potential roles of the phytohormone pathway genes associated with VcFT -OX, differentially expressed ( DE ) genes in leaf tissues of 'VcFT-Aurora' plants were annotated and analyzed using non-transgenic 'Aurora' plants as a control. Three DE floral genes, including the blueberry SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of constans 1 ( VcSOC1 ) (gibberellin related), Abscisic acid responsive elements-binding factor 2 ( VcABF2 ) and protein related to ABI3/VP1 ( VcABI3/VP1 ) (ethylene-related), are present under both the phytohormone-responsive and the dwarfing-related Gene Ontology terms. The gene networks of the DE genes overall showed the molecular basis of the multifunctional aspects of VcFT overexpression beyond flowering promotion and suggested that phytohormone changes could be signaling molecules with important roles in the phenotypic changes driven by VcFT -OX.

  13. Influence of genotype, cultivation system and irrigation regime on antioxidant capacity and selected phenolics of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

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    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Muriel, José Luis; Moreno, Diego A; Moreno-Rojas, José M

    2016-07-01

    Demand for and availability of blueberries has increased substantially over recent years, driven in part by their health-promoting properties. Three blueberry varieties ('Rocío', V2, and V3) were grown under two cultivation systems (open-field and plastic tunnels) and subjected to two irrigations regimes (100% and 80% of crop evapotranspiration) in two consecutive years (2011-2012). They were evaluated for their phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Genotype influenced the antioxidant capacity and the content of the three groups of phenolics in the blueberries. The antioxidant activity and total flavonols content increased when the blueberries were grown under open-field conditions. Deficit irrigation conditions led to additional positive effects on their phenolics (delphinidn-3-acetilhexoside content was increased under plastic tunnel with deficit irrigation). In conclusion, the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of blueberries were not negatively affected by water restriction; Moreover, several changes were recorded due to growing system and genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Native Bee Diversity and Pollen Foraging Specificity in Cultivated Highbush Blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum) in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Zachary; Ginsberg, Howard S; Alm, Steven R

    2016-12-01

    We identified 41 species of native bees from a total of 1,083 specimens collected at cultivated highbush blueberry plantings throughout Rhode Island in 2014 and 2015. Andrena spp., Bombus spp., and Xylocopa virginica (L.) were collected most often. Bombus griseocollis (DeGeer), B. impatiens Cresson, B. bimaculatus Cresson, B. perplexus Cresson, and Andrena vicina Smith collected the largest mean numbers of blueberry pollen tetrads. The largest mean percent blueberry pollen loads were carried by the miner bees Andrena bradleyi Viereck (91%), A. carolina Viereck (90%), and Colletes validus Cresson (87%). The largest mean total pollen grain loads were carried by B. griseocollis (549,844), B. impatiens (389,558), X. virginica (233,500), and B. bimaculatus (193,132). Xylocopa virginica was the fourth and fifth most commonly collected bee species in 2014 and 2015, respectively. They exhibit nectar robbing and females carried relatively low blueberry pollen loads (mean 33%). Overall, we found 10 species of bees to be the primary pollinators of blueberries in Rhode Island. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Effect of phytosanitary irradiation and methyl bromide fumigation on the physical, sensory, and microbiological quality of blueberries and sweet cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Karen; Au, Kimberlee; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether irradiation could serve as a suitable phytosanitary treatment alternative to methyl bromide (MB) fumigation for blueberries and sweet cherry and also to determine the effect of phytosanitary irradiation treatment on survival of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes on these fruit. 'Bluecrop' blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) and 'Sweetheart' cherries (Prunus avium) were irradiated at 0.4 kGy or fumigated with methyl bromide and evaluated for quality attributes during storage. Irradiation caused an immediate decrease in firmness of both fruit without further significant change during storage. Fumigated fruit, in contrast, softened by 11-14% during storage. Irradiation did not adversely affect blueberry and cherry shelf-life. MB fumigation did not impact blueberry and cherry quality attributes initially; however, fumigated fruit exhibited greater damage and mold growth than the control and irradiated samples during storage. Irradiation at 400 Gy resulted in a ∼1 log CFU g(-1) reduction in Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes counts, indicating that this treatment cannot significantly enhance safety. This study indicates that irradiation at a target dose of 0.4 kGy for phytosanitary treatment does not negatively impact blueberry and cherry quality and can serve as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Construction of Models for Nondestructive Prediction of Ingredient Contents in Blueberries by Near-infrared Spectroscopy Based on HPLC Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenming; Yoshimura, Norio; Takayanagi, Masao; Che, Jingai; Horiuchi, Naomi; Ogiwara, Isao

    2016-06-28

    Nondestructive prediction of ingredient contents of farm products is useful to ship and sell the products with guaranteed qualities. Here, near-infrared spectroscopy is used to predict nondestructively total sugar, total organic acid, and total anthocyanin content in each blueberry. The technique is expected to enable the selection of only delicious blueberries from all harvested ones. The near-infrared absorption spectra of blueberries are measured with the diffuse reflectance mode at the positions not on the calyx. The ingredient contents of a blueberry determined by high-performance liquid chromatography are used to construct models to predict the ingredient contents from observed spectra. Partial least squares regression is used for the construction of the models. It is necessary to properly select the pretreatments for the observed spectra and the wavelength regions of the spectra used for analyses. Validations are necessary for the constructed models to confirm that the ingredient contents are predicted with practical accuracies. Here we present a protocol to construct and validate the models for nondestructive prediction of ingredient contents in blueberries by near-infrared spectroscopy.

  17. Compositional Models of Hematite-Rich Spherules (Blueberries) at Meridiani Planum, Mars and Constraints on Their Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Mittlefehldt, D.

    2006-10-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity discovered hematite-rich spherules (``blueberries'') believed to be diagenetic concretions formed in the bedrock in stagnant or slow-moving groundwater. These spherules likely precipitated from solution, but their origins are poorly understood. Three formation mechanisms are possible: inclusive, replacive and displacive. The first would result in a distinct spherule composition compared to the other two. We propose that chemical clues may help to constrain the nature of blueberry formation. We used Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer data for undisturbed soils that were blueberry-free and with visible blueberries at the surface in Microscopic Imager images. We made plots of the elements versus iron for the spherule-rich soils and compared them to a mixing line representative of a pure hematite end member spherule (called ``the zero model''). This modeled the replacive formation mechanism, in which pure hematite would replace all of the original material. If the spherules grew inclusively, chemical data should reflect a compositional component of the rock grains included during formation. Four models were developed to test for possible compositions of a rock component. These models could not easily explain the APXS data and thus demonstrate that the most plausible rock compositions are not components of blueberries.

  18. The combination of blueberry juice and probiotics reduces apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver of mice by affecting SIRT1 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Juanjuan; Ren, Tingting; Zhou, Mingyu; Cheng, Mingliang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effects of the combination of blueberry juice and probiotics on the apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). Methods Healthy C57BL/6J mice were used in the control group (CG). AFLD mice models were established with Lieber–DeCarli ethanol diet and evenly assigned to six groups with different treatments: MG (model), SI (SIRT1 [sirtuin type 1] small interfering RNA [siRNA]), BJ (blueberry juice), BJSI (blueberry juice and SIRT1 siRNA), BJP (blueberry juice and probiotics), and BJPSI (blueberry juice, probiotics, and SIRT1 siRNA). Hepatic tissue was observed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Oil Red O (ORO) staining. Biochemical indexes of the blood serum were analyzed. The levels of SIRT1, caspase-3, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), FasL (tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6), BAX, and Bcl-2 were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Results HE and ORO staining showed that the hepatocytes were heavily destroyed with large lipid droplets in MG and SI groups, while the severity was reduced in the CG, BJ, and BJP groups (Pjuice and probiotics reduces apoptosis in AFLD by suppressing FOXO1, phosphorylated FOXO1, acetylated FOXO1, FasL, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl-2 via the upregulation of SIRT1. PMID:27274198

  19. The combination of blueberry juice and probiotics reduces apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver of mice by affecting SIRT1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Juanjuan; Ren, Tingting; Zhou, Mingyu; Cheng, Mingliang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effects of the combination of blueberry juice and probiotics on the apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). Healthy C57BL/6J mice were used in the control group (CG). AFLD mice models were established with Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet and evenly assigned to six groups with different treatments: MG (model), SI (SIRT1 [sirtuin type 1] small interfering RNA [siRNA]), BJ (blueberry juice), BJSI (blueberry juice and SIRT1 siRNA), BJP (blueberry juice and probiotics), and BJPSI (blueberry juice, probiotics, and SIRT1 siRNA). Hepatic tissue was observed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Oil Red O (ORO) staining. Biochemical indexes of the blood serum were analyzed. The levels of SIRT1, caspase-3, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), FasL (tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6), BAX, and Bcl-2 were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. HE and ORO staining showed that the hepatocytes were heavily destroyed with large lipid droplets in MG and SI groups, while the severity was reduced in the CG, BJ, and BJP groups (Pblueberry juice and probiotics reduces apoptosis in AFLD by suppressing FOXO1, phosphorylated FOXO1, acetylated FOXO1, FasL, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl-2 via the upregulation of SIRT1.

  20. Antimicrobial Effects of Blueberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Aqueous Extracts and their Effects on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Hazim O; Kamimoto, Maki; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry on 13 pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were determined before and after neutralization to pH 7.03 ± 0.15. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited by the non-neutralized berries. Blueberry was the best inhibitor, and Vibrio and Listeria were the most sensitive bacteria. After neutralization, blueberry affected only Vibrio and Listeria, whereas the antimicrobial activities of raspberry and strawberry were abolished. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the extracts were measured with colorimetric methods and were highest in strawberry, followed by raspberry, and then blueberry. We also studied the effects of sub-bactericidal concentrations of the three berry extracts on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three berry extracts effectively repressed the transcription of the tcpA gene. Raspberry also repressed the transcription of the ctxA gene, whereas blueberry and strawberry did not. However, the three berry extracts did not affect the transcription of toxT. These results suggest that the three berry extracts exert potent antimicrobial effects and inhibit the expression of the virulence factors of V. cholerae. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The influence of insecticides and vegetation in structuring Formica mound ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Maine lowbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Beth; Drummond, Francis A

    2013-04-01

    Assessing the influence of new, reduced-risk insecticides on natural enemies within agroecosystems is essential to developing integrated pest management strategies. Three species of mound-building Formica ants are abundant throughout Maine lowbush blueberry fields (Formica exsectoides Forel, F. glacialis Wheeler, and F. ulkei Emery). All three species have been described in the literature as predaceous, with research demonstrating that F. exsectoides preys on major pest insects of lowbush blueberry. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of common-use and newly introduced insecticides on Formica sp. ant communities in lowbush blueberry fields. Laboratory assays indicated that the commonly applied insecticide phosmet is toxic to F. exsectoides, even after 8 d of field weathering (P insecticides, such as acetamiprid, had little effect on survival of all three species. Abundance of each species in the field varied with lowbush blueberry pesticide-use strategy and amount of nonblueberry vegetation. Both F. exsectoides and F. glacialis were most abundant in organic fields; however, overall F. glacialis was the most abundant in fields of all management types. Field surveys support laboratory results suggesting that phosmet is highly toxic to these species and influences their spatial pattern. Manipulation of the crop to conserve natural enemies in lowbush blueberry is difficult because the crop is not planted; therefore, we must look closely at the incorporation of low toxicity insecticides with natural enemies to efficiently control pest insects.

  2. Managed Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Caged With Blueberry Bushes at High Density Did Not Increase Fruit Set or Fruit Weight Compared to Open Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J W; O'Brien, J; Irvin, J H; Kimmel, C B; Daniels, J C; Ellis, J D

    2017-04-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of bumble bees to the pollination of commercial highbush blueberries in Florida is unknown. Herein, we determined if managed bumble bees could contribute to highbush blueberry pollination. There were four treatments in this study: two treatments of caged commercial bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colonies (low and high weight hives), a treatment excluding all pollinators, and a final treatment which allowed all pollinators (managed and wild pollinators) in the area have access to the plot. All treatments were located within a highbush blueberry field containing two cultivars of blooming plants, 'Emerald' and 'Millennia', with each cage containing 16 mature blueberry plants. We gathered data on fruit set, berry weight, and number of seeds produced per berry. When pollinators were excluded, fruit set was significantly lower in both cultivars (58%). Berry weight was not significantly different among the treatments, and the number of seeds per berry did not show a clear response. This study emphasizes the importance of bumble bees as an effective pollinator of blueberries and the potential beneficial implications of the addition of bumble bees in commercial blueberry greenhouses or high tunnels. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Phenolic Acid Profiling, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities, and miRNA Regulation in the Polyphenols of 16 Blueberry Samples from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xianming; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongqing; Xu, Jing; He, Jiuming; Liu, Liying; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Ruoyun; Kang, Jie

    2017-02-18

    To investigate the anti-atherosclerosis related mechanism of blueberries, the phenolic acids (PAs) content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as the microRNA (miRNA) regulation of polyphenol fractions in blueberry samples from China were studied. Sixteen batches of blueberries including 14 commercialized cultivars (Reka, Patriot, Brigitta, Bluecrop, Berkeley, Duke, Darrow, Northland, Northblue, Northcountry, Bluesource, Southgood, O'Neal, and Misty) were used in this study. Seven PAs in the polyphenol fractions from 16 blueberry samples in China were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS²). The antioxidant activities of blueberry polyphenols were tested by (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH]) assay. The anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were investigated by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH]) and anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were in accordance with their PA contents. Although the polyphenol-enriched fractions of blueberries could inhibit the microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-125b) to different extents, no significant contribution from the PAs was observed. The inhibition of these miRNAs could mostly be attributed to the other compounds present in the polyphenol-enriched fraction of the blueberries. This is the first study to evaluate the PAs content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and miRNA regulation of Chinese blueberries.

  4. Phenolic Acid Profiling, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities, and miRNA Regulation in the Polyphenols of 16 Blueberry Samples from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the anti-atherosclerosis related mechanism of blueberries, the phenolic acids (PAs content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as the microRNA (miRNA regulation of polyphenol fractions in blueberry samples from China were studied. Sixteen batches of blueberries including 14 commercialized cultivars (Reka, Patriot, Brigitta, Bluecrop, Berkeley, Duke, Darrow, Northland, Northblue, Northcountry, Bluesource, Southgood, O’Neal, and Misty were used in this study. Seven PAs in the polyphenol fractions from 16 blueberry samples in China were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS2. The antioxidant activities of blueberry polyphenols were tested by (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay. The anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6] activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were investigated by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] and anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6] activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were in accordance with their PA contents. Although the polyphenol-enriched fractions of blueberries could inhibit the microRNAs (miRNAs (miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-125b to different extents, no significant contribution from the PAs was observed. The inhibition of these miRNAs could mostly be attributed to the other compounds present in the polyphenol-enriched fraction of the blueberries. This is the first study to evaluate the PAs content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and miRNA regulation of Chinese blueberries.

  5. Intake and time dependence of blueberry flavonoid-induced improvements in vascular function: a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention study with mechanistic insights into biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Rendeiro, Catarina; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Tabatabaee, Setareh; George, Trevor W; Heiss, Christian; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2013-11-01

    There are very limited data regarding the effects of blueberry flavonoid intake on vascular function in healthy humans. We investigated the impact of blueberry flavonoid intake on endothelial function in healthy men and assessed potential mechanisms of action by the assessment of circulating metabolites and neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity. Two randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover human-intervention trials were conducted with 21 healthy men. Initially, the impact of blueberry flavonoid intake on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and polyphenol absorption and metabolism was assessed at baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after consumption of blueberry containing 766, 1278, and 1791 mg total blueberry polyphenols or a macronutrient- and micronutrient-matched control drink (0 mg total blueberry polyphenols). Second, an intake-dependence study was conducted (from baseline to 1 h) with 319, 637, 766, 1278, and 1791 mg total blueberry polyphenols and a control. We observed a biphasic time-dependent increase in FMD, with significant increases at 1-2 and 6 h after consumption of blueberry polyphenols. No significant intake-dependence was observed between 766 and 1791 mg. However, at 1 h after consumption, FMD increased dose dependently to ≤766 mg total blueberry polyphenol intake, after which FMD plateaued. Increases in FMD were closely linked to increases in circulating metabolites and by decreases in neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity at 1-2 and 6 h. Blueberry intake acutely improves vascular function in healthy men in a time- and intake-dependent manner. These benefits may be mechanistically linked to the actions of circulating phenolic metabolites on neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01292954 and NCT01829542.

  6. Wild Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) Polyphenols Target Fusobacterium nucleatum and the Host Inflammatory Response: Potential Innovative Molecules for Treating Periodontal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lagha, Amel; Dudonné, Stéphanie; Desjardins, Yves; Grenier, Daniel

    2015-08-12

    Blueberries contain significant amounts of flavonoids to which a number of beneficial health effects in humans have been associated. The present study investigated the effect of a polyphenol-rich lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) extract on the two main etiologic components of periodontitis, a multifactorial disorder affecting the supporting structures of the teeth. Phenolic acids, flavonoids (flavonols, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols), and procyanidins made up 16.6, 12.9, and 2.7% of the blueberry extract, respectively. The blueberry extract showed antibacterial activity (MIC = 1 mg/mL) against the periodontopathogenic bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum. This property may result from the ability of blueberry polyphenols to chelate iron. Moreover, the blueberry extract at 62.5 μg/mL inhibited F. nucleatum biofilm formation by 87.5 ± 2.3%. Subsequently, the ability of the blueberry extract to inhibit the NF-κB signaling pathway in U937-3xκB cells was investigated. The blueberry extract dose-dependently inhibited the activation of NF-κB induced by F. nucleatum. In addition, a pretreatment of macrophages with the blueberry extract (62.5 μg/mL) inhibited the secretion of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 by 87.3 ± 1.3, 80.7 ± 5.6, and 28.2 ± 9.3%, respectively, following a stimulation with F. nucleatum. Similarly, the secretion of MMP-8 and MMP-9 was also dose-dependently inhibited. This dual antibacterial and anti-inflammatory action of lowbush blueberry polyphenols suggests that they may be promising candidates for novel therapeutic agents.

  7. Testing and design of a passive container for the optimisation of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cold chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Beghi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to test a passive cooling system (PCS on highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. to verify cooling performances soon after harvest. Based on experimental results the cooling trend was modelled and a dedicated system was designed for the optimisation of blueberries cold chain. The evolution of qualitative characteristics of stored fruits was evaluated analysing the percentage of damaged berries, the weight loss, the texture, the titratable acidity and the total soluble solids content. The analysis of temperature profiles during transport using PCS shows how this device is not fast enough in tearing down the blueberries field heat. A computer simulation, using finite elements method modelling, considering the thermo-physical properties of materials used and the boundary conditions arising from experimental data collected was carried out. Computer modelling has provided the characteristics of geometry, thickness, type and density of the material to obtain the desired cooling performance.

  8. Protective Effects of Blueberry Anthocyanins against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Injuries in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-Yang; Wu, Han; Li, Da-Jing; Song, Jiang-Feng; Xiao, Ya-Dong; Liu, Chun-Quan; Zhou, Jian-Zhong; Sui, Zhong-Quan

    2018-02-21

    Blueberry anthocyanins are considered protective of eye health because of their recognized antioxidant properties. In this study, blueberry anthocyanin extract (BAE), malvidin (Mv), malvidin-3-glucoside (Mv-3-glc), and malvidin-3-galactoside (Mv-3-gal) all reduced H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress by decreasing the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde and increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. BAE and the anthocyanin standards enhanced cell viability from 63.69 ± 3.36 to 86.57 ± 6.92% (BAE), 115.72 ± 23.41% (Mv), 98.15 ± 9.39% (Mv-3-glc), and 127.97 ± 20.09% (Mv-3-gal) and significantly inhibited cell apoptosis (P blueberry anthocyanins could inhibit the induction and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through antioxidant mechanisms.

  9. Influence of microclimatic conditions under high tunnels on the physiological and productive responses in blueberry 'O'Neal'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Retamal-Salgado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. production under tunnels has spread in recent years. However, there is little information on the productive and physiological responses of blueberry grown under high tunnels. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of high tunnel microclimate on the physiological and productive responses of blueberries. A total of 1296 plants of highbush blueberry 'O'Neal' were grown in high tunnels, leaving the same amount of plants under open fields (control. Environmental temperature (T, °C and relative humidity (RH, %, diffuse and total photosynthetically active radiation (PARdiffuse and PARtotal, /Blueberries under high tunnel recorded an accumulated yield 44% higher, while harvest started 14 d earlier compared to control. The results suggest that high tunnels in blueberries increases fruit yield and improves precocity due to higher temperatures during the flowering stage and fruit set. Particular light conditions under tunnels would favor higher leaf stomatal conductance in this crop.

  10. Comparison of Trap Types, Placement, and Colors for Monitoring Anthonomus musculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Adults in Highbush Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego; Salamanca, Jordano; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera; Alborn, Hans T; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key (univoltine) pest of highbush blueberries in the northeast United States. To date, however, no trapping system has been developed to successfully monitor this pest. In 2012–2014, studies were conducted in commercial highbush blueberry farms in New Jersey to 1) evaluate the efficacy of various commercially available traps, designed for other weevil species (e.g., pepper weevil, plum curculio, boll weevil, red palm weevil, and black vine weevil), in capturing A. musculus adults; 2) test whether the relative location of traps within the blueberry canopy affects adult captures and 3) determine the effects of different colored (yellow, white, green, red, blue, brown, and black) sticky traps on weevil captures. For a comparison with existing techniques, we also monitored the number of overwintered adult weevils on blueberry bushes using beat sheet sampling. Of all traps and colors tested, the most A. musculus adults were caught on yellow sticky traps and more adults were captured when these traps were placed at the bottom half of the blueberry canopy, i.e., 0.5–1.0 m above ground. Most weevils were caught on colored traps late in the season (i.e., during bloom), which corresponds mostly to the second (summer) adult generation. Thus, number of overwintered adults caught on traps did not correlate with those on bushes. Although our study identified traps that can be used to capture A. musculus adults, these traps alone (i.e., without semiochemicals) have so far limited applicability for monitoring overwintered adult weevils in highbush blueberries.

  11. Antihypertensive activity of blueberries fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313 and effects on the gut microbiota in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrén, Irini Lazou; Xu, Jie; Önning, Gunilla; Olsson, Crister; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present animal study was to examine the anti-hypertensive capacity of two probiotic products combining blueberries and the tannase producing probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313 and to investigate if such an effect is linked to a change in the gut microbiota. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups of nine each. Three groups of the animals were treated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in the drinking water (40 mg/L) to induce a hypertensive state, and the other three groups were not treated with L-NAME (healthy rats). Two blueberry products differing in their phenolic acid content were tested and each rat received 2 g/day of the fermented blueberry powders for 4 weeks. The effects of the study products on the blood pressure, blood lipids, inflammatory markers, organ weights as well as caecal microbiota of the healthy (non-L-NAME-treated) rats were analyzed. After four weeks, healthy rats consuming freeze dried fermented blueberries with probiotics had a significant reduction in blood pressure compared to the control rats. In rats with L-NAME induced hypertension there was a significant reduction of the blood pressure after two weeks treatment. The probiotic product with a higher content of phenolic acids reduced ALAT in the healthy rats. Furthermore, ingestion of the probiotic blueberry products resulted in changes of the gut microbiota in the healthy rats. Blueberries fermented with the tannase producing bacteria L. plantarum DSM 15313 have anti-hypertensive properties and may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Cynthia; He, Zhengcheng; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine T; Sweeney, Marva I

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8) of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON); 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB); 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO); or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO). Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites), and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid). Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046), with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035). Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220), again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185). Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (pblueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric acid.

  13. Intake of Wild Blueberry Powder Improves Episodic-Like and Working Memory during Normal Aging in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beracochea, Daniel; Krazem, Ali; Henkouss, Nadia; Haccard, Guillaume; Roller, Marc; Fromentin, Emilie

    2016-08-01

    The number of Americans older than 65 years old is projected to more than double in the next 40 years. Cognitive changes associated to aging can affect an adult's day-to-day functioning. Among these cognitive changes, reasoning, episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed decline gradually over time. Early memory changes include a decline in both working and episodic memory. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic (up to 75 days) daily administration of wild blueberry extract or a wild blueberry full spectrum powder would help prevent memory failure associated with aging in tasks involving various forms of memory. Both blueberry ingredients were used in a study comparing young mice (6 months old) to aged mice (18 months old). At this age, mice exhibit memory decline due to aging, which is exacerbated first by a loss in working and contextual (episodic-like) memory. Contextual memory (episodic-like memory) was evaluated using the contextual serial discrimination test. Working and spatial memory were evaluated using the Morris-Water maze test and the sequential alternation test. Statistical analysis was performed using an ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Supplementation with wild blueberry full spectrum powder and wild blueberry extract resulted in significant improvement of contextual memory, while untreated aged mice experienced a decline in such memory. Only the wild blueberry full spectrum powder significantly contributed to an improvement of spatial and working memory versus untreated aged mice. These improvements of cognitive performance may be related to brain oxidative status, acetylcholinesterase activity, neuroprotection, or attenuation of immunoreactivity. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Spherulitic (c-axis) Growth for Terrestrial (Mauna Kea, Hawaii) and Martian Hematite "blueberries"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2006-01-01

    Hematite concentrations observed by Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard Mars Global Surveyor were considered a possible indicator for aqueous processes on Mars. Observations made by Opportunity show that the hematite at Meridiani Planum is present as spherules ( blueberries) and their fragments. The internal structure of the hematite spherules is not discernable at the resolution limit (approx.30 m/pixel) of Opportunity s Microscopic Imager (MI). A terrestrial analog for martian hematite spherules are spherules from hydrothermally altered and sulfate-rich tephra from the summit region of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. The objective of this study is to determine the crystal growth fabric of the Mauna Kea hematite spherules using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and to relate that crystalline fabric to the observed TES signature of Meridiani Planum "blueberries." TEM analysis of Mauna Kea spherules exhibited a radial growth pattern consisting of "fibrous" hematite with the c-axis of hematite particles aligned along the elongation direction of the hematite fibers. The individual fibers appear to be made of coalesced nano-particles of hematite arranged with their c-axis oriented radially to form a spherical structure. Lattice fringes suggest long-range order across particles and along fibers. According to interpretations of thermal emission spectra for Meridian Planum hematite, the absence of a band at approx. 390/cm implies a geometry where c-face emission dominates. Because the c-face is perpendicular to the c-axis, this is precisely the geometry for the Mauna Kea spherules because the c-axis is aligned parallel to their radial growth direction. Therefore, we conclude as a working hypothesis that the martian spherules also have radial, c-axis growth pattern on a scale that is too small to be detected by the MER MI. Furthermore, by analogy with the Mauna Kea spherules, the martian blueberries could have formed during hydrothermal alteration of

  15. Farm to Sensory Lab: Taste of Blueberry Fruit by Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Bobowski, Nuala K; Olmstead, James W; Bartoshuk, Linda; Clark, Dave

    2017-07-01

    The average American child eats fewer fruits than recommended. Although taste is the primary motivator for food intake among children, little research has systematically measured children's liking of fruit and determined whether their preferences differ from adults. We phenotyped 49 children and their mothers to determine: (1) their liking of the taste of 3 blueberry cultivars ("Arcadia," "Keecrisp," and "Kestrel") from 2 harvests for which total soluble solids were determined using a handheld Brix refractometer; (2) the association between liking and blueberry sugar content; and (3) the most preferred level of fructose, one of the primary sugars in blueberry fruit. Multiple methods, identical for all participants, assessed which cultivar they liked best. Dietary intake, determined via 24-h dietary recall, revealed most children (73%) and adults (92%) did not meet dietary guidelines for fruit intake. We found that during the 1st harvest, Keecrisp was sweeter by 4° Brix than either Arcadia or Kestrel and was the cultivar most preferred by both children and adults. For the 2nd harvest, mothers liked each of the cultivars equally, but children preferred Arcadia, which was 2° Brix sweeter than the other 2 cultivars. Like other sugars, children's most preferred concentration of fructose was significantly higher than that of adults. In sum, children appear to be more sensitive to smaller variations in sweetness than are adults. Identifying drivers of fruit preference and assessing children's liking for whole fruits are important steps in developing strategies to increase fruit consumption among children. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Shelf-life of fresh blueberries coated with quinoa protein/chitosan/sunflower oil edible film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian; Tapia, Cristián; Plasencia, Dora; Pastor, Ana; Castro-Mandujano, Olivio; López, Luis; Escalona, Victor H

    2016-01-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quinoa protein (Q), chitosan (CH) and sunflower oil (SO) as edible film material as well as the influence of this coating in extending the shelf-life of fresh blueberries stored at 4 °C and 75% relative humidity. These conditions were used to simulate the storage conditions in supermarkets and represent adverse conditions for testing the effects of the coating. The mechanical, barrier, and structural properties of the film were measured. The effectiveness of the coating in fresh blueberries (CB) was evaluated by changes in weight loss, firmness, color, molds and yeast count, pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids content. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the edible film were 0.45 ± 0.29 MPa and 117.2% ± 7%, respectively. The water vapor permeability was 3.3 × 10(-12) ± 4.0 × 10(-13) g s(-1) m(-1) Pa(-1). In all of the color parameters CB presented significant differences. CB had slight delayed fruit ripening as evidenced by higher titratable acidity (0.3-0.5 g citric acid 100 g(-1)) and lower pH (3.4-3.6) than control during storage; however, it showed reduced firmness (up to 38%). The use of Q/CH/SO as a coating in fresh blueberries was able to control the growth of molds and yeasts during 32 days of storage, whereas the control showed an increasing of molds and yeast, between 1.8 and 3.1 log cycles (between 20 and 35 days). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Total quality index of ultrasound-treated blueberry and cranberry juices and nectars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Režek Jambrak, Anet; Šimunek, Marina; Djekic, Ilija

    2018-01-01

    The influence of ultrasound in combination with elevated temperature (thermosonication) is important in inactivation effects on microorganisms. However, overall quality of these products can be deteriorated. The aim of this study was to examine the use of a single quality index in evaluating effects of ultrasound technology on quality characteristics of blueberry and cranberry juices and nectars. For the purpose of this study based on 10 quality parameters, two mathematical models for calculating a single total quality index have been introduced. Samples were treated according to the experimental design, with high power ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz under various conditions (treatment time: 3, 6 and 9 min, sample temperature: 20 ℃, for thermosonication: 40 and 60 ℃ and amplitude: 60, 90 and 120 µm). Mathematical index of total quality index in order to evaluate total quality of ultrasound-treated juices and nectars was established. For cranberry juices, treatments '11' (amplitude 120 µm) and '16' (amplitude 60 µm) both for 9 min and the temperature of 20 ℃ were best scored for both models. Treatment '6' (amplitude 120 µm, 3 min treatment time and the sample temperature of 20 ℃) for cranberry nectars was among the best for both models. Ultrasound treatments '6' of amplitude 120 µm, 3 min and the temperature of 20 ℃ and '11' same amplitude 120 µm and temperature, but 9 min were best scored blueberry juices for both models. Blueberry nectar had best total quality index for treatments '5' (amplitude 120 µm, 6 min treatment time and the sample temperature of 40 ℃) and '6' (amplitude 120 µm, 3 min treatment time and the sample temperature of 20 ℃).

  18. Chemical variability and antioxidant activity of the leaves of chosen highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Janiuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of two highbush blueberry varieties: ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Northland’. The study revealed differences in the content of the analyzed components. Leaves of cv. ‘Bluecrop’ were characterized by a higher content of chlorophyll, flavonoids and anthocyanins, while the leaves of cv. ‘Northland’ contained more reducing sugars and total phenolic acids, tannins, and essential oils. Capacity of neutralizing the free radicals (DPPH in leaves of both tested cultivars was found at comparable levels.

  19. Variation in highbush blueberry floral volatile profiles as a function of pollination status, cultivar, time of day and flower part: implications for flower visitation by bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Studies of the effects of pollination on floral scent and bee visitation remain rare, particularly in agricultural crops. To fill this gap, the hypothesis that bee visitation to flowers decreases after pollination through reduced floral volatile emissions in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum, was tested. Other sources of variation in floral emissions and the role of floral volatiles in bee attraction were also examined. Methods Pollinator visitation to blueberry flowers was manipulated by bagging all flowers within a bush (pollinator excluded) or leaving them unbagged (open pollinated), and then the effect on floral volatile emissions and future bee visitation were measured. Floral volatiles were also measured from different blueberry cultivars, times of the day and flower parts, and a study was conducted to test the attraction of bees to floral volatiles. Key Results Open-pollinated blueberry flowers had 32 % lower volatile emissions than pollinator-excluded flowers. In particular, cinnamyl alcohol, a major component of the floral blend that is emitted exclusively from petals, was emitted in lower quantities from open-pollinated flowers. Although, no differences in cinnamyl alcohol emissions were detected among three blueberry cultivars or at different times of day, some components of the blueberry floral blend were emitted in higher amounts from certain cultivars and at mid-day. Field observations showed that more bees visited bushes with pollinator-excluded flowers. Also, more honey bees were caught in traps baited with a synthetic blueberry floral blend than in unbaited traps. Conclusions Greater volatile emissions may help guide bees to unpollinated flowers, and thus increase plant fitness and bee energetic return when foraging in blueberries. Furthermore, the variation in volatile emissions from blueberry flowers depending on pollination status, plant cultivar and time of day suggests an adaptive role of floral signals in

  20. Variation in highbush blueberry floral volatile profiles as a function of pollination status, cultivar, time of day and flower part: implications for flower visitation by bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-06-01

    Studies of the effects of pollination on floral scent and bee visitation remain rare, particularly in agricultural crops. To fill this gap, the hypothesis that bee visitation to flowers decreases after pollination through reduced floral volatile emissions in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum, was tested. Other sources of variation in floral emissions and the role of floral volatiles in bee attraction were also examined. Pollinator visitation to blueberry flowers was manipulated by bagging all flowers within a bush (pollinator excluded) or leaving them unbagged (open pollinated), and then the effect on floral volatile emissions and future bee visitation were measured. Floral volatiles were also measured from different blueberry cultivars, times of the day and flower parts, and a study was conducted to test the attraction of bees to floral volatiles. Open-pollinated blueberry flowers had 32 % lower volatile emissions than pollinator-excluded flowers. In particular, cinnamyl alcohol, a major component of the floral blend that is emitted exclusively from petals, was emitted in lower quantities from open-pollinated flowers. Although, no differences in cinnamyl alcohol emissions were detected among three blueberry cultivars or at different times of day, some components of the blueberry floral blend were emitted in higher amounts from certain cultivars and at mid-day. Field observations showed that more bees visited bushes with pollinator-excluded flowers. Also, more honey bees were caught in traps baited with a synthetic blueberry floral blend than in unbaited traps. Greater volatile emissions may help guide bees to unpollinated flowers, and thus increase plant fitness and bee energetic return when foraging in blueberries. Furthermore, the variation in volatile emissions from blueberry flowers depending on pollination status, plant cultivar and time of day suggests an adaptive role of floral signals in increasing pollination of flowers.

  1. Comparison of phenolic acid profiles and anti-inflammatory effects of two major species of blueberries in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries (BB) contain high levels of polyphenols. Among them, phenolic acids (PAs) have been recently suggested as a group of important bioactive compounds. Highbush BB (Vaccinium corymbosum) and lowbush “wild" BB (Vaccinium angustifolium) are two predominant species in North America. The first o...

  2. Lethality of reduced-risk insecticides against plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in blueberries with emphasis on their curative activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongoing regulatory changes are eliminating or restricting the use of broad-spectrum insecticides in fruit crops in the USA, and current IPM programs for plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L, need to address these changes. To assist in this ...

  3. Botrytis californica, a new cryptic species in the B. cinerea species complex causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S; Margosan, D; Michailides, T J; Xiao, C L

    2016-01-01

    The Botrytis cinerea species complex comprises two cryptic species, originally referred to Group I and Group II based on Bc-hch gene RFLP haplotyping. Group I was described as a new cryptic species B. pseudocinerea During a survey of Botrytis spp. causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes in the Central Valley of California, six isolates, three from blueberries and three from table grapes, were placed in Group I but had a distinct morphological character with conidiophores significantly longer than those of B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea We compared these with B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea by examining morphological and physiological characters, sensitivity to fenhexamid and phylogenetic analysis inferred from sequences of three nuclear genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the three partial gene sequences encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) supported the proposal of a new Botrytis species, B. californica, which is closely related genetically to B. cinerea, B. pseudocinerea and B. sinoviticola, all known as causal agents of gray mold of grapes. Botrytis californica caused decay on blueberry and table grape fruit inoculated with the fungus. This study suggests that B. californica is a cryptic species sympatric with B. cinerea on blueberries and table grapes in California. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  4. Effect of cultural practices and fungicide treatments on the severity of Phytophthora root rot of blueberries grown in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root rot is an important disease of blueberries, especially those grown in areas with poor drainage. Reliable cultural and chemical management strategies are needed for control of this disease. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of cultural practices and fungicide treat...

  5. Effects of pulsed electric fields pretreatment and drying method on drying characteristics and nutritive quality of blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh blueberries were pretreated with pulsed electric fields (PEF) at 2 kV/cm and then dried at 45, 60 and 75 degrees C by conventional hot air or vacuum drying. Drying characteristics and changes in contents of moisture, anthocyanin, total phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant activity in the blu...

  6. Blueberries on Earth and Mars: Some Correlations Between Andean Paleosols, Geothermal Pipes in Navajo Sandstone and Terra Meridiani on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Milner, M. W.; Netoff, D. I.; Dohm, J. M.; Sodhi, R. N. S.; Aufreiter, S.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Bezada, M.; Kalm, V.; Malloch, D.

    2006-03-01

    The origin of "blueberries" on Mars and their relationship to similar concretionary forms on Earth invokes a process of variable redox conditions in underground fluids. The possible role of microorganisms in the origin of bluberries opens an avenue for biological investigations.

  7. Osmotic dehydration of blueberries pretreated with pulsed electric fields: Effects on drying rate, and microbiological and nutritional qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh blueberries were treated by pulsed electric fields (PEF) at 2 kV/cm before osmotic dehydration in 70% sugar syrup. The changes in water loss, solids gain, populations of native microorganisms, antioxidant activity, contents of anthocyanins, predominant phenolic acids and flavonols, and total p...

  8. Biochemical degradation and physical migration of nutritive compounds in blueberries after PEF and thermal pretreatments and osmotic dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh blueberries were pretreated by pulsed electric fields (PEF) at 3 kV/cm or thermal pretreatment at 90 degrees C for 5 min after which they were subject to osmotic dehydration. The changes in contents of anthocyanins, predominantly phenolic acids and flavonols, total phenolics, polyphenol oxidas...

  9. Northern highbush blueberry cultivars differed in yield and fruit quality in two organic production systems from planting to maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Northern highbush blueberry cultivars were evaluated in a certified organic research site. The treatments included cultivar and amendment-mulch and “weed mat”. Plant traits and yield were collected from the 2nd through 8th growing seasons. Adding on-farm compost as a pre-plant amendment and as part...

  10. Comparison between fertigation and granular application of potassium fertilizer on mineral nutrition, yield, and fruit quality in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertigation with N increases growth and production relative to granular N applications in northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosym L.), but little information is available on whether there is any benefit to fertigating with other nutrients. The objective of this study was to compare fertiga...

  11. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  12. De Novo whole genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex strain BB01 from blueberry in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports a de novo assembled draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex strain BB01 causing blueberry bacterial leaf scorch in Georgia, USA. The BB01 genome is 2,517,579 bp with a G+C content of 51.8% and 2,943 open reading frames (ORFs) and 48 RNA genes....

  13. Notice to Nurserymen of the Naming and Release for Propagation of Prince, a New Rabbiteye Blueberry Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Prince’ is a new rabbiteye blueberry cultivar developed by the USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticulture Laboratory, Poplarville, MS. “Prince’ has a relatively tall and spreading growth habit, grows vigorously, and producing numerous canes. Its high yield potential results from the development o...

  14. Short-term blueberry-enriched antioxidant diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective Previously, four months of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aged rats. Experiment 1 determined whether one and two-month BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the d...

  15. Volatile, anthocyanidin, quality and sensory changes in rabbiteye blueberry from whole fruit through pilot plant juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, John C; Stein-Chisholm, Rebecca E; Lloyd, Steven W; Bett-Garber, Karen L; Grimm, Casey C; Watson, Michael A; Lea, Jeanne M

    2017-01-01

    High antioxidant content and keen marketing have increased blueberry demand and increased local production which in turn mandates new uses for abundant harvests. Pilot scale processes were employed to investigate the anthocyanidin profiles, qualitative volatile compositions, and sensorial attributes in not-from-concentrate (NFC) 'Tifblue' rabbiteye blueberry juices. Processing prior to pasteurization generally resulted in increased L * and hue angle color, while a * , b * , and C * decreased. After 4 months pasteurized storage, non-clarified juice (NCP) lost 73.8% of total volatiles compared with 70.9% in clarified juice (CJP). There was a total anthocyanidin decrease of 84.5% and 85.5% after 4 months storage in NCP and CJP, respectively. Storage itself resulted in only 14.2% and 7.2% anthocyanidin loss after pasteurization in NCP and CJP. Storage significantly affected nine flavor properties in juices; however, there were no significant differences in the blueberry, strawberry, purple grape, floral, sweet aroma, or sweet tastes between processed and stored juices. NFC pasteurized blueberry juices maintained desirable flavors even though highly significant volatile and anthocyanidin losses occurred through processing. Maintenance of color and flavor indicate that NFC juices could have an advantage over more abusive methods often used in commercial juice operations. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Novel formulation of gibberellic acid and coconut oil fatty acids to enhance rabbiteye blueberry maturation, berry size, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper provides a summary of results presented in a much more comprehensive article (Sampson et al. 2014). Specifics regarding methods and statistical procedures can be found in Sampson et al. 2014. Here, we summarize these results for popular cultivars of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum syn. a...

  17. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of anthocyanins in bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), and corresponding juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dolores; Schantz, Markus; Richling, Elke

    2012-04-01

    In the present study the anthocyanin content of commercially available bilberry juices and fresh fruits were quantified by using 15 authentic anthocyanin standards via high performance liquid chromatography with an ultra-violet detector (HPLC-UV/VIS). Delphinidin-3-O-glucopyranoside, delphinidin-3-O-galactopyranoside, and cyanidin-3-O-arabinopyranoside were the major anthocyanins found in juices, nectar, and fresh bilberries. In contrast, fresh blueberries had higher concentrations of malvidin-3-O-arabinopyranoside and petunidin-3-O-galactopyranoside. Up to 438 mg anthocyanins per 100 g fresh weight (2762 mg/100 g dry weight (DW)) were detected in blueberries from various sources, whereas bilberries contained a maximum of 1017 mg anthocyanins per 100 g fresh weight (7465 mg/100 g DW). Commercially available bilberry and blueberry juices (n= 9) as well as nectars (n= 4) were also analyzed. Anthocyanin concentrations of juices (1610 mg/L to 5963 mg/L) and nectar from bilberries (656 mg/L to 1529 mg/L) were higher than those of blueberry juices (417 mg/L) and nectar (258 mg/L to 386 mg/L). We conclude that using several authentic anthocyanin references to quantify anthocyanin contents indicated them to be up to 53% and 64% higher in fresh bilberries and blueberries, respectively, than previously reported using cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. This study has also demonstrated that commercially available juices produced from bilberries contain much higher anthocyanin concentrations than those from blueberries. We have investigated the contents of a special class of antioxidants, namely anthocyanins in blueberry and billberry fruits and juices commercially available in Germany. To achieve reliable data we have used authentic standards for the first time. We think that our results are important in the field of nutritional intake of this important class of polyphenols and fruit juice companies get a closer insight in the occurrence of these antioxidants in market samples to be used

  18. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8 of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON; 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB; 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO; or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO. Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites, and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid. Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046, with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035. Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220, again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185. Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001, with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159 or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670. Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric

  19. Quality and marketable characteristics of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corym- bosum L. under the Kyiv region conditions

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    В. О. Сіленко

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors present the results of the study biometric and qualitative characteristics of berries highbush blueberry varieties (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in a specific soil and climatic conditions Forest-steppe of Ukraine (Kiev. Investigations were carried out on 11 varieties of American highbush blueberry. Phenological observations, biometric surveys, tasting score and biochemical analysis of the berries have been conducted during the growing season. By results of researches the group of early-ripening varieties includes Bluestar, Earliblue, Patriot, the middle-ripening – Jonne, Atlantis, Bluegold, Bluecrop, Chyk and late-ripening varieties – Amanda, Darrow, Toro. Duration of collecting period of ripe berries was lower (16 days in varieties Bluestar, Earliblue, Jonne and Darrow. Berries were large sizes in the varieties of Darrow, Amanda, Jonne, in other varieties berries were medium size. By tasting score the berry of varieties Toro, Earliblue, Jonne and Darrow were the best. For biochemical parameters the better varieties were Amanda, Jonne and Earliblue.

  20. Qualitative Performance and Consumer Acceptability of Starch Films for the Blueberry Modified Atmosphere Packaging Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuggioli Nicole R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of packaging is an important part of food system innovation and it can influence the purchase decision for the fresh produce. In this work, we evaluated the qualitative performance and the consumer acceptability of three starch films for the blueberry modified atmosphere packaging (MAP storage under fluctuating temperatures. Fruits cv. Duke were monitored for up to 18 days (15 days at 1±1°C and 3 days at 20±1°C. The respiration rate of the blueberries and the permeability of the films affect the initial atmospheric composition (0.2 kPa CO2 and 21.2 kPa O2 inside each package influencing the headspace gas composition and the quality parameters of the fruits. The F3 film has better controlled O2 values inside the packages up until the end of storage (5.7 kPa and it maintained the highest anthocyanin content (156.21 mg C3G/100 g FW and antioxidant capacity (22.18 Fe2+/kg of fruits at 20±1°C.

  1. Blueberry by-product used as an ingredient in the development of functional cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Claudia; Tagliani, Camila; Arcia, Patricia; Cozzano, Sonia; Curutchet, Ana

    2018-06-01

    A by-product of blueberry juice industries was used as an ingredient to develop fiber-enriched cookies. The blueberry pomace, once ground and dried, was used as an ingredient in cookie formulation. A control cookie was elaborated as reference. Cookies were analyzed for composition and functional properties. The fiber content obtained in the fiber-enriched cookie allows it to be labeled as "high fiber" in the European Union and as a "source of fiber" in MERCOSUR. The fiber-enriched cookie presented highly increased values on the antioxidant capacity and the polyphenol content when compared against the control cookie. Sensory evaluation was performed. Acceptability of the fiber-enriched cookie reached a value of 5.3 in a nine-point hedonic scale. Further strategies should be necessary in order to achieve an acceptable product. Cookies were subjected to an in vitro digestive process. Results show that the cookies' phytochemicals are bioaccessible and potentially bioavailable. Therefore, eating this type of food would represent an increase in the amount of antioxidants ingested and redound to a health benefit. In addition to improving both nutritional and functional properties of cookies, the present development represents an innovative strategy for a more sustainable growth of fruit juice industries.

  2. Development of Blueberry and Carrot Juice Blend Fermented by Lactobacillus reuteri LR92

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    Carolina Saori Ishii Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the blueberry and carrot juice blend as a fermentable substrate for Lactobacillus reuteri LR92, in order to develop a fermented non-dairy functional beverage. Analysis of cell viability, pH, and acidity were performed during the fermentation process. The resistance of the microorganism in the blend, under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in storage at 4 °C for 28 days, was evaluated at the same time as the antioxidant potential of the fermented juice. After 40 h of fermentation, the L. reuteri population presented a logarithmic growth of three cycles, reaching count records of 10.26 ± 0.23 log CFU/mL and after 28 days of storage at 4 °C, the bacterial population maintained elevated numbers of viable cell (8.96 ± 0.08 log CFU/mL, with increase in the antioxidant capacity of the fermented blend. However, in the test of gastric simulation, the L. reuteri population had a logarithmic reduction of five cycles. In the presence of bile salts, the viability was maintained even after 150 min of incubation. This way, the results suggested that the blueberry and carrot blend juice can be considered as a good medium for the growth of L. reuteri, providing microbiological stability during refrigerated storage with elevated antioxidant capacity, which allows for the development of a non-dairy probiotic beverage.

  3. Predicting Ascospore Release of Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi of Blueberry with Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Dalphy O C; Grant, Michael R; Pscheidt, Jay W; Peever, Tobin L

    2017-11-01

    Mummy berry, caused by Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi, causes economic losses of highbush blueberry in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). Apothecia develop from mummified berries overwintering on soil surfaces and produce ascospores that infect tissue emerging from floral and vegetative buds. Disease control currently relies on fungicides applied on a calendar basis rather than inoculum availability. To establish a prediction model for ascospore release, apothecial development was tracked in three fields, one in western Oregon and two in northwestern Washington in 2015 and 2016. Air and soil temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, leaf wetness, relative humidity and solar radiation were monitored using in-field weather stations and Washington State University's AgWeatherNet stations. Four modeling approaches were compared: logistic regression, multivariate adaptive regression splines, artificial neural networks, and random forest. A supervised learning approach was used to train the models on two data sets: training (70%) and testing (30%). The importance of environmental factors was calculated for each model separately. Soil temperature, soil moisture, and solar radiation were identified as the most important factors influencing ascospore release. Random forest models, with 78% accuracy, showed the best performance compared with the other models. Results of this research helps PNW blueberry growers to optimize fungicide use and reduce production costs.

  4. High Throughput Phenotyping of Blueberry Bush Morphological Traits Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

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    Aaron Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotyping morphological traits of blueberry bushes in the field is important for selecting genotypes that are easily harvested by mechanical harvesters. Morphological data can also be used to assess the effects of crop treatments such as plant growth regulators, fertilizers, and environmental conditions. This paper investigates the feasibility and accuracy of an inexpensive unmanned aerial system in determining the morphological characteristics of blueberry bushes. Color images collected by a quadcopter are processed into three-dimensional point clouds via structure from motion algorithms. Bush height, extents, canopy area, and volume, in addition to crown diameter and width, are derived and referenced to ground truth. In an experimental farm, twenty-five bushes were imaged by a quadcopter. Height and width dimensions achieved a mean absolute error of 9.85 cm before and 5.82 cm after systematic under-estimation correction. Strong correlation was found between manual and image derived bush volumes and their traditional growth indices. Hedgerows of three Southern Highbush varieties were imaged at a commercial farm to extract five morphological features (base angle, blockiness, crown percent height, crown ratio, and vegetation ratio associated with cultivation and machine harvestability. The bushes were found to be partially separable by multivariate analysis. The methodology developed from this study is not only valuable for plant breeders to screen genotypes with bush morphological traits that are suitable for machine harvest, but can also aid producers in crop management such as pruning and plot layout organization.

  5. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Properties of Anthocyanin Rich Extracts from Blueberry and Blackcurrant Juice

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    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative potential of anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARFs obtained from two commercially available juices (blueberry and blackcurrant juices on three tumor cell lines; B16F10 (murine melanoma, A2780 (ovarian cancer and HeLa (cervical cancer. Individual anthocyanin determination, identification and quantification were done using HPLC-MS. Antioxidant activity of the juices was determined through different mechanism methods such as DPPH and ORAC. For biological testing, the juices were purified through C18 cartridges in order to obtain fractions rich in anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins identified were glycosylated cyanidin derivatives. The antiproliferative activity of the fractions was tested using the MTT assay. The antiproliferative potential of ARF was found to be associated with those bioactive molecules, anthocyanins due to their antioxidant potential. The results obtained indicated that both blueberry and blackcurrants are rich sources of antioxidants including anthocyanins and therefore these fruits are highly recommended for daily consumption to prevent numerous degenerative diseases.

  6. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Andean clade and the placement of new Colombian blueberries (Ericaceae, Vaccinieae

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    Paola Pedraza-Penalosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The blueberry tribe Vaccinieae (Ericaceae is particularly diverse in South America and underwent extensive radiation in Colombia where many endemics occur. Recent fieldwork in Colombia has resulted in valuable additions to the phylogeny and as well in the discovery of morphologically noteworthy new species that need to be phylogenetically placed before being named. This is particularly important, as the monophyly of many of the studied genera have not been confirmed. In order to advance our understanding of the relationships within neotropical Vaccinieae and advice the taxonomy of the new blueberry relatives, here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for the Andean clade. Anthopterus, Demosthenesia, and Pellegrinia are among the putative Andean genera recovered as monophyletic, while other eight Andean genera were not. The analyses also showed that genera that have been traditionally widely defined are non-monophyletic and could be further split into more discrete groups. Four newly discovered Colombian Vaccinieae are placed in the monophyletic Satyria s.s. and the Psammisia I clade. Although these new species are endemic to the Colombian Western Cordillera and Chocó biogeographic region and three are not known outside of Las Orquídeas National Park, they do not form sister pairs.

  7. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Blueberries in an Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD.

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    Philip J Ebenezer

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a trauma and stressor-related disorder that results in a prolonged stress response. It is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus (HC. The only approved therapy for PTSD is selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs, but their efficacy is marginal. Recently, we demonstrated that over-production of norepinephrine (NE as the possible reason for the lack of efficacy of SSRIs. Hence, there is a need for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of PTSD. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of blueberries in modulating inflammatory markers and neurotransmitter levels in PTSD. Rats were fed either a blueberry enriched (2% or a control diet. Rats were exposed to cats for one hour on days 1 and 11 of a 31-day schedule to simulate traumatic conditions. The rats were also subjected to psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized and the PFC and HC were isolated. Monoamines were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, gene and protein expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were also measured. In our PTSD model, NE levels were increased and 5-HT levels were decreased when compared to control. In contrast, a blueberry enriched diet increased 5-HT without affecting NE levels. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also studied and they confirmed our findings. The enhanced levels free radicals, gene and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines seen in the PTSD group were normalized with a blueberry enriched diet. Decreased anxiety in this group was shown by improved performance on the elevated plus-maze. These findings indicate blueberries can attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation and restore neurotransmitter imbalances in a rat model of PTSD.

  8. Computational identification of conserved microRNAs and their targets from expression sequence tags of blueberry (Vaccinium corybosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuyan; Hou, Yanming; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Wenhao; Quan, Chen; Cui, Yuhai; Bian, Shaomin

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, approximately 21nt in length, non-coding RNA, which mediate the expression of target genes primarily at post-transcriptional levels. miRNAs play critical roles in almost all plant cellular and metabolic processes. Although numerous miRNAs have been identified in the plant kingdom, the miRNAs in blueberry, which is an economically important small fruit crop, still remain totally unknown. In this study, we reported a computational identification of miRNAs and their targets in blueberry. By conducting an EST-based comparative genomics approach, 9 potential vco-miRNAs were discovered from 22,402 blueberry ESTs according to a series of filtering criteria, designated as vco-miR156-5p, vco-miR156-3p, vco-miR1436, vco-miR1522, vco-miR4495, vco-miR5120, vco-miR5658, vco-miR5783, and vco-miR5986. Based on sequence complementarity between miRNA and its target transcript, 34 target ESTs from blueberry and 70 targets from other species were identified for the vco-miRNAs. The targets were found to be involved in transcription, RNA splicing and binding, DNA duplication, signal transduction, transport and trafficking, stress response, as well as synthesis and metabolic process. These findings will greatly contribute to future research in regard to functions and regulatory mechanisms of blueberry miRNAs.

  9. Abundance and Diversity of Wild Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Found in Lowbush Blueberry Growing Regions of Downeast Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushmann, Sara L; Drummond, Francis A

    2015-08-01

    Insect-mediated pollination is critical for lowbush blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) fruit development. Past research shows a persistent presence of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) providing pollination services even when commercial pollinators are present. We undertook the study to 1) provide a description of bee communities found in lowbush blueberry-growing regions, 2) identify field characteristics or farm management practices that influence those communities, 3) identify key wild bee pollinators that provide pollination services for the blueberry crop, and 4) identify non-crop plants found within the cropping system that provide forage for wild bees. During a 4-year period, we collected solitary and eusocial bees in over 40 fields during and after blueberry bloom, determining a management description for each field. We collected 4,474 solitary bees representing 124 species and 1,315 summer bumble bees representing nine species. No bumble bee species were previously unknown in Maine, yet we document seven solitary bee species new for the state. These include species of the genera Nomada, Lasioglossum, Calliopsis, and Augochloropsis. No field characteristic or farm management practice related to bee community structure, except bumble bee species richness was higher in certified organic fields. Pollen analysis determined scopal loads of 67-99% ericaceous pollen carried by five species of Andrena. Our data suggest two native ericaceous plants, Kalmia angustifolia L. and Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenheim), provide important alternative floral resources. We conclude that Maine blueberry croplands are populated with a species-rich bee community that fluctuates in time and space. We suggest growers develop and maintain wild bee forage and nest sites. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Blueberries in an Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezer, Philip J; Wilson, C Brad; Wilson, Leslie D; Nair, Anand R; J, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma and stressor-related disorder that results in a prolonged stress response. It is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC). The only approved therapy for PTSD is selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but their efficacy is marginal. Recently, we demonstrated that over-production of norepinephrine (NE) as the possible reason for the lack of efficacy of SSRIs. Hence, there is a need for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of PTSD. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of blueberries in modulating inflammatory markers and neurotransmitter levels in PTSD. Rats were fed either a blueberry enriched (2%) or a control diet. Rats were exposed to cats for one hour on days 1 and 11 of a 31-day schedule to simulate traumatic conditions. The rats were also subjected to psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized and the PFC and HC were isolated. Monoamines were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene and protein expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were also measured. In our PTSD model, NE levels were increased and 5-HT levels were decreased when compared to control. In contrast, a blueberry enriched diet increased 5-HT without affecting NE levels. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also studied and they confirmed our findings. The enhanced levels free radicals, gene and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines seen in the PTSD group were normalized with a blueberry enriched diet. Decreased anxiety in this group was shown by improved performance on the elevated plus-maze. These findings indicate blueberries can attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation and restore neurotransmitter imbalances in a rat model of PTSD.

  11. Fungicide resistance profiling in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington and their impact on control of gray mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Sensitivities to boscalid, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, and pyraclostrobin, representing five different fungicide classes, were...

  12. The efficacy of different postharvest treatments on physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive components and microbiological quality of fresh blueberries during storage period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiabrando, V.,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is increasing consumption and interest in berry fruits in general and blueberries in particular due to their nutritional and health characteristics. However, blueberries are highly susceptible to microbial contamination and loss of product quality. In this study, the effects of postharvest washing treatment and cold storage (15 days on the quality of blueberries were examined. The blueberries were treated with mineral water, aqueous chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water and Berry Very®, a new commercial product. During the storage, physicochemical and microbiological analysis were carried out in order to compare the efficacy of treatments. The results indicated that chlorine dioxide treatment and electrolyzed water had a positive effect on the reduction of yeast and mold proliferation, postharvest decay and weight loss.

  13. Evaluation of processing effects on anthocyanin content and colour modifications of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) extracts: Comparison between HPLC-DAD and CIELAB analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesa, Stefania; Carradori, Simone; Bellagamba, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Marcello; Casadei, Maria Antonietta; Masci, Alessandra; Paolicelli, Patrizia

    2017-10-01

    Colour is the first organoleptic property that consumers appreciate of a foodstuff. In blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruits, the anthocyanins are the principal pigments determining the colour as well as many of the beneficial effects attributed to this functional food. Commercial blueberry-derived products represent important sources of these healthy molecules all year round. In this study, blueberries were produced into purees comparing two homogenization methods and further heated following different thermal treatments. All the supernatants of the homogenates were monitored for pH. Then, the hydroalcoholic extracts of the same samples were characterized by CIELAB and HPLC-DAD analyses. These analytical techniques provide complementary information on fruit pigments content as a whole and on quali-quantitative profile of the single bioactive colorants. These data could be very interesting to know the best manufacturing procedure to prepare blueberry-derived products, well accepted by the consumers, while maintaining their healthy properties unaltered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.), Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb.) and Blueberry Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuda, Hirotoshi; Kunitake, Hisato; Kawasaki-Takaki, Ryoko; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Masao; Komatsu, Haruki; Yukizaki, Chizuko

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.) was found to be the most effective at inhib...

  15. Blueberry Phenolics Reduce Gastrointestinal Infection of Patients with Cerebral Venous Thrombosis by Improving Depressant-Induced Autoimmune Disorder via miR-155-Mediated Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Meng, Hao; Liu, Tianyi; Feng, Yingli; Qi, Yuan; Zhang, Donghuan; Wang, Honglei

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) often causes human depression, whereas depression-induced low immunity makes the patients susceptible to gastrointestinal infection. Blueberry possesses antidepressant properties which may improve autoimmunity and reduce gastrointestinal infection. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) performs antidepressant function and can be regulated by miR-155, which may be affected by blueberry. To explore the possible molecular mechanism, blueberry compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Activity of compounds was tested by using HT22 cells. The present study tested 124 patients with CVT-induced mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression Scale [CES-D] ≥16) and gastrointestinal infection. Patients were randomly assigned to blueberry extract group (BG, received 10 mg blueberry extract daily) and placebo group (PG, received 10 mg placebo daily). After 3 months, depression, gastrointestinal infection and lipid profiles were investigated. Serum miR-155 and BDNF were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and or Western Blot. Blueberry treatment improved depressive symptoms and lipid profiles, and also reduced gastrointestinal infection in the BG group (P blueberry extracts were the main phenolic acids with 0.18, 0.85, 0.26, 0.72, 0.66, 0.4,1, and 1.92 mg/g of gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, [2]-epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, p-anisic acid, and quercetin in blueberry extracts, respectively. Phenolics in blueberry are possible causal agents in improving antidepressant activity and reducing gastrointestinal infection. Administration of blueberry increased BDNF expression and miR-155. Blueberry cannot affect BDNF level when miR-155 is overexpressed or inhibited. Phenolics from blueberry reduced gastrointestinal infection of patients with CVT by improving antidepressant activity via upregulation of miR-155-mediated BDNF. PMID:29230173

  16. Blueberry and malvidin inhibit cell cycle progression and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by abrogating the JAK/STAT-3 signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Abdul Basit; Nivetha, Ramesh; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2017-11-01

    Blueberries, a rich source of anthocyanins have attracted considerable attention as functional foods that confer immense health benefits including anticancer properties. Herein, we assessed the potential of blueberry and its major constituent malvidin to target STAT-3, a potentially druggable oncogenic transcription factor with high therapeutic index. We demonstrate that blueberry abrogates the JAK/STAT-3 pathway and modulates downstream targets that influence cell proliferation and apoptosis in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis. Further, we provide mechanistic evidence that blueberry and malvidin function as STAT-3 inhibitors in the oral cancer cell line SCC131. Blueberry and malvidin suppressed STAT-3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation thereby inducing cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. However, the combination of blueberry and malvidin with the STAT-3 inhibitor S3I-201 was more efficacious in STAT-3 inhibition relative to single agents. The present study has provided leads for the development of novel combinations of compounds that can serve as inhibitors of STAT-mediated oncogenic signalling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Generation and analysis of blueberry transcriptome sequences from leaves, developing fruit, and flower buds from cold acclimation through deacclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Lisa J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been increased consumption of blueberries in recent years fueled in part because of their many recognized health benefits. Blueberry fruit is very high in anthocyanins, which have been linked to improved night vision, prevention of macular degeneration, anti-cancer activity, and reduced risk of heart disease. Very few genomic resources have been available for blueberry, however. Further development of genomic resources like expressed sequence tags (ESTs, molecular markers, and genetic linkage maps could lead to more rapid genetic improvement. Marker-assisted selection could be used to combine traits for climatic adaptation with fruit and nutritional quality traits. Results Efforts to sequence the transcriptome of the commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cultivar Bluecrop and use the sequences to identify genes associated with cold acclimation and fruit development and develop SSR markers for mapping studies are presented here. Transcriptome sequences were generated from blueberry fruit at different stages of development, flower buds at different stages of cold acclimation, and leaves by next-generation Roche 454 sequencing. Over 600,000 reads were assembled into approximately 15,000 contigs and 124,000 singletons. The assembled sequences were annotated and functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO terms. Frequency of the most abundant sequences in each of the libraries was compared across all libraries to identify genes that are potentially differentially expressed during cold acclimation and fruit development. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm their differential expression patterns. Overall, 14 out of 17 of the genes examined had differential expression patterns similar to what was predicted from their reads alone. The assembled sequences were also mined for SSRs. From these sequences, 15,886 blueberry EST-SSR loci were identified. Primers were designed from 7,705 of the SSR-containing sequences

  18. Generation and analysis of blueberry transcriptome sequences from leaves, developing fruit, and flower buds from cold acclimation through deacclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been increased consumption of blueberries in recent years fueled in part because of their many recognized health benefits. Blueberry fruit is very high in anthocyanins, which have been linked to improved night vision, prevention of macular degeneration, anti-cancer activity, and reduced risk of heart disease. Very few genomic resources have been available for blueberry, however. Further development of genomic resources like expressed sequence tags (ESTs), molecular markers, and genetic linkage maps could lead to more rapid genetic improvement. Marker-assisted selection could be used to combine traits for climatic adaptation with fruit and nutritional quality traits. Results Efforts to sequence the transcriptome of the commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivar Bluecrop and use the sequences to identify genes associated with cold acclimation and fruit development and develop SSR markers for mapping studies are presented here. Transcriptome sequences were generated from blueberry fruit at different stages of development, flower buds at different stages of cold acclimation, and leaves by next-generation Roche 454 sequencing. Over 600,000 reads were assembled into approximately 15,000 contigs and 124,000 singletons. The assembled sequences were annotated and functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Frequency of the most abundant sequences in each of the libraries was compared across all libraries to identify genes that are potentially differentially expressed during cold acclimation and fruit development. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm their differential expression patterns. Overall, 14 out of 17 of the genes examined had differential expression patterns similar to what was predicted from their reads alone. The assembled sequences were also mined for SSRs. From these sequences, 15,886 blueberry EST-SSR loci were identified. Primers were designed from 7,705 of the SSR-containing sequences with adequate flanking

  19. Generation and analysis of blueberry transcriptome sequences from leaves, developing fruit, and flower buds from cold acclimation through deacclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Lisa J; Alkharouf, Nadim; Darwish, Omar; Ogden, Elizabeth L; Polashock, James J; Bassil, Nahla V; Main, Dorrie

    2012-04-02

    There has been increased consumption of blueberries in recent years fueled in part because of their many recognized health benefits. Blueberry fruit is very high in anthocyanins, which have been linked to improved night vision, prevention of macular degeneration, anti-cancer activity, and reduced risk of heart disease. Very few genomic resources have been available for blueberry, however. Further development of genomic resources like expressed sequence tags (ESTs), molecular markers, and genetic linkage maps could lead to more rapid genetic improvement. Marker-assisted selection could be used to combine traits for climatic adaptation with fruit and nutritional quality traits. Efforts to sequence the transcriptome of the commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivar Bluecrop and use the sequences to identify genes associated with cold acclimation and fruit development and develop SSR markers for mapping studies are presented here. Transcriptome sequences were generated from blueberry fruit at different stages of development, flower buds at different stages of cold acclimation, and leaves by next-generation Roche 454 sequencing. Over 600,000 reads were assembled into approximately 15,000 contigs and 124,000 singletons. The assembled sequences were annotated and functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Frequency of the most abundant sequences in each of the libraries was compared across all libraries to identify genes that are potentially differentially expressed during cold acclimation and fruit development. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm their differential expression patterns. Overall, 14 out of 17 of the genes examined had differential expression patterns similar to what was predicted from their reads alone. The assembled sequences were also mined for SSRs. From these sequences, 15,886 blueberry EST-SSR loci were identified. Primers were designed from 7,705 of the SSR-containing sequences with adequate flanking sequence. One hundred

  20. Identification and expression analysis of MATE genes involved in flavonoid transport in blueberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Yushan; Liu, Hongdi; Kang, Limin; Geng, Jinman; Gai, Yuzhuo; Ding, Yunlong; Sun, Haiyue; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are the most recently identified family of multidrug transporters. In plants, this family is remarkably large compared to the human and bacteria counterpart, highlighting the importance of MATE proteins in this kingdom. Here 33 Unigenes annotated as MATE transporters were found in the blueberry fruit transcriptome, of which eight full-length cDNA sequences were identified and cloned. These proteins are composed of 477-517 residues, with molecular masses ~54 kDa, and theoretical isoelectric points from 5.35 to 8.41. Bioinformatics analysis predicted 10-12 putative transmembrane segments for VcMATEs, and localization to the plasma membrane without an N-terminal signal peptide. All blueberry MATE proteins shared 32.1-84.4% identity, among which VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8, and VcMATE9 were more similar to the MATE-type flavonoid transporters. Phylogenetic analysis showed VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8 and VcMATE9 clustered with MATE-type flavonoid transporters, indicating that they might be involved in flavonoid transport. VcMATE1 and VcMATE4 may be involved in the transport of secondary metabolites, the detoxification of xenobiotics, or the export of toxic cations. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression profile of the eight VcMATE genes varied spatially and temporally. Analysis of expression and anthocyanin accumulation indicated that there were some correlation between the expression profile and the accumulation of anthocyanins. These results showed VcMATEs might be involved in diverse physiological functions, and anthocyanins across the membranes might be mutually maintained by MATE-type flavonoid transporters and other mechanisms. This study will enrich the MATE-based transport mechanisms of secondary metabolite, and provide a new biotechonology strategy to develop better nutritional blueberry cultivars.

  1. How do consumer attitudes influence acceptance of a novel wild blueberry-soy product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, T; Dougherty, M P; Camire, M E

    2007-09-01

    Acceptance of healthful foods by consumers is not yet well understood. In this study, 3 formulations of frozen dessert bars were prepared containing both soy and wild blueberries. Soy content was controlled to provide an amount of soy protein that qualified for the health claim for soy and reduced risks for cardiovascular disease. Consumers were asked to complete the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS) and then evaluate the acceptability of the 3 frozen bar types using a 9-point hedonic scale. One week after the 1st session, the participants returned. Approximately half were given information to read regarding the health benefits of soy protein, the other participants were given no information. The samples were then presented a 2nd time and labeled with their soy protein content. Changes in hedonic scores between sessions were compared and correlated with HTAS ratings. Nutrition information generally did not affect acceptability scores.

  2. Anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant capacity after fresh storage of blueberry treated with edible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabrando, Valentina; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2015-05-01

    The influence of different edible coatings on total phenolic content, total anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv Berkeley and O'Neal) was investigated, mainly for industrial applications. Also titratable acidity, soluble solids content, firmness and weight loss of berries were determined at harvest and at 15-day intervals during 45 storage days at 0 °C, in order to optimize coating composition. Application of chitosan coating delayed the decrease in anthocyanin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Coating samples showed no significant reduction in the weight loss during storage period. In cv Berkeley, the use of alginate coating showed a positive effect on firmness, titratable acidity and maintained surface lightness of treated berries. In cv O'Neal, no significant differences in total soluble solids content were found, and the chitosan-coated berries showed the minimum firmness losses. In both cultivars, the addition of chitosan to coatings decreases the microbial growth rate.

  3. Impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the (poly)phenol content of wild blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; George, Trevor W; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2014-05-07

    Accumulating evidence suggests that diets rich in (poly)phenols may have positive effects on human health. Currently there is limited information regarding the effects of processing on the (poly)phenolic content of berries, in particular in processes related to the baking industry. This study investigated the impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the anthocyanin, procyanidin, flavonol, and phenolic acid contents of wild blueberry using HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. Anthocyanin levels decreased during cooking, proving, and baking, whereas no significant changes were observed for total procyanidins. However, lower molecular weight procyanidins increased and high molecular weight oligomers decreased during the process. Quercetin and ferulic and caffeic acid levels remained constant, whereas increases were found for chlorogenic acid. Due to their possible health benefits, a better understanding of the impact of processing is important to maximize the retention of these phytochemicals in berry-containing products.

  4. Teores de carboidratos em estacas lenhosas de mirtileiro Carbohidrates content in hardwood cuttings of blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rérinton Joabél Pires de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as alterações no teor de carboidratos em estacas lenhosas de mirtileiro das cultivares Delite, Powder Blue e Seleção 19. O trabalho foi dividido em dois experimentos, primeiramente foram analisados os teores de amido e de açúcares solúveis a partir de ramos coletados em quatro épocas (03-06, 04-07, 24-07 e 11-08-2008 e, posteriormente, avaliou-se o teor de carboidratos em estacas coletadas nas mesmas épocas citadas, porém submetidas ao enraizamento e avaliadas em diferentes épocas (03-06, 04-07, 04-08, 03-09 e 03-10; 04-07, 04-08, 03-09, 03-10; 24-07, 04-08, 03-09 e 03-10; 11-08, 03-09 e 03-10. Verificou-se que a cultivar Powder Blue tem maior concentração de amido nos ramos que as cultivares Delite e Seleção 19. Estacas lenhosas de mirtileiro com baixos teores de amido, quando submetidas ao enraizamento, apresentam ressíntese de amido. No fim do período de inverno, ocorre aumento na concentração de amido nos ramos lenhosos de mirtileiro. Este aumento ao final do período de inverno está associado à maior taxa de enraizamento.The aim at this study was to evaluate the alterations on carbohydrates metabolism of hardwood cuttings of blueberries cv. Delite, Powder Blue and Seleção 19. The starch and soluble sugars concentration were evaluated in blueberry branches at four different times in a first experiment (06/03, 07/04, 07/24 and 08/11/2008 and later the metabolism of carbohydrates were evaluated in harvested hardwood cuttings submitted to rooting conditions (06/03, 07/04, 08/04, 09/03 and 10/03; 07/04, 08/04, 09/03 and 10/03; 07/24, 08/04, 09/03 and 10/03; 08/11, 09/03 and 10/03. It was verified that the cv. Powder Blue has higher starch concentration in the branches than Delite and Seleção 19. Hardwood cuttings of blueberry with low percentage of starch, when subjected to rooting, have resynthesis of starch. At the end of the winter, there is an increase in starch in the branches of

  5. Fruit quality parameters of some southern high bush blueberries (Vaccinium xcorymbosum L.) grown in Andalusia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, J. M.; Calvo, D.; Medina, J. J.; Barrau, C.; Romero, E.

    2008-07-01

    Physical and chemical parameters of fresh berries from three southern high bush (ONeal, Sharp blue and Misty) blueberry cultivars grown in Huelva (Southwestern Spain) under two production systems were measured and evaluated. ANOVA applied to data yielded significant differences between production systems for mean fruit size and mean fruit fresh weight (P<0.05), although main effects on physical and chemical characteristics of fruit were due to cultivar. All three cultivars showed significantly different means (P<0.05) for fruit fresh weight, and all chemical characteristics. Stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) for classification and identification of the cultivars based on physico-chemical properties of samples of fruits was performed. The model obtained gave high percentages of correct classification and prediction (81.1% and 78.4%, respectively). The variables with higher discriminating power were fruit titratable acidity, fruit size and fruit sugar content. (Author)

  6. Quality of 'Sharpblue' blueberries after electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.; Smittle, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    Freshly harvested 'Sharpblue' blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), a hybrid of complex parentage (Sharpe and Sherman, 1976), were irradiated by electron beam at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0 kGy to determine its effects on condition and quality after treatment and subsequent storage. Berry firmness was not affected by increased doses following 1 or 3 days of storage at 1C, but it declined with higher doses when stored for 7 days at 1C. In general, berry flavor and texture declined as dosage increased; however, neither flavor nor texture were rated unacceptable by a sensory panel. Weight loss, decay, soluble solids concentration, acidity, pH, skin color, or waxy bloom were not affected by dosage or storage

  7. Protective effects of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extract against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Pin; Chen, Fu-xin; Wang, Lan; Wang, Jing; Jin, Sai; Ma, Yang-min

    2014-05-01

    The oxidative status and morphological changes of mouse liver exposed to cadmium chloride (Cd(II)) and therapeutic potential of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extract against Cd(II)-induced hepatic injury were investigated. A variety of parameters were evaluated, including lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PCO) level, DNA fragment, as well as antioxidative defense system (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH)). Elemental analysis and evaluation of morphological changes and NO levels were also performed. Exposure to Cd(II) led to increased LPO and PCO as well as DNA fragment and a reduction of SOD and CAT activities, however, the content of GSH elevated probably due to biological adaptive-response. In contrast, co-treatment of anthocyanin (Ay) inhibited the increased oxidative parameters as well as restored the activities of antioxidative defense system in a dose-dependent manner. Ay administration regained these morphological changes caused by intoxication of Cd(II) to nearly normal levels. Moreover, the accumulation of Cd(II) in liver may be one of the reasons for Cd(II) toxicity and Ay can chelate with Cd(II) to reduce Cd(II) burden. The influence of Cd(II) on the Zn and Ca levels can also be adjusted by the co-administration of Ay. Exposure to Cd(II) led to an increase of NO and Ay reduced NO contents probably by directly scavenging. Potential mechanisms for the protective effect of Ay have been proposed, including its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect along with the metal-chelating capacity. These results suggest that blueberry extract may be valuable as a therapeutic agent in combating Cd(II)-induced tissue injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Frugivory by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Alters Blueberry Fruit Chemistry and Preference by Conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yucheng; Giusti, M Monica; Parker, Joyce; Salamanca, Jordano; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2016-10-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive pest from Asia that feeds on many agricultural crops in the United States, including blueberries. Yet, the effects of H. halys feeding on fruit chemistry and induced resistance to insects remain unknown. Here we hypothesized that frugivory by H. halys changes fruit chemical composition, which in turn affects insect feeding behavior. In field experiments, blueberry fruit was either mechanically injured or injured by 0 (control), 2, 5, or 10 H. halys Total soluble solids (°Brix) and anthocyanin and phenolic content in injured and uninjured fruits, as well as their effects on feeding behavior by conspecifics, were measured subsequently in the laboratory. Results showed lower °Brix values in injured fruit as compared with uninjured fruit. Fruit injured by 2 and 5 H. halys also had 32 and 20% higher total phenolics, respectively, than the uninjured controls. The proportions of the anthocyanins derived from delphinidin, cyanidin, and petunidin increased, whereas those from malvidin decreased, in fruit after mechanical wounding and frugivory by H. halys In dual-choice tests, H. halys fed more often on uninjured fruit than those previously injured by conspecifics. These results show that frugivory by H. halys reduces the amounts of soluble solids, alters anthocyanin ratios, and increases levels of phenolics, and, as a result, injured fruits were a less preferred food source for conspecifics. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effects of frugivory on fruit chemistry and induced fruit resistance against a fruit-eating herbivore. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Blueberries on Earth and Mars: Correlations Between Concretions in Navajo Sandstone and Terra Meridiani on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Milner, M. W.; Netoff, D.; Dohm, J.; Kalm, V.; Krinsley, D.; Sodhi, R. N.; Anderson, R. C.; Boccia, S.; Malloch, D.; Kapran, B.; Havics, A.

    2008-12-01

    Concretionary Fe-Mn-rich nodular authigenic constituents of Jurassic Navajo sandstone (moki marbles) bear a certain relationship to similar concretionary forms ('blueberries') observed on Mars. Their origin on Earth is considered to invoke variable redox conditions with underground fluids penetrating porous quartz-rich sandstone leading to precipitation of hematite and goethite-rich material from solution, generally forming around a central nucleus of fine particles of quartz and orthoclase, recently verified by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. At the outer rim/inner nucleus boundary, bulbous lobes of fine-grained quartz often invade and fracture the outer rim armored matrix. The bulbous forms are interpreted to result from fluid explusion from the inner concretionary mass, a response to pressure changes accompanying overburden loading. Moki marbles, harder than enclosing rock, often weather out of in situ sandstone outcrops that form a surface lag deposit of varnished marbles that locally resemble desert pavement. The marbles appear morphologically similar to 'blueberries' identified on the martian surface in Terra Meridiani through the MER-1 Opportunity rover. On Earth, redox fluids responsible for the genesis of marbles may have emanated from deep in the crust (often influenced by magmatic processes). These fluids, cooling to ambient temperatures, may have played a role in the genesis of the cemented outer rim of the concretions. The low frequency of fungi filaments in the marbles, contrasts with a high occurrence in Fe-encrusted sands of the Navajo formation [1], indicating that microbial content is of secondary importance in marble genesis relative to the fluctuating influx of ambient groundwater. Nevertheless, the presence of filaments in terrestrial concretions hints at the possibility of discovering fossil/extant life on Mars, and thus should be considered as prime targets for future reconnaissance missions to Mars. 1] Mahaney, W.C., et al. (2004), Icarus, 171, 39-53.

  10. Blueberry juice used per os in upper abdominal MR imaging: composition and initial clinical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantanas, A.H. [Department of CT-MRI, Larissa General Hospital (Greece); Papanikolaou, N.; Gourtsoyiannis, N. [Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Kalef-Ezra, J. [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece); Challa, A. [Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece)

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a commercially available blueberry juice (BJ) both as a positive and negative oral contrast agent and to present the exact contents of paramagnetic ions. The concentration of Mn and Fe were determined in tinned myrtilles in syrup (atomic absorption). Nine healthy volunteers and 12 patients (age range 20-65 years) were examined using a 1-T MR scanner before and after per os administration of 430 ml of BJ. A qualitative analysis of signal alterations in the stomach, duodenum, and proximal small intestine was performed. In addition, a quantitative analysis was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio calculation. The mean concentration (x {+-} SD) of the ions found in the content of the three cans were 3.3 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g/g for iron and 20.6 {+-} 2.6 {mu}g/g for manganese. Based on the qualitative evaluation, signal alteration on T1-weighted images after administration of BJ was statistically significant in the stomach and duodenum, but not in the proximal small bowel. Signal alteration on T2-weighted images was not statistically significant in any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The quantitative analysis of the T1- and T2 shortening showed that BJ is efficient with only T1-weighted sequences, and this applied to the stomach, duodenum, and proximal small bowel. Blueberry juice can be used as an oral contrast agent in upper abdominal MR for T1-weighted imaging. (orig.)

  11. Blueberry juice used per os in upper abdominal MR imaging: composition and initial clinical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karantanas, A.H.; Papanikolaou, N.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.; Kalef-Ezra, J.; Challa, A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a commercially available blueberry juice (BJ) both as a positive and negative oral contrast agent and to present the exact contents of paramagnetic ions. The concentration of Mn and Fe were determined in tinned myrtilles in syrup (atomic absorption). Nine healthy volunteers and 12 patients (age range 20-65 years) were examined using a 1-T MR scanner before and after per os administration of 430 ml of BJ. A qualitative analysis of signal alterations in the stomach, duodenum, and proximal small intestine was performed. In addition, a quantitative analysis was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio calculation. The mean concentration (x ± SD) of the ions found in the content of the three cans were 3.3 ± 0.4 μg/g for iron and 20.6 ± 2.6 μg/g for manganese. Based on the qualitative evaluation, signal alteration on T1-weighted images after administration of BJ was statistically significant in the stomach and duodenum, but not in the proximal small bowel. Signal alteration on T2-weighted images was not statistically significant in any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The quantitative analysis of the T1- and T2 shortening showed that BJ is efficient with only T1-weighted sequences, and this applied to the stomach, duodenum, and proximal small bowel. Blueberry juice can be used as an oral contrast agent in upper abdominal MR for T1-weighted imaging. (orig.)

  12. Effects of Power Ultrasound on Stability of Cyanidin-3-glucoside Obtained from Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Long Yao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Power ultrasound (US could potentially be used in the food industry in the future. However, the extent of anthocyanin degradation by US requires investigation. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu obtained from blueberry extracts was used as research material to investigate the effect of power ultrasound on food processing of anthocyanin-rich raw materials. The effects of ultrasonic waves on the stability of Cy-3-glu and on the corresponding changes in UV-Vis spectrum and antioxidant activity were investigated, and the mechanisms of anthocyanin degradation induced by ultrasonic waves were discussed. To explore Cy-3-glu degradation in different environments, we kept the Cy-3-glu solution treated with ultrasonic waves in four concentrations (0%, 10%, 20%, and 50% of ethanol aqueous solutions to simulate water, beer, wine, and liquor storage environment according to the chemical kinetics method. Results show that the basic spectral characteristics of Cy-3-glu did not significantly change after power ultrasound cell crusher application at 30 °C. However, with anthocyanin degradation, the intensity of the peak for Cy-3-glu at 504 nm significantly decreased (p < 0.05. The degradation kinetics of Cy-3-glu by ultrasonic waves (200–500 W frequency fitted well to first-order reaction kinetics, and the degradation rate constant of Cy-3-glu under power ultrasound was considerably larger than that under thermal degradation (p < 0.05. The sensitivity of the anthocyanins of blueberry to temperature increased with increasing ethanol concentration, and the longest half-life was observed in 20% ethanol aqueous solution.

  13. A serving of blueberry (V. corymbosum) acutely improves peripheral arterial dysfunction in young smokers and non-smokers: two randomized, controlled, crossover pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Deon, Valeria; Campolo, Jonica; Lanti, Claudia; Parolini, Marina; Porrini, Marisa; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia

    2017-11-15

    Several studies have documented the important role of polyphenol-rich foods in the modulation of vascular remodelling and function. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of a single portion of blueberry (V. corymbosum) to acutely improve peripheral arterial dysfunction in a group of young volunteers. Twenty-four healthy males (12 non-smokers and 12 smokers) were recruited for two different randomized, controlled, crossover pilot acute studies. In the first study, non-smokers were exposed to a control treatment (C; 300 mL of water with sugar) and a blueberry treatment (BB; 300 g of blueberry). In the second study, smokers underwent 3 different protocols: (1) - smoking treatment (S); (2) - control treatment (CS; 300 mL of water with sugar + smoking); (3) - blueberry treatment (BS; 300 g of blueberry + smoking). Each treatment (1 day long) was separated by a one week washout period. Blood pressure, peripheral arterial function (reactive hyperemia index, RHI, a marker of endothelial function) and arterial stiffness (digital augmentation index, dAix and dAix normalized by considering a heart rate of 75 bpm, dAix@75) were measured before and after each treatment. In the first study, the consumption of blueberry and control treatment acutely increased peripheral arterial function in the group of non-smokers. The improvement in RHI was higher and significantly different after blueberry treatment compared to the control treatment (54.8 ± 8.4% BB vs. 28.2 ± 8.3% C; p = 0.01). No effects were observed for markers of arterial stiffness, blood pressure and heart rate. Acute cigarette smoke significantly increased blood pressure and heart rate, while no significant effect was registered in peripheral arterial function and stiffness. The intake of blueberry and control treatment before a cigarette did not counteract the increase in blood pressure and heart rate, while it significantly improved peripheral arterial function. In particular, a significant increase was observed

  14. Influence of variety and type of shoot on rooting ability of green stem cuttings of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Пиж’янова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article provides results of studying the output percentage of green stem cuttings of seven varieties of Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. subject to the dates of cutting preparation, type of shoot and its metamerism in agroecological conditions of the Rightbank Forest Steppe of Ukraine. It is found that green stem cuttings of Highbush blueberry varieties under review display low regenerative ability and are characterized with medium rooting ability. The optimal procuring and planting for rooting dates for the shoots fall within the stage of their intensive growth, which lasts from the first decade of June till the second decade of July. The level of regenerative capacity for the cuttings is determined by the type of cutting and its metamerism. Basal three-node cuttings have displayed essentially improved rooting ability as compared to the apical and medial cuttings.

  15. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biochemical degradation and physical migration of polyphenolic compounds in osmotic dehydrated blueberries with pulsed electric field and thermal pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Jin, Tony Z; Fan, Xuetong; Wu, Jijun

    2018-01-15

    Fresh blueberries were pretreated by pulsed electric fields (PEF) or thermal pretreatment and then were subject to osmotic dehydration. The changes in contents of anthocyanins, predominantly phenolic acids and flavonols, total phenolics, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and antioxidant activity in the blueberry samples during pretreatment and osmotic dehydration were investigated. Biochemical degradation and physical migration of these nutritive compounds from fruits to osmotic solutions were observed during the pretreatments and osmotic dehydration. PEF pretreated samples had the least degradation loss but the most migration loss of these compounds compared to thermally pretreated and control samples. Higher rates of water loss and solid gain during osmotic dehydration were also obtained by PEF pretreatment, reducing the dehydration time from 130 to 48h. PEF pretreated and dehydrated fruits showed superior appearance to thermally pretreated and control samples. Therefore, PEF pretreatment is a preferred technology that balances nutritive quality, appearance, and dehydration rate. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Tempo-Spatial Dynamics of Adult Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Semiochemical-Baited Trap Captures in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Cumplido, Johnattan; Leskey, Tracy C; Holdcraft, Robert; Zaman, Faruque U; Hahn, Noel G; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2017-06-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), has become an important pest of highbush blueberries in the northeastern United States. Here, we conducted experiments in 2010-2013 to compare the efficacy of semiochemical-baited traps for C. nenuphar versus conventional (beating cloth) sampling methods in blueberries, and to understand the seasonal abundance and distribution of C. nenuphar adults within and among blueberry fields using these traps. Black pyramid traps baited with the C. nenuphar aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid and the fruit volatile benzaldehyde caught three to four times more adults than unbaited traps without causing an increase in injury to berries in neighboring bushes. Numbers of adult weevils caught in traps correlated with those on bushes (beating cloth samples), indicating that trap counts can predict C. nenuphar abundance in the field. Early in the season, traps placed 20 m from field edges near a forest caught higher C. nenuphar numbers than traps placed at farther distances, suggesting movement of overwintered weevils from outside fields. Using a trapping network across multiple fields in an organic farm, we found evidence of C. nenuphar aggregation in "hotspots"; early in the season, C. nenuphar numbers in traps were higher in the middle of fields, and there was a correlation between these numbers and distance from the forest in 2013 but not in 2012. These results show that semiochemical-baited traps are effective in capturing C. nenuphar adults in blueberries, and that these traps should be placed in the interior of fields preferably, but not exclusively, near wooded habitats to maximize their efficacy. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Evaluation of modified atmosphere bag and sulphur dioxide concentrations applied on highbush blueberries fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cv. Emerald

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Mario; Wyss, Anddy; Hormazábal, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to evaluate techniques for modified atmosphere and application of sulphur anhydride upon parameters of quality of postharvest on blueberry fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cv. Emerald, an experiment of six treatments was conducted, given by the combination of two factors, modified atmosphere (with and without) and different concentrations of sulphur dioxide (generated by 0, 1 and 2 g of sodium metabisulphite) during 7, 14, 21 and 28 days at 0 °C. The dose of 2 g of modified atmosphere s...

  20. The influence of baking time and temperature on characteristics of gluten free cookies enriched with blueberry pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Šarić Bojana M.; Nedeljković Nataša M.; Šimurina Olivera D.; Pestorić Mladenka V.; Kos Jovana J.; Mandić Anamarija I.; Sakač Marijana B.; Šarić Ljubiša Ć.; Psodorov Đorđe B.; Mišan Aleksandra Č.

    2014-01-01

    Blueberry pomace, by-product of juice production, was processed into a new food ingredient by drying and grinding and used for a new gluten-free cookies' formulation, with the aim of improving nutritional profile and antioxidant capacity. Since duration and temperature at which dough is thermally treated during baking highly influence the quality of a baked product, the objective of this work was to optimise the baking conditions in order to obtain the best technological quality of the cookie...

  1. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bó, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Brambilla, Ada; Rizzolo, Anna; Porrini, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative stress and affect endothelial function in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of one portion (300 g) of blueberries on selected markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection (endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage) and of vascular function (changes in peripheral arterial tone and plasma nitric oxide levels) in male subjects. In a randomized cross-over design, separated by a wash out period ten young volunteers received one portion of blueberries ground by blender or one portion of a control jelly. Before and after consumption (at 1, 2, and 24 hours), blood samples were collected and used to evaluate anthocyanin absorption (through mass spectrometry), endogenous and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in blood mononuclear cells (through the comet assay), and plasma nitric oxide concentrations (through a fluorometric assay). Peripheral arterial function was assessed by means of Endo-PAT 2000. Blueberries significantly reduced (P < .01) H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage (-18%) 1 hour after blueberry consumption compared to control. No significant differences were observed for endogenous DNA damage, peripheral arterial function and nitric oxide levels after blueberry intake. In conclusion, one portion of blueberries seems sufficient to improve cell antioxidant defense against DNA damage, but further studies are necessary to understand their role on vascular function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Vaccinium corymbosum FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT): a flowering activator reverses photoperiodic and chilling requirements in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Walworth, Aaron; Zhao, Dongyan; Jiang, Ning; Hancock, James F

    2013-11-01

    The blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T ( FT )-like gene ( VcFT ) cloned from the cDNA of a tetraploid, northern highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is able to reverse the photoperiodic and chilling requirements and drive early and continuous flowering. Blueberry is a woody perennial bush with a longer juvenile period than annual crops, requiring vernalization to flower normally. Few studies have been reported on the molecular mechanism of flowering in blueberry or other woody plants. Because FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) from Arabidopsis thaliana plays a multifaceted role in generating mobile molecular signals to regulate plant flowering time, isolation and functional analysis of the blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) FT-like gene (VcFT) will facilitate the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of flowering in woody plants. Based on EST sequences, a 525-bpVcFT was identified and cloned from the cDNA of a tetraploid, northern highbush blueberry cultivar, Bluecrop. Ectopic expression of 35S:VcFT in tobacco induced flowering an average of 28 days earlier than wild-type plants. Expression of the 35S:VcFT in the blueberry cultivar Aurora resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype, which flowered not only during in vitro culture, a growth stage when nontransgenic shoots had not yet flowered, but also in 6-10-week old, soil-grown transgenic plants, in contrast to the fact that at least 1 year and 800 chilling hours are required for the appearance of the first flower of both nontransgenic 'Aurora' and transgenic controls with the gusA. These results demonstrate that the VcFT is a functional floral activator and overexpression of the VcFT is able to reverse the photoperiodic and chilling requirements and drive early and continuous flowering.

  3. Cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and blueberry extracts supplementation improves spatial memory and regulates hippocampal ERK expression in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Long; Yang, Hong Peng; Pang, Wei; Lu, Hao; Hu, Yan Dan; Li, Jing; Lu, Shi Jun; Zhang, Wan Qi; Jiang, Yu Gang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether the antioxidation and the regulation on the Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinases (ERK) signaling pathway are involved in the protective effects of blueberry on central nervous system. 30 Senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into three groups and treated with normal diet, blueberry extracts (200 mg/kg•bw/day) and cyaniding-3-O-galactoside (Cy-3-GAL) (50 mg/kg•bw/day) from blueberry for 8 weeks. 10 SAMR1 mice were set as control group. The capacity of spatial memory was assessed by Passive avoidance task and Morris water maze. Histological analyses on hippocampus were completed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and the expression of ERK were detected. Both Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts were shown effective functions to relieve cellular injury, improve hippocampal neurons survival and inhibit the pyramidal cell layer damage. Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts also increased SOD activity and reduced MDA content in brain tissues and plasma, and increased hippocampal phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) expression in SAMP8 mice. Further more, the passive avoidance task test showed that both the latency time and the number of errors were improved by Cy-3-GAL treatment, and the Morris Water Maze test showed significant decreases of latency were detected by Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts treatment on day 4. Blueberry extracts may reverse the declines of cognitive and behavioral function in the ageing process through several pathways, including enhancing the capacity of antioxidation, altering stress signaling. Cy-3-GAL may be an important active ingredient for these biological effects. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. Unraveling Metabolic Variation for Blueberry and Chokeberry Cultivars Harvested from Different Geo-Climatic Regions in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Inseon; Suh, Dong Ho; Singh, Digar; Do, Seon-Gil; Moon, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Jeong Ho; Ku, Kang-Mo; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2017-10-18

    Temporal geo-climatic variations are presumably vital determinants of phenotypic traits and quality characteristics of berries manifested through reconfigured metabolomes. We performed an untargeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic analysis of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) and chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) sample extracts harvested from different geo-climatic regions in Korea. The multivariate statistical analysis indicated distinct metabolite compositions of berry groups based on different species and regions. The amino acids levels were relatively more abundant in chokeberry than in blueberry, while the sugar contents were comparatively higher in blueberry. However, the metabolite compositions were also dependent on geo-climatic conditions, especially latitude. Notwithstanding the cultivar types, amino acids, and sucrose were relatively more abundant in berries harvested from 35°N and 36°N geo-climatic regions, respectively, characterized by distinct duration of sunshine and rainfall patterns. The present study showed the ability of a metabolomics approach for recapitulating the significance of geo-climatic parameters for quality characterization of commercial berry types.

  5. Flowering and fruit set of six cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in the conditions of the Lublin Region

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    Małgorzata Bożek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results presented in this paper relate to the time and duration of flowering of highbush blueberry as well as fruit set in the conditions of flower isolation and free visitation by pollinating insects. Observations were carried out in the years 2001- 2004 at a plantation located in Niemce near the city of Lublin. Six cultivars: 'Bluecrop', 'Bluejay', 'Croatan', 'Darrow', 'Northland' and 'Spartan', were covered by the study. The flowering period of the studied highbush blueberry cultivars was in May in three years of study, whereas in 2004 in May and June. Depending on the year, it lasted from 14 up to 21 days, on the average. Significant differences were found in the life span of a single flower which, depending on the cultivar and conditions prevailing during flowering, bloomed from 5 up to 10 days (the average for all the years for all the cultivars. With free access of pollinating insects, highbush blueberry set an average of 92 false-berries per 100 flowers, whereas only 40 during spontaneous self-pollination under the isolating cover. In each year of study, irrespective of atmospheric conditions prevailing during flowering as well as the time and duration of flowering, fruit set of the investigated cultivars in flowers freely accessible to pollinating insects should be considered to be good or very good.

  6. Evaluation of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Blueberry Cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Grown in the Northwest Croatia

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    Verica Dragović-Uzelac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolics: total phenols (TPC, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA, flavan-3-ols (TF3ols, as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC and reducing power (RP in four blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L. introduced in the Northwest Croatian climate conditions. Phenolic compounds were measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH and ABTS assays and RP by FRAP assay. All cultivars contained high mass fraction of TPC, TF, TA and lower mass fraction of TF3ols. Among the researched fruits, Sierra cultivar contained the highest amounts of all groups of phenolics, followed by Elliott>Bluecrop≥Duke. Significant differences were observed in phenolic mass fraction among different cultivars and growing seasons (p<0.05, and phenolic compounds were significantly higher in growing season 2006. Examined cultivars possess high antioxidant capacity and reducing power, and all phenolics were highly correlated with TAC and RP (R=0.46 to 0.99. The study indicated that growing and climate conditions in Northwest Croatia are convenient for introducing blueberry cultivars. Generally, blueberry fruits are a rich source of phenolics, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  7. LC–MS/MS and UPLC–UV Evaluation of Anthocyanins and Anthocyanidins during Rabbiteye Blueberry Juice Processing

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    Rebecca E. Stein-Chisholm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry juice processing includes multiple steps and each one affects the chemical composition of the berries, including thermal degradation of anthocyanins. Not-from-concentrate juice was made by heating and enzyme processing blueberries before pressing, followed by ultrafiltration and pasteurization. Using LC–MS/MS, major and minor anthocyanins were identified and semi-quantified at various steps through the process. Ten anthocyanins were identified, including 5 arabinoside and 5 pyrannoside anthocyanins. Three minor anthocyanins were also identified, which apparently have not been previously reported in rabbiteye blueberries. These were delphinidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside, and petunidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside. Delphinidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside significantly increased 50% after pressing. The five known anthocyanidins—cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin, and petunidin—were also quantitated using UPLC–UV. Raw berries and press cake contained the highest anthocyanidin contents and contribute to the value and interest of press cake for use in other food and non-food products. Losses of 75.7% after pressing and 12% after pasteurization were determined for anthocyanidins during not-from-concentrate juice processing.

  8. Lack of efficacy of blueberry in nutritional prevention of azoxymethane-initiated cancers of rat small intestine and colon

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    Wu Xianli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberries may lower relative risk for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Previous work indicated an inhibitory effect of consumed blueberry (BB on formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colons of male Fisher F344 rats (inbred strain. However, effects of BB on colon tumors and in both genders are unknown. Methods We examined efficacy of BB in inhibition of azoxymethane (AOM-induced colon ACF and intestine tumors in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (outbred strain. Pregnant rats were fed a diet with or without 10% BB powder; progeny were weaned to the same diet as their dam and received AOM as young adults. Results Male and female rats on control diet had similar numbers of ACF at 6 weeks after AOM administration. BB increased (P P P > 0.05 to reduce overall gastrointestinal tract tumor incidence in males, however, tumor incidence in females was unaffected (P > 0.1 by BB. There was a tendency (0.1 > P > 0.05 for fewer adenocarcinomas (relative to total of adenomatous polyps plus adenocarcinomas in colons of female than male tumor-bearing rats; in small intestine, this gender difference was significant (P P Conclusion Results did not indicate robust cancer-preventive effects of BB. Blueberry influenced ACF occurrence in distal colon and tumor progression in duodenum, in gender-specific fashion. Data indicate the potential for slowing tumor progression (adenomatous polyp to adenocarcinoma by BB.

  9. Ra-226 concentrations in blueberries Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. near an inactive uranium tailings site in Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, N.K.; Lim, T.P.; Cloutier, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    Ra-226 concentrations were measured in blueberries growing around the Stanrock uranium tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada. Elevated levels of total Ra-226 ranging between 20 to 290 mBq g -1 were observed in samples collected within 500 m from the tailings. Highest levels, approx. 285 mBq g -1 , were observed in a sample collected on a tailings spill. For sites located more than 500 m away in the upwind direction, and those situated at distances greater than 1 km downwind from the waste pile, the total Ra-226 concentrations approached background levels which were measured as 2 to 6 mBq g -1 . Approximately 17% of the total Ra-226 measured was removable by washing the samples with distilled water. Wind dispersal of the tailings material and its deposition in the form of dust on blueberries was believed to be responsible for the external contamination. Based on the ICRP recommended dose limits for oral intake of Ra-226, it was calculated that approximately 160 kg a -1 , 3350 kg a -1 and 47 kg a -1 of washed blueberries from inside and outside the influenced zone, and from the tailings spill site, respectively, would need to be consumed before the individual annual limit for the general public was exceeded. (author)

  10. Persistence and degradation of the herbicide hexazinone in soils of lowbush blueberry fields in Nova Scotia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, K.I.N.; Kimball, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    Hexazinone is a broad spectrum herbicide used primarily in forestry, industrial and right-of-way weed control. Hexazinone is very water soluble. It readily leaches in soils and, depending on rainfall and slope, can be transported laterally following surface applications. Eight metabolites were extracted from 14 C-hexazinone treated soils and metabolite C was the major metabolite at each location. Hexazinone is degraded primarily by microorganisms in the soil with little degradation occurring under sterile or anaerobic conditions. The native lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) is tolerant to hexazinone at rates that give selective control of many weedy species associated with this crop. This blueberry is an important fruit crop of Maine and the Eastern Canadian provinces where commercial fields have been developed by management of wild stands originating from forests or abandoned farmland. Hexazinone is now widely used in all blueberry producing areas with thousands of hectares treated annually. The following study examines the fate of this 14 C-labelled herbicide in several typical soil types in the field and under laboratory conditions

  11. Intake of Blueberry Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum Affects the Gut Microbiota of L-NAME Treated Rats

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    Jie Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics can be used as means to regulate the microbiota to exert preventative or beneficial effects to the host. However, not much is known about the effect of the gut microbiota on hypertension which is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease and also a symptom of the metabolic syndrome. The NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME induced hypertensive rats were used in order to test the effect of a synbiotic dietary supplement of Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19 either together with fermented blueberry or with three phenolic compounds synthesized during fermentation. The experimental diets did not lower the blood pressure after 4 weeks. However, the fermented blueberries together with live L. plantarum showed protective effect on liver cells indicated by suppressed increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT levels. The diversity of the caecal microbiota was neither affected by L-NAME nor the experimental diets. However, inhibition of the nitric oxide synthesis by L-NAME exerted a selection pressure that led to a shift in the bacterial composition. The mixture of fermented blueberries with the bacterial strain altered the caecal microbiota in different direction compared to L-NAME, while the three phenolic compounds together with the bacteria eliminated the selection pressure from the L-NAME.

  12. Evaluation of pulsed light treatments on inactivation of Salmonella on blueberries and its impact on shelf-life and quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinang; Huang, Runze; Chen, Haiqiang

    2017-11-02

    Blueberry have a short shelf life when fully ripe and susceptible to contamination of various pathogens. Our study investigated the effect of pulsed light (PL) on inactivation of Salmonella on blueberries and its impact on shelf-life, quality attributes and health-benefit compounds of blueberries. Dry PL (6J/cm 2 ) and water-assisted PL (samples were agitated in water during PL treatment; 9J/cm 2 ) along with two controls, dry control (untreated) and water-assisted control (water washing without PL), were applied to blueberries with subsequent storages at room temperature (3days) or 5°C (7days). For Salmonella inactivation, dry PL treatment achieved 0.9 and 0.6 log reduction of Salmonella for spot and dip inoculation, respectively; while the water-assisted PL treatment reduced Salmonella by 4.4 log and 0.8 log for spot and dip inoculation, respectively. The water-assisted PL treatment resulted in Salmonella populations significantly lower than the dry control after storage regardless of the storage temperature and inoculation method. Neither dry nor water-assisted PL treatments improved the shelf life of blueberries even though direct inactivation of natural yeasts and molds were achieved. Surface lightness was instantly reduced after both dry and water-assisted PL treatments. Compared with the dry control, the two PL treatments did not reduce the firmness of blueberries. Weight loss was increased for the dry PL treated samples, but not for the water-assisted PL treatment for both storage conditions. Delayed anthocyanins accumulation and reduced total antioxidant activity were induced by both PL treatments at the end of storage at room temperature, while slight enhancement in total phenolics content was achieved by water-assisted PL treatment. In conclusion, the water-assisted PL treatment could effectively decontaminate Salmonella on blueberries while showed minimal or no impact on the shelf-life, quality attributes and health-benefit compounds of blueberries. PL

  13. Nitrogen-source preference in blueberry (Vaccinium sp.): Enhanced shoot nitrogen assimilation in response to direct supply of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Douglas S; Doyle, John W; Malladi, Anish

    2017-09-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) is thought to display a preference for the ammonium (NH 4 + ) form over the nitrate (NO 3 - ) form of inorganic nitrogen (N). This N-source preference has been associated with a generally low capacity to assimilate the NO 3 - form of N, especially within the shoot tissues. Nitrate assimilation is mediated by nitrate reductase (NR), a rate limiting enzyme that converts NO 3 - to nitrite (NO 2 - ). We investigated potential limitations of NO 3 - assimilation in two blueberry species, rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei) and southern highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum) by supplying NO 3 - to the roots, leaf surface, or through the cut stem. Both species displayed relatively low but similar root uptake rates for both forms of inorganic N. Nitrate uptake through the roots transiently increased NR activity by up to 3.3-fold and root NR gene expression by up to 4-fold. However, supplying NO 3 - to the roots did not increase its transport in the xylem, nor did it increase NR activity in the leaves, indicating that the acquired N was largely assimilated or stored within the roots. Foliar application of NO 3 - increased leaf NR activity by up to 3.5-fold, but did not alter NO 3 - metabolism-related gene expression, suggesting that blueberries are capable of post translational regulation of NR activity in the shoots. Additionally, supplying NO 3 - to the cut ends of stems resulted in around a 5-fold increase in NR activity, a 10-fold increase in NR transcript accumulation, and up to a 195-fold increase in transcript accumulation of NITRITE REDUCTASE (NiR1) which codes for the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of NO 2 - to NH 4 + . These data indicate that blueberry shoots are capable of assimilating NO 3 - when it is directly supplied to these tissues. Together, these data suggest that limitations in the uptake and translocation of NO 3 - to the shoots may limit overall NO 3 - assimilation capacity in blueberry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Nano-clays from natural and modified montmorillonite with and without added blueberry extract for active and intelligent food nanopackaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez, Tomy J., E-mail: tomy.gutierrez@ciens.ucv.ve [Departamento Químico Analítico, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 40109, Caracas, 1040-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 47097, Caracas, 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Grupo de Materiales Compuestos Termoplásticos (CoMP), Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (INTEMA), Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata UNMdP y Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas - CONICET, Colón 10850, B7608FLC, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Ponce, Alejandra G. [Grupo de Investigación en Ingeniería en Alimentos, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Juan B. Justo 4302, 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Alvarez, Vera A. [Grupo de Materiales Compuestos Termoplásticos (CoMP), Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (INTEMA), Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata UNMdP y Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas - CONICET, Colón 10850, B7608FLC, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2017-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of nano-clays as active and intelligent (A&I) food nanopackaging materials. Nanopackaging is a structured system that allows the storage of certain compounds in a stable form. Nano-clays were prepared from natural and modified montmorillonite (Mnt) with and without added blueberry extract, and characterized in terms of their: X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, thermogravimetric (TGA) properties, microstructure, moisture content, water activity (a{sub w}), infrared spectra (FTIR), Raman spectra, color parameters, response to pH changes, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Mnt prepared with added blueberry extract showed antioxidant activity and intelligent behavior under different pH conditions. Modifying the Mnt increased the interlayer spacing, thus allowing more blueberry extract to be incorporated within the system. In conclusion, natural and modified Mnt are eco-friendly resources with potential applications for nano-packaging. The addition of blueberry extract imparted intelligent properties to the nano-clays as regards their responses to changes in pH. - Highlights: • Food nano-packaging were obtained from natural and modified montmorillonite (Mnt). • XRD, TGA and FTIR results suggests the blueberry extract nano-packaging. • Intelligent nanocomposites were obtained. • Greater interlayer spacing of the nano-Mnt allows greater nano-packaging.

  15. Fermented blueberry juice extract and its specific fractions have an anti-adipogenic effect in 3 T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villavicencio, Mayra L; Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Melinda; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Matar, Chantal; Alarcón Aguilar, Francisco J; Escobar Villanueva, Maria Del Carmen; Haddad, Pierre S

    2017-01-06

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic status worldwide. Wild lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) is a plant of the North American Aboriginal traditional pharmacopeia with antidiabetic potential, especially when it is fermented with Serratia vaccinii. A phytochemical fractionation scheme was used to identify potential bioactive compounds as confirmed by HPLC retention times and UV-Vis spectra. 3 T3-L1 cells were differentiated for 7 days with either Normal Blueberry Extract (NBE), Fermented Blueberry Extract (FBE/F1), seven fractions and four pure compounds. Triglyceride content was measured. Examination of selected intracellular signalling components (p-Akt, p-AMPK) and transcriptional factors (SREBP-1c and PPARγ) was carried out by Western blot analysis. The inhibitory effect of FBE/F1 on adipocyte triglyceride accumulation was attributed to total phenolic (F2) and chlorogenic acid enriched (F3-2) fractions that both inhibited by 75%. Pure compounds catechol (CAT) and chlorogenic acid (CA) also inhibited adipogenesis by 70%. Treatment with NBE, F1, F3-2, CAT and CA decreased p-AKT, whereas p-AMPK tended to increase with F1. The expression of SREBP1-c was not significantly modulated. In contrast, PPARγ decreased in all experimental groups that inhibited adipogenesis. These results demonstrate that fermented blueberry extract contains compounds with anti-adipogenic activity, which can serve to standardize nutraceutical preparations from fermented blueberry juice and to develop novel compounds with anti-obesity properties.

  16. Effects of a single dose of a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink on memory in 8 to 10 y old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Adrian R; Williams, Claire M

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence from animals and adult humans has demonstrated potential benefits to cognition from flavonoid supplementation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these cognitive benefits extended to a sample of school-aged children. Using a crossover design, with a washout of at least 7 d between drinks, 14 children ages 8 to 10 y consumed either a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink or a matched vehicle. Two h after consumption, the children completed a battery of five cognitive tests comprising the Go-NoGo, Stroop, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Task, Object Location Task, and a Visual N-back. In comparison to the vehicle, the blueberry drink produced significant improvements in the delayed recall of a previously learned list of words, showing for the first time a cognitive benefit for acute flavonoid intervention in children. However, performance on a measure of proactive interference indicated that the blueberry intervention led to a greater negative impact of previously memorized words on the encoding of a set of new words. There was no benefit of our blueberry intervention for measures of attention, response inhibition, or visuospatial memory. Although findings are mixed, the improvements in delayed recall found in this pilot study suggest that, following acute flavonoid-rich blueberry interventions, school-aged children encode memory items more effectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anthocyanin determination in blueberry extracts from various cultivars and their antiproliferative and apoptotic properties in B16-F10 metastatic murine melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunea, Andrea; Rugină, Dumitriţa; Sconţa, Zoriţa; Pop, Raluca M; Pintea, Adela; Socaciu, Carmen; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Grootaert, Charlotte; Struijs, Karin; VanCamp, John

    2013-11-01

    Blueberry consumption is associated with health benefits contributing to a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the anthocyanin profile of blueberry extracts and to evaluate their effects on B16-F10 metastatic melanoma murine cells. Seven blueberry cultivars cultivated in Romania were used. The blueberry extracts were purified over an Amberlite XAD-7 resin and a Sephadex LH-20 column, in order to obtain the anthocyanin rich fractions (ARF). The antioxidant activity of the ARF of all cultivars was evaluated by ABTS, CUPRAC and ORAC assays. High performance liquid chromatography followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was used to identify and quantify individual anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content of tested cultivars ranged from 101.88 to 195.01 mg malvidin-3-glucoside/100g fresh weight. The anthocyanin rich-fraction obtained from cultivar Torro (ARF-T) was shown to have the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity, and inhibited B16-F10 melanoma murine cells proliferation at concentrations higher than 500 μg/ml. In addition, ARF-T stimulated apoptosis and increased total LDH activity in metastatic B16-F10 melanoma murine cells. These results indicate that the anthocyanins from blueberry cultivar could be used as a chemopreventive or adjuvant treatment for metastasis control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nano-clays from natural and modified montmorillonite with and without added blueberry extract for active and intelligent food nanopackaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez, Tomy J.; Ponce, Alejandra G.; Alvarez, Vera A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of nano-clays as active and intelligent (A&I) food nanopackaging materials. Nanopackaging is a structured system that allows the storage of certain compounds in a stable form. Nano-clays were prepared from natural and modified montmorillonite (Mnt) with and without added blueberry extract, and characterized in terms of their: X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, thermogravimetric (TGA) properties, microstructure, moisture content, water activity (a_w), infrared spectra (FTIR), Raman spectra, color parameters, response to pH changes, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Mnt prepared with added blueberry extract showed antioxidant activity and intelligent behavior under different pH conditions. Modifying the Mnt increased the interlayer spacing, thus allowing more blueberry extract to be incorporated within the system. In conclusion, natural and modified Mnt are eco-friendly resources with potential applications for nano-packaging. The addition of blueberry extract imparted intelligent properties to the nano-clays as regards their responses to changes in pH. - Highlights: • Food nano-packaging were obtained from natural and modified montmorillonite (Mnt). • XRD, TGA and FTIR results suggests the blueberry extract nano-packaging. • Intelligent nanocomposites were obtained. • Greater interlayer spacing of the nano-Mnt allows greater nano-packaging.

  19. The combination of blueberry juice and probiotics reduces apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver of mice by affecting SIRT1 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Juanjuan Zhu,1,2,* Tingting Ren,3,* Mingyu Zhou,2 Mingliang Cheng2 1First Hospital Affiliated to Suzhou University, Suzhou, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, 3Biochemistry Department, Affiliated Hospital of Guiyang Medical College, Guiyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To explore the effects of the combination of blueberry juice and probiotics on the apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD.Methods: Healthy C57BL/6J mice were used in the control group (CG. AFLD mice models were established with Lieber–DeCarli ethanol diet and evenly assigned to six groups with ­different treatments: MG (model, SI (SIRT1 [sirtuin type 1] small interfering RNA [siRNA], BJ (blueberry juice, BJSI (blueberry juice and SIRT1 siRNA, BJP (blueberry juice and probiotics, and BJPSI (blueberry juice, probiotics, and SIRT1 siRNA. Hepatic tissue was observed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE and Oil Red O (ORO staining. Biochemical indexes of the blood serum were analyzed. The levels of SIRT1, caspase-3, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1, FasL (tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6, BAX, and Bcl-2 were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.Results: HE and ORO staining showed that the hepatocytes were heavily destroyed with large lipid droplets in MG and SI groups, while the severity was reduced in the CG, BJ, and BJP groups (P<0.05. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C were increased in BJ and BJP groups when compared with the model group (P<0.05. In contrast, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total triglycerides (TGs, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and malondialdehyde (MDA were lower in BJ and BJP groups than in the model group (P<0.05. The level of SIRT1 was increased, while the levels of FOXO1

  20. Crescimento de plantas de mirtilo a partir de mudas micropropagadas Growth of blueberry from micropropagation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Cristina Ristow

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mudas de mirtilo apresentam crescimento inicial lento e baixo índice de sobrevivência. Dentre os fatores envolvidos na produção de mudas, a qualidade do substrato é um fator de grande importância. O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de mirtilo, em diferentes composições de substrato, durante os meses de dezembro de 2005 a março de 2006. Foram utilizadas mudas da cultivar Georgiagem, do grupo highbush, oriundas de multiplicação in vitro. Foram utilizados sete diferentes substratos para a formação das mudas: T1 - Plantmax® (100%; T2 - Plantmax® + perlita (1:1; T3 - solo + composto industrial + perlita (1:1:1; T4 - solo + casca de arroz + terra (1:1:2; T5 - solo + composto industrial + vermiculita (1:1:1; T6 - casca de acácia + terra (1:2; T7 - acícula de pínus + terra - (1:2. Foram avaliados: altura das plantas; acúmulo de matéria seca da parte aérea e raiz, e análise química dos substratos. A composição do substrato influenciou no desenvolvimento das mudas de mirtilo. Os melhores resultados foram observados em substratos com pH ácido. Conclui-se que os substratos acícula de pínus + terra, Plantmax®, Plantmax® + perlita e casca de arroz + terra apresentaram melhores resultados.The blueberry presents slow development and low index of survival of the seedlings. Among the factors involved in the production of seedlings, the quality of the substrate is a factor of great importance. The work had as objective evaluates the development of blueberry seedlings in different substrate compositions, during the months of December 2005 to March 2006. It was used seedlings of the cultivar Georgiagem of the highbush group, originated from of multiplication in vitro. Seven different substrates were used for the formation of the seedlings: T1 - Plantmax® (100%; T2 - Plantmax® + Perlita (1: 1; T3 - Soil + industrial compost + Perlita (1: 1 :1; T4 - Soil + rice husks + Soil (1 : 1: 2; T5 - Soil

  1. Nonthermal inactivation of norovirus surrogates on blueberries using atmospheric cold plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Niemira, Brendan A; Gurtler, Joshua B; Sites, Joseph; Boyd, Glenn; Kingsley, David H; Li, Xinhui; Chen, Haiqiang

    2017-05-01

    Viruses are currently the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks, most of which are associated with foods consumed raw. Cold plasma (CP) is an emerging novel nonthermal technology that can be used to surface decontaminate foods. This study investigated CP technology for the nonthermal inactivation of human norovirus surrogates, Tulane virus (TV) and murine norovirus (MNV), on the surface of blueberries. Blueberries (5 g) were weighed into sterile 4 oz. glass jars and inoculated with TV, 5 log PFU/g. Samples were treated with atmospheric CP for 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 s at a working distance of 7.5 cm with 4 cubic feet/minute (cfm) of CP jet. Temperature readings were taken with an infrared camera prior to, and immediately following, CP treatments. In order to establish the impact of air flow during CP treatment (4 cfm), an additional 7 cfm jet of room temperature air was introduced from a separate nozzle. The experiment was repeated with 90 and 120 s as additional treatment time points. Viral titers were measured immediately after each treatment with a plaque assay using LLC-MK2 cells (TV) or RAW 264.7 cells (MNV). TV was significantly reduced 1.5 PFU/g compared to the control after treatment time of 45s, which was achieved regardless of temperature conditions. With the addition of 7 cfm of ambient air, the maximum log reduction for TV was 3.5 log PFU/g after 120s of treatment. MNV was significantly reduced by 0.5 log PFU/g compare to the control at 15s, and further treatment of MNV with ambient air brought the log reduction to greater than 5 log PFU/g at 90 s of treatment (Fig. 3). These results demonstrate that CP viral inactivation does not rely on thermal inactivation, and is therefore nonthermal in nature. With further optimization, CP may be used by food processors as a means of nonthermal inactivation of foodborne viruses. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Immunomodulatory Effect of Flavonoids of Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) Leaves via the NF-κB Signal Pathway in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dazhi; Xu, Mengyi; Ren, Mengyue; Pan, Enshan; Luo, Chaohua; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Qingfa

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the immunoregulatory effect of flavonoids of blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) leaves (FBL). The flavonoids of blueberry leaves were prepared with 70% ethanol and were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-Tof-MS). The immunoregulatory effect and possible regulatory mechanisms of FBL were investigated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 cells. According to the results of UPLC/Q-Tof-MS, nine flavonoids of blueberry leaves were identified. FBL showed a significant reduction in the production of TNF- α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. FBL significantly decreased the expression of NF- κ B p65 and P-NF- κ B p65 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Our study showed the immunoregulatory effect of FBL through the suppression of TNF- α via the NF- κ B signal pathway.

  3. Cultivar evaluation and effect of fermentation on antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corombosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle H; Lucius, Anita; Meyer, Tessa; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2011-08-24

    The berry fruits of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) contain bioactive compounds with potential health benefits. The objective was to evaluate blueberries grown in southern Illinois as well as the effect of fermentation, at two different temperatures, on chemical and physical parameters. Fruits from fifteen blueberry cultivars were analyzed. Fruit diameter ranged from 12.8 mm to 18.7 mm, pH from 2.6 to 3.7, reducing sugars from 6.4% to 15.2%, total sugars from 13.9% to 21.6%, total polyphenols from 0.39 to 1.00 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g blueberry and antioxidant capacity from 5.8 to 10.9 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g. In vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory capacity relative to the positive control acarbose, a known anti-diabetic drug, showed a range from 91.8 to 103.3% for α-amylase and from 103.2% to 190.8% for α-glucosidase. Wines prepared from several of these blueberry cultivars were analyzed throughout fermentation and compared at room temperature and cold temperature fermentation for pH (3.5 to 6.3), °Brix (13.6 to 29.7), total polyphenols (375.4 to 657.1 μg GAE/mL wine), and antioxidant capacity (4.5 to 25.1 mM TE). The wines were also tested for their in vitro capacity to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase and maintained similar inhibitory action as the berries. Highbush blueberry cultivars and their fermented beverages are good natural sources of antioxidants and starch-degrading enzyme inhibitors important for type 2 diabetes management.

  4. A single blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) portion does not affect markers of antioxidant defence and oxidative stress in healthy volunteers following cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Campolo, Jonica; Parolini, Marina; Lanti, Claudia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia

    2016-03-01

    We previously reported that a portion of blueberries reversed endothelial dysfunction induced by acute cigarette smoking. Since smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction is associated with a condition of oxidative stress, we evaluated whether the observed effect was mediated by modulation of markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence. Fourteen out of 16 male healthy smokers previously enrolled, participated in a three-armed randomized controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300g of blueberries) + smoking (one cigarette); control treatment (300ml of water with sugar) + smoking (one cigarette). The cigarette was smoked 100min after blueberry/control/water consumption. Each treatment was separated by 1 week of washout period. Plasma vitamin (C, B12 and folate) and aminothiol concentrations, endogenous [formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites] and oxidatively induced DNA damage (resistance to H2O2-induced DNA damage) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured at baseline and 20, 60, 90, 120min and 24h after smoking. On the whole, analysis of variance did not show a significant effect of treatment on the modulation of markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence but revealed an effect of time for plasma concentrations of vitamin C (P = 0.003), B12 (P 0.05) and H2O2-induced DNA damage (P > 0.05) in PBMCs. In conclusion, the consumption of a single blueberry portion failed to modulate markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence investigated in our experimental conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate this finding and help clarifying the mechanisms of protection of blueberries against smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Influence of electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts on microbial quality and overall appearance of blueberries during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liato, Viacheslav; Hammami, Riadh; Aïder, Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the potential of diluted electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts (potassium acetate, potassium citrate and calcium lactate) to extend the shelf life of blueberries during post-harvest storage. The sanitizing capacity of these solutions was studied against pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 as well as phytopathogenic fungi A. alternata, F. oxysporum and B. cinerea. The results showed that a 5-min treatment of inoculated blueberries with electro-activated solutions resulted in a 4 log CFU/g reduction in Listeria monocytogenes for all solutions. For E. coli O157:H7, the electro-activated potassium acetate and potassium citrate solutions achieved a decrease of 3.5 log CFU/g after 5 min of berry washing. The most important fungus reduction was found when blueberries were washed with an electro-activated solution of potassium acetate and a NaOCl solution. After 5 min of blueberry washing with an electro-activated potassium acetate solution, a very high reduction effect was observed for A. alternata, F. oxysporum and B. cinerea, which showed survival levels of only 2.2 ± 0.16, 0.34 ± 0.15 and 0.21 ± 0.16 log CFU/g, respectively. Regarding the effect of the washing on the organoleptic quality of blueberries, the obtained results showed no negative effect on the product color or textural profile. Finally, this work suggests that washing with electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts can be used to enhance the shelf-life of blueberries during post-harvest storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth of micropropagated lowbush blueberry with defined fungi in irradiated peat mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litten, Walter; Smagula, J.M.; Dalpe, Yolande

    1992-01-01

    There is an interest in vegetative multiplication of high-yielding clones of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. to establish or enhance blueberry production. This study evaluates mycorrhizal inoculation as an aid in such propagation from microcuttings. Shoots of Vaccinium angustifolium (clone 7062) generated in vitro were rooted in a peat-vermiculite-perlite substrate with or without ericoid mycorrhizal fungi fortification by Hymenoscyphus ericae or Scytalidium vaccinii and with or without peat sterilization by γ irradiation. Both in irradiated peat mix inoculated with S. vaccinii and in unirradiated peat mix with H. ericae, microcuttings grew taller and branched more than with the four other treatments. The profusely rooted plantlets available from all treatments of the cuttings put on significantly more total length of stems and branches after 167 days in the greenhouse when growing with either inoculant in unirradiated peat than in the unirradiated peat without inoculation. However, the magnitude of difference might be of borderline importance in commercial nursery operations. A higher level of copper and zinc in stem tissue was observed in stem tissue of plants grown with H. ericae with or without irradiation but not with S. vaccinii

  7. Mixtures of coal ash and compost as substrates for highbush blueberry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, B.L.; Zimmerman, R.H. [ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA). USDA Henry A Wallace Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, Fruit Lab.

    2002-07-01

    Bottom ash from a coal-fired power plant and two composts were tested as components of soil-free media and as soil amendments for growing highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Combinations of ash and compost were compared to Berryland sand, and Manor clay loam, and compost amended Manor clay loam. The pH of all treatment media was adjusted to 4.5 with sulfur at the beginning of the experiment. In 1997, plants of 'Bluecrop' and 'Sierra' were planted in 15-dm{sup 3} pots containing the pH-adjusted treatment media. The first substantial crop was harvested in 1999. At the end of the 1999 season, one half of the plants were destructively harvested for growth analysis. The remaining plants were cropped again in 2000. Yield and fruit size data were collected in both seasons, and leaf and fruit samples were collected in 1999 for elemental analysis. The presence of coal ash or composted biosolids in the media had no detrimental effect on leaf or fruit elemental content. Total growth and yield of both cultivars was reduced in clay loam soil compared to Berryland sand, whereas growth and yield of plants in coal ash-compost was similar to or exceeded that of plants in Berryland sand.

  8. MICROCLONAL PROPAGATION OF THE VARIETIES OF HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Yavorska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine optimal conditions for clonal reproduction, growth and development of different varieties of Vaccinium corymbosum from the foreign selection. The objects of research were 5 varieties of highbush blueberry: Bluejay, of early ripening period; Bluecrop, Bluegold, Legacy, of average ripening; Aurora, of late ripening. Optimal conditions of explant surface sterilization have been selected depending on their type and effectiveness of used disinfectants. Maximum quantity of viable sterile regenerates was obtained using the mixture of sterilizing solutions of alcohol and bleach "Belizna" with Tween. Effectiveness of microclonal reproduction depending on the composition of nutrient agar medium with organic compounds on macro- and microsalt basis WPM (Woody Plant Medium with addition of the growth-regulator of cytokinine action 6-γ, γ-Dimethylallylaminopurine (2іР was evaluated according to regenerative activity of explants and shoots reproduction coefficient. The results of experiments showed that effectiveness of phytohormones action and their concentrations depended on genotype properties of every variety of V. corymbosum. It has been established that the growth activity and shoots multiplications changed depending on the concentration in nutrient medium 2iP. Maximum values of reproduction coefficient for Bluecrop and Bluegold varieties and shoots height were determined on the medium with 4 mg/l 2iP. For Aurora and Legacy the regenerative ability was the highest with concentration 8 mg/l 2iP and for Bluejay, 10 mg/l 2iP.

  9. Biochemical and molecular changes in response to aluminium-stress in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Aquea, Felipe; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alberdi, Miren; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) stress is an important factor limiting crop yields in acid soils. Despite this, very little is known about the mechanisms of resistance to this stress in woody plants. To understand the mechanisms of Al-toxicity and response in blueberries, we compared the impact of Al-stress in Al-resistant and Al-sensitive genotypes using Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) as a plant model. We investigated the effect of Al-stress on the physiological performance, oxidative metabolism and expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes in two V. corymbosum cultivars maintained hydroponically with AlCl(3) (0 and 100 μM). Microscopic analyses of Al-treated root tips suggested a higher degree of Al-induced morphological injury in Bluegold (sensitive genotype) compared to Brigitta (resistant genotype). Furthermore, the results indicated that Brigitta had a greater ability to control oxidative stress under Al-toxicity, as reflected by enhancement of several antioxidative and physiological properties (radical scavenging activity: RSA, superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase: CAT; maximum quantum yield: Fv/Fm, effective quantum yield: ФPSII, electron transport rate: ETR and non-photochemical quenching: NPQ). Finally, we analyzed the expression of genes homologous to GST and ALDH, which were identified in a global expression analysis. In the resistant genotype, the expression of these genes in response to Al-stress was greater in leaves than in roots. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than 137 Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium x V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms

  11. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada))

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than {sup 137}Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium {times} V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms.

  12. Early-acting inbreeding depression and reproductive success in the highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, S L; Hancock, J F

    1990-06-01

    Tetraploid Vaccinium corymbosum genotypes exhibit wide variability in seed set following self- and cross-pollinations. In this paper, a post-zygotic mechanism (seed abortion) under polygenic control is proposed as the basis for fertility differences in this species. A pollen chase experiment indicated that self-pollen tubes fertilize ovules, but are also 'outcompeted' by foreign male gametes in pollen mixtures. Matings among cultivars derived from a pedigree showed a linear decrease in seed number per fruit, and increase in seed abortion, with increasing relatedness among parents. Selfed (S1) progeny from self-fertile parents were largely self-sterile. At zygotic levels of inbreeding of F>0.3 there was little or no fertility, suggesting that an inbreeding threshold regulates reproductive success in V. corymbosum matings. Individuals below the threshold are facultative selfers, while those above it are obligate outcrossers. Inbreeding also caused a decrease in pollen viability, and reduced female fertility more rapidly than male fertility. These phenomena are discussed in terms of two models of genetic load: (1) mutational load - homozygosity for recessive embryolethal or sub-lethal mutations and (2) segregational load - loss of allelic interactions essential for embryonic vigor. Self-infertility in highbush blueberries is placed in the context of 'late-acting' self-incompatibility versus 'early-acting' inbreeding depression in angiosperms.

  13. Evaluation of the use of blueberry juice in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasunori; Fujita, Osamu; Yuuki, Masako; Matsuoka, Takae; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Tadahumi; Narabayashi, Isamu; Nishio, Seiichi

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the use of blueberry juice (BJ), which is rich in manganese, as an oral negative contrast agent for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and compared the findings thus obtained with corresponding findings for ferric ammonium citrate solution (FerriSeltz; FS). The optimum concentrations for the two oral contrast agents were determined by a phantom examination. Precontrast and postcontrast MRCP images were obtained in 26 patients and 4 volunteers using BJ and in 30 patients using FS. The pulse sequence applied for MRCP was a single shot fast spin-echo (ssfse) with an echo time of 950 to 1300 ms. In several cases, multislice ssfse with 90 ms echo time was conducted using both BJ and FS. Additionally, 8 volunteers who had recently consumed food or liquids underwent precontrast and postcontrast MRCP using BJ. BJ and FS eliminated the high signal intensity of gastrointestinal fluids which degrade MRCP images. In the multislice ssfse images with 90 ms. Echo time, BJ reduced the intragastrointestinal high intensity signal, but FS did not. In all volunteers whose stomachs were filled with food and/or water, intragastrointestinal high intensity signal was eliminated with use of BJ. We concluded that BJ is very useful as an MRCP negative contrast agent. (author)

  14. Blueberry Anthocyanins-Enriched Extracts Attenuate Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiac Injury.

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    Yunen Liu

    Full Text Available We sought to explore the effect of blueberry anthocyanins-enriched extracts (BAE on cyclophosphamide (CTX-induced cardiac injury. The rats were divided randomly into five groups including normal control, CTX 100 mg/kg, BAE 80mg/kg, CTX+BAE 20mg/kg and CTX+BAE 80mg/kg groups. The rats in the three BAE-treated groups were administered BAE for four weeks. Seven days after BAE administration, rats in CTX group and two BAE-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 100 mg/kg CTX. Cardiac injury was assessed using physiological parameters, Echo, morphological staining, real-time PCR and western blot. In addition, cardiotoxicity indices, inflammatory cytokines expression and oxidative stress markers were also detected. Four weeks 20mg/kg and 80mg/kg dose of BAE treatment following CTX exposure attenuated mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and activities of heart enzymes, improved cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Importantly, BAE also attenuated CTX-induced LV leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory cytokines expression, ameliorated oxidative stress as well as cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, BAE attenuated the CTX-induced cardiac injury and the protective mechanisms were related closely to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics of BAE.

  15. Bioactive Compounds of Chamber-Dried Blueberries at Controlled Temperature and Wines Obtained from Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martin-Gomez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chamber drying under controlled temperature and moisture conditions and fermentation process on blueberry juices to obtain three wines were studied in this work. Drying was carried out with a view to increase the sugar content and obtain wines with an ethanol content similar to a commercial grape wine or to obtain sweet wines. Analyses included color parameters; browning index; and anthocyanin, flavonols, flavan-3-ol derivatives, and tannin concentrations, as well as vitamin C concentration and antioxidant activity. Based on the results, drying increases color and the concentration of anthocyanins and tannins most probably by the effect of dehydration of the berries and diffusion of the colored compounds from the skin to the pulp due to the structural alterations in their skin. In addition, drying decreases flavonols, flavan-3-ol derivatives, and vitamin C concentrations. The browning index, anthocyanins, and tannins decreased with the fermentation time, and vitamin C was constant with the fermentation time. The sensory analysis showed that the wines with the best sensory characteristics were those with residual sugar, partial fermented wines 1 and 2.

  16. Demographic source-sink dynamics restrict local adaptation in Elliott's blueberry (Vaccinium elliottii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jill T; Geber, Monica A

    2010-02-01

    In heterogeneous landscapes, divergent selection can favor the evolution of locally adapted ecotypes, especially when interhabitat gene flow is minimal. However, if habitats differ in size or quality, source-sink dynamics can shape evolutionary trajectories. Upland and bottomland forests of the southeastern USA differ in water table depth, light availability, edaphic conditions, and plant community. We conducted a multiyear reciprocal transplant experiment to test whether Elliott's blueberry (Vaccinium elliottii) is locally adapted to these contrasting environments. Additionally, we exposed seedlings and cuttings to prolonged drought and flooding in the greenhouse to assess fitness responses to abiotic stress. Contrary to predictions of local adaptation, V. elliottii families exhibited significantly higher survivorship and growth in upland than in bottomland forests and under drought than flooded conditions, regardless of habitat of origin. Neutral population differentiation was minimal, suggesting widespread interhabitat migration. Population density, reproductive output, and genetic diversity were all significantly greater in uplands than in bottomlands. These disparities likely result in asymmetric gene flow from uplands to bottomlands. Thus, adaptation to a marginal habitat can be constrained by small populations, limited fitness, and immigration from a benign habitat. Our study highlights the importance of demography and genetic diversity in the evolution of local (mal)adaptation.

  17. Blueberry effects on dark vision and recovery after photobleaching: placebo-controlled crossover studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalt, Wilhelmina; McDonald, Jane E; Fillmore, Sherry A E; Tremblay, Francois

    2014-11-19

    Clinical evidence for anthocyanin benefits in night vision is controversial. This paper presents two human trials investigating blueberry anthocyanin effects on dark adaptation, functional night vision, and vision recovery after retinal photobleaching. One trial, S2 (n = 72), employed a 3 week intervention and a 3 week washout, two anthocyanin doses (271 and 7.11 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents (C3g eq)), and placebo. The other trial, L1 (n = 59), employed a 12 week intervention and an 8 week washout and tested one dose (346 mg C3g eq) and placebo. In both S2 and L1 neither dark adaptation nor night vision was improved by anthocyanin intake. However, in both trials anthocyanin consumption hastened the recovery of visual acuity after photobleaching. In S2 both anthocyanin doses were effective (P = 0.014), and in L1 recovery was improved at 8 weeks (P = 0.027) and 12 weeks (P = 0.030). Although photobleaching recovery was hastened by anthocyanins, it is not known whether this improvement would have an impact on everyday vision.

  18. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Spent Osmotic Solution (SOS Generated from Osmotic Dehydration of Blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushlendra Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization of spent osmotic solution (SOS, a waste generated from osmotic dehydration of fruits, has the potential of transformation into hydrochars, a value-added product, while reducing cost and overall greenhouse gas emissions associated with waste disposal. Osmotic solution (OS and spent osmotic solution (SOS generated from the osmotic dehydration of blueberries were compared for their thermo-chemical decomposition behavior and hydrothermal carbonization. OS and SOS samples were characterized for total solids, elemental composition, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. In addition, hydrothermal carbonization was performed at 250 °C and for 30 min to produce hydrochars. The hydrochars were characterized for elemental composition, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, particle shape and surface morphology. TGA results show that the SOS sample loses more weight in the lower temperature range than the OS sample. Both samples produced, approximately, 40%–42% (wet-feed basis hydrochar during hydrothermal carbonization but with different properties. The OS sample produced hydrochar, which had spherical particles of 1.79 ± 1.30 μm diameter with a very smooth surface. In contrast, the SOS sample produced hydrochar with no definite particle shape but with a raspberry-like surface.

  19. The effect of intesification factors to total antioxidant activity of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Medvecký

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Public attention is increasingly drawn to the protective effects of natural antioxidants against civilization diseases. An important source of antioxidants are berries, which until recently has received little attention, but the latest research towards the right to it. The phenolic profile and quantitative composition of blueberries as well as the corresponding antioxidant activity of blueberries is well documented. The aim of this paper was the determination of the relationship between different methods of fertilization and total antioxidant activity of six selected varieties of blueberries and five varieties of lingonberries. Each sample of blueberry varieties (Bluejay, Nelson, Bluecrop, Patriot, Berkeley and Brigitta and lingonberry varieties (Koralle, Ida, Sanna, Linnea and Sussi were collected from the research station Krivá in Orava. The values of total antioxidant activity of the extracts of studied varieties of blueberry after organic fertilization ranged from 27.15 to 52.25 μg.mg-1 eq. Trolox. After mineral fertilization, the values of total antioxidant activity of the extracts of studied varieties of blueberry ranged from 21.27 to 51.00 μg.mg-1 eq. Trolox. In the control treatment, the values of total antioxidant activity of the extracts of studied varieties of blueberry ranged from 26.99 to 54.15 μg.mg-1 eq. Trolox. The values of values ​​of total antioxidant activity of the extracts of studied varieties of lingonberry after organic fertilization ranged from 42.49 to 60.27 μg.mg-1 eq. Trolox. After mineral fertilization, the values of total antioxidant activity of the extracts of studied varieties of lingonberry were in the interval from 38.85 to 55.15 μg.mg-1 eq. Trolox. In the variant without fertilization, the values of total antioxidant activity of the extracts of studied varieties of lingonberry ranged from 37.16 to 65.11 μg.mg-1 eq. Trolox. The application of organic fertilizer has a positive effect to increasing

  20. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on whole strawberries and blueberries of two maturities under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao P; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2014-07-01

    Strawberries and blueberries harvested at or near full-ripe maturity tend to be less firm and more susceptible to bruising during harvest and transport. The objective of this research was to determine the fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on bruised and intact surfaces of whole strawberries and blueberries at shipping (2°C) and retail display (15.5°C) temperatures. Strawberries and blueberries were either purchased from a supermarket or were harvested immediately prior to use; they were bruised using established protocols, were spot inoculated, and were incubated at 2 and 15.5°C. Strawberries, subjected to modified atmospheres, were further transferred to bags and were sealed in with an initial atmosphere of ca. 10% CO2 and 5% O2. Strawberries were sampled at 0, 2, 5, and 24 h and on days 3 and 7; blueberries were sampled on days 0, 1, 3, and 7. After stomaching, samples were enumerated on nonselective and selective media, and populations were recorded as log CFU per berry. At both storage temperatures, population declines for both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were seen under all conditions for strawberries. At 2 ± 2°C, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations on blueberries declined over 7 days under all conditions. At 15.5 ± 2°C, E. coli O157:H7 populations declined; however, Salmonella populations initially declined but increased to populations near or above initial populations over 7 days on blueberries. No overall significant differences were observed between bruised and intact treatments or between the two maturity levels for strawberries and blueberries. Modified atmospheric conditions did not affect the behavior of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on strawberries at both temperatures. This research indicates that E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella do not grow on strawberries at shipping or retail display temperatures, even when they are harvested at a maturity prone to bruising; however, Salmonella growth may occur on bruised full ripe

  1. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative...... stress and affect endothelial function in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of one portion (300 g) of blueberries on selected markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection (endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage) and of vascular function (changes in peripheral...

  2. Primary and secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raworth, D A; Pike, K S; Tanigoshi, L K; Mathur, S; Graf, G

    2008-04-01

    Blueberry scorch virus, a commercially important Carlavirus in highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., is vectored by aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). We surveyed the aphids, primary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Braconidae), and associated secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Charipidae, Megaspilidae, Pteromalidae) on highbush blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest from 1995 to 2006, with samples concentrated in 2005 and 2006, to lay the groundwork for augmentative biological control. Ericaphis fimbriata (Richards) was the principal aphid. The dominant parasitoid species were Praon unicum Smith, Aphidius n. sp., A. sp., and Aphidius ervi Haliday. Their frequency in relation to the other primary parasitoids varied significantly with geographical area; P. unicum dominated the frequency distribution in southwestern British Columbia, A. n. sp., west of the Cascades, and A. sp. and A. ervi east of the Cascades. Among the secondary parasitoids, pteromalids dominated, and their frequency in relation to the other secondary parasitoids was lowest in southwestern British Columbia. The parasitization rate for P. unicum and A. n. sp. in southwestern British Columbia increased from May or June to a maximum of 0.080 +/- 0.024 and 0.090 +/- 0.084 (SD), respectively, in late July or early August. P. unicum emerged in the spring 4 wk before A. n. sp. The parasitization rate for P. unicum was lower in conventional than organic fields. Whereas aphid density increased monotonically, P. unicum had two spring peaks. A simulation model showed that these peaks could reflect discrete generations. Releases of insectary-reared P. unicum at 150 or 450 DD above 5.6 degrees C, summing from 1 January, may effectively augment the natural spring populations by creating overlapping generations.

  3. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Blueberry Anthocyanins on High Glucose-Induced Human Retinal Capillary Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyang Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries possess abundant anthocyanins, which benefit eye health. The purpose of this study was to explore the protective functional role of blueberry anthocyanin extract (BAE and its predominant constituents, malvidin (Mv, malvidin-3-glucoside (Mv-3-glc, and malvidin-3-galactoside (Mv-3-gal, on high glucose- (HG- induced injury in human retinal capillary endothelial cells (HRCECs. The results showed that BAE, Mv, Mv-3-glc, and Mv-3-gal enhanced cell viability (P<0.05 versus the HG group at 24 h; decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS, P<0.01 versus the HG group both at 24 and 48 h; and increased the enzyme activity of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD (P<0.05 versus the HG group both at 24 and 48 h. Mv could greatly inhibit HG-induced Nox4 expression both at 24 and 48 h (P<0.05, while BAE and Mv-3-gal downregulated Nox4 only at 48 h (P<0.05. Mv, Mv-3-glc, and Mv-3-gal also changed nitric oxide (NO levels (P<0.05. BAE and Mv-3-glc also influenced angiogenesis by decreasing the vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF level and inhibiting Akt pathway (P<0.05. Moreover, Mv and Mv-3-glc inhibited HG-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, P<0.001 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB (P<0.05. It indicated that blueberry anthocyanins protected HRCECs via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, which could be promising molecules for the development of nutraceuticals to prevent diabetic retinopathy.

  4. Flavor of fresh blueberry juice and the comparison to amount of sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, and physicochemical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett-Garber, Karen L; Lea, Jeanne M; Watson, Michael A; Grimm, Casey C; Lloyd, Steven W; Beaulieu, John C; Stein-Chisholm, Rebecca E; Andrzejewski, Brett P; Marshall, Donna A

    2015-04-01

    Six cultivars of southern highbush (SHB) and rabbiteye (RE) blueberry samples were harvested on 2 different dates. Each treatment combination was pressed 2 times for repeated measures. Fresh juice was characterized for 18 flavor/taste/feeling factor attributes by a descriptive flavor panel. Each sample was measured for sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, Folin-Ciocalteu, soluble solids (BRIX), titratable acidity (TA), and antioxidant capacity (ORACFL ). Flavors were correlated with the composition and physicochemical data. Blueberry flavor correlated with 3 parameters, and negatively correlated with 2. Strawberry correlated with oxalic acid and negatively correlated with sucrose and quinic acid. Sweet aroma correlated with oxalic and citric acid, but negatively correlated with sucrose, quinic, and total acids. Sweet taste correlated with 11 parameters, including the anthocyanidins; and negatively correlated with 3 parameters. Neither bitter nor astringent correlated with any of the antioxidant parameters, but both correlated with total acids. Sour correlated with total acids and TA, while negatively correlating with pH and BRIX:TA. Throat burn correlated with total acids and TA. Principal component analysis negatively related blueberry, sweet aroma, and sweet to sour, bitter, astringent, tongue tingle, and tongue numbness. The information in this component was related to pH, TA, and BRIX:TA ratio. Another principal component related the nonblueberry fruit flavors to BRIX. This PC, also divided the SHB berries from the RE. This work shows that the impact of juice composition on flavor is very complicated and that estimating flavor with physicochemical parameters is complicated by the composition of the juice. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Development of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Related to the Phenology of Blueberry, Blackberry, Strawberry Guava, and Surinam Cherry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, M; Nava, D E; Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Valgas, R A; Garcia, M S; Krolow, A C R; Antunes, L E C

    2015-02-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) is the main pest of temperate climate orcharding. The study investigated the development of A. fraterculus related to phenological stage of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees. The phenological stages I (green fruits), II (intermediate ripening stage of fruits), and III (fruits close to harvesting) were determined, and they are from 8th, 10th, and 11th week; 6th, 8th, and 9th week; 8th, 13th, and 16th week; and 5th, 6th, and 7th week after the first flowering of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees, respectively. We collected fruits from orchards to determine the infestation index using the formula: number of pupa/fruit weight. To investigate the development of A. fraterculus, we determined the following biological parameters: egg-to-adult period, weight of pupae, oviposition period, fecundity, number of pupae, and number of infested fruits. The infestation index for the fruits collected in the field was greater in strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits. In the laboratory, the development of A. fraterculus occurred in stage III of blueberry. In blackberry, besides stage III, we also observed the development in stage II, however, at lower infestation. In strawberry guava, the development of A. fraterulus occurred in stages II and III, and the development in both stages was similar. For Surinam cherry, the development occurred in the three phenological stages with similar values for biological parameters. Overall, of the four hosts studied, the strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits allowed a better biological development of A. fraterculus, corroborating its preference for fruits native to Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Intraspecific variation in aphid resistance and constitutive phenolics exhibited by the wild blueberry Vaccinium darrowi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, C M; Singh, A P; Johnson-Cicalese, J; Polavarapu, S; Vorsa, N

    2007-04-01

    Illinoia pepperi (MacGillivray) infests cultivated highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L., in the Northeastern United States. Allopatric resistance to I. pepperi was examined in Vaccinium darrowi Camp, which evolved in the absence of I. pepperi in the Southeastern U.S. V. corymbosum cv. "Elliott", was used as a susceptible control. Between population variability in I. pepperi resistance was assessed by measuring length of the prereproductive period, fecundity, and survivorship on 14 V. darrowi accessions representing 11 discrete wild populations. Length of I. pepperi's prereproductive period and survivorship were not significantly affected. However, differences were detected in fecundity and the intrinsic rate of increase (r ( m )). Within population variability in resistance was measured by confining first instars to 24 accessions from a single wild population of V. darrowi (NJ88-06). Significant differences in the mean total number of aphids occurring after 20 d were only detected between 2 of the 24 V. darrowi accessions. A greater degree of diversity in I. pepperi resistance exists between populations of V. darrowi compared to within a population. Constitutive leaf and stem polyphenolics were identified by HPLC-MS and quantified from 14 of the V. darrowi accessions. The accessions varied in concentrations of five phenolic acids and seven flavonol glycosides, but a correlation was not found between individual or total phenolics and aphid performance. Overall, screening within and between populations of V. darrowi identified promising sources of aphid resistance, but phenolic acid and flavonol glycoside profiles did not predict resistance levels. The mechanism of resistance remains to be identified.

  7. Short Period Storage Impact on Bioactive Constituents from Bilberries and Blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefănescu Ruxandra Emilia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess storage effects on anthocyanin and total polyphenol content in different bilberry and blueberry extracts and to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of these extracts. Materials and methods: Total phenolic content, total monomeric anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity were determined in the first month and after three months storage of berries at either -20 °C or -50 °C. Two different solvents were used (methanol and 50% ethanol. Antibacterial activity was determined for the 3 months stored fruits using a microdilution method and was expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration. Results: There were significant differences between the concentration in the first month and after three months storage in both types of fruit extracts. Regarding the extracting solvent, we noticed that total phenols were better extracted with 50% ethanol, while the total monomeric anthocyanin content was higher in the methanolic extracts. No significant or slightly significant differences were observed between the fruits stored at -20 °C or -50 °C. Ethanolic extracts showed the highest scavenging activity. Good antibacterial activity was observed on gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions: Storage conditions are an important factor that can influence chemical composition of fruits. Although freezing is a good option for preservation, our study showed a high decrease in the concentration of total phenols and anthocyanins after only three months. The fruits have shown a high antioxidant activity and a good antibacterial effect. Further studies are needed for better understanding the changes that can appear during the storage.

  8. Effect of blueberry juice on clearance of buspirone and flurbiprofen in human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Michael J; Masse, Gina; Harmatz, Jerold S; Cancalon, Paul F; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Court, Michael H; Greenblatt, David J

    2013-01-01

    Aim The present study evaluated the possibility of drug interactions involving blueberry juice (BBJ) and substrate drugs whose clearance is dependent on cytochromes P4503A (CYP3A) and P4502C9 (CYP2C9). Methods A 50:50 mixture of lowbush and highbush BBJ was evaluated in vitro as an inhibitor of CYP3A activity (hydroxylation of triazolam and dealkylation of buspirone) and of CYP2C9 activity (flurbiprofen hydroxylation) using human liver microsomes. In clinical studies, clearance of oral buspirone and oral flurbiprofen was studied in healthy volunteers with and without co-treatment with BBJ. Results BBJ inhibited CYP3A and CYP2C9 activity in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of less than 2%, but without evidence of mechanism-based (irreversible) inhibition. Grapefruit juice (GFJ) also inhibited CYP3A activity, but inhibitory potency was increased by pre-incubation, consistent with mechanism-based inhibition. In clinical studies, GFJ significantly increased area under the plasma concentration−time curve (AUC) for the CYP3A substrate buspirone. The geometric mean ratio (GMR = AUC with GFJ divided by AUC with water) was 2.12. In contrast, the effect of BBJ (GMR = 1.39) was not significant. In the study of flurbiprofen (CYP2C9 substrate), the positive control inhibitor fluconazole significantly increased flurbiprofen AUC (GMR = 1.71), but BBJ had no significant effect (GMR = 1.03). Conclusion The increased buspirone AUC associated with BBJ is quantitatively small and could have occurred by chance. BBJ has no effect on flurbiprofen AUC. The studies provide no evidence for concern about clinically important pharmacokinetic drug interactions of BBJ with substrate drugs metabolized by CYP3A or CYP2C9. PMID:22943633

  9. Effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink intervention on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in humans with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riso, Patrizia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Del Bo', Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Wild blueberries (WB) (Vaccinium angustifolium) are rich sources of polyphenols, such as flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins (ACNs), reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. This study investigated the effect of regular consumption of a WB or a placebo (PL...

  10. Grow tubes change microclimate and bush architecture but have little effect on bush biomass allocation at the end of the establishment year in blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microclimate variables were integrated over a six-month period during which blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cv. Liberty) bushes were grown in 51-cm high, 20-cm diameter round grow tubes (opaque or translucent) on a sawdust mulch-covered raised bed with the mulch incorporated into tilled soil. Grow t...

  11. Effect of prestorage UV-A, -B, and -C radiation on fruit quality and anthocyanin of 'Duke' blueberries during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chau T T; Kim, Jeongyun; Yoo, Kil Sun; Lim, Sooyeon; Lee, Eun Jin

    2014-12-17

    Ultraviolet (UV)-A, -B, and -C were radiated to full-ripe blueberries (cv. 'Duke'), and their effects on fruit qualities and phytonutrients during subsequent cold storage were investigated. The blueberries were exposed to each UV light at 6 kJ/m(2) and then stored at 0 °C for 28 days. Weight loss and decay of the fruits after UV treatment were significantly decreased during the cold storage. The total phenolics and antioxidant activities of blueberries after UV-B and -C treatments were always higher than those of the control and UV-A treatment. Individual anthocyanins were markedly increased during the 3 h after the UV-B and -C treatments. The correlation matrix between total phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity measured by the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay indicated a significantly close correlation with the individual anthocyanin contents. It was confirmed that the prestorage treatments of UV-B and -C increased the storability and phytochemical accumulation of the full-ripe 'Duke' blueberries during cold storage.

  12. Separation, characterization, and quantitation of phenolic acids in a little-known blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) fruit by HPLC-MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ayaz, F. A.; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, S.; Grúz, Jiří; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 21 (2005), s. 8116-8122 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5038351 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : blueberry * fruit * Vaccinium arctostaphylos Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.507, year: 2005

  13. Potential of deficit irrigation, irrigation cut-offs, and crop thinning to maintain yield and fruit quality with less water in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought and mandatory water restrictions are limiting the availability of irrigation water in many important blueberry growing regions, including Oregon, Washington, and California. New strategies are needed to maintain yield and fruit quality with less water. Three potential options, including defi...

  14. Extraosseal Ewing sarcoma as a rare cause of the blueberry muffin baby syndrome: A case report and the review of the literature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenová, Z.; Křen, L.; Blatný, J.; Falk, Martin; Kazakov, D.; Grossmann, P.; Shimada, H.; Štěrba, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 7 (2011), s. 733-735 ISSN 0193-1091 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : blueberry muffin baby syndrome * Ewing sarcoma * fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.197, year: 2011

  15. Organic production systems in northern highbush blueberry: I. Impact of planting method, cultivar, fertilizer, and mulch on yield and fruit quality from planting through maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A long-term trial was established to identify organic production systems for maximum yield and quality in highbush blueberry. Treatments included raised beds or flat ground; granular feather meal or fish solubles at low and high rates; sawdust, yard debris compost topped with sawdust, or weed mat; a...

  16. Erythritol and Lufenuron detrimentally alter age structure of Wild Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) populations in blueberry and blackberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on the efficacy of 0.5 M (61,000 ppm) Erythritol (E) in Truvia Baking Blend®, 10 ppm Lufenuron (L), and their combination (LE) to reduce egg and larval densities of wild populations of spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (SWD) infesting fields of rabbiteye blueberries (...

  17. Different effects of anthocyanins and phenolic acids from wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) on monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells in a TNF-α stimulated proinflammatory environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Roursgaard, Martin; Porrini, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Scope: Monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium is a crucial step in the early stagesof atherogenesis. This study aims to investigate the capacity of an anthocyanin (ACN) andphenolic acid (PA) rich fraction (RF) of a wild blueberry, single ACNs (cyanidin, malvidin,delphinidin) and related me...

  18. Hydrophilic carboxylic acids and iridoid glycosides in the juice of American and European cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and V. oxycoccos), lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea), and blueberries (V. myrtillus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Krogfelt, Karen A; Cornett, Claus

    2002-01-01

    iridoid glucosides were shown to be monotropein and 6,7-dihydromonotropein by MS and NMR spectroscopy. A fast reversed-phase HPLC method for quantification of the hydrophilic carboxylic acids was developed and used for analyses of cranberry, lingonberry, and blueberry juices. The level of hydrophilic...

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase genes and their association with fruit storage conditions in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2013-05-13

    Blueberry is a widely grown and easily perishable fruit crop. An efficient post-harvest handling is critical, and for that purpose gene technology methods have been part of ongoing programmes to improve crops with high food values such as blueberry. Here we report the isolation, cloning, characterization and differential expression levels of two cDNAs encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibitor Protein (PGIP) and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase (CCR) from blueberry fruits in relation to various storage conditions. The open reading frame of PGIP and CCR encodes a polypeptide of 329 and 347 amino acids, respectively. To assess changes in the expression of blueberry PGIP and CCR after harvest, a storage trial was initiated. The northern blots hybridization showed a clear differential expression level of PGIP and CCR between freshly harvested and stored fruits as well as between fruits stored under various storage conditions. Although the prospects of exploiting such a strategy for crop improvement are limited, the results provide further insight into the control of the quality over the storage period at the molecular level.

  20. Wild blueberry polyphenol-protein food ingredients produced by three drying methods: Comparative physico-chemical properties, phytochemical content, and stability during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Roberta; Grace, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Lila, Mary Ann

    2017-11-15

    Particulate colloidal aggregate food ingredients were prepared by complexing wheat flour, chickpea flour, coconut flour and soy protein isolate with aqueous wild blueberry pomace extracts, then spray drying, freeze drying, or vacuum oven drying to prepare dry, flour-like matrices. Physico-chemical attributes, phytochemical content and stability during storage were compared. Eighteen anthocyanins peaks were identified for samples. Spray dried matrices produced with soy protein isolate had the highest concentration of polyphenols (156.2mg GAE/g) and anthocyanins (13.4mg/g) and the most potent DPPH scavenging activity (714.1μmolesTE/g). Spray dried blueberry polyphenols complexed with protein were protected from degradation during 16weeks at 4°C and 20°C. Soy protein isolate more efficiently captured and stabilized wild blueberry pomace phytochemicals than other protein sources. Overall, spray drying the blueberry extracts complexed with protein proved to be an environment-friendly strategy to produce stable functional ingredients with multiple applications for the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of a high fat meal matrix and protein complexation on the bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribnicky, David M; Roopchand, Diana E; Oren, Andrew; Grace, Mary; Poulev, Alexander; Lila, Mary Ann; Havenaar, Robert; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    The TNO intestinal model (TIM-1) of the human upper gastrointestinal tract was used to compare intestinal absorption/bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins under different digestive conditions. Blueberry polyphenol-rich extract was delivered to TIM-1 in the absence or presence of a high-fat meal. HPLC analysis of seventeen anthocyanins showed that delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-arabinoside and petunidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible in fed state, whilst delphinidin-3-(6″-acetoyl)-glucoside and malvidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible under fasted conditions, suggesting lipid-rich matrices selectively effect anthocyanin bioaccessibility. TIM-1 was fed blueberry juice (BBJ) or blueberry polyphenol-enriched defatted soybean flour (BB-DSF) containing equivalent amounts of free or DSF-sorbed anthocyanins, respectively. Anthocyanin bioaccessibility from BB-DSF (36.0±10.4) was numerically, but not significantly, greater than that from BBJ (26.3±10.3). Ileal efflux samples collected after digestion of BB-DSF contained 2.8-fold more anthocyanins than same from BBJ, suggesting that protein-rich DSF protects anthocyanins during transit through upper digestive tract for subsequent colonic delivery/metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preventive effects of blueberry extract on behavioral and biochemical dysfunctions in rats submitted to a model of manic behavior induced by ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debom, Gabriela; Gazal, Marta; Soares, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira; do Couto, Carlus Augustu Tavares; Mattos, Bruna; Lencina, Claiton; Kaster, Manuella Pinto; Ghisleni, Gabriele Codenonzi; Tavares, Rejane; Braganhol, Elizandra; Chaves, Vitor Clasen; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Stefanello, Francieli; Spanevello, Roselia Maria

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of blueberry extract on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in a model of mania induced by ketamine administration in rats. Male rats were pretreated with blueberry extract (200mg/kg, once a day for 14days), lithium chloride (45mg/kg, mood stabilizer used as a positive control, twice a day for 14days), or vehicle. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received an injection of ketamine (25mg/kg) or vehicle. In the 15th day, thirty minutes after ketamine administration the hyperlocomotion of the animals was assessed in the open - field apparatus. Immediately after the behavioral analysis brain and blood were collected for biochemical determinations. ketamine treatment induced hyperlocomotion and oxidative damage in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum such as an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in the antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase e glutatione peroxidase). Ketamine administration also increased the IL-6 levels in serum in rats. Pretreatment of rats with blueberry extract or lithium prevented the hyperlocomotion, pro - oxidant effects and inflammation induced by ketamine. Our findings suggest that blueberry consumption has a neuroprotective potential against behavioral and biochemical dysfunctions induced in a preclinical model that mimic some aspects of the manic behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving yield and berry quality for zygomorphic blooms of blueberry: the role of the plant growth regulators, gibberellic acid and coconut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A putative mutant gene(s) induces a high degree of zygomorphy that eliminates or deforms the tubular corollas of rabbiteye blueberries. Once thought to have a benign affect on V. ashei pollination and fruit set, zygomorphy is linked to greater seedlessness, lower fruit set, and is suspected to be a ...

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase genes and their association with fruit storage conditions in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel; Harb, Jamil; Qudeimat, Enas

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry is a widely grown and easily perishable fruit crop. An efficient post-harvest handling is critical, and for that purpose gene technology methods have been part of ongoing programmes to improve crops with high food values such as blueberry. Here we report the isolation, cloning, characterization and differential expression levels of two cDNAs encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibitor Protein (PGIP) and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase (CCR) from blueberry fruits in relation to various storage conditions. The open reading frame of PGIP and CCR encodes a polypeptide of 329 and 347 amino acids, respectively. To assess changes in the expression of blueberry PGIP and CCR after harvest, a storage trial was initiated. The northern blots hybridization showed a clear differential expression level of PGIP and CCR between freshly harvested and stored fruits as well as between fruits stored under various storage conditions. Although the prospects of exploiting such a strategy for crop improvement are limited, the results provide further insight into the control of the quality over the storage period at the molecular level.

  5. Correction of dyslipidemia resulting from high fat diets with purified anthocyanins from blueberry or strawberry but not in context of the complete berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male C57BL/6 mice received diets with either 10% of kcal from fat (LF), a high fat diet [45% (HF45) or 60% (HF60) kcal from fat]. In the first study the diets were prepared with or without freeze dried powders from whole blueberries (BB) and strawberries (SB). In the 2nd study, a LF or HF60 diet was...

  6. Dietary cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry affects the development of dyslipidemia and insulin insensitivity associated with metabolic syndrome in high fructose fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of feeding cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry powder on selected parameters of metabolic syndrome were investigated in 40 growing male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were divided into five dietary treatments of 1) control AIN93G diet, 2) high fructose (65% by weight, HF) diet, and 3-5) ...

  7. Effects of exercise with or without blueberries in the diet on cardio-metabolic risk factors: an exploratory pilot study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Sofia; Gerring, Edvard; Gjellan, Solveig; Vergara, Marta; Lindström, Torbjörn; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2013-11-01

    The improvement of insulin sensitivity by exercise has been shown to be inhibited by supplementation of vitamins acting as antioxidants. To examine effects of exercise with or without blueberries, containing natural antioxidants, on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Fifteen healthy men and 17 women, 27.6 ± 6.5 years old, were recruited, and 26 completed a randomized cross-over trial with 4 weeks of exercise by running/jogging 5 km five times/week and 4 weeks of minimal physical activity. Participants were also randomized to consume 150 g of blueberries, or not, on exercise days. Laboratory variables were measured before and after a 5 km running-race at maximal speed at the beginning and end of each period, i.e. there were four maximal running-races and eight samplings in total for each participant. Insulin and triglyceride levels were reduced while HDL-cholesterol increased by exercise compared with minimal physical activity. Participants randomized to consume blueberries showed an increase in fasting glucose levels compared with controls, during the exercise period (blueberries: from 5.12 ± 0.49 mmol/l to 5.32 ± 0.29 mmol/l; controls: from 5.24 ± 0.27 mmol/l to 5.17 ± 0.23 mmol/l, P = 0.04 for difference in change). Triglyceride levels fell in the control group (from 1.1 ± 0.49 mmol/l to 0.93 ± 0.31 mmol/l, P = 0.02), while HDL-cholesterol increased in the blueberry group (from 1.51 ± 0.29 mmol/l to 1.64 ± 0.33 mmol/l, P = 0.006). Ingestion of blueberries induced differential effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors, including increased levels of both fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol. However, since it is possible that indirect effects on food intake were induced, other than consumption of blueberries, further studies are needed to confirm the findings.

  8. Characterization and genetic improvement of two wild species blueberry from Costa Rica (Vaccinium consanguineum y V. poasanum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Valverde, Rebeca de los Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Accessions of two wild species blueberry from Costa Rica were characterized for use in the genetic improvement of this crop. A collection of accessions of two wild species blueberry (Vaccinium consanguineum and V. poasanum) were georeferenced and collected in the highlands of the provinces of Alajuela, San Jose and Cartago. The bushes collected were transplanted in the subestacion Fraijanes of the Estacion Experimental Fabio Baudrit Moreno of the Universidad de Costa Rica. Quantitative and qualitative descriptors were evaluated to morphologically characterize in situ and ex situ the accessions collected from each of the two species. The effect of two antimitotic agents, colchicine and oryzalin was determined on the chromosomal duplication of accessions of V. consanguineum and V. poasanum established in vitro. The gibberellic acid was used to promote in vitro germination of the seeds of V. consanguineum and V. poasanum, but reduces the percentage of germination in the latter species if it is used in high doses. The effect of antimitotic agents on the ploidy of both species was determined by flow cytometry [es

  9. Steam-blanched highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) juice: phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity in relation to cultivar selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Ada; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Bertolo, Gianni; Torreggiani, Danila

    2008-04-23

    High-quality standards in blueberry juice can be obtained only taking into account fruit compositional variability and its preservation along the processing chain. In this work, five highbush blueberry cultivars from the same environmental growing conditions were individually processed into juice after an initial blanching step and the influence was studied of the cultivar on juice phenolic content, distribution and relative antioxidant activity, measured as scavenging capacity on the artificial free-radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). A chromatographic protocol was developed to separate all main phenolic compounds in berries. A total of 15 glycosylated anthocyanins, catechin, galactoside, glucoside, and rhamnoside quercetin 3-derivatives, and main benzoic and cinnamic acids were identified. The total content and relative distribution in anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, and quercetin of each juice were dependent upon cultivar, and the total content was highly correlated (rxy=0.97) to the antioxidant capacity. A selective protective effect of berry blanching in juice processing can be observed on more labile anthocyanin compounds.

  10. Photosynthetic Limitation as a Factor Influencing Yield in Highbush Blueberries (Vaccinium Corymbosum) Grown in a Northern European Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Antonios; van der Kaay, Jeroen; Chrysanthou, Elina; McCallum, Susan; Graham, Julie; Hancock, Robert D

    2018-03-24

    Published evidence indicates that nearly 60% of blueberry-producing countries experience yield instability. Yield is a complex trait determined by genetic and environmental factors. Here, using physiological and biochemical approaches, we tested the hypothesis that yield instability results from year-to-year environmental variation that limits carbon assimilation, storage and partitioning. Data indicate that fruit development depends primarily on the daily production of non-structural carbohydrates by leaves and there is no accumulation of a starch buffer to allow continuous ripening under conditions limiting for photosynthesis. Photosynthesis was saturated at moderate light irradiance and this was mainly due to stomatal and biochemical limitations. In a dynamic light environment photosynthesis was furher limited by slow stomatal response to increasing light. Finally, labelling with13CO2 at specific stages of fruit development revealed a relatively even distribution of newly assimilated carbon between stems, roots and fruits, suggesting that the fruit is not a strong sink. We conclude that a significant component of yield variability results from limitations in photosynthetic efficiency that is compounded by an inability to accumulate starch reserves in blueberry storage tissues under a typical northern European environment. This work informs techniques for improving agronomic management and indicates key traits required for yield stability in such environments.

  11. The influence of microwave-assisted drying techniques on the rehydration behavior of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Markowski, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: (a) different drying methods, (b) hot air temperature in a convection oven, and (c) the moisture content of fruits dehydrated by multi-stage drying which involves a transition between different stages of drying, on the rehydration kinetics of dry blueberries. Models describing rehydration kinetics were also studied. Blueberries dehydrated by multi-stage microwave-assisted drying, which involved a hot air pre-drying step at 80 °C until the achievement of a moisture content of 1.95 kg H2O kg(-1)DM, were characterized by significantly higher rates of initial and successive rehydration as well as smaller initial loss of soluble solids in comparison with the samples dried by other methods. The highest initial rehydration rate and the smallest loss of soluble solids after 30 min of soaking were determined at 0.46 min(-1) and 0.29 kg DM kg(-1)DM, respectively. The Peleg model and the first-order-kinetic model fit the experimental data well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of postharvest application of ethylene on phenolic acids and anthocyanins profile in three blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniela V T A; de Almeida, Domingos P F; Pintado, Manuela

    2018-03-30

    Blueberry is a fruit that has been extensively studied for its health benefits, mainly due to its high antioxidant activity. There are a high correlation between antioxidant activity and total anthocyanins and phenolic compounds. The postharvest treatment using ethylene may be a factor affecting the anthocyanins content. The objective of this work was to analyze the postharvest treatment using ethylene on the anthocyanins profile during the storage of blueberries and phytochemical composition of 'Bluecrop', 'Goldtraube' and 'Ozarkblue'. Fruits were harvested at commercial maturity; the treatment was carried out with 1000 μL L -1 of ethylene for 24 h followed by storage at 4 °C under normal atmosphere for 56 d. One day after treatment with ethylene, this increased seven (more than 45%) and four (more than 65%) of the nine anthocyanins identified in the cultivars Bluecrop, Goldtraube respectively, and decreased five of the seven anthocyanins identified in 'Ozarkblue'. For 'Bluecrop' however this increase was reduced until the end of storage but in 'Goldtraube' seven anthocyanins had increased. The effect of ethylene on anthocyanin composition appeared to depend on the cultivar. 'Bluecrop' and 'Goldtraube' responded positively with increase on total anthocyanins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive Improving Effects by Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium crymbosum L.) Vinegar on Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia Mice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seong Min; Soe, Kyong Hee; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, In Sook; Lee, Young Min; Lim, Beong Ou

    2018-01-10

    The present study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) vinegar (BV) on cognitive functions in a scopolamine (Sco)-induced amnesia model in mice. In this study, Sco (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) was used to induce amnesia. ICR mice were orally administered donepezil (5 mg/kg), blueberry extract (120 mg/kg), and BV (120 mg/kg) for 7 days. After inducing cognitive impairment by Sco, a behavioral assessment using behavior tests (i.e., Y-maze and passive avoidance tests) was performed. The BV group showed significantly restored cognitive function in the behavioral tests. BV facilitated cholinergic activity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity, and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity. Furthermore, BV was found to be rehabilitated in the cornu ammonis 1 neurons of hippocampus. In our study, we demonstrated that the memory protection conferred by BV was linked to activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)/serine-threonine kinase (AKT) signaling.

  14. Correlation between sensory and instrumental measurements of standard and crisp-texture southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaker, Kendra M; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Olmstead, James W

    2014-10-01

    Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre- and postharvest evaluation. Sensory and instrumental characteristics were measured in 36 and 49 genotypes in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A trained sensory panel evaluated fresh fruit based on five common textural attributes in 2010 and 2011: bursting energy, flesh firmness, skin toughness, juiciness and mealiness. Instrumental measures of compression and bioyield forces were significantly different among cultivars and correlated with sensory scores for bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness (R > 0.7, except skin toughness in 2011), but correlations with sensory scores for juiciness and mealiness were low (R < 0.4). The results of sensory and instrumental measures supported the use of both compression and bioyield force measures in distinguishing crisp from standard-texture genotypes, and suggest that crisp texture in SHB is related to the sensory perception of bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The influence of baking time and temperature on characteristics of gluten free cookies enriched with blueberry pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Bojana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry pomace, by-product of juice production, was processed into a new food ingredient by drying and grinding and used for a new gluten-free cookies' formulation, with the aim of improving nutritional profile and antioxidant capacity. Since duration and temperature at which dough is thermally treated during baking highly influence the quality of a baked product, the objective of this work was to optimise the baking conditions in order to obtain the best technological quality of the cookies. Referring to the results obtained at 160 and 170 °C and different baking times, the following was found: the difference in baking conditions caused variation between cookies' diameters of less than 1%, more regular shape of the cookies was obtained when baking time was shorter, hardness of cookies is highly correlated with moisture content, water activity, baking loss and short/long diameter ratio values. The colour characteristics (L*, a* and b* of cookies' top and bottom surfaces indicated that the cookies were not overbaked under the chosen baking conditions. Baking time of 14 min at 170°C was found to be the optimal baking conditions for the blueberry pomace enriched gluten-free cookies.

  16. Characterization of Changes in Polyphenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Physico-Chemical Parameters during Lowbush Blueberry Fruit Ripening

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    Lara Gibson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in major polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and selected physico-chemical parameters were examined in lowbush blueberry during fruit ripening. Polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins, density, soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, and antioxidant capacity were determined in fruits of four maturities: green, pink/red, blue, and over-mature. Highest concentrations of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids were in green fruits: 168 ± 107, 119 ± 29 and 543 ± 91 mg/100 g dry weight (DW respectively. Highest anthocyanin levels were found in blue and over-mature fruits (1011–1060 mg/100 DW. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and quercetin-3-O-galactoside the most abundant flavonol in all maturities. Epicatechin was the most abundant flavan-3-ol in green fruits (80 ± 20 mg/100 DW, and catechin was the most abundant in other maturity stages. Increase of glucose and fructose and decrease of organic acids were observed during fruit ripening. Among six organic acids found, quinic acid (1.7–9.5 mg/100 mg DW was the most abundant throughout the fruit ontogeny. Soluble solids, pH, and density increased with maturity while, titratable acidity decreased. These findings can be helpful in optimizing harvest and processing operations in lowbush blueberry fruits.

  17. IMPACT OF CONVENTIONAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON THE CONTENT OF MACRO- AND MICROELEMENTS IN THE FRUIT OF HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Medvecký

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide information on the content of micro- and macroelements in fruits of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cultivated using of different fertilizer application in conditions of northern Slovakia. The study was realised in the experimental station Kriva in Orava region. Six cultivars (Bluejay, Nelson, Bluecrop, Patriot, Berkeley and Brigitta of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. were studied. Three variants of blueberry cultivation were investigated. The first one was the cultivation with mineral fertilizers application (30 kg N, 10 kg P and 30 kg K.ha -1, the second variant was realised with application of Hosticke organic fertilizer and the third (control variant of blueberry cultivation was realised without any fertilization. The content of macro- and microelements after previous microwave decomposition was in blueberries samples determined by AAS method (AAS Varian AA Spectr DUO 240FS/240Z/UltrAA . In our study the highest content of macroelements (Mg – 104.72 mg.kg-1, P – 156.24 mg.kg-1, Ca – 646.,79 mg.kg-1, Na – 320.32 mg.kg-1 and K – 1416.78 mg.kg-1 was determined in cv. Patriot in the control variant without any treatment and the lowest one in cv. Bluecrop in the variant with the mineral fertilization. The highest content of microelements (Fe – 156.60 mg.kg-1, Mn – 8.68 mg.kg-1, Zn – 1.081 mg.kg-1, Cu – 0.507 mg.kg-1 was detected in cv. Nelson in the variant with the mineral fertilization and the lowest one in cv. Bluecrop in the control variant without any treatment.

  18. Metal and PAH concentrations in fruit of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. (Lowbush Blueberry) : a comparison among Whitney Pier, North Sydney and supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Land Resource Science

    2004-07-01

    The concentration of various metals in the fruit harvested from Lowbush blueberry plants in Whitney Pier, Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS), North Sydney (NS) and supermarket were quantified in this report. The concentrations were compared among the 3 sources to determine whether the metal and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the blueberries from Whitney Pier were higher or lower compared to the reference blueberries from North Sydney and the supermarket. Mean values for each of the analytes were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study determined whether washed berries have lower concentrations of contaminants than unwashed berries. The risk to human health of exposure to metals and PAHs through consumption of blueberry samples was also calculated. It was concluded that concentrations of selenium and zinc are elevated in blueberries from Whitney Pier compared to berries from North Sydney and the supermarket, but are well within safe levels. Other elements such as arsenic, titanium, vanadium, lead, copper and molybdenum were similar, and only thallium was elevated in supermarket berries relative to those from Whitney Pier and North Sydney. Chromium was not detected in any samples. It was determined that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the metals analyzed, regardless of whether they were Whitney Pier samples or reference samples. Only 2 PAHs were detected in one of the unwashed samples from Whitney Pier. No PAHs were found in washed berries or unwashed berries from the supermarket or North Sydney. It was concluded that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the PAHs. Washed and unwashed samples had similar metal concentrations, indicating that surface contamination did not occur. A full methodology of the testing program was provided. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. Land Suitability Evaluation for Blueberry Crop by Determining the Qualitative Properties of the Identified Soil Type Related with the Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Ioana BOT

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic forms of nitrogen and carbon were measured in order to determine soil fertility. The amount of total nitrogen ranged between 0.849 g/kg and 1.755 g/kg in the samples gathered from soil in modified state and between 0.961 k/kg and 2.427 g/kg in the samples collected from the soil in natural state. Based on these results it could be concluded that in comparing with the previous year, plants used the soil nutrients for their development. The activities of different enzymes were measured as well. Nitrate reductase activity was also higher in samples collected from soil in modified state (from bilon than in the samples collected near plantations (control samples and the values ranged between 0.055 ± 0.012 μmol⋅h-1⋅g-1 and 1.018 ± 0.117 μmol⋅h-1⋅g-1 in samples from soil in natural state and between 0.013 ± 0.002 μmol⋅h-1⋅g-1 and 0.447 ± 0.083 μmol⋅h-1⋅g-1 in bilons. Using GIS techniques of spatial analysis to determine the exact type of soil from each studied blueberry plantation from the Northwest Region of Development and also based on the soil bio-chemical analyses, it was possible to achieve a qualitative characterization of the territory, taking into account the requirements of blueberries for cultivation and to achieve a land suitability for blueberry crop. Combining laboratory approach, consisting from soil bio-chemical and physico-chemical analyses and chemical analyses of blueberry fruits, with the techniques used in order to determine the soil type and land suitability, the study conducted in the Northwest Region of Development identified the best conditions for blueberry crop, based on the qualitative characterization of land.

  20. Blueberry inhibits invasion and angiogenesis in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral squamous cell carcinogenesis in hamsters via suppression of TGF-β and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Abdul Basit; Kowshik, Jaganathan; Krishnaraj, Jayaraman; Sophia, Josephraj; Dixit, Madhulika; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2016-09-01

    Aberrant activation of oncogenic signaling pathways plays a pivotal role in tumor initiation and progression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of blueberry in the hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model based on its ability to target TGF-β, PI3K/Akt, MAPK and NF-κB signaling and its impact on invasion and angiogenesis. Squamous cell carcinomas were induced in the HBP by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). The effect of blueberry on the oncogenic signaling pathways and downstream events was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Experiments with the ECV304 cell line were performed to explore the mechanism by which blueberry regulates angiogenesis. Blueberry supplementation inhibited the development and progression of HBP carcinomas by abrogating TGF-β and PI3K/Akt pathways. Although blueberry failed to influence MAPK, it suppressed NF-κB activation by preventing nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Blueberry also modulated the expression of the oncomiR miR-21 and the tumor suppressor let-7. Collectively, these changes induced a shift to an anti-invasive and anti-angiogenic phenotype as evidenced by downregulating matrix metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor. Blueberry also inhibited angiogenesis in ECV304 cells by suppressing migration and tube formation. The results of the present study suggest that targeting oncogenic signaling pathways that influence acquisition of cancer hallmarks is an effective strategy for chemointervention. Identification of modulatory effects on phosphorylation, intracellular localization of oncogenic transcription factors and microRNAs unraveled by the present study as key mechanisms of action of blueberry is critical from a therapeutic perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Blueberry proanthocyanidins against human norovirus surrogates in model foods and under simulated gastric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Snehal; Howell, Amy B; D'Souza, Doris H

    2017-05-01

    Blueberry proanthocyanidins (B-PAC) are known to decrease titers of human norovirus surrogates in vitro. The application of B-PAC as therapeutic or preventive options against foodborne viral illness needs to be determined using model foods and simulated gastric conditions in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiviral effect of B-PAC in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% reduced fat milk) and simulated gastrointestinal fluids against cultivable human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus; FCV-F9 and murine norovirus; MNV-1) over 24 h at 37 °C. Equal amounts of each virus (5 log PFU/ml) was mixed with B-PAC (1, 2 and 5 mg/ml) prepared either in AJ, or 2% milk, or simulated gastric fluids and incubated over 24 h at 37 °C. Controls included phosphate buffered saline, malic acid (pH 7.2), AJ, 2% milk or simulated gastric and intestinal fluids incubated with virus over 24 h at 37 °C. The tested viruses were reduced to undetectable levels within 15 min with B-PAC (1, 2 and 5 mg/ml) in AJ (pH 3.6). However, antiviral activity of B-PAC was reduced in milk. FCV-F9 was reduced by 0.4 and 1.09 log PFU/ml with 2 and 5 mg/ml B-PAC in milk, respectively and MNV-1 titers were reduced by 0.81 log PFU/ml with 5 mg/ml B-PAC in milk after 24 h. B-PAC at 5 mg/ml in simulated intestinal fluid reduced titers of the tested viruses to undetectable levels within 30 min. Overall, these results show the potential of B-PAC as preventive and therapeutic options for foodborne viral illnesses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Rheological behavior of blueberry Comportamento reológico de mirtilo

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    Graziella Colato Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and physicochemical characteristics of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus fruits produced in Brazil were analyzed. Rheological properties were measured at 5, 25, 45 and 65 °C, on a stress controlled rheometer equipped with grooved a stainless-steel parallel-plate in a shear rate range of 0-300 s-1, with the objective of determining the influence of temperature on the rheological properties. The pseudoplastic behavior with yield stress was well described by the Ostwald-de-Waele (Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley (HB and Mizhari Berk models. The yield stress and behavior index decreased with the increase in the temperatures for 5, 25, and 45 °C whereas for the temperature of 65 °C the effects were the opposite exhibiting elevated values. The viscosity decreased with an increase in temperature, and the Arrhenius equation described adequately the effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity of the puree, in which the activation energy (Ea determined at a shear rate of 100 s-1 was 9.36 kJ.mol-1.As características físicas e físico-químicas do mirtilo (Vaccinium myrtillus produzido no Brasil foram analisadas. As propriedades reológicas foram medidas em 5, 25, 45 e 65 °C, em um reômetro de tensão controlada equipado com geometria rugosa de placas paralelas com taxa de deformação variando de 0-300 s-1 com o objetivo de verificação da influência da temperatura no comportamento do fluido. O comportamento pseudoplástico com tensão residual foi bem descrito pelos modelos de Ostwald-de-Waele (Lei da Potência, Herschel-Bulkley (HB e Mizhari Berk. A tensão residual diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura para 5, 25 e 45 °C, enquanto que para 65 °C os efeitos foram contrários, exibindo elevados valores. A viscosidade diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura e a equação de Arrhenius apresentou uma boa descrição do efeito da temperatura na viscosidade aparente do mirtilo, e a energia de ativação (Ea determinada para uma taxa de

  3. Strawberry or blueberry supplementation may protect against increased oxidative stress vulnerability from both irradiation and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.

    In several studies we have now shown that there are some interesting parallels between aging and the effects of heavy particle irradiation (56Fe) in a rat model. Interestingly this research also has shown that, much as has been seen in aged animals, dietary supplementation with high antioxidant-strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) extracts (2% of the diet) reversed many of the age-related changes. Similarly, supplementing the diets of young rats with SBs or BBs (2% of diet as in the aged animals) for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 56Fe (1 GeV/n), using the AGS or NSRL at Brookhaven National Laboratory, prevented the deleterious effects of the radiation exposure on the motor, cognitive and neuronal parameters described above. In the present experiment we examined whether striatal tissue obtained from BB- or SB-supplemented or control-fed, irradiated or non-radiated, young rats would show differential sensitivity (as assessed via decrements in mAChR stimulation of dopamine release) to hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating agent. The results indicated that, just as we had seen previously with respect to radiation protection in the parameters described above, the tissue from the SB or BB-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals showed increased mAChR-stimulated DA release from the striatal tissue following hydrogen peroxide exposure compared to that seen in non-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals (e.g., DA rels. p moles/mg protein, rad + H202 non-supplemented = 90, SB = 260, BB = 360). These results show that aging and irradiation may produce similar decrements in dopamine release and that, much as we have seen previously with age, radiation enhances the vulnerability to oxidative stressors, but these are reduced with SB or BB supplementation. They are discussed in-terms of protection against the effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging via nutritional supplementation with foods that are high in antioxidant activity

  4. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOSE BASED BIO-POLYMER AEROGEL ISOLATED FROM WASTE OF BLUEBERRY TREE (VACCINIUM MYRTILLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KAYA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose aerogel (CA has highly porous structure, environmentally friendly, thermally stable and flame retardant properties. These properties in material worlds have attracted large interest as a potentially industrial material. In this paper, cellulose aerogel with flame retardant was produced from pruned branches and bushes of blueberries wastes (PBBW. Firstly, cellulose raw material these wastes was obtained and then, cellulose aerogel via freeze-drying, followed by cellulose hydrogel production. Our reports showed that three dimensionally network aerogel structure prepared from NaOH/Urea as scaffold solution. The present cellulose aerogel has excellent flame retardancy, which can extinguish within 140 s. By the way, it was inferred thermal stability performance of cellulose aerogel could be efficient potential thermal insulating material. Besides, this process are sustainable, easily available at low cost and suitable for industrial applications.

  5. Blueberry juices: a rapid multi-analysis of quality indicators by means of dispersive Raman spectroscopy excited at 1064 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccheri, L.; Yuan, T.; Zhang, S.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Trono, C.; Yuan, L.; Mignani, A. G.

    2017-04-01

    Blueberry juices produced in China and in Italy were analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy. The reference data of important nutraceutical indicators such as degrees Brix and carbohydrates were available. Some juices were produced from fresh organic fruits, while others were industrial grade, differing in qualities and prices. Raman spectra obtained with excitation at 1064 nm were acquired using a dispersive fiber-optic spectrometer. Degrees Brix were measured by means of a commercial refractometer, while carbohydrate contents were available from the producers. Multivariate processing was used for predicting Brix and carbohydrates from Raman spectra and from the reference data. Determination coefficients equal to 0.88 and 0.84, respectively, were obtained. This experiment further confirms the excellent potentials of Raman spectroscopy for both non-destructive and rapid assessments of food quality.

  6. Protective effects of a blueberry extract in acute inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Maria-Eduardo; Oliveira, Mónica; Direito, Rosa; Rocha, João; Alves, Paula; Serra, Ana-Teresa; Duarte, Catarina; Bronze, Rosário; Fernandes, Adelaide; Brites, Dora; Freitas, Marisa; Fernandes, Eduarda; Sepodes, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    Here we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of a blueberry extract in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and collagen-induced arthritis model, both in rats. Along with the chemical characterization of the phenolic content of the fruits and extract, the antioxidant potential of the extract, the cellular antioxidant activity and the effects over neutrophils' oxidative burst, were studied in order to provide a mechanistic insight for the anti-inflammatory effects observed. The extract significantly inhibited paw edema formation in an acute model the rat. Our results also demonstrate that the standardized extract had pharmacological activity when administered orally in the collagen-induced arthritis model in the rat and was able to significantly reduce the development of clinical signs of arthritis and the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, consequently improving articular function in treated animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Probiotic-mediated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruit fermentation to yield functionalized products for augmented antibacterial and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Jeong, Seong-Yeop; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Jeong, Do-Youn

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation of blueberry fruit with selected probiotic bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Lactobacillus brevis) and yeast (Starmerella bombicola) isolated from fermented starfish for the extraction of functionalized products for biomedical applications. All probiotic-based fermented extracts showed augmented antibacterial and antioxidant activity compared to the control. Biochemical parameters of viable cell count, titratable acidity, total phenol, total anthocyanin, total flavonoids, total sugar, and reducing sugar were analyzed during a 0-96 h fermentation period. In addition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to determine the functional groups in the control and fermented extracts and it signifies the presence of alcohol groups, phenol groups, carboxylic acids, and aliphatic amines, respectively. The well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays determined that the S. bombicola-mediated fermented extract has excellent activity, followed by B. amyloliquefaciens and L. brevis, at a high concentration of 1.0 g/mL fermented extract. The ABTS and DPPH showed significant scavenging activity with IC 50 values of (30.52 ± 0.08)/(155.10 ± 0.06) μg/mL, (24.82 ± 0.16)/(74.21 ± 1.26) μg/mL, and (21.81 ± 0.08)/(125.11 ± 0.04) μg/mL for B. amyloliquefaciens, L. brevis, and S. bombicola, respectively. Developing a value-added fermented blueberry product will help circumvent losses because of the highly perishable nature of the fruit. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of dehydrin-like proteins responsive to chilling in floral buds of blueberry (Vaccinium, section Cyanococcus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalif, M M; Rowland, L J

    1994-04-01

    The level of three major polypeptides of 65, 60, and 14 kD increased in response to chilling unit accumulation in floral buds of a woody perennial, blueberry (Vaccinium, section Cynaococcus). The level of the polypeptides increased most dramatically within 300 h of chilling and decreased to the prechilling level with the initiation of budbreak. Cold-hardiness levels were assessed for dormant buds of Vaccinium corymbosum and Vaccinium ashei after different chilling treatments until the resumption of growth. These levels coincided with the level of the chilling-responsive polypeptides. Like some other previously described cold-induced proteins in annual plants, the level of the chilling-induced polypeptides also increased in leaves in response to cold treatment; the chilling-induced polypeptides were heat stable, resisting aggregation after incubation at 95 degrees C for 15 min. By fractionating bud proteins first by isoelectric point (pI) and then by molecular mass, the pI values of the 65- and 60-kD polypeptides were found to be 7.5 to 8.0 and the pI value of the 14-kD polypeptide was judged to be 8.5. Purification of the 65- and 60-kD polypeptides, followed by digestion with endoproteinase Lys-C and sequencing of selected fragments, revealed similarities in amino acid composition between the 65- and 60-kD polypeptides and dehydrins. Indeed, antiserum to the lysine-rich consensus sequence EKKGIMDKIKEKLPG of dehydrin proteins cross-reacted to all three of the major chilling-responsive polypeptides of blueberry, identifying these as dehydrins or dehydrin-like proteins.

  9. A blueberry-enriched diet attenuates nephropathy in a rat model of hypertension via reduction in oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie M Elks

    Full Text Available To assess renoprotective effects of a blueberry-enriched diet in a rat model of hypertension. Oxidative stress (OS appears to be involved in the development of hypertension and related renal injury. Pharmacological antioxidants can attenuate hypertension and hypertension-induced renal injury; however, attention has shifted recently to the therapeutic potential of natural products as antioxidants. Blueberries (BB have among the highest antioxidant capacities of fruits and vegetables.Male spontaneously hypertensive rats received a BB-enriched diet (2% w/w or an isocaloric control diet for 6 or 12 weeks or 2 days. Compared to controls, rats fed BB-enriched diet for 6 or 12 weeks exhibited lower blood pressure, improved glomerular filtration rate, and decreased renovascular resistance. As measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, significant decreases in total reactive oxygen species (ROS, peroxynitrite, and superoxide production rates were observed in kidney tissues in rats on long-term dietary treatment, consistent with reduced pathology and improved function. Additionally, measures of antioxidant status improved; specifically, renal glutathione and catalase activities increased markedly. Contrasted to these observations indicating reduced OS in the BB group after long-term feeding, similar measurements made in rats fed the same diet for only 2 days yielded evidence of increased OS; specifically, significant increases in total ROS, peroxynitrite, and superoxide production rates in all tissues (kidney, brain, and liver assayed in BB-fed rats. These results were evidence of "hormesis" during brief exposure, which dissipated with time as indicated by enhanced levels of catalase in heart and liver of BB group.Long-term feeding of BB-enriched diet lowered blood pressure, preserved renal hemodynamics, and improved redox status in kidneys of hypertensive rats and concomitantly demonstrated the potential to delay or attenuate development

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin-3-Glucoside and Malvidin-3-Galactoside in Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yang Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry fruits have a wide range of health benefits because of their abundant anthocyanins, which are natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry’s two main anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside on inflammatory response in endothelial cells. These two malvidin glycosides could inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α induced increases of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 production both in the protein and mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Mv-3-glc at the concentration of 1 μM could inhibit 35.9% increased MCP-1, 54.4% ICAM-1, and 44.7% VCAM-1 protein in supernatant, as well as 9.88% MCP-1 and 48.6% ICAM-1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05. In addition, they could decrease IκBα degradation (Mv-3-glc, Mv-3-gal, and their mixture at the concentration of 50 μM had the inhibition rate of 84.8%, 75.3%, and 43.2%, respectively, p < 0.01 and block the nuclear translocation of p65, which suggested their anti-inflammation mechanism was mediated by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB pathway. In general malvidin-3-glucoside had better anti-inflammatory effect than malvidin-3-galactoside. These results indicated that blueberry is good resource of anti-inflammatory anthocyanins, which can be promising molecules for the development of nutraceuticals to prevent chronic inflammation in many diseases.

  11. Anthocyanins and phenolic acids from a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) powder counteract lipid accumulation in THP-1-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins (ACNs) and phenolic acids (PA), which are hypothesized to protect against development of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of an ACN- and PA-rich fractions, obtained from a wild blueberry powder, on the capacity...... to counteract lipid accumulation in macrophages derived from monocytic THP-1 cells. In addition, we tested the capacity of pure ACNs and their metabolites to alter lipid accumulation. METHODS: THP-1-derived macrophages were incubated with fatty acids (500 μM oleic/palmitic acid, 2:1 ratio) and different...... concentrations (from 0.05 to 10 μg mL(-1)) of ACN- and PA-rich fractions, pure ACN standards (malvidin, delphinidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside), and metabolites (syringic, gallic and protocatechuic acids). Lipid accumulation was quantified with the fluorescent dye Nile red. RESULTS: Lipid accumulation was reduced...

  12. Gamma radiation effects on chemical composition and color of raspberries (Rubus Idaeus L.) and blueberries (Vaccinium Corymbosum) cultivated in South of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbina P, M.C.; Manquian T, N.

    1988-01-01

    Raspberries and blueberries grown in the X th Region, Valdivia, were irradiated in a 137 Cs irradiador BPCDI (Brookhaven Portable Cesium Development irradiator) with dosis of 1,5 KGy and 2,5 KGy in order to measure the effect on the chemical composition and the changes of color due to pigments damage using a colorimetric method. Analysis of pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, dry matter, total sugar and vitamin C were made. Color was analized comparing the pink color of the diluted fruit juice with a color scale of different concentrations of a cobalt scale of different concentrations of cobalt chloride. Results demonstrated that the radurization treatment does not affect chemical composition with dosis up to 2,5 KGy. It was possible to detect differences of color in raspberries and not in blueberries because of the less sensitivity of color pigments to radiation. (author)

  13. Protective effect of enzymatic hydrolysates from highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senevirathne, Mahinda; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Jeon, You-Jin

    2010-06-01

    Blueberry was enzymatically hydrolyzed using selected commercial food grade carbohydrases (AMG, Celluclast, Termamyl, Ultraflo and Viscozyme) and proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Kojizyme, Neutrase and Protamex) to obtain water soluble compounds, and their protective effect was investigated against H(2)O(2)-induced damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (V79-4) via various published methods. Both AMG and Alcalase hydrolysates showed higher total phenolic content as well as higher cell viability and ROS scavenging activities, and hence, selected for further antioxidant assays. Both AMG and Alcalase hydrolysates also showed higher protective effects against lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptotic body formation in a dose-dependent fashion. Thus, the results indicated that water soluble compounds obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of blueberry possess good antioxidant activity against H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage in vitro.

  14. Effect of Microencapsulation by Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying Technique on the Antioxidant Properties of Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus Juice Polyphenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkowska Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry juice with high polyphenol concentration was spray- or freeze-dried using different coating materials: HP-β-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin. The quality of the obtained powders was characterised by their anthocyanin content, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. SEM was used for monitoring structures and size (2–20 μm of the microparticles. The losses of total phenolic compounds during spray-drying reached 76–78% on average, while these of anthocyanins about 57%. Freeze-dried powders showed better retention values of anthocyanins, which was about 1.5-fold higher than for the spray-dried counterparts. All blueberry preparations studied were characterised by very high radical scavenging activity.

  15. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittman, Mark E.; Callahan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  16. Gene Expression and Metabolite Profiling of Developing Highbush Blueberry Fruit Indicates Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Metabolism and Activation of Abscisic Acid Metabolism1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A.; Zaharia, L. Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P.; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Kennedy, James A.; Constabel, C. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3′-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3′5′-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation

  17. Influence of polysaccharide-based edible coatings as carriers of prebiotic fibers on quality attributes of ready-to-eat fresh blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María V; Ponce, Alejandra G; Moreira, María R

    2018-05-01

    Little information is available regarding the effect of dietary fibers added into edible coatings on quality attributes of ready-to-eat fruits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium alginate (AL) and chitosan (CH) edible coatings enriched with four different dietary fibers (apple fiber, orange fiber, inulin and oligofructose) on microbiological, nutritional, physico-chemical and sensorial properties of ready-to-eat fresh blueberries stored for 18 days at 5 °C. The most encouraging results were found for CH coatings (with and without fibers) which significantly inhibited the growth of mesophilic bacteria and yeasts/molds (reductions up to 1.9 log CFU g -1 ), reduced decay rate by more than 50%, enhanced antioxidant properties, retained fruit firmness, delayed off-odor development and improved overall visual quality of blueberries. Oligofructose and orange fiber added to CH coatings enhanced antioxidant properties of fruits and allowed higher reductions in yeast/mold counts compared to the use of CH alone. CH-based coatings enriched with inulin, oligofructose and apple fiber extended sensory shelf life of blueberries by 6 days. AL coatings (with and without fiber) allowed delaying fungal decay and also retaining antioxidant properties but did not improve the microbiological and sensory quality of fruits. The results proved that fiber-enriched CH treatments allowed the maintenance of freshness and the improvement of the quality of ready-to-eat blueberries. It might be an interesting option to offer consumers a healthy product with prebiotic potential and an extended shelf life. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Suppression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) using the lowbush blueberry agroecosystem as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew S; Tadepalli, Shravani; Bridges, David F; Wu, Vivian C H; Drummond, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife as a source of microbial contamination is a food safety concern. Deer feces (scat) have been determined as a point source for Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh produce. The ecological role of the scooped scarab (Onthophagus hecate (Panzer)), a generalist dung beetle species common in Maine blueberry fields, was explored as a biological control agent and alternatively as a pathogen vector between deer scat and food. A large-scale field survey of wildlife scat indicated that pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 was present, albeit at a low prevalence (1.9% of samples, n = 318), in the Maine lowbush blueberry agroecosystem. A manipulative field experiment verified that, should contact occur between deer scat and blueberry plants and fruit during the summer, contamination with E. coli O157:H7 can occur and persist for more than 72 h. For both the positive control and an experimental scat inoculation treatment, the levels of the bacterial population decreased over time, but at different rates (treatment x time interaction: F (1.9,18.8) = 358.486, P blueberry fruit. In both experiments, dung beetles buried the same amount of scat whether or not the scat was inoculated with the pathogen (F(1,6) = 0.001; P = 0.999 and (F (2,17) = 4.10, P = 0.147). Beetles feeding on E. coli inoculated deer scat were not found to vector the pathogen to fruit. In two studies, beetles lowered the amount of pathogenic E. coli persisting in soils compared to soils without beetles (F (2,9) = 7.757; P = 0.05 and F (2,17) = 8.0621, P = 0.004). Our study suggests that the dung beetle species, Onthophagus hecate, has the potential to contribute to the suppression of E. coli O157:H7 in agricultural landscapes.

  19. Comparison of the measured specific activities of cesium in mushrooms, pine tree twigs, blueberries, honey and game in Aachen after 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.; Schmelz, G.

    1998-01-01

    After the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl the specific activity in mushrooms originating from the region of Aachen was continuously measured until today. At the same time the specific activity was determined in pine tree twigs, blueberries, honey and game. There is a strong connection of the living organisms and the inanimate environment within the forest ecosystem. The decrease of the specific caesium activity in living organisms is slower than in the other environment. (orig.) [de

  20. Daily blueberry consumption improves blood pressure and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah A; Figueroa, Arturo; Navaei, Negin; Wong, Alexei; Kalfon, Roy; Ormsbee, Lauren T; Feresin, Rafaela G; Elam, Marcus L; Hooshmand, Shirin; Payton, Mark E; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2015-03-01

    Postmenopausal women have a high prevalence of hypertension and often develop arterial stiffness thereby increasing cardiovascular disease risk. Although antihypertensive drug therapies exist, increasing numbers of people prefer natural therapies. In vivo studies and a limited number of clinical studies have demonstrated the antihypertensive and vascular-protective effects of blueberries. To examine the effects of daily blueberry consumption for 8 weeks on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension. This was an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Forty-eight postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension recruited from the greater Tallahassee, FL, area participated. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 22 g freeze-dried blueberry powder or 22 g control powder. Resting brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressures were evaluated and arterial stiffness was assessed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. C-reactive protein, nitric oxide, and superoxide dismutase were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using a split plot model of repeated measures analysis of variance. After 8 weeks, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (131±17 mm Hg [Pblueberry powder group, whereas there were no changes in the group receiving the control powder. Nitric oxide levels were greater (15.35±11.16 μmol/L; Pblueberry powder group at 8 weeks compared with baseline values (9.11±7.95 μmol/L), whereas there were no changes in the control group. Daily blueberry consumption may reduce blood pressure and arterial stiffness, which may be due, in part, to increased nitric oxide production. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.