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Sample records for blueberries

  1. Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mouth or the skin lining the throat. Health providers have used blueberry juice as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Contrast agents make it possible for radiologists to see and interpret the images. Some people ...

  2. THE NECESSITY OF DEVELOPING BLUEBERRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina BADIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the advantages of cultivating blueberries, both economically and from an alimentary and therapeutic point of view. By calculating profit per hectare for the most productive varieties of blueberry, it was shown that this culture is particularly profitable for young farmers. In fact, blueberries have significant therapeutic value, being used in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Current Development Situation and Prospects of Blueberry in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia; GAO; Hualan; XIAO; Sen; LI; Fengmin; LIU; Aiqiong; MO

    2015-01-01

    With high nutrition and health value,blueberry receives much concern in recent years. Blueberry experts in the world are cultivating new blueberry varieties. They have come up with constructive theoretical support and planting technology researches and are constantly devoted to expanding blueberry planting latitudes. This paper elaborated researches of blueberry at home and abroad,current development situation of blueberry in China and Guangdong Province,analyzed strengths of planting blueberry in Guangdong. Besides,it came up with recommendations for development of blueberry industry. Finally,it discussed development prospects of blueberry planting in Guangdong.

  4. Progress in blueberry research in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries were first introduced to New Zealand in the 1950’s from North America and by 1970 around 30 cultivars had been imported. Selection for new material better suited to the New Zealand climate then began using F1 seedlings and open pollinated crosses. The PFR blueberry breeding programme (le...

  5. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease, is increasing with the expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to mitigate this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominent...

  6. ‘Baby Blues’ highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

  7. BBGD: an online database for blueberry genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Benjamin F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae family, which also includes closely related cranberry and more distantly related rhododendron, azalea, and mountain laurel. Blueberry is a major berry crop in the United States, and one that has great nutritional and economical value. Extreme low temperatures, however, reduce crop yield and cause major losses to US farmers. A better understanding of the genes and biochemical pathways that are up- or down-regulated during cold acclimation is needed to produce blueberry cultivars with enhanced cold hardiness. To that end, the blueberry genomics database (BBDG was developed. Along with the analysis tools and web-based query interfaces, the database serves both the broader Ericaceae research community and the blueberry research community specifically by making available ESTs and gene expression data in searchable formats and in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of cold acclimation and freeze tolerance in blueberry. Description BBGD is the world's first database for blueberry genomics. BBGD is both a sequence and gene expression database. It stores both EST and microarray data and allows scientists to correlate expression profiles with gene function. BBGD is a public online database. Presently, the main focus of the database is the identification of genes in blueberry that are significantly induced or suppressed after low temperature exposure. Conclusion By using the database, researchers have developed EST-based markers for mapping and have identified a number of "candidate" cold tolerance genes that are highly expressed in blueberry flower buds after exposure to low temperatures.

  8. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries (2009) by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization), invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A c...

  9. Blueberry latent virus: An Amalgam of the Totiviridae and Partitiviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new, symptomless virus was identified in blueberry. The dsRNA genome of the virus, provisionally named Blueberry latent virus (BBLV), codes for two putative proteins and lacks a movement protein, a property only shared with cryptic viruses. More than 35 isolates of the virus from different cultiv...

  10. Analytical and sensory quality characteristics of twelve blueberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The analytical and sensory quality characteristics of twelve blueberry cultivars were evaluated to determine what fruit quality characteristics consumers consider important and to evaluate if sensory quality characteristics were correlated to any analytical quality characteristics. Cultivars evaluat...

  11. Evaluation of anthocynin changes in blueberries and in blueberry jam after the processing and storage

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    Peter Czako

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. is worldwide famous as the healthy and desirable fruit. The most valuable nutritional components of fruits are polyphenols, which include anthocyanins. The aim of the study was to assess the content of anthocyanin dyes in selected varieties of blueberry fruit. We evaluated the changes in the content of colorants that occur after treatment for fruit jam and its subsequent storage at 21°C under the light. Varieties Ramcocas, Record, Iranka, Nelson, Pemberton, Jersey and Coville were observed. Content of anthocyanins was determined spectrophotometrically. In fresh fruits anthocyanin content ranged from 9.878 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 18.555 g kg-1 of dry matter (Nelson variety. After treatment there was found a decrease in the anthocyanins content, in the product's content were determined in the amount 1.645 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 3.476 g kg-1 of dry matter (variety Ramcocas. The decrease was due to decomposition of anthocyans at high temperatures in processed products and also by the replacement of dry matter by sucrose in the product. Mean color decrease in blueberry jam was 84.5%. After storage of the product, there were found further degradations of colorants, evaluated at 34.9%. The content of anthocyanin in jam was found to be 1.089 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 2.199 g kg-1 of dry matter (Ramcocas variety.

  12. Mechanical harvesting of blueberries with extended shelf life: impact damage and suggestions for reducing bruise injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern highbush blueberries (SHB) (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive (over 500 hours/acre) and costly. With the uncertainty of labor availability in the near future, efforts are under way to develop blueberry ...

  13. Host status and damage potential of Paratrichodorus renifer and Pratylenchus penetrans (Nematoda) to blueberry (Vaccinium spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubby root nematodes (Paratrichodorus species) and root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus species) have been associated with blueberry in most blueberry-growing regions of North America. Relatively little is known, however, of the host status and pathogenicity of these nematodes to blueberry. We per...

  14. Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Roberta O; Trindade, Simone C; Maurer, Luana H; Bersch, Andriely M; Sautter, Claudia K; Penna, Neidi G

    2016-09-01

    Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate) and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose) on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar). The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.

  15. Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Roberta O; Trindade, Simone C; Maurer, Luana H; Bersch, Andriely M; Sautter, Claudia K; Penna, Neidi G

    2016-09-01

    Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate) and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose) on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar). The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content. PMID:27508988

  16. Blueberry polyphenols increase lifespan and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Ingram, Donald K; Joseph, James A; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2006-02-01

    The beneficial effects of polyphenol compounds in fruits and vegetables are mainly extrapolated from in vitro studies or short-term dietary supplementation studies. Due to cost and duration, relatively little is known about whether dietary polyphenols are beneficial in whole animals, particularly with respect to aging. To address this question, we examined the effects of blueberry polyphenols on lifespan and aging of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, a useful organism for such a study. We report that a complex mixture of blueberry polyphenols increased lifespan and slowed aging-related declines in C. elegans. We also found that these benefits did not just reflect antioxidant activity in these compounds. For instance, blueberry treatment increased survival during acute heat stress, but was not protective against acute oxidative stress. The blueberry extract consists of three major fractions that all contain antioxidant activity. However, only one fraction, enriched in proanthocyanidin compounds, increased C. elegans lifespan and thermotolerance. To further determine how polyphenols prolonged C. elegans lifespan, we analyzed the genetic requirements for these effects. Prolonged lifespan from this treatment required the presence of a CaMKII pathway that mediates osmotic stress resistance, though not other pathways that affect stress resistance and longevity. In conclusion, polyphenolic compounds in blueberries had robust and reproducible benefits during aging that were separable from antioxidant effects. PMID:16441844

  17. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V; Rowland, Lisa J

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  18. Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTA O. SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar. The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.

  19. conservation and nutritional quality of blueberry treated with eatable covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcibela Stülp

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lengthening the post-harvest life of fruits from temperate climates is one of the greatest challenges of modern agriculture, which aims at diminishing the losses and increasing the offer period of the product in national and international market. The use of eatable pellicles has been explored to cover fruits, since its usage represents an economical advantage, due to its low price and reduction of post-harvest losses. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of blueberry, cultivar Florida M, produced in an organic production system and covered with eatable covering based on kefir grains associated with different storage temperatures. Thus, it was observed that the most efficient treatment to reduce blueberry post-harvest loss was the combination of kefir grains in association with storage cooled at 5 ºC, not changing the chemical composition and nutritional of blueberry.

  20. Elevated Genetic Diversity in the Emerging Blueberry Pathogen Exobasidium maculosum.

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    Jane E Stewart

    Full Text Available Emerging diseases caused by fungi are increasing at an alarming rate. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry, caused by the fungus Exobasidium maculosum, is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA, severely reducing fruit quality in some plantings. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic diversity of E. maculosum in the southeastern USA to elucidate the basis of disease emergence and to investigate if populations of E. maculosum are structured by geography, host species, or tissue type. We sequenced three conserved loci from 82 isolates collected from leaves and fruit of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum, highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum, and southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum hybrids from commercial fields in Georgia and North Carolina, USA, and 6 isolates from lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium from Maine, USA, and Nova Scotia, Canada. Populations of E. maculosum from the southeastern USA and from lowbush blueberry in Maine and Nova Scotia are distinct, but do not represent unique species. No difference in genetic structure was detected between different host tissues or among different host species within the southeastern USA; however, differentiation was detected between populations in Georgia and North Carolina. Overall, E. maculosum showed extreme genetic diversity within the conserved loci with 286 segregating sites among the 1,775 sequenced nucleotides and each isolate representing a unique multilocus haplotype. However, 94% of the nucleotide substitutions were silent, so despite the high number of mutations, selective constraints have limited changes to the amino acid sequences of the housekeeping genes. Overall, these results suggest that the emergence of Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot is not due to a recent introduction or host shift, or the recent evolution of aggressive genotypes of E. maculosum, but more likely as a result of an increasing

  1. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.

  2. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Lobos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last hundred years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent.

  3. Dissecting the microbiome to assess blueberry soil health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant rhizosphere is made up of not only soil, but a myriad of living organisms; these living organisms can both contribute to, and be indicators of, soil health. We explored the possibility of assaying the soil microbiome in areas where blueberry fields are declining, as compared to healthy fie...

  4. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  5. Xylella fastidiosa in rabbiteye blueberry in Louisiana is genetically similar to a strain found in Southern highbush blueberry in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past ten years, Xylella fastidiosa has been confirmed as a pathogen of Southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in Georgia and Florida. Recent work in Louisiana has shown that it is also associated with reduced yield and altered fruit quality in ‘Tifblue’ ...

  6. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-15

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts.

  7. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-15

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts. PMID:27664697

  8. New and Emerging Viruses of Blueberry and Cranberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Polashock

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses as well as the appearance of new viruses. Many of the known viruses of these crops are latent or asymptomatic in at least some cultivars. Diagnosis and detection procedures are often non-existent or unreliable. Whereas new viruses can move into cultivated fields from the wild, there is also the threat that devastating viruses can move into native stands of Vaccinium spp. or other native plants from cultivated fields. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of blueberry and cranberry viruses, focusing not only on those that are new but also those that are emerging as serious threats for production in North America and around the world.

  9. Optimization of frozen wild blueberry vacuum drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum drying of frozen blueberries in order to preserve health benefits phytochemicals using response surface methodology. The drying was performed in a new design of vacuum dryer equipment. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and of pressure 38-464 mbar. Total solids, total phenolics, vitamin C, anthocyanin content and total color change were used as quality indicators of dried blueberries. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 60 °C and 100 mbar were established for vacuum drying of blueberries. Separate validation experiments were conducted at optimum conditions to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 3.70 mgCAE/100dw, vitamin C 59.79 mg/100gdw, anthocyanin content 2746.33 mg/100gdw, total solids 89.50% and total color change 88.83. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  10. Mortality of container-grown blueberry plants inoculated with Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted four studies to evaluate the effect of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates and inoculum delivery methods on root rot development and mortality of container-grown blueberry plants. Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates were obtained from the root zone of symptomatic blueberry plants and identifie...

  11. Root production, distribution, and turnover in conventional and organic northern highbush blueberry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern highbush blueberry is a shallow-rooted crop with very fine, fibrous roots. Recently, we installed minirhizotrons (root observation tubes) in a conventional and an organic blueberry planting in western Oregon. We wanted to know exactly when and where new roots were being produced and determi...

  12. 75 FR 7986 - Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Orders; Section 610 Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... and serve a term of 3 years. AMS published in the Federal Register on March 24, 2006 (71 FR 14827... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 1218 and 1219 Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and... (AMS) plans to review the Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information...

  13. Effect of Infusion Method and Parameters on Mass Transfer in Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to obtain optimal processing conditions for producing infused blueberries with high solid gain, we investigated the infusion characteristics of blueberries under various processing parameters in sugar solutions with 1:1 ratio of solution and berries. Static batch constant concentration inf...

  14. Influence of extrusion processing on procyanidin composition and total anthocyanin contents of blueberry pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry juice processing by-products are a rich source of procyanidins, which comprise a group of compounds shown to possess numerous health benefits including, protection against coronary heart disease, type II diabetes, and obesity. Most of the procyanidins present in blueberry pomace, however,...

  15. 78 FR 59775 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... annual producer revenue estimate of $390,904. It is estimated that in 2012, about 68 percent of the first... activities on blueberry sales (a measure of demand), an econometric demand model was developed for blueberry sales in the United States. The model allowed the impact of the USHBC's generic promotion activities...

  16. Blueberry-enriched diet protects rat heart from ischemic damage.

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    Ismayil Ahmet

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to assess the cardioprotective properties of a blueberry enriched diet (BD. BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a major role in ischemia-related myocardial injury. The attempts to use synthetic antioxidants to block the detrimental effects of ROS have produced mixed or negative results precipitating the interest in natural products. Blueberries are readily available product with the highest antioxidant capacity among fruits and vegetables. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following 3-mo of BD or a regular control diet (CD, the threshold for mitochondrial permeability transition (t(MPT was measured in isolated cardiomyocytes obtained from young male Fischer-344 rats. Compared to CD, BD resulted in a 24% increase (p<0.001 of ROS indexed t(MPT. The remaining animals were subjected to a permanent ligation of the left descending coronary artery. 24 hrs later resulting myocardial infarction (MI in rats on BD was 22% less than in CD rats (p<0.01. Significantly less TUNEL(+ cardiomyocytes (2% vs 9% and 40% less inflammation cells were observed in the myocardial area at risk of BD compared to CD rats (p<0.01. In the subgroup of rats, after coronary ligation the original diet was either continued or switched to the opposite one, and cardiac remodeling and MI expansion were followed by serial echocardiography for 10 weeks. Measurements suggested that continuation of BD or its withdrawal after MI attenuated or accelerated rates of post MI cardiac remodeling and MI expansion. CONCLUSION: A blueberry-enriched diet protected the myocardium from induced ischemic damage and demonstrated the potential to attenuate the development of post MI chronic heart failure.

  17. Differential effects of blueberry proanthocyanidins on androgen sensitive and insensitive human prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara M; Erdman, John W; Lila, Mary Ann

    2006-01-18

    Blueberries are rich in health-promoting polyphenolic compounds including proanthocyanidins. The purpose of this study was to determine if proanthocyanidin-rich fractions from both wild and cultivated blueberry fruit have the same inhibitory effects on the proliferation of LNCaP, an androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line, and DU145, a more aggressive androgen insensitive prostate cancer cell line. When 20 microg/ml of a wild blueberry proanthocyanidin fraction (fraction 5) was added to LNCaP media, growth was inhibited to 11% of control with an IC50 of 13.3 microg/ml. Two similar proanthocyanidin-rich fractions from cultivated blueberries (fractions 4 and 5) at the same concentration inhibited LNCaP growth to 57 and 26% of control with an IC50 of 22.7 and 5.8 microg/ml, respectively. In DU145 cells, the only fraction that significantly reduced growth compared to control was fraction 4 from cultivated blueberries with an IC50 value of 74.4 microg/ml, indicating only minor inhibitory activity. Differences in cell growth inhibition of LNCaP and DU145 cell lines by blueberry fractions rich in proanthocyanidins indicate that blueberry proanthocyanidins have an effect primarily on androgen-dependant growth of prostate cancer cells. Possible molecular mechanisms for growth inhibition are reviewed. PMID:16399225

  18. Effects of blueberry on hepatic fibrosis and transcription factor Nrf2 in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of blueberry on hepatic fibrosis and NF-E2-related factor 2(Nrf2) transcription factor in rats.METHODS:Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group(A);CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis group(B);blueberry prevention group(C);Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule(DSHX) prevention group(D);and blueberry + DSHX prevention group(E).Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 wk(except the control group...

  19. The ex vitro rooting of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. microcuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacholczak Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing demand for blueberry fruit has necessitated the development of an efficient propagation method of this species that would provide large quantities of planting material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 50 mg dm−3, the commercial rooting powder Rhizopon containing 1% IBA, and salicylic acid (50 mg dm−3 on the in vivo rooting of microcuttings of Vaccinium corymbosum ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’. The contents of chlorophyll a + b, soluble proteins, free amino acids, as well as total soluble and reducing sugars were determined in rooted cuttings. All of the treatments increased the degree and percentage of rooting in the cuttings of both cultivars. While improving rhizogenesis in blueberry, salicylic acid did not perform as a cofactor of the auxin IBA. Foliar applications of IBA or salicylic acid (SA increased the contents of soluble proteins, free amino acids and sugars, but no effects on chlorophyll levels were observed.

  20. Incresing antioxidant activity and reducing decay of blueberries by essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several naturally occurring essential oils including carvacrol, anethole, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, perillaldehyde, linalool, and p-cymene were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing decay and increasing antioxidant levels and activities in ‘Duke’ blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum). Carv...

  1. Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Using Antioxidants from Blackberry, Blueberry, Pomegranate, and Turmeric Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greener synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles is described using antioxidants from blackberry, blueberry, pomegranate, and turmeric extracts. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HR...

  2. Propagating and Managing orcahrd Mason Bees, Osmia spp. (Hymenoptera: Megachildae) for Pollinating Cultivated Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we present a brief overview of our bee trap-nesting study as well as information about propagating and managing mason bees for blueberry pollination, especially the bee species Osmia ribifloris....

  3. 75 FR 31279 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... disproportionately burdened. The Small Business Administration defines, in 13 CFR part 121, small agricultural... Business Administration. Most importers, first handlers, and exporters will not be classified as small... Spain, Germany, and Poland. Asian highbush blueberry production has increased during this...

  4. Organ-specific distribution of phenolic compounds in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and 'northblue' blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum x V. angustifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihinen, Kaisu; Jaakola, Laura; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Hohtola, Anja

    2008-09-01

    Blueberries and bilberries are recognized as some of the best sources of flavonoids, especially anthocyanins. The contents of flavonoids (anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols) and hydroxycinnamic acids in the flower, fruit skin and pulp, leaf and rhizome of bilberry and the blueberry cultivar 'Northblue' were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode-array detection. The most striking difference in the fruits was the predominance of hydroxycinnamic acids in blueberry, whereas in bilberry the anthocyanin content was much higher, particularly in the pulp. Differences in flavonoid contents of fruits were already apparent at the flower stage. Bilberry and blueberry leaves both contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Blueberry rhizomes accumulated high amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids. All plant parts of bilberry and blueberry are potential sources of phenolic compounds for use either as dietary botanicals or by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26050178

  5. Phylogenetic, Morphological, and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria Species Associated with Fruit Rot of Blueberry in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L

    2015-12-01

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit.

  6. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing*

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-Cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2...

  7. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-yang

    2012-02-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC, 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC, 24.38 mg catechin/g DW). A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone: luteolin; flavonols: rutin, myricetin, quercetrin, and quercetin; flavanols: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins: malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin). In particular, the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins, which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical. PMID:22302422

  8. 蓝莓深加工技术研究进展%Progress of Blueberry Deep Processing Technique Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶春苗

    2015-01-01

    Blueberry has high nutrition value and economic value. Blueberry deep processing is an effective way for solving the problem of blueberry hard storage. In the article, it stated the progress of blueberry deep processing technique research from the aspects of blue-berry dairy product processing, blueberry fruit juice and wine processing, blueberry jam processing and blueberry preserved fruit pro-cessing, in order to provide a reference for the development of blueberry industry.%蓝莓具有很高的营养价值和经济价值.对蓝莓进行深加工处理是解决蓝莓不耐贮藏问题的有效途径.从蓝莓乳制品加工、蓝莓果汁果酒饮料加工、蓝莓酱加工、蓝莓果脯加工方面综述蓝莓深加工技术的研究进展,以期为蓝莓产业的发展提供参考.

  9. Anthocyanins and phenolic acids from a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) powder counteract lipid accumulation in THP-1-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins (ACNs) and phenolic acids (PA), which are hypothesized to protect against development of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of an ACN- and PA-rich fractions, obtained from a wild blueberry powder, on the capacity to counte......PURPOSE: Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins (ACNs) and phenolic acids (PA), which are hypothesized to protect against development of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of an ACN- and PA-rich fractions, obtained from a wild blueberry powder, on the capacity...

  10. Lowbush wild blueberries have the potentail to modify gut microbiota and xenobiotic metabolism in the rat colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenols present in lowbush blueberries cannot be absorbed by the intestinal epithelial tissue in their native form. These compounds are catabolized by the gut microbiota before being utilized. The objective of this research is to study the effect of a diet enriched with lowbush blueberries on th...

  11. Electron-beam is effective in reducing Escherichia coli on blueberries and extending the shelf life of the fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh blueberries have become a popular new functional food because of their incredibly high levels of antioxidant phytonutrients and health benefits. However, the potential prevalence of human pathogens on blueberries has become an increased concern because they are consumed with minimal processing...

  12. Evaluation of assembling methods on determination of whole genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa blueberry bacterial leaf scorch strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry bacterial leaf scorch (BBLS) disease, a threat to blueberry production in the Southern USA and potentially elsewhere, is caused by Xylella fastidiosa. Efficient control of BBLS requires knowledge of the pathogen. However, this is challenging because Xylella fastidiosa is difficult to cultu...

  13. Phytochemicals in lowbush wild blueberry inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 by damaging its cell membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antimicrobial activity and model of action of polyphenolic compounds extracted from lowbush wild blueberries (LWB) were studied against E. coli O157:H7. Polyphenols in LWB were extracted using methanol:H20 (80:20, v/v), dried and reconstituted in water and designated as total blueberry phenolic...

  14. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide-generating pads and modified atmosphere packaging for control of postharvest diseases in blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest diseases are a limiting factor of storage and shelf life of blueberries. Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest diseases in blueberries grown in California. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2)-generating pads (designated ...

  15. Blueberry floral attributes that enhance the pollinations efficiency of an oligolectic bee, osmia ribifloris cockerell (megachilidae:apoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated relationships between floral morphology of 23 genotypes of southern blueberries and indicators of pollination efficiency (fruit set, fruit abortion, seed number, and berry size) for Osmia ribifloris Cockerell, a manageable solitary bee. Cultivated blueberry taxa had the largest flowers ...

  16. Nondestructive Detection and Quantification of Blueberry Bruising using Near-infrared (NIR) Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Li, Changying; Takeda, Fumiomi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, blueberry bruising is evaluated by either human visual/tactile inspection or firmness measurement instruments. These methods are destructive, time-consuming, and subjective. The goal of this paper was to develop a non-destructive approach for blueberry bruising detection and quantification. Experiments were conducted on 300 samples of southern highbush blueberry (Camellia, Rebel, and Star) and on 1500 samples of northern highbush blueberry (Bluecrop, Jersey, and Liberty) for hyperspectral imaging analysis, firmness measurement, and human evaluation. An algorithm was developed to automatically calculate a bruise ratio index (ratio of bruised to whole fruit area) for bruise quantification. The spectra of bruised and healthy tissues were statistically separated and the separation was independent of cultivars. Support vector machine (SVM) classification of the spectra from the regions of interest (ROIs) achieved over 94%, 92%, and 96% accuracy on the training set, independent testing set, and combined set, respectively. The statistical results showed that the bruise ratio index was equivalent to the measured firmness but better than the predicted firmness in regard to effectiveness of bruise quantification, and the bruise ratio index had a strong correlation with human assessment (R2 = 0.78 − 0.83). Therefore, the proposed approach and the bruise ratio index are effective to non-destructively detect and quantify blueberry bruising. PMID:27767050

  17. 越橘抗寒性研究进展%Research advance of blueberry cold hardiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌凤章

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is an important environmental stress factor limited blueberry cultivation region and affected fruit yield. In recent years, using genomics and transcriptomics approach identified many genes or proteins related to blueberry cold hardiness, provided the basis for developing new blueberry cold hardiness cultivars. The characteristics of blueberry cold hardiness, internal ice nucleation distribution, molecular mechanisms of cold hardiness and molecular marker assisted breeding were summarized in the paper, and prospecting the research direction of blueberry cold hardiness.%低温是限制越橘栽培区域和影响果实产量的重要环境胁迫因子.近年来,利用基因组学和转录组学方法鉴定许多与越橘抗寒性有关的基因或蛋白,为开发抗寒越橘新品种提供依据.文章从越橘抗寒性特点、内在冰核分布特征、抗寒分子机制及分子标记辅助育种等方面归纳和总结,并预测今后越橘抗寒性研究方向.

  18. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Gook KIM; Hong Lim KIM; Su Jin KIM; Kyo-Sun PARK

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon,Korea were analyzed for fruit size,soluble solids content,titratable acidity,total anthocyanin content,total phenolic content,and antioxidant activity.Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars.Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g,soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3°Brix,and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%.Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars.Among the 45 blueberry cultivars,high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols,and high antioxidant activity were observed in ‘Elliott’,‘Rubel’,‘Rancocas’,and ‘Friendship’.

  19. Development and Utilization of Wild Blueberries%野生蓝莓资源的开发与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊基胜; 吴林生; 张春龙; 王子迎

    2012-01-01

    Through studies on the distribution and morphology of wild blueberry tree,chemical compostion and nutritional value analysis of wild blueberry in China, discussed the potential value of the wild blueberries' processing. The advantages of development and utilization of wild blueberries were absorbed and the disadvantages of it were given up at the same time. The article focused on introduction ahout the research and development elements of the wild blueberries products, such as dipping liquor of blueberries, fermented wine of blueberries, snack foods of blueberries, anthocyanins of blueberries, health capsules of blueberries, blueberries tea and so on.%通过对我国野生蓝莓资源的分布、形态特征、蓝莓浆果的化学成分以及营养价值分析,探讨了野生蓝莓的潜在价值。吸收野生蓝莓资源开发和利用现状中的优点,总结了当前野生蓝莓资源开发和利用研究中的不足之处。并重点介绍了野生蓝莓深加工相关产品蓝莓浸渍酒、蓝莓发酵酒、蓝莓休闲系列、蓝莓花青素、蓝莓保健胶囊以及蓝莓叶茶等研发、制作要点。

  20. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-yang HUANG; Hong-cheng ZHANG; Wen-xu LIU; Chun-yang LI

    2012-01-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants.In the present study,the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry,blackberry,and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated.Blueberry,with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW),exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods.Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC,9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW),total flavonoid content (TFC,36.08 mg rutin/g DW),and total anthocyanidin content (TAC,24.38 mg catechin/g DW).A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry,blackberry,and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid,protocatechuic acid,p-hydroxybenzoic acid,vanillic acid,caffeic acid,p-coumaric acid,ferulic acid,ellagic acid,and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone:luteolin; flavonols:rutin,myricetin,quercetrin,and quercetin; flavanols:gallocatechin,epigallocatechin,catechin,and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins:malvidin-3-galactoside,malvidin-3-glucoside,and cyanidin).In particular,the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins,which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical.

  1. Quality of 'Climax' blueberries after low dosage electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit of 'Climax' rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade) were irradiated by a linear accelerator at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 kGy and evaluated for various quality attributes after storage for 1, 3, 7, or 14 days at 1C plus 2 days at 15C, respectively. Weight loss increased during storage and averaged 4.2% after the final inspection and was not affected by irradiation dosage. About 5% of total berries were decayed after 14 days at 1C, about 6% after the final inspection at 15C, but decay was not affected by the level of irradiation. Electrolyte leakage, skin color, total soluble solids, acidity, and pH were also not affected by irradiation dosage. There was a significant decline in berry firmness, flavor, and texture as dosage increased. Berries treated at 1.0 kGy or above were softer and had lower flavor and texture preference scores than berries treated at lower dosages or nontreated berries

  2. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered ...

  3. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Aaron E.; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora (‘VcFT-Aurora’), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in ‘VcFT-Aurora’. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all

  4. Temporal sequence of cell wall disassembly events in developing fruits. 2. Analysis of blueberry (Vaccinium species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Ariel R; Ortugno, Claudia; Rosli, Hernan; Powell, Ann L T; Greve, L Carl; Labavitch, John M

    2007-05-16

    Softening and pathogen susceptibility are the major factors limiting the marketing of blueberries as fresh fruits, and these traits are associated with fruit cell wall structure. However, few studies that characterize wall modifications occurring during development and ripening have been reported for this fruit. In this study the ripening-associated modifications of blueberry fruit cell walls (composition, pectin and hemicellulose solubilization, and depolymerization) at five stages of ripeness have been analyzed. Xylose was found to be the most abundant noncellulosic neutral sugar associated with fruit walls, and the observed high Xyl/Glc ratio suggested that xylans, which are usually a minor hemicellulosic fruit wall component, are abundant in blueberry. The pectic matrix showed increased solubilization at early and intermediate stages of ripening, but no changes were detected in late ripening. Furthermore, little reduction in pectin polymer size occurred during blueberry ripening. In contrast, hemicellulose levels decreased as ripening progressed, and a clear depolymerization of these components was observed. A model for cell wall degradation in this fruit is discussed. PMID:17428068

  5. Development of a soilless growing system for blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum): nutrient demand and nutrient solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Dijk, van P.; Douven, F.; Maas, van der M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of blueberries in The Netherlands are soil grown, interest in soilless culture has increased recently. Modern cultivation with high yield and fruit quality needs maximum control of growth and crop development, which is expected to be achieved with irrigation and nutrient manage

  6. Antimicrobial activity of controlled-release chlorine dioxide gas on fresh blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on the safety and quality of blueberries was studied. In vitro studies revealed that both ClO2 gas fumigation and ClO2 water direct contact killed food pathogen bacterium, Escherichia coli and fruit decay pathogen fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum. In vivo studies...

  7. Effects of Chitosan-Essential Oil Coatings on Safety and Quality of Fresh Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan coating plus different essential oils was developed and applied to fresh blueberries, in order to find environmentally friendly and healthy treatments to preserve fresh fruit quality and safety during postharvest storage. Studies were first performed in vitro where wild-type Escherichia col...

  8. Effects of post-harvest handling techniques on the retention of phytochemicals in wild blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild blueberries (WBB) are known to have a unique phytochemical profile that boasts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. Polyphenolic compounds in WBB conclusively demonstrate human health benefits ranging from decreases in cardiovascular risk factors and improving insulin sensitivity to bat...

  9. Identification of flavonoid and phenolic antioxidants in black currants, blueberries, raspberries, red currants, and cranberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gina; Degeneve, Alexandra; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2010-04-14

    The antioxidant capacity (AOC) of black currant, blueberry, raspberry, red currant, and cranberry extracts was determined using the FRAP assay. In addition, the vitamin C content of the berries was determined and phenolic and polyphenolic compounds in the extracts were analyze by reversed-phase HPLC-PDA-MS(3) and by reversed-phase HPLC-PDA with an online antioxidant detection system. A complex spectrum of anthocyanins was the major contributor to the AOC of black currants and blueberries, whereas the lower AOC of red currants and cranberries was due mainly to a reduced anthocyanin content. Raspberries also had a lower anthocyanin content than black currants and blueberries, but there was only a slight decline in the AOC because of the presence of the ellagitannins sanguin H-6 and lambertianin C, which were responsible for 58% of the HPLC-AOC of the berries. Vitamin C was responsible for 18-23% of the HPLC-AOC of black currants, red currants, and cranberries and for 11% of that of raspberries but did not contribute to the AOC of the blueberry extract that was examined. Seven percent of the HPLC-AOC of the cranberry extract was attributable to procyanidin dimers. However, the contribution of polymeric proanthocyanidins to the AOC of the five berries was not determined as when analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC these high molecular weight flavan-3-ols are either retained by the column or eluted as a broad unresolved band. PMID:20000747

  10. Fungicide resistance phenotypes in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Understanding fungicide- resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of preharvest fungicide programs for contro...

  11. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management. PMID:26470241

  12. Pollen viability and storage temperature for Southern highbush and Rabbiteye blueberry breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollen viability, as measured by tetrad germination, has been reported, but these studies focused on freshly collected pollen and did not address viability of pollen stored at different temperatures over time. Moreover, genetic differences in pollen viability have been reported in blueberry genotype...

  13. Irrigation and fertigation with drip and alternative micro irrigation systems in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation using conventional drip and alternative micro irrigation systems were evaluated in six cultivars of northern highbush blueberry. The drip system consisted of two laterals of drip tubing, with 2 L/h in-line emitters (point source) spaced every 0.45 m, on each s...

  14. 78 FR 29258 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... return) for the promotion activities conducted by the USHBC. The impact of the USHBC's export marketing...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  15. Quality of 'Brightwell' and 'Tifblue' blueberries after gamma irradiation for quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blueberries must be subjected to a quarantine treatment of methyl bromide fumigation when shipped to certain domestic or export markets. The principle insects that inhibit distribution of blueberries are the apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)], blueberry maggot (R. mendax Curran), and plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)]. Methyl bromide fumigation is the only approved quarantine treatment for blueberries and it is scheduled to be phased out by the year 2001. Highbush blueberries’ tolerance to low-dose irradiation is cultivar-dependent (Eaton et al., 1970). Two main cultivars grown in Florida, ‘Climax’ and ‘Sharpblue’, will tolerate irradiation up to 0.75 kGy without loss of fruit market quality (Miller et al., 1994a, 1994b, 1995). A 1.0-kGy dose is the maximum allowed (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1986) for treatment of fresh fruit or vegetables, and reportedly (personal communications, J. Sharp and G. Hallman) »0.3 kGy is sufficient for control of blueberry insects requiring quarantine certification. Two or three times the minimum dose may, however, be required to assure that the minimum dose is absorbed by all berries during commercial application. Therefore, it is most important to determine the tolerance of berries to irradiation stress. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of low-dose irradiation on the quality and condition of ‘Brightwell’ and ‘Tifblue’, two major rabbiteye cultivars grown in Georgia. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (P £ 0.05) on a split-block experimental design, with harvest dates for ‘Brightwell’, and randomized sample sets as replications for ‘Tifblue’ berries. The data were tested for the main effect of irradiation dosage on quality attributes

  16. Volatile, anthocyanidin, quality and sensory changes in rabbiteye blueberry from whole fruit through pilot plant juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: High antioxidant content and keen marketing have increased blueberry demand and increased local production which in turn mandates new uses for abundant harvests. Pilot scale processes were employed to investigate the anthocyanidin profiles, qualitative volatile compositions, and sensori...

  17. Qualitative analysis of volatiles in rabbiteye blueberry cultivars at various maturities using rapid solid-phase micro extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, superfruits, such as blueberries, have received much attention as scientists, marketers, and consumers push forward knowledge and demand for high antioxidant, healthier diets. Production and consumption are steadily increasing. Yet, there are very few studies detailing the aroma, astring...

  18. Correlation between sensory and instrumental measurements of standard and crisp-texture southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrids)

    OpenAIRE

    Blaker, Kendra M; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A.; Olmstead, James W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre- and postharvest evaluation. RESULTS Sensory and i...

  19. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P. M.; Cline, W. O.; Agudelo, P.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Noe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum and its relationship to BRD warrants further investigation. PMID:23833323

  20. 蓝莓抑菌活性研究进展%Progress in Antibacterial Activity of Blueberries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 孙晓红; 曹奕; 赵勇; Vivian C.H.Wu; 潘迎捷

    2013-01-01

    越橘属的蓝莓含有酚类物质、有机酸类、花青素类和糖类等生物活性成分.较早研究表明,蓝莓具有抗感染、抗氧化、抗肿瘤等功能,而近年的研究表明蓝莓具有抑菌作用.本文介绍了蓝莓的抑菌活性,分析了蓝莓中的抑菌活性成分,同时概括了蓝莓提取物对各种菌体的抑菌机理.%Blueberry was belong to Vaccinium spp.,which contained the biological active component of phenolic substances,organic acids,anthocyan and sugars.Early it was researched that blueberries had the ftmction of anti-infection,oxidation,anti-tumor.But recently,it was suggested that blueberry had bacteriostasis.The activity of bacteriostasis in blueberry was covered in this paper.And the antibacterial activity ingredients in blueberries were analyzed.In addition,the antibacterial mechanism of blueberry extract to all kinds of bacteria was summarized.

  1. Xylella fastidiosa Isolates from Both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa Cause Disease on Southern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2015-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium. PMID:25738552

  2. Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity of Healthy Female Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml of...... blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also...... obtained four hours after consuming the juice. RESULTS: Consumption of cranberry juice resulted in a significant increase in the ability of plasma to reduce potassium nitrosodisulphonate and Fe(III)-2,4, 6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine, these measures of antioxidant capacity attaining a maximum after 60...

  3. The matrix effect of blueberry, oat meal and milk on polyphenols, antioxidant activity and potential bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebeci, Fatma; Şahin-Yeşilçubuk, Neşe

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, ready-to eat breakfast cereals prepared with fruit ingredients have gained particular attention due to their polyphenolic contents and health promoting effects. In this study, the matrix effect of blueberry, oat meal, whole milk or skimmed milk on polyphenols, antioxidative potential as well as their potential bioavailability were investigated. The phenolic properties of whole milk, skimmed milk, blueberry and oat meal were investigated and the changes in combinations of the ingredients were determined. Milk addition decreased the total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin content of samples statistically and had negative effect on antioxidant activity showing differences among different methods. According to HPLC results, it was not possible to detect catechin in mixtures due to milk addition. In vitro digestion method was used to determine potential bioavailability of phenolic compounds. According to in vitro digestion procedure results, whole or skimmed milk did not affect the total phenolic content of the proportion passing to the blood from intestine.

  4. Congenital self-healing histiocytosis presenting as blueberry muffin baby: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Popadic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital self-healing Langerhans cell histiocytosis (CSHLCH, also called as Hashimoto-Pritzker disease, is a rare, benign variant of histiocytosis. Despite the initial dramatic clinical presentation, affected infants are otherwise healthy and skin lesions disappear spontaneously within several weeks to months. We present a case of CSHLCH presenting as blueberry muffin baby. The lesions appeared in the first week of life and lasted 6 months. The follow-up period was 24 months, without any signs of relapse. At the pediatric dermatology unit of our clinic, during the last 20 years, we had 10 children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis and among them only one with CSHLCH. In the literature, we found only 5 newborns with Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as blueberry muffin baby, among them only 4 with self-healing CSHLCH. The early recognition of CSHLCH may spare children from redundant and potentially toxic systemic treatment.

  5. Analysis of Organic Acids in Blueberry Juice and its Fermented Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxue Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid analytical method for simultaneous separation and determination of organic acids is of the essence for quality control of blueberry juice and its fermented wine. In this present study, a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method for separation and determination of organic acids (oxalic acid, gluconic acid, tartaric acid, formic acid, pyruvic acid, malic acid, isocitric acid, shikimic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid and propionic acid in blueberry juice and wine has been developed. The chromatographic separation was performed at 35°C by using an ammonium hydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 2.8 as mobile phase and 0.6 mL/min as the column flow rate. A C18 analytical column and Ultraviolet Detection (UV at &lembda = 210 nm were used for all acids above. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy and precision. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing organic acids in real samples of six species of blueberry juices and wines. The results show that species significantly affect distribution of organic acids in samples but not the kinds of organic acids between six species. Oxalic acid, gluconic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid and citric acid are detected in blueberry juice. Citric acid, which accounts for a percentage >75% of the whole content of organic acids, is the major acid in four kinds of tested species (Sharpblue, Misty, Anna and Bluecrop. In the other two species (Britewell and Premier, malic acid, gluconic acid and citric acid own a mean percentage of 40, 32 and 25%, respectively. After yeast fermentation and aging, several new organic acids (pyruvic acid, isocitric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid and propionic acid appear in wine.

  6. Effect of organic amendments on half-highbush blueberry production and soil fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Warman, P.R.; Shanmugam, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    Five treatments were compared using two half-highbush blueberry cultivars (cv Chippewa and Polaris) transplanted and grown for their first three growing seasons at a site in Boutiliers Point, N.S., a Gibraltar brown sandy loam (Ferro-Humic Podzol). The five treatments were as follows: Alfalfa meal + rock P + wood ash; NPK fertilizer; Municipal Solid Waste (MSWC) compost; Ruminant compost; food waste, manure and yardwaste compost (FMYC). All amendments were weighed and applied in a...

  7. Lack of pollinators limits fruit production in commercial blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Faye E; Winfree, Rachael

    2014-12-01

    Modern agriculture relies on domesticated pollinators such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), and to a lesser extent on native pollinators, for the production of animal-pollinated crops. There is growing concern that pollinator availability may not keep pace with increasing agricultural production. However, whether crop production is in fact pollen-limited at the field scale has rarely been studied. Here, we ask whether commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) production in New Jersey is limited by a lack of pollination even when growers provide honey bees at recommended densities. We studied two varieties of blueberry over 3 yr to determine whether blueberry crop production is pollen-limited and to measure the relative contributions of honey bees and native bees to blueberry pollination. We found two lines of evidence for pollen limitation. First, berries receiving supplemental hand-pollination were generally heavier than berries receiving ambient pollination. Second, mean berry mass increased significantly and nonasymptotically with honey bee flower visitation rate. While honey bees provided 86% of pollination and thus drove the findings reported above, native bees still contributed 14% of total pollination even in our conventionally managed, high-input agricultural system. Honey bees and native bees were also similarly efficient as pollinators on a per-visit basis. Overall, our study shows that pollination can be a limiting factor in commercial fruit production. Yields might increase with increased honey bee stocking rates and improved dispersal of hives within crop fields, and with habitat restoration to increase pollination provided by native bees. PMID:25313694

  8. Blueberries improve glucose tolerance and lipid handling without altering body composition in obese postmenopausal mice

    OpenAIRE

    Elks, Carrie M.; Terrebonne, Jennifer D.; Ingram, Donald K.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk increases significantly during menopause and remains elevated post-menopause. Several botanicals, including blueberries (BB), have been shown to delay MetS progression, but few studies have been conducted in postmenopausal animal models. Here, we examined the effects of BB supplementation on obese postmenopausal mice using a chemically-induced menopause model. Design and Methods After induction of menopause, mice were fed a high-fat diet or the same di...

  9. An efficient RNA isolation procedure and identification of reference genes for normalization of gene expression in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisth, Tripti; Johnson, Lisa Klima; Malladi, Anish

    2011-12-01

    Application of transcriptomics approaches can greatly enhance our understanding of blueberry physiology. The success of transcriptomics approaches is dependent on the extraction of high-quality RNA which is complicated by the abundance of polyphenolics and polysaccharides in blueberry. Additionally, transcriptomics requires the accurate quantification of transcript abundance. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a robust method to determine transcript abundance. Normalization of gene expression using stably expressed reference genes is essential in qRT-PCR. An evaluation of the stability of expression of reference genes has not yet been reported in blueberry. The objectives of this study were to develop an effective procedure for extracting RNA from different organs and to evaluate potential reference genes for qRT-PCR analyses in blueberry. RNA of high quality and yield was extracted from eight and six organs of rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberry, respectively, using a modified cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-based method. The expression stability of 12 reference genes was evaluated. UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME (UBC28), RNA HELICASE-LIKE (RH8), CLATHRIN ADAPTER COMPLEXES MEDIUM SUBUNIT FAMILY PROTEIN (CACSa), and POLYUBIQUITIN (UBQ3b) were the most stably expressed genes across multiple organs in both blueberry species. Further, the expression stability of the reference genes in the branch abscission zone following treatment with fruit abscission-inducing compounds was analyzed. CACSa, RH8, and UBC28 were the most stably expressed genes in the abscission zone under abscission-inducing conditions. We suggest a preliminary evaluation of UBC28, CACSa, RH8, and UBQ3b to identify the most suitable reference genes for the experimental conditions under consideration in blueberry.

  10. Influence of three different concentration techniques on evaporation rate, color and phenolics content of blueberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elik, Aysel; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Maskan, Medeni; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of three different concentration processes open-pan, rotary vacuum evaporator and microwave heating on evaporation rate, the color and phenolics content of blueberry juice. Kinetics model study for changes in soluble solids content (°Brix), color parameters and phenolics content during evaporation was also performed. The final juice concentration of 65° Brix was achieved in 12, 15, 45 and 77 min, for microwave at 250 and 200 W, rotary vacuum and open-pan evaporation processes, respectively. Color changes associated with heat treatment were monitored using Hunter colorimeter (L*, a* and b*). All Hunter color parameters decreased with time and dependently studied concentration techniques caused color degradation. It was observed that the severity of color loss was higher in open-pan technique than the others. Evaporation also affected total phenolics content in blueberry juice. Total phenolics loss during concentration was highest in open-pan technique (36.54 %) and lowest in microwave heating at 200 W (34.20 %). So, the use of microwave technique could be advantageous in food industry because of production of blueberry juice concentrate with a better quality and short time of operation. A first-order kinetics model was applied to modeling changes in soluble solids content. A zero-order kinetics model was used to modeling changes in color parameters and phenolics content.

  11. Atmospheric cold plasma inactivation of aerobic microorganisms on blueberries and effects on quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Niemira, Brendan A; Gurtler, Joshua B; Fan, Xuetong; Sites, Joseph; Boyd, Glenn; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-04-01

    Cold plasma (CP) is a novel nonthermal technology, potentially useful in food processing settings. Berries were treated with atmospheric CP for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, or 120 s at a working distance of 7.5 cm with a mixture of 4 cubic feet/minute (cfm) of CP jet and 7 cfm of ambient air. Blueberries were sampled for total aerobic plate count (APC) and yeast/molds immediately after treatment and at 1, 2, and 7 days. Blueberries were also analyzed for compression firmness, surface color, and total anthocyanins immediately after each treatment. All treatments with CP significantly (P < 0.05) reduced APC after exposure, with reductions ranging from 0.8 to 1.6 log CFU/g and 1.5 to 2.0 log CFU/g compared to the control after 1 and 7 days, respectively. Treatments longer than 60s resulted in significant reductions in firmness, although it was demonstrated that collisions between the berries and the container contributed significantly to softening. A significant reduction in anthocyanins was observed after 90 s. The surface color measurements were significantly impacted after 120 s for the L* and a* values and 45 s for the b* values. CP can inactivate microorganisms on blueberries and could be optimized to improve the safety and quality of produce.

  12. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  13. Myo-Inositol content determined by myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation in blueberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fangyuan; Su, Hongyan; Yang, Nan; Zhu, Luying; Cheng, Jieshan; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Xianhao

    2016-11-01

    Myo-inositol metabolism in plant edible organs has become the focus of many recent studies because of its benefits to human health and unique functions in plant development. In this study, myo-inositol contents were analyzed during the development of two blueberry cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop'. Furthermore, two VcMIPS 1/2 (Vaccinium corymbosum MIPS) genes, one VcIMP (Vaccinium corymbosum IMP) gene and one VcMIOX (Vaccinium corymbosum MIOX) gene were isolated for the first time from blueberry. The expression patterns of VcMIPS2, VcIMP and VcMIOX genes showed a relationship with the change profiles of myo-inositol content during fruit ripening. The results were further confirmed by the analyses of the enzyme activity. Results indicated that both myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation played important roles in determining of myo-inositol levels during the development of blueberry. To our knowledge, this report is the first to discuss myo-inositol levels in fruits in terms of biosynthesis and catabolism. PMID:27211661

  14. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Wild Blueberries (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. with Cultivated Blueberry Varieties (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in Artvin Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Saral

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. which are found naturally in most part of Blacksea Region, and Artvin are generally called bear grape, Trabzon tea, and likapa. In addition, different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. have been cultivated in Artvin region for 5 or 6 years. Blueberries contain appreciable levels of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and flavonols that have high biological activity. V. arctostaphylos and V. myrtillus show that natural distrubition with received V. corymbosum of different cultured species in Artvin region will be determined antioxidant activity in this study. In this study showed that wild species had a higher antioxidant effect than cultivated species. V. myrtillus had high total polyphenols (11.539-20.742 mg GAE/g dry sample, flavonoids (1.182-2.676 mg QE/g dry sample and anthocyanins (3.305-11.473 mg Cyn/g dry sample than V. corymbosum species. In addition, wild species had high CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH values. The antioxidant activities found with CUPRAC, expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity ranged from 0.143 to 0.297 mmol TEAC/g dry sample. Those determined with DPPH expressed as IC50 ranged from 0.229 to 1.178 mg/ml. Those determined with FRAP expressed as FeSO4.7H2O equivalent were in 130.719–346.115 µmol Fe/g dry sample range.

  15. Influence of genotype, cultivation system and irrigation regime on antioxidant capacity and selected phenolics of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Muriel, José Luis; Moreno, Diego A; Moreno-Rojas, José M

    2016-07-01

    Demand for and availability of blueberries has increased substantially over recent years, driven in part by their health-promoting properties. Three blueberry varieties ('Rocío', V2, and V3) were grown under two cultivation systems (open-field and plastic tunnels) and subjected to two irrigations regimes (100% and 80% of crop evapotranspiration) in two consecutive years (2011-2012). They were evaluated for their phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Genotype influenced the antioxidant capacity and the content of the three groups of phenolics in the blueberries. The antioxidant activity and total flavonols content increased when the blueberries were grown under open-field conditions. Deficit irrigation conditions led to additional positive effects on their phenolics (delphinidn-3-acetilhexoside content was increased under plastic tunnel with deficit irrigation). In conclusion, the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of blueberries were not negatively affected by water restriction; Moreover, several changes were recorded due to growing system and genotype. PMID:26920295

  16. Construction of Models for Nondestructive Prediction of Ingredient Contents in Blueberries by Near-infrared Spectroscopy Based on HPLC Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenming; Yoshimura, Norio; Takayanagi, Masao; Che, Jingai; Horiuchi, Naomi; Ogiwara, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Nondestructive prediction of ingredient contents of farm products is useful to ship and sell the products with guaranteed qualities. Here, near-infrared spectroscopy is used to predict nondestructively total sugar, total organic acid, and total anthocyanin content in each blueberry. The technique is expected to enable the selection of only delicious blueberries from all harvested ones. The near-infrared absorption spectra of blueberries are measured with the diffuse reflectance mode at the positions not on the calyx. The ingredient contents of a blueberry determined by high-performance liquid chromatography are used to construct models to predict the ingredient contents from observed spectra. Partial least squares regression is used for the construction of the models. It is necessary to properly select the pretreatments for the observed spectra and the wavelength regions of the spectra used for analyses. Validations are necessary for the constructed models to confirm that the ingredient contents are predicted with practical accuracies. Here we present a protocol to construct and validate the models for nondestructive prediction of ingredient contents in blueberries by near-infrared spectroscopy. PMID:27404089

  17. 蓝莓果酒发酵工艺研究%Study on the Fermentation Technology of Blueberry Fruit Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗世芹; 姚万欣

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced blueberries and blueberry wine, and discussed blueberry wine fermentation process and control points in the process. Fermentation process and influencing factors were analyzed. Treatment of blueberries, sugar additives, different yeast, the main fermentation process, pectin decomposition would have impacts on the quality of blueberry wine. Factors influencing the fermentation process were discussed in details to optimize the fermentation process and improve product quality.%本文对蓝莓和蓝莓果酒进行了介绍,探讨了蓝莓果酒的发酵流程、发酵过程中的控制要点。并对发酵过程中的影响因素进行了分析,蓝莓的处理方法、糖类添加剂、不同的酵母、主发酵工艺、果胶分解均会对蓝莓果酒的质量产生影响。针对发酵过程中的影响因素进行了具体讨论,旨在优化发酵工艺,提高产品质量。

  18. Research Progress of Physiological Ecology of Blueberry%蓝莓的生理生态学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 王莹; 刘兵; 屈德宁

    2015-01-01

    Blueberry fruit has a high nutritional value,rich in vitamin E,vitamin A,protein and cyanine glycosides,etc. Planting blueberry has high economic effect of the project. Blueberry cultivation is influenced by various factors. This article from three aspects of blueberry water physiology,mineral nutrition and photosynthetic physiological characteristics were summarized. The future problem of blueberry research was summarized.%蓝莓果实具有很高的营养价值,其富含维生素E、维生素A、蛋白质和花青苷等,被赞誉为“浆果之王”。它含有丰富的营养成分,既有良好的营养和保健作用,还具有防止脑神经老化、强心、抗癌、软化血管、增强人体免疫功能及缓解视觉疲劳的作用。蓝莓的栽培受到多方面因素的影响。本文对蓝莓的水分生理、矿质营养和土壤pH值及光合生理特性等几个方面进行了综述,并提出了今后蓝莓研究要重视的问题。

  19. Antimicrobial Effects of Blueberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Aqueous Extracts and their Effects on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Hazim O; Kamimoto, Maki; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry on 13 pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were determined before and after neutralization to pH 7.03 ± 0.15. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited by the non-neutralized berries. Blueberry was the best inhibitor, and Vibrio and Listeria were the most sensitive bacteria. After neutralization, blueberry affected only Vibrio and Listeria, whereas the antimicrobial activities of raspberry and strawberry were abolished. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the extracts were measured with colorimetric methods and were highest in strawberry, followed by raspberry, and then blueberry. We also studied the effects of sub-bactericidal concentrations of the three berry extracts on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three berry extracts effectively repressed the transcription of the tcpA gene. Raspberry also repressed the transcription of the ctxA gene, whereas blueberry and strawberry did not. However, the three berry extracts did not affect the transcription of toxT. These results suggest that the three berry extracts exert potent antimicrobial effects and inhibit the expression of the virulence factors of V. cholerae.

  20. Study on Technology of Blueberry Melon Seeds%蓝莓瓜子加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽; 孙汉巨; 康琳琳; 朱作朋; 刘天成; 谢慧明

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the optimum technology conditions for the blueberry melon seeds. [Method] With the pumpkin seed was the main raw material, matched with the blueberry fruit juice, the melon seeds with pure nature fruit juice was developed out. Taking the sense quality of the melon seeds as the evaluation standard, with the blueberries, sugar and citric acid as the factors, the orthogonal experiment on the blueberry fruit juice proportion and the test on the ratio of the fruit juice and anthocyanins in black rice were conducted. The effects of the fruit juice adding quantity, baking temperature and time and frying time on the quality of the melon seeds were studied and the optimum technology conditions for the blueberry melon seeds were confirmed. [ Result ] The factors influencing the taste of the compound blueberry fruit juice were in order of sugar > citric acid > blueberries. The optimum formula of the blueberry fruit juice was as follows: blueberries of 5% , sucrose of 8% and citric acid of 0.2%. The optimum ratio of blueberry juice to anthocyanins in the black rice was 1: 3 and the adding quantity of the blueberry fruit juice was 15 ml per 20 g seeds. The main technology conditions for producing the blueberry melon seeds were as follows; the stripping melon seeds were baked for 2 h at 80 ℃ and fried for 270 s at 160 ℃. [ Conclusion] The study provided the scientific basis for the development of the green fruit juice with pure nature.%[目的]探讨蓝莓瓜子的最佳加工工艺条件.[方法]以南瓜子为主要原料,复配以蓝莓果汁,开发纯天然的果汁瓜子.以瓜子的感官品质为评价标准,以蓝莓、白砂糖和柠檬酸为因素,进行蓝莓果汁配比的正交试验以及该果汁与黑米花青素的配比试验,研究果汁添加量、烘烤温度和时间及炒制时间对瓜子品质的影响,确定蓝莓瓜子的最佳工艺条件.[结果]影响蓝莓复配果汁风味的因素依次为:白砂糖>

  1. Intake of Wild Blueberry Powder Improves Episodic-Like and Working Memory during Normal Aging in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beracochea, Daniel; Krazem, Ali; Henkouss, Nadia; Haccard, Guillaume; Roller, Marc; Fromentin, Emilie

    2016-08-01

    The number of Americans older than 65 years old is projected to more than double in the next 40 years. Cognitive changes associated to aging can affect an adult's day-to-day functioning. Among these cognitive changes, reasoning, episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed decline gradually over time. Early memory changes include a decline in both working and episodic memory. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic (up to 75 days) daily administration of wild blueberry extract or a wild blueberry full spectrum powder would help prevent memory failure associated with aging in tasks involving various forms of memory. Both blueberry ingredients were used in a study comparing young mice (6 months old) to aged mice (18 months old). At this age, mice exhibit memory decline due to aging, which is exacerbated first by a loss in working and contextual (episodic-like) memory. Contextual memory (episodic-like memory) was evaluated using the contextual serial discrimination test. Working and spatial memory were evaluated using the Morris-Water maze test and the sequential alternation test. Statistical analysis was performed using an ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Supplementation with wild blueberry full spectrum powder and wild blueberry extract resulted in significant improvement of contextual memory, while untreated aged mice experienced a decline in such memory. Only the wild blueberry full spectrum powder significantly contributed to an improvement of spatial and working memory versus untreated aged mice. These improvements of cognitive performance may be related to brain oxidative status, acetylcholinesterase activity, neuroprotection, or attenuation of immunoreactivity.

  2. Blueberry husks and probiotics attenuate colorectal inflammation and oncogenesis, and liver injuries in rats exposed to cycling DSS-treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Håkansson

    Full Text Available Long-term colonic inflammation promotes carcinogenesis and histological abnormalities of the liver, and colorectal tumours frequently arise in a background of dysplasia, a precursor of adenomas. Altered colonic microbiota with an increased proportion of bacteria with pro-inflammatory characteristics, have been implicated in neoplastic progression. The composition of the microbiota can be modified by dietary components such as probiotics, polyphenols and dietary fibres. In the present study, the influence of probiotics in combination with blueberry husks on colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent liver damage was evaluated.Colorectal tumours were induced in rats by cyclic treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS. Blueberry husks and a mixture of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15159, Lactobacillus gasseri, DSM 16737 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313 supplemented a basic diet fortified with oats. The condition of the rats was monitored using a disease activity index (DAI. A qualitative and quantitative histological judgement was performed on segments of distal colon and rectum and the caudate lobe of the liver. The formation of short-chain fatty acids, bacterial translocation, the inflammatory reaction and viable count of lactobacilli and Enterobaceriaceae were addressed.Blueberry husks with or without probiotics significantly decreased DAI, and significantly reduced the number of colonic ulcers and dysplastic lesions. With a decreased proportion of blueberry husk in the diet, the probiotic supplement was needed to achieve a significant decrease in numbers of dysplastic lesions. Probiotics decreased faecal viable count of Enterobacteriaceae and increased that of lactobacilli. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics lowered the proportion of butyric acid in distal colon, and decreased the haptoglobin levels. Probiotics mitigated hepatic injuries by decreasing parenchymal infiltration and the incidence of stasis and

  3. 蓝莓的栽培技术及病害研究%Cultivation Technique And Disease Study Of Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗丽芬

    2012-01-01

    This paper sates the cultivation technique of blueberry and characteristics and prevention measures of sev- eral diseases and insects. It also introduces the trophic value, recovery and storage methods of blueberry.%阐述蓝莓的栽培技术管理以及几种病虫害的发生特点危害及防治措施;同时也简单介绍蓝莓的营养价值及采收、贮存方法。

  4. Effects of Blueberry Extract on Antioxidant Capacity in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long TAN; Hai-qiang LI; Hong-peng YANG; Wei PANG; Wei LIU; Shou-dan SUN; Yu-gang JIANG

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of blueberry extract on antioxidant capacity in mice with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were adopted as the AD model and groups AD, AD+BB and control (CT) were set with ten mice in each group. The mice were given blueberry extract(BB) or saline for 16 weeks. The body weight gain and the food consumption were recorded weekly. The morphological changes in cortex were detected, and the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and the levels of GSH and MDA in the brain, liver, kidney and serum were determined.Results The food consumption did not show any significant difference among the three groups, and the AD mice treated with BB obtained a remarkable body weight gain during the experimental period. The morphological examination showed that an obvious neuronal loss appeared in the cortex of AD mice and improvement was noted in mice treated with BB. The biochemical detection showed that the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, and levels of GSH in the brain, liver and serum were significantly declined while the levels of MDA in these tissues and serum were increased in AD mice. After BB administration, the activity of SOD in brain was elevated significantly and the activities of GSH-Px and the levels of GSH in liver and serum were also recovered to some extent. Meanwhile, the levels of MDA in the brain, liver and serum were decreased obviously. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the level of MDA did not show significant change in kidney. Conclusion Brain is susceptive to oxidative stress in AD mice. Blueberry extract is effective in alleviating the oxidative damage in AD mice.

  5. Blueberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Growth and Metastatic Potential of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells Through Modulation of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Lynn S.; Phung, Sheryl; Yee, Natalie; Seeram, Navindra P.; Li, Liya; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are known to exhibit a variety of anti-carcinogenic properties. This study investigated the chemopreventive activity of blueberry extract in triple negative breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Blueberry decreased cell proliferation in HCC38, HCC1937 and MDA-MB-231 cells with no effect on the non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cell line. Decreased metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 cells by blueberry was shown through inhibition of cell motility using wound healing assay...

  6. Botrytis californica, a new cryptic species in the B. cinerea species complex causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea consists of two cryptic species, referred to as Group I and Group II based on Bc-hch gene RFLP haplotyping, and Group I has been described as a new cryptic species B. pseudocinerea. During a survey for Botrytis spp. causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes in the Central Va...

  7. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  8. Screenhouse Evaluations of a Mason Bee Osmia ribifloris (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) as a Pollinator for Blueberries in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmia ribifloris Cresson is a solitary stem-nesting bee whose adult emergence perfectly coincided with the flowering periods of cultivated southern blueberries. An isolated case of extended prepupal dormancy occurred, but never reappeared in a captive population raised in Mississippi. Adults foraged...

  9. Survival and cardioprotective benefits of long-term blueberry enriched diet in dilated cardiomyopathy following myocardial infarction in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Despite remarkable progress in treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) over the last two decades, mortality, personal suffering and cost remain staggering. And effective interventions are still a challenge. Previously we reported that a blueberry-enriched diet (BD) attenuated necroapopt...

  10. Efficiacy of bumble bee disseminated biological control agents for control of Botrytis Blossom blight of Rabbiteye Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea may cause severe crop loss in rabbiteye blueberry, necessitating applications of expensive fungicides. Commercial bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, were tested as vectors of the fungicidal biological control agents (BCAs), Prestop® Gliocladium catenula...

  11. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8 of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON; 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB; 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO; or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO. Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites, and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid. Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046, with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035. Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220, again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185. Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001, with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159 or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670. Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric

  12. Blueberry polyphenol oxidase: Characterization and the kinetics of thermal and high pressure activation and inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Delon, Antoine; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2015-12-01

    Partially purified blueberry polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in Mcllvaine buffer (pH=3.6, typical pH of blueberry juice) was subjected to processing at isothermal-isobaric conditions at temperatures from 30 to 80 °C and pressure from 0.1 to 700 MPa. High pressure processing at 30-50 °C at all pressures studied caused irreversible PPO activity increase with a maximum of 6.1 fold increase at 500 MPa and 30 °C. Treatments at mild pressure-mild temperature conditions (0.1-400 MPa, 60 °C) also caused up to 3 fold PPO activity increase. Initial activity increase followed by a decrease occurred at relatively high pressure-mild temperature (400-600 MPa, 60 °C) and mild pressure-high temperature (0.1-400 MPa, 70-80 °C) combinations. At temperatures higher than 76 °C, monotonic decrease in PPO activity occurred at 0.1 MPa and pressures higher than 500 MPa. The activation/inactivation kinetics of the enzyme was successfully modelled assuming consecutive reactions in series with activation followed by inactivation.

  13. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Properties of Anthocyanin Rich Extracts from Blueberry and Blackcurrant Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative potential of anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARFs obtained from two commercially available juices (blueberry and blackcurrant juices on three tumor cell lines; B16F10 (murine melanoma, A2780 (ovarian cancer and HeLa (cervical cancer. Individual anthocyanin determination, identification and quantification were done using HPLC-MS. Antioxidant activity of the juices was determined through different mechanism methods such as DPPH and ORAC. For biological testing, the juices were purified through C18 cartridges in order to obtain fractions rich in anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins identified were glycosylated cyanidin derivatives. The antiproliferative activity of the fractions was tested using the MTT assay. The antiproliferative potential of ARF was found to be associated with those bioactive molecules, anthocyanins due to their antioxidant potential. The results obtained indicated that both blueberry and blackcurrants are rich sources of antioxidants including anthocyanins and therefore these fruits are highly recommended for daily consumption to prevent numerous degenerative diseases.

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Blueberry Anthocyanin%蓝莓花青素的抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 潘利华

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究蓝莓花青素的抗氧化活性.[方法]采用酸化乙醇提取蓝莓鲜果中的蓝莓花青素,并通过羟自由基、DPPH自由基、H2O2、超氧阴离子自由基及Fe3+清除率试验评价蓝莓花青素的抗氧化能力.[结果]蓝莓花青素对羟自由基、DPPH自由基、H2O2、超氧阴离子自由基及Fe3+清除率随着浓度的增大而增强,其抗氧化活性高于相同浓度的抗坏血酸.[结论]蓝莓花青素具有很高的抗氧化活性,可以作为天然抗氧化剂进行开发.%[Objective] To determine the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin from blueberry.[Method] The anthocyanin were extracted with acidified ethanol from the fresh blueberry and the antioxidant activities of blueberry anthocyanin were determined by · OH,DPPH ·,H2O2,superoxide anion and Fe3+ removal experiments.[Result] The · OH,DPPH ·,H2O2,superoxide anion and Fe3+ removal rates of blueberry anthocyanin increased with its concentrations and were superior to that of Vc at the same concentration.[Conclusion] Blueberry anthocyanin possessed high antioxidant activity,which can be developed as natural antioxidants.

  15. 蓝莓酸乳饮料的工艺研究%Study on processing technology of blueberry yogurt beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少庸; 费英敏

    2011-01-01

    以纯牛奶和蓝莓为主要原料,通过发酵、调配、均质、杀菌等加工工艺制成蓝莓酸乳饮料,通过单因素和正交实验法筛选出最佳工艺配方,采用CMC和黄原胶对其稳定性进行研究,优化并确定了最佳工艺配方为:酸奶30%,蓝莓汁12%,蔗糖12%,柠檬酸0.02%,乙基麦芽酚0.01%,苯甲酸钠0.10%,水45%(均为质量分数)时蓝莓酸乳饮料风味最佳;CMC质量分数为0.5%和黄原胶0.1%复配时蓝莓酸乳饮料稳定性最好.%The paper used fresh milk and blueberry as main ingrediengts, through fermentation, dispensation,homogenization,sterilization and etc, made the blueberry yogurt beverage .the optimum technological conditions were determined with single- factor test and orthogonal test. The stability was studied with two additives:CMC and Xanthan,the optimum formulation was optimized and determined:when the additive amount meet yoghurt 30%,blueberry juice 12%, sucrose 12%, lemon acid 0.02% Ethyl maltol 0.010%, Sodiun Bebzoate 0.1% and water 45% the blueberry yogurt beverage had a good flavor and taste; when the additive amount meet CMC 0.5% ,the mixture of Xanthan Gum 0.1% the blueberry yogurt beverage was considered to be the better stabilizer.

  16. Research Advance in the Development of Blueberry Dairy Products%蓝莓乳制品开发研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈小媛; 王芳; 贾强

    2012-01-01

    Blueberry dairy products are more popular with consumers, because blueberries have a variety of healthpromoting effects. This paper describes the nutrition value and health-promoting functions of blueberries, reviews the current status of development of blueberry dairy products and the recent advance in research on key production technologies, and explores future perspectives.%蓝莓具有多种保健功能,将其与牛乳组合开发新型蓝莓乳制品会倍受消费者青睐。本文对蓝莓营养价值、保健功能等进行概述,重点阐述蓝莓乳制品开发现状及其生产关键技术研究进展,并对其发展前景作出展望。

  17. Mechanism analysis and simulation of blueberry harvest by vibration mode%振动式蓝莓采摘的机理分析与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海滨; 郭艳玲; 鲍玉冬; 耿雷

    2013-01-01

      为改变中国蓝莓人工采摘状况,实现高丛蓝莓的机械化采摘,该文研究了高丛蓝莓的采摘机理,并对所建立的数学模型进行仿真分析。首先分析蓝莓振动采摘机理,建立蓝莓植株采摘物理模型,推导得出动力学方程,采用数学物理微分方程求解得到蓝莓树枝稳态受迫振动输出解及采摘惯性力。运用MATLAB软件仿真分析蓝莓树枝稳态受迫振动时域仿真曲线及采摘力幅频特性仿真曲线,并进行了蓝莓采摘试验,试验数据与仿真结果一致:仿真结果满足蓝莓采摘条件的采摘频率为14~16rad/s,较优的采摘频率为15rad/s,该频率下的采摘效率为913颗/min,采摘生果率为2.99%,采摘果实损坏率为2.86%,未采净率为3.17%,机采人采效率比为10.14。研究结果可为高丛蓝莓采摘机的研制提供参考。%  Recently, the blueberry was served as the king of fruits, and people have been paying more attention to the health care effect, economic and medicinal value of the blueberry. Planting the blueberry is a new economic growth point in agriculture and forestry. The demand for blueberry exceeds the supply in the international market with high-speed growth demand. However, the blueberries are harvested depending entirely on hand picking in China with serious losses, and the picking cost accounts for 50%−70%of the total blueberry production cost. The old harvesting method restricts the widespread popularization and planting of blueberries. Research on blueberry picking machines and blueberry picking mechanisms is in its infancy in China. The price of blueberry picking machines is high. An experiment was conducted to change the artificial harvesting status of the blueberry, realize the mechanization of a high-bush blueberry-picking tool, and establish the theoretical guidance and design basis for the blueberry-picking machine for Chinese national conditions. We studied the

  18. Fungicide resistance profiling in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington and their impact on control of gray mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Sensitivities to boscalid, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, and pyraclostrobin, representing five different fungicide classes, were...

  19. Mechanism analysis and simulation of blueberry harvest by vibration mode%振动式蓝莓采摘的机理分析与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海滨; 郭艳玲; 鲍玉冬; 耿雷

    2013-01-01

      为改变中国蓝莓人工采摘状况,实现高丛蓝莓的机械化采摘,该文研究了高丛蓝莓的采摘机理,并对所建立的数学模型进行仿真分析。首先分析蓝莓振动采摘机理,建立蓝莓植株采摘物理模型,推导得出动力学方程,采用数学物理微分方程求解得到蓝莓树枝稳态受迫振动输出解及采摘惯性力。运用MATLAB软件仿真分析蓝莓树枝稳态受迫振动时域仿真曲线及采摘力幅频特性仿真曲线,并进行了蓝莓采摘试验,试验数据与仿真结果一致:仿真结果满足蓝莓采摘条件的采摘频率为14~16rad/s,较优的采摘频率为15rad/s,该频率下的采摘效率为913颗/min,采摘生果率为2.99%,采摘果实损坏率为2.86%,未采净率为3.17%,机采人采效率比为10.14。研究结果可为高丛蓝莓采摘机的研制提供参考。%  Recently, the blueberry was served as the king of fruits, and people have been paying more attention to the health care effect, economic and medicinal value of the blueberry. Planting the blueberry is a new economic growth point in agriculture and forestry. The demand for blueberry exceeds the supply in the international market with high-speed growth demand. However, the blueberries are harvested depending entirely on hand picking in China with serious losses, and the picking cost accounts for 50%−70%of the total blueberry production cost. The old harvesting method restricts the widespread popularization and planting of blueberries. Research on blueberry picking machines and blueberry picking mechanisms is in its infancy in China. The price of blueberry picking machines is high. An experiment was conducted to change the artificial harvesting status of the blueberry, realize the mechanization of a high-bush blueberry-picking tool, and establish the theoretical guidance and design basis for the blueberry-picking machine for Chinese national conditions. We studied the

  20. A single serving of blueberry (V. corymbosum) modulates peripheral arterial dysfunction induced by acute cigarette smoking in young volunteers: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Fracassetti, Daniela; Campolo, Jonica; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes oxidative stress, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may prevent these conditions. We investigated the effect of a single serving of fresh-frozen blueberry intake on peripheral arterial function and arterial stiffness in young smokers. Sixteen male smokers were recruited for a 3-armed randomized-controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300 g of blueberry) + smoking; control treatment (300 mL of water with sugar) + smoking. Each treatment was separated by one week of wash-out period. The blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral arterial function (reactive hyperemia and Framingham reactive hyperemia), and arterial stiffness (digital augmentation index, digital augmentation index normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm) were measured before and 20 min after smoking with Endo-PAT2000. Smoking impaired the blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral arterial function, but did not affect the arterial stiffness. Blueberry consumption counteracted the impairment of the reactive hyperemia index induced by smoking (-4.4 ± 0.8% blueberry treatment vs. -22.0 ± 1.1% smoking treatment, p smoking treatment, p smoking treatment, mmHg, p smoking. No effect was observed for arterial stiffness and other vital signs. In conclusion, data obtained suggest a protective role of blueberry on reactive hyperemia, Framingham reactive hyperemia, and systolic blood pressure in subjects exposed to smoke of one cigarette. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  1. Study on the Material of Blueberry Wine%蓝莓浸渍酒原料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊基胜; 吴林生; 张春龙; 王子迎

    2012-01-01

    Blueberry wine was produced by fresh blueben'ies and distilled spirits as original material, lemon and sugar as accessories. Blueberry was freezed and dipped at the room temperature, purificated, blended, after-ripened and then bottled. There is lots of factors influence the quality of blueberry wine, such as amount of blueberry, pretreatment of original material, raw liquor's alcohol degree and categories. The final plan of experiment was fixed by combined the above factors and comprehensive assessment of wine's sense, taste and nutrition function. The results show that the best method is adding 16%blueberries, blueberries were frozen before added to the 45% rice wine. 2% fresh lemon and 3% of the sugar was added to the raw liquor, dipping 30 d at the room temperature.%以新鲜的蓝莓浆果和大米酒为原料,新鲜的柠檬和冰糖为辅料,蓝莓冷冻、常温浸渍、过滤、勾兑、装瓶,生产蓝莓浸渍酒。通过蓝莓的添加量、原料的预处理、原料酒酒精度以及原料酒种类对蓝莓酒品质的影响试验,结合感官、口感及营养保健功能的综合评定,最终确定试验方案。试验结果表明蓝莓浸渍酒最佳用料为蓝莓添加量为16%左右,在原料添加前对蓝莓进行低温冷冻处理,选择酒精度为45°的大米酒,浸渍的过程中添加2%的新鲜柠檬和3%的冰糖,常温浸渍30d。

  2. Blueberry polyphenols attenuate kainic acid-induced decrements in cognition and alter inflammatory gene expression in rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis C.; Carey, Amanda N.; Galli, Rachel L.; Spangler, Edward L.; Ingram, Donald K.; Joseph, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease may be partly due to long-term exposure and increased susceptibility to inflammatory insults. In the current study, we investigated whether polyphenols in blueberries can reduce the deleterious effects of inflammation induced by central administration of kainic acid by altering the expression of genes associated with inflammation. To this end, 4-month-old male Fischer-344 (F344) rats were fed a control, 0.015% piroxicam (an NSAID) or 2% blueberry diet for 8 weeks before either Ringer's buffer or kainic acid was bilaterally micro-infused into the hippocampus. Two weeks later, following behavioral evaluation, the rats were killed and total RNA from the hippocampus was extracted and used in real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression of inflammation-related genes. Kainic acid had deleterious effects on cognitive behavior as kainic acid-injected rats on the control diet exhibited increased latencies to find a hidden platform in the Morris water maze compared to Ringer's buffer-injected rats and utilized non-spatial strategies during probe trials. The blueberry diet, and to a lesser degree the piroxicam diet, was able to improve cognitive performance. Immunohistochemical analyses of OX-6 expression revealed that kainic acid produced an inflammatory response by increasing the OX-6 positive areas in the hippocampus of kainic acid-injected rats. Kainic acid up-regulated the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, the neurotrophic factor IGF-1, and the transcription factor NF-κB. Blueberry and piroxicam supplementations were found to attenuate the kainic acid-induced increase in the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB, while only blueberry was able to augment the increased IGF-1 expression. These results indicate that blueberry polyphenols attenuate learning impairments following neurotoxic insult and exert anti-inflammatory actions

  3. Blueberries on Earth and Mars: Correlations Between Concretions in Navajo Sandstone and Terra Meridiani on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Milner, M. W.; Netoff, D.; Dohm, J.; Kalm, V.; Krinsley, D.; Sodhi, R. N.; Anderson, R. C.; Boccia, S.; Malloch, D.; Kapran, B.; Havics, A.

    2008-12-01

    Concretionary Fe-Mn-rich nodular authigenic constituents of Jurassic Navajo sandstone (moki marbles) bear a certain relationship to similar concretionary forms ('blueberries') observed on Mars. Their origin on Earth is considered to invoke variable redox conditions with underground fluids penetrating porous quartz-rich sandstone leading to precipitation of hematite and goethite-rich material from solution, generally forming around a central nucleus of fine particles of quartz and orthoclase, recently verified by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. At the outer rim/inner nucleus boundary, bulbous lobes of fine-grained quartz often invade and fracture the outer rim armored matrix. The bulbous forms are interpreted to result from fluid explusion from the inner concretionary mass, a response to pressure changes accompanying overburden loading. Moki marbles, harder than enclosing rock, often weather out of in situ sandstone outcrops that form a surface lag deposit of varnished marbles that locally resemble desert pavement. The marbles appear morphologically similar to 'blueberries' identified on the martian surface in Terra Meridiani through the MER-1 Opportunity rover. On Earth, redox fluids responsible for the genesis of marbles may have emanated from deep in the crust (often influenced by magmatic processes). These fluids, cooling to ambient temperatures, may have played a role in the genesis of the cemented outer rim of the concretions. The low frequency of fungi filaments in the marbles, contrasts with a high occurrence in Fe-encrusted sands of the Navajo formation [1], indicating that microbial content is of secondary importance in marble genesis relative to the fluctuating influx of ambient groundwater. Nevertheless, the presence of filaments in terrestrial concretions hints at the possibility of discovering fossil/extant life on Mars, and thus should be considered as prime targets for future reconnaissance missions to Mars. 1] Mahaney, W.C., et al. (2004), Icarus, 171, 39-53.

  4. Temperature-related development and population parameters for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on cherry and blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochen, Samantha; Dalton, Daniel T; Wiman, Nik; Hamm, Christopher; Shearer, Peter W; Walton, Vaughn M

    2014-04-01

    Temperature-related studies were conducted on Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae: Drosophilini). From 10-28°C, temperature had a significant impact on blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L. 1755 (Rosales: Rosaceae), important commercial hosts of D. suzukii. Temperature had a significant influence on D. suzukii developmental period, survival, and fecundity, with decreasing developmental periods as temperatures increased to 28°C. At 30°C, the highest temperature tested, development periods increased, indicating that above this temperature the developmental extremes for the species were approached. D. suzukii reared on blueberries had lower fecundity than reared on cherries at all temperatures where reproduction occurred. The highest net reproductive rate (R(o)) and intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) were recorded on cherries at 22°C and was 195.1 and 0.22, respectively. Estimations using linear and nonlinear fit for the minimum, optimal, and maximum temperatures where development can take place were respectively, 7.2, 28.1, and 42.1°C. The r(m) values were minimal, optimal, and maximal at 13.4, 21.0, and 29.3°C, respectively. Our laboratory cultures of D. suzukii displayed high rates of infection for Wolbachia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and this infection may have impacted fecundity found in this study. A temperature-dependent matrix population estimation model using fecundity and survival data were run to determine whether these data could predict D. suzukii pressure based on environmental conditions. The model was applied to compare the 2011 and 2012 crop seasons in an important cherry production region. Population estimates using the model explained different risk levels during the key cherry harvest period between these seasons. PMID:24612968

  5. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality. PMID:27374583

  6. Optimization on Fermentation Technology of Blueberry Wine%蓝莓果酒发酵工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢洋洋; 李延红; 王传华; 樊友宏; 汪宏涛; 武佳斌

    2015-01-01

    The fermentation technology of blueberry wine was studied with blueberries as raw material and active dry wine yeast as fermentation bacteria. Firstly, the effect of initial sugar concentration, yeast inoculation concentration, fermentation temperature and initial pH on the fermentation of blueberry wine were investigated through single-factor experiments. On the basis of that, an orthogonal experiment (L9 (34)) was conducted to optimize the fermentation conditions in terms of the comprehensive sensory evaluation. The results showed that the optimal conditions for blueberry wine were initial sugar concentration 10°Bx, yeast inoculation concentration 0.1%, fermentation temperature 25℃and initial pH of 3.3.%以蓝莓为主要原料,安琪酿酒酵母为发酵菌株,通过单因素实验考察初糖浓度、酵母接种量、发酵温度、起始pH对蓝莓果酒发酵的影响。在单因素实验的基础上,以主发酵后的果酒感官综合评分为指标,通过L9(34)正交试验确定蓝莓果酒发酵工艺的最佳条件。结果表明蓝莓果酒的最佳工艺条件为:初始糖度为10°Bx,酵母接种量为0.1%,发酵温度为25℃,起始pH为3.3。

  7. THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN FRUIT OF HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM L.) RELATING TO DIFFERENT FERTILIZER APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Medvecký; Ján Daniel; Alena Vollmannová; Stanislav Zupka; Miriama Kopernická

    2015-01-01

    Six varieties of high blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) grown on a plantation of research station in Krivá, that is located in the northern part of Slovakia, was examined to determine the content of polyphenols in the fruit depending on the three variants of fertilization. The first variant was realized with the application of organic fertilization, second one with mineral fertilizers and third variant was left without fertilization. The content of total polyphenols (TP) was determined sp...

  8. Use of global trade item numbers in the investigation of a salmonella newport outbreak associated with blueberries in Minnesota, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin D; Rigdon, Carrie E; Robinson, Trisha J; Hedberg, Craig; Smith, Kirk E

    2013-05-01

    In August 2010, the Minnesota Department of Agriculture and Minnesota Department of Health investigated an outbreak of six cases of Salmonella Newport infection occurring in northwestern Minnesota, which identified fresh blueberries as the cause. Initially, traditional traceback methods involving the review of invoices and bills of lading were used to attempt to identify the source of the outbreak. When these methods failed, novel traceback methods were used. Specifically, supplier-specific 12-digit Global Trade Item Numbers (GTINs) and shopper-card information were used to identify a single blueberry grower linked to cases, corroborating the results of a case-control study in which consuming fresh blueberries was statistically associated with illness (5 of 5 cases versus 8 of 19 controls, matched odds ratio [MOR] undefined, P = 0.02). Consuming fresh blueberries from retailer A was also statistically associated with illness (3 of 3 cases versus 3 of 18 controls, MOR undefined, P = 0.03). Based on initially incomplete evidence in this investigation, the invoices pointed to wholesaler A and grower A, based on first-in-first-out product rotation. However, when point-of-sale data were analyzed and linked to shopper-card information, a common GTIN was identified. This information led to an on-site record evaluation at retailer A, and the discovery of additional records at this location documented the supply chain from grower B to wholesaler C to retailer A, shifting the focus of the investigation from grower A to grower B. This investigation demonstrates the emerging concepts of Critical Tracking Events (CTEs) and Key Data Elements (KDE) related to food product tracing. The use of these shopper-cased data and the event data that were queried by investigators demonstrates the potential utility of consciously designed CTEs and KDEs at critical points in the supply chain to better facilitate product tracing. PMID:23643117

  9. Cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and Blueberry Extracts Supplementation Improves Spatial Memory and Regulates Hippocampal ERK Expression in Senescence-accelerated Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Long; YANG Hong Peng; PANG Wei; LU Hao; HU Yan Dan; LI Jing; LU Shi Jun; ZHANG Wan Qi; JIANG Yu Gang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the antioxidation and the regulation on the Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinases (ERK) signaling pathway are involved in the protective effects of blueberry on central nervous system. Methods 30 Senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into three groups and treated with normal diet, blueberry extracts (200 mg/kg·bw/day) and cyaniding-3-O-galactoside (Cy-3-GAL) (50 mg/kg·bw/day) from blueberry for 8 weeks. 10 SAMR1 mice were set as control group. The capacity of spatial memory was assessed by Passive avoidance task and Morris water maze. Histological analyses on hippocampus were completed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and the expression of ERK were detected. Results Both Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts were shown effective functions to relieve cellular injury, improve hippocampal neurons survival and inhibit the pyramidal cell layer damage. Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts also increased SOD activity and reduced MDA content in brain tissues and plasma, and increased hippocampal phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) expression in SAMP8 mice. Further more, the passive avoidance task test showed that both the latency time and the number of errors were improved by Cy-3-GAL treatment, and the Morris Water Maze test showed significant decreases of latency were detected by Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts treatment on day 4. Conclusion Blueberry extracts may reverse the declines of cognitive and behavioral function in the ageing process through several pathways, including enhancing the capacity of antioxidation, altering stress signaling. Cy-3-GAL may be an important active ingredient for these biological effects.

  10. Survival and cardioprotective benefits of long-term blueberry enriched diet in dilated cardiomyopathy following myocardial infarction in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismayil Ahmet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite remarkable progress in treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF over the last two decades, mortality, personal suffering and cost remain staggering, and effective interventions are still a challenge. Previously we reported that a blueberry-enriched diet (BD attenuated necroapoptosis and inflammation in periinfarct area in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that BD will attenuate the course of CHF, including mortality and cardiac remodeling during the first year after induction of MI in rats. METHOD AND RESULTS: Two weeks after coronary artery ligation, rats were divided into two groups of similar average MI size, measured by echocardiography, and then 12-mo dietary regimens were initiated as follows: ad libitum regular diet (control, CD, n = 27 and isocaloric food with 2% blueberry supplement (BD, n = 27 also available ad libitum. These dietary groups were compared to each other and to sham group (SH. Mortality over the 12 mo was reduced by 22% in BD compared with CD (p<0.01. In the course of developing CHF, BD had no effect on the body weight, heart rate or blood pressure. Bi-monthly Echo revealed significant attenuation of the LV chamber remodeling, LV posterior wall thinning, and MI expansion in BD compared with CD. In fact, BD arrested the MI expansion. CONCLUSION: This is the first experimental evidence that a blueberry-enriched diet has positive effects on the course of CHF and thus warrants consideration for clinical evaluation.

  11. Lack of efficacy of blueberry in nutritional prevention of azoxymethane-initiated cancers of rat small intestine and colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xianli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberries may lower relative risk for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Previous work indicated an inhibitory effect of consumed blueberry (BB on formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colons of male Fisher F344 rats (inbred strain. However, effects of BB on colon tumors and in both genders are unknown. Methods We examined efficacy of BB in inhibition of azoxymethane (AOM-induced colon ACF and intestine tumors in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (outbred strain. Pregnant rats were fed a diet with or without 10% BB powder; progeny were weaned to the same diet as their dam and received AOM as young adults. Results Male and female rats on control diet had similar numbers of ACF at 6 weeks after AOM administration. BB increased (P P P > 0.05 to reduce overall gastrointestinal tract tumor incidence in males, however, tumor incidence in females was unaffected (P > 0.1 by BB. There was a tendency (0.1 > P > 0.05 for fewer adenocarcinomas (relative to total of adenomatous polyps plus adenocarcinomas in colons of female than male tumor-bearing rats; in small intestine, this gender difference was significant (P P Conclusion Results did not indicate robust cancer-preventive effects of BB. Blueberry influenced ACF occurrence in distal colon and tumor progression in duodenum, in gender-specific fashion. Data indicate the potential for slowing tumor progression (adenomatous polyp to adenocarcinoma by BB.

  12. Potentiation of the bioavailability of blueberry phenolic compounds by co-ingested grape phenolic compounds in mice, revealed by targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudonné, Stéphanie; Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Dubé, Pascal; Varin, Thibault V; Calon, Frédéric; Desjardins, Yves

    2016-08-10

    The low bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds, resulting from poor absorption and high rates of metabolism and excretion, is a concern as it can limit their potential beneficial effects on health. Targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces of mice supplemented for 15 days with a blueberry extract, a grape extract or their combination revealed significantly increased plasma concentrations (3-5 fold) of blueberry phenolic metabolites in the presence of a co-ingested grape extract, associated with an equivalent decrease in their appearance in feces. Additionally, the repeated daily administration of the blueberry-grape combination significantly increased plasma phenolic concentrations (2-3-fold) compared to animals receiving only a single acute dose, with no such increase being observed with individual extracts. These findings highlight a positive interaction between blueberry and grape constituents, in which the grape extract enhanced the absorption of blueberry phenolic compounds. This study provides for the first time in vivo evidence of such an interaction occurring between co-ingested phenolic compounds from fruit extracts leading to their improved bioavailability. PMID:27443888

  13. Hydrophilic carboxylic acids and iridoid glycosides in the juice of American and European cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and V. oxycoccos), lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea), and blueberries (V. myrtillus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Krogfelt, Karen A; Cornett, Claus;

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the hydrophilic fraction of cranberry juice by reversed-phase HPLC using an Aqua LUNA column with diode array or MS detection revealed the presence of quinic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid, and citric acid. For the first time, two iridoid glucosides were found in the juice. The two...... iridoid glucosides were shown to be monotropein and 6,7-dihydromonotropein by MS and NMR spectroscopy. A fast reversed-phase HPLC method for quantification of the hydrophilic carboxylic acids was developed and used for analyses of cranberry, lingonberry, and blueberry juices. The level of hydrophilic...... carboxylic acids in cranberries was 2.67-3.57% (w/v), in lingonberries 2.27-3.05%, and in blueberries 0.35-0.75%. In lingonberries both iridoid glucosides were present, whereas only monotropein was present in blueberries....

  14. 不同品牌蓝莓果汁抗氧化功能研究%Research of antioxidant activity of different brand blueberry juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞晨; 左丽丽; 刘芸; 张迪; 安婷; 孙珍珍

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the antioxidant activity of different brands of commercially available blueberry juice and self-made blueberry juice.Methods The anthocyanins,polysaccharides and Vc content in the different brands of blueberry juice were determined,and total reducing capacity,hydroxyl radical scavenging activity,superoxide radical scavenging capacity,DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging ability of different brands of blueberry juice were analysised based on the antioxidant method in vitro.Results There are some differences between the nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity of different brands of blueberry juice,and showed a significant dose-effect relationship.Con-clusion The self-made fruit juice and blueberry eare a good health food for its possessing the bestantioxidant ability and helping to clear free radicals in the body.%目的:研究市售不同品牌蓝莓果汁及自制蓝莓果汁的抗氧化活性。方法对不同品牌蓝莓果汁中花色苷多糖及Vc含量进行测定,并采用体外抗氧化方法研究不同品牌蓝莓果汁的总还原能力羟基自由基清除能力超氧自由基清除能力 DPPH和ABTS自由基清除能力。结果不同品牌蓝莓果汁的营养成分和抗氧化能力存在一定的差异,且呈明显量效关系。结论自制果汁和蓝莓e族抗氧化能力最佳,有助于清除机体多余自由基,是良好的保健食品。

  15. Simultaneous determination of active ingredients in blueberry wine by CE-AD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Cheng Li; Lang Zhu Chi; Jin Kun Zhu; Yin Yan Zhang; Qing Jiang Wang; Pin Gang He; Yu Zhi Fang

    2011-01-01

    A method based on capillary electrophoresis coupled with amperometric detection (CE-AD) has been developed for the separation and determination of kaempferol, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid in blueberry wine for the first time. In order to get the optimum conditions of separation, the effects of working electrode potential, pH value and concentration of running buffer, separation voltage and injection time on CE-AD were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the analytes could be separated in Na2B4O7-KH2PO4 buffer at pH 7.8 within 18 min. A 300 μm diameter carbon disk electrode had good current responses at +0.95 V (vs. SCE) for all analytes. The responses were linear with concentrations over three orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N = 3) at 10-8 g/mL magnitude for the analytes and the recoveries were in the range of 95.8-106.7%. The method could be successfully applied to the analysis of real sample with satisfactory results and therefore recommended for use by the quality control departments of fruit wine producers.

  16. Biochemical and molecular changes in response to aluminium-stress in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Aquea, Felipe; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alberdi, Miren; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) stress is an important factor limiting crop yields in acid soils. Despite this, very little is known about the mechanisms of resistance to this stress in woody plants. To understand the mechanisms of Al-toxicity and response in blueberries, we compared the impact of Al-stress in Al-resistant and Al-sensitive genotypes using Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) as a plant model. We investigated the effect of Al-stress on the physiological performance, oxidative metabolism and expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes in two V. corymbosum cultivars maintained hydroponically with AlCl(3) (0 and 100 μM). Microscopic analyses of Al-treated root tips suggested a higher degree of Al-induced morphological injury in Bluegold (sensitive genotype) compared to Brigitta (resistant genotype). Furthermore, the results indicated that Brigitta had a greater ability to control oxidative stress under Al-toxicity, as reflected by enhancement of several antioxidative and physiological properties (radical scavenging activity: RSA, superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase: CAT; maximum quantum yield: Fv/Fm, effective quantum yield: ФPSII, electron transport rate: ETR and non-photochemical quenching: NPQ). Finally, we analyzed the expression of genes homologous to GST and ALDH, which were identified in a global expression analysis. In the resistant genotype, the expression of these genes in response to Al-stress was greater in leaves than in roots.

  17. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Spent Osmotic Solution (SOS Generated from Osmotic Dehydration of Blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushlendra Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization of spent osmotic solution (SOS, a waste generated from osmotic dehydration of fruits, has the potential of transformation into hydrochars, a value-added product, while reducing cost and overall greenhouse gas emissions associated with waste disposal. Osmotic solution (OS and spent osmotic solution (SOS generated from the osmotic dehydration of blueberries were compared for their thermo-chemical decomposition behavior and hydrothermal carbonization. OS and SOS samples were characterized for total solids, elemental composition, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. In addition, hydrothermal carbonization was performed at 250 °C and for 30 min to produce hydrochars. The hydrochars were characterized for elemental composition, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, particle shape and surface morphology. TGA results show that the SOS sample loses more weight in the lower temperature range than the OS sample. Both samples produced, approximately, 40%–42% (wet-feed basis hydrochar during hydrothermal carbonization but with different properties. The OS sample produced hydrochar, which had spherical particles of 1.79 ± 1.30 μm diameter with a very smooth surface. In contrast, the SOS sample produced hydrochar with no definite particle shape but with a raspberry-like surface.

  18. Effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink intervention on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in humans with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riso, Patrizia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Del Bo', Cristian;

    2013-01-01

    Wild blueberries (WB) (Vaccinium angustifolium) are rich sources of polyphenols, such as flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins (ACNs), reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. This study investigated the effect of regular consumption of a WB or a placebo (PL......) drink on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in subjects with risk factors for cardiovascular disease.......Wild blueberries (WB) (Vaccinium angustifolium) are rich sources of polyphenols, such as flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins (ACNs), reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. This study investigated the effect of regular consumption of a WB or a placebo (PL...

  19. Evaluation of high hydrostatic pressure inactivation of human norovirus on strawberries, blueberries, raspberries and in their purees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Runze; Ye, Mu; Li, Xinhui; Ji, Lin; Karwe, Mukund; Chen, Haiqiang

    2016-04-16

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) has been an increasing concern of foodborne illness related to fresh and frozen berries. In this study, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of HuNoV on fresh strawberries, blueberries, and raspberries and in their purees was investigated. Porcine gastric mucin (PGM)-conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MBs) and real-time reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were utilized for infectious HuNoV discrimination and quantification. Strawberry puree inoculated with HuNoV genogroup I.1 (GI.1) strain was HHP-treated at 450, 500 and 550 MPa for 2 min each at initial sample temperatures of 0, 4 and 20 °C. HuNoV GI.1 strain became more sensitive to HHP treatment as the temperature decreased from 20 to 0 °C. HuNoV GI.1 or genogroup II.4 (GII.4) strains were inoculated into three types of berries and their purees and treated at pressure levels from 250 to 650 MPa for 2 min at initial sample temperature of 0 °C. For the purees, the HHP condition needed to achieve >2.9 log reduction of HuNoV GI.1 strain and >4.0 log reduction of HuNoV GII.4 strain was found to be ≥ 550 MPa for 2 min at 0 °C. HHP treatment showed better inactivation effect of HuNoV on blueberries than on strawberry quarters and raspberries. HuNoV GI.1 strain was more resistant to HHP treatment than HuNoV GII.4 strain under different temperatures and environment. The physical properties and sensory qualities of HHP-treated and untreated blueberries and the three types of berry purees were evaluated. Color, pH and viscosity of blueberries and three berry purees showed no or slight changes after HHP treatment. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that HHP treatment of 550 MPa for 2 min at 0 °C did not significantly reduced the sensory qualities of three berry purees. The results demonstrated that the HHP treatment of 550 MPa for 2 min at 0 °C could be a potential nonthermal intervention for HuNoV in berry purees without adversely affecting their sensory qualities

  20. Application of water-assisted pulsed light treatment to decontaminate raspberries and blueberries from Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaoxin; Sido, Robert; Huang, Runze; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-09-01

    We developed and evaluated a small scaled-up water-assisted pulsed light (WPL) system, in which berries were washed in a flume washer while being irradiated by pulsed light (PL). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used in combination with PL as an advanced oxidation process and chlorine wash was used as a control. The effects of organic load, water turbidity, berry type and PL energy output on the inactivation of Salmonella using the WPL system were investigated. The combination of WPL and 1% H2O2 (WPL-H2O2) was the most effective treatment which reduced Salmonella on raspberries and blueberries by 4.0 and >5.6logCFU/g, respectively, in clear water. When high organic load and SiO2, as a soil simulator, were added in wash water, the free chlorine level in chlorinated water decreased significantly (P0.05) was observed for the decontamination efficacy of 1-min WPL-H2O2 treatment. Even in the presence of high organic load and water turbidity, no viable bacterial cells were recovered from the wash water, which showed that WPL-H2O2 could effectively prevent the risk of cross-contamination during treatment. Taken together, 1-min WPL treatment without H2O2 could provide a chemical free alternative to chlorine washing with similar and in some cases significantly higher bactericidal efficacy. Compared with chlorine washing, the combination of WPL and H2O2 resulted in significantly higher (Pprocessing of small berries intended for fresh-cut and frozen berry products. PMID:26047537

  1. Effect of blueberry juice on clearance of buspirone and flurbiprofen in human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Michael J; Masse, Gina; Harmatz, Jerold S; Cancalon, Paul F; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Court, Michael H; Greenblatt, David J

    2013-01-01

    Aim The present study evaluated the possibility of drug interactions involving blueberry juice (BBJ) and substrate drugs whose clearance is dependent on cytochromes P4503A (CYP3A) and P4502C9 (CYP2C9). Methods A 50:50 mixture of lowbush and highbush BBJ was evaluated in vitro as an inhibitor of CYP3A activity (hydroxylation of triazolam and dealkylation of buspirone) and of CYP2C9 activity (flurbiprofen hydroxylation) using human liver microsomes. In clinical studies, clearance of oral buspirone and oral flurbiprofen was studied in healthy volunteers with and without co-treatment with BBJ. Results BBJ inhibited CYP3A and CYP2C9 activity in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of less than 2%, but without evidence of mechanism-based (irreversible) inhibition. Grapefruit juice (GFJ) also inhibited CYP3A activity, but inhibitory potency was increased by pre-incubation, consistent with mechanism-based inhibition. In clinical studies, GFJ significantly increased area under the plasma concentration−time curve (AUC) for the CYP3A substrate buspirone. The geometric mean ratio (GMR = AUC with GFJ divided by AUC with water) was 2.12. In contrast, the effect of BBJ (GMR = 1.39) was not significant. In the study of flurbiprofen (CYP2C9 substrate), the positive control inhibitor fluconazole significantly increased flurbiprofen AUC (GMR = 1.71), but BBJ had no significant effect (GMR = 1.03). Conclusion The increased buspirone AUC associated with BBJ is quantitatively small and could have occurred by chance. BBJ has no effect on flurbiprofen AUC. The studies provide no evidence for concern about clinically important pharmacokinetic drug interactions of BBJ with substrate drugs metabolized by CYP3A or CYP2C9. PMID:22943633

  2. Evaluation of Blueberry Juice in Mouse Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Crypts and Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Álvarez-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry is a plant with a number of nutritional and biomedical capabilities. In the present study we initially evaluated the capacity of its juice (BJ to inhibit the number of aberrant crypts (AC induced with azoxymethane (AOM in mouse. BJ was administered daily by the oral route to three groups of animals during four weeks (1.6, 4.1, and 15.0 μL/g, respectively, while AOM (10 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected to the mentioned groups, twice a week, in weeks two and three of the assay. We also included two control groups of mice, one administered distilled water and the other the high dose of BJ. A significant increase of AC was observed in the AOM treated animals, and a mean protection of 75.6% was determined with the two low doses of BJ tested; however, the high dose of the juice administered together with AOM increased the number of crypts more than four times the value observed in animals administered only AOM. Furthermore, we determined the antioxidant potential of BJ with an ex vivo DPPH assay and found a dose-dependent decrease with a mean of 19.5%. We also determined the DNA oxidation/antioxidation by identifying 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine adducts and found a mean decrease of 44.3% with the BJ administration with respect to the level induced by AOM. Our results show a complex differential effect of BJ related to the tested doses, opening the need to further evaluate a number of factors so as to determine the possibility of a cocarcinogenic potential.

  3. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2013-06-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16/p21 in bone. Feeding a diet supplemented with blueberries (BB) to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only prior to puberty [postnatal day 21 (PND21) to PND34] prevents OVX-induced effects on expression of these molecules at PND68. In order to provide more evidence and gain a better understanding on the association between bone collagen matrix and resident bone cell fate, in vitro studies on the cellular senescence pathway using primary calvarial cells and three cell lines (ST2 cells, OB6, and MLO-Y4) were conducted. We found that senescence was inhibited by collagen in a dose-response manner. Treatment of cells with serum from OVX rats accelerated osteoblastic cell senescence pathways, but serum from BB-fed OVX rats had no effect. In the presence of low collagen or treatment with OVX rat serum, ST2 cells exhibited higher potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that bone cell senescence is associated with decreased Sirt1 expression and activated p53, p16, and p21. These results suggest that (1) a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone cell senescence from adult rats can occur after only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty, and (2) the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect involves, at least in part, prevention of collagen degradation. PMID:22555620

  4. Research Status of Blueberry Processing in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江省蓝莓加工研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉莉

    2013-01-01

    In order to promote the development of blueberry industry better in Heilongjiang province and further improve the blueberry processing products in the market ,products market share ,brand ,quantity and popularity of blueberry processed products in Heilongjiang province were investigated including beverage ,fruit wine and blueberries dairy products ,the processing industry present situation of processing enterprises ,the condition of product quality were analyzed ,and the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions were proposed to make leading enterprises ,strengthen product development and improve the quality guarantee system .%为了更好地带动黑龙江省蓝莓产业的发展,进一步完善蓝莓加工品的市场,对黑龙江省蓝莓加工品如饮料、果酒和乳制品的市场占有率,品牌数量及知名度进行了调查,对蓝莓加工产业现存的加工企业现状、产品品质状况进行了分析,并提出了相应的对策建议,即打造龙头企业、加大产品开发力度、健全质量保障体系。

  5. Improving yield and berry quality for zygomorphic blooms of blueberry: the role of the plant growth regulators, gibberellic acid and coconut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A putative mutant gene(s) induces a high degree of zygomorphy that eliminates or deforms the tubular corollas of rabbiteye blueberries. Once thought to have a benign affect on V. ashei pollination and fruit set, zygomorphy is linked to greater seedlessness, lower fruit set, and is suspected to be a ...

  6. Dietary cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry affects the development of dyslipidemia and insulin insensitivity associated with metabolic syndrome in high fructose fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of feeding cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry powder on selected parameters of metabolic syndrome were investigated in 40 growing male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were divided into five dietary treatments of 1) control AIN93G diet, 2) high fructose (65% by weight, HF) diet, and 3-5) ...

  7. 蓝莓营养保健蛋糕的研制%The Formula and Method for Making Nutrition Health Cake with Blueberry Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路红波

    2013-01-01

      本文将蓝莓制成蓝莓汁添加到蛋糕中,制成营养保健蛋糕,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定了最佳配方为:蛋糕专用粉250 g,鸡蛋300 g,白砂糖200 g,蓝莓汁150 g,蛋糕油20 g,泡打粉18 g.按照该配方生产出的蛋糕具有蓝莓特有的香味和色泽,口感松软香甜,而且具有良好营养和保健价值,发展前景十分广阔.%The nutrition health cake was made by adding blueberry juice to it. The formula, tested by single factor and orthogonal tests, was as follows: cake flour 250g, egg 300g, white sugar 200g, blueberry juice 150g, emulsifier 20g, baking powder18g. The cake tastes soft and sweet with the typical flavor and color of blueberry. With its value in nutrition and health, the cake with blueberry juice will be widely acknowledged and enjoyed in the future.

  8. Xylella fastidiosa is associated with reduced yield and altered fruit quality in a rabbiteye blueberry orchard in Louisiana but does not appear to spread rapidly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterial pathogen that causes diseases such as Pierce’s disease of grape, bacterial leaf scorch of shade trees, and citrus variegated chlorosis. Work by researchers in Georgia and Florida has shown that it is the cause of bacterial leaf scorch of Southern highbush blueberrie...

  9. Different effects of anthocyanins and phenolic acids from wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) on monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells in a TNF-α stimulated proinflammatory environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Roursgaard, Martin; Porrini, Marisa;

    2016-01-01

    Scope: Monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium is a crucial step in the early stages of atherogenesis. This study aims to investigate the capacity of an anthocyanin (ACN) and phenolic acid (PA) rich fraction (RF) of a wild blueberry, single ACNs (cyanidin, malvidin, delphinidin) and related...

  10. The antimicrobial properties of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) fractional components against foodborne pathogens and the conservation of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Wu, Vivian C H; White, Jennifer; Tadepalli, Shravaini; Andre, Enroe E

    2012-05-01

    The antimicrobial properties of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) were studied against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus to determine which fractional components have antimicrobial effects and which microorganisms are most susceptible to these antimicrobial properties. Lowbush blueberry extract (F1) was separated using a C-18 Sep-Pak cartridge into monomeric phenolics (F2) and anthocyanins plus proanthocyanidins (F3). Fraction 3 was further separated into anthocyanins (F4) and proanthocyanidins (F5) using a LH-20 Sephadex column. Each fraction was initially screened for antimicrobial properties using agar diffusion assay. Treatments that demonstrated inhibition were further analyzed for inhibition in liquid culture. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using a two-fold dilution series and viable cell counts taken at 0 and 24 h to examine growth reduction. Fraction 3 demonstrated the lowest MICs/MBCs followed by F1, F2, F4, and F5. L. monocytogenes was the most susceptible to blueberry fraction treatment, followed by E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium. L. rhamnosus was the least susceptible to each fraction treatment. The results can be applied to the field of preventive medicine, food safety, and enrich the understanding of the health benefits of lowbush blueberries. PMID:22265292

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase genes and their association with fruit storage conditions in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2013-05-13

    Blueberry is a widely grown and easily perishable fruit crop. An efficient post-harvest handling is critical, and for that purpose gene technology methods have been part of ongoing programmes to improve crops with high food values such as blueberry. Here we report the isolation, cloning, characterization and differential expression levels of two cDNAs encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibitor Protein (PGIP) and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase (CCR) from blueberry fruits in relation to various storage conditions. The open reading frame of PGIP and CCR encodes a polypeptide of 329 and 347 amino acids, respectively. To assess changes in the expression of blueberry PGIP and CCR after harvest, a storage trial was initiated. The northern blots hybridization showed a clear differential expression level of PGIP and CCR between freshly harvested and stored fruits as well as between fruits stored under various storage conditions. Although the prospects of exploiting such a strategy for crop improvement are limited, the results provide further insight into the control of the quality over the storage period at the molecular level.

  12. Valorisation of raspberry and blueberry pomace through the formulation of value-added gluten-free cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarić, Bojana; Mišan, Aleksandra; Mandić, Anamarija; Nedeljković, Nataša; Pojić, Milica; Pestorić, Mladenka; Đilas, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Successful valorisation of raspberry and blueberry pomace was achieved through their application, as dried and ground powders, in the formulation of value-added gluten-free cookies. Simplex-lattice mixture design approach was applied to obtain the product with the best sensory properties, nutritional profile and antioxidant activity. The highest desirability of 90.0 % was accomplished with the substitution of gluten-free flour mixture with 28.2 % of blueberry and 1.8 % of raspberry pomace. The model was verified. Optimized cookies had similar protein (3.72 %) and carbohydrate (66.7 %) contents as gluten-containing counterparts used for comparison, but significantly lower fat content (10.97 %). Daily portion of the optimized cookies meets: 5.00 % and 7.73 % of dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for linoleic acid, 23.6 % and 34.3 % of DRIs for α-linolenic acid and 10.3 % and 15.6 % of DRIs for dietary fibers, for male and female adults, respectively. The nutritional profile of the optimized formulation makes it comparable with added-value gluten-containing counterparts. PMID:27162394

  13. Development of Flammulina Velutipes Blueberry Jelly%金针菇蓝莓果冻的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青; 张文英

    2014-01-01

    以金针菇、蓝莓为主要原料,白砂糖、柠檬酸、魔芋胶和卡拉胶为辅料,通过单因素实验、正交试验研究确定了金针菇蓝莓果冻的最佳配方。结果表明,金针菇与蓝莓混合汁比例为4∶1,添加量为30%,白砂糖15%,柠檬酸0.15%,复合凝胶剂为0.7%,即制得玫红色,半透明,形态美观,酸甜适口,富有混合汁风味的果冻。%This study took flammulina velutipes and blueberry as the main raw material and white sugar,citric acid, konjac gum and carrageenan as accessories. And the best formulation of the jelly was determined by single factor experiment and orthogonal design experiment. The results showed that: flammulina velutipes mixed with blueberry juice ratio was 4∶1, adding amount was 30%, white sugar15%, citric acid 0.15%, composite gels 0.7%, which was prepared rose red, translucent, forms beautiful, sweet and sour, rich mixed juice flavor jelly.

  14. Evaluation of protective effect of freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder on acrylamide toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengyao; Liu, Xin; Luo, Yinghua; Guo, Huan; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2015-04-01

    Berries are dietary plants with high antioxidant activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of berries (strawberry, grape, and blueberry) against the acrylamide (AA)-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice model, respectively. Mice were treated with 50 mg/kg b.w./day AA intraperitoneal injection for 5 d after feeding control diet or diet containing freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder. The results showed that AA induced a significant general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice. Compared with the control diet, the diets containing berries could reverse the AA-induced alterations in liver antioxidant enzymes activities (P < 0.05). Moreover, the AA-induced genotoxicity could be prevented by the diet containing berries. The DNA damage in the lymphocyte and liver cells and the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cell were significantly alleviated (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the mice fed with diets containing berries showed a recovery in the sperm count, the sperm activity rate, sperm motility parameters, and the abnormal sperm rate (P < 0.05). Berry powders have remarkable intervention against the AA-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity. Abundant phenolics, especially anthocyanins, may contribute to the intervention.

  15. Characterization of Changes in Polyphenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Physico-Chemical Parameters during Lowbush Blueberry Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gibson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in major polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and selected physico-chemical parameters were examined in lowbush blueberry during fruit ripening. Polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins, density, soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, and antioxidant capacity were determined in fruits of four maturities: green, pink/red, blue, and over-mature. Highest concentrations of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids were in green fruits: 168 ± 107, 119 ± 29 and 543 ± 91 mg/100 g dry weight (DW respectively. Highest anthocyanin levels were found in blue and over-mature fruits (1011–1060 mg/100 DW. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and quercetin-3-O-galactoside the most abundant flavonol in all maturities. Epicatechin was the most abundant flavan-3-ol in green fruits (80 ± 20 mg/100 DW, and catechin was the most abundant in other maturity stages. Increase of glucose and fructose and decrease of organic acids were observed during fruit ripening. Among six organic acids found, quinic acid (1.7–9.5 mg/100 mg DW was the most abundant throughout the fruit ontogeny. Soluble solids, pH, and density increased with maturity while, titratable acidity decreased. These findings can be helpful in optimizing harvest and processing operations in lowbush blueberry fruits.

  16. Metal and PAH concentrations in fruit of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. (Lowbush Blueberry) : a comparison among Whitney Pier, North Sydney and supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Land Resource Science

    2004-07-01

    The concentration of various metals in the fruit harvested from Lowbush blueberry plants in Whitney Pier, Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS), North Sydney (NS) and supermarket were quantified in this report. The concentrations were compared among the 3 sources to determine whether the metal and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the blueberries from Whitney Pier were higher or lower compared to the reference blueberries from North Sydney and the supermarket. Mean values for each of the analytes were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study determined whether washed berries have lower concentrations of contaminants than unwashed berries. The risk to human health of exposure to metals and PAHs through consumption of blueberry samples was also calculated. It was concluded that concentrations of selenium and zinc are elevated in blueberries from Whitney Pier compared to berries from North Sydney and the supermarket, but are well within safe levels. Other elements such as arsenic, titanium, vanadium, lead, copper and molybdenum were similar, and only thallium was elevated in supermarket berries relative to those from Whitney Pier and North Sydney. Chromium was not detected in any samples. It was determined that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the metals analyzed, regardless of whether they were Whitney Pier samples or reference samples. Only 2 PAHs were detected in one of the unwashed samples from Whitney Pier. No PAHs were found in washed berries or unwashed berries from the supermarket or North Sydney. It was concluded that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the PAHs. Washed and unwashed samples had similar metal concentrations, indicating that surface contamination did not occur. A full methodology of the testing program was provided. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  17. AB-8大孔树脂对蓝莓花色苷的纯化研究%The purification study of blueberry anthocyanin on resin AB-8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄月鹏; 黄翠贤

    2012-01-01

    花色苷是一种水溶性的安全的天然色素。本论文以蓝莓花色苷提取液为原料。使用AB-8树脂对蓝莓花色苷精制工艺进行了研究。结果表明:AB-8树脂吸附流速为10mL/min,用40%乙醇洗脱,解吸流速为5mL/min。AB-8树脂饱和吸附量1.25mg/mL,树脂量是蓝莓花色苷量的3BV。蓝莓花色苷的纯度为38.1%。%Anthocyanin was a water-soluble, safe and natural pigment. Extraction of blueberry anthocyanin was used as raw material in this paper.lt was studied that technology of purifing resin AB-8 to blueberry anthocyanin. The results showed that the absorption speed of resin AB-8 was 10ml/min,the anthocyanin from blueberry was eluted with 40% ethanol at the flow rate of 5mL/min.The absorption capacity of the resin AB-8 was determined to be 1.25mg/mL. It revealed that ratio of resinAB-8 to blueberry anthocyanin solvent were 3BV. The purification of blueberry anthocyanin was 38.1%.

  18. 越橘果实花青苷含量及其不同发育阶段的变化%Contents and changes of anthocyanin in blueberry during fruit development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春雨; 王晶莹; 郭庆勋; 周连霞; 贾承国

    2012-01-01

    对25个高丛越橘,9个半高丛越橘品种和10个杂交后代的花青苷含量进行分析.结果表明,越橘品种花青苷含量在52.700~233.000 U·g1 FW之间,其中艾木蓝花青苷含量最高.高丛越橘品种平均为103.771 U·g-1FW,品种间的变异系数为29.48%,半高丛越橘品种平均为99.956U·g-1FW,品种间的变异系数为19.64%.杂交后代类型的花青苷平均含量为135.860U ·g-1 FW,高于高丛越橘和半高丛越橘平均值.对果实发育过程中花青苷含量变化进行分析显示,越橘果实花青苷主要存在于果皮中,粉色期是花青苷合成的主要时期,而50%蓝色期是越橘花青苷迅速合成期.%The contents of anthocyanin in 25 highbush blueberry, 9 half-highbush blueberry, and 10 blueberry hybrid progeny fruits were analyzed. The results showed that content of anthocyanin ranged from 52.700 to 233.000 U·g-1 FW, in which the content of Amblue anthocyanin was the highest. Average anthocyanin content of highbush blueberry and half-highbush blueberry was 103.771 and 99.956 U·g-1 FW, respectively. The coefficient of variation of anthocyanin contents was 29.48% between the highbush blueberry cultivars, and 19.64% between the half-highbush blueberry cultivars. Average anthocyanin content of hybrid progeny was 135.860 U·g-1 FW, which was higher than that of highbush blueberry and half-highbush blueberry. The change of anthocyanin content was detected during fruit development. The results showed that anthocyanin primarily lied in the skin for blueberry. Pink stage was the key syntheses stage and 50% blue stage was the rapid syntheses stage for blueberry.

  19. Strawberry or blueberry supplementation may protect against increased oxidative stress vulnerability from both irradiation and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.

    In several studies we have now shown that there are some interesting parallels between aging and the effects of heavy particle irradiation (56Fe) in a rat model. Interestingly this research also has shown that, much as has been seen in aged animals, dietary supplementation with high antioxidant-strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) extracts (2% of the diet) reversed many of the age-related changes. Similarly, supplementing the diets of young rats with SBs or BBs (2% of diet as in the aged animals) for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 56Fe (1 GeV/n), using the AGS or NSRL at Brookhaven National Laboratory, prevented the deleterious effects of the radiation exposure on the motor, cognitive and neuronal parameters described above. In the present experiment we examined whether striatal tissue obtained from BB- or SB-supplemented or control-fed, irradiated or non-radiated, young rats would show differential sensitivity (as assessed via decrements in mAChR stimulation of dopamine release) to hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating agent. The results indicated that, just as we had seen previously with respect to radiation protection in the parameters described above, the tissue from the SB or BB-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals showed increased mAChR-stimulated DA release from the striatal tissue following hydrogen peroxide exposure compared to that seen in non-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals (e.g., DA rels. p moles/mg protein, rad + H202 non-supplemented = 90, SB = 260, BB = 360). These results show that aging and irradiation may produce similar decrements in dopamine release and that, much as we have seen previously with age, radiation enhances the vulnerability to oxidative stressors, but these are reduced with SB or BB supplementation. They are discussed in-terms of protection against the effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging via nutritional supplementation with foods that are high in antioxidant activity

  20. Rheological behavior of blueberry Comportamento reológico de mirtilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Colato Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and physicochemical characteristics of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus fruits produced in Brazil were analyzed. Rheological properties were measured at 5, 25, 45 and 65 °C, on a stress controlled rheometer equipped with grooved a stainless-steel parallel-plate in a shear rate range of 0-300 s-1, with the objective of determining the influence of temperature on the rheological properties. The pseudoplastic behavior with yield stress was well described by the Ostwald-de-Waele (Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley (HB and Mizhari Berk models. The yield stress and behavior index decreased with the increase in the temperatures for 5, 25, and 45 °C whereas for the temperature of 65 °C the effects were the opposite exhibiting elevated values. The viscosity decreased with an increase in temperature, and the Arrhenius equation described adequately the effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity of the puree, in which the activation energy (Ea determined at a shear rate of 100 s-1 was 9.36 kJ.mol-1.As características físicas e físico-químicas do mirtilo (Vaccinium myrtillus produzido no Brasil foram analisadas. As propriedades reológicas foram medidas em 5, 25, 45 e 65 °C, em um reômetro de tensão controlada equipado com geometria rugosa de placas paralelas com taxa de deformação variando de 0-300 s-1 com o objetivo de verificação da influência da temperatura no comportamento do fluido. O comportamento pseudoplástico com tensão residual foi bem descrito pelos modelos de Ostwald-de-Waele (Lei da Potência, Herschel-Bulkley (HB e Mizhari Berk. A tensão residual diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura para 5, 25 e 45 °C, enquanto que para 65 °C os efeitos foram contrários, exibindo elevados valores. A viscosidade diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura e a equação de Arrhenius apresentou uma boa descrição do efeito da temperatura na viscosidade aparente do mirtilo, e a energia de ativação (Ea determinada para uma taxa de

  1. Methods for RNA isolation from blueberry tissues%蓝莓组织 RNA 提取方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余柯达; 叶美娟; 陈文荣; 朱凯丽; 张常晶; 郭卫东

    2016-01-01

    为建立蓝莓组织RNA提取方法,以蓝莓幼果为材料,比较了5种RNA提取方法,建立了改良的十六烷基三甲基溴化铵-乙酸钾( CTAB-KAc)提取方法,并比较了CTAB-KAc法对蓝莓根、成熟叶、幼茎、花、幼果和成熟果实组织RNA的提取效果.结果表明:CTAB-KAc法提取RNA的过程只需3 h,蓝莓幼果RNA的A260/A280和A260/A230值分别达到2.02和2.46,且无基因组DNA污染,RNA产量达到143.37μg· g-1;用CTAB-KAc法成功提取了蓝莓成熟叶、幼茎、花、幼果和成熟果实组织的RNA,但是根的RNA提取方法还需优化.把上述RNA反转录成cDNA后进行PCR,扩增出预期大小的目的片段,可满足后续分子生物学实验的要求.%Tissues of blueberry were generally rich in polysaccharides, proteins, and polyphenols, resulting in the difficulties of RNA isolation with both high quantity and quality.To optimize the technology of RNA isola-tion from blueberry tissues, five methods for RNA extraction from immature fruit of blueberry were evaluated. The results showed that the most efficient technique for RNA isolation from blueberry fruits was the optimized CTAB-KAc-based method.A subsequent experiment showed that the optimized CTAB-KAc-based technique was also efficient in successful RNA isolation from full-expanded leaf, green stem, flower, immature fruit and mature fruit of blueberry, although protocol for roots still needed to be optimized.The method yielded 143.37μg· g-1 high-quality RNA without DNA contamination within 3 h.The ratios of A260/A280 and A260/A230 of the total RNA from immature fruit of blueberry were 2.02 and 2.46, respectively.Reverse transcription-PCR con-firmed that the isolated RNA was of appropriate quality and integrity for subsequent molecular biology studies.

  2. Carbon emission from the soil surface in a mature blueberry pine forest of the middle taiga (Republic of Komi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, A. F.

    2016-08-01

    Data on the input of plant falloff and organic matter decomposition on the surface of the peaty podzolic-gleyic humus-illuvial (Gleyic Podzol) soil under a mature blueberry pine forest in the middle taiga are presented. The fractional composition of the falloff was determined, and constants of decomposition for its components were calculated. The carbon flux to the atmosphere due to the mineralization of plant residues is estimated at 251 g/m2. A close positive correlation ( r = 0.71; P < 0.05) was found between the carbon dioxide emission measured using a gas analyzer and the soil temperature at the depth of 10 cm. The CO2 emission for a growing period calculated from the data on its dependence on soil temperature in different years varied from 243 to 313 g C/m2 and was related to weather conditions.

  3. Phytochemicals in lowbush wild blueberry inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 by damaging its cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Tadepalli, Shravani; Hwang, Chen-An; Wu, Vivian C H

    2013-11-01

    The antimicrobial activity and model of action of polyphenolic compounds extracted from lowbush wild blueberries (LWB) were studied against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Polyphenols in LWB were extracted using 80% vol/vol methanol and designated as total blueberry phenolics (TBP). The fraction was further separated by a C-18 Sep-Pak cartridge into monomeric phenolics acids (MPA) and anthocyanins plus proanthocyanidins (A&P). The A&P fraction was further separated into anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins using a LH-20 Sephadex column. Each fraction was diluted in 0.85% wt/vol NaCl, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 to achieve 8 log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and incubated at 25 °C for 1 h. The survival populations of E. coli O157:H7 in the phenolic fractions were determined by a viable cell counts method. The permeability of the cell membrane of E. coli O157:H7 was determined using LIVE/DEAD viability assay, and the damage was visualized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significant (pproanthocyanidins (0.15 g/L GAE), A&P (0.45 g/L GAE), anthocyanins (0.65 g/L GAE), and TBP (0.14 g/L GAE). TEM confirmed the inactivation and increased membrane permeability of E. coli O157:H7. This study demonstrated the antimicrobial effect of polyphenols from LWB against E. coli O157:H7 and the probable mode of action. PMID:23944751

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin-3-Glucoside and Malvidin-3-Galactoside in Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yang Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry fruits have a wide range of health benefits because of their abundant anthocyanins, which are natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry’s two main anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside on inflammatory response in endothelial cells. These two malvidin glycosides could inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α induced increases of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 production both in the protein and mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Mv-3-glc at the concentration of 1 μM could inhibit 35.9% increased MCP-1, 54.4% ICAM-1, and 44.7% VCAM-1 protein in supernatant, as well as 9.88% MCP-1 and 48.6% ICAM-1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05. In addition, they could decrease IκBα degradation (Mv-3-glc, Mv-3-gal, and their mixture at the concentration of 50 μM had the inhibition rate of 84.8%, 75.3%, and 43.2%, respectively, p < 0.01 and block the nuclear translocation of p65, which suggested their anti-inflammation mechanism was mediated by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB pathway. In general malvidin-3-glucoside had better anti-inflammatory effect than malvidin-3-galactoside. These results indicated that blueberry is good resource of anti-inflammatory anthocyanins, which can be promising molecules for the development of nutraceuticals to prevent chronic inflammation in many diseases.

  5. A blueberry-enriched diet attenuates nephropathy in a rat model of hypertension via reduction in oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie M Elks

    Full Text Available To assess renoprotective effects of a blueberry-enriched diet in a rat model of hypertension. Oxidative stress (OS appears to be involved in the development of hypertension and related renal injury. Pharmacological antioxidants can attenuate hypertension and hypertension-induced renal injury; however, attention has shifted recently to the therapeutic potential of natural products as antioxidants. Blueberries (BB have among the highest antioxidant capacities of fruits and vegetables.Male spontaneously hypertensive rats received a BB-enriched diet (2% w/w or an isocaloric control diet for 6 or 12 weeks or 2 days. Compared to controls, rats fed BB-enriched diet for 6 or 12 weeks exhibited lower blood pressure, improved glomerular filtration rate, and decreased renovascular resistance. As measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, significant decreases in total reactive oxygen species (ROS, peroxynitrite, and superoxide production rates were observed in kidney tissues in rats on long-term dietary treatment, consistent with reduced pathology and improved function. Additionally, measures of antioxidant status improved; specifically, renal glutathione and catalase activities increased markedly. Contrasted to these observations indicating reduced OS in the BB group after long-term feeding, similar measurements made in rats fed the same diet for only 2 days yielded evidence of increased OS; specifically, significant increases in total ROS, peroxynitrite, and superoxide production rates in all tissues (kidney, brain, and liver assayed in BB-fed rats. These results were evidence of "hormesis" during brief exposure, which dissipated with time as indicated by enhanced levels of catalase in heart and liver of BB group.Long-term feeding of BB-enriched diet lowered blood pressure, preserved renal hemodynamics, and improved redox status in kidneys of hypertensive rats and concomitantly demonstrated the potential to delay or attenuate development

  6. Gene expression and metabolite profiling of developing highbush blueberry fruit indicates transcriptional regulation of flavonoid metabolism and activation of abscisic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Zaharia, L Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kennedy, James A; Constabel, C Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation of

  7. Protective effect of enzymatic hydrolysates from highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Senevirathne, Mahinda; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Jeon, You-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Blueberry was enzymatically hydrolyzed using selected commercial food grade carbohydrases (AMG, Celluclast, Termamyl, Ultraflo and Viscozyme) and proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Kojizyme, Neutrase and Protamex) to obtain water soluble compounds, and their protective effect was investigated against H2O2-induced damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (V79-4) via various published methods. Both AMG and Alcalase hydrolysates showed higher total phenolic content as well as higher ce...

  8. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  9. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  10. Gene expression and metabolite profiling of developing highbush blueberry fruit indicates transcriptional regulation of flavonoid metabolism and activation of abscisic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Zaharia, L Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kennedy, James A; Constabel, C Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation of

  11. Study on the Brewing Process of Blueberry Dry Red Wine%蓝莓干红酒酿制工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱平; 吉平; 张文雅; 柯常毅; 李涛; 谭祥

    2013-01-01

    According to the blueberry juice initial sugar content, from 12° red blueberry wine will fill sugar is adjusted to 21%, the amount of SO2 was adjusted to 40mg/L. meanwhile, adding active dry yeast powder, the inoculation was 0.20%, at 25℃ temperature fermentation for 6 days, the main fermentation onto the end of low temperature aging, can make the residual sugar is low, moderate acidity, the wine body coordination, mellow taste, fruit suitable, deep ruby red in color, with blueberry special typical style of dry red wine.%根据蓝莓汁初始糖度,酿制12°干红蓝莓酒时将补糖量调整至21%,SO2添加量调整为40mg/L。同时,添加活性干酵母粉,其接种量为0.20%,在25℃条件下控温发酵6d,主发酵结束转入低温陈酿,能够酿制残糖较低、酸度适中、酒体协调、口感醇厚、果香适宜,色泽为深宝石红,具有蓝莓特有典型风格的蓝莓干红酒。

  12. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq., Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb. and Blueberry Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotoshi Tsuda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.. The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract.

  13. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.), Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb.) and Blueberry Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hirotoshi; Kunitake, Hisato; Kawasaki-Takaki, Ryoko; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Masao; Komatsu, Haruki; Yukizaki, Chizuko

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.) was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.). The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract. PMID:27137366

  14. Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin content in selected white and red wines. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity comparison with nontraditional wines obtained from highbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cao, Guohua; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Ronald L

    2003-08-13

    Antioxidant capacity, as measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(PE)), total phenolic, total and individual anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidin fraction contents were evaluated in red and white wines from grapes. A comparison in terms of antioxidant capacity is made with nontraditional wines made from highbush blueberry. Blueberries are among fruits that are best recognized for their potential health benefits. In red wines, total oligomeric proanthocyanidin content, including catechins, was substantially higher (177.18 +/- 96.06 mg/L) than that in white wines (8.75 +/- 4.53 mg/L). A relative high correlation in red wines was found between ORAC(PE) values and malvidin compounds (r = 0.75, P proanthocyanidins (r = 0.87, P proanthocyanidin fraction and peroxyl radical scavenging values (r = 0.86, P < 0.10). A moderate drink (1 drink per day, about 140 mL) of red wine, or white wine, or wine made from highbush blueberry corresponds to an intake of 2.04 +/- 0.81 mmol of TE, 0.47 +/- 0.15 mmol of TE, and 2.42 +/- 0.88 mmol of TE of ORAC(PE)/day, respectively. PMID:12903941

  15. Optimization of Preparation Process for Processed Cheese Fortified with Blueberry Pulp%蓝莓果肉再制干酪工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 李浩; 田雪娇; 张建强; 张丽萍

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with process optimization for the preparation of processed cheese fortified with blueberry pulp from fast-ripened cheese and blueberry pulp using one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods.The optimal formulation for processed cheese was skimmed milk powder 8%,butter 10%,blueberry pulp 20%,emulsifying salt 1.0%,xanthan gum 0.3%,salt 1.5%,and purified water 35%,which were simultaneously heated at 85 ℃ and stirred for 7 min.%以快速成熟干酪、蓝莓果浆为主要原料,通过单因素和正交试验对蓝莓果肉再制干酪工艺进行优化,确定最佳配方为:加入脱脂奶粉8%、黄油10%、蓝莓果浆20%、乳化盐1.5%、黄原胶0.3%、食盐1.5%、纯净水35%、加热温度85℃、搅拌时间7min。

  16. 金属离子对蓝莓花色苷的影响%Effects of metal ions on the blueberry anthocyanins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖畅; 齐凤元; 冯彦博

    2009-01-01

    Anthocyanins have important functional characteristic, but its stability was influenced by various physical-chemical factors. Metal ions have different influence on the stability of anthocyanins. Study on the effects of metal ions on the stability of blueberry anthocyanins to provide evidence for their industrialized production. The effects of metal ions on the blueberry anthocyanins were ascertained by absorbency in different metal ions solution. Results showed that the wavelength of absorption respectively was 279 nm and 520 nm in pH3.0 acid solvent. K+ had no effect on the stability of anthocyanins. Ca2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ had a certain effect of dour improvement, but no effect on the stability of anthocyanins. , Na+ , Zn2+ and Mn2+ could not noly strengthen the colour at higher concentration, but enhance the stability of blueberry anthocyanins. Fe2+, Fe3+ and Pb2+ were harmful to the stability of blueberry anthocyanins while Fe3+ and Pb2+ could lead to precipitate in blueberry anthocyanins solution.%花色苷具有重要的生理功能,但其稳定性易受各种理化因素的影响而发生变化.本试验系统地研究金属离子对其稳定性的影响,为蓝莓花色苷的加工生产提供理论指导.通过测定蓝莓花色苷在不同浓度金属溶液中的吸光度的变化,确定金属离子对蓝莓花色苷稳定性的影响.结果表明:蓝莓花色苷在酸性水溶液中的吸收峰分别在279,520 nm处.K+不能使花色苷的吸光度增加,对花色苷的稳定性也无显著影响;Ca2+、Cu2+、Al3+具有增色作用,对花色苷的稳定性无显著影响;高浓度Na+、Zn2+、Mn2+具有增色作用,而且能够增强花色苷的稳定性;Fe2+、Fe3+、Pb2+对花色苷具有破坏作用,使花色苷的稳定性下降,含Fe3+、Pb2+的花色苷溶液中有白色沉淀生成.

  17. 中国蓝浆果生产现状%THE PRESENT STATUS OF BLUEBERRY GROWING IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於虹; 王传永; 顾姻; 贺善安

    2005-01-01

    The general situation of blueberry (Vaccinium L. spp.) growing in China is reported. There are two major growing regions: one in the Northeast of China, mainly in Jilin Province, and the other in the vast territory of acidic red soils in the South of the Yangtze River. Wild species used as fruits are only distributed in the Northeast of China. Introduction of cultivated cultivars started in the 1980's and altogether more than 60 cultivars have been introduced. The capacity of propagation of seedlings by cuttings and tissue culture is more than one million per year in each of the two regions. Suitable cultivars have been selected for two regions and the yield and fruit quality of the plantations in both regions, including in Jilin, Jiangsu and Guizhou provinces are equal to the native products from North America respectively. This indicates the great potential for the development of blueberries in China.%全面报道了蓝浆果(Vaccinium L.spp.)在中国的生产情况,共分为南、北两大区域.北区是指以吉林省为主的东北地区,南区指长江以南广阔的酸性红壤土地区.果用野生种只分布在东北地区.自20世纪80年代起开始引种欧美栽培品种,共达60余个.在北区以吉林农业大学为主,在南区以江苏省·中国科学院植物研究所为主,采用组培和扦插方法繁殖,南、北两区均各有年产百万株以上苗木的能力.在南、北两区的适宜地区,如吉林、江苏和贵州等省,都已选出各自的适栽品种,栽培后的产量和果实质量分别均可达到国外优良水平,显示了蓝浆果在中国发展的巨大前景.

  18. Evaluation of the in vitro/in vivo potential of five berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) commonly used as herbal supplements to inhibit uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eu Jin; Park, Jung Bae; Yoon, Kee Dong; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated inhibitory potentials of popularly-consumed berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) as herbal supplements on UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 in vitro. We also investigated the potential herb-drug interaction via UGT1A1 inhibition by blueberry in vivo. We demonstrated that these berries had only weak inhibitory effects on the five UGTs. Bilberry and elderberry had no apparent inhibitions. Blueberry weakly inhibited UGT1A1 with an IC50 value of 62.4±4.40 μg/mL and a Ki value of 53.1 μg/mL. Blueberry also weakly inhibited UGT2B7 with an IC50 value of 147±11.1 μg/mL. In addition, cranberry weakly inhibited UGT1A9 activity (IC50=458±49.7 μg/mL) and raspberry ketones weakly inhibited UGT2B7 activity (IC50=248±28.2 μg/mL). Among tested berries, blueberry showed the lowest IC50 value in the inhibition of UGT1A1 in vitro. However, the co-administration of blueberry had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38, which was mainly eliminated via UGT1A1, in vivo. Our data suggests that these five berries are unlikely to cause clinically significant herb-drug interactions mediated via inhibition of UGT enzymes involved in drug metabolism. These findings should enable an understanding of herb-drug interactions for the safe use of popularly-consumed berries.

  19. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) wine pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Zhang, Ling-Li; Yue, Xue-Yang; Liang, Jin; Jiang, Jun; Gao, Xue-Ling; Yue, Peng-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) of total anthocyanins (TA) and phenolics (TP) from Blueberry Wine Pomace (BWP) was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design was used to predict that the optimized conditions were an extraction temperature of 61.03°C, a liquid-solid ratio of 21.70mL/g and a sonication time of 23.67min. Using the modeled optimized conditions, the predicted and experimental yields of TA and TP were within a 2% difference. The yields of TA and TP obtained through the optimized UAE method were higher than those using a Conventional Solvent Extraction (CSE) method. Seven anthocyanins, namely delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, delphindin-3-O-arabinoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-arabinoside, were found in the BWP extract from both the UAE and CSE methods. PMID:26988477

  20. Determining Rooting Ability of Ennobled Blueberry Wood Pieces (Vaccinium corymbosum L. with Presence of Growth Regulators IBA and NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABRI BRAHA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ennobled blueberry (V. Corymbosum L. has many specific requirements for optimal growth, therefore, the increase of cultivated areas is limited. It requires acidic soils (pH 4,3-4,8, well drained, with full aeration and a constant moderate amount of moisture. The successful technique of asexual propagation will be necessary for rapid clonal propagation of selected cultivars. The objective of this experiment was to identify an efficient way to improve rooting with the help of growth regulators in the ‘Bluecrop’ cultivar using well-lignified one-year old wood pieces, collected at the end of winter, end of March prior to bud swelling. Treatments with various concentrations (1500, 3000, 4500 mg/l, show that treatment with IBA at 3000 mg/l has the highest rooting percentage in comparison to NAA. Whilst the torf-perlite substrate (at a 2:1 ratio, has produced a higher rooting percentage compared to the torf-only substrate, and the crucial factor for successful rooting is the time of collecting wood pieces. Treatment results have promoted higher rooting of wooden pieces compared to the control (untreated wooden pieces. The most efficient promotor in all concentrations was IBA.

  1. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  2. Short-term UV-B radiation affects photosynthetic performance and antioxidant gene expression in highbush blueberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2016-10-01

    The impact of increased artificial UV-B radiation on photosynthetic performance, antioxidant and SOD activities and molecular antioxidant metabolism responses in leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes was studied. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 W m(-2) of biologically-effective UV-B irradiance for 0-72 h. Our findings show that net photosynthesis (Pn) decreased significantly in Bluegold, accompanied by a reduction in the effective quantum yield (ФPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR), especially at the highest UV-B irradiation. On the other hand, Brigitta showed a better photosynthetic performance, as well as a clear increment in the antioxidant activity response that could be associated with increased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the early hours of induced UV-B stress in all treatments. At the molecular level, the expression of the three antioxidant genes evaluated in both genotypes had a similar tendency. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) expression was significantly increased (6-fold) in Bluegold compared to Brigitta. Thus, the reduction of Pn concomitant with a lower photochemical performance and a reduced response of antioxidant metabolism suggest that the Bluegold genotype is more sensitive to UV-B radiation, while Brigitta appears to tolerate better moderate UV-B irradiance in a short-term experiment.

  3. Short-term UV-B radiation affects photosynthetic performance and antioxidant gene expression in highbush blueberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2016-10-01

    The impact of increased artificial UV-B radiation on photosynthetic performance, antioxidant and SOD activities and molecular antioxidant metabolism responses in leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes was studied. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 W m(-2) of biologically-effective UV-B irradiance for 0-72 h. Our findings show that net photosynthesis (Pn) decreased significantly in Bluegold, accompanied by a reduction in the effective quantum yield (ФPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR), especially at the highest UV-B irradiation. On the other hand, Brigitta showed a better photosynthetic performance, as well as a clear increment in the antioxidant activity response that could be associated with increased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the early hours of induced UV-B stress in all treatments. At the molecular level, the expression of the three antioxidant genes evaluated in both genotypes had a similar tendency. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) expression was significantly increased (6-fold) in Bluegold compared to Brigitta. Thus, the reduction of Pn concomitant with a lower photochemical performance and a reduced response of antioxidant metabolism suggest that the Bluegold genotype is more sensitive to UV-B radiation, while Brigitta appears to tolerate better moderate UV-B irradiance in a short-term experiment. PMID:27343876

  4. The efficacy of blueberry and grape seed extract combination on triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chian-Sem; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Chen, Jui-Hao; Liu, Yuh-Hwa; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Traditional therapy with proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics is regarded as optimal for H. pylori eradication whereas, the eradication rate is unsatisfactory. Studies have reported that cranberry may inhibit H. pylori adhesion to the human gastric mucus but lack of other berry extracts have been evaluated in clinical study. Thus, a 9-week add-on randomised controlled trial was conducted to explore the impact of blueberry and grape seed extract (BGE) combinations traditional therapy for H. pylori eradication. In results, we found that there was no significant difference of eradication rate between the berry extract group and placebo group in the intention-to-treat analysis and in the per-protocol analysis (94.64% versus 84.62%, p = 0.085). Diarrhoea, constipation and epigastric pain were observed increasing during ingestion of the berry extract in some cases. In conclusion, this study indicated that no significant difference existed between the BGE extract group and placebo group in eradication rate under triple therapy.

  5. Screening of Yeast Strains for Blueberry Wine and Study on Their Fermenting Performance%蓝莓果酒酵母筛选及发酵性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春光; 刘盈盈; 王莹; 向准; 孙超; 贺红早

    2015-01-01

    采集贵州麻江蓝莓栽培基地土壤、蓝莓叶、蓝莓鲜果、自然发酵的不同阶段发酵液为实验材料,通过选用不同培养基富集酵母,并进行蓝莓专用酵母筛选和发酵特性能研究.结果表明,共分离得46株酵母,其中从土壤共分离得6株酵母菌,蓝莓叶上分离得3株,果表皮分离得9株,自然发酵不同阶段发酵液分离到28株,富集酵母菌适合的培养基为酵母富集培养基、YEPD培养基和PDA培养基.进行复筛和发酵性能试验,筛选到的4株酵母菌均能发酵出蓝莓果香和酒香协调、酸味柔和、酒体丰满的蓝莓果酒,具有开发成优良商品果酒酵母的潜力.为今后酿造具有独特风格的蓝莓酒有非常重要的意义.%The soil, blueberry leaf, blueberry fruit, and blueberry at different natural fermentation stages were collected as the experimental ma-terials. Through the selection of different culture mediums for yeast strains accumulation, a total of 46 yeast strains was isolated successfully in-cluding 6 strains from the soil, 3 strains from blueberry leaf, 9 strains from blueberry fruit peel, and 28 strains from blueberry at different natu-ral fermentation stages. The culture mediums suitable for yeast strains accumulation included yeast accumulation culture medium, YEPD cul-ture medium, and PDA culture medium. After secondary screening and fermenting performance test, 4 yeast strains were finally obtained suit-able for producing blueberry wine with enjoyable taste, harmonious wine aroma and full wine body. Besides, they had the development poten-tials as commercial yeast strains. This study was of great significance in guiding the development of blueberry wine with special styles.

  6. Study on the Content Change of Anthocyanins in the Process of Blueberry Vinegar Fermentation%探究蓝莓果醋发酵过程中花青素含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪文艳; 蒋予箭

    2015-01-01

    Adopt vanillic aldehyde-sulfuric acid colorimetry to detect the content of anthocyanins during the process of alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation of blueberry vinegar.Based on the results,discuss the effects of blueberry vinegar fermentation process on anthocyanins.%采用香草醛-硫酸比色法测定蓝莓果醋发酵过程中酒精发酵和醋酸发酵阶段的花青素含量,根据实验结果分析探究蓝莓果醋发酵过程对花青素的影响。

  7. Comparative Study of Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Blueberry Cultivars%不同蓝莓品种光合特性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晓鹰; 吕国华; 邵丽萍; 权俊萍; 孟娉

    2012-01-01

    以石河子地区引种栽培的3个北高灌蓝莓品种为研究对象,分析其光合-光响应曲线特征,测定比较光合相关参数(净光合速率、蒸腾速率、细胞间CO2浓度、气孔导度)变化,测定叶绿素含量,观察叶表皮特征及气孔形态差异,揭示不同蓝莓品种间光合差异,为蓝莓适宜品种的筛选和确定提供理论支持.结果表明:1)3个蓝莓品种叶绿素含量有显著性差异;2)蓝莓叶表皮特征表现为具有表皮毛,气孔均为椭圆形,3个蓝莓品种在气孔大小及气孔分布数量上表现出一定差异,蓝莓06的气孔大小及分布数量最多;3)3个蓝莓品种的光合速率与光合有效辐射、气孔导度、蒸腾速率呈正相关,与胞间CO2浓度呈负相关;4)蓝莓的光饱和点(LSP)和光补偿点(LCP)的分别为7.41(μmol/m2)/s~15.88(μmol/m2)/s和1.26(μmol/m2)/s~2.15(μmol/m2)/s,北高灌蓝莓属于阴性植物且光合能力差异显著,蓝莓10号光合能力综合表现较强,对光环境的适应性表现良好,蓝莓06号在光合能力及光适应方面表现较弱.%Three northern highbush blueberry varieties were uses as study object,which were introduced and cultivated in Shihezi. This research analyzed the photosynthesis characteristics of the photosynthetic light response curve, determined and compared the relevant parameters including net photosynthetic rate (Pn) , transpiration rate ( Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal conductance (Gs) ,determined the changes of chlorophyll content,and observed the characters of leaf epidermis and stomatal morphological differences. Results:1)Chlorophyll contents of the three blueberries were significantly different. 2)The leaf epidermal characters;they have tnchomes and ova! stoma; stomatal size and distribution quantity showed difference in the three varieties, with NO. 06 blueberry the largest in them. 3)The photosynthetic rate were positively correlated with active photosynthetic

  8. 甜型野生蓝莓酒澄清优化试验研究%Experimental Study on Clarification of Sweet Wild Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波

    2016-01-01

    The experiment made wild blueberry as the raw material to make into sweet blueberry wine and stud-ied gelatin,bentonite,PVPP,chitosan four clarification agent on the effects of the sweet blueberry wine clarifi-cation.Then single factor experiment and orthogonal test was made on compound clarifying agent. The results showed that the compound clarifying agent and cold treatment could achieve effect of clarification. The best ad-dition amount of bentonite and chitosan were 0.45 g/L and 0.25 g/L ,clarified for three days under-5℃,its lu-minousness could reach 98.40%,the alcohol content was 17.0% (vol) ,total sugar content more than 55 g/L and total acids content 6.8 g/L,The sweet blueberry wine showed bright ruby red colour,harmonious aroma and mellow taste.%以野生蓝莓为原料加工成甜型蓝莓原酒,分别研究了澄清剂:明胶、皂土、PVPP、壳聚糖对蓝莓果酒澄清效果的影响,然后对复合澄清剂进行了单因素试验和正交试验。结果表明:采用复合澄清剂并进行冷处理,可以达到更为理想的澄清效果。即皂土最佳添加量0.45 g/L、壳聚糖最佳添加量0.25 g/L、在-5℃下澄清3 d,其透光率可高达到98.40%,酒精度17.1%(vol),总糖≥55 g/L,总酸6.8 g/L.酒体呈明亮的宝石红,果香、酒香和谐,口感醇厚。

  9. 黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋饮料的研发%Study on Composite Fruit Vinegar Beverage of Blackcurrants and Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关莹; 张冬雪; 张军

    2011-01-01

    本试验采用二次发酵法,通过对黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋的酒精发酵及醋酸发酵的优化,最终确定黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋的酒精发酵最佳工艺为:黑加仑果汁与蓝莓果汁3∶2复合,在初始糖度8°Bx、初始pH3.8、28℃发酵6d、.醋酸发酵最佳条件为:发酵温度35℃,通风量为1∶0.10~0.15(V/V/min),酒精含量6.0%.接种量8.0%,初始pH5.5.黑加仑、蓝莓复合果醋饮料配方:12%复合果醋、5.5%白砂糖、2%蜂蜜、0.1%食盐、0.06%复合香抖,评分为92分.工艺调整后的放大生产产品质量仍稳定、达标.产品具有食醋清香和黑加仑、蓝莓果香,酸味柔和,风味独特.%The tests used secondary fermentation on composite fruit vinegar beverage of blackcurrants and blueberry. From optimization of acetic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation ,the optimum alcoholic fermentation technology of composite juice of blackcurrants and blueberry was as follows: blackcurrant and blueberry fruit juice mixed with 3:2,initial sugar degree 18。 BX,fermentation temperature 28℃ ,fermentation time 6d,initial pH 3.8.The optimized fermentation conditions of acetic acid were as follows:temperature 35℃,ventilation quantity controlled between l:0.10_0.15(v/v)min,initial content of alcohol 6.0%,inoculum concentration 8.0%, initial pH 5.5.The formula of composite fruit vinegar beverage of blackcurrants and blueberry was as follows:composite fruit vinegar 12%,white sugar 5.5%,honey 2% ,common salt 0.1%,composite flavor 0.06%,a score of 92.The products' quality of amplification production after technique adjustment was still stable and could attain the standards.

  10. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica;

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative...... were collected and used to evaluate anthocyanin absorption (through mass spectrometry), endogenous and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in blood mononuclear cells (through the comet assay), and plasma nitric oxide concentrations (through a fluorometric assay). Peripheral arterial function was assessed...

  11. Occurrence and biology of Tolype innocens (Burmeister on blueberry Ocorrência e biologia de Tolype innocens (Burmeister em mirtilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salvador Louzada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 is reported for the first time damaging blueberry (Vaccinium ashei plants in Brazil having the caterpillars feeding on leaves and new shoots. T. innocens biology was studied on blueberry leaves in laboratory conditions and then a fertility life table was elaborated. Developmental time and viability of egg, larval and pupal stages and egg-adult period were 15.0 and 35.3, 33.3 and 84.5, 20.6 and 100, and 69.2 days and 45%, respectively. Average pupal weight was 0.840g for the females and 0.580g for the males. The sex ratio was 0.5. Pre-oviposition and oviposition time lasted 6.34 and 12.1 days, respectively. Mean fecundity was 251 eggs per female. Eggs were laid either individually or in masses. Longevity was 19.0 and 20.0 days for males and females, respectively. T. innocens population increased 47 times per generation, with a mean generation time of 77 days, and a finite rate of increase of 1.02. This data on biological parameters will be useful for establishing control strategies.A ocorrência de Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 (Lasiocampidae é relatada pela primeira vez danificando o mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei no Brasil, sendo que as lagartas se alimentam das folhas e ramos novos. Em laboratório, foi estudada a biologia em folhas de mirtilo em condições controladas de temperatura (25±1ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotofase (12h e elaborada a tabela de vida de fertilidade. A duração e a viabilidade dos estágios de ovo, lagarta e pupa, e período ovo-adulto foram de 15,0 e 35,3; 33,3 e 84,5; 20,6 e 100; e 69,2 dias e 45%, respectivamente. O peso médio de pupas foi de 0,840g para as fêmeas e 0,580g para os machos. A razão sexual foi de 0,5. Os períodos de pré-oviposição e oviposição foram de 6,34 e 12,1 dias, respectivamente. A fecundidade média foi de 251 ovos por fêmea, colocados de forma isolada ou em massas. A longevidade dos machos foi de 19,0 dias e das fêmeas de 20,0 dias. T

  12. Feeding blueberry diets to young rats dose-dependently inhibits bone resorption through suppression of RANKL in stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that weanling rats fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry (BB powder for two weeks beginning on postnatal day 21 (PND21 significantly increased bone formation at PND35. However, the minimal level of dietary BB needed to produce these effects is, as yet, unknown. The current study examined the effects of three different levels of BB diet supplementation (1, 3, and 5% for 35 days beginning on PND25 on bone quality, and osteoclastic bone resorption in female rats. Peripheral quantitative CT scan (pQCT of tibia, demonstrated that bone mineral density (BMD and content (BMC were dose-dependently increased in BB-fed rats compared to controls (P<0.05. Significantly increased bone mass after feeding 5% BB extracts was also observed in a TEN (total enteral nutrition rat model in which daily caloric and food intake was precisely controlled. Expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand a protein essential for osteoclast formation was dose-dependently decreased in the femur of BB animals. In addition, expression of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ which regulates bone marrow adipogenesis was suppressed in BB diet rats compared to non-BB diet controls. Finally, a set of in vitro cell cultures revealed that the inhibitory effect of BB diet rat serum on RANKL expression was more profound in mesenchymal stromal cells compared to its effect on mature osteoblasts, pre-adipocytes and osteocytes. These results suggest that inhibition of bone resorption may contribute to increased bone mass during early development after BB consumption.

  13. Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Sang Gil; Park, Young-Ki; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X.; Wegner, Casey J.; Yang, Yue; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration. RESULTS No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential.

  14. Design and sampling plan optimization for RT-qPCR experiments in plants: a case study in blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The qPCR assay has become a routine technology in plant biotechnology and agricultural research. It is unlikely to be technically improved, but there are still challenges which center around minimizing the variability in results and transparency when reporting technical data in support of the conclusions of a study. There are a number of aspects of the pre- and post-assay workflow that contribute to variability of results. Here, through the study of the introduction of error in qPCR measurements at different stages of the workflow, we describe the most important causes of technical variability in a case study using blueberry. In this study, we found that the stage for which increasing the number of replicates would be the most beneficial depends on the tissue used. For example, we would recommend the use of more RT replicates when working with leaf tissue, while the use of more sampling (RNA extraction replicates would be recommended when working with stems or fruits to obtain the most optimal results. The use of more qPCR replicates provides the least benefit as it is the most reproducible step. By knowing the distribution of error over an entire experiment and the costs at each step, we have developed a script to identify the optimal sampling plan within the limits of a given budget. These findings should help plant scientists improve the design of qPCR experiments and refine their laboratory practices in order to conduct qPCR assays in a more reliable-manner to produce more consistent and reproducible data.

  15. Design and Sampling Plan Optimization for RT-qPCR Experiments in Plants: A Case Study in Blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V; Roman, Belen; Flores, Fernando; Rowland, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    The qPCR assay has become a routine technology in plant biotechnology and agricultural research. It is unlikely to be technically improved, but there are still challenges which center around minimizing the variability in results and transparency when reporting technical data in support of the conclusions of a study. There are a number of aspects of the pre- and post-assay workflow that contribute to variability of results. Here, through the study of the introduction of error in qPCR measurements at different stages of the workflow, we describe the most important causes of technical variability in a case study using blueberry. In this study, we found that the stage for which increasing the number of replicates would be the most beneficial depends on the tissue used. For example, we would recommend the use of more RT replicates when working with leaf tissue, while the use of more sampling (RNA extraction) replicates would be recommended when working with stems or fruits to obtain the most optimal results. The use of more qPCR replicates provides the least benefit as it is the most reproducible step. By knowing the distribution of error over an entire experiment and the costs at each step, we have developed a script to identify the optimal sampling plan within the limits of a given budget. These findings should help plant scientists improve the design of qPCR experiments and refine their laboratory practices in order to conduct qPCR assays in a more reliable-manner to produce more consistent and reproducible data. PMID:27014296

  16. Anthocyanins extracted from Chinese blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) and its anticancer effects on DLD-1 and COLO205 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZU Xiao-yan; ZHANG Zhen-ya; ZHANG Xiao-wen; YOSHIOKA Masahiro; YANG Ying-nan; LI Ji

    2010-01-01

    Background Vaccinium uliginosum L. is a type of blueberry found in the Chinese Changbai Mountains. We extracted Vaccinium uliginosurn Anthocyanins (Av.uli) to investigate its bioactivity on suppressing cancer cells.Methods Av.uli was extracted under different conditions of temperature (10℃-35℃), pH 1.0-3.0, and diatomaceous earth (1.0 g-3.0 g), followed by a HPLC analysis for the determination of the ingredients. Its anticancer bioactivities on human colon and colorectal cancer cells (DLD-1 and COLO205) were compared with those on Lonicera caerulea Anthocyanins (AL.cae) and Vaccinium myrtillus Anthocyanins (Av.myr), using cell viability assays, DNA electrophoresis and nuclear morphology assays.Results The optimum process of Av.uliextraction involved conditions of temperature 20℃, pH 2.0, and diatomaceous earth 1.0 g/50 g of fruit weight. Av.uli contained 5 main components: delphinidin (40.70±1.72)%, cyanidin (3.40±0.68)%,petunidin (17.70±0.54)%, peonidin (2.90±0.63)% and malvidin (35.50±1.11)%. The malvidin percentage was significantly higher (P <0.05) than it in Av.myr. Av.uli complied with a dose-dependent repression of cancer cell proliferation with an IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) value of 50 μg/ml, and showed greater anticancer efficiency than AL. cae and Av. myr under the same cell treatment conditions. These observations were further supported by the results of nuclear assays.Conclusions The extraction protocol and conditions we used were effective for anthocyanin extraction. Av.uli could be a feasible practical research tool and a promising therapeutic source to suppress human colon or colorectal cancers.

  17. Blueberry treatment attenuated cirrhotic and preneoplastic lesions and oxidative stress in the liver of diethylnitrosamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingül, İlknur; Başaran-Küçükgergin, Canan; Aydın, A Fatih; Soluk-Tekkeşin, Merva; Olgaç, Vakur; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2016-09-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver cancer normally develops in stages that progress from cirrhosis and carcinoma. Increased oxidative stress is suggested to play a role in DEN-induced carcinogenicity. Blueberries (BB) contain high antioxidant capacity. We investigated the effect of BB supplementation on development of DEN-induced cirrhosis and neoplastic lesions in the liver. Rats were injected with DEN (200 mg/kg; i.p.) three times with an interval of 15 days at 4, 6, and 8 weeks and sacrificed 8 weeks after the last DEN injection. They were also fed on 8% BB (w/w) containing chow for 16 weeks. Hepatic damage markers in serum were determined together with hepatic histopathological examinations. Hydroxyproline (HYP), malondialdehyde (MDA), diene conjugate (DC), protein carbonyl (PC), and glutathione (GSH) levels, and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and their mRNA expressions were measured. Protein and mRNA expressions of glutathione transferase-pi (GST-pi) were evaluated as a marker of preneoplastic lesions. BB supplementation decreased hepatic damage markers in serum and hepatic MDA, DC, and PC levels, but SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities and their mRNA expressions remained unchanged in DEN-treated rats. BB attenuated cirrhotic changes and decreased hepatic HYP levels and GST-pi expressions. Our results indicate that BB is effective in decreasing development of DEN-induced hepatic cirrhosis and preneoplastic lesions by acting as an antioxidant (radical scavenger) itself without affecting activities and mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26684621

  18. INCLUDING RISK IN ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS:A STOCHASTIC SIMULATION MODEL FOR BLUEBERRY INVESTMENT DECISIONS IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMÁN LOBOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional method of net present value (NPV to analyze the economic profitability of an investment (based on a deterministic approach does not adequately represent the implicit risk associated with different but correlated input variables. Using a stochastic simulation approach for evaluating the profitability of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. production in Chile, the objective of this study is to illustrate the complexity of including risk in economic feasibility analysis when the project is subject to several but correlated risks. The results of the simulation analysis suggest that the non-inclusion of the intratemporal correlation between input variables underestimate the risk associated with investment decisions. The methodological contribution of this study illustrates the complexity of the interrelationships between uncertain variables and their impact on the convenience of carrying out this type of business in Chile. The steps for the analysis of economic viability were: First, adjusted probability distributions for stochastic input variables (SIV were simulated and validated. Second, the random values of SIV were used to calculate random values of variables such as production, revenues, costs, depreciation, taxes and net cash flows. Third, the complete stochastic model was simulated with 10,000 iterations using random values for SIV. This result gave information to estimate the probability distributions of the stochastic output variables (SOV such as the net present value, internal rate of return, value at risk, average cost of production, contribution margin and return on capital. Fourth, the complete stochastic model simulation results were used to analyze alternative scenarios and provide the results to decision makers in the form of probabilities, probability distributions, and for the SOV probabilistic forecasts. The main conclusion shown that this project is a profitable alternative investment in fruit trees in

  19. Lowbush wild blueberries have the potential to modify gut microbiota and xenobiotic metabolism in the rat colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Lacombe

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract is populated by an array of microbial species that play an important role in metabolic and immune functions. The composition of microorganisms is influenced by the components of the host's diet and can impact health. In the present study, dietary enrichment of lowbush wild blueberries (LWB was examined to determine their effect on colon microbial composition and their potential in promoting gut health. The microbial composition and functional potential of the colon microbiota from Sprague Dawley rats fed control diets (AIN93 and LWB-enriched diets (AIN93+8% LWB powder substituting for dextrose for 6 weeks were assessed using Illumina shotgun sequencing and bioinformatics tools. Our analysis revealed an alteration in the relative abundance of 3 phyla and 22 genera as representing approximately 14 and 8% of all phyla and genera identified, respectively. The LWB-enriched diet resulted in a significant reduction in the relative abundance of the genera Lactobacillus and Enterococcus. In addition, hierarchal analysis revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria, the order Actinomycetales, and several novel genera under the family Bifidobacteriaceae and Coriobacteriaceae, in the LWB group. Functional annotation of the shotgun sequences suggested that approximately 9% of the 4709 Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG hits identified were impacted by the LWB-diet. Open Reading Frames (ORFs assigned to KEGG category xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism were significantly greater in the LWB-enriched diet compared to the control and included the pathway for benzoate degradation [PATH:ko00362] and glycosaminoglycan degradation [PATH:ko00531]. Moreover, the number of ORFs assigned to the bacterial invasion of epithelial cells [PATH:ko05100] pathway was approximately 8 fold lower in the LWB group compared to controls. This study demonstrated that LWBs have the potential to promote

  20. Lowbush wild blueberries have the potential to modify gut microbiota and xenobiotic metabolism in the rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Li, Robert W; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Kristo, Aleksandra S; Tadepalli, Shravani; Krauss, Emily; Young, Ryan; Wu, Vivian C H

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is populated by an array of microbial species that play an important role in metabolic and immune functions. The composition of microorganisms is influenced by the components of the host's diet and can impact health. In the present study, dietary enrichment of lowbush wild blueberries (LWB) was examined to determine their effect on colon microbial composition and their potential in promoting gut health. The microbial composition and functional potential of the colon microbiota from Sprague Dawley rats fed control diets (AIN93) and LWB-enriched diets (AIN93+8% LWB powder substituting for dextrose) for 6 weeks were assessed using Illumina shotgun sequencing and bioinformatics tools. Our analysis revealed an alteration in the relative abundance of 3 phyla and 22 genera as representing approximately 14 and 8% of all phyla and genera identified, respectively. The LWB-enriched diet resulted in a significant reduction in the relative abundance of the genera Lactobacillus and Enterococcus. In addition, hierarchal analysis revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria, the order Actinomycetales, and several novel genera under the family Bifidobacteriaceae and Coriobacteriaceae, in the LWB group. Functional annotation of the shotgun sequences suggested that approximately 9% of the 4709 Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG) hits identified were impacted by the LWB-diet. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) assigned to KEGG category xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism were significantly greater in the LWB-enriched diet compared to the control and included the pathway for benzoate degradation [PATH:ko00362] and glycosaminoglycan degradation [PATH:ko00531]. Moreover, the number of ORFs assigned to the bacterial invasion of epithelial cells [PATH:ko05100] pathway was approximately 8 fold lower in the LWB group compared to controls. This study demonstrated that LWBs have the potential to promote gut health and

  1. Effect of Different Yeast on Dry Blueberry Wine Sensory Quality and Polyphenols%不同酵母对干型蓝莓酒感官品质和多酚类物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于清琴; 孙玉霞; 史红梅; 韩晓梅; 王哲

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of polyphenols and sensory quality of dry blueberry wine were studied during the blueberry fermentation inoculated by three kinds of wine yeasts ,natural yeast and natural yeast adding pectinase .The natural fermentation was compared with by other kind of yeast .The result showed that the blueberry wines fermented by D 21 and RC212 had excellent performance and sensory quality .And the concentration of polyphenols was the highest .In addition , various physical and chemical indicators was moderate .D254 was excellent wine yeast ,not suitable for the fermentation of blueberry wine.%以蓝莓鲜果为原料,在酿造过程中,重点试验了3种葡萄酒酵母、自然发酵+果胶酶对干型蓝莓果酒多酚含量和感官品质的影响,以自然发酵作对照,结果显示:D21、RC212发酵蓝莓酒性能优良,成品酒感官品质优良,多酚含量最高,各种理化指标适中,为性能优良的干型蓝莓酒发酵酵母。 D254作为葡萄酒酿造的优良酵母而不适合发酵蓝莓酒。

  2. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of Polish blue-berried honeysuckle genotypes by HPLC-DAD-MS, HPLC postcolumn derivatization with ABTS or FC, and TLC with DPPH visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Piekarska, Anna; Mrugalska, Barbara; Konieczka, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek; Bartoszek, Agnieszka

    2012-02-22

    In this study, different Polish cultivars of blue-berried honeysuckles (Lonicera caerulea L.), wild and bog bilberry, were analyzed for bioactive compounds. The chemical properties verified included composition of anthocyanins and other polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and profiles of antioxidants by HPLC postcolumn derivatization or TLC. The antioxidant activities of different blue-berried honeysuckle cultivars were similar to that of wild-growing bilberries (ranging from 170 to 417 μmol TE/g dm in ABTS and from 93 to 166 μmol TE/g dm in DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu tests). The major anthocyanin in the blue-berried honeysuckle was cyanidin-3-glucoside, which constituted 84-92% of the total anthocyanins. The TLC and HPLC postcolumn antioxidant profiles indicated that anthocyanins are the major antioxidants in all berries studied. Wild berries and the cultivars of the blue-berried honeysuckles are also a similar source of such minerals as K, Mg, and Ca. PMID:22264130

  3. Lower concentrations of blueberry polyphenolic-rich extract differentially alter HepG2 cell proliferation and expression of genes related to cell-cycle, oxidation and epigenetic machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro cancer models have been used to study the effect of relatively high concentrations (>200 ug/ml) of phenolic plant extracts upon cell proliferation. In this study we report that the treatment of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells with lower concentrations of blueberry phenolic extract (6.5-10...

  4. 河源南高丛蓝莓酒精发酵前后挥发性成分变化%Aroma compounds of southern high-bush blueberry in Heyuan area before and after alcohol fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继军; 肖更生; 徐玉娟; 陈卫东; 余元善; 张友胜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the key aroma compounds of southern high-bush blueberry varie-ties in Heyuan area and analyze the aroma compounds before and after alcohol fermentation.Methods By solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer-computer (GC-MS), the flavor compo-nents of Heyuan high-bush blueberry before and after alcohol fermentation were analyzed.Results The main aroma components of Heyuan southern high-bush blueberry wered-limonene and other kinds of alkenes and aldehydes. The main aroma compoents of blueberry wine were ethyl acetate, octanoic acid ethyl ester and other kinds of ester and alcohols.Conclusion There are some different aroma compounds between blueberry in Heyuan area and northern area. After blueberry fermented into blueberry drink olefins, aldehydes were signifi-cantly reduced or disappeared, and esters, alcohols, some long chain alkane and fatty acid esters increased sig-nificantly.%目的:明确广东河源地区南高丛蓝莓特征风味成分以及蓝莓发酵后香挥发性成分变化规律。方法采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用法分析了河源南高丛蓝莓的风味成分,以及发酵成蓝莓酒后的风味成分变化。结果河源南高丛蓝莓主要风味成分为柠檬烯以及其他烯烃、醛类等物质,发酵成蓝莓酒后主要特征风味成分为乙酸乙酯、辛酸乙酯等酯类和醇类物质。结论河源南高丛蓝莓在挥发性成分上与以往报道的温带地区蓝莓有一定的区别,蓝莓发酵成蓝莓酒后烯烃、醛类物质显著减少或消失,而酯类和醇类显著增加,同时生成了长链烷烃和脂肪酸酯类物质。

  5. Development of Preservation Technology of Blueberry in the World%国内外蓝莓保鲜技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱麟; 凌建刚

    2011-01-01

    综述了国内外蓝莓保鲜技术的研究进展,包括冷藏保鲜、气调保鲜、涂膜保鲜、1-MCP熏蒸保鲜、UV-C辐射保鲜等,特别是对应用性较强、易于产业化的气调保鲜技术研究现状作重点介绍,并结合生产实际,对我国蓝莓保鲜技术发展方向进行展望。%In this paper,the main development of preservation technology of blueberry in the world were reviewed, including cold storage,modified atmosphere packaging,edible coating,1-MCP and ultraviolet radiation,etc. The details of modified atmosphere packaging technology which is the most popular and easy-to-industrialization was introduced.Further more,the trend of the development in fresh blueberry storage technologies in our country were also prospected.

  6. 蓝莓枸杞发酵酒的生产工艺研究%Research on the Production Technology of Medlar-blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 孙波

    2015-01-01

    the healthy, nutritional and low alcoholic wine brewing technology in which blueberry and medlar are used as major raw materials, fermented by yeast without distillation, and honey is added was introduced. The wine made by this technology has the characteristics of fruit and wine fragrance, mellow and fresh taste, fusion of nutrition and function of medlar, blueberry and honey, low sugar, low alcohol and high nutritional value.%介绍了以蓝莓和枸杞作为主要原料,经酵母发酵,无需蒸馏,加入适量蜂蜜,生产低度营养保健酒的工艺.用此方法生产的保健酒具有蓝莓和枸杞的果香和酒香,口感醇厚、清爽,充分融合了蓝莓、枸杞及蜂蜜的营养和功效,具有糖分低、酒度低、营养价值高等特点.

  7. Development of a Lactic Acid Bacteria-Fermented Blueberry Dairy Beverage%乳酸发酵型蓝莓乳饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏伟; 简素平; 徐静

    2012-01-01

    Abstract : A nutritional beverage way developed by fermenting a mixture of blueberry juice and milk with mixed cultures of domesticated lactic acid bacteria. Orthogonal array design was used to determine optimal process parameters. The optimal fermentation substrate composition was composed of 60% milk, 14% blueberry juice and 6.5% sucrose. The optimal fermentation parameters were determined as 3.2% of inoculum size, 4.4 h of fermentation time and 42 °C of fermentation temperature.%以蓝莓汁、牛奶为原料,将其按一定比例混合,接种经驯化的乳酸混合菌进行发酵,由正交试验确定最佳工艺参数。结果表明:最佳原料配比为:牛奶60%、蓝莓汁添加量14%、蔗糖量6.5%;最佳发酵工艺参数为:接种量3.2%、发酵时间4.4h、温度42℃。

  8. Blanching improves anthocyanin absorption from highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) purée in healthy human volunteers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Brambilla, Ada; Gardana, Claudio; Rizzolo, Anna; Simonetti, Paolo; Bertolo, Gianni; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Porrini, Marisa

    2012-09-12

    Blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are rich sources of phenolics and anthocyanins (ACNs). We investigated the absorption of ACNs after consumption of one portion (300 g) of minimally processed blueberry purée (P) obtained from blanched (BL) or unblanched (NB) berries. A repeated-measures, crossover design study was conducted on healthy human volunteers. Blood was drawn between baseline and 24 h after BL-P or NB-P consumption, while urine were collected from the day before the experiment up to 48 h. Total plasma ACN content was not significantly different, while phenolics content was higher in BL-P with respect to NB-P. The maximum ACN absorption in plasma was observed after 1.5 h from the intake of the purées and was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) after the intake of BL-P. Both products increased the excretion of hippuric acid in urine. In conclusion, blanching had no significant effect on total ACN content and enhanced their absorption from minimally processed purées.

  9. Influence of Low Temperature Enzyme Maceration Techniques on Volatile Compounds of Semi-dry Wine Made with cv. Premier of Rabbiteye Blueberries (Vaccinium ashei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A low temperature enzyme maceration treatment was conducted during fermentation process of semi-dry cv. Premier blueberry wine. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maceration conditions on the wine aroma. As a pre-treatment, blueberry must was divided into 6 samples which were respectively treated by pectinase with 6 different maceration conditions at 6°C 1day, 6°C 2 days, 6°C 3 days, 16°C 1 day, 16°C 2 days and 16°C 3 days. After that wines were obtained by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Volatile compounds of wines were analyzed by GC-MS. Overall, the typical aroma compounds of semi-dry cv. Premier wines were constituted by three groups of organic compounds including esters, alcohols and fatty acids. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl decanoate, 2-phenethanol and 3-methylbutanoic acid, which occupied 60% of the typical volatile aromatic compounds, all had higher Odor Activity Values (OAVs in 6°C 3 days than other conditions. Maceration temperature and time had a significant effect on concentration and varieties of wines aroma substances. The results presented will help to better understand the aroma winemaking potential of this variety.

  10. Identification of aluminum-regulated genes by cDNA-AFLP analysis of roots in two contrasting genotypes of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Aquea, Felipe; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Alberdi, Miren; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of Al(3+)-stress in blueberry, a cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis was employed to identify Al-regulated genes in roots of contrasting genotypes of highbush blueberry (Brigitta, Al(3+)-resistant and Bluegold, Al(3+)-sensitive). Plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with 0 and 100 μM Al(3+) and collected at different times over 48 h. Seventy transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified as being Al(3+) responsive, 31 of which showed significant homology to genes with known or putative functions. Twelve TDFs were homologous to uncharacterized genes and 27 did not have significant matches. The expression pattern of several of the genes with known functions in other species was confirmed by quantitative relative real-time RT-PCR. Twelve genes of known or putative function were related to cellular metabolism, nine associated to stress responses and other transcription and transport facilitation processes. Genes involved in signal transduction, photosynthetic and energy processes were also identified, suggesting that a multitude of processes are implicated in the Al(3+)-stress response as reported previously for other species. The Al(3+)-stress response genes identified in this study could be involved in Al(3+)-resistance in woody plants.

  11. Inhibitory effect of Gardenblue blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) anthocyanin extracts on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Zhou, Qing; Yao, Yong; Li, Xing; Zhang, Jiu-Liang; Su, Guan-Hua; Deng, Ai-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins, which are associated with health benefits contributing to a reduced risk for many diseases. The present study identified the functional Gardenblue blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) anthocyanin extracts (GBBAEs) and evaluated their capacity and underlying mechanisms in protecting murine RAW 264.7 cells from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation in vitro. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit results showed that GBBAEs significantly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and interferon-γ (INF-γ). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis indicated that the mRNA expression levels of IL-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) were suppressed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the relative protein expression levels of COX-2 and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κBp65). All these results suggested the potential use of GBBAEs as a functional food for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27256676

  12. Study on the Blueberry Hawthorn Nectar Process and Optimization for the Recipe%蓝莓山楂果茶的研制及配方的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪慧华; 刘小飞; 汪长钢; 柳青; 徐雅君

    2014-01-01

    采用正交试验对蓝莓山楂果茶配方进行优化,确定稳定剂的配比及果茶的最佳配方,并通过不同杀菌条件比较其杀菌效果,优化果茶的杀菌参数。结果表明,果茶最佳的原料配方为:蓝莓与山楂混浆添加量为40%、白砂糖10%、柠檬酸0.08%、黄原胶0.03%和CMC0.03%。最佳杀菌时间和温度是85℃/20 min。%The paper reports the studies on the recipe optimization of blueberry hawthorn nectar, and ratios of stabilizers, the best ratios to the nectar components with an orthogonal statistical test method. By comparison with sterilization effects of various sterilization conditions, the optimization parameters are found. The results of the studies point out that the optimized ratios to nectar raw recipe are composed of a dosage of 40%blueberry and hawthorn mixing solutions, 10%sugar, 0.08%citric acid, 0.03%xanthan gum and 0.03%CMC. The best sterilization time and temperature is 85℃and 20 min.

  13. Reflection on Construction of Blueberry Demonstration Base in Tongshan%湖北通山县蓝莓示范基地建设的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付秋生; 红波; 李章武; 阮红恩; 田思思; 李万德

    2015-01-01

    蓝莓是联合国粮农组织推荐的人类五大健康食品之一,其果肉细腻,风味独特,营养丰富,具有调节血糖、改善视力、增强人体免疫力和抗氧化等特效,综合利用价值很高,发展蓝莓特色经济林,对美化城乡环境、建设生态文明,加快农村经济产业结构调整,促进财政增效,农民增收,提高人民生活水平等方面具有重要意义。%As one of five healthy food recommended by United Nations Food and Agriculture Or-ganization,blueberry has high comprehensive utilization value because it can regulate blood sug-ar,improve eyesight,enhance the human body immunity and have effects of anti-oxidation,as well as have delicate flesh,unique flavor and rich nutrition.Developing economic forest with blueberry characteristics has important significance in beautifying urban and rural environment, constructing ecological civilization,accelerating countryside economical structure and industrial structure ,improving financial efficiency,increasing farmers'income,and improving people's liv-ing standard.

  14. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.girgenti@unito.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Baudino, Claudio [AgrifruttaSoc. Coop. Agr., Via Beinette 6, 12016 Peveragno, CN (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. - Highlights: • LCA is a system for evaluating the environmental sustainability of products and processes. • The disposal of the packaging material is taken into account. • The LCA methodology has been applied to quantify the emissions of berry fruits. • Species index: blueberry and raspberry.

  15. Supplement of blueberry juice and its extracts to improve the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM as probiotic adjunct%蓝莓汁及其提取物对嗜酸乳杆菌NCFM体外生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕炜; 周方; 郝建新; 赵巧娇; 杨洋; 林雪娇; 张柏林

    2013-01-01

    Involvement of blueberry juice and its extracts including blueberry anthocyanin and polysaccharide in milk promoted the growth of Ladobacillus acidophilus NCFM, a well-known commercial probiotic bacteria which are used widely in dairy products and food industry for health improvement. The growth and viability of strain NCFM cultured at 37 ℃ for 24 h in MRS were investigated in the presences of blueberry juice and its extracts which have different concentrations. It was seen that addition of blueberry juice produced positive roles in improving the growth of strain NCFM.When 70% blueberry juice was added to medium, strain NCFM grew very well. Blueberry juice higher than 70% facilitated strain NCFM to have a stable growth, while the bacterial growth might be weakened in the presence of 100% blueberry juice. Moreover, blueberry anthocyanin extracted did not show any effect on the growth of L. acidophilus NCFM. Supplement of blueberry polysaccharide extracted, ac.100 μg/mL, to medium improved the growth of strain NCFM very good, and the viable counts of the probiotic bacteria reached 8.323×108 mL-1. This study proved that supplement of blueberry to fermented dairy products might be useful for the proliferation of probiotic bacteria.%蓝莓汁、蓝莓花青素和蓝莓多糖对嗜酸乳杆菌NCFM(Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM)体外生长影响表明,24 h培养期间,添加蓝莓汁会促进嗜酸乳杆菌NCFM的生长,蓝莓汁添加量低于70%时,随蓝莓汁添加量的增加益生茵NCFM的细胞活茵数上升;当蓝莓汁添加体积分数高于70%时,促进菌株NCFM生长的作用趋于稳定;当添加量达到100%时,促进益生菌NCFM生长的作用开始减弱.添加单一蓝莓花青素对嗜酸乳杆茵NCFM的生长无明显作用;蓝莓多糖添加量为100 mg/L时能较好的促进菌株NCFM的生长,37 ℃培养24 h,细胞活菌数可达到8.323× 108 mL-1.目前的工作表明,在发酵乳中添加适当浓度的蓝莓能促进益生茵数量的增殖.

  16. 蓝莓酒中菌落总数测量不确定度的分析%Uncertainty Analysis of Total Colony Count in Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雯; 薛巍

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the national standard GB 4789.2-2010,national standard for food safety,food microbiology detection and standard for total colony number detection,the factors which affect uncertainty of total colony count in blueberry wine detection was evaluated.Furthermore,the accuracy of total bacterial colony detection process which was affected by uncertainty was verified.%依据GB 4789.2-2010《食品安全国家标准食品微生物学检验菌落总数测定方法标准》,通过对蓝莓酒中菌落总数的测量结果,对不确定度的因素进行评估,研究了测量不确定度对细菌总数检验过程准确性的验证。

  17. Fermentation Technology of Blue-berried Honeysuckle Wine%蓝靛果忍冬果酒发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关莹

    2015-01-01

    Blue-berried honeysuckle fruit was used as raw materials to produce fruit wine and its best fermentation parameters were summed up as follows:Angel yeast RV100 was selected, yeast adding level was 5 %, sugar content of the substrate was 18 %, and 8 d fermentation at 25℃.%以蓝靛果忍冬为原料进行发酵制酒,筛选出安琪酵母RV100为最佳酿酒酵母;蓝靛果果酒的最优酿造工艺为酵母添加量5%、底物含糖量18%、25℃下发酵8 d。

  18. High ice nucleation activity located in blueberry stem bark is linked to primary freeze initiation and adaptive freezing behaviour of the bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Tadashi; Yamazaki, Hideyuki; Saruwatari, Atsushi; Murakawa, Hiroki; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Price, William S; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    Controlled ice nucleation is an important mechanism in cold-hardy plant tissues for avoiding excessive supercooling of the protoplasm, for inducing extracellular freezing and/or for accommodating ice crystals in specific tissues. To understand its nature, it is necessary to characterize the ice nucleation activity (INA), defined as the ability of a tissue to induce heterogeneous ice nucleation. Few studies have addressed the precise localization of INA in wintering plant tissues in respect of its function. For this purpose, we recently revised a test tube INA assay and examined INA in various tissues of over 600 species. Extremely high levels of INA (-1 to -4 °C) in two wintering blueberry cultivars of contrasting freezing tolerance were found. Their INA was much greater than in other cold-hardy species and was found to be evenly distributed along the stems of the current year's growth. Concentrations of active ice nuclei in the stem were estimated from quantitative analyses. Stem INA was localized mainly in the bark while the xylem and pith had much lower INA. Bark INA was located mostly in the cell wall fraction (cell walls and intercellular structural components). Intracellular fractions had much less INA. Some cultivar differences were identified. The results corresponded closely with the intrinsic freezing behaviour (extracellular freezing) of the bark, icicle accumulation in the bark and initial ice nucleation in the stem under dry surface conditions. Stem INA was resistant to various antimicrobial treatments. These properties and specific localization imply that high INA in blueberry stems is of intrinsic origin and contributes to the spontaneous initiation of freezing in extracellular spaces of the bark by acting as a subfreezing temperature sensor. PMID:25082142

  19. Studies on Optimization for the Compound Stabilizer Formulation of Hawthorn Blueberry Nectar%山楂蓝莓果茶复合稳定剂配方的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪慧华; 罗红霞; 汪长钢; 刘小飞; 柳青

    2014-01-01

    In the studies, compound formulation stabilizers were tested to improve stabilization of hawthorn blueberry nectar in optimal conditions. An orthogonal statistical test method was used to compare its stability for experiments. As a result for the hawthorn blueberry nectar, the optimized stabilizer formulation was the ratios of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC) 0.02%, xanthan gum 0.03%, gelatin 0.03%in the component of stabilizers.%采用正交试验对山楂蓝莓果茶复合稳定剂配方进行优化,并进行稳定性比较实验,结果表明:最佳稳定剂配方为:羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)0.02%、黄原胶0.03%、明胶0.03%。

  20. Effects of Temperature, pH-value, and Light on Stability of Anthocyanin in Blueberry Juice%温度、pH值和光照对蓝莓汁花色苷稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆卿卿; 张丽霞; 刘小莉; 董明盛; 周剑忠

    2012-01-01

    The effects of temperature, pH - value, and light source on the stability of anthocyanin in the blueberry juice were studied in this paper. The results showed that anthocyanin maintained its red color only in acidic circumstance, but was not stable in alkaline circumstance. Blueberry juice anthocyanin faded faster in natural light than in dark condition. Blueberry juice anthocyanin had a higher stability at the temperature of 60 T. After being heated for 4 hours, the residual rate of anthocyanin stayed above 80%.%研究了温度、pH值、光照对蓝莓汁花色苷稳定性的影响,结果表明:花色苷在酸性介质中保持其本色——红色,而在碱性介质中则相对较不稳定;蓝莓花色苷在自然光直射下褪色较快,在避光条件下褪色相对较慢;蓝莓汁中的花色苷在60℃以下的热稳定性较好,加热4h后,其花色苷残留率达80%以上.

  1. Study on the Technology of Compound Beverage of Honeysuckle Blueberry and Crabapple%金银花蓝莓海棠复合饮料加工关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东龙; 郑亚琴; 纪艳青

    2015-01-01

    利用正交试验方案确定金银花蓝莓海棠复合饮料的最佳配方.结果表明,金银花蓝莓海棠复合饮料的最佳配方为:金银花汁25%、蓝莓汁15%、海棠汁25%、柠檬酸0.12%和白砂糖6%.产品外观呈紫红色,口感清爽、酸甜,具有金银花、蓝莓和海棠的天然风味.%The optimum formula of the compound beverage of honeysuckle blueberry and crabapple was determined by orthogonal test. The results showed that the best formula of the beverage were honeysuckle juice 25%, blueberry juice 15%, crabapple juice 25%, citric acid 0.12%and sugar 6%. The appearance of the product is purple red, crisp, sweet and sour, with natural flavor of honeysuckle blueberry and crabapple.

  2. Blueberries and Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia are among the metabolic alterations that predispose the individual to several adverse cardiovascular complications. The hea...

  3. 不同蒸馏次数对蓝莓白兰地香气成分影响%Effects of Different Distillation Times on Aroma Components of Blueberry Brandy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆印; 陈亮; 胡仙妹; 李燕

    2016-01-01

    Aroma components of blueberry brandy distilled two times from blueberry fermented wine were analyzed by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction(SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that 66 of aroma components were detected in the blueberry brandy, of which 3 kinds of alcohols, 20 kinds of esters, 1 kind of acid, 9 kinds of phenol species, 22 kinds of alkanes and 11 of other kinds. Esters relative content was the highest , of which one time distillation and two distillations were 42.3 % and 29.43 % respectively. Ester compounds were the main aroma components of blueberry brandy. According to sensory evaluation, one time distilled brandy in the sensory score was superior to the two distillation brandy. One time distilled brandy's color was clear, transparent, and bright. It had not suspension and precipitation. It's taste was mellow and of pure fruity , with harmonious blueberry characteristic flavor.%采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术对蓝莓发酵酒进行两次蒸馏得到的蓝莓白兰地香气成分进行分析。结果表明蓝莓白兰地中共检出66种香气成分,其中醇类3种、酯类20种、酸类1种、苯酚类9种、烃类22种、其他类11种,酯类在两次蒸馏白兰地中含量最高,一次蒸馏和二次蒸馏分别为42.3%和29.43%,表明酯类化合物是蓝莓白兰地的主要香气成分。基于感官评价,一次蒸馏白兰地的感官评分要优于二次蒸馏的白兰地,其色泽清澈透明、晶亮,无悬浮物、无沉淀,果香纯正,口味醇厚、爽净,具有和谐的蓝莓特征风味。

  4. Optimizing of main composition changes and extraction conditions of blueberry juice wine%蓝莓露酒主要成分变化及浸提条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方堃; 陆胜民; 夏其乐; 杨颖

    2013-01-01

    目的:优化蓝莓露酒主要成分变化及浸提条件。方法以新鲜蓝莓为原料,用不同纯度的乙醇溶液浸提,并对浸提过程中溶出的总酚、黄酮、花色苷、总酸、可溶性固形物和维生素C进行动态分析。在多个单因素试验的基础上采用正交试验考察乙醇溶液和蓝莓的比例(A)、浸提用乙醇溶液的纯度(B)、浸提前超声处理时间(C)和浸提时间(D)对蓝莓酒抗氧化能力的影响。结果和结论最佳的浸提条件为料液比1:1,浸提用乙醇溶液的乙醇含量60%(v/v),超声处理时间40 min,浸提时间为30 d,在此条件下其DPPH自由基清除率为66.30%。%Objective To optimize the main composition changes and extraction conditions of blueberry juice wine. Methods Blueberry integrated alcoholic beverage was produced by immersing the fresh blueberry fruits into different concentrations of alcohol. Some ingredients, like total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, total acid, soluble solids and Vitamin C, of blueberry fruits dissolved into the alcohol solution during immer-sion process were dynamically monitored. Orthogonal test was used to determine the effect of solid-liquid ratio (A), alcohol concentration (B), ultrasonic time (C) as well as immersion time (D) on the antioxidant capacity of the blueberry integrated alcoholic beverage. Results and Conclusion The best combination of factors was the ratio of fruit to liquid 1:1, alcohol concentration 60%(v/v) , ultrasonic time 40 min, impregnation time 30 d, and the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of the alcoholic beverage was determined to 66.30%.

  5. Application of immobilized yeast in blueberry wine fermentation%酵母的固定化及在蓝莓酒发酵中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄艳秋; 张秀玲

    2012-01-01

    To study the superiority of immobilized yeast, immobilized yeast was compared with free yeast.Chitosansodium alginate carrier together with SiO2 and Al2O3 and PVA-sodium alginate carrier together with SiQ and Al2O3 was used to test to select the better carrier.In the experiment, detecting the optimal dosage of sodium aiginate, PVA,SiO2 and Al2O3 ,and determining the optimum condition by orthogonaI.The result was that fermentation was the best,fermentation period was 3 days and blueberry wine flavor was the best,when concentration of sodium alginate was 1.5% ,the dosage of PVA was 0.6% ,the dosage of Al2O3 was 0.8% ,the dosage of SiO2 was 1.4%.So the nature of all aspects of blueberry wine fermented by PVA-sodium alginate carrier together with SiO2 and Al2O3 were the best.%为了研究固定化酵母的优越性,将固定化酵母与游离酵母进行比较。用加有SiO2和Al2O3的壳聚糖-海藻酸钠和加有SiO2和Al2O3的PVA-海藻酸钠载体进行实验,确定较优的载体。测定海藻酸钠、PVA、SiO2和Al2O3的最适添加量,通过正交实验,确定最佳工艺条件。结果表明:海藻酸钠浓度为1.5%,PVA添加量为0.6%,Al2O3添加量为0.8%,SiO2添加量为1.4%时,发酵效果最好,发酵周期短,为3d,蓝莓酒风味也最好。因此,用加有SiOz和Al2O3的PVA-海藻酸钠载体发酵得到的蓝莓酒各方面性质最好。

  6. Infl uence of thermal treatment on the stability of phenolic compounds and the microbiological quality of sucrose solution following osmotic dehydration of highbush blueberry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kucner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osmotic dehydration is a process of the partial removal of water which is based on immersion of material having cellular structure in a hypertonic solution. Osmotic dehydration is used as a pretreatment for the dehydration of foods before they are subjected to further processing such as freezing, freeze drying, vacuum drying. Management of spent syrup is one of the most important problems related to osmotic dewatering. Osmotic solutions are heavily polluted with of carbohydrates, remains of the dehydrated material and microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment on the content of phenolic compounds and the microbiological quality of sucrose solution used in 15 cycles of osmotic dehydration of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. fruits. Material and methods. The tested material was 65.0 ±0.5°Brix sucrose solution used for 15 cycles of osmotic dehydration of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.. Osmotic dehydration was conducted at 40°C for 120 min using fruits previously subjected to enzymatic pretreatment. The thermal treatment of sucrose solution was conducted at 70, 80, 90, 100 and 115°C for 20, 40 and 60 s. The sucrose solution was analysed in terms of total polyphenols, particular polyphenols using high performance liquid chromatography and microbiological analysis was subjected. Results. Thermal treatment at 70-115°C for 20 s caused degradation of 8.5% to 12.7% of polyphenols, while as much as 23.1% of polyphenols were degraded at 115°C after 60 s. The present paper proposes heating parameters that are optimal from the point of view of phenolic compound retention and microbiological quality: thermal treatment of syrup at 100°C for 40 s. Under these conditions, total polyphenols retention was 94.5%, while the retention of individual phenolic compounds varied from 89.2% to 37.2%, and that of fl avan-3-ols amounted to 89.5%. The studied manner of syrup treatment

  7. Chemical Characteristics of Cold-Pressed Blackberry, Black Raspberry, and Blueberry Seed Oils and the Role of the Minor Components in Their Oxidative Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanquan; Wang, Jiankang; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-07-01

    The chemical characteristics of cold-pressed blackberry, black raspberry, and blueberry seed oils were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, positional distribution of fatty acids, triacylglycerol (TAG) profile, and minor component profile. The role of minor components, including tocols and pigments, on the oxidative stability was also investigated using high-temperature- and fluorescent-lighting-induced oxidation before and after tested berry seed oils were stripped of their minor components. The results indicated that all tested berry seed oils contained significant levels of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (C18:2ω-6), and α-linolenic (C18:3ω-3) acids, along with a favorable ratio of ω-6/ω-3 fatty acids (1.49-3.86); palmitic, stearic, oleic, and α-linolenic acids were predominantly distributed on the terminal positions. Six TAGs, namely, LnLnLn, LnLLn, LLLn, LLL, OLL, and OLLn, were the major species detected in the tested berry seed oils. Total tocol contents were 286.3-1302.9 mg/kg, which include α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols as well as δ-tocotrienol. Oxidative stability of the three berry seed oils was compromised after the removal of tocols under high-temperature-induced oxidation, while the loss of pigments (chlorophylls) led to weak oxidative stability when exposed to fluorescent lights. PMID:27203814

  8. Wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus alleviate inflammation and hypertension associated with developing obesity in mice fed with a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto T Mykkänen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-grade metabolic inflammation and hypertension are primary mechanisms involved in obesity-associated adverse health effects. Berries, especially Nordic wild blueberries (hereafter referred to as bilberries, represent an important source of dietary anthocyanins, a group of polyphenols with potential beneficial effects to combat obesity-associated metabolic disturbances. METHODS: The effects of 5% or 10% (w/w of whole bilberries (BB were studied on the development of obesity and its metabolic disturbances in C57BL mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD for three months. Cytokines, inflammatory cells, systolic blood pressure, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, weight gain, body fat, food consumption and energy metabolism were assessed. RESULTS: Bilberries ameliorated type 1 pro-inflammatory responsiveness induced by HFD. This was indicated by the altered cytokine profile and the reduced prevalence of interferon gamma -producing T-cells, in particular T helper type 1 cells. Bilberries also prevented the progression of obesity associated long term increase in systolic blood pressure in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Bilberries reduce the development of systemic inflammation and prevent the progression of chronic hypertension, thus supporting their potential role in alleviating the adverse health effects associated with developing obesity.

  9. Effects of UV-B radiation on anatomical characteristics, phenolic compounds and gene expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway in highbush blueberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Arellano, Alejandro; Latsague, Mirtha; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren

    2014-12-01

    The effects of increased doses of UV-B radiation on anatomical, biochemical and molecular features of leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes were investigated. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 Wm(-2) of biologically effective UV-B radiation for up to 72 h. Leaf thickness and the adaxial epidermis thickness fell more than 3-fold in both genotypes at the highest UV-B dose. Moreover, in Bluegold an evident disorganization in the different cell layers was observed at the highest UV-B radiation. A significant decrease in chlorophyll a/b after 6 h in Brigitta under the greater UV-B doses was observed. Anthocyanin and total phenolics were increased, especially at 0.19 Wm(-2), when compared to the control in both genotypes.Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in Brigitta, and was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than in Bluegold leaves. Regarding the expression of phenylpropanoid genes, only the transcription factor VcMYBPA1 showed a significant and sustained induction at higher doses of UV-B radiation in both genotypes compared to the controls. Thus, the reduction of leaf thickness concomitant with a lower lipid peroxidation and rapid enhancement of secondary metabolites, accompanied by a stable induction of the VcMYBPA1 transcription factor suggest a better performance against UV-B radiation of the Brigitta genotype.

  10. 青岛市黄岛区蓝莓生产经营模式比较分析∗%Comparative Analysis of Huangdao District Blueberry Production and Operation Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李臣; 刘文佳; 刘阳; 万志芳

    2015-01-01

    With the expansion of business scale, the industrial upgrading, the existing blueberry pro-duction and management mode in Huangdao area can not be efficient for the production service. There-fore , in depth study of the operating mechanism of the current operating mode of blueberry in Huangd-ao district, and then put forward the principle of perfection and optimization of the production manage-ment mode of blueberry, such as develop moderate scale management, cultivate new farmers, broad-en financing channels, reduce business risks, and reduce the cost of information acquisition, so as to construct the diversified production management mode and the eco sightseeing production management mode.%随着经营规模的扩大、产业的升级,黄岛区现行的蓝莓生产经营模式已不能高效地为生产服务,因此在深入研究黄岛区蓝莓现行经营模式的运行机理后,提出避免寻租和机会主义行为,有助于发展适度规模经营、培育新型农民、拓宽融资渠道、降低经营风险,降低信息获取成本的蓝莓生产经营模式完善与优化原则,并以此为依据构建起多元化生产经营模式与生态观光生产经营模式。

  11. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on Sterilization and Quality of Blueberry Juice%高压脉冲电场对蓝莓汁杀菌效果及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晓赟; 王寅; 陈健; 李路宁; 孙爱东

    2012-01-01

    The study evaluated the sterilizing effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on Escherichia coli in blueberry juice and its impact on physicochemical property of blueberry juice. The results showed that the inactivation effect of Escherichia coli was enhanced when the electric field strength and total treatment time were increased. With PEF treatments at 35 kV/cm and 82 ~s, the reduction of Escherichia coli was 5. 12 logarithms. When the electric field strength was constant and the electric conductivity was increased, the inactivation effect of Escherichia coli declined slightly. PEF had no significant effect on the content of vitamin C, anthocyanin, total phenols, titratable acids, re- ducing sugar, and Brix in blueberry juice and its color.%研究了高压脉冲电场(PEF)对蓝莓汁的杀菌效果及其对蓝莓汁理化性质的影响。结果显示:随电场强度、处理时间的增大,PEF对蓝莓汁中大肠杆菌的杀灭效果增强。当电场强度为35kV/cm,处理时间为82μs时,蓝莓汁中大肠杆菌致死率为5.12个对数。电场强度一定时,电导率增大,PEF对大肠杆菌的钝化效果略微下降。PEF对蓝莓汁Vc、花青素、总酚、可滴定酸、还原糖、可溶性固形物及色泽等理化性质没有影响。

  12. 响应面法优化蓝莓澄清型果汁饮料工艺%Formulation Optimization for Clarified Blueberry Juice Beverage by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛英亮; 马艳秋

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the optimization of stabilizer formulation by orthogonal array design and the optimization of clarified blueberry juice beverage formulation by response surface methodology. The best stabilizer formulation was composed of xanthan, sodium alginate and β-cyclodextrin at a mass ratio of 1:1:1. The best clarified blueberry juice beverage formulation consisted of blueberry juice 12%, sugar 2%, citric acid 0.15%, and complex stabilizer 0.05%. The resulting beverage showed a mellow blue color, a palatable balance between sweet and tart, and abundant nutrients and had certain healthcare functions.%采用正交试验和响应面法对蓝莓澄清型饮料配方及加工工艺进行优化,确定蓝莓澄清型饮料稳定剂的最佳配比及蓝莓澄清型饮料的最佳配方。结果表明:以黄原胶、海藻酸钠和β-环状糊精作为蓝莓澄清型果汁饮料的稳定剂,添加比例为1:1:1(m/m)时,稳定效果较好。蓝莓澄清果汁饮料配方(质量分数):12%蓝莓汁、12%白砂糖、0.15%柠檬酸和0.05%复合稳定剂,可以得到具有色泽蓝润、酸甜适口、营养丰富、并具有一定保健功能的蓝莓澄清型果汁饮料。

  13. Research on Processing Technology of Blueberry Juice Solid Beverage by Freeze—Drying%冷冻干燥法加工蓝莓汁固体饮料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雪丹; 赵凯; 李芬芳

    2011-01-01

    With frozen blueberry fruit as raw material, freeze-drying technology of blueberry juice solid beverage was researched, and the effects of formula and drying aids on sensory quality were investigated. In addition, the changes of anthocyanins content in two different blueberry juices beverage (solid and liquid) were compared during shelf life. The result showed that the best formula of beverage was 5% sucrose, 1.5% citric acid, 15% maltodextrin and 0.7% CMC.This beverage has peculiar flavor, tastes sour and sweet, preserve nutrients such as anthocyanins better, and the natural health function and flavour of beverage get harmonious and unify.%以速冻蓝莓果实为原料,探讨饮料配方及干燥助剂对产品感官品质的影响,对比不同保存状态(固体、液体)下蓝莓汁饮料花色苷含量的变化规律,进行冷冻干燥法加工蓝莓汁固体饮料的工艺研究.结果表明,在蓝莓原汁中加入5%蔗糖、1.5%柠檬酸、15%麦芽糊精、0.7%CMC所制得的蓝莓汁固体饮料不仅风味独特,口感酸甜,而且较好地保存了花色苷等营养成分,使其天然保健功能和果汁饮料风味达到和谐统一.

  14. 基于低温浸渍处理技术的蓝莓酒酿造工艺研究%Processing technology of blueberry wine based on cold maceration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奔; 刘卉; 高学玲; 胡勇

    2011-01-01

    The blueberry wine was made from blueberries through beating it to jam , adding pectinase (0.02g·kg-1) and yeast(0.05g·kg-1), and pre-fermentation with cold maceration at 16℃. After that, a technological process including adjusting composition, inoculating yeast, aging and clarification were followed. The effects of winemaking strains, inoculation volume, fermentation temperature and sulfur dioxide amount on the qulity of brewing blueberry wine were analyzed through single factor test and orthogonal experiment, and the results show that, in a condition of pre-fermentation with cold maceration at 16℃ for 72 h, taken Y13 as the wine seed yeast,adding 0.2 g·L-1 inoculation volume, fermentation at 25℃ and sulfur dioxide amount controlling at 40 mg·L-1, a new-type blueberry wine can be made, which presents a deep ruby red color and clarification, mellow tastes, and smells like deep floral aroma of roses.%蓝莓果实经打浆、添加果胶酶0.02 g·kg-1及酵母0.05 g·kg-1于16℃条件下进行低温浸渍预发酵处理后,再经调整成分、接种酵母发酵、陈酿、澄清等工艺酿制蓝莓果酒.通过单因素及正交试验设计考察了酿酒菌种、接种量、发酵温度及SO2用量对酿造蓝莓酒品质的影响,结果显示,发酵原料经16℃浸渍预发酵72 h后,以Y13为酿酒酵母,在接种总量为0.2 g·L-1,发酵温度25℃,SO2用量40 mg·L-1的条件下酿造的蓝莓酒,经陈酿后酒液呈深宝石红色,澄清透明,口感醇厚,且带有浓郁的玫瑰花香.

  15. 葡萄糖氧化酶对蓝莓酒贮藏过程中香气成分的影响%Effectiveness of Glucose Oxidase on the Aromatic Composition of Blueberry Wine during Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰蓉; 李双石; 辛秀兰

    2015-01-01

    Using blueberry wine as samples,we tested several different glucose oxidase treatment methods for their effectiveness on aromatic compositions.Blueberry wines were treated with three kinds of treatment methods including combined treatment of glucose oxidase and catalase ,single treatment of glucose oxidase , combined treatment of glucose oxidase and sodium pyrosulfite ,and treatment of sterile distilled water as a control. All groups were preserved at 4 ℃.Using the method of SPME coupled with GC-MS , changes in aromatic compositions were determined after six months' storage. We report here that three kinds of blueberry wines treated with different methods were superior to the control group at the keeping of the contents of total aromatic compositions, esters, typical aromatic compositions having positive contribution to the aroma of fruit wine and that combined treatment of glucose oxidase and catalase is the best choice and more favorable for the storage of blueberry wine.%以树莓酒为试材,分别以3种方式(葡萄糖氧化酶和过氧化氢酶联合处理、葡萄糖氧化酶单独处理、葡萄糖氧化酶和焦亚硫酸钠联合处理)处理,以无菌蒸馏水处理为对照,4℃下贮藏6个月后,采用顶空固相微萃取(SPME)结合气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析了蓝莓酒香气成分的变化。结果表明:3种不同方式处理的蓝莓酒,在香气物质总量、酯类成分含量、对果酒香气质量呈正向贡献的典型香气成分的保持效果方面均优于对照组,其中葡萄糖氧化酶和过氧化氢酶联合处理的蓝莓酒保持效果最好,更有益于蓝莓酒的贮藏。

  16. 蓝莓叶多酚与蓝莓果渣多酚提取物抗氧化活性研究%Antioxidant activity of polyphenolics extracted from the leaves and pomace of Rabbiteye blueberry(Vaccinium ashei reade)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春阳; 冯进

    2013-01-01

    通过7种方法比较了蓝莓叶多酚(Blueberry leaves polyphenols,BBLP)提取物、蓝莓果渣多酚(Blueberry pomace polyphenols,BBPP)提取物以及对照品Rutin的抗氧化活性.在ABTS+清除能力、还原力、亚硝酸盐清除能力、FRAP值、ORAC值方面,BBLP与BBPP均高于Rutin或者与其相当.而三种样品DPPH·清除能力顺序为BBLP> Rutin>BBPP,·OH清除能力顺序为Rutin> BBLP> BBPP.除亚硝酸盐清除能力和ORAC值与BBPP相当、·OH清除能力弱于BBPP外,BBLP在其余4种方法中表现出的抗氧化活性均强于BBPP.结果表明,BBLP与BBPP具有较强的抗氧化作用,可用于开发天然抗氧化剂.%7 methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Blueberry Leaves Polyphenols( BBLP)extract, Blueberry Pomace Polyphenols(BBPP)extracts and Rutin.The ABTS+ scavenging activity,reducing power,nitrite scavenging activity,FRAP value,ORAC value of BBLP and BBPP extracts were higher than or equal with that of Rutin.However,the DPPH · scavenging acticity decreased in the order of BBLP > Rutin > BBPP, and the · OH activity scavenging activity decreased in the order of Rutin > BBLP > BBPP. The nitrite scavenging activity and ORAC value of BBLP was equal with that of BBPP, and the · OH scavenging activity of BBLP was weaker than that of BBPP. But BBLP exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than BBPP significantly (p < 0.05) using other four methods.Results showed that both BBLP and BBPP possessed strong antioxidant activity,which could be used to develop natural antioxidants.

  17. Determination of Total Anthocyanin in Blueberry Rice Wine%蓝莓米酒中总花色苷含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张采; 沈晓同

    2014-01-01

    采用消光系数和pH示差2种方法对自制蓝莓米酒中总花色苷含量进行测定,测定值分别为16.82(±0.36)mg/100mL和17.48(±0.40)mg/100mL。2种方法均较为准确地反映了样品在溶液体系中的浓度,消光系数法所测值略小于pH示差法,后者操作难度比前者大。建议相关产品研发时可选用较为简便的消光系数法,最终产品选用较为准确的pH示差法。%Total anthocyanin content in blueberry rice wine was determined by the extinction coefficient and pH-differential methods,measured values were 16.82(± 0.36)mg/100mL and 17.48(± 0.40)mg/100mL. Both methods were more accurate reflection of the sample concentration in the solution of the system. The con-tent tested by extinction coefficient was slightly smaller than the pH-differential method,the latter operation was more difficult than the former. We suggested product development time can be used extinction coeffi-cient method,it was more simple,and the final product selected pH-differential method,it was more accurate.

  18. Processing Technology of Sarah Pear-Blueberries Wine%新型宝珠梨蓝莓酒加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建兰

    2011-01-01

    Fresh Sarah Pear and Blueberries were used as the main raw material to ferment wine with yeast. The key factors influencing the quality of cider such as inoculation quantity, initial Ph and fermentation temperature were explored, through monitoring sensory quality, alcohol concentration, residual sugar of cider during and after the fermentation. The optimal conditions of cider fermentation were investigation by L9(34) orthogonal design. The conclusion could be summarized as follows: 100g of pears adding water 50mL were fermented with 8% yeast at 28℃ and the initial Ph was 7. The significance inspection showed that the results were good, which could offer certain theoretical foundation for the fermentation of high quality cider.%本文使用新鲜宝珠梨为主要原料,添加新鲜蓝莓汁,利用酵母酿造果洒,选取加入酵母量、发酵时间、初始pH、发酵温度等影响果酒品质的4个关键因子,分别以感官评分、酒精度和残糖量等3个质量指标,应用L9(34)交试验设计优化了苹果酒发酵工艺条件,得到以下结论:100g梨加水50mL粉碎过滤,滤液加入酵母量为8%,初始pH=7,控制温度为28℃,最终酿造出品质优良,酒液透亮,且具有浓郁香味的果酒,为优质果酒的研究和开发提供了理论依据.

  19. Effect of explant density and volume of cultivation medium on in-vitro multiplication of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. varieties "Brigitta" and "Legacy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rodríguez Beraud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the in-vitro multiplication of two varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L., “Brigitta” and “Legacy” in response to five explants densities (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 and four flask volumes (10, 20, 30 and 40 mL for cultivation. For both varieties the cultivation medium WPM (Woody Plant Medium was used. The experiment was completely randomized with 20 treatments and 12 repetitions per treatment. After 45 days of cultivation we evaluated the height of shoots, number of shoots/explant, number of nodes/shoot and number of shoots/flask. Variety “Brigitta” had highest shoots at higher densities and flask volumes, while variety “Legacy” had the highest average shoot height with intermediate densities and high volumes. Regarding the number of shoots/explant, the volume of the medium had no influence on “Brigitta”, however, higher plant densities affected this parameter. With variety “Legacy” the maximum number of shoots was achieved with lower plant densities and intermediate culture volumes per flask. In relation to the number of nodes per explant "Brigitta had lower numbers as compared to “Legacy”, but with both varieties the number of nodes decresed with smaller volumes of medium in the flasks. For the number of shoots per flask, “Brigitta” responsed best at higher densities exceeding 40 shoots per flask. In contrast, “Legacy” produced maximum results at density of 25 explants in 30 mL of medium. It is concluded that for the optimum multiplication of both varieties the correct selection of both, the planting density and the volume of multiplication medium are important.

  20. Angiotensin II-Induced Apoptosis of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells was Inhibited by Blueberry Anthocyanin Through Bax- and Caspase 3-Dependent Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian; Leng, Jiyan; Zhang, Li; Bai, Guangxin; Yang, Di; Lin, Huan; Qin, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry anthocyanin (BBA) on Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and its regulation mechanisms involving Bax and Caspase 3. MATERIAL AND METHODS HUVECs were first treated by different concentrations of Ang II (10-9, 10-8, 10-7, 10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 mol/L) and BBA (80, 40, 20, 10, 5, and 2.5 μg/ml). After 24 h and 48 h of treatment, MTT was performed to detect the viability of HUVECs. Then, HUVECs were randomly divided into the Ang II group (10-6 mol/L Ang II) and Ang II + BBA group (10-6 mol/L Ang II and 20 μg/ml BBA), and the apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of Bax and Caspase 3 in these 2 groups. During the whole process, HUVECs without any treatments served as the control group. RESULTS The cell viability of HUVECs was significantly reduced by Ang II in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05), while BBA significantly elevated the cell viability of HUVECs until a peak of 20.0 μg/ml. The apoptosis rate of HUVECs was significantly increased by Ang II (P<0.01) and reduced by the BBA intervention (P<0.05). Ang II significantly elevated the expression of Bax and Caspase 3 in HUVECs, but their expression was significantly inhibited by BBA. CONCLUSIONS BBA increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis rate of HUVECs induced by Ang II through Bax- and Caspase 3-dependent pathways. PMID:27616275

  1. Molecular characterisation of a calmodulin gene, VcCaM1, that is differentially expressed under aluminium stress in highbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, C; Aquea, F; Loyola, R; Slovin, J; Josway, S; Rengel, Z; Reyes-Díaz, M; Alberdi, M; Arce-Johnson, P

    2013-11-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a small acidic protein, is one of the best characterised Ca(2+) sensors in eukaryotes. This Ca(2+) -regulated protein plays a critical role in decoding and transducing environmental stress signals by activating specific targets. Many environmental stresses elicit changes in intracellular Ca(2+) activity that could initiate adaptive responses under adverse conditions. We report the first molecular cloning and characterisation of a calmodulin gene, VcCaM1 (Vaccinium corymbosum Calmodulin 1), in the woody shrub, highbush blueberry. VcCaM1 was first identified as VCAL19, a gene induced by aluminium stress in V. corymbosum L. A full-length cDNA of VcCaM1 containing a 766-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 149 amino acids was cloned from root RNA. The sequence encodes four Ca(2+) -binding motifs (EF-hands) and shows high similarity (99%) with the isoform CaM 201 of Daucus carota. Expression analyses showed that following Al treatment, VcCaM1 message level decreased in roots of Brigitta, an Al-resistant cultivar, and after 48 h, was lower than in Bluegold, an Al-sensitive cultivar. VcCAM1 message also decreased in leaves of both cultivars within 2 h of treatment. Message levels in leaves then increased by 24 h to control levels in Brigitta, but not in Bluegold, but then decreased again by 48 h. In conclusion, VcCaM1 does not appear to be directly involved in Al resistance, but may be involved in improved plant performance under Al toxicity conditions through regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and antioxidant systems in leaves.

  2. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of VcANSgene in blueberry%越橘VcANS基因的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓艳; 裴嘉博; 张志东; 吴林; 刘海广; 李海燕; 李亚东

    2012-01-01

    【目的】从越橘果实中克隆花色素合成酶(ANS)基因cDNA,为研究越橘花色素苷合成的分子机制奠定基础。【方法】以越橘(Vacciniumspp.)品种"北陆"(V.corymbosum L.)为试材,并以Illumina测序文库(NCBI登录号:SRA046311)中差异表达的Unigene 38125片段为基础,利用cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)技术获得花色素合成酶基因全长cDNA,利用DNAMAN和MEGA软件进行多序列比对和系统进化分析,探讨ANS基因在不同组织和器官中的相对表达量及其与对应花色素苷含量的关系。【结果】成功克隆了越橘花色素合成酶基因序列,命名为VcANS,GenBank登录号为JN654701。序列分析结果表明,VcANS全长1 424bp,包含93bp的5′非编码区、248bp的3′非编码区和1个长度为1 083bp编码360个氨基酸的开放阅读框,该基因编码的蛋白具有ANS家族普遍存在的2-酮戊二酸和Fe2+-依赖的氧化酶超家族的保守结构域。序列比对和系统进化分析表明,VcANS与杜鹃花科植物亲缘关系最近。在越橘果实发育的不同阶段,VcANS相对表达量的变化与花色素苷含量的变化趋势具有一致性。【结论】获得了越橘花色素合成酶基因全长,推测其对越橘花色素苷的形成起调控作用。%【Objective】 In this study,a full-length cDNA for the anthocyanin synthase(ANS) gene from blueberry fruit was cloned,aiming to clarify the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis.【Method】 Using blueberry(Vaccinium spp.) cultivar ’Northland’(V.corymbosum L.) as material,a full-length cDNA sequence of ANS was obtained from skin of the blueberry using RT-PCR and RACE based on the differentially expressed unigene 38125 from the Illumina sequencing library(NCBI accession No.SRA046311).Using DNAMAN and MEGA software for multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis,the relationship between the relative expression of VcANS and anthocyanin content

  3. Screening of a Yeast Strain for the Production of Blueberry Fruit Wine and Study on Its Properties%酿造蓝莓果酒的酵母菌筛选和发酵特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方亮; 吴文龙; 李维林

    2015-01-01

    Yeast strains separated from naturally fermented blueberry fruit were used as the starting strains and then a yeast strain CNBG002 was obtained through three-level screening. The growth characteristics of CNBG002 in malt extract were studied. The optimum growth temperature was at 26℃and the best growth pH value was 2.5~4.5. The strain displayed good resistance to high concentration alcohol (as high as 15%vol) and SO2 (150 mg/L). It was an ideal yeast strain for the production of blueberry fruit wine.%以从蓝莓自然发酵物中分离得到的酵母作为出发菌,经过三级筛选,得到了1株适宜蓝莓果酒发酵的菌株,命名为CNBG002,并研究了该菌株在麦芽汁中的生长特性。该酵母的最适生长温度为26℃,最适生长pH值为2.5~4.5。该菌耐酒精能力较高,可达到15%vol,耐SO2能力可达150 mg/L,是一株优良的蓝莓果酒酿造酵母。

  4. Differential protection among fractionated blueberry polyphenolic families against DA-, Abeta(42)- and LPS-induced decrements in Ca(2+) buffering in primary hippocampal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Brewer, Gregory J; Weikel, Karen A; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Fisher, Derek R

    2010-07-28

    It has been postulated that at least part of the loss of cognitive function in aging may be the result of deficits in Ca(2+) recovery (CAR) and increased oxidative/inflammatory (OX/INF) stress signaling. However, previous research showed that aged animals supplemented with blueberry (BB) extract showed fewer deficits in CAR, as well as motor and cognitive functional deficits. A recent subsequent experiment has shown that DA- or Abeta(42)-induced deficits in CAR in primary hippocampal neuronal cells (HNC) were antagonized by BB extract, and (OX/INF) signaling was reduced. The present experiments assessed the most effective BB polyphenol fraction that could protect against OX/INF-induced deficits in CAR, ROS generation, or viability. HNCs treated with BB extract, BB fractions (e.g., proanthocyanidin, PAC), or control medium were exposed to dopamine (DA, 0.1 mM), amyloid beta (Abeta(42), 25 muM) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 microg/mL). The results indicated that the degree of protection against deficits in CAR varied as a function of the stressor and was generally greater against Abeta(42) and LPS than DA. The whole BB, anthocyanin (ANTH), and PRE-C18 fractions offered the greatest protection, whereas chlorogenic acid offered the lowest protection. Protective capabilities of the various fractions against ROS depended upon the stressor, where the BB extract and the combined PAC (high and low molecular weight) fraction offered the best protection against LPS and Abeta(42) but were less effective against DA-induced ROS. The high and low molecular weight PACs and the ANTH fractions enhanced ROS production regardless of the stressor used, and this reflected increased activation of stress signals (e.g., P38 MAPK). The viability data indicated that the whole BB and combined PAC fraction showed greater protective effects against the stressors than the more fractionated polyphenolic components. Thus, these results suggest that, except for a few instances, the lesser the

  5. 4株蓝莓酵母菌株的耐受性研究%Tolerance Research of 4 Blueberry Yeast Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春光; 王莹; 刘盈盈; 王芳; 向准; 孙超; 贺红早

    2015-01-01

    通过前期复筛和发酵性能试验,对筛选到的4株酿酒酵母菌(LMF15、LMF17、LMF24、LMF27)进行耐受性试验(包括温度、酒精浓度、高糖浓度、低pH值、高浓度二氧化硫)。通过菌落的生长法观察在不同浓度或温度梯度水平下菌落生长的情况。结果表明,4株蓝莓酵母菌株均表现出不同的耐受性,其中LMF-27菌株耐受酒精最高为15%vol、温度33℃、耐糖35°Bx、pH2、SO2浓度250 mg/L,LMF-27菌株均优于其他菌株,因此,将LMF-27菌株判定为具有优良的耐酸、耐酒精、耐高温、耐高糖、耐高浓度SO2的酿酒特性的菌株。旨在为今后蓝莓果酒的产业化开发及大工业化生产蓝莓果酒专用酵母提供前期技术储备和实践理论依据。%Through early screening and fermentation performance test, the tolerance of 4 yeast strains(LMF15,LMF17,LMF24,LMF27) to tem-perature, alcohol concentration, sugar concentration, low pH and high concentrations of SO2 was determined. Then the growth of colony was determined under different concentration or temperature levels of the 5 factors. The results showed that the 4 yeast strains exhibited different tolerance, and strain LMF-27 showed better performance than all the other strains, with alcohol tolerance up to 15%vol, temperature tolerance up to 33℃, sugar tolerance up to 35 °Bx, pH tolerance of 2, and SO2 tolerance up to 250 mg/L. Therefore, LMF-27 was judged to have excel-lent wine-producing ability, with high tolerance to acid, alcohol, temperature, sugar and SO2. This study has provided technical reserves and the-oretical basis for the industrial development and mass production of blueberry wine.

  6. Lowbush blueberries, Vaccinium angustifolium, modulate the functional potential of nutrient utilization and DNA maintenance mechanisms in the rat proximal colon microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Lacombe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The core gut microbiota encodes for a metabolic capacity that often surpasses the metabolic potential of its host. Lowbush wild blueberries (LWB are a rich source of bioactive compounds, and the gut microbiota is an important modulator of their activity. The objective of this research is to study the effect of a diet enriched with LWB on the gastrointestinal microbiota’s metabolic potential. Methods: Nine three-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups. The control group (N=4 was placed on the AIN93 diet, and the treatment group (N=5 was fed the same diet with 8% (w/w LWB powder substituting for dextrose. The animals consumed the diets for six weeks, after which they were sacrificed. Functional profiles and metabolic potential of the colon microbiota in response to diet were analyzed using deep whole genome sequencing (WGS. Results: Proteins predicted from WGS DNA sequences were assigned to 3,746 COG, 5,577 KEGG, and 4,474 Pfam families. Statistical comparisons of the protein-coding genes revealed significant changes in 25 Gene Ontology (GO, 186 KEGG, and 20 Pfam protein families representing 2.1%, 3.3%, and 0.02% of all hits identified, respectively. Overall, the combined inquires into these databases represented an emphasis on membrane trafficking, DNA regulation, modification and repair, and nutrient metabolism. Protein families that significantly increased by the enrichment of LWBs were involved with amino acid metabolism, 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, metal ion binding, glutamate synthase, REDOX homeostasis, and aryl transferases. In Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(6:228-241 contrast, protein families involved with integrase/recombinase, reverse transcriptase, and transposon/transposase were at a lower abundance. Conclusions: The results from this study reflect the potential impact that LWBs have on the functional repertoire of bacterial communities in the proximal colon. The results

  7. Brazilian ground pearl damaging blackberry, raspberry and blueberry in Brazil Pérola-da-terra causando danos em amoreira-preta, framboeseira e mirtileiro no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Fábio Stoffel Efrom

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922 (Hemiptera: Margarodidae, is a subterranean, polyphagous scale insect native of Southern Brazil that feeds on a variety of different vineyard plant species (Vitis spp.. In this study, it is reported three new plant hosts of the species. In 2007 and 2010, infested plants were documented in the towns of Farroupilha (29°14'34"S, 51°23'20"W and Vacaria (28°26'30"S, 50°52'59"W in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specimens of the ground pearl were found in the roots of three cultivated berry plants: blackberry (Rubus spp., raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberry (Vaccinium sp.. Observed symptoms included: chlorotic leaves, gradual wasting, reduced production, and mortality. Given the increasing popularity of berry orchards in the region, this study serves as an alert for farmers to avoid establishing them in areas infested with the ground pearl and to check for the insects in the root cuttings used to establish berry crops.A pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922 (Hemiptera: Margarodidae é uma cochonilha subterrânea, polífaga, nativa do sul do Brasil, que se alimenta de diversas espécies vegetais causando prejuízos, principalmente à cultura da videira (Vitis spp.. Nesta comunicação, três espécies vegetais são relatadas como novos hospedeiros da praga. Em 2007 e 2010, plantas infestadas foram registradas nos municípios de Farroupilha (29°14'34"S e 51°23'20"W e Vacaria (28°26'30"S e 50°52'59"W, RS. Exemplares da cochonilha foram encontrados em raízes de amoreira-preta (Rubus spp., framboeseira (Rubus idaeus L. e mirtileiro (Vaccinium sp.. Os sintomas observados foram folhas cloróticas, definhamento progressivo, diminuição na produção e morte das plantas. Devido à ampliação do cultivo de pequenas frutas na região, essa informação serve de alerta aos produtores para que evitem o plantio em áreas infestadas com a cochonilha e observem a presen

  8. Enraizamento in vitro de mirtilo em condições fotoautotróficas In vitro rooting of blueberry under photoautotrophic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Roberta Damiani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do enraizamento fotoautotrófico de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei Reade, cultivar 'Delite', comparando o efeito da luz natural (casa de vegetação e da luz artificial (sala de crescimento durante duas épocas do ano (verão e inverno, bem como o efeito de três concentrações de sacarose (0; 15 e 30g L-1 adicionadas ao meio de cultura e de diferentes tipos de vedação dos frascos de cultivo (alumínio, algodão e filme plástico. Após 60 dias de enraizamento in vitro em meio de cultura WPM, contendo 9µM L-1 de AIB, observou-se que o enraizamento em meio de cultura livre de sacarose promoveu o aumento do número de raízes e da porcentagem de enraizamento e, quando associado ao fechamento dos frascos com algodão, favoreceu, também, o incremento do comprimento das raízes e da massa fresca total. Quanto ao ambiente de cultivo e às épocas do ano, concluiu-se que o enraizamento pode ser realizado com sucesso de forma fotoautotrófica e, durante o verão, independentemente do ambiente de cultivo, verifica-se um aumento do comprimento de raízes, da porcentagem de enraizamento e da massa fresca total.The aim of this research was to assess the photoautotrofic rooting efficiency of blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade, cultivar 'Delite' by comparing the effect between natural light (greenhouse and artificial light (growth room in two seasons (summer and winter, as well as the effect of different three sucrose concentrations (0; 15 or 30g L-1 added to the culture medium and different types of flasks closure (aluminum, cotton and plastic film. After 60 days of in vitro rooting on WPM medium culture containing 9µM L-1 AIB, rooting in free-sucrose culture medium promoted an increased in the number of roots and rooting percentage; and, whether associated to cotton closed, there was an increase in length of roots and in the total fresh weight. Regarding environment growth and season, rooting could be

  9. GC-MS analysis of volatiles variation in blueberry wine before and after primary fermentation%蓝莓酒主发酵前后挥发性成分变化的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雪丹; 李二虎; 方修贵; 赵凯; 周伟东

    2015-01-01

    To research the changes in the volatile components in blueberry wine before and after primary fermentation,the volatiles of blueberry wine were investigated by headspace soild phase microextraction(SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).The results showed that 36 kinds of volatile components were detected before primary fermentation,mainly including terpenes (11),alcohols (12),esters (8) and acids (3).Furthermore,46 kinds of volatile components were detected after primary fermentation,mainly including alcohols (7),esters (13),terpenes (13),acids (4) and hydrocarbon (8).During primary fermentation,21 kinds of volatile components were disappeared,and 31 kinds of volatile components were emerged,only 15 kinds of compounds were detected both before and after fermentation.Research showed that the primary fermentation process was an important stage for aroma changes from blueberry juice into wine.%为研究蓝莓酒主发酵前、后挥发性成分的变化,采用固相微萃取(SPME)结合气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用技术,分别测定了蓝莓主发酵前、后的挥发性成分.结果表明:主发酵前共检出挥发性成分36种,主要为萜类(11种)、醇类(12种)、酯类(8种)和酸类(3种)等;主发酵后共检出挥发性成分46种,主要为醇类(7种)、酯类(13种)、萜类(13种)、酸类(4种)和烃类(8种)等.与主发酵前相比,主发酵后有21种化合物消失,有31种新增的化合物,还有15种化合物在主发酵前后均有检出.研究表明,主发酵过程是完成蓝莓酒由果汁到果酒的主要香气变化阶段.

  10. Study on Ultrasonic-microwave Synergistic Extraction and Antioxidantion of Anthocyanins from Blueberries%新疆蓝莓中花青素的超声-微波提取及抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿依努尔·阿不都如苏里; 努尔皮达·阿卜拉江; 迪丽努尔·马里克

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins from blueberries were extracted by ultrasonic-microwave synergistic method and an⁃tioxidative activity was also studied. Using catechin as standard, the effects of different factors, such as ethanol con⁃centration, Solid-liquid ratio, microwave power as well as the extraction time were examined via single factor ex⁃periments towards yield of Anthocyanins blueberries. Besides, The antioxidative activities of the Anthocyanins were determined by hydroxyl free radical, DPPh free radical, superoxide anion free radical and reducing power. The or⁃thogonal experiment shows that the optimal conditions were as follows:ethanol concentration was 50%, solid-liquid ratio was 1:60 g/mL, ultrasonic power was 50W, microwave power was 100W and extraction time was 180s. The yield of total Anthocyanins was up to 9.93% through orthogonal experiments under these optimal conditions. Antiox⁃idant activity testing showed that the anthocyanins from blueberries had a certain scavenging activity on superoxide anion, DPHH· as well as ·OH radicals.%优选蓝莓中花青素的超声-微波提取工艺,并研究其抗氧化活性。以儿茶素为标准品,选取乙醇浓度、料液比、微波功率、提取时间等考察因素,以花青素提取率为指标,在单因素试验的基础上,通过正交试验筛选出最佳的提取工艺条件。以VC 为对照,通过清除羟自由基、DPPH·自由基和超氧阴离子自由基等实验来评价蓝莓中花青素体外抗氧化能力。乙醇浓度50%,液料比1∶60,超声功率50W,微波功率100W,提取时间180s时蓝莓中花青素的提取率最高,其含量达9.93%。蓝莓中花青素对羟自由基,DPPH·和超氧阴离子自由基都有一定清除能力。且在实验所选浓度范围内,抗氧化能力随浓度的增加而增强。

  11. Pollen Quantity and Viability of Five Rabbiteye Blueberry Varieties%5个兔眼蓝莓品种的花粉量与花粉活力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芩; 廖优江; 任永权; 田栋伟; 蔡陈; 刘宗朝; 李性苑; 张文华

    2013-01-01

    为了给兔眼蓝莓品种栽培搭配合适授粉树及开展人工辅助授粉提供科学依据,以我国南方地区主栽的5个兔眼蓝莓品种为材料,对其花粉量和花粉活力进行测定.结果表明,5个兔眼蓝莓品种的花粉量和花粉活力均有显著差异,其中杰兔的花粉量与花粉活力分别为600.34粒和79.84%,均显著高于其他4个品种,同时梯扶蓝和巴尔德温两品种的花粉量均高于450粒,花粉活力均高于65%.因此,杰兔、梯扶蓝和巴尔德温可作为兔眼蓝莓的栽培授粉品种,并可与其他相互亲和品种搭配建园;而S13的花粉量(324.32粒)最少,花粉活力(22.66%)最低,不宜作为授粉树.%The pollen quantity and pollen viability of five main rabbiteye blueberry varieties were determined to provide the scientific basis for selecting appropriate pollinizers and artificial supplementary pollination in cultivation of rabbiteye blueberry.The results showed that there were significant differences in pollen quantity and pollen viability between five varieties,the pollen quantity and pollen viability of Premier variety was 600.34 and 79.84%,significantly higher than other four varieties respectively and the pollen quantity and pollen viability of Tifblue and Baldwin varieties both was over 450 and 65%,which indicates that Premier,Tifblue and Baldwin varieties can be used as pollination varieties for cultivation of rabbiteye blueberry.

  12. An Empirical Study on Consumers' Intention and Influence Factors on Blueberry Products——On the Basis of Survey of Customers in Jilin Province%消费者对蓝莓产品的购买意愿及其影响因素的实证研究——基于吉林省消费者调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽敏; 吴林; 郝庆升

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] On the basis of survey of consumers in Jilin Province, consumers' purchasing willingness and influencing factors on blueberry products were analyses in this paper. [Method] In terms of econometric model, the latest model-Logistic was utilized. [Result] The results showed that the consumers' purchasing of blueberry products could be affected by many kinds of factors, among which the consumers' gender, family monthly income, taste of blueberry products, brand image and fashionable promotion had a positive effect on consumer's purchasing intention; and consumers' marital status, comparative purchasing behavior, attention degree to gifts, package and health products were negative. [Conclusion]According to the results, the consumers' cognition regarding the blueberry products should be strengthened, the blueberry market should be segmented by gender,quality and function, the mid-market and high-end market should be erected, then the demand for blueberry product will be increased.%[目的]考察消费者购买蓝莓产品的意愿及其影响因素.[方法]采用Logi stic计量模型,设计变量,对消费者购买蓝莓产品的意愿及其影响因素进行分析.[结果]多种因素影响消费者购买蓝莓产品,其中消费者性别、家庭月收入、蓝莓产品口感、品牌形象、时尚宣传对消费者购买意愿有正向影响;而消费者婚姻状况、比较购买行为,对礼品、包装和保健品关注程度对消费者购买意愿有负向影响.[结论]选择性别、档次,功能作为标准进行市场细分,打造中,高端市场,进而加强消费者对于蓝莓产品的认知,拉动需求.

  13. Thirty-five Years of Research and Industry Development of Blueberry in China%中国蓝莓35年 ——科学研究与产业发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林

    2016-01-01

    It is a long tradition for Chinese people to eat berries of Vaccinium uliginosun L. and in the 1980s people began to process the berries from Xing′anling Area and Changbai Mountain Area in Northeastern China for wine and juice. In 1981, Prof. Hao Rui from Jilin Agricultural University in-troduced blueberry cultivars from the United States. And since 2000, the industrial cultivation has been carried out in Qingdao city, Shandong province. Till the year of 2015, over twenty provinces have been cultivating blueberry, the total area of which is approximately 30 000 hectares, and the yield of which reaches 25 000 tons in China. During the industrial development period, twenty-two cultivars have been selected from the total over one hundred cultivars introduced and cultivated as main cultivars. Seedlings have been produced through the way of tissue culture and cuttage. And key techniques of soil adjusting, pH decreasing, cultivation and management, disease and pest control-ling, storage and processing, sales and industry economy have been studied and used. Based on the reviews and analyses of researches and industry development of blueberry through the past thirty-five years ( from 1981 to 2015) in China, the development path of good cultivar selection and technique use, standard cultivation, product commercialization, and information collection through the Internet of Things ( IOT) for the blueberry industry in China was advised in this paper.%中国一直有笃斯越桔的食用传统,在20世纪80年代,将原产大小兴安岭和长白山区的笃斯越桔加工成酒、汁产品并销售. 1981年,吉林农业大学郝瑞教授从美国引种蓝莓,2000年在山东青岛实现产业化种植. 2015年全国超过20个省市区开展蓝莓种植,总面积约3万hm2 ,产量约2. 5万t. 筛选审定了22个品种,实现了组织培养工厂化育苗和扦插育苗,解决了土壤改良及调酸、栽培管理、病虫害防治、贮藏加工、销售等关键技

  14. Identificación y valor nutricional de algunos materiales nativos de arándano (Vaccinium spp Identification and nutritional value of some wild materials of blueberry (Vaccinium spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Jiménez-Bonilla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El arándano es un arbusto de la familia de las ericáceas del género Vaccinium. Sus frutos son bayas de color oscuro, azuladas o rojizas. Presenta cualidades nutricionales y antioxidantes que lo hace un fruto de alto valor medicinal y nutricional. En el curso de este estudio se localizaron, recolectaron, identificaron y analizaron por el método de ORAC (capacidad antioxidante total varios materiales silvestres identificados como Vaccinium consanguinium. Los análisis químicos mostraron los altos índices de antioxidantes presentes en los frutos (Las Torres 1, 131,58; Las Torres 2, 156,20; Villa Mills 112,84 y Quetzales 112,84 μM de Trolox equivalente/g muestra fresca, valores mayores a los indicados en la literatura para alimentos reconocidos por su potencial antioxidante.  Debido al alto valor nutricional de los arándanos silvestres mostrado en este estudio, se recomienda incentivar y apoyar los esfuerzos nacionales para su domesticación y posterior siembra comercial.The blueberry is a shrub of the family Ericaceae, genus Vaccinium. Its fruits are berries of dark, bluish or reddish coloration. Presents nutritional qualities and antioxidants which make it a fruit of high nutritional and medicinal value. During this study several wild materials identified as Vaccinium consanguinium were located, collected, identified and analyzed by the method of ORAC (antioxidant total capacity.  Chemical analysis showed high levels of antioxidants in the fruits ((Las Torres1 131.58, Las Torres2 156.20, Villa Mills 112.84 and Quetzales 112.84 μM Trolox equivalent/g fresh fruits, values greater than those specified in the literature for food recognized by its antioxidant potential. Due to high nutritional value of wild blueberry showed on this study, it is recommended to encourage and support national efforts for their domestication and subsequent commercial planting.

  15. Optimization of Process Conditions of Total Flavonoids Extraction from Blueberry Leaves by Ultrasonic Method%超声波法提取蓝树莓叶黄酮类物质的工艺条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青峰; 张琴琴; 冯丽娟

    2012-01-01

    为明确提取蓝树莓叶中黄酮类物质的最佳工艺条件,利用超声波法提取蓝树莓叶中的总黄酮,研究超声时间、乙醇浓度、料液比3个因素对总黄酮提取率的影响,并通过正交试验确定了提取的最佳工艺条件.结果表明,蓝树莓最佳提取工艺为超声时间70 min,乙醇浓度50.0%,料液比1:20,总黄酮的提取率为23.178%.说明,该提取工艺简单、合理,可以用于测定蓝树莓总黄酮的含量.%To optimize the extraction conditions of total flavonoids from raspberry leaves by ultrasonic method. Total flavonoids was extracted from blueberry by ultrasonic method. The effects of four factors including ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time, ethanol concentration, solid-liquid ratio on the yield of total flavonoids were investigated. The optimum technological conditions of total flavonoids extraction were confirmed through the orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimum exaction technology conditions of blueberry were as follows; ultrasonic power for high stall, ultrasonic time of 70 min, 50% ethanol concentrationand solid-liquid ratio of 1 : 20, the yield of total flavonoids was 23. 178%. The extraction process was simple, reasonable, and could be used for determining the content of total flavonoids from raspberry.

  16. Study on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Highbush Blueberry in Greenhouse%设施高灌蓝莓光合特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏海蓉; 刘庆忠; 张庆霞; 宗晓娟; 王甲威; 张道辉

    2014-01-01

    Using Vaccinium corymbosum‘Sierra’ as material, the photosynthetic characteristics of high-bush blueberry in greenhouse were studied .The results showed that the photosynthetically active radiation ( PAR) and leaf temperature ( TL) reached the maximum at 12∶00 and 13∶00 respectively .The net photosyn-thetic rate ( Pn ) reached the maximum at 8∶00 , and then decreased steadily .There was a small upturn at 15∶00~16∶00 and then decreased again .The daily variation of the stomatal conductance ( Gs) was the same with that of Pn, but that of intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was on the contrary.The light saturation point was 600 μmol/(m2· s), the light compensation point was 62.6 μmol/(m2· s) and the CO2 compensation point was 129 .8 μL/L.Temperature was the major limiting factor of Pn under high temperature and low light conditions.When the temperature was higher than 28℃, the photosynthesis was seriously restrained , which was caused by the multi -effects of stoma and non -stoma restriction factors .%以高灌蓝莓品种‘喜来’(Vaccinium corymbosum‘Sierra’)为试材,对设施高灌蓝莓的光合特性进行了研究。结果表明,设施内光合有效辐射( PAR)及叶面温度( TL)分别于12∶00和13∶00达到最大值,高灌蓝莓叶片的净光合速率( Pn)于早晨8∶00达到最大值,之后持续降低,在15∶00~16∶00有小量回升,之后再次降低。气孔导度( Gs)日变化与Pn变化趋势相同,而细胞间隙二氧化碳浓度( Ci)的变化趋势与之相反。高灌蓝莓叶片的光饱和点为600μmol/(m2· s),光补偿点为62.6μmol/(m2· s),CO2补偿点为129.8μL/L,在温室高温弱光环境下,温度是Pn的主要限制因子,温度在28℃以上时高灌蓝莓的光合作用受到严重抑制,该抑制是气孔因素与非气孔因素共同影响的结果。

  17. Chemical and Isotopic Characterization of Waters in Rio Tinto, Spain, Shows Possible Origin of the Blueberry Haematite Nodules in Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M. L.; Hubbard, C. G.; Mielke, R. E.; Black, S.

    2005-12-01

    at low pH. Ground water migration could produce evaporitic ponds where various bedded sulfate mineral sediments could form. The intergranular pore-spaces would be water filled. Most terrestrial spheroidal nodular concretions form by radial diffusion in pore-water of a chemical component of a very different oxidation state from that of the surrounding water. A nodular concretion is most usually formed by the reaction of the diffusive component with others in the pore-water. There are two main possible reaction sets for formation of the Blueberries that are consistent with all current data. 1. Local concentrations of organic matter (pre-biotic or biotic) formed reduction spots in which a small amount of Fe3+ either in solution or from evaporite mineral salts, was reduced to Fe2+ and then diffused radially to form an iron oxide nodule by reaction with inwardly diffusing dissolved oxygen. 2. Similar local concentrations of organic matter could also have engendered sulfate reduction and consequent outward diffusion of dissolved sulfide reacted with iron in solution to produce an iron sulfide nodule, subsequently oxidized in situ to hematite (maybe via goethite). Our current work is successfully identifying chemical and stable isotopic characteristics for both microbial and abiotic modes of all relevant reactions.

  18. 消费者购买蓝莓果汁行为及影响因素实证分析——以吉林省为例%An Empirical Study on Consumers' Behavior of Purchasing Blueberry Fruit Juice and Its Influencing Factors ——Basis of Survey of Customers in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽敏; 吴林; 郝庆升

    2011-01-01

    在对吉林省消费者调查基础上.采用logistic计量模型,对吉林省消费者购买蓝莓果汁的行为及影响因素进行了实证分析.结果表明:多种因素影响消费者购买蓝莓果汁,其中消费者是否有购买饮料习惯、是否喜欢纯果汁、对蓝莓果汁品牌的关注度、对媒体广告的关注度对消费者的购买行为有正向影响,消费者对蓝莓果汁口感的关注度对消费者的购买行为有负向影响.%On the basis of survey of consumers in Jilin province, with the latest model-Logistic, consumers’ behavior of purchasing blueberry fruit juice and its influencing factors were analyzed.The results showed that consumers' purchase of blueberry fruit juice could be affected by many kinds of factors, among which consumers' usual practice of beverage purchase, their taste in pure fruit juice, their concern over brand and media advertisement had positive effect on consumers' purchasing behavior while concern over taste of blueberry fruit juice was negative.

  19. Effect of Colchicine on Blueberry Chromosome Doubling and Preliminary Identification%秋水仙素对蓝莓染色体加倍的效应及初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永福; 赵海; 岳绍雄; 杨婷; 包启凡; 鲁桂芝; 谢映美

    2015-01-01

    Taking High-bush Convair blueberry plantlets as materials,through impregnation and culture with colchicine of different concentrations,chromosome doubling was studied.From the morphology,physiology and biochemistry,anatomy and cytology were compared in order to determine the best treatment method and treatment quality concentration to induce polyploidy.The results showed that,in morphology and anatomy,the mean of blueberry the leaf length,leaf width,stem diameter and leaf thickness were significantly greater than CK after 0.5,2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL colchicine soaking for 1 d and 0.4 mg/mL colchicine culture for 10 d;in anatomical structure,0.5 mg/mL impregnated for 1 d and 0.4 mg/mL culture for 10 d,the stomatal density of blueberry becomes larger,low, oval,starch grains in guard cells reduced,and the nucleus becomes larger after 0.5,2.0 mg/mL soaking for 1 d and 0.4 mg/mL colchicine impregnated culture for 10 d were significantly larger nuclear;in the physiological indexes,0.5 mg/mL impregnated for 1 d significantly increased SOD activity of blueberry,colchicine soaking for 1 d and 4.0 mg/mL could significantly improve soluble protein content,the latter also significantly increased chlorophyll a content.Thus,after 10 d culture 0.5 mg/mL impregnated for 1 d and 0.4 mg/mL,the possibility of the occurrence of the blueberry plant polyploidy variant of the maximum,but need field identification of follow-up to ultimately determine the polyploid plants.%以高丛康维尔蓝莓组培苗为材料,用不同质量浓度的秋水仙素通过浸渍法和培养法进行染色体加倍研究,从形态学、生理生化学、解剖学及细胞学进行比较,以确定能够诱导出多倍体的最佳处理方法和处理质量浓度.结果发现,在形态指标上,0.5,2.0,4.0 mg/mL 秋水仙素浸渍处理1 d 及0.4 mg/mL 秋水仙素培养10 d 后,蓝莓的叶长、叶宽、茎直径、叶厚、茎直径的平均值均显著大于 CK

  20. Multiplicação fotoautotrófica de mirtilo através do uso de luz natural Photoautotrophic multiplication of blueberry by using natural light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Roberta Damiani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de minimizar os custos da multiplicação in vitro convencional de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei Reade e otimizar a produção de mudas micropropagadas desta espécie, este trabalho comparou o efeito da luz natural à artificial, através do cultivo dos explantes em diferentes locais de crescimento (casa de vegetação e sala de crescimento, durante duas estações do ano: verão e inverno, bem como o efeito de diferentes concentrações de sacarose adicionadas ao meio de cultura e diferentes tipos de vedação dos frascos de cultivo. Aos 60 dias de multiplicação in vitro, foram avaliados o número médio de brotações, o número médio de folhas, o comprimento médio das brotações, a taxa de multiplicação e a massa fresca total. Através dos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que o uso de diferentes materiais na vedação dos frascos não altera o comprimento das brotações, porém promove diferentes respostas na taxa de multiplicação, no número médio de folhas e, principalmente, na quantidade de massa fresca total. Explantes desenvolvidos em frascos fechados com filme plástico ou alumínio aumentam o número de folhas e a taxa de multiplicação. Por outro lado, explantes desenvolvidos em frascos fechados com algodão e em condições fotoautotróficas aumentam em grande escala a quantidade de massa fresca total. Em condições de micropropagação convencional, a adição de 15 g.L-1 de sacarose ao meio de cultura favorece o aumento do número de folhas, a taxa de multiplicação, a massa fresca total e o desenvolvimento das brotações; no entanto, para a maioria das variáveis, não há diferença significativa do cultivo em ausência de sacarose. O desenvolvimento dos explantes, em diferentes locais de crescimento e em diferentes épocas do ano, apresenta respostas distintas em função da variável analisada.Aiming to minimize the costs of in vitro conventional multiplication of blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade and to

  1. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira Biology of South American fruit fly in blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Bisognin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei, amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp., araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotófase (12 horas, para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o ciclo biológico em todos hospedeiros estudados, embora os frutos nativos (pitanga e araçá ofereçam melhores condições para seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros biológicos determinados para as fases imaturas foram semelhantes nos quatro hospedeiros. Insetos criados em pitanga e araçá apresentam, na fase adulta, maior período de oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade de fêmeas, em comparação aos criados em mirtilo e amora‑preta. O ritmo diário de oviposição é mais prolongado e uniforme nos insetos criados em araçá e pitanga, o que mostra que A. fraterculus está mais bem adaptada a estas frutas, nativas da região Sul.The objective of this work was to describe the biology of Anastrepha fraterculus in blueberry (Vaccinium ashei, blackberry (Rubus spp., strawberry guava (Psidium cattleyanum and Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora fruits. The experiment was carried out in laboratory under controlled conditions of temperature (25±2ºC, relative humidity (70±10%, and photophase (12 hours to determine insect biological parameters in immature and adult development stages. Anastrepha fraterculus finishes its biological cycle in all studied hosts; however, the Brazilian native fruits (strawberry guava and Surinam cherry provide better conditions for development of the insect. Biological parameters determined for immature development stadium were similar in the four hosts. Insects reared in Surinam cherry and strawberry guava showed, in the

  2. Anthocyanin from Blueberry Wine Pomace:Extraction Optimization and Stability Test%蓝莓酒渣中花色苷提取工艺的优化及其稳定性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀菊; 杜金华; 马磊; 赵静

    2009-01-01

    Pomace of blueberry wine is abundant in phenolic compounds and anthocyanin. The extraction conditions from the blueberry wine pomace were optimized and the stability of the pigment as a kind of food additive were studied. The results showed that the maximum absorption wavelength of the pigment was 520 nm. The optimum conditions of the extraction were as follows: the ethanol content 70%,the ratio of dry pomace to extracting solution 1:25,extracting 60min,at 70 ℃. Under the optimum conditions,6. 26 mg anthocyanin was obtained from 1 g pomace. The pigment solution lost its brilliant red hue when pH value was higher than 4. 0. The pigment solution showed certain thermal stability. It was sensitive to Vitamin C,oxidant (Peroxide),reducer (Sodium Sulfite),preservative (Sodium Benzoate) at room temperature. The pigment solution was not stable to light but was not affected by sucrose and glucose solution.%蓝莓酒渣富含酚类物质和花色苷,为酚类抗氧化剂或食品添加剂的丰富来源.文中以蓝莓发酵后的皮渣为材料,研究了其花色苷最佳提取工艺条件及理化性质.结果表明:蓝莓酒渣中所提花色苷在可见光范围内的最大吸收波长为520 nm,最佳提取条件为以体积分数70%的含1%HCl酸化乙醇为提取溶剂、料液比1∶25(g∶mL)、提取时间60 min、提取温度70℃,在最佳提取工艺条件下每克蓝莓酒渣可提取6.26 mg花色苷;该色素在pH≥4后红色素吸光度值急剧下降,不酎室外强光,具有一定温度稳定性,常温下对抗坏血酸、氧化剂(过氧化氢)、还原剂(亚硫酸钠)、防腐剂(苯甲酸钠)敏感,葡萄糖、蔗糖溶液对其温度稳定性影响小.

  3. 蓝莓“美登”组培快繁及瓶外生根技术的研究%Research on the Rapid Propagation and Ex Vitro Rooting of Blomidon Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩玲; 朱延明; 曹天旭

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, the plantlet regeneration, ex vitro rooting, transplant matrix and growth conditions of stems in 'Blomidon' bush blueberry in different treatments were studied. The main results were as follows: the improved WPM+ZT 2.0mg/L+sucrose 20.0g/L+AGAR powder 5.0g/L were the best, the seedling rate reached to 6.2 and the plant height was 1.5cm; the ex vitro rooting can save costs, the survival rate of ex vitro rooting was up to 87.4% using sphagnum as transplant matrix when sphagna was soaked by IBA 0.5mg/L+NAA 0.5mg/L, and the base of blueberry was parceled. The best transplant medium were selected that were garden soil, turfy soil and phyllodoce (1:3:1), and the survival rate can amount to 92.1%.%本试验以矮丛蓝莓美登茎段为材料,研究了不同处理条件下植株再生和瓶外生根情况以及移栽基质与生长状况.结果表明,改良WPM+ZT 2.0mg/L+蔗糖20.0g/L+琼脂粉5.0g/L为最佳增殖培养基,成苗系数6.2,株高1.5cm;瓶外生根可以节约成本,采用IBA 0.5mg/L+NAA 0.5mg/L浸泡水苔,包裹蓝莓的基部,成活率可达87.4%;移栽选用的最佳基质为园土∶草炭土∶松毛(1∶3∶1),成活率可达92.1%.

  4. Simultaneous model of acquisition and degradation of anthocyanin extracted from blueberry powder by microwave technology%微波萃取蓝莓中花青素获取和降解的同步模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑先哲; 陶岩; 李秀伟; 刘秉欣

    2014-01-01

    In order to reveal the mechanism of microwave extracting anthocyanin from powdered blueberry, the process of simultaneous acquisition and degradation of anthocyanin by microwave technology was characterized. Based on Fick's law and the theory of the electromagnetic field enhanced diffusion, the effects of extraction temperature on the acquisition and degradation of anthocyanin were analyzed as anthocyanin acquisition rate higher than its degradation in extraction temperature of 30-60 ℃ and anthocyanin degradation rate higher than its acquisition in extraction temperature of 60-70 ℃. A kinetic model of microwave-assisted extraction blueberry anthocyanin was established describing simultaneous process of acquisition and degradation of anthocyanin extracted from blue berry powder. The results indicated that the model might predict the concentration of anthocyanin under the extraction system, which contributed to improving efficiency in the production practice, and provided theoretical basis for achieving optimal control of the active ingredient of microwave-assisted extraction process.%为同步表征微波萃取蓝莓过程中花青素获取和降解过程,揭示微波萃取蓝莓中花青素的传递机理,依据Fick扩散定律和电磁场增强扩散理论,探究微波萃取温度对蓝莓花青素萃取率及降解率的影响,在低温范围内(30~60℃)花青素萃取速度高于降解速度,在高温范围内(60~70℃)花青素降解速度高于萃取速度。建立描述微波萃取过程中花青素获取与降解同步模型,为在生产实践中提高效率、实现对微波辅助萃取有效成分工艺系统的最优控制提供理论依据。

  5. Study on stability and oxygen radicals scavenging capacity of acylated blueberries anthocyanins%酰基化蓝莓花色苷的稳定性和对氧自由基清除能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖畅; 李冰心; 吕春茂; 孟宪军

    2012-01-01

    The instability of natural anthocyanins was a big obstacle for its usage in food as colorants.In order to improve the stability of anthocyanins, molecular modification was used.The molecular modification of blueberry anthocyanins by acylation, the light, thermal stability and scavenging oxygen radicals of acylated anthocyanins were studied.The UV absorption spectrum and infrared spectrum showed that the blueberry anthocyanins had been acylated.Light and heat stability of acylated anthocyanins were significantly increased being compared with no acylated anthocyanins, but the capability of acylated anthocyanins on scavenging the hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical were weaker than those no acylated anthocyanins.lC~0 of scavenging hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion was 0.74,3.14mg/mL, respectively.%由于天然花色苷稳定性差,严重阻碍了其在食品工业中的广泛应用。为了改善花色苷的稳定性,采用分子修饰的方法,通过酰基化反应修饰蓝莓花色苷,并研究酰化后蓝莓花色苷的光、热稳定性和对氧自由基的清除能力。通过紫外吸收光谱和红外光谱表明蓝莓花色苷已经酰基化。相对未酰化的蓝莓花色苷,酰基化蓝莓花色苷的光、热稳定性显著提高,但清除羟基自由基、超氧阴离子自由基的能力略有下降,清除羟自由基、超氧阴离子自由基的IC,。分别为0.74、3.14mg/mL。

  6. Micropropagação como técnica de rejuvenescimento em mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei Reade cultivar climax Micropropagation as a rejuvenation technique in rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade cultivar climax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Wulff Schuch

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar o rejuvenescimento do material vegetal através da técnica de micropropagação na produção de mudas de mirtilo, cv. Climax. Os tratamentos aplicados constituíram-se de dois tipos de citocininas (zeatina e 2iP, em quatro concentrações (0; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5 mg.L-1 e duas fontes de explantes (plantas micropropagadas e plantas obtidas através da germinação de sementes in vitro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x4x2. Aos 60 dias após a instalação do experimento avaliou-se o número médio de brotos e de gemas por explante, o comprimento médio dos brotos e a taxa de multiplicação. Concluiu-se que plantas de mirtilo, micropropagadas na presença de citocinina e submetidas a sucessivas repicagens, demonstram elevada habilidade de rejuvenescimento in vitro do material adulto, podendo ser comparadas às plantas obtidas de semente, tanto na capacidade de emitir novas brotações, quanto no número de gemas e taxa de multiplicação.This experiment was installed aiming to evaluate the plant rejuvenation capacity of rabbiteye blueberry seedlings cultivar Climax by using micropropagation technique. The treatments consisted of two cytokinin types (zeatin and 2iP, in four concentrations (0; 2.5; 5.0 and 7.5 mg.L-1 and two sources of explants (micropropagated plants and plants from in vitro seeds germination. The experiment was carried out in a 2x4x2 factorial arranged in a randomized complete design. After 60 days from experiment installation it was assessed the shoots average number and shoots average length, buds average number and the multiplication rate. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the micropropagated rabbiteye blueberry plants in the presence of cytokinin and submitted at successive cuttings showed a high in vitro rejuvenation ability of the adult material, which might be compared to the plants germinated in vitro, in the

  7. Biological Aerated Filter(BAF) in the Treatment of Waste–water from Blueberry Wine%曝气生物滤池(BAF)在处理蓝莓果酒废水中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤林; 赵春娟; 刘磊

    2011-01-01

    Blueberry wine production waste–water of water quality,water quantity seasonal differences are large,higher concentrations of pollutants,in the case of concentrated organic wastewater,emissions will directly cause serious pollution to the environment.By using Biological Aerated Filter technology,CODcr,BOD5 and SS in waste–water removal rate up to 95%,97% and 89% respectively.System is stable,better handling.%蓝莓果酒生产废水的水质、水量季节性差异很大,污染物浓度较高,属中浓度有机废水,直接排放将对环境造成严重污染。采用曝气生物滤池工艺废水中CODcr、BOD5、SS去除率分别可达95%、97%、89%,系统运行稳定,处理效果较好。

  8. Formulación de un helado dietético sabor arándano con características prebióticas Formulation of a diet blueberry ice-cream with prebiotic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Barrionuevo

    2011-03-01

    características nutricionales y sensoriales.Introduction:The inulin is a prebiotic which has nutritional and technological properties, and it can be added to products like ice-creams. The aim of this work was to formulate a diet blueberry ice-cream (low in calories, carbohydrates and lipids with prebiotic characteristics, to evaluate it sensorially and analyze its physico-chemical composition. Materials and Methods:The ingredients used were inulin powder, skimmed milk powder; additives; dehydrated egg white and scalded and processed blueberries. The fruits were scalded in 20, 40 and 60 %, in order to define the percentage to be utilized, using the preference test (Newel and Mac Farlane. The ice- cream was mixed, pasteurized (63ºC; 30 minutes, cooled (4°C; 4,5 minutes, matured (4ºC; 2 hours beaten and frozen in an icy machine (-6ºC; 50 minutes. Then it was packed and stored (-16ºC; 12hours. The chosen ice-cream was evaluated sensorially through acceptability. Chemical analysis of humidity, proteins, carbohydrates, total dietary fiber, ashes, calcium, sodium, phosphorus and physic: overrun were carried out. The label was designed in accordance with the CAA (Argentine Food Code. Results:Acceptability was expressed in percentage and determinations in terms of average standard deviation. The favorite fruit concentration was 40%. Acceptability 86%. Attractive and purple color. Sweet- acid taste and aroma, blueberry like. Creamy texture, without ice crystals. Firm consistency, slow melting and spongy body. Humidity 68,13; protein 8,4; carbohydrates 10,51; total dietary fiber 12,51; insoluble 5,82; soluble 6,69; ashes 0,45 g %; calcium 148,56; sodium 133,96 and phosphorus 167,50 mg %; overrun 71% respectively. It was labelled "low- calorie diet food"; "0 % fat"; "without sugar additives" and "high amount of alimentary fiber". Conclusion:The Diet Blueberry Ice-Cream (low in calories, carbohydrates and lipids with inulin has been feasible, presenting good sensorial and

  9. Influence on longevity of blueberry, cinnamon, green and black tea, pomegranate, sesame, curcumin, morin, pycnogenol, quercetin, and taxifolin fed iso-calorically to long-lived, F1 hybrid mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Stephen R; Mote, Patricia L; Flegal, James M; Teter, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice. We tested extracts of blueberry, pomegranate, green and black tea, cinnamon, sesame, and French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol and taxifolin), as well as curcumin, morin, and quercetin for their effects on the life span of mice. While many of these phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of model organisms, we found no significant effect on the life span of male F1 hybrid mice, even though the dosages used reportedly produce defined therapeutic end points in mice. The compounds were fed beginning at 12 months of age. The control and treatment groups were iso-caloric with respect to one another. A 40% calorically restricted and other groups not reported here did experience life span extension. Body weights were un-changed relative to controls for all but two supplemented groups, indicating most supplements did not change energy absorption or utilization. Tea extracts with morin decreased weight, whereas quercetin, taxifolin, and Pycnogenol together increased weight. These changes may be due to altered locomotion or fatty acid biosynthesis. Published reports of murine life span extension using curcumin or tea components may have resulted from induced caloric restriction. Together, our results do not support the idea that isolated phytonutrient anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories are potential longevity therapeutics, even though consumption of whole fruits and vegetables is associated with enhanced health span and life span. PMID:23432089

  10. Effects of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Soil Nutrient and Microbial Quantity in Blueberry Rhizosphere%植物根际促生菌对蓝莓根际土壤养分与微生物数量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙运杰; 马海林; 刘方春; 丁延芹; 邢尚军; 丁凤菊

    2014-01-01

    从蓝莓根际土壤中筛选出4种植物根际促生细菌( PGPR) L12、L13、L14和L15。通过蓝莓盆栽试验,研究了这4株PGPR对蓝莓根际土壤养分与微生物数量的影响。结果表明,在蓝莓的一个生长周期内, L13和L14能够显著增加蓝莓根际土壤中的可培养微生物数量,而接种L12和L15降低了蓝莓根际土壤中可培养微生物的数量;接种4株PGPR均能增加土壤有机质含量。 L13对土壤速效养分具有明显的促进作用,增加幅度为5.05%~22.27%;菌株L15、L14、L13对土壤酶活性的影响较大。综合以上分析,L13能够明显改善蓝莓根际土壤的养分状况和提高根际土壤微生物数量,具有良好的应用潜力。%Four plant growth -promoting rhizobacteria ( PGPR) named L12, L13, L14 and L15 were screened from blueberry rhizospheric soil .Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different PGPR inoculation on soil nutrient and microbial quantity in blueberry rhizosphere .The results showed that , during one growth cycle , the inoculation of L13 and L14 could significantly increase the culturable microorgan-ism population in blueberry rhizosphere , whereas the population was significantly decreased by L 15 and L12 inoculation .All of the 4 PGPR could increase the soil organic matter content .L13 had significant effects on soil available nutrient , and the increasing range was 5.05%~22.27%.L15, L14 and L13 had greater effects on soil enzyme activity .Above all , L13 could improve the soil nutrient and microbial quantity in blueberry rhi-zosphere , and had broad application prospects .

  11. 黑加仑蓝莓复合果酒发酵及澄清条件的工艺优化%Optimization of Fermentation and Clarification Technology of Compound Fruit Wine of Blackcurrant and Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢亮

    2014-01-01

    为丰富果酒种类,满足消费者对果酒的口味及营养要求,以黑加仑和蓝莓为原料,对黑加仑蓝莓复合果酒的生产工艺进行研究。在确定黑加仑汁和蓝莓汁最佳体积比为1∶1及单因素试验的基础上,根据中心组合试验设计原理,以接种量、SO2添加量、发酵温度、初始糖度4个因素为自变量,黑加仑蓝莓复合果酒酒精度为响应值,设计响应面优化试验。结果表明:黑加仑蓝莓复合果酒发酵最佳工艺条件为接种量6.7%,SO2添加量67.3 mg/L,发酵温度29.9℃,初始糖度14.0%,发酵14 d;通过正交试验确定黑加仑蓝莓复合果酒澄清剂的最优组合为添加明胶0.03 g/L、硅藻土0.6 g/L、壳聚糖0.3 g/L,该条件下,黑加仑蓝莓复合果酒透光率为96.4%,酒精度为13.9%,且果香突出,口味柔和。%The processing technology including inoculum size,SO2 adding amount,fermentation temperature and initial sugar degree of compound fruit wine of blackcurrant and blueberry was optimized to meet consumer's taste and nutritional demand.The results showed that the inoculum size,SO2 adding amount,fermentation temperature,initial sugar degree and fermentation days of the optimum fermentation processing technology for compound fruit wine of blackcurrant and blueberry is 6.7%,67.3 mg/L, 29.9℃,14.0% and 14d respectively,and the light transmittance and alcoholic strength of the compound fruit wine with excellent fruity flavor and gentle taste under the optimum combination of clarifying agents (0.03 g/L gelatin,0.6 g/L diatomite and 0.3 g/L chitosan)is 96.4% and 13.9% separately.

  12. 蓝莓花青素超声提取工艺优化及在卷烟中的应用研究%Technology Optimization for Extracting Anthocyanins from Blueberry by Ultrasonic Extraction and Its Application in Cigarette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍锦鸣; 卓浩廉; 普元柱; 刘丽芬; 李仙

    2012-01-01

    The ultrasonic extraction technique of anthocyanins from blueberry was analyzed and optimized by response surface method and its efficacy in cigarette application was evaluated. A series of central composite design experiments were conducted for developing a mathematical regression model for anthocyanins yield as a response of four variables (namely ultrasonic power, ration of liquid and material, extraction time and extraction temperature). Besides, based on this, response surface and contour plots were drawn for analyzing the in(eractive effects of the above variables on anthocyanins yield. Results indicated that the optimal extraction process was obtained as follows: ultrasonic power of 730 W, ration of liquid and material of 1 : 18, extraction time of 40 min, extraction temperature of 55℃, under such conditions the extraction rate could be up to 5.79% at thrice extraction, which is close to the predictive value of 5.87%. The sensory evaluation revealed that the role of anthocyanins from blueberry are significantly increasing a sense of sweet, enhancing the clarity of incense smoke, reducing the stimulus, strengthening the fruit savory rhyme, enhancing the savory cream fragrant and sweet rhyme, and the layers of note.%为研究蓝莓花青素的超声提取工艺条件及其在卷烟中的应用价值,采用响应面法分析优化蓝莓花青素超声提取工艺,并对蓝莓花青素进行成品卷烟加香试验。试验根据中心组合设计(centralcompositedesign,CCD)试验设计原理采用四因素五水平的响应面分析法,在分析各个因素的显著性和交互作用后,模拟得到二次多项式回归方程的预测模型,得出蓝莓花青素的最佳提取条件为:超声功率730W、料液比1:18、提取时间40min、提取温度55℃,此工艺条件下花青素提取率为5.79%,与预测值5.87%相近。卷烟加香试验表明:蓝莓花青素能明显增加甜润感及烟香清

  13. Determination of 9 Organic Acids in Blueberry Juice and Wine by HPLC%HPLC法同时测定蓝莓汁及其发酵酒中9种有机酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小露; 刘卉; 鲁宁; 刘佳; 高学玲

    2012-01-01

    A simple HPLC method was developed to determine organic acids (oxalic, tartaric, malic, isocitric, shikimic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acids) in blueberry juice and wine. The HPLC separation was achieved on Cls column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) at room temperature. The mobile phase (pH 2.0) was 4% NH4H2PO4 at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The detection wavelength was set as 210 nm. The average recovery rate of this method was 99.52% with RSD of 0.019%.%采用高效液相色谱法测定蓝莓汁及其发酵酒中有机酸含量。色谱条件为:色谱柱:Waters symmetry C1 8(4.6mm×250mm,5μm);流动相:NH4H2PO4(4g/100mL)溶液(磷酸调pH值为2.0);流速:1.0mL/min;检测波长:210nm;柱温:室温。通过该方法检测蓝莓汁及其发酵酒中9种主要有机酸:草酸、酒石酸、苹果酸、异柠檬酸、莽草酸、乳酸、乙酸、柠檬酸、琥珀酸,其平均回收率为99.52%,平均相对标准偏差为0.019%。

  14. Morphological Characteristics and Molecular Biology Identification of Yeast Strains Exclusively Used for Blueberry Wine%蓝莓果酒专用酵母菌形态特征及分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春光; 康超; 龙云川; 王莹; 王芳; 唐军; 孙超; 贺红早

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 4 yeast strains including LMF-15, LMF-17, LMF-24 and LMF-27 were selected as the research objects through early screening and fermentation performance test. Then molecular biology identification was carried out by microscopic morphology observation, electron microscope scanning, ITS1—5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequence analysis, and phylogenetic dendrogram construction.LMF-15 and LMF-17 were identified as Candida.sp due to their high Candiada similarity, and LMF-24 and LMF-27 were identified as S. cerevisiae due to their high S.cerevisiae similarity. This study could provide a reference for the construction of engineering yeast strains and the large-scale production of yeast strains exclusively used for blueberry wine.%以自选复筛的酵母菌LMF-15、LMF-17、LMF-24、LMF-27为材料,利用显微形态、电镜扫描和5.8S-ITS rDNA序列分析及构建系统发育树,进行分子生物学鉴定.结果表明,LMF-15菌株和LMF-17两菌株同Can-dida相似度最高;LMF-24和LMF-27两菌株同Saccharomyces cerevisiae最高.因此,将LMF-15菌株和LMF-17鉴定为假丝酵母属(Candida.sp);LMF-24和LMF-27鉴定为酿酒酵母菌(Saccharomyces cerevisiae).旨在为后期酵母菌工程菌构建和蓝莓果酒专用酵母菌在工业上规模化生产提供参考.

  15. Relationship of Flower Age to Stigma Receptivity and Pollen Viability in Blueberry%花龄对蓝莓柱头可授性及花粉活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芩; 任永权; 廖优江; 蔡陈; 田栋伟; 赵俊; 李性苑

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of flower age to stigma receptivity and pollen viability of 'Lanyv' blueberry was investigated. Results showed that the development of male and female organs is synchronous, which favors pollination and fruit set. Pollen viability reaches a relatively high level 1~5 days after flower opening. The peak pollen viability period is from 2d to 4d after flowering when more than 50% of the pollens are capable of germination. This period should be the best time to collect pollen. Similarly the stigma receptivity reaches the highest point 2d to 4d after flower opening on which it should be the best time to do artificial pollination,%以南高丛蓝莓“蓝雨”(Vaccinium australe)为试材,研究了花龄对柱头可授性和花粉活力的影响.结果表明,蓝雨蓝莓雌雄性器官的育性具有同步性.从花后第1~5天花粉活力都较高,特别是花后第2~4天,花粉活力保持在50%以上,是人工辅助授粉收集花粉的良好时期;花后第2~4天柱头分泌黏液较多,此期柱头具有较强可授性,是开展人工辅助授粉的最佳时期.

  16. Formulación de una Pasta Gelificada a Partir del Descarte de Arándanos (Vaccinium corymbosum Formulation of a Gelling Paste from the remainders of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Stückrath

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio para formular una pasta gelificada de bajas calorías que permita aumentar su valor añadido de descartes de arándanos. Se realizaron ocho formulaciones después de efectuar la caracterización del fruto, la que muestra una adecuada relación entre calcio y pectina, de gran importancia en el mecanismo de gelificación. Los resultados muestran tres formulaciones sin diferencias significativas en su vida útil de alrededor de 40 días. De ellas se eligió la formulación 8 (pH 4.3, 1 g/kg de sorbato de potasio y 2% de glicerol, que presenta la mejor condición de pH para la gelificación de los iones calcio. Esta formulación presenta una curva típica en el análisis de perfil de textura (TPA con una elevada dureza. Además presenta un contenido calorífico de 26.04 kcal/100g que indica características hipocalóricas. El estudio muestra que es posible obtener formulaciones con una razonable vida útil y distinta consistencia que permite su uso en diversas preparaciones alimentarias según los requerimientos.A study was developed to formulate a low calorie gelling paste that allows giving aggregate value to discarding blueberries. Eight formulations were done after the characterization of the fruit that shows a high proportion of calcium/pectin, of great importance in the gelation capacity. The results show three formulations without significant differences in their shelf life of around forty days, From them, the formulation 8 (pH 4.3, 1 g/kg of potassium sorbate and 2% of glycerol presents the best condition of pH for calcium gelation. This formulation presents a typical curve of the texture profile analysis (TPA with a high hardness and a caloric content of 26.04 kcal/100g that indicates that its hypocaloric characteristics. The study shows that it is possible to obtain formulations with a reasonable shelf life and different consistency to be used in diverse alimentary preparations according to requirements.

  17. A Preliminary Study on Drought-Resistant Mutant Induction in Southern Highbush Blueberry Plants with EMS Mutagenesis%EMS诱变南高丛越橘及抗旱突变体的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 杨艳; 康兆茹; 李凌

    2011-01-01

    The test tube plantlets of the southern highbush blueberry variety V5 were used as the experiment materials, their shoot tips were treated in vitro with EMS (ethyl methyl sulfonate) at 0.1%, 0.2% , 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5% EMS and the average multiplication rate was calculated.After the plantlets rooted and grew to 15 cm in height, the individuals with morphological variations were identified and their variation rates were recorded.Then the M0 plants were subjected to drought stress, and drought resistant mutants were identified based on the physiological indicators of SOD activity and MDA, soluble sugar, chlorophyll and proline contents.As a result, four types of variation were detected, i.e.large-leaved mutants, mosaic-leaved mutants, mutants with great bifurcation capacity and wrinkle-leaved mutants.Based on the above-stated physiological indicators, drought resistant mutants might exist in the 0.4% and 0.5% EMS treatments.%以南高丛越橘品种V5试管苗为试验材料,用甲基磺酸乙酯对其茎尖分别以0.1%,0.2%,0.3%,0.4%,0.5%的浓度进行诱变处理,统计试管苗的平均增殖率,待其出瓶生根,长至15 cm高时筛选形态变异植株,统计变异率,并对M0代植株进行干旱胁迫,测定其抗性指标,从生理方面对抗旱突变体进行筛选.结果表明:从形态上,存在4种变异类型:叶片明显变大、花叶类型、分枝能力明显增强、叶片皱缩;综合各个生理指标,0.4%和0.5%的甲基磺酸乙酯处理苗可能存在抗旱性较强的突变体.

  18. ANDEAN BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium Meridionale Swartz SEED STORAGE BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERIZATION UNDER LOW TEMPERATURE CONSERVATION CATEGORIZACIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO DE LAS SEMILLAS DE MORTIÑO (Vaccinium Meridionale Swartz EN ALMACENAMIENTO A BAJA TEMPERATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Hernández Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A study was conducted to categorize harvest stage, maximun dry weigth and tolerance to desiccation at low temperature storage of seeds of the promising species "andean blueberry", Vaccinium meridionale Swartz. The aim was to determine the long term conservation possibility of a duplicate of the current Colombian Andean Highland field collection in cool storage rooms, as well as that of newly collected local populations from the mentioned highland region, which are in danger of genetic erosion due to human intervention and the ongoing global climate change. Both maximum dry weight and the highest germination percentages were observed to be associated in seeds extracted from deep purple (fully ripe berries. The seeds exhibited orthodox storage behavior, which indicates the possibility for long-term cold storage of a duplicate of the current metapopulation of the species in the country.Resumen. Se realizó un estudio para categorizar el estado de cosecha, máximo peso seco de la semilla y la tolerancia de ésta a la desecación y almacenamiento a bajas temperaturas, en la especie promisoria mortiño, Vaccinium meridionale Swartz. El objetivo fue establecer el potencial de conservar un duplicado de la colección de campo y rescatar y almacenar poblaciones espontáneas de la zona alto andina colombiana, en peligro de pérdida por intervención humana y el cambio climático, que pueden causar erosión de la diversidad genética de la especie. El máximo peso seco se logró a partir de semillas extraídas de bayas de color morado oscuro, con obtención de germinación superior en éstas y una relación directa entre el peso seco y el porcentaje de germinación. La semilla exhibió comportamiento ortodoxo, lo cual indica la posibilidad de almacenamiento a largo plazo de un duplicado de la metapoblación de la especie, existente en el país.

  19. Identification of fruit volatiles from green hawthorn (Crataegus viridis) and blueberry hawthorn (Crataegus brachyacantha) host plants attractive to different phenotypes of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. In a companion paper, we showed that R. pomonella flies infesting two different mayhaw species (Crataegus opaca and C. aestivalis) can discriminate between volatile blends developed for each host fruit, and that these blends are different from previously constructed blends for northern fly populations that infest domestic apple (Malus domestica), downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis), and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Here, we show by using coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and flight tunnel bioassays, that two additional southern hawthorn fly populations infesting C. viridis (green hawthorn) and C. brachyacantha (blueberry hawthorn) also can discriminate between volatile blends for each host fruit type. A 9-component blend was developed for C. viridis (3-methylbutan-1-ol [5%], butyl butanoate [19.5%], propyl hexanoate [1.5%], butyl hexanoate [24%], hexyl butanoate [24%], pentyl hexanoate [2.5%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.5%], pentyl butanoate [2.5%], and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) [20.5%]) and an 8-component blend for C. brachyacantha (3-methylbutan-1-ol [0.6%], butyl acetate [50%], pentyl acetate [3.5%], butyl butanoate [9%], butyl hexanoate [16.8%], hexyl butanoate [16.8%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.3%], and pentyl butanoate [3%]). Crataegus viridis and C. brachyacantha-origin flies showed significantly higher levels of upwind oriented flight to their natal blend in flight tunnel assays compared to the alternate, non-natal blend and previously developed northern host plant blends. The presence of DMNT in C. viridis and butyl acetate in C. brachyacantha appeared to be largely responsible for driving the differential response. This sharp behavioral distinction underscores the diversity of odor response phenotypes in the southern USA, points to possible host race formation in these

  20. Blueberry anthocyanins induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of oral cancer KB cells through down-regulation methylation of p53%蓝莓花青素通过下调p53基因DNA甲基化抑制口腔癌KB细胞增殖及诱导细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琦; 李少伟; 贾宇臣; 王利

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries are an excellent source of dietary polyphenols such as anthocyanins and phenolic acids. In this study, we investigated the ability of anthocyanins from the wild blueberries of Inner Mongolia to suppress the growth of the oral cancer cell line KB. The blueberry anthocyanins were extracted with methanol-containing 0.1%(v/v) hydrochloric acid. Fourteen unique anthocyanins were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The anticancer bioactivity of the extracts on KB cells was analyzed using methylthiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT), flow cytometry (FCM) and immunocytochemistry. It was shown that the blueberry anthocyanins suppressed the prolifera-tion of KB cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of oral cancer KB cells. Immunocytochemistry analysis showed that the expression of caspase-9 and cytochrome c were obviously increased after the anthocyanins treatment. Western blot analysis also indicated that the expression of p53 was increased. Methyla-tion-specific PCR (MSP) showed that the amount of unmethylated p53 increased, indicating that the anthocyanins can down-regulate the methylation of p53.%文章从内蒙古野生蓝莓(Vaccinium uliginosum Lim)中提取花青素,观察其对口腔癌细胞株KB的增殖及凋亡的作用,探讨其作用机制与p53基因甲基化的相关性。利用含0.1%盐酸的甲醇提取花青素,用高效液相色谱-质谱(High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, HPLC-MS )鉴定花青素的成分。利用四甲基偶氮唑蓝(Methylthiazolyl-tetrazolium, MTT)比色法、流式细胞术、免疫荧光法、免疫细胞化学法和Western blot法分析蓝莓花青素对 KB 细胞增殖、细胞周期、细胞凋亡和 p53蛋白表达的影响;利用甲基化特异性 PCR 法(Methylation-specific PCR, MSP)分析蓝莓花青素诱导细胞凋亡与p53基因甲基化的关系。结果显示,内蒙古自治区

  1. Application of Quantitative Descriptive Analysis(QDA) Method in Sensory Evaluation of Clarified Blueberry Juice Beverage%定量描述分析法(QDA)在澄清型蓝莓汁饮料感官评定中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明月; 王凯

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method was adopted to do the sensory evaluation and to estabish QDA data and spider web-shaped graphs of the three Blueberry Juice Beverage.The results showed that it could distinguish the sensory characteristics of the three beverage. Also which was used to evaluate the sensory quality of the beverage.%采用定量描述法(QDA)对三种市售澄清型蓝莓汁饮料进行了感官评价,并绘制了此三种饮料QDA数据的蜘蛛网图,结果表明,此方法能区别三种澄清型蓝莓汁饮料的感官特性,适用于澄清型蓝莓汁饮料的感官品质评价。

  2. Changes in Microstructure and Physiological-Biochemical Characteristics of Hyperhydric Shoots of Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) in Vitro%蓝莓玻璃化试管苗的显微结构及生理生化特性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕敏; 夏秀英; 徐品三; 李波; 郭照东

    2014-01-01

    研究了蓝莓试管苗玻璃化的显微结构、超微结构以及生理生化特性的影响。与正常试管苗相比,蓝莓玻璃化苗的茎、叶显微结构发生了明显的改变:叶片表皮细胞松散、不连续;气孔结构难以辨认;叶片增厚;缺少栅栏组织,海绵组织细胞间隙变大,部分细胞解体;茎的维管组织发育不良;亚显微结构观察发现,玻璃化苗叶肉细胞体积增大,细胞壁变薄;部分细胞缺少细胞核及线粒体;叶绿体数目减少,类囊体解体,缺乏淀粉体。玻璃化试管苗的生理生化特性也发生了显著的改变:玻璃化苗组织含水量显著增加;叶绿素、可溶性糖及可溶性蛋白含量显著降低; O2·ˉ产生速率、H2O2积累量、MDA含量及相对电导率显著升高;活性氧清除酶系中POD活性显著升高, SOD和CAT活性显著降低;PAL活性下降。蓝莓玻璃化苗的形态结构异常,水分及物质代谢紊乱,活性氧清除能力降低,表明玻璃化与氧化胁迫相关。%This research was performed to investigate the effects of hyperhydricity on morphology, subcellular ultrastructure and physiology of leaves during micro-propagation of blueberry plants. The results showed that compared with healthy leaves, hyperhydric leaves showed abnormal microstructure. The development of the epidermis was often discontinuous and the intercellular space was large. Stomata were dififcult to identify. The leaf lamina appeared thickened and was characterized by the absence of palisade mesophyll tissue and the mal-formation of spongy mesophyll tissue. Vascular tissue of stem developed poorly. On the aspect of ultrastructure, the size of mesophyll cell and the thickness of cell wall increased, the nucleus and mitochondria were missed in some mesophyll cells in the hyperhydric leaves. Hyperhydric leaves had a signiifcantly lower chloroplast num-ber per cell and chloroplasts showed collapsed thylakoid

  3. Kinetic Study of Convective Drying of Blueberry Variety O’neil (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Estudio de la Cinética del Secado Convectivo de Arándano Variedad O’Neil (Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vega-Gálvez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study and to model the drying kinetics of the blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum L. at three temperatures (60, 70 and 80 ºC with an airflow of 2.0 ± 0.2 m s-1. Modeling of the desorption isotherm was carried out with the GAB (Guggenheim, Anderson and de Boer equation, showing a good fit to experimental moisture data, giving as a result a monolayer moisture level of 0.084 g water g-1 dm. Newton, Henderson-Pabis, Page, Modified Page and Logarithmic mathematical models were applied in the study and in the modeling of the drying kinetics of this fruit. Kinetic parameters k of each model showed dependence on temperature, and were evaluated by an Arrhenius-type equation, with an activation energy of between 36.2 and 54.5 kJ mol-1. Logarithmic and Modified Page models gave the best fits for each drying curve, based on the statistical test determination coefficient, sum square error, root mean sum errors and Chi-square. In consequence, both models are excellent tools for estimating the drying time of this product.El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar y modelar la cinética de secado del arándano ( Vaccinium corymbosum L. a tres temperaturas (60, 70 y 80 ºC con un flujo de aire de 2,0 ± 0,2 m s-1. El modelado de la isoterma de desorción se llevó a cabo con la ecuación de GAB (Guggenheim, Anderson y de Boer, mostrando un buen ajuste sobre los datos experimentales de humedad, dando como resultado una humedad de la monocapa de 0,084 g de agua g-1 ms. Se aplicaron los modelos matemáticos de Newton, Henderson-Pabis, Page, Page modificado y Logarítmico para el modelado de la cinética de secado de esta fruta. Los parámetros cinéticos k de cada modelo presentaron dependencia con la temperatura, evaluadas por una ecuación de tipo Arrhenius, con una energía de activación entre 36,2-54,5 kJ mol-1. Los modelos Logarítmico y Page modificado obtuvieron el mejor ajuste para cada curva de secado, basado en las

  4. Influência do dano da abelha-irapuá em flores de mirtileiro sobre a frutificação efetiva e as frutas produzidas Damage influence of the irapuá bee on blueberry flower over the effective fruit production and the fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Madruga Telesca da Silveira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A abelha-irapuá, Trigona spinipes, é considerada um inseto-praga de várias culturas, por se alimentar de folhas e principalmente de flores e frutos. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar o dano provocado pela irapuá em flores de mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei Read. e avaliar a frutificação efetiva e a qualidade da fruta produzida. O experimento foi conduzido no pomar experimental de mirtileiro, da Embrapa Clima Temperado em Pelotas, RS. Foram marcadas 200 flores de mirtileiro, seleção 103, sendo 100 destas com dano feito pela irapuá e 100 sem o dano. Após a floração, foi observada a frutificação efetiva, e por ocasião da colheita, foram determinados o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, o diâmetro dos frutos e o número de sementes por fruto. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado. Nas flores sem danos da irapuá, houve maior percentagem de frutificação efetiva, e as frutas oriundas das mesmas apresentaram maior diâmetro e maior quantidade de sementes. O teor de SST nas frutas de mirtilo, oriundas tanto das flores com dano como daquelas sem dano, foi semelhante. Esses resultados sugerem que a T. spinipes é prejudicial à cultura do mirtilo, principalmente na época de floração, pois os danos causados pelo inseto provocaram baixa frutificação, frutas de tamanho reduzido e com menor quantidade de sementes.The irapuá Trigona spinipes is considered a pest insect of several crops because it feeds on their leaves, flowers and fruits. The aim of this study was to characterize the damage caused by irapuá on blueberry flowers (Vaccinium ashei over the fruit set and fruit quality. The experiment was conducted in a blueberry collection of Embrapa Clima Temperado, in Pelotas, RS. Two hundred flowers were observed, being one hundred of them with irapuá damage and the other 100 flowers without damage. The fruit set was recorded as well as the level of soluble solids (TSS, the fruit diameter and number

  5. CARACTERIZACIÓN FISICOQUÍMICA Y ORGANOLÉPTICA DEL FRUTO DE AGRAZ (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ANDEAN BLUEBERRY FRUIT (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz STORED AT 2ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Guillermo Ávila Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de hallar algunas características fisicoquímicas del fruto del agraz, del cual existen pocos conocimientos sobre su calidad, se recolectaron frutos provenientes de Chiquinquirá (Boyacá los cuales fueron empacados en cajas plásticas de 125 g y almacenados durante 9 días en un cuarto frío a una temperatura de 2ºC, con una humedad relativa del 90 %. Cada 3 días fueron medidas las variables sólidos solubles totales (SST, pH, acidez total titulable (ATT, ácidos cítrico, málico y ascórbico, diámetro del fruto y pérdida de peso. La mayoría de los cambios fisicoquímicos fueron de muy poca magnitud, las siguientes mediciones presentaron una tendencia permanente a la disminución: el peso fresco (de 0,58 a 0,55 g, el diámetro del fruto (de 0,99 a 0,93 cm y el pH (de 3,12 a 3,05, mientras que aumentaron la ATT (de 1,44 a 1,52 % y los SST (de 14,13 a 14,73 ºBrix. Los análisis con HPLC arrojaron que el ácido predominante fue el acido cítrico, seguido por el acido málico (1.899 mg y 1.396 mg/100 g fruto, respectivamente los cuales aumentaron a partir del día 6 de almacenamiento. El ácido ascórbico (8 mg/100 g presentó una leve disminución durante los días 3 a 6 del almacenamiento. Es posible que el aumento de los SST, la ATT y los ácidos orgánicos hacía el día 9 del almacenamiento haya sido debido a un efecto de concentración. En el análisis sensorial, se identificó que los frutos frescos obtuvieron una buena aceptación tanto en apariencia, aroma, sabor y en textura, mientras que los almacenados durante 9 días aún calificaron en aroma y sabor.With the purpose to find out some physiochemical characteristics of Andean blueberry fruits from which exist few knowledge about its quality, fruits were collected from Chiquinquirá (Boyacá, and packed in plastic boxes of 125 g and stored during 9 days (at 2ºC and 90% relative humidity. Each 3 days variables as total soluble solids (TSS, pH, total titratable

  6. 蓝莓花青素对肥胖大鼠血脂、血清炎性因子及胰岛素敏感性的影响%Effects of blueberry anthocyanidin on dyslipidemia, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin sensitivity in high-fat-diet induced obese rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余仁强; 马路一; 朱静; 周详; 吴小优; 靳姗姗; 昌维维; 宋晓彤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of blueberry anthocyanidin on serum lipid profiles,proinflammatory cytokines and insulin sensitivity in high-fat-diet induced obese rats.Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly grouped to receive a standard chow diet (control group,7 cases) or high-fat-diet (23 cases).Six weeks later,high-fat-diet induced obese rats were divided into the 2 groups.Then,rats received a standard chow diet,a high-fat-diet,or a high-fat-diet supplemented with anthocyanidin extracted from blueberry at 200 mg/(kg · d) for 4 weeks,and were then euthanized.Parameters of body weight,visceral adipose tissue,serum glucose,insulin,total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride (TG),low-density lipoprotein (LDL),high-density lipoprotein (HDL),tumor necrosis factor-or (TNF-α),interleukin-6(IL-6),high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMR-IR) were measured.Results The levels of glucose [(9.15 ± 1.10) mmol/L],TC[(462.5 ± 81.5) mg/L],TG[(152.5 ±19.1) mg/L],LDL[(203.7 ±31.1) mg/L],TNF-α[(4.03 ± 1.03) ng/L],IL-6[(1.81 ±0.31) ng/L],hs-CRP[(106.62 ± 15.52) ng/L] and HOMA-IR (3.94 ± 0.78)in blueberry anthocyanidin group were lower than those in the obese rats [(11.38 ± 1.50) mmol/L,(566.2 ± 113.2) mg/L,(192.5 ± 24.9) mg/L,(253.7 ± 58.3)mg/L,(5.74 ± 1.61) ng/L,(3.85 ±0.93) ng/L,(132.62 ± 17.18) ng/L,5.09 ±O.90],and the differences were significant(all P < 0.05).But the levels of the parameters in blueberry anthocyanidin group were higher than the control group [(7.52±1.37) mmol/L,(377.1 ±71.3) mg/L,(124.2 ±26.3) rng/L,(135.7 ±38.2) rng/L,(2.41 ±0.42)ng/L,(1.12 ±0.46) ng/L,(72.28 ±12.11) ng/L,2.41 ±0.23],and the differences were significant(all P <0.05).The level of HDL in blueberry anthocyanidin group [(126.2 ± 38.1) mg/L] was higher than that in obese group [(95.0 ±25.6 mg/L)],but the level of HDL in blueberry anthocyanidin group was lower than that in the control group [(165.7 ± 22

  7. 南高丛越橘品种‘Sapphire’和北高丛品种‘Berkeley’正反交后代果实糖酸组分含量的遗传倾向%Inheritance Tendency of Sugar and Acid Contents in the Reciprocal Cross Progenies’ Fruits of Southern× Northern High Bush Blueberry (Vaccinium)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘有春; 魏永祥; 王兴东; 刘成; 蒋明三; 张舵; 袁兴福; 陶承光

    2014-01-01

    inheritance of sugar and acid contents in blueberry fruit, to provide a basis for selecting parents in cross breeding.[Method] Sugar and acid contents of southern high bush blueberry ‘Sapphire’ ( high sugar and high acid type), northern high bush blueberry ‘Berkeley’ (middle sugar and low acid type) and their reciprocal cross progenies were investigated with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method.[Result] Fructose and glucose were the major components of sugar, while citric acid and tartaric acid were the major components of acid. The reciprocal populations exhibited a wide phenotypic variation in fructose, glucose, total sugar, tartaric acid, citric acid and total acid contents where the coefficient of variation (CV) of sugar and acid contents were more than 15% and 30%, respectively, and the range of acid contents was higher than that of sugar contents, indicating that there was a bigger selecting potential for acid content. Mean sugar and acid contents of reciprocal cross progenies were lower than mid-parental values, showing a tendency of depression. The mean sugar contents of progenies inclined to low sugar parent, while the mean acid contents inclined to paternal parent value. The individual and total sugar contents presented a normal distribution, implying sugar contents are quantitative traits and controlled by polygenenes, while individual and total acid presented a skewed distribution, implying acid contents are quantitative traits and may be controlled by both major gene and polygenes. The broad sense heritability (H2) of fructose, glucose, total sugar, citric acid and total acid contents were ranged from 0.66 to 0.86, in which the highest was fructose (0.84 and 0.86 in the reciprocal populations, respectively), indicating that the variations of these traits mainly resulted from inheritance, and they were mainly affected by additive effect, while theH2 of tartaric acid was the lowest (0.22 and 0.30 in the reciprocal populations, respectively

  8. 蓝莓花青素对 RAW 264.7细胞的抗炎活性研究及其机理初探%Inhibitory effect of Gardenblue blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) anthocyanin extracts on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei XU; Qing ZHOU; Yong YAO; Xing LI; Jiu-liang ZHANG; Guan-hua SU; Ai-ping DENG

    2016-01-01

    目的:以园蓝为研究材料,鉴定园蓝花青素提取物(GBBAEs)中的功能性成分的结构,建立脂多糖(LPS)诱导的体外炎症模型,并评价其抗炎作用和初步机制。  创新点:首次探究了蓝莓花青素对建立的LPS诱导体外炎症模型的营养干预作用,并初步探究了发挥抗炎机制的作用通路。  方法:将RAW 264.7细胞分为对照组(不作处理)和实验组(1μg/ml LPS刺激建模)。实验组进一步分为3个不同浓度组:400μg/ml GBBAEs组、800μg/ml GBBAEs组和1200μg/ml GBBAEs组。用酶联免疫吸附测定(ELISA)试剂盒检测一氧化氮(NO)、前列腺素E2(PGE2)、白细胞介素1β(IL-1β)、白细胞介素6(IL-6)、干扰素γ(INF-γ)等炎症因子的释放量;用实时定量聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)分析IL-1β、IL-6、TNF-α、环氧合酶-2( COX-2)及单核细胞趋化蛋白-1(MCP-1)的炎症相关基因mRNA的表达水平;用蛋白质印迹法(Western blot 法)测定相关炎症蛋白COX-2和NF-κBp65表达水平。  结论:试验结果表明,通过 ELISA法测定 GBBAEs可以显著性抑制 NO、PGE2、IL-1β、IL-6、INF-γ等炎症因子的释放;RT-PCR分析阐明在LPS诱导的单核-巨噬细胞RAW 264.7中,GBBAEs可以显著性抑制 IL-1β、IL-6、TNF-α、COX-2及MCP-1的炎症相关基因 mRNA的表达水平。此外,Western blot法进一步显示GBBAEs对相关炎症蛋白COX-2和NF-κBp65表达具有明显抑制作用,进一步证实GBBAEs通过NF-κB机制通路来发挥抗炎作用。%Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins, which are associated with health benefits contributing to a reduced risk for many diseases. The present study identified the functional Gardenblue blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) anthocyanin extracts (GBBAEs) and evaluated their capacity and underlying mechanisms in protecting murine RAW 264.7 cells from lipopolysaccharide (LPS

  9. Composition Analysis of Anthocyanidins in Blueberry Wine Lees, Blueberries and Blueberry Wine and Comparison of Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanidins in Blueberries and Wine Lees%蓝莓酒渣、果、酒中花色苷成分鉴定及酒渣与果中花色苷抗氧化活性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杨; 谢笔钧; 孙智达

    2016-01-01

    采用XAD-7HP大孔树脂对蓝莓果及蓝莓酒渣花色苷进行纯化,用固相微萃取小柱对蓝莓酒花色苷进行纯化浓缩.通过高效液相色谱-二极管阵列-电喷雾-串联质谱法鉴定了蓝莓果、酒渣、酒中花色苷的组成,并对蓝莓果和蓝莓酒渣花色苷的抗氧化性进行了评价.结果表明:通过XAD-7HP大孔树脂纯化所得的蓝莓果、蓝莓酒渣及利用固相微萃取小柱纯化所得的蓝莓酒中花色苷含量分别为(210.52±5.74)、(151.12±0.88)、(8.93±0.14) mg/g.蓝莓果中鉴定出11种花色苷;蓝莓酒渣中鉴定出12种花色苷,其中包括3种酰化花色苷;蓝莓酒中鉴定出9种花色苷,其中包含1种酰化花色苷.蓝莓果和蓝莓酒渣花色苷抗氧化性实验结果表明,蓝莓果和蓝莓酒渣花色苷清除2,2-联氮-二(3-乙基-苯并噻唑-6-磺酸)二铵盐自由基IC50值分别为(1.43±0.02)、(1.19±0.03) μg/mL,清除1,1-二苯基-2-苦基肼自由基IC5o值分别为(3.28±0.03)、(2.41±0.01) μg/mL;蓝莓果和蓝莓酒渣花色苷清除自由基能力及还原力均显著优于VC,蓝莓酒渣花色苷抗氧化性显著强于蓝莓果花色苷.

  10. 蓝莓充气米酒%Blueberry Inflatable Rice Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐聪; 赵云财; 王佐民; 孙波; 李娜

    2016-01-01

    传统的米酒虽然营养丰富,但其发酵过程中产生的所谓"发酵味"是不容易被人们接受的,尤其是不容易被年轻人、女士等群体所接受.为了能让我国传统的米酒产品被更多的人接受和喜爱,开发了蓝莓充气米酒,通过添加蓝莓原汁、蜂蜜等辅料改善口味,通过充二氧化碳气体增加爽口性,将米酒的营养性与蓝莓的功能性及充气带来的清新口感进行了有机结合,产品将会有良好的市场开发前景.

  11. Comparative wood anatomy of the blueberry tribe (Vaccinieae, Ericaceae s.l.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Kron, K.A.; Luteyn, J.L.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Wood samples of 111 Vaccinieae specimens (Vaccinioideae, Ericaceae s.l.) representing 98 species and 26 genera are investigated with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The wood structure of Vaccinieae delivers taxonomically important characters that can be used to define some subclad

  12. Assessing Students' Structured Programming Skills with Java: The "Blue, Berry, and Blueberry" Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xihui

    2010-01-01

    Java is an object-oriented programming language. From a software engineering perspective, object-oriented design and programming is used at the architectural design, and structured design and programming is used at the detailed design within methods. As such, structured programming skills are fundamental to more advanced object-oriented…

  13. Blueberries and strawberries activate neuronal housekeeping in critical brain regions of stress-induced young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysfunctional autophagy, where accumulation of damaged or complex cellular components in neurons in response to sublethal cell stress has been implicated in an array of brain disorders. This phenomenon plays a pivotal role in aging, because of the increased vulnerability of the aging brain to incre...

  14. Developmental anatomy of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Aurora’) shoot regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The culture of Vaccinium corymbosum L. ’Aurora’ leaves on regeneration medium results in the regeneration of adventitious shoots. We present anatomical evidence that these new shoot apices are directly regenerated from the cultured blades. Mounds of densely staining cells, which formed from epidermi...

  15. Effects of Hydrogen Cyanamide Application Rates and Timing on Fruit and Foliage of 'Climax' Rabbiteye Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of flower bud pruning or utilizing differing rates of hydrogen cyanamide, on development of vegetative and floral buds, as well as on leaf area, vegetative coverage, fruit damage and development, and yield. In this study, hydrogen cyanamide applica...

  16. First report of Botrytis pseudocinerea causing gray mold on blueberry in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea has been shown to consist of two sibling species, referred to Group I and Group II, and the two groups can be differentiated by a PCR-RFLP on the Bc-hch gene (vegetative incompatibility locus). Group I has recently been described as a new species B. pseudocinerea. Gray mold caused b...

  17. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-i...

  18. Characterization of Alternaria strains from Argentinean blueberry, tomato, walnut and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Fernández Pinto, Virginia;

    2015-01-01

    to morphological groups “G” and “H”. The cluster analysis yielded 16 almost identical dendrograms and grouped the Alternaria strains into four clusters and 11 singletons and outlier groups. The chemical analysis showed that AOH and AME were the most common metabolites produced, followed by TEN, ALXs and TeA. The A...

  19. Ultrasonic Spray Drying vs High Vacuum and Microwaves Technology for Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia-Muñoz, N.; Ramirez-Bunster, M.; Vargas-Hernández, Y.; Gaete-Garretón, L.

    Interest in high quality foods: good taste and a high content of nutrients with healthy beneficial effects are increasing. Fruits have good properties but, they are lost because the oxidation process, additionally, for different reasons a 40% of harvested fruit are lost. To conserve the fruit properties an ultrasonic assisted spray dryer was developed and tested, comparing its results with microwave-vacuum drying technology. Results did shown taste, color, smell, particle shape and size distribution better than the conventional one. The antioxidants conservation were quite good except in the anthocyanins, in which the microwave and vacuum technology shown best results.

  20. 75 FR 12707 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Administration defines, in 13 CFR part 121, small agricultural producers as those having annual receipts of no... businesses under the criteria established by the Small Business Administration. Most importers, first... 8,978 acres in 2003 to 18,038 in 2008, has taken place in Spain, Germany, and Poland. Asian...

  1. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P.; Blackburn, Michael L.; Badger, Thomas M.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16...

  2. 7 CFR 1218.73 - Proceedings after termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order... disposed of, to the extent practical, to the blueberry producer organizations in the interest of continuing blueberry promotion, research, and information programs....

  3. 7 CFR 1218.48 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry... influencing legislation or governmental action or policy, by local, state, national, and foreign...

  4. The Quality of Blueberry Ice-wine and Blueberry Wine and DPPH Clearance Rate%蓝莓冰酒和蓝莓果酒的品质和DPPH清除率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕佳宁; 邱利利; 刘子菱; 张玲; 曹思明; 金铁岩

    2015-01-01

    以冰冻蓝莓和鲜蓝莓为原料分别制作蓝莓冰酒和蓝莓果酒.通过对发酵过程中pH、可溶性固形物、酒精度及成品的感官评价和DPPH清除率进行测定分析.结果表明:蓝莓冰酒的pH和酒精度分别为2.95和10%vol均低于蓝莓果酒,而蓝莓冰酒的可溶性固形物含量和DPPH的消除能力分别为10%和68.81%均高于蓝莓果酒,同时蓝莓冰酒的感官分也优于蓝莓果酒.所以综合以上结果,蓝莓冰酒的品质及DPPH清除率均优于蓝莓果酒.

  5. GC-MS Analysis of Flavoring Components of Blueberry Juice and Blueberry Wine%兔眼蓝莓果汁果酒香气成分GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严红光; 张文华; 丁之恩

    2013-01-01

    利用气相质谱分析杰兔·兔眼蓝莓果汁及其被AS2.316酵母菌发酵为蓝莓酒后香气成分的差异.结果表明,蓝莓果汁中鉴定出11种香气物质,而发酵成蓝莓果酒后则含有44种香气物质.蓝莓果酒发酵后杂环类物质显著减少,同时新产生8种醇类、14种酯类、2种烯类、4种酮类香气物质.研究结果表明,酵母菌种发酵是影响果酒香气成分组成的关键因素之一.

  6. Study on Primary Fermentation Technology of Blueberry Wine%蓝莓果酒主发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨曙方; 汪金杰; 周伟东; 高光权; 王向阳; 曹雪丹

    2013-01-01

    以冷冻蓝莓为原料,对蓝莓果酒主发酵工艺进行实验.测定了发酵结束时酒精度和糖含量.结果表明:料液比1:2、调原料糖度21°Bx、pH 3.4~3.6、酵母添加量0.075%~0.1%、SO2添加量40~60mg/kg、发酵温度24℃,在此条件下发酵7d,可得酒度为12%(体积比)左右、最终白利糖度6° Bx左右的蓝莓主发酵后的果酒.

  7. 蓝莓酒分批发酵动力学研究%Batch Fermentation Kinetics for Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良; 李斌; 许平妍; 孟宪军

    2015-01-01

    为建立蓝莓酒分批发酵动力学模型,以“蓝丰”为原料,研究初始pH值、接种量对蓝莓酒发酵酒精量的影响;不同初始含糖量对菌种量、产酒量、残糖量的影响.通过对符合菌体生长的Logistic方程、产物生成的Luedeking-Piret方程和基质消耗的物料衡算方程进行最优参数估计和非线性拟合,分别得到了相应的动力学模型和最佳模型参数值,并对动力学模型的拟合曲线进行分析,发现模型的计算值与实验值能较好地拟合,说明本试验建立的分批发酵动力学模型能较好地反映蓝莓酒分批发酵过程.

  8. Selection of clarifying agent of fermented blueberry wine%蓝莓发酵酒澄清剂的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋秀芳; 张建炀; 熊建军; 邹大维; 李祥

    2014-01-01

    以自制蓝莓发酵酒为原料,采用明胶、单宁、硅藻土、膨润土、壳聚糖、果胶酶对蓝莓果酒进行一系列单一澄清剂和复合澄清剂的澄清实验,对最优澄清剂处理后的蓝莓发酵酒进行透光率、酒精度、酸度、花青素、可溶性固形物含量进行测定.研究结果表明:添加不同种类、含量的澄清剂,蓝莓果酒的澄清效果不同;单一澄清剂中,膨润土是一种较为理想的澄清剂,最佳添加量为6%,透光率77.3%;复合澄清剂中,明胶/单宁/膨润土澄清效果最好,最佳添加量为明胶溶液2%、单宁溶液2%、膨润土溶液3.0%,透光率94.5%.澄清剂对蓝莓发酵酒的主要成分和感官品质无明显影响,成品酒果香怡人、酒体澄清丰满.

  9. Screening of brewing yeasts for blueberry wine%蓝莓酒酿造酵母的筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖禹含; 张东升; 李亚东; 辛秀兰; 王彦辉

    2010-01-01

    研究了3株酵母菌在蓝莓酒发酵过程中的生长速率、总糖、总酸和酒精度等理化指标的变化规律,并对蓝莓酒进行感官评定,筛选出酿造蓝莓酒的优良菌株.结果表明,酿酒酵母1203生长繁殖快,酸度小,降糖和产酒精能力强.其果汁发酵结束后总糖为5.6 g/L,总酸8.37g/L,酒精度12.2%vol,感官评分得分93分.确定酿酒酵母1203为蓝莓酒酿造的优良菌株.

  10. Fermentation Technology of Blueberry Dry Wine%蓝莓干酒发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永强; 王辉; 王鑫; 魏婧; 李秀娟

    2015-01-01

    蓝莓干酒是以天然野生植物蓝莓为原料,采用一系列先进的加工工艺精制而成.发酵期15~30 d,品温控制18~ 22℃,该果酒芳香清雅,风格独特,是一种营养价值很高的保健饮料酒.

  11. Design and Sampling Plan Optimization for RT-qPCR Experiments in Plants: A Case Study in Blueberry

    OpenAIRE

    Die, Jose V.; Roman, Belen; Flores, Fernando; Rowland, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    The qPCR assay has become a routine technology in plant biotechnology and agricultural research. It is unlikely to be technically improved, but there are still challenges which center around minimizing the variability in results and transparency when reporting technical data in support of the conclusions of a study. There are a number of aspects of the pre- and post-assay workflow that contribute to variability of results. Here, through the study of the introduction of error in qPCR measureme...

  12. Design and sampling plan optimization for RT-qPCR experiments in plants: a case study in blueberry

    OpenAIRE

    Die, Jose V.; Belen eRoman; Fernando eFlores; Lisa Jeannine Rowland

    2016-01-01

    The qPCR assay has become a routine technology in plant biotechnology and agricultural research. It is unlikely to be technically improved, but there are still challenges which center around minimizing the variability in results and transparency when reporting technical data in support of the conclusions of a study. There are a number of aspects of the pre- and post-assay workflow that contribute to variability of results. Here, through the study of the introduction of error in qPCR measureme...

  13. Inhibitory effects of Blueberry Extract on the Production of Inflammatory Mediators in LPS-activated BV2 Microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustained microglial activation in the central nervous system (CNS) has been extensively investigated in age-related neurodegenerative diseases and has been postulated to lead to neuronal cell loss in these conditions. Recent studies have shown that anti-inflammatory drugs may suppress microglial ac...

  14. Somewhere Over the Rainbow… - a few hundred nanometres above and perhaps much higher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christian Buhl; Jensen, Bjarke B. E.; Eriksen, René Lynge;

    The dream: Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Graphene as versatile sensor platform Blueberry dye based optical sensor......The dream: Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Graphene as versatile sensor platform Blueberry dye based optical sensor...

  15. 7 CFR 1218.16 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.16 Producer... is engaged in the business of producing, or causing to be produced for any market, blueberries...

  16. Effects of clarifiers on clarification of fermented blueberry wine%不同澄清剂对蓝莓发酵酒澄清效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛秀兰; 盖禹含; 刘俊英; 李亚东

    2010-01-01

    采用明胶、硅藻土、壳聚糖3种澄清剂对蓝莓发酵原酒进行了单一澄清剂和复合澄清剂的澄清试验,对加入澄清剂处理后的蓝莓发酵酒进行透光率、酒精度、残糖、总酸、可溶性固形物含量的测定并进行比较.研究结果表明:在单一澄清剂中,壳聚糖是一种较为理想的澄清剂,最佳添加量为0.2g/L,透光率为96.43%.在复合澄清剂中,明胶(单宁)与壳聚糖的澄清效果最好,最佳添加量为明胶0.55g/L,单宁1.45g/L,壳聚糖2.5g/L,透光率可达到97.21%.

  17. Development of blueberry wine and its quality evaluation%蓝莓发酵酒的研制及品质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祥; 隋秀芳; 张建炀; 熊建军; 邹大维

    2015-01-01

    该文介绍一种蓝莓发酵果酒的制作工艺,并对产品进行理化指标及香气成分的测定.结果表明:蓝莓发酵果酒成品呈紫红色,酒体澄清透明,酒香浓郁.酒精度12.6%v01;总酸(以乙酸计)6.10 g/L:总糖(以葡萄糖计)2.5 g/L;铁<0.2 mg/L;铜<0.1 mg/L;可溶性固形物(20℃以折光计)7.8%;微生物指标符合标准;前花青素含量0.311 g/L.采用GC-MS分析蓝莓果酒香气成分,共提取香气成分40种,其中酯类12种,醇类8种,烃类6种,酸类3种,其他香气成分11种.蓝莓发酵果酒的主要挥发性芳香成分是:反式二甲基环丙烷,1,5-庚二烯-3-炔,1,2,3-三氯丙烷,2-(3-羟基苯基)乙醇,4-羟基丁酸乙酰酯.

  18. 蓝靛果蓝莓复合果酒抗氧化能力的研究%Antioxidant activity of Lonicera edulis and blueberries compound wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛桂新

    2014-01-01

    蓝靛果与蓝莓均含有丰富的营养成分和保健功能,为了更好的开发利用蓝靛果蓝莓资源,本实验对不同蓝莓添加量的蓝靛果蓝莓复合果酒进行了研制,还研究了不同蓝莓添加量的复合果酒在陈酿期间抗氧化能力变化趋势.结果表明:蓝靛果蓝莓复合果酒中蓝莓添加量不同其抗氧化能力也不同,蓝莓添加量为10%的复合果酒其抗氧化能力最好;随着陈酿时间的延长蓝靛果蓝莓复合果酒抗氧化能力下降很快,陈酿5个月后其抗氧化能力下降幅度为40%以上.

  19. 二氧化碳浸渍法在蓝莓酒酿造中的应用%Application of carbonic maceration method in blueberry wine brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴皓玥; 董莹璨; 刘雪平; 战吉宬

    2015-01-01

    利用二氧化碳浸渍法酿造蓝莓酒,对比二氧化碳浸渍法和传统酿造法酿造的蓝莓酒在各理化指标方面的不同,探究该方法对蓝莓酒品质的影响.同时利用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定CO2不同浸渍时间对于蓝莓酒中10种有机酸酸、9种酚酸含量的影响.结果表明,蓝莓酒中含量最高的有机酸是柠檬酸,最主要的酚酸是绿原酸;二氧化碳浸渍法相比于传统酿造法能够降低蓝莓酒的酸度(P<0.05),但浸渍时间越长,有机酸含量越高;二氧化碳浸渍法蓝莓酒总酚含量低于传统法(P<0.05),但能提高总黄酮和酚酸类物质的浸出.

  20. 不同酵母菌酿造蓝莓酒的成分变化研究%Compositional Variation of Blueberry Wine by Different Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虹; 霍奕璇; 徐扬; 刘兆芳; 孔繁东

    2013-01-01

    以蓝莓为原料,分别添加4种不同酵母茵酿造蓝莓酒.在发酵过程中,跟踪测定了总糖,酒精,总酸,总黄酮,色度的变化,并对其进行感官评价.结果表明,总糖含量由24%下降到3%;酒精由0上升至12°;总酸含量整体增加,最高为2.658 5 g/L;黄酮含量缓慢增加,最终在3.3 g/L左右.花青苷整体减少,聚合色度增加,并且伴有褐变反应.经感官评定,由葡萄酒酵母发酵的蓝莓酒优于其他三种菌种.最终确定葡萄酒酵母酿造出的蓝莓酒最优.

  1. Study on Processing Technology of Fermented Blueberry and Honeysuckle Wine%蓝莓金银花发酵酒加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    以蓝莓和金银花为原料,以LM-8酵母菌为菌种,根据不同加糖量、柠檬酸添加量和酵母菌接种量,在相同温度、pH条件下发酵4个月得出不同酒精度与糖度比的蓝莓金银花酒.经过7位专家品评鉴定得出适合国人口味的蓝莓金银花酒酒精度和糖度分别为:酒精度12%和糖度6%.其工艺参数为加糖量16.7%,柠檬酸添加量0.15%,酵母菌接种量0.15%.

  2. 蓝莓酒酵母固定化载体的研究%Study On the immobilization carrier to immobilize blueberry wine yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满都日娃; 张巧云; 孙迪; 刘文娟; 周雅男; 王冰雪; 张秀玲

    2009-01-01

    以游离酵母为对照,测定海藻酸钠-壳聚糖和加有SiO_2、Al_2O_3的海藻酸钠-壳聚糖为载体的蓝莓酒酵母固定化颗粒的机械强度、发酵后的酒精度和残糖量的变化、使用寿命及果酒风味,选出良好的固定化载体.结果表明,强化后的载体机械强度提高10.9%,酒精和糖度变化快,发酵周期为3 d,果酒风味提高,最佳浓度配比为壳聚糖0.8%、SiO_2 1.4%、Al_2O_30.8%.证明强化后的栽体机械强度强,发酵效果好,稳定性高,使用寿命长,在实践生产中有利于生产成本的降低,发酵产品风味的改善.

  3. 蓝莓酒渣中多酚提取工艺的研究%Extraction Process of Polyphenols from Blueberry Wine Pomace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文静; 徐婉蒙; 王成玉; 李丹丹; 王超; 郭德军; 阮长青

    2016-01-01

    为充分利用蓝莓酒渣中的多酚资源,在单因素试验基础上,采用溶剂提取法对蓝莓酒渣中多酚的提取工艺进行了研究.结果表明,蓝莓酒渣中多酚的最优提取工艺为:提取剂0.1%盐酸的60%乙醇水溶液,料液比1∶40(g∶mL),提取温度80℃,提取时间3h.此条件下蓝莓酒渣中多酚提取量为8.89 mg·g-1,粗提取物得率22.1%,总酚纯度为5.69%.为蓝莓酒渣的利用及生物活性成分研究提供了依据.

  4. 蓝莓果酒发酵工艺条件的研究%Studies on Fermentation Technology of Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖禹含; 辛秀兰; 李浡; 李亚东

    2010-01-01

    以蓝莓为主要原料,以酿酒酵母1203作为菌种发酵,研制发酵型果酒,并对影响蓝莓酒发酵的因素进行优化研究.采用正交试验确定其最佳工艺条件为:接种量4%,起始糖度20°Bx,发酵温度24℃,起始pH3.3.

  5. Study on Production Technology of Blueberry Fruit Wine%蓝莓果酒生产工艺技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭意如; 刘明; 王欣颖

    2014-01-01

    以种植和野生蓝莓果实为原料,采用发酵法酿制蓝莓果酒,优化高档蓝莓果酒的生产工艺.通过不同发酵工艺的对比试验表明,蓝莓带皮发酵和清汁发酵原酒在-5~-3℃下冷冻浓缩30%,可提高种植蓝莓果酒干浸出物浓度40%以上,口感丰满醇厚,果香浓郁;苹-乳发酵和鸭梨酒调兑(鸭梨原酒∶野生蓝莓原酒为2∶8)可以有效降低野生蓝莓果酒的总酸浓度,使酒体均匀,口感柔顺,果香突出.

  6. Study on the Flavoring Components of Blueberry Fruit Wine%蓝莓果酒香气成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉宁; 马立志; 王瑞; 刘志刚; 刘晓燕; 谢国芳; 王俊

    2014-01-01

    针对3个市售蓝莓果酒样品,开展了感官评价及香气成分之间的关联分析(HP-SPME-GC/MS).首先,通过不同年龄阶段的人群对3个果酒样品的色、香、味进行感官评价,结果表明,样品B蓝莓果酒色泽暗沉、香气浓郁、口感醇厚,是3个样品中感官评价最高的果酒;再通过HP-SPME-GC/MS技术对3个样品的香气成分进行了系统分析,其中,酯类和醇类化合物为主要香气成分,含量分别为(A)43.96%和10.24%,(B)61.58%和14.29%,(C)49.83%和15.19%.异戊酸乙酯、琥珀酸二乙酯、乳酸乙酯、苯甲酸乙酯、正己醇、苯乙醇、4-乙基愈创木酚为3个样品的主要香气成分,样品B的香气主要由苯甲酸乙酯(16.83%)、琥珀酸二乙酯(9.81%)和苯乙醇(9.29%)构成.感官评价与香气成分之间的关联为蓝莓果酒酿造提供了科学依据.

  7. Study on Clarification Technology of Blueberry Resemble Ice Wine%蓝莓类冰酒澄清工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳晓晨; 张秀玲; 刘茜茜

    2015-01-01

    以壳聚糖、明胶、硅藻土、果胶酶和蛋清五种澄清剂对蓝莓类冰酒进行澄清处理,分析比较了各种澄清剂的澄清效果,发现壳聚糖和明胶联用,效果优于单一澄清剂.澄清后得到的蓝莓类冰酒的澄清度和稳定性都得到较大的提高.

  8. Extraction Research on Anthocyanins of Blueberry Wine Pomace%蓝莓酒渣花色苷提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 刘文静; 郭德军; 徐婉蒙; 王成玉; 李丹丹; 阮长青

    2016-01-01

    为探究大兴安岭野生蓝莓酒渣中的生物活性成分,以乙醇为提取剂,考察了乙醇浓度、盐酸浓度、料液比、提取时间和提取温度对蓝莓酒渣花色苷提取量的影响,并通过正交实验优化提取条件.结果表明:在乙醇浓度为40%,盐酸浓度为0.1%,提取温度为30℃,提取时间为1h,料液比为1∶40时为最佳提取条件,此条件下蓝莓酒渣中花色苷含量为3.03 mg·g-1,粗提物经浓缩冻干后为黑色粉末,得率为22.1%,花色苷纯度为1.37%.通过实验可知野生蓝莓酒渣中含有大量花色苷等活性物质,对蓝莓酒渣进行萃取可减少废物排放,提高蓝莓鲜果资源的综合利用率,并为工业化生产提供指导.

  9. 蓝莓果酒专用酵母的分离、筛选及鉴定%Separation, screening and identification of special yeast for blueberry wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍鹤; 李珂; 赵琳; 刘安然; 王远亮

    2014-01-01

    为筛选得到适合蓝莓果酒发酵的酵母菌株,对来自不用品种的蓝莓成熟果实、蓝莓叶及蓝莓果园的土壤进行筛选,共分离得到122株酵母菌;采用镜检和杜氏管发酵法初筛,产酒精能力、耐性能力复筛,并选用葡萄酒酿酒酵母(K酵母)对比,最终确定BBF-17为最优菌株.采用18S rDNA序列鉴定以及系统发育树分析,对选定酵母菌进行分子生物学鉴定,结果显示BBF-17与酿酒酵母(EU649672.1)最为接近,相似度达99%,该菌株鉴定为酿酒酵母.

  10. 蓝莓酒发酵过程中主要成分变化规律研究%Changes of main components in blueberry wine fermentation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈祖满

    2014-01-01

    研究了蓝莓酒主发酵过程中总糖、总酸、挥发酸、花色苷、单宁、乙醇、甲醇、高级醇和酯等主要物质含量的变化.结果表明,蓝莓通过加糖9.6%发酵,原酒酒精度可达到11.8%(体积分数),总酸7.53g/L,pH2.95;花色苷含量逐渐减少,发酵结束后达0.615g/100g;单宁含量变化较小;挥发酸含量随着发酵时间的延长而逐渐上升,主发酵期间上升较快,但最终可控制在国标(≤1.2g/L)允许范围以内;甲醇在刚开始发酵时就存在,发酵前期略有上升,后略有下降,含量相对稳定;高级醇中的异丁醇和苯乙醇是蓝莓酒的主要香气成分,约占香气成分的60%以上,苯甲酸乙酯、乙酸乙酯、己酸乙酯、癸酸乙酯是蓝莓酒香气的主要成分,在发酵过程中高级醇和酯都不断增加,发酵过程中还检测到一些未知成分.

  11. 蓝莓类冰酒发酵工艺研究%Study on fermentation technology of blueberry resemble ice wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳晓晨; 张秀玲; 李赛男; 容晨曦

    2015-01-01

    冰酒受自然因素影响很大,因此价格高昂.文中对人工制冷冰冻的工艺进行优化,通过3种不同的酵母菌在蓝莓类冰酒发酵过程中理化指标的变化规律,并对蓝莓类冰酒进行感官评定,筛选出酿造蓝莓类冰酒的优良菌株.最终确定酿酒酵母1970为蓝莓类冰酒酿造的优良菌株.利用筛选出来的酵母菌发酵酿制蓝莓类冰酒,研究了酵母添加量、温度、初始酸度、初始糖度等因素对发酵的影响.通过正交实验确定了蓝莓类冰酒的最佳发酵条件为酵母添加量5%、温度25℃、初始pH3.4、初始糖度18°Bx.产品果香浓郁、酒质净爽,具有典型的冰酒品质.

  12. 正交法优化蓝莓-葡萄复合果酒%Orthogonal Method Optimization the Blueberry and Grape Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏俊烽; 程建军; 刘宏杰

    2010-01-01

    以蓝莓发酵汁、赤霞珠葡萄发酵汁、山葡萄发酵汁为原料,经调配后,制成既具有浓郁果香、酒香,又有一定保健功能的新型复合果酒.结果表明:蓝莓复合果酒的最优水平组合为蓝莓发酵汁与葡萄发酵汁体积比3∶7、山葡萄发酵汁2%、乙酸乙酯600 μL/L;在最优水平组合中,蓝莓发酵汁与葡萄发酵汁体积比对蓝莓复合果酒影响最大,其次为山葡萄发酵汁添加量,乙酸乙酯添加量影响最小.

  13. 野生蓝莓酒加工工艺条件的研究%Research on the Processing Conditions of Wild Blueberry Fruit Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛桂新; 刘小国

    2010-01-01

    以野生蓝莓为试验材料,通过均匀设计试验和拟水平正交试验,分别对蓝莓果最佳酶解条件和蓝莓酒酿造工艺条件进行了研究.确定最佳酶解条件为:果胶酶用量为0.3 mL/kg、酶解温度35 ℃、酶解时间为150 min,出汁率为 78.43 %.蓝莓酒酒精度实验结果表明,最佳发酵工艺条件为采用Fermivin酵母,酵母用量为1.1 g/L,发酵温度24 ℃,发酵酒精度为12.4 %vol.

  14. 不同蓝莓品种酿造果酒适性的比较研究%APPROPRIATE COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF BLUEBERRIES BREWING WINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 姜雯翔; 袁晔; 彭常安; 韩永斌

    2014-01-01

    果酒品质与新鲜果品原料质量密切相关.本文分析了Tifblue、Premier、Brightwell、Garden blue、Powder Blue5个蓝莓品种的营养组分及果酒发酵过程中酒精度、花色苷含量、总酚指数和颜色变化的差异,旨在寻找适宜于酿酒的蓝莓品种.结果表明:Garden blue中的碳水化合物、还原糖、可溶性蛋白含量均显著高于其他4个品种.不同蓝莓品种其酚类物质及花色苷含量差异显著,Garden blue花色苷和酚类物质含量分别是其他4个蓝莓品种的1.17~1.97倍和1.15 ~1.89倍.酒精发酵过程中果酒中总酚指数均显著上升,而花色苷含量均显著下降,其中Gardenblue花色苷含量下降最少,且其酚类物质含量上升最多.经稀释3倍的蓝莓汁调味发酵,发酵结束后Garden blue总酚指数含量最高达79.9,是其他4个品种的1.30~2.08倍,花色苷含量为25.27 mg/L,比其他品种高出1.25~8.1倍.结论:综合蓝莓营养成分及发酵前后酚类物质含量等因素,发现Garden blue更适于酿造高品质蓝莓果酒.

  15. 蓝莓果酒发酵期间抗氧化成分及活性研究%Antioxidant compositions and activity of blueberry wine during fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 杨志勇; 辛秀兰; 王佳; 吴志明; 路梅

    2013-01-01

    对蓝莓果酒发酵期间的花色苷含量、总酚含量、自由基清除率、还原力的动态变化进行了监测,并用R2.5.1相关性分析对所测指标进行相关性分析、聚类分析、回归分析、残差自相关性诊断.结果表明,发酵期间花色苷及总酚的含量缓慢下降;还原力和自由基清除能力与总酚和花色苷含量的变化规律一致,主要呈递减趋势;花色苷含量、总酚含量、自由基清除率、还原力有显著的相关性(p<0.01);在聚类树状图上总酚与自由基清除率、还原力距离更近;以总酚含量预测抗氧化活性效果最佳,其与自由基清除率和还原力的回归方程依次为Y1=0.2976X+11.2918和Y2=2.052× 10-3X+0.4608.

  16. 蓝莓红酒发酵醪中酵母菌株的筛选%Screening on Yeast Strains from the Fermented Mash of Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹雪; 李然洪; 吴天祥

    2013-01-01

    采集贵州省麻江县蓝莓产区新鲜成熟蓝莓,添加40 mg/L浓度的SO2,经室温发酵后从发酵醪中分离出13个菌株.通过香气实验及酒精实验,再经过耐乙醇、耐高糖、耐低pH值、耐高温、耐SO2系列实验筛选得到5个菌株.将此5个菌株结合商业酵母71B与D254进行蓝莓红酒发酵,结果表明,其中Z2菌种发酵酒精度为7.27 %vol,总糖为4.83 g/L,总酸为6.5882 g/L,总酯为0.669 g/L,所得酒液感官评定好,符合红酒生产菌株的条件,最终选择Z2供后续试验.

  17. Brazilian ground pearl damaging blackberry, raspberry and blueberry in Brazil Pérola-da-terra causando danos em amoreira-preta, framboeseira e mirtileiro no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Caio Fábio Stoffel Efrom; Marcos Botton; Geraldine de Andrade Meyer

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), is a subterranean, polyphagous scale insect native of Southern Brazil that feeds on a variety of different vineyard plant species (Vitis spp.). In this study, it is reported three new plant hosts of the species. In 2007 and 2010, infested plants were documented in the towns of Farroupilha (29°14'34"S, 51°23'20"W) and Vacaria (28°26'30"S, 50°52'59"W) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specimens of the gr...

  18. A name for the 'blueberry tetra', an aquarium trade popular species of Hyphessobrycon Durbin (Characiformes, Characidae), with comments on fish species descriptions lacking accurate type locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, M M F; Dagosta, F C P; Camelier, P; Oyakawa, O T

    2016-07-01

    A new species of Hyphessobrycon is described from a tributary of the upper Rio Tapajós, Amazon basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Its exuberant colour in life, with blue to purple body and red fins, is appreciated in the aquarium trade. Characters to diagnose the new species from all congeners are the presence of a single humeral blotch, absence of a distinct caudal-peduncle blotch, absence of a well-defined dark mid-lateral stripe on body, the presence of 16-18 branched anal-fin rays, nine branched dorsal-fin rays and six branched pelvic-fin rays. A brief comment on fish species descriptions solely based on aquarium material and its consequence for conservation policies is provided. PMID:27245763

  19. Analysis on the Catechins of Tea Polyphenols in Leaves of Blueberry%蓝莓叶片儿茶素类茶多酚含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连润; 刘家迅; 梁明泰; 高正清; 陶磅; 万红; 潘丽云

    2014-01-01

    [目的]分析蓝莓幼嫩芽叶中的儿茶素类茶多酚成分含量.[方法]应用高效液相色谱(HPLC)技术,对南高丛蓝莓“夏普蓝”叶片儿茶素类茶多酚含量进行了分析.[结果]试验表明,蓝莓幼嫩芽叶含有5种主要儿茶素类茶多酚,分别为儿茶素(C)、表儿茶素(EC)、表儿茶素没食子酸酯(ECG)、表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)、没食子酸(GA),此外还含有咖啡因(CAF).[结论]研究可为蓝莓作为一种理想的茶用资源植物提供科学依据及植物化学方面的证据.

  20. Impact of multiple genetic polymorphisms on effects of a 4-week blueberry juice intervention on ex vivo induced lymphocytic DNA damage in human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, L.C.; Boots, A.W.; Boer, de V.C.J.; Maas, L.M.; Pachen, M.F.A.; Gottschalk, W.H.; Ketelslegers, H.B.; Godschalk, R.W.L.; Haenen, R.M.M.; Schooten, F.J.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a decrease in cancer incidence and cardiovascular disease, presumably caused by antioxidants. We designed a human intervention study to assess antioxidative and possible anti-genotoxic properties of fruit-borne antioxidants. We hypothesiz

  1. Summary of Natural Community and Flora Findings for the Nulhegan Basin of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge and Blueberry Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the survey efforts of natural communities and rare plants for the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge and...

  2. Suppression of Wnt1-induced mammary tumor growth and lower serum insulin in offspring exposed to maternal blueberry diet suggest early dietary influence on developmental programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the well-accepted notion that early maternal influences persist beyond fetal life and may underlie many adult diseases, the risks imposed by the maternal environment on breast cancer development and underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether earl...

  3. Enraizamento in vitro de mirtilo em condições fotoautotróficas In vitro rooting of blueberry under photoautotrophic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Roberta Damiani; Márcia Wulff Schuch

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do enraizamento fotoautotrófico de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei Reade), cultivar 'Delite', comparando o efeito da luz natural (casa de vegetação) e da luz artificial (sala de crescimento) durante duas épocas do ano (verão e inverno), bem como o efeito de três concentrações de sacarose (0; 15 e 30g L-1) adicionadas ao meio de cultura e de diferentes tipos de vedação dos frascos de cultivo (alumínio, algodão e filme plástico). Após 60 dias de enrai...

  4. The pathogen causing Lasiodiplodia twig blight of blueberry%蓝莓毛色二胞枝枯病的病原菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳宁; 赵洪海; 尉莹莹; 李晓东; 梁晨; 李宝笃

    2016-01-01

    近期在山东胶南的蓝莓种植区发现一种枝枯新病害,被侵染的枝条变色坏死,甚至引起全株干枯死亡.通过组织分离法和玻璃毛细管法获得纯化菌株HMQAU140073.通过形态学观察、rDNA-ITS和EF1-a序列分析及柯赫氏法则验证,确定该病原菌为假可可毛色二胞Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae.这是假可可毛色二胞所致蓝莓枝枯病的首次发现.

  5. Molecular characterization of a calmodulin gene, VcCaM1, that is differentially expressed under aluminum stress in highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmodulin (CaM), a small acidic protein, is one of the best characterized Ca2+ sensors in eukaryotes. This Ca2+-regulated protein plays a critical role in decoding and transducing environmental stress signals by activating specific targets. Many environmental stresses elicit changes in intracellu...

  6. Comparison of total phenolics, total flavonoids, DPPH among blueberry fermented wine, soaked wine and blueberry fruit%比较蓝莓发酵酒、浸泡酒和蓝莓果间总酚、总黄酮及DPPH的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 左广垒; 刘子菱; 吕佳宁; 金铁岩; 曹思明

    2015-01-01

    以蓝莓(Semen trigonellae)为原料,将其分别加工成蓝莓发酵酒、蓝莓浸泡酒和蓝莓果果浆,然后分别测定其一般理化指标、总多酚、总黄酮含量和DPPH清除率.结果表明:蓝莓果果浆中的总多酚含量最高为3.97 mg/mL,总黄酮含量也最高为0.36 mg/mL,蓝莓发酵酒的DPPH清除率最高为89.55%.

  7. 蓝莓加工的研究动态与应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭彤; 吴都峰; 季中梅; 赵岩; 周亚军; 贺连彬

    2013-01-01

      蓝莓果实因含有丰富的营养物质而备受青睐。通过论述蓝莓的营养价值,重点阐述蓝莓加工利用的现状,指出我国蓝莓加工中存在的主要问题,并对蓝莓加工的发展前景进行预测,以期为蓝莓制品的开发研究提供借鉴和参考。%Blueberry contains abundant nutrients. This paper focuses on the nutritional value of blueberry, introduces the present situation of blueberry in processing and utilizing, points out the main problems of the blueberry processing in China, and forecasts the development prospect of blueberry processing, which providing reference for the development and research of blueberry.

  8. 保鲜剂对蓝莓贮藏效果及相关酶活性的影响%Effect of antistalingagent treatments on storage effectiveness and enzyme activity of blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴欣; 徐俐; 李莉莉; 孙丽雯; 方品武

    2013-01-01

    以“粉蓝”蓝莓果实为试验材料,研究0.1%的壳聚糖涂膜、1 μL/L的1-MCP熏蒸以及先用0.1%的壳聚糖涂膜再用1 μL/L的1-MCP熏蒸处理对4℃条件下贮藏的蓝莓果实腐烂率、失重率、呼吸强度、MDA含量及与成熟衰老相关的PG、PPO、POD、CAT等酶活性的影响.结果表明,3种处理均可抑制蓝莓果实贮藏期间腐烂和失重;抑制果实MDA含量的上升;一定程度上提高贮藏前期PG活性,降低后期活性;提高PPO、POD、CAT活性.3种处理对蓝莓果实均有提高保鲜效果的作用,但处理间效果存在差异:先壳聚糖涂膜再1-MCP熏蒸处理在抑制果实腐烂、失重和提高保护性酶POD和CAT活性方面效果最好;1-MCP熏蒸处理抑制果实MDA含量的上升作用最为明显,同时提高POD和CAT活性效果明显;壳聚糖涂膜处理降低了果实出现呼吸高峰时候的呼吸强度.综合效果大小顺序为:1-MCP熏蒸处理、壳聚糖涂膜后1-MCP熏蒸处理、壳聚糖涂膜处理.

  9. 果胶酶处理对蓝莓半甜红酒风味成分影响的研究%Effects of Pectinase Addition on the Flavoring Components of Blueberry Semi-sweet Red Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹雪; 李然洪; 周靖; 吴天祥

    2013-01-01

    研究了不同浓度果胶酶对蓝莓半甜红酒风味成分的影响,以日本蓝莓半甜红酒作对照,测定其添加果胶酶处理后各指标的变化.结果表明,添加果胶酶处理后蓝莓半甜红酒的总酸、甲醇、杂醇油比未添加果胶酶时的 6.5272 g/L、850.19 mg/L、437.18 mg/L分别提升到7.158 g/L、2384.92 mg/L、566.58 mg/L;酒精度、色度值以及单宁、甲醇含量均随着果胶酶浓度的增高而增高;甲醇、花色苷、杂醇油均明显高于日本蓝莓半甜红酒,其中,花色苷均量200 mg/L,明显高于日本的(26.2 mg/L);色调、单宁、总酚低于日本蓝莓半甜红酒;DPPH自由基清除率略高于未添加果胶酶半甜蓝莓红酒和日本半甜蓝莓红酒;酒体澄清透明有光泽,香气浓郁,明显优于未添加果胶酶的蓝莓半甜红酒和日本半甜蓝莓红酒.

  10. 添加蜂蜜和白糖对蓝莓果酒品质的影响%Effect of adding honey and white sugar on the quality of blueberry wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子菱; 李影; 韩立杰; 吕佳宁; 金铁岩

    2013-01-01

    主要通过对添加蔗糖和蜂蜜的样品在发酵过程中pH、可溶性固形物、酒精度变化趋势的研究以及对发酵结束后的色度和DPPH消除率进行测定,并根据测定结果和感官评定,确定适合制作蓝莓果酒的糖类.结果表明:2组样品发酵后最终pH较接近,分别为3.84和3.92;添加白糖制作的蓝莓果酒在可溶性固形物方面略低于添加蜂蜜制作的蓝莓果酒;酒精度方面则高于添加蜂蜜制作的蓝莓果酒;色度方面,添加蜂蜜制造的蓝莓果酒其CIE L*值、CIE a*值和CIE b*值均明显高于添加白糖制造的果酒;抗氧化性方面,添加蜂蜜制作的样品优于添加白糖的样品;感官评定方面,添加蜂蜜制作的蓝莓果酒色、香、味和综合嗜好度均为最佳.从理化特性、感官特性和抗氧化性角度来看添加蜂蜜更有利于蓝莓果酒的酿造.

  11. 蓝莓果酒发酵过程与品质关系研究%Study on the Relationship between Blueberry Fruit Wine Fermentation Process and the Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 王姝; 任春光; 贺红早; 唐军

    2013-01-01

    以贵州省麻江县蓝莓为酿酒原料,采用发酵法生产蓝莓果酒,选取加入酵母量、发酵时间、初始pH、发酵温度等影响果酒品质的4个关键因子,分别以感官评分、酒精度等质量指标,采用正交试验设计优化蓝莓果酒发酵工艺条件.得到以下结论:最佳发酵工艺条件为酵母用量为1.0 g/L,发酵时间为7d,初始pH为7,发酵温度25℃,发酵酒精度为12.7%vol.最终酿造出品质优良,酒液透亮,且具有浓郁香味的蓝莓果酒,为优质蓝莓果酒的研究和开发提供了理论依据.

  12. Dynamic Changes in Phenolics and Their Antioxidant Activities during the Fermentation of Blueberry Wine%蓝莓酒发酵过程中酚类物质动态变化及其抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王行; 张海宁; 马永昆; 叶华; 张龙; 李俊芳; 于怀龙

    2015-01-01

    以兔眼蓝莓为对象,研究其发酵过程中酚类物质和抗氧化活性的变化.结果表明:蓝莓酒发酵过程中,总酚、总黄酮和花色苷含量以及铁还原力、DPPH自由基清除率和羟自由基清除率呈先增加后减少的趋势;颜色分析显示L*值先增加后减少,后酵阶段波动上升,a*值逐渐上升,后酵期间波动下降,a*值变化正相关于花色苷含量的变化,b*值变化正相关于总酚、总黄酮含量的变化;蓝莓酒发酵过程中p-羟基苯甲酸未检出,香草酸含量显著上升(p<0.05),而没食子酸、原儿茶酸、龙胆酸、绿原酸、咖啡酸、丁香酸、p香豆酸、阿魏酸、芥子酸等9种酚酸含量主发酵期间均显著上升(p<0.05),发酵结束时含量均显著下降(p<0.05),但显著高于各自初始含量(p<0.05),对羟基苯甲酸、对羟基肉桂酸和总酚酸含量均呈先增加后减少的趋势.

  13. 蓝莓果酒专用酵母的筛选、鉴定与性能研究%Screening, Identification and Study of the Fermentation Properties of Yeast Strains for Exclusive Use of Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 严红光; 袁亮

    2015-01-01

    本研究为筛选适合蓝莓果酒发酵用性能优良的专用酵母,采用初筛与复筛的方法从蓝莓自然发酵旺盛期分离筛选出产酒性能优良、产品感官评价分数较高、编号为Y201505的菌株.对Y201505菌株进行形态、生理特征分析,并与《酵母菌的特征与鉴定手册》中酵母特征比较,结果显示此菌株与裂殖酵母属中的粟酒裂殖酵母形态与生理特征一致,初步判定该菌株是粟酒裂殖酵母,并命名为粟酒裂殖酵母Y201505(Schizosaccharomyces pombe Y201505).

  14. Study on the Clarification Effect of Fish Glue and Chitosan in Blueberry Fruit Wine%鱼胶和壳聚糖对蓝莓发酵酒澄清效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程旺开; 刘永; 彭常安; 许月明

    2014-01-01

    采用鱼胶、壳聚糖作为澄清剂对蓝莓发酵酒进行澄清处理,在考察鱼胶、壳聚糖澄清条件的基础上,通过正交试验,确定鱼胶和壳聚糖复合澄清剂的最佳添加量是鱼胶0.04%,壳聚糖0.02%,经混合后澄清3h,能够有效地提高蓝莓发酵酒的品质.

  15. Effect of different types of yeast on the quality of blueberry wine%不同种类酵母对蓝莓果酒品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李影; 韩立杰; 刘子菱; 吕佳宁; 金铁岩

    2014-01-01

    以蓝莓为原料,添加蜂蜜,利用3种不同酵母(ST、F33、Fermivin)在相同的条件下发酵制作蓝莓果酒.通过对发酵期间pH值、总酸、总糖、酒精度及发酵结束后的色度、DPPH消除率的测定分析,综合感官评价结果确定适合制作蓝莓果酒的最佳酵母.经测定,分别利用酵母ST、F33、Fermivin制作的果酒的最终pH值分别为4.16、4.36和4.40,总酸分别为1.19%、1.10%和1.07%,总糖分别为0.60%、0.82%和0.93%,酒精度分别为14.33%、14.93%和15.13%.3种果酒的色度明度上Fermivin制作的果酒明显高于其他2种果酒且具有显著性差异(P<0.05),而在红色度和黄色度上虽有差异并不显著(P>0.05);而在对DPPH的清除率方面,酵母Fermivin制作的果酒也高于其他2种果酒.色泽、香气、口味及综合评价的感官评定结果表明,利用酵母Fermivin制作的蓝莓果酒有最佳嗜好度.因此综合理化特性、抗氧化性及感官评价结果,利用酵母Fermivin制作的蓝莓果酒品质最好,酵母Fermivin最适于制作蓝莓果酒.

  16. 不同发酵工艺对蓝莓酒中花青素含量的影响%Effect of Different Fermentation Processes on Anthocyanin Content in Blueberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁原春; 范文广; 韩双; 姚春艳; 王芳; 曲艺

    2014-01-01

    为降低蓝莓加工产品中花青素的损失,研究了蓝莓酒酿制过程中不同的发酵工艺及工艺参数对蓝莓酒中花青素含量的影响.结果表明,花青素含量在蓝莓酒发酵过程中呈下降趋势,陈酿阶段的损失大于主发酵阶段;不同发酵工艺条件下酿制的蓝莓酒中花青素含量不同,低温浸渍发酵酿造工艺可比传统工艺保存更多的花青素;添加3%的3#酿酒酵母时,可更好地保存蓝莓酒中的花青素;发酵温度在20~25℃、SO2添加量为150 mg/L时,蓝莓酒中的花青素损失较小.

  17. Effect of CO2 maceration method on aromatic compounds of blueberry wine%二氧化碳浸渍法对于蓝莓酒香气成分影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董莹璨; 吴皓玥; 刘雪平; 战吉宬

    2015-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,分析传统法和二氧化碳浸渍法酿造的蓝莓酒中的香气成分,共检测出80种香气物质,其中传统法中检测到61种香气物质,在二氧化碳浸渍10d、15d、20 d的蓝莓酒中分别检测到55种、65种、61种香气物质.采用气相色谱峰面积归一定量法计算两种方法所酿造的蓝莓酒香气成分的相对含量,发现两者香气组成差别较大,并且浸渍15d为宜.二氧化碳浸渍法酿造的蓝莓酒中酯类和萜烯类含量高于传统法,较传统法蓝莓酒更具有清新优雅的特点.

  18. 微波辅助提取蓝莓酒糟中花青素的研究%Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction process for anthocyanin from blueberry wine lees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖婷婷; 石彬; 肖兵; 许定; 胡咏梅

    2015-01-01

    通过单因素试验和正交试验对蓝莓酒糟中花青素的提取工艺进行了研究.结果表明,各因素对花青素提取量的影响从大到小依次为乙醇体积分数>微波提取时间>柠檬酸含量>微波功率>液固比;最佳提取条件为乙醇体积分数60%,柠檬酸含量0.6%,液固比60:1 (mL:g),微波功率420W,微波提取时间20 s.在此最佳提取条件下,从蓝莓酒糟中可提取花青素(1.847± 0.079) mg/g,1次提取率达84.22%.

  19. Effects of oak chips on the aroma of blueberry wine by GC-MS%气质联用测定分析橡木片对蓝莓果酒香气的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周增群; 朱永峰

    2015-01-01

    利用顶空固相微萃取(SPME)结合气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术分析橡木片的添加对蓝莓果酒中主要香气物质的影响.结果表明:通过GC-MS检测两种果酒,未添加橡木片的蓝莓果酒中共检测到26种挥发性物质,其中醇类3种,酯类17种,其他6种(包括醛类、酸类、酮类);而添加了橡木片的蓝莓果酒共检测到29种挥发性物质,其中醇类4种,酯类18种,其他7种(包括醛类、酸类、酮类).结果表明,添加橡木片的蓝莓果酒获得了更多的香气物质如辛酸乙酯、顺-1,3-二甲基环戊烷、3-甲基丁酸乙酯等,使得添加橡木片的蓝莓果酒香气也更加浓郁,提高了蓝莓果酒的品质.

  20. pH示差法测定蓝莓酒中花色苷条件的优化%Optimization of analytical condition of determining anthocyanins content in blueberry wine by pH-differential method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婧超; 刘玉田; 赵玉平; 欧燕; 庞少华

    2011-01-01

    The analytical conditions of the pH-differential method to determine anthocyanin content in buleberry wine were optimized in this paper. pH was set at 1.0 and 4.5 when determined the absorbance. pH value was adjusted to 3.0 when determined the samples. The temperature and balanced time of reaction were 40℃ and 20min, respectively. The colorimetric time was controlled in 30min. The average relative standard deviation of precision was 0.52%. The average recovery rate of the method was 101.64%, which was increased by 15% compared to that of the original analytical method.%讨论优化pH示差法用于测定蓝莓酒花色苷含量的分析条件.测定吸光度时的pH值选定为1.0和4.5;样品需调整到pH值为3.0条件下测定;反应平衡温度优化为40C;平衡20min,30min内比色.精密度测定结果的平均标准偏差为0.52%;方法的平均加标回收率为101.64%,相比未优化分析条件测定的回收率提高了15%.

  1. Research of the change rules of antioxidant substances of blueberry wines during fermentation%蓝莓酒发酵过程中抗氧化物质变化规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓杰; 柴哲; 杨钟燕; 刘禹嘉

    2013-01-01

    研究蓝莓酒酿造过程中抗氧化物质、抗氧化活性和颜色的变化规律及其作用机理,结果表明:酿造过程中,总花色苷、总酚和总黄酮含量均先增加后减少;DPPH自由基清除率和还原力变化一致,主发酵、后发酵期间均先增加后降低;L*值的变化滞后于总花色苷含量的变化、a*值变化与总花色苷含量变化一致,b*变化与总酚、总黄酮含量变化一致.

  2. GC-MS Analysis of Aromatic Composition of Blueberry Wine Fermented with Different Species of Yeast Strains%不同酵母发酵的蓝莓酒香气成分GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖禹含; 辛秀兰; 杨国伟; 李亚东

    2010-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱.质谱联用技术进行分析,以不同酵母发酵的蓝莓酒为原料,对3种不同酵母发酵的蓝莓酒主要香气成分进行分析,共鉴定出76种香气成分.其中酿酒活性干酵母、葡萄酒活性干酵母和酿酒酵母1203发酵的蓝莓酒中分别检测到56、50、47种香气成分,其中30种是3者共有的.酿酒活性干酵母和酿酒酵母1203发酵的蓝莓酒的主要香气成分为3-甲基-1-丁醇,相对含量分别为18.98%、37.64%;葡萄酒活性干酵母发酵的蓝莓酒的主要香气成分为辛酸乙酯,其相对含量为18.68%.

  3. Determination of Aroma Compounds in Blueberry Wine by GC-MS%应用GC-MS分析越橘酒中主要香气成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪; 吴林; 李刚

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究越橘酒中主要香气成分.[方法]利用水蒸气蒸馏萃取法对3个地区越橘酒的挥发性成分进行萃取,采用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)技术进行分析.[结果]在3个地区的样品中共检测到主要挥发性物质40种,其中普遍存在的成分有21种.[结论]苯乙醇在所有样品中含量最高,是越橘酒香气的主要成分.

  4. 果酒的保健功效及蓝莓果酒发展分析研究%The Health Benefits of Fruit Wine and Analysis of the Blueberry Wine's Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋本庆; 高铭坤

    2015-01-01

    果酒是以果品为原料酿造出的酒精含量低、酸度适宜、抗氧化能力强的保健型果酒饮品,简要概述了果酒分类及果酒的保健功效,分析了国内外蓝莓果酒现状,并对发展前景进行展望,为工业化生产提供理论依据与研究基础.

  5. 蓝莓酒中5种黄烷-3-醇单体高效液相色谱检测研究%Detection of five monomeric flavon-3-ols in blueberry wine by high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁芳华; 温鹏飞; 黄卫东

    2006-01-01

    采用LiChrosphet 100 RP-18e色谱柱(250×4.0mmi.d.,5μm),冰乙酸:水溶液为流动相,梯度洗脱,流速为1.0mL/min,柱温30℃,检测波长280nm,直接进样,同时分离了C、EgC、EgCg、EC和EcG 5种黄烷-3-醇单体,并对蓝莓酒中黄烷-3-醇单体含量进行了测定.

  6. 忠芝蓝莓酒香气成分的气相色谱-质谱分析%Analysis of Aroma Components in Zhongzhi Blueberry Wine by Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤宏梅; 李凤琴; 俞志刚

    2014-01-01

    利用溶剂和固相萃取法进行分离和富集,采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术对忠芝蓝莓酒香气成分进行分析.分别从忠芝蓝莓酒的二氯甲烷萃取物和极性氨基柱萃取物洗脱液中共分离并鉴定了65种物质.所鉴定的65种物质中,酯类25种,相对含量总和占所有香气成分的60.899%;烷烃类10种,占6.903%;醇类6种,占11.733%;酸类6种,占2.833%;醛类3种,占4.835%;酮类7种,占6.581%;醚类1种,占0.236%;胺类2种,占2.117%;酰氯类1种,占0.154%;噻唑类1种,占0.163%;肟类1种,占1.113%;酚类1种,占1.926%;脲类1种,占0.467%.所含主要成分为2-羟基-1,2,3-己三酸三乙酯、丁二酸二乙酯、苯乙醇、羟基丁二酸二乙酯和邻苯二甲酸二甲酯,共占总香气成分的56.287%,构成了忠芝蓝莓酒香气成分的骨架.

  7. Optimization of clarification and cold treatment for blueberry wine using response surface methodology%蓝莓发酵酒澄清和冷稳定处理的响应面优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚辉; 马艳弘; 黄开红; 张宏志; 刘晨; 乔月芳

    2015-01-01

    研究了蓝莓发酵酒的澄清和稳定处理方法.以澄清度和色度为指标,利用响应面法对蓝莓酒澄清稳定处理条件进行了优化.结果显示,最佳处理条件为:皂土添加量0.80 mg/mL、澄清时间8d、冷处理时间6d,在此条件下处理后蓝莓酒的澄清度和色度分别为0.749和1.128.与没经过处理、只进行了澄清处理或冷处理的样品相比,利用优化条件处理的蓝莓酒具有较好的澄清度,无潜在的蛋白破败和色素沉淀,且在长时间瓶储中具有良好的澄清度和色度稳定性.此研究为蓝莓酒的工业化生产提供了一定的理论依据和技术支持.

  8. Detection of 11 Phenolic Acids of Blueberry Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%蓝莓酒中11种酚酸的高效液相色谱测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁芳华; 陈建业; 温鹏飞; 黄卫东

    2006-01-01

    实验采用LiChrospher100RP-18e色谱柱(250×4.0mmID,5μm),以甲醇:乙酸:水溶液为流动相,流速为1.0ml/min梯度洗脱,SPD-6AV紫外检测器,30℃柱温,紫外检测波长为280nm.建立了一种新的同时测定蓝莓酒中11种酚酸含量的高效液相色谱法,并测定了蓝莓酒发酵样中酚酸的含量.

  9. Influence on aromatic compounds of blueberry wine by different yeast fermentation%不同酵母菌发酵对蓝莓果酒香气物质影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严红光; 张文华; 丁之恩

    2013-01-01

    利用顶空固相微萃取结合气质联用仪分析3种酵母菌酿造的蓝莓酒中主要香气物质.3种酒中共检出29种香气物质.酿酒酵母Y4酿造的蓝莓果酒中有20种香气物质,主要香气物质是39.2%的3-甲基-1-丁醇.酿酒酵母AS2.316酿造的蓝莓果酒中有22种香气物质,主要香气物质是51.92%的3-甲基-1-丁醇.安琪RA-4酵母酿造的蓝莓果酒中有21种香气物质,主要香气物质是34.57%的2-甲基-1-丁醇和22.97%的3-甲基-1-丁醇.研究结果显示酵母菌种是影响果酒香气物质组成的关键因素之一.

  10. 北方蓝莓高档果酒制作工艺条件的研究%Research on Production Conditions of High-grade Wine from Northern Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炎赫; 黄鑫宝; 王浩; 徐文文; 谭秀山

    2016-01-01

    为探讨北方蓝莓高档果酒最佳的酿造工艺,在查阅了蓝莓酒制造工艺文献的基础上,提出 了新的工艺流程,包括原料-榨汁-加入果胶酶等辅料-主发酵过程加入酵母-后发酵-冷热变温处理-杀菌-包装-成品,并依据国家标准和行业标准对产品的感官指标,理化指标,卫生指标进行检验,结果表明,北方蓝莓果浆最佳酵母添加量为1.1 g/L,发酵温度22℃,果胶酶添加量为0.3 ml/kg,亚硫酸100 ppm,酒成品的酒精度调至15.6°,冷热交替代替了过去的用澄清剂去除胶体杂质,酿造成品酒醇香、口感好、色泽好.

  11. Screening and Identification of Superior Yeasts from Natural Fermented Blueberry Wine%蓝莓自然发酵酒中优良酵母菌的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 周剑忠; 朱佳娜; 马艳弘; 黄开红

    2013-01-01

    从自然发酵蓝莓果酒中分离筛选优良酵母,为开发蓝莓果酒提供酵母菌资源.采用镜检和杜氏管发酵法初筛,分离出19株酵母菌.通过产酒精能力、耐性能力测试进行复筛,最终确定LM-8为最优菌株.采用18SrDNA序列测定及系统发育分析,对所筛选菌株进行分子生物学鉴定,结果酵母菌LM-8与酿酒酵母(Z75578)的遗传距离最近,两者之间的同源性为99%.该菌株被鉴定为酵母属的酿酒酵母.

  12. 甜型蓝莓酒的研制及抗氧化能力的评价%Development of sweet blueberry fruit wine and evaluation of antioxidant capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时磊; 刘玉田; 王建刚; 赵玉平

    2010-01-01

    通过正交实验对甜型蓝莓酒的发酵工艺进行了优化,最佳工艺参数为:发酵温度24℃,加糖量15%,酵母添加量0.15%.再经陈酿、澄清处理得到风味独特的蓝莓甜酒,成品酒精度16.0%(vol),总糖≥65g/L,总酸6~8g/L.采用FeCl_3/K_3Fe(CN)_6还原力测定体系分析维生素C和葡萄酒样的抗氧化能力,结果显示蓝莓甜酒的还原能力高.

  13. 蓝莓对D-半乳糖模型小鼠学习记忆及抗氧化的研究%The study on memory and antioxidantion of blueberry to the D-galactose model of mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵君操

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨蓝莓对D-半乳糖致衰老小鼠学习记忆能力及抗氧化作用的影响.方法:连续给小鼠注射D-半乳糖6周,同时从第3周起给模型鼠灌胃蓝莓,给药结束后,进行学习记忆行为测定,采血清测定超氧化歧化酶(SOD),丙二醛(MDA)含量.结果:蓝莓组小鼠的学习、记忆获得和记忆消退的错误次数明显少于衰老模型组(P<0.05);与模型组比较,蓝莓组小鼠血清SOD活性显著性降低.结论:蓝莓能改善D-半乳糖致衰老小鼠的学习记忆能力,提高体内SOD活性,增强其对自由基的清除能力,抑制脂质过氧化作用.

  14. 大孔树脂纯化蓝莓果渣多酚及其组成分析%Macroporous Resin Purification of Polyphenols from Blueberry Pomace and Its Composition Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晓婷; 周涛; 李春阳; 王兴娜

    2013-01-01

    采用大孔树脂对蓝莓果渣多酚进行纯化,并采用HPLC-DAD-MS分析其多酚组成.结果表明:AB-8树脂的吸附量为24.38mg/g,解吸率为95.49%,并且达到吸附平衡与解吸平衡的时间较短,较适合蓝莓果渣多酚的纯化.最佳吸附条件为上样溶液多酚质量浓度2.6mg/mL、pH2、上样流速2mL/min;最佳洗脱条件为乙醇体积分数60%、洗脱流速2mL/min,在此条件下,蓝莓果渣多酚纯度由11.05%提高到59.29%.HPLC-DAD-MS检测结果显示,蓝莓果渣多酚主要组分为7种花色苷,分别为飞燕草色素-3-半乳糖苷、飞燕草色素-3-葡萄糖苷、矢车菊色素-3-半乳糖苷、牵牛花色素-3-半乳糖苷、牵牛花色素-3-葡萄糖苷、锦葵色素-3-半乳糖苷、锦葵色素-3-葡萄糖苷.

  15. Macroporous Resin Purification and Composition Analysis of Polyphenols from Blueberry Leaves%大孔树脂纯化蓝莓叶多酚及其组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯进; 李敏; 曾晓雄; 李春阳

    2013-01-01

    比较8种大孔树脂对蓝莓叶多酚的静态吸附与解吸效果,HPD400树脂吸附量为52.95mg/g,解吸率为95.96%,并且达到吸附平衡与解吸平衡的时间较短,最适合蓝莓叶多酚的纯化.当上样质量浓度3mg/mL、pH2、上样流速2mL/min、上样体积140mL时,树脂带到动态吸附饱和;用80mL 40%的乙醇,以1mL/min的流速进行洗脱,可以洗脱完全,解吸率为90.50%.经过HPD400树脂的纯化,蓝莓叶多酚的纯度由原来的38.75%提高到69.38%.HPLC-DAD-MS的分析结果显示,蓝莓叶多酚含有丰富的咖啡酰奎宁酸与槲皮素甙.

  16. Study on polyploid induction of blueberry in vitro with colchicine treatment%秋水仙素诱导离体培养越橘多倍体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓艳; 张志东; 李亚东; 吴林; 刘海广

    2010-01-01

    试验研究了秋水仙素不同处理方法、浓度和时间对美登、达柔和埃利奥特3个越橘品种试管苗的诱变效果,并采用根尖压片方法和流式细胞仪对诱变材料倍性进行检测.结果表明,采用药剂培养基法处理效果不如茎段浸渍法.经秋水仙素处理的所有品种都发生不同程度的变异,其中达柔用0.1%秋水仙素浸渍24 h的处理效果最好,变异率达到22.6%,诱变株系为嵌合体.流式细胞仪测定DNA含量方法与根尖压片方法检测结果一致.

  17. Effects of Bioactive Membrane Combined with Methyl Jasmonate on the Postharvest Preservation of Blueberries%含茉莉酸甲酯的生物活性膜对蓝莓采后保鲜效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于悦; 徐莹; 汪东风; 张丹丹; 于金芝

    2016-01-01

    以蓝莓为试材,采用涂膜与生物防治结合的方法,以1.5%海藻酸钠+0.3%甘油为主要材料,无菌水为溶剂,分别加入109 CFU/mL罗伦隐球酵母(Cryptococcus laurentii)和100 μmol/L茉莉酸甲酯进行涂膜处理,研究蓝莓在0~2℃下贮藏28 d的保鲜效果.结果表明,采用1.5%海藻酸钠+0.3%甘油+109 CFU/mL C.laurentii+100 μmol/L茉莉酸甲酯复合涂膜液处理的蓝莓失重率和腐烂指数明显降低,糖、酸和花青素含量的变化减缓,果实可保持较高的硬度和弹性,丙二醛的产生受到抑制,而超氧化物歧化酶活性得到提高,使蓝莓果实能够保持良好的外观品质和较高含量的营养成分,保鲜效果最佳.

  18. Stilbenes and anthocyanins reduce stress signaling in BV-2 mouse microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries contain an array of phytochemicals that may decrease both inflammatory and oxidative stress. We determined if pterostilbene, resveratrol, and two anthocyanins commonly found in blueberries, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-glucoside, would be efficacious in protecting microglia...

  19. 7 CFR 1218.9 - Importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importer. 1218.9 Section 1218.9 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.9 Importer. Importer... importer of record for such blueberries....

  20. 7 CFR 1218.18 - Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research. 1218.18 Section 1218.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.18...

  1. Biology and Management Potential for Three Orchard Bee Species (Hymenoptera: megachilidae): Osmia Ribifloris Cockerell, O. Lignaria (say) and O. Chalybea Smith with Emphasis on the Former

    Science.gov (United States)

    What follows is a manual for propagating docile orchard bees for blueberry pollination, esp. Osmia ribifloris. Before we introduce O. ribifloris or any other species to a blueberry farm commercially, we have yet to rear enough adults for field-scale releases, we still need to design cheaper, lightwe...

  2. 7 CFR 1218.40 - Establishment and membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... States production of blueberries and the quantity of imports. The review will be conducted through an audit of state crop production figures and Council assessment records. If warranted, the Council will... geographical distribution of domestic blueberry production and the quantity of imports. If the level of...

  3. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  4. Bloody or tarry stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the upper GI tract can cause bright red stools. Eating black licorice, lead, iron pills, bismuth medicines like Pepto-Bismol, or blueberries can also cause black stools. Beets and tomatoes can sometimes make stools appear reddish. ...

  5. The Cultivar newsletter, Spring/Summer 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Martha

    2004-01-01

    Feature articles: Trap Crops in Organic Strawberry Production International Meeting on Community Supported Agriculture Blueberry Variety Trial at the UCSC Farm Impacts of GM Plants on Wild Relatives of California Crops Gopher Control on Organic Farms

  6. 75 FR 49458 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... greater than 15-percent decrease in the average annual price of blueberries compared to the average of the.... Suzanne Hale, Acting Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service. BILLING CODE 3410-10-P...

  7. 75 FR 18430 - Establishment of a U.S. Honey Producer Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... fundamental component of U.S. agriculture supplying pollination to 90 different food, fiber, and seed crops at... increase in almond production grows to 800,000 acres. Blueberries and avocados also receive more than...

  8. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). T...

  9. Kuuekümnes Cannes'i filmifestival alustas rullumist / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2007-01-01

    Algas 60. Cannes'i filmifestival. Pikemalt avafilmist - Wong Kar-Wai "My Blueberry Nights", festivali ajaloost ja korraldusest, eestlaste osalemisest (K. Kõusaar filmiga "Magnus", filmiturul "Klass" ja "Sügisball")

  10. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  11. "Nutrizione e Rischio Cardiovascolare"

    OpenAIRE

    C. Del Bo'; Riso, P.; Klimis-Zacas, D.; Martini, D.; Campolo, J.; Vendrame, S.; Moller, P.; Loft, S.; R. De Maria; Porrini, M.

    2011-01-01

    Wild blueberries are rich sources of polyphenols such as anthocyanins capable of counteracting oxidative stress, influencing vasomotor tone and modulating gene expression associated with disease processes such as cardiovascular disease.

  12. Cystitis glandularis forming a tumorous lesion in the urinary bladder: A rare appearance of disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Miyagi, Tohru; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi

    2008-01-01

    We report a rare appearance of cystitis glandularis forming a tumorous lesion with blueberry spots in the urinary bladder. A 49-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with pollakisuria and recurrent gross hematuria. Urine examination showed no pyuria. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed an extravesical invasive mass and cystoscopy revealed a non-papillary tumor with blueberry spots in the bladder. Transurethral resection (TUR) was performed. Histopathological examination revealed cystit...

  13. Efficient sorption of polyphenols to soybean flour enables natural fortification of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopchand, Diana E; Grace, Mary H; Kuhn, Peter; Cheng, Diana M; Plundrich, Nathalie; Poulev, Alexander; Howell, Amy; Fridlender, Bertold; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-04-15

    The present study demonstrated that defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb polyphenols from blueberry and cranberry juices while separating them from sugars. Depending on DSF concentration and juice dilution, the concentration of blueberry anthocyanins and total polyphenols sorbed to DSF ranged from 2 - 22 mg/g and 10 - 95 mg/g, respectively while the concentration of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in cranberry polyphenol-enriched DSF ranged from 2.5 - 17 mg/g and 21 - 101 mg/g, respectively. Blueberry polyphenols present in one serving of fresh blueberries (73g) were delivered in just 1.4 g of blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF. Similarly, one gram of cranberry polyphenol-enriched DSF delivered the amount of proanthocyanidins available in three 240 ml servings of cranberry juice cocktail. The concentration of blueberry anthocyanins and total polyphenols eluted from DSF remained constant after 22 weeks of incubation at 37°C, demonstrating the high stability of the polyphenol-DSF matrix. LC-MS analysis of eluates confirmed DSF retained major cranberry and blueberry polyphenols remained intact. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF exhibited significant hypoglycemic activities in C57bl/6J mice, and cranberry polyphenol-enriched DSF showed anti-microbial and anti-UTI activities in vitro, confirming its efficacy. The described sorption process provides a means to create protein-rich food ingredients containing concentrated plant bioactives without excess sugars, fats and water that can be incorporated in a variety of scientifically validated functional foods and dietary supplements. PMID:23950619

  14. A bilberry drink with fermented oatmeal decreases postprandial insulin demand in young healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Björck Inger ME; Granfeldt Yvonne E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background in traditional medicine, blueberries have been used to facilitate blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in diabetic mice have indicated facilitated glycaemic regulation following dietary supplementation with extracts from European blueberries, also called bilberries, (Vaccinium myrtillus). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of fermented oat meal drinks containing bilberries or rosehip (Rosa canina) on glycaemic and insulina...

  15. 不同品种蓝莓酒抗氧化能力及其多酚含量分析%Correlation between antioxidation and content of total phenolics, total flavonoids,proanthocyanidin and total anthocyanin in different cultivars' blueberry wines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晨; 张倩雯; 盛启明; 潘枭; 游义琳; 战吉宬

    2013-01-01

    本实验对6个不同品种的蓝莓酒的总酚、总类黄酮、原花青素、总花色苷和总抗氧化能力及其相关性进行了分析,结果发现,不同品种的总酚、总类黄酮、原花青素、总花色苷和总抗氧化能力变幅和变异系数较大,存在显著差异(p<0.05);蓝莓酒总抗氧化能力与总酚、总类黄酮、原花青素和总花色苷含量之间存在显著性的相关性(p<0.01),其中与原花青素的相关性最强,达到0.898.

  16. Separation and determination of organic acids by ion-exclusion chromatography with direct conductivity detection in the blueberry wine%离子排斥色谱-直接电导检测法分析都柿酒中的有机酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原小寓; 于泓; 王艳; 张巍

    2011-01-01

    研究离子排斥色谱-直接电导检测法分离测定都柿酒中多种有机酸.以Shim-pack SCR-102H柱为分离柱,确定最佳色谱条件为:2.0 mmol·L-1 p-甲苯磺酸:乙腈(v/v,91/9)为流动相,流速1.0 mL·min-1,柱温50℃,pH 2.8.对所测有机酸的检出限在0.06~1.05 mg·L-1之间,相对标准偏差在3.3%以下(n=5),加标回收率在97.2%~103%之间.

  17. 以秀丽隐杆线虫为模式生物的蓝莓果酒抗氧化及抗衰研究%Study on antioxidant and anti-aging analysis of blueberry wine in C.elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏焘; 曾敏; 李珂; 王远亮

    2016-01-01

    为探讨不同组分的蓝莓果酒对秀丽隐杆线虫抗氧化性能与抗细胞凋亡的影响,从而确定蓝莓果酒中主要物质的浓度及食用功能特性.以秀丽隐杆线虫(Caenorhabditis elegans)为模式生物,a组在蓝莓果酒的酒精度(体积分数)为14%的基础上,通过改变其原花青素(proant hocyanidin,PC)含量设置6个喂食组,b组在蓝莓果酒的原花青素含量为3 mg/mL的基础上,通过改变其酒精度设置7个喂食组,对照组线虫以大肠杆菌OP50喂养,检测各组线虫的抗氧化酶活力以及细胞凋亡情况.结果表明:蓝莓酒中的原花青素是延缓衰老的有效成分,低浓度酒精(<10%)也能延缓衰老,但是当酒精度(体积分数)高于10%时,则具有反作用,原花青素浓度为3 mg/mL、酒精度(体积分数)为10%的蓝莓果酒对线虫的抗衰老作用最佳.

  18. Exploitative Actualities and Developmental Strategies of Chinese Blueberry Sightseeing Orchards——Using the Developmental Patterns of French Wine Manors for Reference%蓝莓观光果园的开发现状与发展对策研究——借鉴法国葡萄酒庄园发展模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海霞

    2016-01-01

    中国的蓝莓观光果园在近几年来犹如雨后春笋般纷纷涌现,随之而来的各种问题也是层出不穷,严重影响了蓝莓观光果园的长远发展.法国的葡萄酒庄园享誉世界,在生产模式、管理体系以及文化传承等方面值得我国学习和借鉴.在总结法国葡萄酒庄园成功发展经验的基础上,针对国内3个比较典型的蓝莓观光果园,进行了开发现状与发展对策研究,提出了适合其长远发展的合理化建议.

  19. 野生蓝莓和花青素提取物对高脂饮食小鼠肠道菌群的影响%Influence of dietary wild blueberry and anthocyanins extract on intestinal microorganisms in high-fat diet-induced mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晗; 孙晓红; 吴启华; 赵勇; 潘迎捷

    2015-01-01

    [目的]研究野生蓝莓和花青素提取物对高脂饮食小鼠肠道菌群的影响.[方法]采用高脂饲料喂养C57BL/6小鼠,同时膳食补充野生蓝莓或花青素提取物,将25只无菌小鼠分为5组:正常对照组(Normal chow diet,NCD),普通饲料+10 g/100 g蓝莓组(NCD+BB),高脂饲料组(High-fat diet,HFD),高脂饲料+10 g/100 g蓝莓组(HFD+BB),高脂饲料+20 mg/100 g花青素组(HFD+ACN),饲养10周,每周对其食物摄入量、能量摄入量以及体重进行测定,并运用DGGE方法对小鼠肠道菌群结构变化进行动态监测.[结果]各实验组食物摄入量无显著性差异,HFD+BB组和HFD+ACN组能量摄入量均明显高于NCD+BB组.虽然HFD+BB组体重增加最为明显,但10周末时HFD+BB组体重与其他各组无显著差异.随着实验的进行,HFD组、HFD+BB组和HFD+ACN组肠道微生物多样性发生明显变化.HFD+BB组与NCD组菌群差异最大,HFD+ACN组与NCD组肠道菌群DGGE图谱相似性系数明显高于HFD组,对优势条带测序结果显示膳食补充蓝莓或花青素提取物可明显降低肥胖相关细菌Firmicutes的数量.[结论]蓝莓和花青素提取物可改善由高脂饮食引起的肠道微生态失调,调节肠道菌群结构,具有潜在的减肥消脂功能.

  20. 3种侧耳属菇类的性状观察与分析%Observation and Analysis of the Traits of 3 Species of Mushrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立安; 陈启武

    2011-01-01

    Blueberry is a new fruit tree, with high food value and ecological health value,also having good market prospects and great value for money. But there are strict requirements of blueberries on soil acidity and organic matter content,so it limits the rapid development of blueberries to some extent. In order to improve the management level of blueberries garden, achieve high yield and quality of blueberries, query and analysis of literature methods were used to summarize,the biological characteristics and health care function of blueberries,development prospect and limiting factor of blueberry industry,orchard management and the study of improving the soil of white clover,under these basises farming patterns of white clover in blueberry park, were proposed to provide model farming system in Zhejiang province and the reference of blueberry park ecological management model innovation.%[目的]进一步了解平菇、姫菇与秀珍菇3种侧耳属菇类的主要生物学性状.[方法]分别对3种侧耳属菇类的产量、生物学效率、子实体形态特征、孢子印、孢子形态及大小进行比较与分析.[结果]3种鲜菇的产量及生物学效率均是平菇>姬菇>秀珍菇;菇柄的长度、直径大小均为平菇>姫菇>秀珍菇;3种菇类的孢子印颜色和孢子形态、大小有一定的差异,可以进行区分.[结论]平菇、姬菇与秀珍菇同为侧耳属近缘种.平菇一般个体较大,产量较高;姬菇为中小型平菇,在侧耳属中价格最高、经济效益最显著;秀珍菇秀气而珍贵,有蟹香味,是侧耳属中最优秀的一个新品种.

  1. Efficient sorption of polyphenols to soybean flour enables natural fortification of foods

    OpenAIRE

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Grace, Mary H.; Kuhn, Peter; Cheng, Diana M.; Plundrich, Nathalie; Poulev, Alexander.; Howell, Amy; Fridlender, Bertold; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrated that defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb polyphenols from blueberry and cranberry juices while separating them from sugars. Depending on DSF concentration and juice dilution, the concentration of blueberry anthocyanins and total polyphenols sorbed to DSF ranged from 2 – 22 mg/g and 10 – 95 mg/g, respectively while the concentration of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in cranberry polyphenol-enriched DSF ranged from 2.5 – 17 mg/g and 21 – 101 mg/g, respective...

  2. Use of Early Ripening Cultivars to Avoid Infestation and Mass Trapping to Manage Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericales: Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Emily; Koski, Carissa; Barsoian, Olivia; Faubert, Heather; Cowles, Richard S; Alm, Steven R

    2014-10-01

    Use of early ripening highbush blueberry cultivars to avoid infestation and mass trapping were evaluated for managing spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). Fourteen highbush blueberry cultivars were sampled for spotted wing drosophila infestation. Most 'Earliblue', 'Bluetta', and 'Collins' fruit were harvested before spotted wing drosophila oviposition commenced, and so escaped injury. Most fruit from 'Bluejay', 'Blueray', and 'Bluehaven' were also harvested before the first week of August, after which spotted wing drosophila activity led to high levels of blueberry infestation. In a separate experiment, damage to cultivars was related to the week in which fruit were harvested, with greater damage to fruit observed as the season progressed. Attractant traps placed within blueberry bushes increased nearby berry infestation by 5%, irrespective of cultivar and harvest date. The significant linear reduction in infestation with increasing distance from the attractant trap suggests that traps are influencing fly behavior to at least 5.5 m. Insecticides applied to the exterior of traps, compared with untreated traps, revealed that only 10-30% of flies visiting traps enter the traps and drown. Low trap efficiency may jeopardize surrounding fruits by increasing local spotted wing drosophila activity. To protect crops, traps for mass trapping should be placed in a perimeter outside fruit fields and insecticides need to be applied to the surface of traps or on nearby fruit to function as an attract-and-kill strategy. PMID:26309275

  3. Proceedings of the Ninth International Vaccinium Symposium Vol. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ISHS 9th International Vaccinium Symposium had 51 oral and 86 poster presentations. Scientists from 35 countries participated in the meeting. From these 120 manuscripts were published in this book. This book contains the state of blueberry research and breeding from a global view. Volume 1 conta...

  4. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  5. 7 CFR 1218.10 - Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information. 1218.10 Section 1218.10 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.10 Information. Information means information and programs that are designed to increase efficiency in processing and...

  6. Kinolevi filme tutvustab Tiit Tuumalu / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Põnevusfilm "Eela orus" ("In the Valley of Elah") : režissöör Paul Haggis : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007 ja Wong Kar-Wai mängufilm "Minu mustikakarva ööd" ("My Blueberry Nights") : Hiina - Hongkong - Prantsusmaa 2007

  7. Koomiksivestern / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2004-01-01

    Prantsuse näitleja Vincent Cassel mängib nimiosa prantsuse koomiksipõhises mängufilmis "Blueberry" : režissöör Jan Kounen. Koomiksi, millest filmi on jõudnud üpris vähe, lõid 1960-ndatel Jean-Michel Charlier ja Jean Girard

  8. Liven Up Your Meals with Vegetables and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sliced fruit from the salad bar as your dessert when dining out. This will help you avoid any baked desserts that are high in calories. 6 get in ... treat. 9 make a tasty fruit smoothie . For dessert, blend strawberries, blueberries, or raspberries with frozen bananas ...

  9. In vitro studies on the relationship between the antioxidant activities of some berry extracts and their binding properties to serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiesnik, Jacek; Vearasilp, Kann; Nemirovski, Alina; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Pasko, Pawel; Martinez-Ayala, Alma Leticia; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Suhaj, Milan; Gorinstein, Shela

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to use the bioactive components from cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana), blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extracts as a novel source against oxidation in food supplementation. The quantitative analysis of bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, carotenoids, and chlorophyll) was based on radical scavenging spectrophometric assays and mass spectrometry. The total phenolic content was the highest (P < 0.05) in water extract of blueberries (46.6 ± 4.2 mg GAE/g DW). The highest antioxidant activities by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity were in water extracts of blueberries, showing 108.1 ± 7.2 and 131.1 ± 9.6 μMTE/g DW with correlation coefficients of 0.9918 and 0.9925, and by β-carotene linoleate assay at 80.1 ± 6.6 % with correlation coefficient of 0.9909, respectively. The water extracts of berries exhibited high binding properties with human serum albumin in comparison with quercetin. In conclusion, the bioactive compounds from a relatively new source of gooseberries in comparison with blueberries and cranberries have the potential as food supplementation for human health. The antioxidant and binding activities of berries depend on their bioactive compounds. PMID:24449373

  10. Olukorrast Cannes'i rindel, edukast / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    Algas 60. Cannes'i filmifestival. Pikemalt avafilmist - Wong Kar-Wai "My Blueberry Nights", venelase Andrei Zvjagintsevi filmist "Izgnanije"(artikli autoril "Karistus"), David Fincheri kriminaalfilmist "Zodiac", rumeenlase Christian "Mungiu filmist "Neli kuud, kolm nädalat ja kaks päeva"

  11. PÖFF käib vaikselt edasi / Margit Adorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adorf, Margit, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    PÖFFi filme: Wong Kar-Wai mängufilm "Mu mustikakarva ööd" ("My Blueberry Nights") : Hongkong - Hiina - Prantsusmaa 2007 ja loodusfilm "Arktika lugu" ("Arctic Tale") : režissöörid Sarah Robertson, Adam Ravetch : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007

  12. Cannes loodab häid üllatusi Ida-Euroopast / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2007-01-01

    Algas 60. Cannes'i filmifestival. Eestit esindav Kadri Kõusaare filmi "Magnus" peaks esilinastuma 18. mail, kui kohtuotsus näitamiskeelu kohta seda ei takista. Pikemalt avafilmist - Wong Kar-Wai "My Blueberry Nights", ka venelase Andrei Zvjagintsevi filmist "Pagendus"

  13. 7 CFR 1218.60 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 1218.60 Section 1218.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  14. 7 CFR 1218.61 - Books and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Books and records. 1218.61 Section 1218.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION,...

  15. 7 CFR 1218.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1218.62 Section 1218.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION,...

  16. 40 CFR 180.209 - Terbacil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... terbacil, in or on the following raw agricultural commodities: Commodity Parts per million Alfalfa, forage 1.0 Alfalfa, hay 2.0 Apple 0.3 Asparagus 0.4 Blueberry 0.2 Caneberry subgroup 13A 0.2 Peach...

  17. 7 CFR 1218.54 - Programs, plans, and projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing of fresh and processed blueberries, and the creation of new products thereof, to the end that the... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Programs, plans, and projects. 1218.54 Section 1218.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  18. Rational design of a monomeric and photostable far-red fluorescent protein for fluorescence imaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Dong, Zhiqiang; Gustafson, William Clay; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Signor, Luca; Marzocca, Fanny; Borel, Franck; Klassen, Matthew P; Makhijani, Kalpana; Royant, Antoine; Jan, Yuh-Nung; Weiss, William A; Guo, Su; Shu, Xiaokun

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are powerful tools for cell and molecular biology. Here based on structural analysis, a blue-shifted mutant of a recently engineered monomeric infrared fluorescent protein (mIFP) has been rationally designed. This variant, named iBlueberry, bears a single mutation that shifts both excitation and emission spectra by approximately 40 nm. Furthermore, iBlueberry is four times more photostable than mIFP, rendering it more advantageous for imaging protein dynamics. By tagging iBlueberry to centrin, it has been demonstrated that the fusion protein labels the centrosome in the developing zebrafish embryo. Together with GFP-labeled nucleus and tdTomato-labeled plasma membrane, time-lapse imaging to visualize the dynamics of centrosomes in radial glia neural progenitors in the intact zebrafish brain has been demonstrated. It is further shown that iBlueberry can be used together with mIFP in two-color protein labeling in living cells and in two-color tumor labeling in mice.

  19. 7 CFR 1218.14 - Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Person. 1218.14 Section 1218.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.14 Person....

  20. 40 CFR 180.123 - Inorganic bromide residues resulting from fumigation with methyl bromide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., grain, grain, postharvest 50.0 Soybean, postharvest 200.0 Squash, summer, postharvest 30.0 Squash... Avocado, postharvest 75.0 Barley, grain, postharvest 50.0 Bean, lima, postharvest 50.0 Bean, postharvest..., postharvest 30.0 Beet, sugar, roots, postharvest 30.0 Blueberry, postharvest 20.0 Butternut, postharvest...

  1. 76 FR 16597 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... commodities including beef, blueberries, cotton, dairy, eggs, fluid milk, Hass avocados, honey, lamb, mangos... whether the information will have practical utility; (b) the accuracy of the agency's estimate of burden... collections are best assured of having their full effect if received within 30 days of this...

  2. 78 FR 78325 - National Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Programs; Request for Extension and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... beef, blueberries, cotton, dairy, eggs, fluid milk, Hass avocados, honey, lamb, mangos, mushrooms... Act ; the Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Act [7 U.S.C. 7801-78131; the Mushroom... projects. These responsibilities have been delegated to AMS. The applicable commodity program areas...

  3. 75 FR 60712 - Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... including beef, blueberries, cotton, dairy, eggs, fluid milk, Hass avocados, honey, lamb, mangos, mushrooms... Fluid Milk Promotion Act of 1990 ; the Egg Research and Consumer Information Act ; the Hass Avocado... board's budgets, plans, and projects. These responsibilities have been delegated to AMS. The...

  4. Volatiles released from Vaccinium corymbosum were attractive to Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an olfactometric bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Leonardo; Mutis, Ana; Ceballos, Ricardo; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of host volatiles in the relationship between a blueberry plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. and the raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the principal pest of blueberry in the south of Chile. Volatiles from the aerial part of different phenological stages of the host were collected on Porapak Q and analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several chemical groups were identified including green leaf volatiles, aromatic compounds, and terpenes. The olfactometric responses of A. superciliosus toward different odor sources were studied in a four-arm olfactometer. Blueberry shoots at the phenological stages of fruit set, and blue-pink fruit color elicited the greatest behavioral responses from weevils. Five compounds (2-nonanone, eucalyptol, R- and S-limonene, and 4-ethyl benzaldehyde) elicited an attractant behavioral response from A. superciliosus. The results suggest the host location behavior of A. superciliosus could be mediated by volatiles derived from V. corymbosum. This work has identified a number of compounds with which it is possible to develop a lure for the principal pest of blueberry in southern Chile.

  5. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  6. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China World Hotel Berry Cool at the Lobby Lounge! China World Hotel's Lobby Lounge whips berries into a sweet summer storm sensa- tion, with pastries and confectionery from the dessert buffet topped by all kinds of berries-strawberries, blueberries, raspberries and blackberries. Paired with

  7. Effects of age and diet on the heavy particle-induced disruption of operant responding produced by a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M; Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2005-03-01

    On missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays which are composed of heavy particles (such as 56Fe) and protons. Exposure to these particles can affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of tasks, indicating that there is the possibility that the performance capabilities of astronauts may be affected. Previous research has shown that diets containing blueberry or strawberry extract can ameliorate the deficits produced by irradiation using a ground-based analog for exposure to cosmic rays. Rats were placed on diets containing 2% blueberry or strawberry extract for 2 months prior to exposure to 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles. There were no effects on performance of any group of animals when tested on an ascending fixed-ratio operant task 6 months following exposure. When tested 12 months after exposure, the performance of the radiated animals given blueberry extract did not differ from the radiated animals fed the control diet. Both groups performed significantly poorer than the non-irradiated controls. There were no differences between the non-irradiated animals fed control diet and the radiated animals fed the strawberry diet and their performance was significantly better than of the radiated rats fed the blueberry or control diets. The results indicate that diets containing strawberry extract may provide a significant level of radiation protection on exploratory class missions. PMID:15725409

  8. Paper Chromatography and UV-Vis Spectroscopy to Characterize Anthocyanins and Investigate Antioxidant Properties in the Organic Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Novak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A variety of fruits and vegetables, including raspberries, blueberries, Concord grapes, blackberries, strawberries, peaches, eggplant, red cabbage, and red onions, contain flavonoid compounds known as anthocyanins that are responsible for the blue-red color and the astringent taste associated with such foods. In addition, anthocyanins exhibit a…

  9. The potential of Dark Septate Endophytes to form root symbioses with ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal middle European forest plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukešová, Tereza; Kohout, Petr; Větrovský, Tomáš; Vohník, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The unresolved ecophysiological significance of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) may be in part due to existence of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species in the most common Phialocephala fortinii s. l.--Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). We inoculated three middle European forest plants (European blueberry, Norway spruce and silver birch) with 16 strains of eight PAC cryptic species and other DSE and ectomycorrhizal/ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and focused on intraradical structures possibly representing interfaces for plant-fungus nutrient transfer and on host growth response. The PAC species Acephala applanata simultaneously formed structures resembling ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM) and DSE microsclerotia in blueberry. A. macrosclerotiorum, a close relative to PAC, formed ectomycorrhizae with spruce but not with birch, and structures resembling ErM in blueberry. Phialocephala glacialis, another close relative to PAC, formed structures resembling ErM in blueberry. In blueberry, six PAC strains significantly decreased dry shoot biomass compared to ErM control. In birch, one A. macrosclerotiorum strain increased root biomass and the other shoot biomass in comparison with non-inoculated control. The dual mycorrhizal ability of A. macrosclerotiorum suggested that it may form mycorrhizal links between Ericaceae and Pinaceae. However, we were unable to detect this species in Ericaceae roots growing in a forest with presence of A. macrosclerotiorum ectomycorrhizae. Nevertheless, the diversity of Ericaceae mycobionts was high (380 OTUs) with individual sites often dominated by hitherto unreported helotialean and chaetothyrialean/verrucarialean species; in contrast, typical ErM fungi were either absent or low in abundance. Some DSE apparently have a potential to form mycorrhizae with typical middle European forest plants. However, except A. applanata, the tested representatives of all hitherto described PAC cryptic species formed typical DSE colonization without

  10. Psychrophilic and mesophilic fungi in frozen food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUEHN, H H; GUNDERSON, M F

    1963-07-01

    The mold flora of certain frozen pastries and chicken pies was investigated. Molds were determined qualitatively or quantitatively, or both, by preparing pour plates of the blended product and incubating the plates at various temperatures. The mesophilic fungal flora developed on plates incubated at 10 and 20 C, whereas psychrophilic fungi were obtained on plates incubated at 0 and 5 C. About 2,000 cultures of fungi, representing about 100 different species, were isolated from various products. Four different brands of blueberry, two brands of cherry pastries, two brands of apple, and one brand of raspberry pastries were examined. In addition, two brands of chicken pies were studied. Blueberry pastries had a much higher total fungal population than the other products, although different brands of blueberry pastries varied considerably. Blueberry pastries had from 347 to 1,586 psychrophilic fungi per g. Cherry pastries had about 70 to 110 psychrophiles per g, and apple pastries had 19 to 92 psychrophiles per g. Chicken pies contained very few psychrophilic fungi, about 15 per g. Aureobasidium pullulans was recovered most frequently. About 90% of the psychrophilic fungi found in blueberry products was A. pullulans. Depending upon the brand of cherry pastry, either Phoma spp. or A. pullulans was the most common fungus present. Apple pastries also displayed brand variation, but were unique in having many mesophilic aspergilli. This genus was generally absent from other products. The Penicillium content of apple pastries was also rather high; 50% of the psychrophilic flora was represented by this genus. The psychrophilic fungal flora of chicken pies was composed primarily of penicillia (50%) and Chrysosporium pannorum (46%). PMID:13927344

  11. The potential of Dark Septate Endophytes to form root symbioses with ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal middle European forest plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Lukešová

    Full Text Available The unresolved ecophysiological significance of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE may be in part due to existence of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species in the most common Phialocephala fortinii s. l.--Acephala applanata species complex (PAC. We inoculated three middle European forest plants (European blueberry, Norway spruce and silver birch with 16 strains of eight PAC cryptic species and other DSE and ectomycorrhizal/ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and focused on intraradical structures possibly representing interfaces for plant-fungus nutrient transfer and on host growth response. The PAC species Acephala applanata simultaneously formed structures resembling ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM and DSE microsclerotia in blueberry. A. macrosclerotiorum, a close relative to PAC, formed ectomycorrhizae with spruce but not with birch, and structures resembling ErM in blueberry. Phialocephala glacialis, another close relative to PAC, formed structures resembling ErM in blueberry. In blueberry, six PAC strains significantly decreased dry shoot biomass compared to ErM control. In birch, one A. macrosclerotiorum strain increased root biomass and the other shoot biomass in comparison with non-inoculated control. The dual mycorrhizal ability of A. macrosclerotiorum suggested that it may form mycorrhizal links between Ericaceae and Pinaceae. However, we were unable to detect this species in Ericaceae roots growing in a forest with presence of A. macrosclerotiorum ectomycorrhizae. Nevertheless, the diversity of Ericaceae mycobionts was high (380 OTUs with individual sites often dominated by hitherto unreported helotialean and chaetothyrialean/verrucarialean species; in contrast, typical ErM fungi were either absent or low in abundance. Some DSE apparently have a potential to form mycorrhizae with typical middle European forest plants. However, except A. applanata, the tested representatives of all hitherto described PAC cryptic species formed typical DSE

  12. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin

    2016-09-01

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed, their anthocyanin profiles (based on high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] separation) indicated if products' fruit origin listings were authentic. Over 30% of the Vaccinium fruit (cranberry, lingonberry, bilberry, and blueberry; 14 of 45) products available as dietary supplements did not contain the fruit listed as ingredients. Six supplements contained no anthocyanins. Five others had contents differing from labeled fruit (e.g., bilberry capsules containing Andean blueberry fruit). Of the samples that did contain the specified fruit (n = 27), anthocyanin content ranged from 0.04 to 14.37 mg per capsule, tablet, or teaspoon (5 g). Approaches to utilizing anthocyanins in assessment of sample authenticity, and a discussion of the challenges with anthocyanin profiles in quality control are both presented. PMID:27625778

  13. Influence of Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction on the Anthocyanin Profile of Different Vaccinium Species in the Context of Statistical Models for Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffels, Peter; Weber, Fabian; Schieber, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Anthocyanins are frequently discussed as marker compounds for fruit product authenticity. Proper analysis including sample preparation for the determination of anthocyanin concentrations is crucial for the comparability of authenticity data. The present study determined the influence of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), using two different solvent compositions on the anthocyanin profile of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.), and American cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.). Besides differences in total anthocyanin concentrations in the extracts, significant deviations (p ≤ 0.05) in the individual anthocyanin concentration were observed, resulting in differing anthocyanin proportions. Linear discriminant analysis comparing the differences caused by the extraction method to the natural differences within a set of 26 bilberry and lowbush blueberry samples of different origins was conducted. It revealed that profile variations induced by the extraction methods are in a similar scale to profile variations as a result of geographic and climatic differences. PMID:26330254

  14. Identification of reddish alcoholic beverages by GC/MS using aroma components as indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Y; Kudo, K; Nishida, N; Ikeda, N

    2001-12-01

    A method to identify reddish alcoholic beverages used for dissolving stimulant drugs was devised using aroma components as indicators. Thirteen brands of beverages including red wines, blueberry liquors, raspberry liquors, strawberry liquor, a mixture of red wine and blueberry juice and a mixture of red wine and grape juice were examined. Aroma components in each sample were effectively concentrated with a porous polymer beads column (Porapak Q) and were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Specific aroma components were detected in each beverage and reddish alcoholic beverages were successfully classified into five groups using five aroma components as indicators. The present method should prove to be useful in criminal investigations. PMID:12935701

  15. Dietary modulation of the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.

    On exploratory missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays composed of protons and heavy particles, such as 56Fe. Long-term exposure to these particles can cause cancer. However, there are significant uncertainties in the risk estimates for the probability of developing heavy particle-induced cancer, and in the amount of shielding needed to provide an adequate level of radiation protection. The results of this preliminary study, using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays, show reduced tumorigenesis in rats maintained on diets containing blueberry or strawberry extract prior to exposure to 56Fe particles. Because the study was not initially designed to evaluate tumorigenesis following exposure to 56Fe particles, additional research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of strawberry and blueberry supplementation. However, the preliminary results presented in this study suggest that diets containing antioxidant phytochemicals can provide additional radiation protection on interplanetary voyages.

  16. Attribute Non-Attendance and Satisficing Behavior in Online Choice Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Michael S.; House, Lisa A.; Gao, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    While a successful survey requires engaged and attentive respondents, careless survey completion remains a great concern in online market research. In this article, we test metrics of engagement in an online willingness-to-pay (WTP) study for fresh blueberry attributes using a major U.S. panel company and evaluate the impact that poorly behaving respondents have on subsequent data quality. In doing so, we investigate in detail the complex joint relationship between attribute non-attendance (A...

  17. 全发酵蓝莓干红精深加工的关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕾; 鲍俊杰; 王辰龙; 闫晓明; 徐义流

    2013-01-01

    以蓝莓为主要原料,经过低温浸渍预发酵处理后,研制全发酵型干红蓝莓酒,并对影响蓝莓干红发酵的因素进行优化研究。采用单因素及正交试验设计考察酵母添加量、亚硫酸添加量、起始pH值和发酵温度对酿造的蓝莓干红品质的影响。结果表明,发酵蓝莓浆在起始pH值为3.0,酿酒酵母的添加量为0.15 g/L,亚硫酸添加量为10 mL,主发酵温度22℃的条件下经过酿造并陈酿,可获得呈宝石红色、澄清透明、酒香和谐且具有馥郁花香的蓝莓干红。%Blueberry is used as main material to produce fermentation blueberry wine based on cold maceration, and the factors influencing the fermentation are studied. The effects of winemaking strains, sulfur dioxide amount, initiative pH, fermentation temperature and on the quality of brewing blueberry wine are analyzed through single factor test and orthogonal experiment, and the results show that at the initiative pH 3.0, adding 0.15 g/L inoculation volume, sulfur dioxide amount controlling 10 mL, fermentation at 22 ℃ and a new type blueberry wine can be made, which presents a deep ruby red color and clarification, mellow tastes, and smells like deep floral aroma.

  18. 40 CFR 180.472 - Imidacloprid; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Artichoke, globe 2.5 Aspirated grain fractions 240 Atemoya 0.30 Avocado 1.0 Banana 0.50 Beet, sugar, molasses 0.30 Beet, sugar, roots 0.05 Beet, sugar, tops 0.50 Biriba 0.30 Blueberry 3.5 Borage, seed 0.05 Caneberry, subgroup 13-A 2.5 Canistel 1.0 Canola, seed 0.05 Cattle, fat 0.30 Cattle, meat 0.30 Cattle,...

  19. Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technological Applications for Site-specific Management of Fruit and Nut Crops: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel O. Paz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Site-specific crop management (SSCM is one facet of precision agriculture which is helping increase production with minimal input. It has enhanced the cost-benefit scenario in crop production. Even though the SSCM is very widely used in row crop agriculture like corn, wheat, rice, soybean, etc. it has very little application in cash crops like fruit and nut. The main goal of this review paper was to conduct a comprehensive review of advanced technologies, including geospatial technologies, used in site-specific management of fruit and nut crops. The review explores various remote sensing data from different platforms like satellite, LIDAR, aerial, and field imaging. The study analyzes the use of satellite sensors, such as Quickbird, Landsat, SPOT, and IRS imagery as well as hyperspectral narrow-band remote sensing data in study of fruit and nut crops in blueberry, citrus, peach, apple, etc. The study also explores other geospatial technologies such as GPS, GIS spatial modeling, advanced image processing techniques, and information technology for suitability study, orchard delineation, and classification accuracy assessment. The study also provides an example of a geospatial model developed in ArcGIS ModelBuilder to automate the blueberry production suitability analysis. The GIS spatial model is developed using various crop characteristics such as chilling hours, soil permeability, drainage, and pH, and land cover to determine the best sites for growing blueberry in Georgia, U.S. The study also provides a list of spectral reflectance curves developed for some fruit and nut crops, blueberry, crowberry, redblush citrus, orange, prickly pear, and peach. The study also explains these curves in detail to help researchers choose the image platform, sensor, and spectrum wavelength for various fruit and nut crops SSCM.

  20. 40 CFR 180.261 - N-(Mercaptomethyl) phthali-mide S-(O,O-dimethyl phosphoro-dithioate) and its oxygen analog...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Alfalfa, forage 20 Alfalfa, hay 40 Almond, hulls 10 Apple 10 Apricot 5 Blueberry 10 Cattle, fat 0.2 Cattle, meat 0.1 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.1 Cherry 10 Cotton, refined oil 0.2 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.1... 0.1 Kiwifruit 25 Milk 0.1 Nectarine 5 Nut, tree, group 14 0.1 Pea, dry, seed 0.5 Pea, field, hay...

  1. Monitoring of radiation in the environment in the Netherlands. Results in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the Dutch environment in 2001. The measurements were carried out by RIVM, RIZA, RIKZ and Inspectorate for Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health. Radioactivity measurements were carried out on airborne particles, deposition, surface water, seawater, drinking water and food (honey, powdered milk, game, poultry, blueberry and chanterelle). Results for ambient dose equivalent rates were obtained from the National Radioactivity Monitoring Network. The levels of radioactivity in the Dutch environment were not elevated in 2001

  2. Roy Fuentes: Fuentes Berry Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As president of Fuentes Berry Farms, Rogelio (Roy) Fuentes is one of many independent growers producing organic berries for Driscoll’s—a company that was initiated more than a century ago by two strawberry farmers on California’s Central Coast, and has since evolved into an international concern devoted to research, breeding, production, sales and distribution of conventionally and organically farmed strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries. Driscoll’s CEO Miles Reiter and his ...

  3. Monitoring of radiation in the environment in the Netherlands. Results in 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Knetsch, G J

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the Dutch environment in 2001. The measurements were carried out by RIVM, RIZA, RIKZ and Inspectorate for Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health. Radioactivity measurements were carried out on airborne particles, deposition, surface water, seawater, drinking water and food (honey, powdered milk, game, poultry, blueberry and chanterelle). Results for ambient dose equivalent rates were obtained from the National Radioactivity Monitoring Network. The levels of radioactivity in the Dutch environment were not elevated in 2001

  4. Monitoring of radiation in the environment in the Netherlands. Results in 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Knetsch GJ; RIZA; RIKZ; LSO

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the Dutch environment in 2001. The measurements were carried out by RIVM, RIZA, RIKZ and Inspectorate for Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health. Radioactivity measurements were carried out on airborne particles, deposition, surface water, seawater, drinking water and food (honey, powdered milk, game, poultry, blueberry and chanterelle). Results for ambient dose equivalent rates were obtained from the National Radioacti...

  5. Структура комплексов жужелиц (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) плантационных посадок голубики высокорослой в условиях Беларуси в первые годы после закладки

    OpenAIRE

    Буга, С. В.; О.Р. Александрович

    2013-01-01

    Species composition and ecological structure of carabid beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) communities at highbush blueberry plantations were studied in SW Belarus in the first years after planting. Terrestrial invertebrates were sampled by pitfall traps. A total of 623 imagines of 51 carabid species have been collected. Field and meadow mesophilous and mesokserophilous species are formed main part of whole carabid complex. Poecilus versicolor (Sturm, 1824) and Agonum sexpunctatum (...

  6. Phenolic Content and Their Antioxidant Activity in Various Berries Cultivated in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa; Florica Ranga; Dumitriţa Rugină; Loredana Leopold; Oana Pop; Dan Vodnar; Lucian Cuibus; Carmen Socaciu

    2015-01-01

    Berry fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.  Phenolic compounds occur in berries mainly as a variety of conjugated forms, mostly with sugars.  The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in the most common fruits consumed in Romania: blueberry, blackberries, raspberry and cranberries. Folin-Ciocalteu method has been used in order to evaluate total phenolic content of analyzed berries. Antioxidant activity was d...

  7. Host plant affects the sexual attractiveness of the female white-spotted longicorn beetle, Anoplophora malasiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Hiroe; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Anoplophora malasiaca (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious pest that destroys various landscape and crop trees in Japan. We evaluated the precopulatory responses of three different A. malasiaca populations collected from mandarin orange, willow and blueberry trees. Most of the males accepted mates from within the same host plant population as well as females from the willow and blueberry populations. However, significant number of males from the blueberry and willow populations rejected females from the mandarin orange population immediately after touching them with their antennae. Because all three of the female populations produced contact sex pheromones on their elytra, the females of the mandarin orange population were predicted to possess extra chemicals that repelled the males of the other two populations. β-Elemene was identified as a key component that was only found in mandarin orange-fed females and induced a rejection response in willow-fed males. Our results represent the first example of a female-acquired repellent against conspecific males of different host plant populations, indicating that the host plant greatly affects the female's sexual attractiveness. PMID:27412452

  8. Mechanosensory Neuron Aging: Differential Trajectories with Lifespan-Extending Alaskan Berry and Fungal Treatments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerbak, Courtney; Vayndorf, Elena M; Hernandez, Alicia; McGill, Colin; Taylor, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    Many nutritional interventions that increase lifespan are also proposed to postpone age-related declines in motor and cognitive function. Potential sources of anti-aging compounds are the plants and fungi that have adapted to extreme environments. We studied the effects of four commonly consumed and culturally relevant Interior Alaska berry and fungus species (bog blueberry, lowbush cranberry, crowberry, and chaga) on the decline in overall health and neuron function and changes in touch receptor neuron morphology associated with aging. We observed increased wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan and improved markers of healthspan upon treatment with Alaskan blueberry, lowbush cranberry, and chaga extracts. Interestingly, although all three treatments increased lifespan, they differentially affected the development of aberrant morphologies in touch receptor neurons. Blueberry treatments decreased anterior mechanosensory neuron (ALM) aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths and abnormal cell bodies) while lowbush cranberry treatment increased posterior mechanosensory neuron (PLM) aberrations, namely process branching. Chaga treatment both decreased ALM aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths) and increased PLM aberrations (i.e., process branching and loops). These results support the large body of knowledge positing that there are multiple cellular strategies and mechanisms for promoting health with age. Importantly, these results also demonstrate that although an accumulation of abnormal neuron morphologies is associated with aging and decreased health, not all of these morphologies are detrimental to neuronal and organismal health. PMID:27486399

  9. In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Contreras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH• scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (ESI-QqQ. All ethanolic extracts from in vitro blueberry cultivars displayed antioxidant activity, with Legacy, Elliott and Bluegold cultivars being the most active. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the extracts is related to the content of chlorogenic acid myricetin, syringic acid and rutin, and tissue culture of blueberry seedlings is a good tool to obtain antioxidant extracts with reproducible profile of compounds.

  10. In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Rodrigo A; Köhler, Hans; Pizarro, Marisol; Zúiga, Gustavo E

    2015-04-09

    The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH•) scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP) and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (ESI-QqQ)). All ethanolic extracts from in vitro blueberry cultivars displayed antioxidant activity, with Legacy, Elliott and Bluegold cultivars being the most active. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the extracts is related to the content of chlorogenic acid myricetin, syringic acid and rutin, and tissue culture of blueberry seedlings is a good tool to obtain antioxidant extracts with reproducible profile of compounds.

  11. Mechanosensory Neuron Aging: Differential Trajectories with Lifespan-Extending Alaskan Berry and Fungal Treatments in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerbak, Courtney; Vayndorf, Elena M.; Hernandez, Alicia; McGill, Colin; Taylor, Barbara E.

    2016-01-01

    Many nutritional interventions that increase lifespan are also proposed to postpone age-related declines in motor and cognitive function. Potential sources of anti-aging compounds are the plants and fungi that have adapted to extreme environments. We studied the effects of four commonly consumed and culturally relevant Interior Alaska berry and fungus species (bog blueberry, lowbush cranberry, crowberry, and chaga) on the decline in overall health and neuron function and changes in touch receptor neuron morphology associated with aging. We observed increased wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan and improved markers of healthspan upon treatment with Alaskan blueberry, lowbush cranberry, and chaga extracts. Interestingly, although all three treatments increased lifespan, they differentially affected the development of aberrant morphologies in touch receptor neurons. Blueberry treatments decreased anterior mechanosensory neuron (ALM) aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths and abnormal cell bodies) while lowbush cranberry treatment increased posterior mechanosensory neuron (PLM) aberrations, namely process branching. Chaga treatment both decreased ALM aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths) and increased PLM aberrations (i.e., process branching and loops). These results support the large body of knowledge positing that there are multiple cellular strategies and mechanisms for promoting health with age. Importantly, these results also demonstrate that although an accumulation of abnormal neuron morphologies is associated with aging and decreased health, not all of these morphologies are detrimental to neuronal and organismal health. PMID:27486399

  12. Analysis of A-Type and B-Type Highly Polymeric Proanthocyanidins and Their Biological Activities as Nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Yokota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins have a series of heteroflavan-3-ols, (+-catechin/(−-epicatechin units, which are linked through a single B-type linkage and a doubly linked A-type linkage. Recently, we have performed the structural characterization of seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut and fruits of blueberry and cranberry. The molecular sizes of them were higher in the order of blueberry > cranberry > seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut between the respective fractions. For the analysis of terminal and extension units in those proanthocyanidins, the isolated fractions were subjected to the thiolytic cleavage of the B-type linkages using 1-dodecanethiol, and the resulting degradation products were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. These analyses provided fast and good resolution of the degradation products and revealed higher proportions of A-type linkages compared with B-type linkages in both isolated fractions in the order of the seed shells > cranberry > blueberry. Moreover, the isolated fractions with higher molecular sizes and those more abundant in the proportions of A-type linkages were found to be more effective in the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity. The results suggest that A-type highly polymeric proanthocyanidins are promising for the attenuation of lipid digestion as dietary supplements.

  13. Effects of four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on tolerance of Vaccinium corymbosum to drought stress%4种丛枝菌根真菌对南高丛蓝莓抗旱性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许庆龙; 刘晓敏; 徐小兵; 李晴晴; 张红; 肖家欣

    2016-01-01

    采用盆栽试验研究摩西球囊霉(Glomus mosseae)、地表球囊霉(G.versiforme)、根内球囊霉(G. intraradices)和幼套球囊霉(G.etunicatum)4种丛枝菌根(arbuscular mycorrhizal,AM)真菌接种南高丛蓝莓(Vaccinium corymbosum)品种薄雾对干旱胁迫的生理生化反应.结果表明:干旱胁迫降低了叶片相对含水量与叶绿素含量,增加了可溶性糖含量、超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)活性与丙二醛(malondialdehyde, MDA)含量,但对菌根侵染率的影响较小;在干旱胁迫下,4种 AM 真菌尤其是摩西球囊霉接种株相对含水量、叶绿素和可溶性糖含量、叶片 SOD 活性均显著高于未接种株,而接种株叶片 MDA 含量相对低于未接种株;另外, AM 真菌接种处理能够提高蓝莓植株根、茎、叶的磷和钾含量以及根围土壤酸性磷酸酶、脲酶和过氧化氢酶活性,尤以摩西球囊霉处理最为明显.总之,4种 AM 真菌接种处理提高了蓝莓品种薄雾植株的抗旱性,以摩西球囊霉的效果最好.%Summary Blueberry(Vaccinium spp.)is well known for its rich anthocyanins and other bioactive compounds, which helps preventing from cardiovascular disease and other chronic illnesses.Over the past decades,blueberry has been cultured in many areas of China,thus became the fastest-growing species in fruit production,potentially making China one of the largest blueberry-producing countries in the world.However,blueberry growth and production were severely affected by drought events in areas of Yangtze River.Vaccinium plants preferred acidic soils and spontaneously formed mutualistic symbiotic associations mainly with soil fungi of the phylum Ascomycota,called ‘ericoid mycorrhizae”.However,some reports have indicated that the absence of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi inoculum may allowVaccinium plants to associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM)fungi,and AM fungi inoculation significantly enhanced growth of Vaccinium plants

  14. “针美”抗氧化保健饮料加工工艺的研究%Study on Processing Technology of“Zhen Mei”Functional Beverage with Antioxidant Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马灵; 孙冬雪; 姚月; 杜敏; 姜瞻梅

    2016-01-01

    Pine needles and blueberries are used as raw material,and oligosaccharides and vitamin C are added in order to develop“Zhen Mei”functional beverage with antioxidant activity by scientific blending. In vitro antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation as the detection indicators processing parameters of the pine needle extract and blueberry extractare determined. The optimum process of pine needle extracts was shown as follows:the ratio of pine needles and water was 1∶25;and ultrasonic time of pine needle extract was treated for 30min under the conditions of the ultrasonic frequency 20KHz and ultrasonic power 300W. The optimum process of blueberry extracts was shown as follows:the ratio of blueberry and water was 1∶15;and 0.125%pectinase was added at 50℃. By orthogonal test designation,the optimum formula for the functional beverage was obtained with the two to five ratio of pine needle extract and blueberry,4% oligosaccharides, 0.06% vitamin C,0.13% CMC and 0.07% xanthan gum. Prepared “Zhen Mei”antioxidant health drink was red, transparent,uniform,sweet and sour with a unique flavor of pine needle and fruity of blueberry. By in vitro antioxidat assay,“Zhen Mei”antioxidant health beverage was confirmed to have a certain antioxidant activity.%以松针和蓝莓为原料,添加低聚糖和维生素C等功能性组分,经科学调配,研制出“针美”抗氧化保健饮料。研究结果表明,以体外抗氧化活性和感官评价为指标,确定松针提取液的提取工艺为:松针与水的比例为1∶25,在超声频率20kHz和功率300W条件下,松针提取液超声处理30min。蓝莓最佳提取工艺为:果胶酶添加量为0.125%,温度为50℃,料液比为1∶15。利用正交试验,确定抗氧化保健饮料最佳配方为:松针提取液和蓝莓提取液比例为2∶5,低聚糖添加量为4%,维生素C添加量为0.06%,复合增稠剂添加量为0.13%CMC和0.07%黄原胶。制得“针美”抗氧

  15. Sucrose Improves Insecticide Activity Against Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Richard S; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Loeb, Gregory M; Elsensohn, Johanna E; Hesler, Steven P

    2015-04-01

    The addition of sucrose to insecticides targeting spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), enhanced lethality in laboratory, semifield, and field tests. In the laboratory, 0.1% sucrose added to a spray solution enhanced spotted wing drosophila feeding. Flies died 120 min earlier when exposed to spinosad residues at label rates enhanced with sucrose. Added sucrose reduced the LC50 for dried acetamiprid residues from 82 to 41 ppm in the spray solution. Laboratory bioassays of spotted wing drosophila mortality followed exposure to grape and blueberry foliage and/or fruit sprayed and aged in the field. On grape foliage, the addition of 2.4 g/liter of sugar with insecticide sprays resulted in an 11 and 6% increase of spotted wing drosophila mortality at 1 and 2 d exposures to residues, respectively, averaged over seven insecticides with three concentrations. In a separate experiment, spinetoram and cyantraniliprole reduced by 95-100% the larval infestation of blueberries, relative to the untreated control, 7 d after application at labeled rates when applied with 1.2 g/liter sucrose in a spray mixture, irrespective of rainfall; without sucrose infestation was reduced by 46-91%. Adding sugar to the organically acceptable spinosyn, Entrust, reduced larval infestation of strawberries by >50% relative to without sugar for five of the six sample dates during a season-long field trial. In a small-plot field test with blueberries, weekly applications in alternating sprays of sucrose plus reduced-risk insecticides, spinetoram or acetamiprid, reduced larval infestation relative to the untreated control by 76%; alternating bifenthrin and phosmet (without sucrose) reduced infestation by 65%.

  16. Different polyphenolic components of soft fruits inhibit alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J; Shpiro, Faina; Dobson, Patricia; Smith, Pauline; Blake, Alison; Stewart, Derek

    2005-04-01

    Polyphenol-rich extracts from soft fruits were tested for their ability to inhibit alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. All extracts tested caused some inhibition of alpha-amylase, but there was a 10-fold difference between the least and most effective extracts. Strawberry and raspberry extracts were more effective alpha-amylase inhibitors than blueberry, blackcurrant, or red cabbage. Conversely, alpha-glucosidase was more readily inhibited by blueberry and blackcurrant extracts. The extent of inhibition of alpha-glucosidase was related to their anthocyanin content. For example, blueberry and blackcurrant extracts, which have the highest anthocyanin content, were the most effective inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase. The extracts most effective in inhibiting alpha-amylase (strawberry and raspberry) contain appreciable amounts of soluble tannins. Other tannin-rich extracts (red grape, red wine, and green tea) were also effective inhibitors of alpha-amylase. Indeed, removing tannins from strawberry extracts with gelatin also removed inhibition. Fractionation of raspberry extracts on Sephadex LH-20 produced an unbound fraction enriched in anthocyanins and a bound fraction enriched in tannin-like polyphenols. The unbound anthocyanin-enriched fraction was more effective against alpha-glucosidase than the original extract, whereas the alpha-amylase inhibitors were concentrated in the bound fraction. The LH-20 bound sample was separated by preparative HPLC, and fractions were assayed for inhibition of alpha-amylase. The inhibitory components were identified as ellagitannins using LC-MS-MS. This study suggests that different polyphenolic components of fruits may influence different steps in starch digestion in a synergistic manner. PMID:15796622

  17. Effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Moreno, Evelyn; Brito-Echeverría, Jocelyn; López, Miguel; Ríos, Juan; Balic, Iván; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Polanco, Rubén

    2016-05-01

    Botrytis cinerea attacks a broad range of host causing significant economic losses in the worldwide fruit export industry. Hitherto, many studies have focused on the penetration mechanisms used by this phytopathogen, but little is known about the early stages of infection, especially those such as adhesion and germination. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression of B. cinerea. To accomplish this, growth was analyzed using as substrate n-alkanes extracted from waxes of fresh fruit (table grapes, blueberries and apricots). Subsequently, the main compounds of table grape waxes, oleanolic acid (OA) and n-fatty alcohols, were mixed to generate a matrix on which conidia of B. cinerea were added to assess their effect on germination and expression of bctub, bchtr and bchex genes. B. cinerea B05.10, isolated from grapes, increased its growth on a matrix composed by table grapes n-alkanes in comparison to a matrix made with n-alkanes from apricot or blueberries. Moreover, at 2.5 h, B05.10 germination increased 17 and 33 % in presence of n-alkanes from table grape, in comparison to conditions without alkanes or with blueberries alkanes, respectively. Finally, expression of bchtr and bchex showed a significant increase during the first hour after contact with n-fatty alcohols and OA. In conclusion, B. cinerea displays selectivity towards certain compounds found in host waxes, mainly n-fatty alcohols, which could be a good candidate to control this phytopathogen in early stages of infection. PMID:27038944

  18. Extraction of condensed tannins from Mexican plant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcíaa, Ramiro; Aguilera, Antonio; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Rodríguez, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2008-01-01

    Contents of total polyphenols, condensed tannins and proanthocyanidins, and their stability to various pH values and temperatures were studied in Mexican blueberry, cuautecomate fruit, garambullo fruit, aubergine, coffee pulp and residues of black grapes. Several aqueous extracts, obtained through a one-pass-extraction process, were analyzed using liquid chromatography in order to quantify the condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) content responsible for their antioxidant activity and colour. All tested samples included high proanthocyanidin contents demonstrating that these Mexican fruits and vegetables are good sources of natural antioxidants, and they all could be considered as excellent functional foods due to their bioactivity measured as the condensed tannin level.

  19. Development Strategy for the Blue Berry Industry of Daxinganling Forest Industry Group%大兴安岭林业集团蓝莓产业发展策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲闻宇; 尚航标

    2013-01-01

      基于微笑曲线的观点,制定大兴安岭林业集团蓝莓产业发展策略,包括建立林下经济合作组织,推广和规范蓝莓种植;建立产学研研究中心,开展蓝莓相关产品的研发;建立营销渠道,缩短和消费者的距离、最大程度接触目标顾客;建立品牌,培养顾客忠诚、建立和竞争对手的隔绝机制。提出大兴安岭林业集团面向全面价值链管理扩张的路径:消除内患,形成合力,全面推广蓝莓种植;建立现代企业制度,培育渠道和品牌;引进来和走出去,顺利开展产品研发和有限多元化,为大兴安岭林业集团经济转型和区域经济发展提供理论基础和实践参考。%  Based on the views of smile curve, making the development strategies of forest group blueberry industry, including establishment of the understory economic cooperation organization, promoting and standardizing the blueberry planting; establishing research centers, carrying out research and developing of blueberry related products; establishing the marketing channels, shortening the distance with consumers, the maximum contact with the target customers; building the brand, cultivating the loyalty of customers, and establishing the isolation mechanisms with competitors. This paper points out that the two Group of Forest Industry for the full value chain expansion path, the elimination of internal problems, form a concerted effort to promote blueberry planting; establishing a modern enterprise system, nurturing channels and brand;bringing in and going out, a smooth product development and limited diversification, in order to provide a theoretical basis and practical reference for Forest Group economic restructuring and regional economic development.

  20. Diet of Nesting Red-Cockaded Woodpecker at Three Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, J.L.; Lipcomb, D.; Franzreb, K.E.; Loeb, S.C.

    1998-12-03

    The authors studied diets of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers for two years on three sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Cameras recorded 33 different types of prey. Wood roaches were the most common, amounting to 50% of the prey. In addition, blueberries and saw fly larvae were collected by birds. Snail shells were also collected. Morista's index of diet overlap ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 for breeding males and females. We conclude that nestling diets are similar across the region.

  1. BRAF V600E-Positive Multisite Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a Preterm Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara V. Bates

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic pustules with a “blueberry muffin” appearance accompanied by respiratory failure in a neonate present a challenging differential diagnosis that includes infections and neoplasms. We present a case of multiorgan, multisite Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH, positive for the oncogenic BRAF V600E mutation, in a preterm neonate. Infants with LCH pose a diagnostic challenge due to their heterogeneous presentations. This case is unusual in that the newborn presented with severe multiorgan involvement. Due to the rare incidence, wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, and high mortality rate, clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for LCH.

  2. CLOVE: A CHAMPION SPICE

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Khanna Deepa

    2011-01-01

    Clove may be looked upon as a champion of all the antioxidants known till date. The Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC) test is a scale developed by U.S. Department of Agriculture for comparing anti-oxidant activity. The ORAC score, of clove is over 10 million. A drop of clove oil is 400 times more powerful as an anti-oxidant than wolf berries or blueberries. Health benefits from the use of clove have been known over the centuries. It is beneficial as a home remedy in curing several ai...

  3. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  4. Monitoring of radiation in the environment in the Netherlands. Results in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the environment in the Netherlands carried out by RIVM, RIZA, RIKZ and Inspectorate for Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health in 2000. Measurements of radioactivity have been carried out in airborne particulates, deposition, surface water, seawater, drinking water and food (honey, game, blueberry and mushrooms). Results for ambient dose equivalent rates have been obtained from the National Radioactivity Monitoring Network. No measurements were done in milk. In 2000 no elevated levels of radioactivity were found in the Dutch environment

  5. Effect of wood ash and K-fertilization on {sup 137}Cs uptake by selected forest plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandro, Yrii N. [Zhytomyr State Technological University, P.O. Box 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Rosen, Klas [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7070 SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Vinichuk, Mykhailo M. [Zhytomyr State Technological University, P.O. Box 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7070 SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation {sup 137}Cs by different forest plants and trees after fertilization of soil with potassium and wood ash ({sup 137}Cs-contaminated and non-contaminated) in forest ecosystems of Ukraine contaminated by radionuclides after Chernobyl accident in 1986 was studied. Experiment is performed in Bazar forestry, Zhytomyr region, Ukraine, located about 70 km (51 deg. 5'35'' N, 29 deg. 18'56'' E) from Chernobyl NPP. Potassium fertilizer (KCl, wooden ash (Ash), and {sup 137}Cs-contaminated ash ({sup 137}CsAsh) in different combinations) were spread on the forest floor in April 2012 at a rate corresponding 100 kg/ha potassium. The experiment layout was as follows: 1- Control (no fertilizers were applied), 2- KCl, 3- Ash + KCl, 4- Ash + {sup 137}CsAsh, 5- Ash, 6- {sup 137}CsAsh + KCl. Samples (leaves and annual shoots) of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), birch (Betula), buckthorn (Frangula) and oak (Quercus robur) and also mushrooms (fruit bodies of Russula, Lactarius, Cantharellus, Collybia etc.) and berries (blueberry and cowberry) were taken monthly from each treatment. Samples were measured for {sup 137}Cs with calibrated HPGe detectors. The results of the first year studies show variation of Transfer Factors (TF) for different plants and for the same plants on different treatments. The effect of fertilization was found for blueberry on Ash-applicated (TF = 0.0085 ± 0.0025), {sup 137}CsAsh + KCl-applicated (TF = 0.0105 ± 0.0060) and Ash + KCl-applicated (TF = 0.0123 ± 0.0058) treatments compared to Control (TF = 0.0163 ± 0.0092). Also good effect for rowan on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment (TF = 0.0067 ± 0.0024) compared to Control (TF = 0.0100 ± 0.0064). Effect was less obvious for birch on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment and for cowberry on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment. There was not found an obvious effect of fertilization for buckthorn. Positive effect of

  6. Monitoring of radiation in the environment in the Netherlands. Results in 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Knetsch, G J

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the environment in the Netherlands carried out by RIVM, RIZA, RIKZ and Inspectorate for Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health in 2000. Measurements of radioactivity have been carried out in airborne particulates, deposition, surface water, seawater, drinking water and food (honey, game, blueberry and mushrooms). Results for ambient dose equivalent rates have been obtained from the National Radioactivity Monitoring Network. No measurements were done in milk. In 2000 no elevated levels of radioactivity were found in the Dutch environment

  7. Preliminary Studies on the Antinociceptive Activity of Vaccinium ashei Berry in Experimental Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Maria Rosana; Guterres, Leandra; Dickel, Odila E.; de Castro, Micheli R.; Henriques, Amelia T.; Márcia M. de Souza; Barros, Daniela Martí

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out pharmacological screening in order to evaluate the potential effects of lyophilized fruits of different cultivars of Vaccinium ashei Reade (Family Ericaceae) berries, commonly known as rabbiteye blueberries, on nociception. This was achieved using the formalin, hot plate, tail-flick, and writhing tests in mice. During this experiment the mice consumed approximately 3.2–6.4 mg/kg/day (p.o.) of the anthocyanins. The extract was administered for 21 days or ...

  8. Absolutely small how quantum theory explains our everyday world

    CERN Document Server

    Fayer, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Physics is a complex, even daunting topic, but it is also deeply satisfying-even thrilling. And liberated from its mathematical underpinnings, physics suddenly becomes accessible to anyone with the curiosity and imagination to explore its beauty. Science without math? It's not that unusual. For example, we can understand the concept of gravity without solving a single equation. So for all those who may have pondered what makes blueberries blue and strawberries red; for those who have wondered if sound really travels in waves; and why light behaves so differently from any other phenomenon in th

  9. Determination by HPLC of ascorbic acid and tocopherols in fruits /
    Determinação de ácido ascórbico e tocoferóis em frutas por CLAE

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Carlos Zambiazi; Paula Becker Pertuzatti; Andressa Carolina Jacques; Milene Teixeira Barcia

    2010-01-01

    The fruits and vegetables are recommended for human feeding due to the richness of antioxidant compounds. The bioactive compounds from the diet, such as vitamins C and E are important to reduce the speed of initiation or prevent the spread of free radicals. The objective of the work was to evaluate the ascorbic acid and tocopherol content of selections of Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.), butiá (Butiá capitata), blackberry (Rubus spp), blueberry (Vaccium Reade ashei), loquat (Eribrotia japônica)...

  10. Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gupta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

  11. Montezuma prasiolite: gamma radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guettler, Rainer A.S.; Helfenberger, Andre F.M., E-mail: rainersg@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IGc/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de GeoCiencias; Enokihara, Cyro T.; Rela, Paulo R., E-mail: cteiti@ipen.b, E-mail: prela@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The amethyst mine of Montezuma, Minas Gerais, is the only one on earth which produces, after heat and irradiation treatment, a quartz of a blue to violetish blue body color, the so-called 'safirita' or blueberry in the trade. Beside this , it is possible by heat treatment to produce two types of prasiolite, 'type 1' and 'type 2' differing in its green color. Prasiolite 1 is a quartz with a yellowish green, prasiolite 2 with a bluish green color. Here are given details about irradiation and heating procedures of heated amethyst from Montezuma to show the changes in color after each step. This allows to select the best conditions for the production of the ideal quality of 'safirita' or blueberry and prasiolite 2. Finally it can be concluded that the irradiation of material from Montezuma always produces an increase in grayish black tons and heating always leads to lighter tons in the colors. It is possible that there exists two processes on atomic scale with opposite reactions. (author)

  12. 蓝莓酒冰激凌的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵月; 任丽莉; 崔海涛; 韩翠萍; 张昀博; 冯智超

    2014-01-01

    随着人们消费和饮食观念的改变,营养食品也越来越受到欢迎。研究以蓝莓酒为原料,制作蓝莓酒冰激凌的加工工艺。结果表明,蓝莓酒10%,蔗糖10%,奶粉10%,奶油4%,稳定剂0.4%,可以研制出色泽明快、风味独特、具有营养保健功能的蓝莓酒冰激凌。%As people consumption ideas and dietary ideas change, healthy food is more and more popular. The technology of ice cream with blueberry wine is studied. The results show that taking 10% blueberry wine, 10% sugar, 10% milk powder, 4% cream and 0.4% stabilizer as the formula, a health product with delicious taste and good-looking appearance can be obtained.

  13. A Study of Mixed Vegetable Dyes with Different Extraction Concentrations for Use as a Sensitizer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Ching Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two vegetable dyes are used for the study: chlorophyll dye from sweet potato leaf extract and anthocyanin dye from extracts of blueberry, purple cabbage, and grape. The chlorophyll and anthocyanin dyes are blended in a cocktail in equal proportions, by volume. This study determines the effect of different extraction concentrations and different vegetable dyes on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. In order to make the electrode for the experiments, P25 TiO2 powder was coated on the ITO conducting surface, using a medical blade, to form a thin film with a thickness of around 35 μm. The experimental results show that the cocktail dye blended using extracts of sweet potato leaf and blueberries, in the volumetric proportion 1 : 1, at a weight concentration of 40%, using an extraction temperature of 50°C and an extraction heating time of 10 min produces the greatest photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of up to 1.57%, an open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.61 V, and a short-circuit current density (JSC of 4.75 mA/cm2.

  14. Congenital Leukemia Initially Presenting with Leukemia Cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Sezgin Evim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital leukemia represents less than 1% of childhood leukemia. Its prognosis is poor. Myeloid form is the most common type, and leukemia cutis has been observed in 25-30% of the patients. These skin lesions are defined as ‘blueberry muffin’ type which are blue-violaceous and usually multiple and diffuse nodules. Case Report: She had diffuse blue-violaceous nodules since birth. She hospitalized due to sepsis for 35 days. She was referred to our center with the suspicion of immune deficiency. The initial physical findings were severe pallor, diffuse blue-violaceous subcutanose nodules and hepatosplenomegaly. The leucocyte count was found 363 000/mm3. Acute monositer leukemia (AML-M5 was determined with morphologic and flow cytometric evaluation of the peripheral blood. Conclusion: Congenital leukemia must be thought in differential diagnosis from other underlying disease presenting with blueberry muffin skin lesions. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2012; 10: 103-6

  15. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis López-Padilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry. In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3 and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa and temperatures (313 and 343 K were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3 was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments.

  16. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertani, Andrea; Pizzeghello, Diego; Francioso, Ornella; Tinti, Anna; Nardi, Serenella

    2016-01-01

    The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT) and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  17. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ertani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  18. The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931, the cherry fly or spotted-wing Drosophila, a pest species from the Oriental and southeastern Palaearctic regions belonging to the melanogaster group, invaded the Nearctic and western countries of the Palaearctic regions late last decade (2008 and, more recently (2013, the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Early in 2014 it was reared from blueberries produced in São Joaquim, state of Santa Catarina, that were bought at a São Paulo city grocery store. Despite being a cold-adapted species, after having arrived to the southeastern state of São Paulo, this invasive fly will probably expand its territory to other Brazilian states and South American countries through trade of cultivated soft skin small fruits, such as blueberries and strawberries, as well as naturally through the use of small wild fruits as breeding sites.

  19. Beneficial effects of fruit extracts on neuronal function and behavior following 56Fe irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.; Jenkins, D.; Rabin, B. M.

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge HZE particles enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2 blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties This study evaluated the efficacy of these diets on irradiation-induced deficits in these parameters by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1 5 Gy of 1 GeV n high-energy 56 Fe particles Irradiation impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information a hippocampally-mediated behavior compared to controls The blueberry diet on the other hand seemed to improve reversal learning a behavior more dependent on intact striatal function These data suggest that 56 Fe particle irradiation causes deficits in behavior and signaling in rats which were ameliorated by an antioxidant diet and that the polyphenols in these fruits might be acting in different brain regions

  20. Anthocyanin Characterization, Total Phenolic Quantification and Antioxidant Features of Some Chilean Edible Berry Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Brito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The anthocyanin composition and HPLC fingerprints of six small berries endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis for the first time (HR-ToF-ESI-MS. The antioxidant features of the six endemic species were compared, including a variety of blueberries which is one of the most commercially significant berry crops in Chile. The anthocyanin fingerprints obtained for the fruits were compared and correlated with the antioxidant features measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA, and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty one anthocyanins were identified, and the major ones were quantified by HPLC-DAD, mostly branched 3-O-glycosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. Three phenolic acids (feruloylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid and five flavonols (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, rutin, myricetin and isorhamnetin were also identified. Calafate fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity (2.33 ± 0.21 μg/mL in the DPPH assay, followed by blueberry (3.32 ± 0.18 μg/mL, and arrayán (5.88 ± 0.21, respectively.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts in cellular models of Parkinson׳s disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathearn, Katherine E; Yousef, Gad G; Grace, Mary H; Roy, Susan L; Tambe, Mitali A; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Wu, Qing-Li; Simon, James E; Lila, Mary Ann; Rochet, Jean-Christophe

    2014-03-25

    Neuropathological evidence indicates that dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson׳s disease (PD) involves impairment of mitochondrial complex I, oxidative stress, microglial activation, and the formation of Lewy bodies. Epidemiological findings suggest that the consumption of berries rich in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins may reduce PD risk. In this study, we investigated whether extracts rich in anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, or other polyphenols suppress the neurotoxic effects of rotenone in a primary cell culture model of PD. Dopaminergic cell death elicited by rotenone was suppressed by extracts prepared from blueberries, grape seed, hibiscus, blackcurrant, and Chinese mulberry. Extracts rich in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins exhibited greater neuroprotective activity than extracts rich in other polyphenols, and a number of individual anthocyanins interfered with rotenone neurotoxicity. The blueberry and grape seed extracts rescued rotenone-induced defects in mitochondrial respiration in a dopaminergic cell line, and a purple basal extract attenuated nitrite release from microglial cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. These findings suggest that anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich botanical extracts may alleviate neurodegeneration in PD via enhancement of mitochondrial function. PMID:24502982

  2. Bee species diversity enhances productivity and stability in a perennial crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley R Rogers

    Full Text Available Wild bees provide important pollination services to agroecoystems, but the mechanisms which underlie their contribution to ecosystem functioning--and, therefore, their importance in maintaining and enhancing these services-remain unclear. We evaluated several mechanisms through which wild bees contribute to crop productivity, the stability of pollinator visitation, and the efficiency of individual pollinators in a highly bee-pollination dependent plant, highbush blueberry. We surveyed the bee community (through transect sampling and pan trapping and measured pollination of both open- and singly-visited flowers. We found that the abundance of managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, and wild-bee richness were equally important in describing resulting open pollination. Wild-bee richness was a better predictor of pollination than wild-bee abundance. We also found evidence suggesting pollinator visitation (and subsequent pollination are stabilized through the differential response of bee taxa to weather (i.e., response diversity. Variation in the individual visit efficiency of A. mellifera and the southeastern blueberry bee, Habropoda laboriosa, a wild specialist, was not associated with changes in the pollinator community. Our findings add to a growing literature that diverse pollinator communities provide more stable and productive ecosystem services.

  3. A bilberry drink with fermented oatmeal decreases postprandial insulin demand in young healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björck Inger ME

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background in traditional medicine, blueberries have been used to facilitate blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in diabetic mice have indicated facilitated glycaemic regulation following dietary supplementation with extracts from European blueberries, also called bilberries, (Vaccinium myrtillus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of fermented oat meal drinks containing bilberries or rosehip (Rosa canina on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Methods glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in young healthy adults were measured in two series. In series 1, two drinks based on oat meal (5%, fermented using Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, and added with fruit (10%; bilberries (BFOMD or rose hip (RFOMD respectively, were studied. In series 2, BFOMD was repeated, additionally, a drink enriched with bilberries (47% was tested (BBFOMD. As control a fermented oat meal drink (FOMD was served. Results in series 1 the bilberry- and rosehip drinks, gave high glucose responses similar to that after the reference bread. However, the insulin index (II after the BFOMD was significantly lower (II = 65 (P Conclusion a fermented oat meal drink added with bilberries induced a lower insulin response than expected from the glycaemic response. The mechanism for the lowered acute insulin demand is still unclear, but may be related to some bio-active component present in the bilberries, or to the fermented oat meal base.

  4. Nutritional profile and productivity of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) in different habitats of a protected area of the eastern Italian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisabetta, Barizza; Flavia, Guzzo; Paolo, Fanton; Giorgio, Lucchini; Attilio, Sacchi G; Fiorella, Lo Schiavo; Juri, Nascimbene

    2013-05-01

    Plant productivity and fruit quality in terms of occurrence of mineral elements and metabolites were determined on wild bilberry growing in open and forest stands in a protected area of N-Italy. Plant productivity was significantly higher in open stands (3 ± 2.5 compared with 0.03 ± 0.05 fruits per plant) suggesting that both collections in the wild and semi-wild cultivation should be planned in open habitats. Results obtained by ionomic and metabolomic analyses indicated that high quality fruits can be collected in the analyzed area and their nutritional profile did not differ between open and forest stands. Cyanidin and delphinidin proportion of bilberries from our study area was respectively 23.8% and 43.9% of total antocyanin and it is similar to that previously considered peculiar to bilberry fruits of high latitude regions of Europe and indicative of high quality food properties. A comparison between wild bilberry collected in the protected area and commercial blueberry was also performed and relevant differences between them detected, confirming the concept that wild bilberry has a better nutritional profile than blueberry.

  5. Dietary levels of pure flavonoids improve spatial memory performance and increase hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendeiro, Catarina; Vauzour, David; Rattray, Marcus; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean Michel; Butler, Laurie T; Williams, Claire M; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that flavonoid-rich foods are capable of inducing improvements in memory and cognition in animals and humans. However, there is a lack of clarity concerning whether flavonoids are the causal agents in inducing such behavioral responses. Here we show that supplementation with pure anthocyanins or pure flavanols for 6 weeks, at levels similar to that found in blueberry (2% w/w), results in an enhancement of spatial memory in 18 month old rats. Pure flavanols and pure anthocyanins were observed to induce significant improvements in spatial working memory (p = 0.002 and p = 0.006 respectively), to a similar extent to that following blueberry supplementation (p = 0.002). These behavioral changes were paralleled by increases in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (R = 0.46, pmemory. However, unlike protein levels of BDNF, the regional enhancement of BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus appeared to be predominantly enhanced by anthocyanins. Our data support the claim that flavonoids are likely causal agents in mediating the cognitive effects of flavonoid-rich foods.

  6. Phenolic Content and Their Antioxidant Activity in Various Berries Cultivated in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.  Phenolic compounds occur in berries mainly as a variety of conjugated forms, mostly with sugars.  The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in the most common fruits consumed in Romania: blueberry, blackberries, raspberry and cranberries. Folin-Ciocalteu method has been used in order to evaluate total phenolic content of analyzed berries. Antioxidant activity was determinate using ORAC assay which measures the decrease of AAPH-radical level by the scavenging action of the antioxidant substance. In addition, the vitamin C content and total tannins of the berries extracts were determined using spetophomotmetric methods. The phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of analyzed berries did not varied considerably. The highest amounts of TPC and the strongest antioxidant activities were found in blueberry and blackberries (678 GAE mg/100 g FW, 442 mg/100g FW respectively. Vitamin C content was found in higher concentration in raspberries 21.7 mg/100 g FW while the lower concentration was found in blackberry.  All berries contain higher levels of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols or tannins which are responsible for their antioxidant potential and bring their nutritional value, being highly recommended for daily consumption.

  7. Laboratory measurements of nitric oxide release from forest soil with a thick organic layer under different understory types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bargsten

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in the photochemistry of the troposphere. NO from soil contributes up to 40% to the global budget of atmospheric NO. Soil NO emissions are primarily caused by biological activity (nitrification and denitrification, that occurs in the uppermost centimeter of the soil, a soil region often characterized by high contents of organic material. Most studies of NO emission potentials to date have investigated mineral soil layers. In our study we sampled soil organic matter under different understories (moss, grass, spruce and blueberries in a humid mountainous Norway spruce forest plantation in the Fichtelgebirge (Germany. We performed laboratory incubation and flushing experiments using a customized chamber technique to determine the response of net potential NO flux to physical and chemical soil conditions (water content and temperature, bulk density, particle density, pH, C/N ratio, organic C, soil ammonium, soil nitrate. Net potential NO fluxes (in terms of mass of N from soil samples taken under different understories ranged from 1.7–9.8 ng m−2 s−1 (soil sampled under grass and moss cover, 55.4–59.3 ng m−2 s−1 (soil sampled under spruce cover, and 43.7–114.6 ng m−2 s−1 (soil sampled under blueberry cover at optimum water content and a soil temperature of 10 °C. The water content for optimum net potential NO flux ranged between 0.76 and 0.8 gravimetric soil moisture for moss covered soils, between 1.0 and 1.1 for grass covered soils, 1.1 and 1.2 for spruce covered soils, and 1.3 and 1.9 for blueberry covered soils. Effects of soil physical and chemical characteristics on net potential NO flux were statistically significant (0.01 probability level only for NH4+. Therefore, as an alternative explanation for the differences in soil biogenic NO emission we consider more biological factors like understory

  8. Laboratory measurements of nitric oxide release from forest soil with a thick organic layer under different understory types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargsten, A.; Falge, E.; Pritsch, K.; Huwe, B.; Meixner, F. X.

    2010-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the photochemistry of the troposphere. NO from soil contributes up to 40% to the global budget of atmospheric NO. Soil NO emissions are primarily caused by biological activity (nitrification and denitrification), that occurs in the uppermost centimeter of the soil, a soil region often characterized by high contents of organic material. Most studies of NO emission potentials to date have investigated mineral soil layers. In our study we sampled soil organic matter under different understories (moss, grass, spruce and blueberries) in a humid mountainous Norway spruce forest plantation in the Fichtelgebirge (Germany). We performed laboratory incubation and flushing experiments using a customized chamber technique to determine the response of net potential NO flux to physical and chemical soil conditions (water content and temperature, bulk density, particle density, pH, C/N ratio, organic C, soil ammonium, soil nitrate). Net potential NO fluxes (in terms of mass of N) from soil samples taken under different understories ranged from 1.7-9.8 ng m-2 s-1 (soil sampled under grass and moss cover), 55.4-59.3 ng m-2 s-1 (soil sampled under spruce cover), and 43.7-114.6 ng m-2 s-1 (soil sampled under blueberry cover) at optimum water content and a soil temperature of 10 °C. The water content for optimum net potential NO flux ranged between 0.76 and 0.8 gravimetric soil moisture for moss covered soils, between 1.0 and 1.1 for grass covered soils, 1.1 and 1.2 for spruce covered soils, and 1.3 and 1.9 for blueberry covered soils. Effects of soil physical and chemical characteristics on net potential NO flux were statistically significant (0.01 probability level) only for NH4+. Therefore, as an alternative explanation for the differences in soil biogenic NO emission we consider more biological factors like understory vegetation type, amount of roots, and degree of mycorrhization; they have the potential to explain the observed

  9. Laboratory measurements of nitric oxide release from forest soil with a thick organic layer under different understory types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bargsten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in the photochemistry of the troposphere. NO from soil contributes up to 40% to the global budget of atmospheric NO. Soil NO emissions are primarily caused by biological activity (nitrification and denitrification, that occurs in the uppermost centimetres of the soil, a soil region often characterized by high contents of organic material. Most studies of NO emission potentials to date have investigated mineral soil layers. In our study we sampled soil organic matter under different understories (moss, grass, spruce and blueberries in a humid mountainous Norway spruce forest plantation in the Fichtelgebirge (Germany. We performed laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments using a customized chamber technique to determine the response of net potential NO flux to physical and chemical soil conditions (water content and temperature, bulk density, particle density, pH, C/N ratio, organic C, soil ammonium, soil nitrate. Net potential NO fluxes (in terms of mass of N from soils of different understories ranged from 1.7–9.8 ng m−2 s−1 (grass and moss, 55.4–59.3 ng m−2 s−1 (spruce, and 43.7–114.6 ng m−2 s−1 (blueberry at optimum water content and a soil temperature of 10°C. The water content for optimum net potential NO flux ranged between 0.76 and 0.8 gravimetric soil moisture for moss, between 1.0 and 1.1 for grass, 1.1 and 1.2 for spruce, and 1.3 and 1.9 for blueberries. Effects of soil physical and chemical characteristics on net potential NO flux were statistically significant (0.01 probability level only for NH4+. Therefore, the effects of biogenic factors like understory type, amount of roots, and degree of mycorrhization on soil biogenic NO emission are discussed; they have the potential to explain the observed different of net potential NO fluxes. Quantification of NO emissions from the upmost

  10. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULOVICSOVÁ B.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  11. 培养基对酵母生长及蓝莓酒质量的影响%Effect of Medium on Yeast Growth and Quality of Buleberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍雨霞; 萨玉龙

    2016-01-01

    The blueberry fruit pulp and malt extract were selected to study the effect of medium on the growth of active dry yeast (ADY) and the quality of blueberry fruit wine, comparing to ADY extract peptone dextrose (YEPD) medium. The results indicated that the activation of ADY could significantly influenced by the content of glucose and yeast extract, and the activation improved by adding blueberry fruit pulp, malt extract and glucose reach better result than the control (YEPD). The ADY could quickly grow and propagate, with low dead cell ratio; the blueberry fruit wine reduced residual sugar and high alcohol, whereas raised the content of esters by 12.1%, with full aroma. The activating effect of medium had not heightened with a rise malt extract after the concentration of malt extract higher than 3%. The improved medium could not only supplied ADY with necessary nutrition but also raise the utilization rate of the sugar, amino acid and so on, helping the tasting and aroma of buleberryfruit wine more balance.%为探讨培养基对活性干酵母生长及酿造果酒质量的影响,以酵母浸出粉胨葡萄糖(YEPD)培养基为对照,选取蓝莓果浆、麦芽汁等成分改良活化培养基。结果表明:葡萄糖和酵母粉含量对酵母活化影响显著,添加蓝莓果浆、麦芽汁以及葡萄糖等成分优化的培养基活化效果优于对照(YEPD)。该系列培养基上酵母能够快速生长增值,死细胞率低;与对照相比,酿造的蓝莓酒残糖和高级醇含量降低,酯类物质含量最高提升12.1%,酒香浓郁。当培养基麦芽汁浓度超过3%,活化效果不会随着麦芽汁浓度升高而显著增加。改良后的培养基在提供酵母菌所需营养的同时提高酵母对蓝莓果浆中糖类和氨基酸等物质的利用率,使酒口感和香气物质更加平衡。

  12. 蓝莓干酒发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永强; 王辉; 王鑫; 魏婧; 李秀娟

    2015-01-01

    The dry wine refined with a series of advanced processing technology is made from a natural wild- plant-Blueberry. The product temperature is controled at 18~22 ℃while the ferment period is 15~30 days. The health wine with high nutrition value tastes fragrant and its style is unique.%蓝莓干酒是以天然野生植物蓝莓为原料,采用一系列先进的加工工艺精制而成。发酵期15~30 d,品温控制18~22℃,该果酒芳香清雅,风格独特,是一种营养价值很高的保健饮料酒。

  13. News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    "蓝色"年代最新"Blue"车款潮流若以"Blue"为词根,衍生出频率最高的词组、语句会是什么?blue sky,blue sea,blueJazz,还是 blueberry?"Blue"通常寓意"蓝色"、"忧郁"、"蓝调",然而在汽车制造业,近年来却赋予了"Blue"一个新的意义:"环保"!各大厂商在争相推出"Blue"技术,如Bluetec、BlueMotion 之后,便开始了新的"环保战役"。

  14. Preliminary Results from VOC measurements in the Lower Fraser Valley in July/Aug 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, C. L.; Jones, K.; Vingarzan, R.; Leaitch, R.; Macdonald, A.; Osthoff, H. D.; Reid, K.

    2012-12-01

    In July/August 2012, a pilot study looking at the effect of ClNO2 production on the ozone concentrations in the lower Fraser valley near Abbotsford, BC was conducted. The lower Fraser valley in British Columbia Canada has some of the highest ozone concentrations and visibility issues in Canada. Abbotsford is located approximately 80 kms east of Vancouver, BC and approximately 30 kms from the ocean. The site was located in a largely agricultural area with fruit farms (raspberries and blueberries) and poultry barns predominating. During the study biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs were measured in situ using a GCMS/FID with hourly samples. Particle composition was measured using an ACSM and size distribution using an SMPS. Preliminary results from the study will be discussed.

  15. Plum and soy aglycon extracts superior at increasing bone calcium retention in ovariectomized Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Jessica W; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Weaver, Connie M

    2014-07-01

    Plant-derived polyphenols have been shown to influence bone turnover and bone properties in the estrogen-depleted state. We used a crossover design in ovariectomized rats (n = 16 rats for each diet) to investigate the effect of supplementation of two doses each of blueberry, plum, grape, grape seed extract, and resveratrol on bone. We tested the aglycon and glucoside forms of genistein to quantify differences in efficacy on bone calcium retention. Rats were given an intravenous dose of ⁴⁵Ca to prelabel bone, and bone calcium retention was assessed by urinary excretion of ⁴⁵Ca:Ca ratio during an intervention period compared with nonintervention. Genistein aglycon increased bone calcium retention significantly (pcalcium retention by 20% (p=0.0153) and 14% (p=0.0012), respectively. Several polyphenolic-rich diets improved bone calcium retention.

  16. Total oxidant scavenging capacities of common European fruit and vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthäler, Ramona; Marx, Friedhelm

    2005-01-12

    The total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay in a modified and automated version was applied for a comparative and detailed survey of the antioxidant capacities of 14 common European fruit and vegetable juices (ACE, apple, beetroot, blueberry, carrot, elderberry, lemon, lingonberry, multivitamin, orange, pink grapefruit, sauerkraut, and tomato juices as well as sour cherry nectar). The juices were ranked according to their scavenging capacity against the three reactive oxygen species (ROS) peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite. These ROS are of physiological and technological relevance and cover a broad range of reactivity. Nonlinear correlations between concentrations of all studied samples and antioxidant capacity were taken into account for the assessment of the results. Due to the more complex assay design, results are only partially in accordance with those of the literature. Because of its outstanding TOSC values against two of the three ROS, lingonberry juice deserves special attention. PMID:15631516

  17. Flavonoids electrochemical detection in fruit extracts and total antioxidant capacity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sara M C; Ghica, Mariana-Emilia; Rodrigues, Isaide Araujo; de Souza Gil, Eric; Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria

    2016-07-01

    Phenolic compounds detection in fruit extracts from: açai, bacuri, buriti, blackberry, black mulberry, blueberry, juçara, physalis, raspberry, and tamarillo, have been performed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (RP-HPLC-EC), using two detectors in series: a wall-jet detector flow cell with a glassy carbon electrode, and a thin-layer flow cell detector with a boron doped diamond electrode. This methodology, in gradient elution mode, was successfully used to detect seventeen phenolic compounds in the fruit extracts. The total antioxidant capacity of the fruit extracts by the electrochemical quantitative index (EI) and the method of capture of diphenilpicrilhydrazil (DPPH(●)) free radical "efficient concentration" (EC50), was evaluated. A very good correlation between EI and EC50 assays has been obtained, the fruit with the highest total antioxidant capacity being blackberry, while physalis exhibited the lowest antioxidant power. PMID:27154676

  18. High-Molecular-Weight Proanthocyanidins in Foods: Overcoming Analytical Challenges in Pursuit of Novel Dietary Bioactive Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Andrew P; O'Keefe, Sean F; Bolling, Bradley W

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are an abundant but complex class of polyphenols found in foods and botanicals. PACs are polymeric flavanols with a variety of linkages and subunits. Connectivity and degree of polymerization (DP) determine PAC bioavailability and bioactivity. Current quantitative and qualitative methods may ignore a large percentage of dietary PACs. Subsequent correlations between intake and activity are hindered by a lack of understanding of the true PAC complexity in many foods. Additionally, estimates of dietary intakes are likely inaccurate, as nutrient databank values are largely based on standards from cocoa (monomers to decamers) and blueberries (mean DP of 36). Improved analytical methodologies are needed to increase our understanding of the biological roles of these complex compounds. PMID:26735794

  19. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  20. Primer registro de Syncharina lineiceps (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae en la Argentina: Clave para el reconocimiento de las especies del género First record of Syncharina lineiceps (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae in Argentina: Key to identification of Syncharina species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana L. Paradell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para la Argentina la especie Syncharina lineiceps (Spinola y se da a conocer como nuevo registro para los cultivos de arándanos. Para cada especie del género Syncharina Young, se proporciona información actualizada referida a la distribución geográfica y las plantas huéspedes. Se propone una clave para identificar las especies del género.We report for the first time in Argentina the presence of Syncharina lineiceps (Spinola and it is cited as new record for blueberries crops. For each species of the genus Syncharina Young we provide updated information referred to geographic distribution and plants hosts. A key to identify the species of the genus is presented.