Sample records for blue ridge mountain region

  1. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Pottery. (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on pottery making is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of pottery, including terms to know; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and…

  2. A multi-scale analysis of streamflow response to changes in evapotranspiration and soil hydrology in the Blue Ridge Mountains (United States)

    A large amount of research exploring the relationship between watershed forest cover and streamflow quantity has been conducted in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, particularly in association with the USFS Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and the Coweeta LTER. However, a clear ans...

  3. Woodland clearance alters geomorphic, hydrologic, and pedogenic drivers of ecosystem services: examples from the southern Blue Ridge (USA) and the French western Pyrenees Mountains (United States)

    Leigh, David


    The southern Blue Ridge (USA) and French western Pyrenees both are humid-temperate mountains where native woodlands have been cleared on soils formed in residuum and colluvium on hillslopes. Forest removal increased rates of erosion and sediment yield that drove both negative and positive ecosystem services. For example, the supportive ecosystem service of soil formation was diminished on eroded hillslopes, but may have been enhanced by accumulation of sediment on bottomlands far downstream from the highland source areas. Negative effects on provisional ecosystem services (e.g. water supply) resulted in aggraded bottomlands by increasing the depth to the water table. Legacy effects linger on hillslopes that reforested (diminished soil properties), and ongoing alteration of pedogenic and hydrologic processes affect pastures that persisted from cleared woodlands. Beyond those general similarities, pastures of the two regions exhibit very different pedogenic pathways and ecosystem service outcomes. Soils of the Blue Ridge pastures adhere to a typical degradation scenario of erosion, compaction, and reduced infiltration capacities, whereas Pyrenees pastures exhibit soil qualities trending in the opposite direction and arguably now are better quality soils than their forested predecessors. Major differences in temporal duration and management styles apparently have led to such contrasts in soil quality. The Blue Ridge pastures are only tens to hundreds of years old, whereas Pyrenees pastures are thousands of years old. Blue Ridge pastures are maintained by mowing with tractors and year-round grazing primarily with beef cattle, whereas Pyrenees pastures (outfields) lack tractors and are only grazed seasonally (summer), primarily with sheep. Fire is rarely used as a management tool in the Blue Ridge, while Pyrenees pastures frequently are burned. Such management practices, and their influence on pedogenic and hydrologic processes, generally have resulted in negative

  4. Evaluating the Role of Boundary Layer Processes on Diurnal Aerosol Concentrations in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia (United States)

    Lee, T. R.; de Wekker, S.


    Forecasting air quality in mountainous terrain is a challenging topic. In this study, we aim to understand the diurnal variability of particulate matter, CO, and CO2 in the Shenandoah National Park (SNP) located in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. We focus on the effect of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics on the diurnal aerosol variability using a combination of observations and numerical modeling. Boundary layer dynamics in mountainous terrain is complicated by a variety of factors such as terrain-induced wind flows. These flows can have a significant impact on atmospheric chemistry but are not well resolved in current air quality forecasting models. In this research, we seek to 1) measure and simulate the diurnal evolution of the ABL at a mountaintop site in the Blue Ridge Mountains, 2) investigate the effect of ABL dynamics on aerosol and CO concentrations on clear days, and 3) investigate the transport of aerosols and pollutants by local, regional, and synoptic-scale flows to the mountaintop using the FLEXPART particle dispersion model and WRF-CHEM model. WRF-CHEM will be run with and without chemistry to isolate the effects of boundary layer dynamics and aerosol formation on diurnal aerosol variability. The results of this study will be incorporated into a diagnostic air quality forecast model for SNP. Measurements come from a 17-m walkup tower that was established in May 2008 along a ridgeline at an elevation of 1037m (38.61°N, 78.35°W) at Pinnacles in the north-central section of SNP. The tower is outfitted with a suite of instruments, including temperature/humidity sensors, cup and sonic anemometers, radiation sensors, a closed-path CO/CO2 gas analyzer, and particle counter. Also, a portable eye-safe LIDAR system is located on-site. In addition, ozone data are collected at a site located nearby. Preliminary results from select clear days in fall, 2008 indicate that ABL height is an important factor governing CO and CO2 concentrations at

  5. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Groundwater residence times in Shenandoah National Park, Blue Ridge Mountains, Virginia, USA: A multi-tracer approach (United States)

    Plummer, L.N.; Busenberg, E.; Böhlke, J.K.; Nelms, D.L.; Michel, R.L.; Schlosser, P.


    Chemical and isotopic properties of water discharging from springs and wells in Shenandoah National Park (SNP), near the crest of the Blue Ridge Mountains, VA, USA were monitored to obtain information on groundwater residence times. Investigated time scales included seasonal (wet season, April, 1996; dry season, August-September, 1997), monthly (March through September, 1999) and hourly (30-min interval recording of specific conductance and temperature, March, 1999 through February, 2000). Multiple environmental tracers, including tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), sulfur-35 (35S), and stable isotopes (??18O and ??2H) of water, were used to estimate the residence times of shallow groundwater discharging from 34 springs and 15 wells. The most reliable ages of water from springs appear to be based on SF6 and 3H/3He, with most ages in the range of 0-3 years. This range is consistent with apparent ages estimated from concentrations of CFCs; however, CFC-based ages have large uncertainties owing to the post-1995 leveling-off of the CFC atmospheric growth curves. Somewhat higher apparent ages are indicated by 35S (> 1.5 years) and seasonal variation of ??18O (mean residence time of 5 years) for spring discharge. The higher ages indicated by the 35S and ??18O data reflect travel times through the unsaturated zone and, in the case of 35S, possible sorption and exchange of S with soils or biomass. In springs sampled in April, 1996, apparent ages derived from the 3H/3He data (median age of 0.2 years) are lower than those obtained from SF6 (median age of 4.3 years), and in contrast to median ages from 3H/3He (0.3 years) and SF6 (0.7 years) obtained during the late summer dry season of 1997. Monthly samples from 1999 at four springs in SNP had SF6 apparent ages of only 1.2 to 2.5 ?? 0.8 years, and were consistent with the 1997 SF6 data. Water from springs has low excess air (0-1 cm3 kg-1) and N2-Ar temperatures that vary

  7. The quality of our nation's waters: water quality in the Principal Aquifers of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge regions, eastern United States, 1993-2009 (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Szabo, Zoltan


    The aquifers of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge regions underlie an area with a population of more than 40 million people in 10 states. The suburban and rural population is large, growing rapidly, and increasingly dependent on groundwater as a source of supply, with more than 550 million gallons per day withdrawn from domestic wells for household use. Water from some of these aquifers does not meet human-health benchmarks for drinking water for contaminants with geologic or human sources. Water from samples in crystalline- and siliciclastic-rock aquifers frequently exceeded standards for contaminants with geologic sources, and samples in carbonate-rock aquifers frequently exceeded standards for contaminants with human sources, most often nitrate and bacteria.

  8. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment and study plan for a regional ground-water resource investigation of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces of North Carolina (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Dahlen, Paul R.


    Prolonged drought, allocation of surface-water flow, and increased demands on ground-water supplies resulting from population growth are focuses for the need to evaluate ground-water resources in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces of North Carolina. Urbanization and certain aspects of agricultural production also have caused increased concerns about protecting the quality of ground water in this region. More than 75 percent of the State's population resides in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces in an area that covers 30,544 square miles and 65 counties. Between 1940 and 2000, the population in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces increased from 2.66 to 6.11 million; most of this increase occurred in the Piedmont. Of the total population, an estimated 1.97 million people, or 32.3 percent (based on the 1990 census), relied on ground water for a variety of uses, including commercial, industrial, and most importantly, potable supplies. Ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont traditionally has not been considered as a source for large supplies, primarily because of readily available and seemingly limitless surface-water supplies, and the perception that ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces occurs in a complex, generally heterogeneous geologic environment. Some reluctance to use ground water for large supplies derives from the reputation of aquifers in these provinces for producing low yields to wells, and the few high-yield wells that are drilled seem to be scattered in areas distant from where they are needed. Because the aquifers in these provinces are shallow, they also are susceptible to contamination by activities on the land surface. In response to these issues, the North Carolina Legislature supported the creation of a Resource Evaluation Program to ensure the long-term availability, sustainability, and quality of ground water in the State. As part of the Resource Evaluation Program, the North Carolina Division of Water Quality

  9. Alleghenian regional diagenesis: A response to the migration of modified metamorphic fluids derived from beneath the Blue Ridge-Piedmont thrust sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schedl, A.; McCabe, C. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (United States)); Montanez, I.P. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States)); Fullagar, P.D. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Valley, J.W. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))


    To examine the nature and origin of fluids that caused widespread diagenetic alteration and remagnetization of the Appalachian foreland during the late Paleozoic, the authors examined the evidence for metamorphic fluids originating from beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont, causing extensive alteration along the Linville Falls fault in the Grandfather Mountain window, North Carolina. These fluids were hot (310 to 400C), enriched in radiogenic strontium, and had {delta}{sup 18}O values of 3 to 10{per thousand} SMOW and {delta}D values of {minus}20 to 10{per thousand}. A Rb/Sr isochron from the fault zone rocks yielded an Alleghenian age of 301 {plus minus} 5.0 Ma. Next they examined the diagenetic fluids that produced Alleghenian silicification, K-feldspar authigenesis, and associated dolomitization in remagnetized Upper Knox Group carbonates of the Valley and Ridge and Plateau Provinces from Tennessee to northern Virginia. The fluids were hot (140 to 245C), highly saline (14 to 23 wt % NaCl equivalent), enriched in radiogenic strontium, and had a {delta}{sup 18}O of 5 to 13{per thousand}. Thus, the fluids that caused alteration in the Linville Falls area were remarkably similar geochemically to the fluids that caused alteration in the Upper Knox Group at about the same time. The authors suggest that both alteration events were part of a large-scale fluid flow system involving metamorphic and basinal fluids rather than meteoric waters. Thus, metamorphic fluids may have played a key role in causing remagnetization and other diagenetic phenomena on the Appalachian foreland during the Alleghenian Orogeny.

  10. Quaternary deposits and landscape evolution of the central Blue Ridge of Virginia (United States)

    Scott, Eaton L.; Morgan, B.A.; Craig, Kochel R.; Howard, A.D.


    A catastrophic storm that struck the central Virginia Blue Ridge Mountains in June 1995 delivered over 775 mm (30.5 in) of rain in 16 h. The deluge triggered more than 1000 slope failures; and stream channels and debris fans were deeply incised, exposing the stratigraphy of earlier mass movement and fluvial deposits. The synthesis of data obtained from detailed pollen studies and 39 radiometrically dated surficial deposits in the Rapidan basin gives new insights into Quaternary climatic change and landscape evolution of the central Blue Ridge Mountains. The oldest depositional landforms in the study area are fluvial terraces. Their deposits have weathering characteristics similar to both early Pleistocene and late Tertiary terrace surfaces located near the Fall Zone of Virginia. Terraces of similar ages are also present in nearby basins and suggest regional incision of streams in the area since early Pleistocene-late Tertiary time. The oldest debris-flow deposits in the study area are much older than Wisconsinan glaciation as indicated by 2.5YR colors, thick argillic horizons, and fully disintegrated granitic cobbles. Radiocarbon dating indicates that debris flow activity since 25,000 YBP has recurred, on average, at least every 2500 years. The presence of stratified slope deposits, emplaced from 27,410 through 15,800 YBP, indicates hillslope stripping and reduced vegetation cover on upland slopes during the Wisconsinan glacial maximum. Regolith generated from mechanical weathering during the Pleistocene collected in low-order stream channels and was episodically delivered to the valley floor by debris flows. Debris fans prograded onto flood plains during the late Pleistocene but have been incised by Holocene stream entrenchment. The fan incision allows Holocene debris flows to largely bypass many of the higher elevation debris fan surfaces and deposit onto the topographically lower surfaces. These episodic, high-magnitude storm events are responsible for

  11. Debris-flow hazards in the blue ridge of Central Virginia (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Morgan, B.A.; Campbell, R.H.


    The June 27, 1995, storm in Madison County, Virginia produced debris flows and floods that devastated a small (130 km2) area of the Blue Ridge in the eastern United States. Although similar debris-flow inducing storm events may return only approximately once every two thousand years to the same given locale, these events affecting a similar small-sized area occur about every three years somewhere in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains. From physical examinations and mapping of debris-flow sources, paths, and deposits in Madison County, we develop methods for identifying areas subject to debris flows using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. We examined the rainfall intensity and duration characteristics of the June 27, 1995, and other storms, in the Blue Ridge of central Virginia, and have defined a minimum threshold necessary to trigger debris flows in granitic rocks. In comparison with thresholds elsewhere, longer and more intense rainfall is necessary to trigger debris flows in the Blue Ridge.

  12. Numerical Simulation on Stratified Flow over an Isolated Mountain Ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling; Shigeo Kimura


    The characteristics of stratified flow over an isolated mountain ridge have been investigated numerically. The two-dimensional model equations, based on the time-dependent Reynolds averaged NavierStokes equations, are solved numerically using an implicit time integration in a fitted body grid arrangement to simulate stratified flow over an isolated ideally bell-shaped mountain. The simulation results are in good agreement with the existing corresponding analytical and approximate solutions. It is shown that for atmospheric conditions where non-hydrostatic effects become dominant, the model is able to reproduce typical flow features. The dispersion characteristics of gaseous pollutants in the stratified flow have also been studied. The dispersion patterns for two typical atmospheric conditions are compared. The results show that the presence of a gravity wave causes vertical stratification of the pollutant concentration and affects the diffusive characteristics of the pollutants.

  13. Appalachian Blue Ridge cover sequence ranges at least into the Ordovician (United States)

    Tull, James F.; Ausich, William I.; Groszos, Mark S.; Thompson, Troy W.


    The first direct evidence that stratified rocks of the central core of the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge range in age into the Paleozoic comes from a pelmatozoan echinoderm column discovered within a unit directly above the Murphy Marble in North Carolina. Before this discovery most geologists had considered all stratified rocks of the Blue Ridge east of the frontal imbricate thrust blocks to be Late Proterozoic or Early Cambrian(?). The echinoderm fragment is in a lower amphibolite facies interbedded mica schist-impure marble zone that lies directly above the Murphy Marble. Rocks above the Murphy Marble are dominantly turbiditic metaclastic rocks with minor carbonate and metavolcanic rocks, interpreted as having formed within a successor basin unconformably above upper Precambrian rift facies and lower Paleozoic drift facies rocks of the Laurentian passive margin. An upper bound for the age of the successor basin in the Murphy belt has not been established; similar sequences in the Talladega belt to the southwest, and possibly the Foothills belt to the west, range at least into the Devonian. Most Appalachian tectonic models assert that during the Taconic orogeny a Middle Ordovician synorogenic clastic wedge, now located in the easternmost Tennessee foreland salient, was derived by erosion from the metamorphosed pre-Ordovician Blue Ridge basement and cover sequence to the east, which was uplifted as part of an advancing Taconic crystalline thrust wedge. The presence of Ordovician or younger rocks described here, which were deposited east of the proposed Taconic orogenic front, suggests the need to modify models for Taconic clastic wedge formation in the southern Appalachians. The results presented here also suggest that peak metamorphism in the region was post-Ordovician, and thus was probably not contemporaneous with the Taconic orogeny, as previously thought.

  14. Mountains, glaciers, and mines—The geological story of the Blue River valley, Colorado, and its surrounding mountains (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl; Bryant, Bruce; Shroba, Ralph R.


    This report describes, in a nontechnical style, the geologic history and mining activity in the Blue River region of Colorado, which includes all of Summit County. The geologic story begins with the formation of ancient basement rocks, as old as about 1700 million years, and continues with the deposition of sedimentary rocks on a vast erosional surface beginning in the Cambrian Period (about 530 million years ago). This deposition was interrupted by uplift of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains during the late Paleozoic Era (about 300 million years ago). The present Rocky Mountains began to rise at the close of the Mesozoic Era (about 65 million years ago). A few tens of millions years ago, rifting began to form the Blue River valley; a major fault along the east side of the Gore Range dropped the east side down, forming the present valley. The valley once was filled by sediments and volcanic rocks that are now largely eroded. During the last few hundred-thousand years, at least two periods of glaciation sculpted the mountains bordering the valley and glaciers extended down the Blue River valley as far south as present Dillon Reservoir. Discovery of deposits of gold, silver, copper, and zinc in the late 1800s, particularly in the Breckenridge region, brought an influx of early settlers. The world-class molybdenum deposit at Climax, mined since the First World War, reopened in 2012 after a period of closure.

  15. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaobo


    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  16. Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Fitzpatrick, Brian D. Fairbank


    The report documents the drilling of well Deep Blue No.2, the second deep geothermal test hole at the Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, Humboldt County, Nevada. The well was drilled by Noramex Corp, a Nevada company, with funding support from the US Department of Energy, under the DOE’s GRED II Program. Deep Blue No.2 was drilled as a ‘step-out’ hole from Deep Blue No.1, to further evaluate the commercial potential of the geothermal resource. Deep Blue No.2 was designed as a vertical, slim observation test hole to a nominal target depth of 1000 meters (nominal 3400 feet). The well tests an area of projected high temperatures at depth, from temperature gradients measured in a group of shallow drill holes located approximately one kilometer to the northeast of observation hole Deep Blue No.1. The well is not intended for, or designed as, a commercial well or a production well. Deep Blue No.2 was spudded on March 25, 2004 and completed to a total depth of 1127.76m (3700 ft) on April 28, 2004. The well was drilled using conventional rotary drilling techniques to a depth of 201.17 m (660 ft), and continuously cored from 201.17m (660 ft) to 1127.76m (3700 ft). A brief rig-on flow-test was conducted at completion to determine basic reservoir parameters and obtain fluid samples. A permeable fracture zone with measured temperatures of 150 to 167°C (302 to 333°F) occurs between 500 to 750m (1640 to 2461ft). The well was left un-lined in anticipation of the Phase III - Flow and Injection Testing. A further Kuster temperature survey was attempted after the well had been shut in for almost 3 weeks. The well appears to have bridged off at 439m (1440ft) as the Kuster tool was unable to descend past this point. Several attempts to dislodge the obstruction using tube jars were unsuccessful. Deep Blue No.2 encountered variably fractured and veined, fine-grained rocks of the Singas Formation, and intruded by minor strongly altered fine-grained felsic dikes, and less altered

  17. Constraints on the thermal history of the Blue Ridge in northernmost Virginia: [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar age dating results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunk, M.J.; Lyttle, P.T.; Schindler, S.J.; Burton, W.C. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))


    [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar age dating techniques have been used to analyze hornblende, phlogopite, white mica, biotite, and K-feldspar mineral separates from Middle and Late Proterozoic crystalline basement and from Late Proterozoic-Early Cambrian cover rocks in the Blue Ridge anticlinorium. Regionally, both cover and basement rocks contain a variably developed overprint fabric, the Blue Ridge-South Mountain cleavage, commonly defined by white mica. Petrographic analysis indicates a maximum metamorphic overprint of lower greenschist facies that locally produces biotite. [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar age spectra of hornblende from crystalline basement units suggest ages ranging from about 1 Ga to about 920 Ma. [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar age spectra of most cleavage-defining white mica are sigmoidal in shape suggesting the presence of multiple generations of white mica, the last of which probably grew below the blocking temperature for retention of argon in muscovite ([approximately]350 C). Interpretation of these complex spectra suggest that most of the cleavage-defining white mica may have formed below [approximately]350 C during the Late Paleozoic Alleghanian orogeny. However, these complex age spectra, together with age spectra from cleavage-defining phlogopite from a marble in the Fauquier Formation and biotite in the Late Proterozoic Robertson River Igneous Suite suggest the existence of an earlier episode of white mica growth of Middle Paleozoic age that has not been thermally reset or totally recrystallized. High temperature release steps can be interpreted to represent times of cooling through closure during the Middle Paleozoic. Low-temperature steps of these same age spectra suggest final closure or partial resetting of the samples at about 200 Ma or less and are interpreted to represent the effects of Mesozoic rifting.

  18. Groundwater quality in the Valley and Ridge and Piedmont and Blue Ridge carbonate-rock aquifers, eastern United States (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Valley and Ridge and Piedmont and Blue Ridge carbonate-rock aquifers constitute two of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 15 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 17 percent. Organic constituents were not detected at high concentrations in the study area. One or more organic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at moderate concentrations in about 2 percent of the study area.

  19. Solar cell with doped groove regions separated by ridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molesa, Steven Edward; Pass, Thomas; Kraft, Steve


    Solar cells with doped groove regions separated by ridges and methods of fabricating solar cells are described. In an example, a solar cell includes a substrate having a surface with a plurality of grooves and ridges. A first doped region of a first conductivity type is disposed in a first of the grooves. A second doped region of a second conductivity type, opposite the first conductivity type, is disposed in a second of the grooves. The first and second grooves are separated by one of the ridges.

  20. Examining Geospatial Technology Tools to Compensate for Limited Exposures and Integrate Diverse Map and Data Resources in Geological Studies of the Southern Blue Ridge (United States)

    Collins, N.; Ryan, J. G.


    Constraining the tectonic and metamorphic history of rock units in the southern Blue Ridge of western North Carolina is complicated by limited exposures and extensive vegetative cover, as well as burial by human development. Integrating varied data sources for field relations using cyberinformation tools may provide a means around such difficulties. We are examining several different Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tools as a means for effectively integrating available map data, both toward meeting research objectives as well as to facilitate classroom and field instruction. Commercial GIS platforms like ArcGIS and associated software can effectively integrate diverse geoscience information resources within a single platform. The Internet provides free access to databases ranging from geochemical datasets to topographical and structural data. Public domain geochemical databases like EarthChem provide spatially controlled elemental data on rock samples collected by many researchers over extended periods. Once incorporated within the ArcGIS template, this information can then be exported into free geospatial visualization applications such as Goggle Earth, as well as 3D manipulation programs like Fledermaus. Geospatially controlled USGS and NCGS geologic maps and geophysical datasets provide a useful base for examining mafic and ultramafic rock exposures in the Blue Ridge. One can resolve the exposures of specific rock types from these map resources within ArcGIS, as well as fault locations, and magnetics and gravity data. High-resolution DEMs permit data-intensive focusing on areas of interest, and Fledermaus manipulations permit 3D visualization. The output maps and visualizations are of publishable quality, and permit the manipulation of data across a region to infer contact trends and/or chemical or mineralogical, as well as to identify discontinuities that may be geologically relevant. “All-in-one” GIS applications like GeoMapApp have many of these

  1. Climate change and Elevational Dependence at a Mid-Latitude Mountain System, Niwot Ridge, Colorado Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Williams, M. W.; Kittel, T.; Hartman, M.; Ackerman, T.; Losleben, M.


    Mid-latitude mountain systems are critically sensitive to recent and projected climate change under an elevated greenhouse gas world. It is often taken that climatic change at high elevation sites will reflect those at lower sites - regional warming is assumed to be consistently played out in mountains, or even amplified by the snow-albedo feedback. The anticipated outcome is that the alpine will eventually be "pushed off the top of mountains." There are several reasons why this might not be the case, or at least considerably delayed - one is whether high elevation climates reasonably reflect regional lowland trends or if they are decoupled from them as a result of mountain climatic processes. We evaluated standard climatological variables (minimum & maximum temperature, precipitation) and derived variables [diurnal temperature range, growing season length (using both 0° & -3°C thresholds), and growing degree days (0°C base)] from subalpine (C1, 3048m) and high alpine (D1, 3749m) sites from 1953 to 2006 at Niwot Ridge in Colorado, the longest high- elevation climate record in the US. Over the last 54 years, mean maximum temperature (Tmax) increased through much of the year in the subalpine (trend in annual Tmax=+0.4°C/decade), but in the alpine decreased in early winter (-0.4 to -0.6°C/decade). These patterns resulted in altered seasonal cycles for the two sites, but in different ways: a positive offset in the subalpine (C1) and amplification in the alpine. Precipitation increased at the alpine site from October through April (trend in annual ppt=+100mm/decade), but not during any season in the subalpine. At both sites, summer onset is later and termination earlier, so that the "growing season" has shortened - this reflects long-term tendencies in minimum temperatures. An apparent contradiction is that growing degree-days have gone up at the subalpine site; this due to the positive trend in maximum temperatures. The alpine showed no corresponding trend. An

  2. Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bätzing


    Full Text Available Reviewed: Die schweizerischen Berggebiete in der Politik [ Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies] By Gilles Rudaz and Bernard Debarbieux. Translated from French (see below. Zurich, Switzerland: vdf Hochschulverlag, 2014. 136 pp. CHF 24.00, € 21.00. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-7281-3604-6. Reviewed: La montagne Suisse en politique [ Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies] By Gilles Rudaz and Bernard Debarbieux. Lausanne, Switzerland: Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, 2013. 128 pp. CHF 17.50. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-2-88915-043-4.

  3. Geographic information system documentation of watershed data for Direct/Delayed Response Project. Southern Blue Ridge Province data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortenson, D.C.


    The Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) was designed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program to predict the long-term response of watersheds and surface waters to acidic deposition. The purpose of the DDRP is to investigate and distinguish the time scales over which surface-water systems might change chemically under varying levels of acidic deposition. The DDRP is examining a subset of watersheds sampled as part of the National Surface Water Survey. In the Southern Blue Ridge Province Region of the United States, 35 watersheds are under study. The DDRP required detailed watershed information on those characteristics thought important relative to the effects of acid deposition. The information was then mapped, then entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS). The document discuss protocols, guidelines, and standards used to complete GIS entry of the mapping data, and quality-control procedures were used to ensure accuracy and consistency.

  4. Cenozoic tectono-thermal history of the Tordrillo Mountains, Alaska: Paleocene-Eocene ridge subduction, decreasing relief, and late Neogene faulting (United States)

    Benowitz, Jeff A.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Layer, Paul W.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Wallace, Wes K.; Gillis, Robert J.


    Topographic development inboard of the continental margin is a predicted response to ridge subduction. New thermochronology results from the western Alaska Range document ridge subduction related orogenesis. K-feldspar thermochronology (KFAT) of bedrock samples from the Tordrillo Mountains in the western Alaska Range complement existing U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and AFT (apatite fission track) data to provide constraints on Paleocene pluton emplacement, and cooling as well as Late Eocene to Miocene vertical movements and exhumation along fault-bounded blocks. Based on the KFAT analysis we infer rapid exhumation-related cooling during the Eocene in the Tordrillo Mountains. Our KFAT cooling ages are coeval with deposition of clastic sediments in the Cook Inlet, Matanuska Valley and Tanana basins, which reflect high-energy depositional environments. The Tordrillo Mountains KFAT cooling ages are also the same as cooling ages in the Iliamna Lake region, the Kichatna Mountains of the western Alaska Range, and Mt. Logan in the Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains, thus rapid cooling at this time encompasses a broad region inboard of, and parallel to, the continental margin extending for several hundred kilometers. We infer these cooling events and deposition of clastic rocks are related to thermal effects that track the eastward passage of a slab window in Paleocene-Eocene time related to the subduction of the proposed Resurrection-Kula spreading ridge. In addition, we conclude that the reconstructed KFATmax negative age-elevation relationship is likely related to a long period of decreasing relief in the Tordrillo Mountains.

  5. Integrating Science into Management of Ecosystems in the Greater Blue Mountains (United States)

    Chapple, Rosalie S.; Ramp, Daniel; Bradstock, Ross A.; Kingsford, Richard T.; Merson, John A.; Auld, Tony D.; Fleming, Peter J. S.; Mulley, Robert C.


    Effective management of large protected conservation areas is challenged by political, institutional and environmental complexity and inconsistency. Knowledge generation and its uptake into management are crucial to address these challenges. We reflect on practice at the interface between science and management of the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (GBMWHA), which covers approximately 1 million hectares west of Sydney, Australia. Multiple government agencies and other stakeholders are involved in its management, and decision-making is confounded by numerous plans of management and competing values and goals, reflecting the different objectives and responsibilities of stakeholders. To highlight the complexities of the decision-making process for this large area, we draw on the outcomes of a recent collaborative research project and focus on fire regimes and wild-dog control as examples of how existing knowledge is integrated into management. The collaborative research project achieved the objectives of collating and synthesizing biological data for the region; however, transfer of the project's outcomes to management has proved problematic. Reasons attributed to this include lack of clearly defined management objectives to guide research directions and uptake, and scientific information not being made more understandable and accessible. A key role of a local bridging organisation (e.g., the Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute) in linking science and management is ensuring that research results with management significance can be effectively transmitted to agencies and that outcomes are explained for nonspecialists as well as more widely distributed. We conclude that improved links between science, policy, and management within an adaptive learning-by-doing framework for the GBMWHA would assist the usefulness and uptake of future research.

  6. Integrating science into management of ecosystems in the Greater Blue Mountains. (United States)

    Chapple, Rosalie S; Ramp, Daniel; Bradstock, Ross A; Kingsford, Richard T; Merson, John A; Auld, Tony D; Fleming, Peter J S; Mulley, Robert C


    Effective management of large protected conservation areas is challenged by political, institutional and environmental complexity and inconsistency. Knowledge generation and its uptake into management are crucial to address these challenges. We reflect on practice at the interface between science and management of the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (GBMWHA), which covers approximately 1 million hectares west of Sydney, Australia. Multiple government agencies and other stakeholders are involved in its management, and decision-making is confounded by numerous plans of management and competing values and goals, reflecting the different objectives and responsibilities of stakeholders. To highlight the complexities of the decision-making process for this large area, we draw on the outcomes of a recent collaborative research project and focus on fire regimes and wild-dog control as examples of how existing knowledge is integrated into management. The collaborative research project achieved the objectives of collating and synthesizing biological data for the region; however, transfer of the project's outcomes to management has proved problematic. Reasons attributed to this include lack of clearly defined management objectives to guide research directions and uptake, and scientific information not being made more understandable and accessible. A key role of a local bridging organisation (e.g., the Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute) in linking science and management is ensuring that research results with management significance can be effectively transmitted to agencies and that outcomes are explained for nonspecialists as well as more widely distributed. We conclude that improved links between science, policy, and management within an adaptive learning-by-doing framework for the GBMWHA would assist the usefulness and uptake of future research.

  7. Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.


    Highlights of major research accomplishments concerned with the tectonics and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain Region include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; recognition of significance of pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; compilation of map of quaternary faulting in Southern Amargosa Valley; and preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain.

  8. Bacteria and Turbidity Survey for Blue Mountain Lake, Arkansas, Spring and Summer, 1994 (United States)

    Lasker, A. Dwight


    Introduction Blue Mountain Lake darn is located at river mile 74.4 on the Petit Jean River in Logan and Yell Counties in west-central Arkansas (fig. 1). Drainage area above the darn is 488 square miles. Blue Mountain Lake is located between two national forests-the Ozark National Forest and the Ouachita National Forest. The primary purpose for Blue Mountain Lake is flood control, but the lake is used for a variety of recreational purposes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.s. Army Corps of Engineers, Little Rock District, conducted a bacterial and turbidity study of the Blue Mountain Lake Basin during the spring and suri1mer 1994. Samples were collected weekly at 11 locations within the lake basin from May through September 1994. Eight sampling sites were located on tributaries to the lake and three sampling sites were located on the lake with one of the sites located at a swim beach (fig. 2; table 1).

  9. Adapting Natural Resource Management to Climate Change: The Blue Mountains and Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnerships (United States)

    Halofsky, J.; Peterson, D. L.


    Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help natural resource managers take the first steps to incorporate climate change into management and take advantage of opportunities to balance the negative effects of climate change. We recently initiated two science-management climate change adaptation partnerships, one with three national forests and other key stakeholders in the Blue Mountains region of northeastern Oregon, and the other with 16 national forests, three national parks and other stakeholders in the northern Rockies region. Goals of both partnerships were to: (1) synthesize published information and data to assess the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of key resource areas, including water use, infrastructure, fisheries, and vegetation and disturbance; (2) develop science-based adaptation strategies and tactics that will help to mitigate the negative effects of climate change and assist the transition of biological systems and management to a warmer climate; (3) ensure adaptation strategies and tactics are incorporated into relevant planning documents; and (4) foster an enduring partnership to facilitate ongoing dialogue and activities related to climate change in the partnerships regions. After an initial vulnerability assessment by agency and university scientists and local resource specialists, adaptation strategies and tactics were developed in a series of scientist-manager workshops. The final vulnerability assessments and adaptation actions are incorporated in technical reports. The partnerships produced concrete adaptation options for national forest and other natural resource managers and illustrated the utility of place-based vulnerability assessments and scientist-manager workshops in adapting to climate change.

  10. Unintended de-marketing manages visitor demand in Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area


    Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel


    Kotler and Levy (1971, p.76) introduced the term ‘de-marketing’, defined as ‘that aspect of marketing that deals with discouraging customers in general or a certain class of customers in particular on either a temporary or permanent basis’. Subsequently, Groff (1998) interpreted the concept in the context of parks and recreation administration. Recently, Armstrong and Kern (2011) used the concept to underpin their investigation of visitor demand management within the Greater Blue Mountains Wo...

  11. Road and Street Centerlines, Blue Mountain, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Blue Mountain'. The extent of these...

  12. Road and Street Centerlines, Blue Mountain Events, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Blue Mountain Events'. The extent of...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONESCU Daniela


    Full Text Available The mountain regions in Romania and European Union represent a special territory of interest, with a huge economic, social, environmental and cultural potential. More, mountain area is considerate a natural-economic region and constitutes an important objective for regional development policy. The main sectors of mountain area are presented in agriculture and tourism fields that lead the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system and thereby maintaining the general living and working space.Mountain areas should have a specific policy defined by the sustainable development principle, which meets the needs of the present without compromising the opportunities of future generations. The specific mountain policy aims to reduce the imbalance between favored and disadvantaged mountain regions, permanently marked by natural, economic, social, cultural and environmental constraints. In previous programming period, mountain regions among have profited from the intensive regional support, in specially, for constructing of and connecting them to fresh water and waste water networks, in particular for increasing of life quality. In context of 2020 Strategy, the Member States will concentrate investments on a small number of thematic objectives. In advanced regions, 60 % of funds will used for only two of these objectives (competitiveness of SME and research/innovation. The all less developed regions will received about 50% of Structural Funds In Romania, mountain representing 29.93% out of the total national surface and 20.14% from UAA (Utilised Agricultural Area of total national. The mountain territory has around 20% of the national population and is overlapping almost 100% with the Carpathian Mountains. Due to these conditions, Romania's regional development policy must take into account the specificities of mountain area, the problems they faced, and the requirements of 2020 Strategy.This paper presents the main aspects to be taken into account

  14. Hydrogeologic unit map of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Payne, R.A.


    The numerous geologic formations and rock types in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina have been grouped into 21 hydrogeologic units on the basis of their water-bearing potential as determined from rock origin, composition, and texture. All major classes of rocks--metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary--are present, although metamorphic rocks are the most abundant. The origin of the hydrogeologic units is indicated by the rock class or subclass (metaigneous, metavolanic, or metasedimentary). The composition of the igneous, metaigneous, and metavolcanic rocks is designated as felsic, intermediate, or mafic except for the addition in the metavolcanic group of epiclastic rocks and compositionally undifferentiated rocks. Composition is the controlling attribute in the classification of the metasedimentary units of gneiss (mafic or felsic), marble, quartzite. The other metasediments are designated primarily on the basis of texture (grain size, degree of metamorphism, and development of foliation). Sedimentary rocks occur in the Piedmont in several downfaulted basins. A computerized data file containing records from more than 6,200 wells was analyzed to determine average well yields in each of the 21 units. The well yields were adjusted to an average well depth of 154 feet and an average diameter of 6 inches, the average of all wells in the data set, to remove the variation in well yield attributed to differences in depth and diameter. Average yields range from a high of 23.6 gallons per minute for schist to a low 11.6 gallons per minute for sedimentary rocks of Triassic age.

  15. Time Variability of Surface-Layer Characteristics over a Mountain Ridge in the Central Himalayas During the Spring Season (United States)

    Solanki, Raman; Singh, Narendra; Kiran Kumar, N. V. P.; Rajeev, K.; Dhaka, S. K.


    We present the diurnal variations of surface-layer characteristics during spring (March-May 2013) observed near a mountain ridge at Nainital (29.4°N, 79.5°E, 1926 m above mean sea level), a hill station located in the southern part of the central Himalayas. During spring, this region generally witnesses fair-weather conditions and significant solar heating of the surface, providing favourable conditions for the systematic diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer. We mainly utilize the three-dimensional wind components and virtual temperature observed with sonic anemometers (sampling at 25 Hz) mounted at 12- and 27-m heights on a meteorological tower. Tilt corrections using the planar-fit method have been applied to convert the measurements to streamline-following coordinate system before estimating turbulence parameters. The airflow at this ridge site is quite different from slope flows. Notwithstanding the prevalence of strong large-scale north-westerly winds, the diurnal variation of the mountain circulation is clearly discernible with the increase of wind speed and a small but distinct change in wind direction during the afternoon period. Such an effect further modulates the surface-layer water vapour content, which increases during the daytime and results in the development of boundary-layer clouds in the evening. The sensible heat flux ( H) shows peak values around noon, with its magnitude increasing from March (222± 46 W m^{-2}) to May (353± 147 W m^{-2}). The diurnal variation of turbulent kinetic energy ( e) is insignificant during March while its mean value is enhanced by 30-50 % of the post-midnight value during the afternoon (1400-1600 IST), delayed by {≈ }2 h compared to the peak in H. This difference between the phase variations of incoming shortwave flux, H and e primarily arise due to the competing effects of turbulent eddies produced by thermals and wind shear, the latter increase significantly with time until nighttime during April

  16. Contributions of Phosphorus from Groundwater to Streams in the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Physiographic Provinces, Eastern United States (United States)

    Denver, Judith M.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Ator, Scott W.; Lindsey, Bruce D.


    Phosphorus from natural and human sources is likely to be discharged from groundwater to streams in certain geochemical environments. Water-quality data collected from 1991 through 2007 in paired networks of groundwater and streams in different hydrogeologic and land-use settings of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Physiographic Provinces in the eastern United States were compiled and analyzed to evaluate the sources, fate, and transport of phosphorus. The median concentrations of phosphate in groundwater from the crystalline and siliciclastic bedrock settings (0.017 and 0.020 milligrams per liter, respectively) generally were greater than the median for the carbonate setting (less than 0.01 milligrams per liter). In contrast, the median concentrations of dissolved phosphate in stream base flow from the crystalline and siliciclastic bedrock settings (0.010 and 0.014 milligrams per liter, respectively) were less than the median concentration for base-flow samples from the carbonate setting (0.020 milligrams per liter). Concentrations of phosphorus in many of the stream base-flow and groundwater samples exceeded ecological criteria for streams in the region. Mineral dissolution was identified as the dominant source of phosphorus in the groundwater and stream base flow draining crystalline or siliciclastic bedrock in the study area. Low concentrations of dissolved phosphorus in groundwater from carbonate bedrock result from the precipitation of minerals and (or) from sorption to mineral surfaces along groundwater flow paths. Phosphorus concentrations are commonly elevated in stream base flow in areas underlain by carbonate bedrock, however, presumably derived from in-stream sources or from upland anthropogenic sources and transported along short, shallow groundwater flow paths. Dissolved phosphate concentrations in groundwater were correlated positively with concentrations of silica and sodium, and negatively with alkalinity and concentrations of calcium

  17. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    Clark, Sandra H.B.


    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  18. Early to Middle Ordovician back-arc basin in the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge: characteristics, extent, and tectonic significance (United States)

    Tull, James; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; Barineau, Clinton I.


    Fault-dismembered segments of a distinctive, extensive, highly allochthonous, and tectonically significant Ordovician (ca. 480–460 Ma) basin, which contains suites of bimodal metavolcanic rocks, associated base metal deposits, and thick immature deep-water (turbiditic) metasediments, occur in parts of the southern Appalachian Talladega belt, eastern Blue Ridge, and Inner Piedmont of Alabama, Georgia, and North and South Carolina. The basin's predominantly metasedimentary strata display geochemical and isotopic evidence of a mixed provenance, including an adjacent active volcanic arc and a provenance of mica (clay)-rich sedimentary and felsic plutonic rocks consistent with Laurentian (Grenvillian) upper-crustal continental rocks and their passive-margin cover sequences. Geochemical characteristics of the subordinate intercalated bimodal metavolcanic rocks indicate formation in a suprasubduction environment, most likely a back-arc basin, whereas characteristics of metasedimentary units suggest deposition above Neoproterozoic rift and outer-margin lower Paleozoic slope and rise sediments within a marginal basin along Ordovician Laurentia's Iapetus margin. This tectonic setting indicates that southernmost Appalachian Ordovician orogenesis (Taconic orogeny) began as an extensional accretionary orogen along the outer margin of Laurentia, rather than in an exotic (non-Laurentian) arc collisional setting. B-type subduction polarity requires that the associated arc-trench system formed southeast of the palinspastic position of the back-arc basin. This scenario can explain several unique features of the southern Appalachian Taconic orogen, including: the palinspastic geographic ordering of key tectonic elements (i.e., back-arc, arc, etc.), and a lack of (1) an obducted arc sensu stricto on the Laurentian margin, (2) widespread Ordovician regional metamorphism, and (3) Taconic klippen to supply detritus to the Taconic foreland basin.

  19. Ecological and economic services provided by birds on Jamaican Blue Mountain coffee farms. (United States)

    Kellermann, Jherime L; Johnson, Matthew D; Stercho, Amy M; Hackett, Steven C


    Coffee farms can support significant biodiversity, yet intensification of farming practices is degrading agricultural habitats and compromising ecosystem services such as biological pest control. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the world's primary coffee pest. Researchers have demonstrated that birds reduce insect abundance on coffee farms but have not documented avian control of the berry borer or quantified avian benefits to crop yield or farm income. We conducted a bird-exclosure experiment on coffee farms in the Blue Mountains, Jamaica, to measure avian pest control of berry borers, identify potential predator species, associate predator abundance and borer reductions with vegetation complexity, and quantify resulting increases in coffee yield. Coffee plants excluded from foraging birds had significantly higher borer infestation, more borer broods, and greater berry damage than control plants. We identified 17 potential predator species (73% were wintering Neotropical migrants), and 3 primary species composed 67% of migrant detections. Average relative bird abundance and diversity and relative resident predator abundance increased with greater shade-tree cover. Although migrant predators overall did not respond to vegetation complexity variables, the 3 primary species increased with proximity to noncoffee habitat patches. Lower infestation on control plants was correlated with higher total bird abundance, but not with predator abundance or vegetation complexity. Infestation of fruit was 1-14% lower on control plants, resulting in a greater quantity of saleable fruits that had a market value of US$44-$105/ha in 2005/2006. Landscape heterogeneity in this region may allow mobile predators to provide pest control broadly, despite localized farming intensities. These results provide the first evidence that birds control coffee berry borers and thus increase coffee yield and farm income, a potentially important conservation incentive for producers.

  20. Reevaluating the age of the Walden Creek Group and the kinematic evolution of the western Blue Ridge, southern Appalachians (United States)

    Thigpen, J. Ryan; Hatcher, Robert D.; Kah, Linda C.; Repetski, John E.


    An integrated synthesis of existing datasets (detailed geologic mapping, geochronologic, paleontologic, geophysical) with new paleontologic and geochemical investigations of rocks previously interpreted as part of the Neoproterozoic Walden Creek Group in southeastern Tennessee suggest a necessary reevaluation of the kinematics and structural architecture of the Blue Ridge Foothills. The western Blue Ridge of Tennessee, North Carolina, and Georgia is composed of numerous northwest-directed early and late Paleozoic thrust sheets, which record pronounced variation in stratigraphic/structural architecture and timing of metamorphism. The detailed spatial, temporal, and kinematic relationships of these rocks have remained controversial. Two fault blocks that are structurally isolated between the Great Smoky and Miller Cove-Greenbrier thrust sheets, here designated the Maggies Mill and Citico thrust sheets, contain Late Ordovician-Devonian conodonts and stable isotope chemostratigraphic signatures consistent with a mid-Paleozoic age. Geochemical and paleontological analyses of Walden Creek Group rocks northwest and southeast of these two thrust sheets, however, are more consistent with a Late Neoproterozoic (550–545 Ma) depositional age. Consequently, the structural juxtaposition of mid-Paleozoic rocks within a demonstrably Neoproterozoic-Cambrian succession between the Great Smoky and Miller Cove-Greenbrier thrust sheets suggests that a simple foreland-propagating thrust sequence model is not applicable in the Blue Ridge Foothills. We propose that these younger rocks were deposited landward of the Ocoee Supergroup, and were subsequently plucked from the Great Smoky fault footwall as a horse, and breached through the Great Smoky thrust sheet during Alleghanian emplacement of that structure.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011 (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.


    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  2. Geomorphic Evidence of Ancient Catastrophic Flow Type Landslides in the Mid-mountain Ridges of the Western Flysch Carpathian Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Ancient flow type landslides are relatively frequent fossil forms of the relief in mid-mountain conditions of the Czech Carpathian Mountains.Sixty rather distinctive displays of debris flows,rock avalanches,and debris avalanches have been mapped in the uppermost part of the territory.Unlike contemporary sporadic and low volume debris flows,ancient (Pleistocene and Lower Holocene) accumulations are a few orders of magnitude more extensive and were of considerable geomorphologic significance in forming the steep sections of mountain valleys and slopes.This geomorphic pattern does not hold for flow type slides,the source of which is material released as a consequence of numerous deep-seated landslides.Due to deep disruption of slopes,a few high-magnitude flow type landslides (e.g.,rock avalanches),quite rare in flysch mid-mountain conditions,also occurred in the Late Holocene.

  3. Traumatic injuries occurring in possums and gliders in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales. (United States)

    Hemsley, S; Canfield, P


    Twenty common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), 23 ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus) and five sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps) from the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia were evaluated for traumatic injuries between 1989 and 1990. Ten brushtail possums and five ringtail possums were hit by motor vehicles with injuries primarily to the anterior of the body. Fifteen ringtail possums and all sugar gliders were attacked by cats. Four brushtail possums were attacked by dogs. The remaining nine possums had evidence of intraspecific fighting (n = 2) or other types of trauma. Brushtail and ringtail possums were presented primarily during their main breeding seasons. There was no sex predilection. More ringtail than brushtail possums were subadults and these were injured primarily at the time of dispersal.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Lemko


    Full Text Available This paper, presented at the Conference Plenary, is devoted to the problem of formation of values and value orientations of a personality in mountain regions. The author asserts that value orientation in mountain regions is a complex formation, which includes different levels and forms of interaction of public and individual personality. The article also regards and analyzes the hierarchy of values. It is mentioned that the personality value orientations in mountain regions don’t only determine the motivation of individual behavior but also forms his world outlook. The special attention is also devoted to the pseudo-values. The author points out that they do not contribute to human self-realization. The article also analyzes the reasons of forming of the value orientation in mountain regions and gives the classification of people in accordance with the commitment to certain values. The author touches the problem of cultural values of modern youth, the influence of electronic mass media and comes to the conclusion that classical culture begins to lose value and attractiveness. In conclusion the author says that the valued orientations in mountain regions occupy the central place in the psychical adjusting of man’s behavior. That is why considerable attention is spared to the study of valued-semantic sphere of personality on the modern stage of development of pedagogical science.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todt Horst


    Full Text Available The paper gives a critical assessment of the theses of UNWTO that tourism is an effective means of developing whole regions especially difficult aeries such as mountain regions. Growth Pole Theory and Economic Base Theory are used as methodological base.

  6. The use of remote sensing to quantify wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range, Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teferi


    Full Text Available Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services such as storing and regulating water flows and water quality, providing unique habitats to flora and fauna, and regulating micro-climatic conditions. Conversion of wetlands for agricultural use is a widespread practice in Ethiopia, particularly in the southwestern part where wetlands cover large areas. Although there are many studies on land cover and land use changes in this region, comprehensive studies on wetlands are still missing. Hence, extent and rate of wetland loss at regional scales is unknown. The objective of this paper is to quantify wetland dynamics and estimate wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range (area covering 17 443 km2 in the Upper Blue Nile basin, a key headwater region of the river Nile. Therefore, satellite remote sensing imagery of the period 1986–2005 were considered. To create images of surface reflectance that are radiometrically consistent, a combination of cross-calibration and atmospheric correction (Vogelman-DOS3 methods was used. A hybrid supervised/unsupervised classification approach was used to classify the images. Overall accuracies of 94.1% and 93.5% and Kappa Coefficients of 0.908 and 0.913 for the 1986 and 2005 imageries, respectively were obtained. The results showed that 607 km2 of seasonal wetland with low moisture and 22.4 km2 of open water are lost in the study area during the period 1986 to 2005. The current situation in the wetlands of Choke Mountain is characterized by further degradation which calls for wetland conservation and rehabilitation efforts through incorporating wetlands into watershed management plans.

  7. The use of remote sensing to quantify wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range, Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teferi


    Full Text Available Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services such as storing and regulating water flows and water quality, providing unique habitats to flora and fauna, and regulating micro-climatic conditions. Conversion of wetlands for agricultural use is a widespread practice in Ethiopia, particularly in the southwestern part where wetlands cover large areas. Although there are many studies on land cover and land use changes in this region, comprehensive studies on wetlands are still missing. Hence, extent and rate of wetland loss at regional scale is unknown. The objective of this paper is to quantify wetland dynamics and estimate wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range (area covering 17 443 km2 in the Upper Blue Nile basin, a key headwater region of the river Nile. Therefore, satellite remote sensing images of the period 1986–2005 were considered. To create images of surface reflectance that are radiometrically consistent, a combination of cross-calibration and atmospheric correction (Vogelman-DOS3 methods was used. A hybrid supervised/unsupervised classification approach was used to classify the images. Overall accuracies of 94.1% and 93.5% and Kappa Coefficients of 0.908 and 0.913 for the 1986 and 2005 imageries, respectively were obtained. The results showed that 607 km2 of seasonal wetland with low moisture and 22.4 km2 of open water are lost in the study area during the period 1986 to 2005. The current situation in the wetlands of Choke Mountain is characterized by further degradation which calls for wetland conservation and rehabilitation efforts through incorporating wetlands into watershed management plans.

  8. Humus and Humic Acids of Luvisol and Cambisol of Jiguli Ridges, Samara Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Abakumov


    Full Text Available Luvisols and Cambisols are two types of sub-boreal soils, which are known as continental and humid-ocean types of soils in deciduous forests respectively. Morphological features of soil, which are frequently used as the main argument in solum diagnostics, are subjective and do not give final decision that continental Cambisols are a specific type of soils different from Luvisols. These soils were studied in a mountain massive—Jiguli ridges of Samara region, Russia, East European part. Humid climate of northern slopes leads to formation of brown type of humic acids (HA, while the conditions of eastern slopes assist to formation of gray HA. These HAs of different soils are different in elemental composition (C and N are higher in Cambisols, O is higher in Luvisols, carbon species according to 13-C NMR (aromaticity is higher in Luvisols, while the aliphatic, carbonylic and carboxylic compounds are higher in Cambisols. Cambisols are characterized by dominance of fulvic acids (FAs on HAs, while the ratio of HA to FA groups in Luvisols is about 1,0. Essential differences in humus composition and humic acids properties confirm that local humid climate in continental forest-steppe leads to formation of Cambisols instead of zonal Luvisols.

  9. Hart Mountain - Control of Cheatgrass in the Poker Jim Ridge Juniper Removal Area (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since 2011 the Sheldon-Hart Mountain NWR Complex (Complex) has removed encroaching western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) from within approximately 5,470 acres on...

  10. Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions: Southeastern Europe, and Sustainable Mountain Regions: Challenges and Perspectives in Southeastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F. Price


    Full Text Available Reviewed: Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions: Southeastern Europe Edited by Georgi Zhelezov. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2016. xiv + 404 pp. Hardcover: US$ 129.00, ISBN 978-3-319-20109-2. E-book: US$ 99.00, ISBN 978-3-319- 20110-8. Reviewed: Sustainable Mountain Regions: Challenges and Perspectives in Southeastern Europe Edited by Boian Koulov and Georgi Zhelezov. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2016. xvi + 268 pp. Hardcover: US$ 129.00, ISBN 978-3-319-27903-9. E-book: US$ 99.00, ISBN 978-3-319-27905-3.

  11. Geologic map of the Yucca Mountain region, Nye County, Nevada (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Dickerson, Robert P.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Taylor, Emily M.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; San Juan, Carma A.; Day, Warren C.


    Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nev., has been identified as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste. This geologic map compilation, including all of Yucca Mountain and Crater Flat, most of the Calico Hills, western Jackass Flats, Little Skull Mountain, the Striped Hills, the Skeleton Hills, and the northeastern Amargosa Desert, portrays the geologic framework for a saturated-zone hydrologic flow model of the Yucca Mountain site. Key geologic features shown on the geologic map and accompanying cross sections include: (1) exposures of Proterozoic through Devonian strata inferred to have been deformed by regional thrust faulting and folding, in the Skeleton Hills, Striped Hills, and Amargosa Desert near Big Dune; (2) folded and thrust-faulted Devonian and Mississippian strata, unconformably overlain by Miocene tuffs and lavas and cut by complex Neogene fault patterns, in the Calico Hills; (3) the Claim Canyon caldera, a segment of which is exposed north of Yucca Mountain and Crater Flat; (4) thick densely welded to nonwelded ash-flow sheets of the Miocene southwest Nevada volcanic field exposed in normal-fault-bounded blocks at Yucca Mountain; (5) upper Tertiary and Quaternary basaltic cinder cones and lava flows in Crater Flat and at southernmost Yucca Mountain; and (6) broad basins covered by Quaternary and upper Tertiary surficial deposits in Jackass Flats, Crater Flat, and the northeastern Amargosa Desert, beneath which Neogene normal and strike-slip faults are inferred to be present on the basis of geophysical data and geologic map patterns. A regional thrust belt of late Paleozoic or Mesozoic age affected all pre-Tertiary rocks in the region; main thrust faults, not exposed in the map area, are interpreted to underlie the map area in an arcuate pattern, striking north, northeast, and east. The predominant vergence of thrust faults exposed elsewhere in the region, including the Belted Range and Specter Range thrusts, was to the east

  12. Trade-Offs between Ecosystem Services in a Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Briner


    Full Text Available Mountain ecosystems provide a broad range of ecosystem services (ES. Trade-offs between different ES are an important aspect in the assessment of future sustainable land-use. Management of ES in mountain regions must confront the challenges of spatial and temporal heterogeneity, and interaction with structural changes in agriculture and forestry. Using a social-ecological modeling framework, we assess the relationships between forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region in Switzerland. Based on the concept of jointness in production, we evaluated trade-offs and synergies among food provision, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, and protection against natural hazards. Results show that increasing the provision of a focal ES in a mountain region may result in alternating trade-offs and synergies, depending on the interaction of economic and technological interdependencies. Thus, management schemes aiming to increase the provision of one focal ES have to consider not only the technological or biological nature of interrelationships, but also the economic interdependencies among different ES. Trade-offs and synergies from these interactions strongly depend on the underlying structural and environmental conditions driven by socioeconomic and climatic developments.

  13. Task 5 -- Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.


    Progress on the tectonics of the Yucca Mountain region is described. Results are reported in the following: regional overview of structure and geometry of Meozoic thrust faults and folds in the area around Yucca Mountain; Evaluation of pre-middle Miocecne structure of Grapevine Mountains and it`s relation to Bare Mountain; Kinematic analysis of low and high angle normal faults in the Bare Mountain area, and comparison of structures with the Grapevine Mountains; and Evaluation of paleomagnetic character of tertiary and pre-tertiary units in the Yucca Mountain region.

  14. Estimation of Flavonoid Intake in Older Australians: Secondary Data Analysis of the Blue Mountains Eye Study. (United States)

    Kent, Katherine; Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Mitchell, Paul; Flood, Victoria M


    Flavonoids, consumed in plant-based foods, have been linked to risk reduction of cancers, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. The paucity of information on dietary sources and quantities of flavonoid intake in older adults limits interpretation of epidemiological studies that link flavonoid intake with health outcomes in this population. It was our aim to describe total flavonoid intake, including flavonoid subclasses, in older Australians and to identify rich and commonly consumed sources of flavonoids in this age group. Twelve days of weighed food record dietary data from a subsample of the Blue Mountains Eye Study baseline cohort study of older Australians (n = 79) was analyzed using the US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database. Mean intake of flavonoids was estimated to be 683 mg/day (SD = 507) of which flavan-3-ols contributed 92%, followed by flavonols (4%), flavanones (3%), and flavones (<1%). Black tea was the major flavonoid source, providing 89% of total flavonoid intake. No differences in intake between genders were identified. Dietary intake of flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses in older Australians is similar to the one other estimation of intake in Australian older adults and confirms the types of foods that contribute to flavonoid intake among this sample of older Australians.

  15. Abundance, distribution and conservation status of Siberian ibex, Marco Polo and Blue sheep in Karakoram-Pamir mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Khan


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate abundance, distribution, structure and conservation status of three major ungulate species viz., Capra sibirica, Pseudois nayaur and Ovis ammon polii, in the Karakoram-Pamir mountain area between China and Pakistan. Results showed that the entire study area had a scattered but worthwhile population of Siberian ibex, Blue sheep and Marco Polo sheep, except Khunjerab Pass, Koksil-Pateshek and Barkhun areas of Khunjerab National Park (KNP. Large groups of Blue sheep were sighted in Shimshal and Barkhun valleys (KNP but it did not show up in the Muztagh part of Taxkorgan Nature Reserve (TNR in China. Despite scarcity of natural vegetation and extreme climate, estimated abundance of ibex and Marco Polo sheep was not different from that in Protected Areas of Nepal, China, and India, except for Blue sheep. Marco Polo sheep, Blue sheep and Snow leopard roam across international borders among China, Pakistan and other adjacent countries. Illegal hunting and poaching, removal of natural vegetation for fodder and firewood, and over grazing of pastures by livestock were main habitat issues whereas, border fencing for security reasons, has been a major impediment restricting free movement of the wildlife across international borders. A science based conservation and development strategy is proposed to restore viable wildlife populations and maintain ecological flows of Karakoram Pamir Mountains to benefit both the wild species and the local human communities.

  16. 40 CFR 81.153 - Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. (United States)


    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.153 Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Western Mountain Intrastate...

  17. 40 CFR 81.147 - Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. (United States)


    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.147 Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastern Mountain Intrastate...

  18. 40 CFR 81.274 - Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain Counties Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.274 Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  19. Nature Reserve and Ecotourism Development in China's Wuzhishan Mountain Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Genzong; Qiu Penghua; Tang Shaoxia


    As the protected areas of land and coastal environment,nature reserves are designed to address how to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity, the quest for economic and social development and the maintenance of cultural values. This paper establishes a framework for nature reserve development that seeks to incorporate ecotourism into its strategies. The overall purpose was to identify the information needs required for a comprehensive nature reserve that incorporates ecotourism related values. It also illustrates the utility of this framework in the context of the Wuzhishan Mountain Region of China. A literature review, the first phase of a visionary strategy and a subsequent gap analysis for available management information were undertaken in order to achieve this paper's purpose. Finally, recommendations are presented for integrating ecotourism into nature reserve development in the Wuzhishan Mountain Region

  20. Regional Information Group (RIG). Energy, environmental, and socioeconomic data bases and associated software at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebl, A.S.; Malthouse, N.S.; Shonka, D.B.; Ogle, M.C.; Johnson, M.L.


    A machine readable data base has been created by the Regional Information Group, Regional and Urban Studies Section, Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to provide documentation for the energy, environmental, and socioeconomic data bases and associated software maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document is produced yearly by the Regional Information Group to describe the contents and organization of this data base.

  1. Hydrological Modelling of Mountainous and Glacierised regions under Changing Climate


    Li, Hong


    Climate change is one of the most serious environmental threats that humanity has ever been confronted to. Hydrological models are vital tools to asses its impacts on the water cycle and water resources. The goal of this project is to evaluate and improve the capacity of the HBV model (Hydrologiska Byr°ans Vattenbalansavdelning) in simulating hydrological processes in mountainous and glacierised regions under both the present and future climate. This goal is achieved in two steps: (1) impleme...

  2. Predicting spatial patterns of eagle migration using a mesoscale atmospheric model: a case study associated with a mountain-ridge wind development. (United States)

    Ainslie, B; Alexander, N; Johnston, N; Bradley, J; Pomeroy, A C; Jackson, P L; Otter, K A


    High resolution numerical atmospheric modeling around a mountain ridge in Northeastern British Columbia (BC), Canada was performed in order to examine the influence of meteorology and topography on Golden Eagle migration pathways at the meso-scale (tens of km). During three eagle fall migration periods (2007-2009), local meteorological conditions on the day of peak bird counts were modeled using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model. Hourly local surface wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure and relative humidity were also monitored during these migration periods. Eagle migration flight paths were observed from the ground and converted to three-dimensional tracks using ArcGIS. The observed eagle migration flight paths were compared with the modeled vertical velocity wind fields. Flight tracks across the study area were also simulated using the modeled vertical velocity field in a migration model based on a fluid-flow analogy. It was found that both the large-scale weather conditions and the horizontal wind fields across the study area were broadly similar on each of the modeled migration days. Nonetheless, the location and density of flight tracks across the domain varied between days, with the 2007 event producing more tracks to the southwest of the observation location than the other 2 days. The modeled wind fields suggest that it is not possible for the eagles to traverse the study area without leaving updraft regions, but birds do converge on the locations of updrafts as they move through the area. Statistical associations between observed eagles positions and the vertical velocity field suggest that to the northwest (and to a lesser extent the southwest) of the main study ridge (Johnson col), eagles can always find updrafts but that they must pass through downdraft regions in the NE and SE as they make their way across the study area. Finally, the simulated flight tracks based on the fluid-flow model and the vertical

  3. Interactive effects of temperature and glyphosate on the behavior of blue ridge two-lined salamanders (Eurycea wilderae). (United States)

    Gandhi, Jaina S; Cecala, Kristen K


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential interactive effects of stream temperatures and environmentally relevant glyphosate-based herbicide concentrations on movement and antipredator behaviors of larval Eurycea wilderae (Blue Ridge two-lined salamander). Larval salamanders were exposed to 1 of 4 environmentally relevant glyphosate concentrations (0.00 µg acid equivalent [a.e.]/L, 0.73 µg a.e./L, 1.46 µg a.e./L, and 2.92 µg a.e./L) at either ambient (12 °C) or elevated (23 °C) water temperature. Behaviors observed included the exploration of a novel habitat, use of refuge, habitat selection relative to a potential predator, and burst movement distance. In the absence of glyphosate, temperature consistently affected movement and refuge-use behavior, with individuals moving longer distances more frequently and using refuge less at warm temperatures; however, when glyphosate was added, the authors observed inconsistent effects of temperature that may have resulted from differential toxicity at various temperatures. Larval salamanders made shorter, more frequent movements and demonstrated reduced burst distance at higher glyphosate concentrations. The authors also found that lower glyphosate concentrations sometimes had stronger effects than higher concentrations (i.e., nonmonotonic dose responses), suggesting that standard safety tests conducted only at higher glyphosate concentrations might overlook important sublethal effects on salamander behavior. These data demonstrate that sublethal effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on natural behaviors of amphibians can occur with short-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2297-2303. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. Ground Penetrating Radar Profiles of Breached Anticlinal Ridges in the Northern Piedmont of the San Bernardino Mountains in Southern California (United States)

    Bobyarchick, A. R.; Eppes, M. C.; Diemer, J. A.; Cathey, R. B.; Cottingham, M. A.; Eckardt, I. J.; Shiflet, J. E.; Waldron, A. J.


    The northern piedmont of the San Bernardino Mountains contains kinematic elements characteristic of the Mojave block dextral plate boundary zone between the North American and Pacific plates and the complex convergent Transverse Ranges partition of that motion here represented by the North Frontal thrust system. Predominantly lateral slip in the central Mojave block is carried by the Helendale fault through Lucerne Valley and southward to intersect the North Frontal thrust system in the San Bernardino Mountains. Active anticlinal flexures and partially emergent north-verging thrust faults have deformed Pleistocene alluvial fans and older rocks into east-trending ridges in the piedmont on both sides of the Helendale fault. The Cougar Buttes anticline underlies such a ridge east of the fault and is breached by contemporaneous orthogonal washes in several places along strike of the anticline. Greater relief occurs where the alluvial fans comprise carbonate- cemented soils and particularly resistant, prominent petrocalcic horizons. It is within these incised valleys that the sequence of Tertiary through Pleistocene deposits show that the asymmetric anticline is cored by a thrust fault. In order to examine more closely the fold-fault association in the Cougar Buttes anticline and suggest possible kinematic models, we conducted several ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles at different levels across the ridge. Relatively superior relief in some washes allowed us to conduct profiles along the present topographic ridge crests (and thus along the crestal zone of the fold) and also along wash bottoms to provide profiles at the level of the fold's core. We used a GSSI SIR-3000 GPR system equipped with a monostatic 100 MHz antennae set to continuous recording mode; traverses over very irregular ground were done in point data mode. The system was set up with nominal high and low cutoff filters and automatic gain control, but we found that AGC overly amplified multiples or

  5. Tectonic and neotectonic framwork of the Yucca Mountain region, Task 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.


    Research continued on the tectonic and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. Highlights from projects include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Funeral Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; development of structural models for pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; Paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain; sampling of pegmatites in Bullfrog Hills and Funeral Mountains for U-Pb isotopic analysis; and review and analysis of Mesozoic structure between eastern sierra and Nevada test Site.

  6. The digital mapping of satellite images under no ground control and the distribution of landform, blue ice and meteorites in the Grove Mountains, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙家抦; 霍东民; 周军其; 孙朝辉


    The colorful satellite image maps with the scale of 1∶100 000 were made by processing the parameters-on-satellite under the condition of no data of field surveying. The purpose is to ensure the smooth performance of the choice of expedition route, navigation and research task before the Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) first made researches on the Grove Mountains. Moreover, on the basis of the visual interpretation of the satellite image, we preliminarily analyze and discuss the relief and landform, blue ice and meteorite distribution characteristics in the Grove Mountains. Key words Grove Mountains, parameters-on-satellite, satellite image, digital mapping, blue ice, meteorites distribution.

  7. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.241 Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate...

  8. Feeding habitats of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)during winter and spring in Helan Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhensheng; WANG Xiaoming; LI Zhigang; CUI Duoying; LI Xinqing


    The feeding habitat selection of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)was studied by direct observation method in the Helan Mountains,China during winter (from November to December)and spring (from April to June)from 2003 to 2004.We established 25 line transects to collect information on feeding habitats used by blue sheep.Blue sheep in the study area preferred mountain savanna forests,a habitat dominated by Ulmus glaucescens,with medium tree density (<4 individuals/400 m2),moderate tree height (4-6 m),higher shrub density (>5 individuals/100 m2),higher shrub (>1.3 m),higher food abundance (>50 g),moderate distance to human disturbance (<500 m),and mild distance to bare rock (<2 m).Such habitats characterized by 12 ecological factors were preferred as feeding areas by blue sheep during winter.Similar to habitat selection by the species during winter,blue sheep also showed a preference for mountain savanna with tree dominated by Ulmus glaucescens and medium tree density (<4 individuals/400 m2)during spring.Nevertheless,blue sheep preferred medium tree height (<6 m),moderate tree density (5-10 individuals/100 m2),medium shrub height (1.3-1.7 m),higher food abundance (>100 g),moderate altitude (<2 000 m),moderate distance to water resource (<500 m),and medium hiding cover (50%-75%)during spring.Selection of the feeding habitats by sheep showed a significant difference in vegetation type,landform feature,dominant tree,tree height,shrub density,distance to the nearest shrub,food abundance,slope direction,slope degree,distance to water resource,and hiding cover between winter and spring.Results of principal components analysis indicated that the first principal component accounted for 24.493%of the total variance among feeding habitat variance during winter,with higher loadings for vegetation type,dominant tree,tree height,distance to the nearest tree,shrub density,shrub height,altitude,distance to water resource,and distance to human disturbance.In spring

  9. Monitoring of Permafrost in the Hovsgol Mountain Region, Mongolia (United States)

    Sharkhuu, A.; Natsagdorj, S.; Etzelmuller, B.; Heggem, E. S.; Nelson, F. E.; Shiklomanov, N.; Goulden, C.


    The Hovsgol Mountain Region is located between the coordinates of N 49°-52° and E 98°-102 ° in territory of Hovsgol Province, Mongolia. The territory is characterized by mountain permafrost, sporadic to continuous in its distribution, and occupies the southern fringe of the Siberian continuous permafrost zone. The main goal of permafrost monitoring in the region is to study recent degradation of permafrost under the influence of climate warming and human activities. Monitoring of permafrost is conducted within the framework of the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) and the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) programs. The main parameters being monitored are active layer depth and mean annual permafrost temperature at the level of the zero annual amplitude. Long-term CALM and GTN-P programs are based on ground temperature measurements in shallow to deep boreholes. Each borehole for monitoring is installed using instrumentation designed specifically to protect against air convection in them. Temperature measurements in the boreholes are made using identical thermo-resistors at corresponding depths, and carried out on the same dates each year. In addition, temperature dataloggers and thaw tubes are installed in most of the boreholes. At present, there are eight long-term (15-35 years) CALM and GTN-P active borehole sites. Boreholes are located in the Sharga valley (southwest), Burehkhan and Hovsgol phosphorite areas and Hatgal village (central part of the region) and in the Darhad depression. Initial results of the long term monitoring show that average rates of increase in active layer depth and mean annual permafrost temperature under influence of recent climate warming in the Hovsgol Mountain Region are 5-15 cm and 0.15-0.25°C per decade, respectively. The rate of permafrost degradation in bedrock is greater than in unconsolidated sediments, in ice-poor sediments more than ice-rich ones, and on north-facing slopes more than on south

  10. Winter Group Size and Composition of Blue Sheep(Pseudois nayaur)in the Helan Mountains, China%贺兰山保护区冬季岩羊集群特征的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽荣; 刘振生; 王小明; 胡天华; 翟昊; 侯建海


    Group size and composition of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) were studied in the Helan Mountains, Ningxia Autonomous Region from November to December 2003. We scanned mountain slopes with binoculars and observed with 20 - 60 x spotting-scope. A total of 310 herds of blue sheep and 1 336 individuals were observed during the study period. Blue sheep were frequently seen in small herds of 2 to 8 individuals, which represent 94.8% of total herds observed. Herds consisting of 9 individuals or more represented 5.2%. The largest herd we observed numbered 51 individuals. Mean group size was 4.2 individuals. Blue sheep herds can be divided into three types: male herds (composed solely of males), female herds (consisting of females with or without juveniles of both sexes), and mixed herds (including adult males, females, and subadults). Among the 310 herds, female herds were counted 150 times (48.4%}, mixed herds 154 times (49.7%), and male berds 6 times (1.9%) . Of 1 336 blue sheep classified by sex and age, adults, subadults and juveniles composed 64.1%, 20.8%, and 15.1% respectively. The female: male ratio of adults was 1:0.73. The ratio of adult females to juveniles was 1:0.56, which is higher than the ratio recorded in spring ( 1:0.43) or summer ( 1:0.44). The results showed that the Helan Mountains State Nature Reserve has succeed in protecting blue sheep.

  11. Modelling spatial, altitudinal and temporal variability of annual precipitation in mountainous regions: The case of the Middle Zagros, Iran (United States)

    Saeidabadi, Rashid; Najafi, Mohammed S.; Roshan, GholamReza; Fitchett, Jennifer M.; Abkharabat, Shoaieb


    Relationships between precipitation and elevation are difficult to model for mountainous regions, due to complexities in topography and moisture sources. Attempts to model these relationships need to be tested against long-term location specific meteorological data, and hence require a case-study approach. This study uses artificial neural networks to model these relationships for the Middle of Zagros region, in semi-arid western Iran. Precipitation data for the region were collected for 1995-2007. Annual precipitation was designated as the target variable for the network, which additionally included variables significantly related to precipitation for the region, including longitude, latitude, elevation, slope, distance from the ridge, and relative distance from moisture. Long-term changes in annual precipitation for the region are investigated for 1961-2010. The artificial neural network (ANN) model explains 76% of the spatial variability of precipitation in the Middle Zagros. Precipitation predominantly increases with elevation on the windward slope, to a maximum height of 2500 m.asl, and thereafter either remains constant or decreases slowly to the ridge. Precipitation in the region has decreased significantly over the study period, with fluctuations driven by AO, NAO, ENSO and variability in the strength of pressure centers. Spectral analysis reveals significant oscillations of 2-4 and 5 yr periods, which correspond temporally with cycles in macro-scale circulation, ENSO and the Mediterranean Low pressure.

  12. Curved-region-based ridge frequency estimation and curved Gabor filters for fingerprint image enhancement. (United States)

    Gottschlich, Carsten


    Gabor filters (GFs) play an important role in many application areas for the enhancement of various types of images and the extraction of Gabor features. For the purpose of enhancing curved structures in noisy images, we introduce curved GFs that locally adapt their shape to the direction of flow. These curved GFs enable the choice of filter parameters that increase the smoothing power without creating artifacts in the enhanced image. In this paper, curved GFs are applied to the curved ridge and valley structures of low-quality fingerprint images. First, we combine two orientation-field estimation methods in order to obtain a more robust estimation for very noisy images. Next, curved regions are constructed by following the respective local orientation. Subsequently, these curved regions are used for estimating the local ridge frequency. Finally, curved GFs are defined based on curved regions, and they apply the previously estimated orientations and ridge frequencies for the enhancement of low-quality fingerprint images. Experimental results on the FVC2004 databases show improvements of this approach in comparison with state-of-the-art enhancement methods.

  13. GIS compilation of data collected from the Pulley Ridge Deep Coral Reef region (United States)

    Cross, VeeAnn; Twichell, D.C.; Halley, R.B.; Ciembronowicz, K.T.; Jarrett, B.D.; Hammar-Klose, E.S.; Hine, A.C.; Locker, S.D.; Naar, D.F.


    Pulley Ridge is a chain of drowned barrier islands that extends almost 200 km in 60-90 m water depths (Fig. 1). This drowned ridge is located on the Florida Platform in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico about 250 km west of Cape Sable, Florida (Jarrett and others, 2005). These islands formed during the early Holocene marine transgression approximately 12,000 - 14,000 years before present, and were then submerged by sea level rise and preserved near the outer edge of the Florida Platform. The southern portion of Pulley Ridge is the focus of this study. This area hosts zooxanthellate scleractinian corals, green, red and brown macro algae, and a mix of deep and typically shallow-water tropical fishes. This largely photosynthetic community is unique in that it thrives with less than 5% of the light typically associated with shallow-water reefs with similar fauna.L Several factors help to account for the existence of this unique deep-water community. First, the underlying drowned barrier islands provide both elevated topography and lithified substrate for the establishment of the hardbottom community. Second, the region is commonly bathed by the Loop Current, which brings relatively clear and warm water to this area. Third, the ridge's position on the continental shelf places it within the thermocline which provides nutrients to the reef during upwelling (Halley and others, 2003). The USGS has made two proposals to resource managers for the designation of marine protected areas based on the geophysical and photographic data in this report. The proposals describe areas that may require some regulatory protection of marine life utilizing the sea floor (Fig. 1). The first proposal is that the area of greatest hermatypic coral cover (Fig. 1) is considered for future management actions and designated a Habitat Area of Particular Concern (HAPC) by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council. HAPCs are identified on the basis of habitat level considerations: - The importance

  14. Regional prioritisation of flood risk in mountainous areas (United States)

    Rogelis, María Carolina; Werner, Micha; Obregón, Nelson; Wright, Nigel


    In this paper a method is proposed to identify mountainous watersheds with the highest flood risk at the regional level. Through this, the watersheds to be subjected to more detailed risk studies can be prioritised in order to establish appropriate flood risk management strategies. The prioritisation is carried out through an index composed of a qualitative indicator of vulnerability and a qualitative flash flood/debris flow susceptibility indicator. At the regional level, vulnerability was assessed on the basis of a principal component analysis carried out with variables recognised in literature to contribute to vulnerability, using watersheds as the unit of analysis. The area exposed was obtained from a simplified flood extent analysis at the regional level, which provided a mask where vulnerability variables were extracted. The vulnerability indicator obtained from the principal component analysis was combined with an existing susceptibility indicator, thus providing an index that allows the watersheds to be prioritised in support of flood risk management at regional level. Results show that the components of vulnerability can be expressed in terms of three constituent indicators: (i) socio-economic fragility, which is composed of demography and lack of well-being; (ii) lack of resilience and coping capacity, which is composed of lack of education, lack of preparedness and response capacity, lack of rescue capacity, cohesiveness of the community; and (iii) physical exposure, which is composed of exposed infrastructure and exposed population. A sensitivity analysis shows that the classification of vulnerability is robust for watersheds with low and high values of the vulnerability indicator, while some watersheds with intermediate values of the indicator are sensitive to shifting between medium and high vulnerability.

  15. Physical-Property Measurements on Core samples from Drill-Holes DB-1 and DB-2, Blue Mountain Geothermal Prospect, North-Central Nevada (United States)

    Ponce, David A.; Watt, Janet T.; Casteel, John; Logsdon, Grant


    From May to June 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and measured physical properties on 36 core samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 1 (DB-1) and 46 samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 2 (DB-2) along the west side of Blue Mountain about 40 km west of Winnemucca, Nev. These data were collected as part of an effort to determine the geophysical setting of the Blue Mountain geothermal prospect as an aid to understanding the geologic framework of geothermal systems throughout the Great Basin. The physical properties of these rocks and other rock types in the area create a distinguishable pattern of gravity and magnetic anomalies that can be used to infer their subsurface geologic structure. Drill-holes DB-1 and DB-2 were spudded in alluvium on the western flank of Blue Mountain in 2002 and 2004, respectively, and are about 1 km apart. Drill-hole DB-1 is at a ground elevation of 1,325 m and was drilled to a depth of 672 m and drill-hole DB-2 is at a ground elevation of 1,392 m and was drilled to a depth of 1522 m. Diameter of the core samples is 6.4 cm. These drill holes penetrate Jurassic and Triassic metasedimentary rocks predominantly consisting of argillite, mudstone, and sandstone; Tertiary diorite and gabbro; and younger Tertiary felsic dikes.

  16. Water Quality and Evaluation of Pesticides in Lakes in the Ridge Citrus Region of Central Florida (United States)

    Choquette, Anne F.; Kroening, Sharon E.


    Water chemistry, including major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and pesticide compounds, was compared between seven lakes surrounded by citrus agriculture and an undeveloped lake on the Lake Wales Ridge (herein referred to as the Ridge) in central Florida. The region has been recognized for its vulnerability to the leaching of agricultural chemicals into the subsurface due to factors including soils, climate, and land use. About 40 percent of Florida's citrus cultivation occurs in 'ridge citrus' areas characterized by sandy well drained soils, with the remainder in 'flatwoods citrus' characterized by high water tables and poorly drained soils. The lakes on the Ridge are typically flow-through lakes that exchange water with adjacent and underlying aquifer systems. This study is the first to evaluate the occurrence of pesticides in lakes on the Ridge, and also represents one of the first monitoring efforts nationally to focus on regional-scale assessment of current-use pesticides in small- to moderate-sized lakes (5 to 393 acres). The samples were collected between December 2003 and September 2005. The lakes in citrus areas contained elevated concentrations of major inorganic constituents (including alkalinity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate), total nitrogen, pH, and pesticides compared to the undeveloped lake. Nitrate (as N) and total nitrogen concentrations were typically elevated in the citrus lakes, with maximum values of 4.70 and 5.19 mg/L (milligrams per liter), respectively. Elevated concentrations of potassium, nitrate, and other inorganic constituents in the citrus lakes likely reflect inputs from the surficial ground-water system that originated predominantly from agricultural fertilizers, soil amendments, and inorganic pesticides. A total of 20 pesticide compounds were detected in the lakes, of which 12 compounds exceeded the standardized reporting level of 0.06 ug/L (microgram per liter). Those

  17. Revisiting Sustainable Development of Dry Valleys in Hengduan Mountains Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ya; XIE Jiasui; SUN Hui


    Dry valleys are a striking geographic landscape in Hengduan Mountains Region and are characterized by low rainfall, desert type of vegetation and fragile environment. Past efforts and resources have been concentrated mainly on rehabilitation of degraded ecosystem and fragile environment,particularly reforestation, while socio-economic development has been largely overlooked. Despite successes in pocket areas, the overall trend of unsustainability and environmental deterioration are continuing. It is important to understand that uplift of the Tibetan Plateau is the root cause of development of dry valleys, and development and formation of dry valleys is a natural process. Human intervention has played a secondary role in development of dry valleys and degradation of dry valleys though human intervention in many cases has speeded up environmental degradation of the dry valleys. It is important to understand that dry valleys are climatic enclaves and an integrated approach that combines rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems and socio-economic development should be adopted if the overall goal of sustainable development of dry valleys is to be achieved. Promotion of niche-based cash crops, rural energy including hydropower, solar energy, biogas and fuelwood plantation is recommended as the priority activities.

  18. Curved-Region-Based Ridge Frequency Estimation and Curved Gabor Filters for Fingerprint Image Enhancement (United States)

    Gottschlich, Carsten


    Gabor filters play an important role in many application areas for the enhancement of various types of images and the extraction of Gabor features. For the purpose of enhancing curved structures in noisy images, we introduce curved Gabor filters which locally adapt their shape to the direction of flow. These curved Gabor filters enable the choice of filter parameters which increase the smoothing power without creating artifacts in the enhanced image. In this paper, curved Gabor filters are applied to the curved ridge and valley structure of low-quality fingerprint images. First, we combine two orientation field estimation methods in order to obtain a more robust estimation for very noisy images. Next, curved regions are constructed by following the respective local orientation and they are used for estimating the local ridge frequency. Lastly, curved Gabor filters are defined based on curved regions and they are applied for the enhancement of low-quality fingerprint images. Experimental results on the FVC2004 databases show improvements of this approach in comparison to state-of-the-art enhancement methods.

  19. Integrated and Participatory Research Approaches towards Sustainable Livelihoods and Ecosystems in Mountainous Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Neef; Franz Heidhues; Karl Stahr; David Thomas; Pittaya Sruamsiri


    @@ Mountainous regions cover about 27 per cent of the world's land surface and are home to some 22 per cent of the global population (UNEP 2002). A much greater number of people depend on mountain environments for a wide range of services, including clean water, energy, timber,biodiversity, recreation, and protection from environmental hazards, such as landslides and floods.

  20. Factors controlling the major ion chemistry of streams in the Blue Ridge and Valley and Ridge physiographic provinces of Virginia and Maryland (United States)

    Puckett, L.J.; Bricker, O.P.


    Principal component analysis was used to examine regional patterns in stream chemistry and to examine the degree to which the chemistry of low-order streams is controlled by the bedrock upon which they flow. Streams clustered into regionally isolated groups strongly related to bedrock type, with SO42- and HCO3- the chemical variables of most importance. Sulphate concentrations appear to be strongly controlled by climate and hydrology, and sorption in the soils within the watershed. Much of the atmospherically derived SO42- accumulates in watersheds during the growing season and is later flushed out. Weathering reactions were found to be particularly important in the production of HCO3-, accounting for 91% on an annual basis, and export of divalent cations from these watersheds, accounting for 48-50% on an annual basis. About half of non-anthropogenic Na+ was derived from weathering of silicates, whereas nearly all K+ was identified with leaching by SO42-. Water chemistry was strongly related to the rock type in the watershed and the weatherability of the component minerals. -from Authors

  1. Interaction between the H II region and AFGL 333-Ridge: Implications for the star formation scenario (United States)

    Nakano, Makoto; Soejima, Takashi; Chibueze, James O.; Nagayama, Takumi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Handa, Toshihiro; Sunada, Kazuyoshi; Kamezaki, Tatsuya; Burns, Ross A.


    We investigated the star formation activities in the AFGL 333 region, which is in the vicinity of the W 4 expanding bubble, by conducting NH3 (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) mapping observations with the 45 m Nobeyama Radio Telescope an angular resolution of 75″. The morphology of the NH3 (1,1) map shows a bow-shaped structure with the size of 2.0 × 0.6 pc as seen in the dust continuum. At the interface between the W 4 bubble and the dense NH3 cloud, the compact H II region G134.2+0.8, associated with IRAS 02245+6115, is located. Interestingly, just at the north and south of G134.2+0.8 we found NH3 emission exhibiting large velocity widths of ˜2.8 km s-1, compared to 1.8 km s-1 at the other positions. As the possibility of mechanical energy injection through the activity of young stellar objects (YSOs) is low, we considered the origin of the large turbulent gas motion as an indication of interaction between the compact H II region and the periphery of the dense molecular cloud. We also found expanding motion of the CO emission associated with G134.2+0.8. The overall structure of the AFGL 333-Ridge might have been formed by the expanding bubble of W 4. However, the small velocity widths observed to the west of IRAS 02245+6115, around the center of the dense molecular cloud, suggest that interaction with the compact H II region is limited. Therefore the YSOs (dominantly Class 0/I) in the core of the AFGL 333-Ridge dense molecular cloud most likely formed in quiescent mode. As previously suggested for the large-scale star formation in the W 3 giant molecular cloud, our results show an apparent coexistence of induced and quiescent star formations in this region. It appears that star formation in the AFGL 333 region has proceeded without significant external triggers, but accompanying stellar feedback environment.

  2. Naturally occurring contaminants in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge crystalline-rock aquifers and Piedmont Early Mesozoic basin siliciclastic-rock aquifers, eastern United States, 1994–2008 (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lindsay, Bruce D.


    Groundwater quality and aquifer lithologies in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces in the eastern United States vary widely as a result of complex geologic history. Bedrock composition (mineralogy) and geochemical conditions in the aquifer directly affect the occurrence (presence in rock and groundwater) and distribution (concentration and mobility) of potential naturally occurring contaminants, such as arsenic and radionuclides, in drinking water. To evaluate potential relations between aquifer lithology and the spatial distribution of naturally occurring contaminants, the crystalline-rock aquifers of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces and the siliciclastic-rock aquifers of the Early Mesozoic basin of the Piedmont Physiographic Province were divided into 14 lithologic groups, each having from 1 to 16 lithochemical subgroups, based on primary rock type, mineralogy, and weathering potential. Groundwater-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program from 1994 through 2008 from 346 wells and springs in various hydrogeologic and land-use settings from Georgia through New Jersey were compiled and analyzed for this study. Analyses for most constituents were for filtered samples, and, thus, the compiled data consist largely of dissolved concentrations. Concentrations were compared to criteria for protection of human health, such as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water maximum contaminant levels and secondary maximum contaminant levels or health-based screening levels developed by the USGS NAWQA Program in cooperation with the USEPA, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and Oregon Health & Science University. Correlations among constituent concentrations, pH, and oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions were used to infer geochemical controls on constituent mobility within the aquifers. Of the 23 trace-element constituents evaluated

  3. Association between circulating white blood cell count and long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. (United States)

    Shankar, Anoop; Mitchell, Paul; Rochtchina, Elena; Tan, Jennifer; Wang, Jie Jin


    Inflammatory processes are implicated in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, there are limited data on longitudinal associations between systemic markers of inflammation and AMD. The authors examined the prospective relation between the circulating white blood cell (WBC) count and early and late AMD in a population-based cohort of 3,654 participants, aged 49-97 years, in the Blue Mountains region, Australia. The main outcome of interest was the 10-year incidence of early and late AMD among individuals free from corresponding disease at the baseline (1992-1994). An elevated baseline WBC count was associated with early AMD incidence, independent of smoking and other major confounders. The multivariable relative risk comparing tertile 3 of WBC count (>6.7 x 10(9) cells/liter) with tertile 1 (

  4. Digital modelling of landscape and soil in a mountainous region: A neuro-fuzzy approach (United States)

    Viloria, Jesús A.; Viloria-Botello, Alvaro; Pineda, María Corina; Valera, Angel


    Research on genetic relationships between soil and landforms has largely improved soil mapping. Recent technological advances have created innovative methods for modelling the spatial soil variation from digital elevation models (DEMs) and remote sensors. This generates new opportunities for the application of geomorphology to soil mapping. This study applied a method based on artificial neural networks and fuzzy clustering to recognize digital classes of land surfaces in a mountainous area in north-central Venezuela. The spatial variation of the fuzzy memberships exposed the areas where each class predominates, while the class centres helped to recognize the topographic attributes and vegetation cover of each class. The obtained classes of terrain revealed the structure of the land surface, which showed regional differences in climate, vegetation, and topography and landscape stability. The land-surface classes were subdivided on the basis of the geological substratum to produce landscape classes that additionally considered the influence of soil parent material. These classes were used as a framework for soil sampling. A redundancy analysis confirmed that changes of landscape classes explained the variation in soil properties (p = 0.01), and a Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences (p = 0.01) in clay, hydraulic conductivity, soil organic carbon, base saturation, and exchangeable Ca and Mg between classes. Thus, the produced landscape classes correspond to three-dimensional bodies that differ in soil conditions. Some changes of land-surface classes coincide with abrupt boundaries in the landscape, such as ridges and thalwegs. However, as the model is continuous, it disclosed the remaining variation between those boundaries.

  5. Mountaineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Most young people enjoy some forms of physical activities.It may be walking,cycling or swimming,or in wither,skating or skiing.It may be a game of some kind,football,hockey(曲棍球),golf,or tennis.Perhaps it may be mountaineering.

  6. Comparison of stream macroinvertebrate assemblages in canyon ecosystems of the Blue Mountains (Australia) with and without recreational traffic: a pilot study in impossible terrain


    Hardiman, Nigel


    In Australia, the adventure sport of canyoning occurs predominantly in the protected areas of the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, 50 km west of Sydney. It involves travelling through narrow, deep gorges using a combination of walking, abseiling, wading, rock scrambling and/ or swimming through the canyon streams. The sport’s popularity is reported to have increased substantially over time, causing concern for the sustainability of these fragile ecosystems. To investiga...

  7. Exploring Conservation Options in the Broad-Leaved Korean Pine Mixed Forest of the Changbai Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ma


    Full Text Available The broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis mixed forest (BKPF is one of the most biodiverse zonal communities in the northern temperate zone. Changbai Mountain in northeastern China contains one of the largest BKPFs in the region. The government of China has established a network of 23 nature reserves to protect the BKPF and the species that depend on it for habitat, including the endangered Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica. This study used the conservation planning software C-Plan to calculate the irreplaceability value of each unit to assess how efficiently and comprehensively the existing conservation network supports biodiversity and to identify gap areas that, if integrated into the network, would expand its protection capability. Results show a number of high-conservation-value planning units concentrated along certain ridges. The existing conservation network is structured such that the habitats of only 24 species (out of a total of 75 achieve established conservation targets. Of the other 51 species, 20 achieve less than 50% of their conservation targets. However, expanding the network to include high-conservation-value gap areas could achieve conservation targets for 64 species and could provide different degrees of protection to the other 11 species. Using C-Plan software can guide decision-making to expand the conservation network in this most precious of mountainous ecological zones.

  8. U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite from Mesoproterozoic granitic gneisses of the northern Blue Ridge, Virginia and Maryland, USA (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Burton, W.C.; Lyttle, P.T.; Nelson, A.E.; Southworth, C.S.


    Mesoproterozoic granitic gneisses comprise most of the basement of the northern Blue Ridge geologic province in Virginia and Maryland. Lithology, structure, and U-Pb geochronology have been used to subdivide the gneisses into three groups. The oldest rocks, Group 1, are layered granitic gneiss (1153 ?? 6 Ma), hornblende monzonite gneiss (1149 ?? 19 Ma), porphyroblastic granite gneiss (1144 ?? 2 Ma), coarse-grained metagranite (about 1140 Ma), and charnockite (>1145 Ma?). These gneisses contain three Proterozoic deformational fabrics. Because of complex U-Pb systematics due to extensive overgrowths on magmatic cores, zircons from hornblende monzonite gneiss were dated using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP), whereas all other ages are based on conventional U-Pb geochronology. Group 2 rocks are leucocratic and biotic varieties of Marshall Metagranite, dated at 1112??3 Ma and 1111 ?? 2 Ma respectively. Group 3 rocks are subdivided into two age groups: (1) garnetiferous metagranite (1077 ?? 4 Ma) and quartz-plagioclase gneiss (1077 ?? 4 Ma); (2) white leucocratic metagranite (1060 ?? 2 Ma), pink leucocratic metagranite (1059 ?? 2), biotite granite gneiss (1055 ?? 4 Ma), and megacrystic metagranite (1055 ?? 2 Ma). Groups 2 and 3 gneisses contain only the two younger Proterozoic deformational fabrics. Ages of monazite, seprated from seven samples, indicate growth during both igneous and metamorphic (thermal) events. However, ages obtained from individual grains may be mixtures of different age components, as suggested by backscatter electron (BSE) imaging of complexly zoned grains. Analyses of unzoned monazite (imaged by BSE and thought to contain only one age component) from porphyroblastic granite gneiss yield ages of 1070, 1060, and 1050 Ma. The range of ages of monazite (not reset to a uniform date) indicates that the Grenville granulite event at about 1035 Ma did not exceed about 750??C. Lack of evidence for 1110 Ma growth of monazite in

  9. Destination marketing organizations (DMO established in mountain tourist resorts and regions – a solution for mountain tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Băltescu, C. A.


    Full Text Available When a tourist destination succeeds in presenting itself before the potential visitors and companies interested in operating different activities in the area, as single whole, as an integrated ensemble of providers and professionals with a common aim, that of developing in the long run the region, their joint demarches promoting the existent tourist potential, the expected success, for the benefit of all, is easier to achieve and much more reliable. This article aims to highlight the importance and decisive influences of destination marketing organizations, known in the literature as DMOs, as well as the demarches initiated in this respect within the Romanian mountain tourism, with reference to Poiana Braşov mountain resort.

  10. DeepBlue epigenomic data server: programmatic data retrieval and analysis of epigenome region sets. (United States)

    Albrecht, Felipe; List, Markus; Bock, Christoph; Lengauer, Thomas


    Large amounts of epigenomic data are generated under the umbrella of the International Human Epigenome Consortium, which aims to establish 1000 reference epigenomes within the next few years. These data have the potential to unravel the complexity of epigenomic regulation. However, their effective use is hindered by the lack of flexible and easy-to-use methods for data retrieval. Extracting region sets of interest is a cumbersome task that involves several manual steps: identifying the relevant experiments, downloading the corresponding data files and filtering the region sets of interest. Here we present the DeepBlue Epigenomic Data Server, which streamlines epigenomic data analysis as well as software development. DeepBlue provides a comprehensive programmatic interface for finding, selecting, filtering, summarizing and downloading region sets. It contains data from four major epigenome projects, namely ENCODE, ROADMAP, BLUEPRINT and DEEP. DeepBlue comes with a user manual, examples and a well-documented application programming interface (API). The latter is accessed via the XML-RPC protocol supported by many programming languages. To demonstrate usage of the API and to enable convenient data retrieval for non-programmers, we offer an optional web interface. DeepBlue can be openly accessed at

  11. Changes in vegetation cover and composition in the Swedish mountain region. (United States)

    Hedenås, Henrik; Christensen, Pernilla; Svensson, Johan


    Climate change, higher levels of natural resource demands, and changing land use will likely lead to changes in vegetation configuration in the mountain regions. The aim of this study was to determine if the vegetation cover and composition have changed in the Swedish region of the Scandinavian Mountain Range, based on data from the long-term landscape biodiversity monitoring program NILS (National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden). Habitat type and vegetation cover were assessed in 1740 systematically distributed permanent field plots grouped into 145 sample units across the mountain range. Horvitz-Thompson estimations were used to estimate the present areal extension of the alpine and the mountain birch forest areas of the mountain range, the cover of trees, shrubs, and plants, and the composition of the bottom layer vegetation. We employed the data from two subsequent 5-year monitoring periods, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012, to determine if there have been any changes in these characteristics. We found that the extension of the alpine and the mountain birch forest areas has not changed between the inventory phases. However, the total tree canopy cover increased in the alpine area, the cover of graminoids and dwarf shrubs and the total cover of field vegetation increased in both the alpine area and the mountain birch forest, the bryophytes decreased in the alpine area, and the foliose lichens decreased in the mountain birch forest. The observed changes in vegetation cover and composition, as assessed by systematic data in a national and regional monitoring scheme, can validate the results of local studies, experimental studies, and models. Through benchmark assessments, monitoring data also contributes to governmental policies and land-management strategies as well as to directed cause and effect analyses.

  12. Ridging in autumn as an alternative to mouldboard ploughing in a humid-temperate region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Christian Martin Bugge; Rasmussen, Jesper; Søgaard, Carsten


    In the original ridge tillage system as practiced in the US Corn Belt, ridges are formed during the growing season. Several studies have documented that this can reduce leaching of nutrients and improve fertilizer efficiency. This study was conducted to determine whether ridges formed in autumn can...... and ploughing. Residue treatments were stubble, stubble + straw and stubble + liquid manure in order to create a gradient of C/N ratios. From the time of harvest until planting of a subsequent barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.), inorganic N was determined 11 times in 1998–1999 and 10 times in 1999–2000 in the 0...

  13. Assessing climate change impacts on water resources in remote mountain regions (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert


    From a water resources perspective, remote mountain regions are often considered as a basket case. They are often regions where poverty is often interlocked with multiple threats to water supply, data scarcity, and high uncertainties. In these environments, it is paramount to generate locally relevant knowledge about water resources and how they impact local livelihoods. This is often problematic. Existing environmental data collection tends to be geographically biased towards more densely populated regions, and prioritized towards strategic economic activities. Data may also be locked behind institutional and technological barriers. These issues create a "knowledge trap" for data-poor regions, which is especially acute in remote and hard-to-reach mountain regions. We present lessons learned from a decade of water resources research in remote mountain regions of the Andes, Africa and South Asia. We review the entire tool chain of assessing climate change impacts on water resources, including the interrogation and downscaling of global circulation models, translating climate variables in water availability and access, and assessing local vulnerability. In global circulation models, mountain regions often stand out as regions of high uncertainties and lack of agreement of future trends. This is partly a technical artifact because of the different resolution and representation of mountain topography, but it also highlights fundamental uncertainties in climate impacts on mountain climate. This problem also affects downscaling efforts, because regional climate models should be run in very high spatial resolution to resolve local gradients, which is computationally very expensive. At the same time statistical downscaling methods may fail to find significant relations between local climate properties and synoptic processes. Further uncertainties are introduced when downscaled climate variables such as precipitation and temperature are to be translated in hydrologically

  14. CanWEA regional issues and wind energy project siting : mountainous areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Entremont, M. [Jacques Whitford Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Axys Environmental Consulting Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    Planning and permitting considerations for wind energy project siting in mountainous areas were discussed. Mountainous regions have a specific set of environmental and socio-economic concerns. Potential disruptions to wildlife, noise, and visual impacts are a primary concern in the assessment of potential wind farm projects. Alpine habitats are unique and often contain fragile and endangered species. Reclamation techniques for mountainous habitats have not been extensively tested, and the sites are not as resilient as sites located in other ecosystems. In addition, alpine habitats are often migratory corridors and breeding grounds for threatened or endangered birds. In the winter months, alpine habitats are used by caribou, grizzly bears, and wolverine dens. Bats are also present at high elevations. It is often difficult to conduct baseline and monitoring studies in mountainous areas since alpine habitat is subject to rapid weather changes, and has a very short construction period. tabs., figs.

  15. Mesoscale aspects of storms producing floods over regions of arid mountainous terrain (United States)

    Houze, R.; Romatschke, U.; Rasmussen, K. L.


    We have used the TRMM satellite's Precipitation Radar (PR) to develop a climatology of extreme convection in the regions of the Andes and Himalayas. This work shows that intense convection often occurs in arid regions but does not usually produce large amounts of rain. Large quantities of rain falling in mountainous regions is associated with the convective systems that have the greatest horizontal scales. When such wide systems occur over arid mountains, they can produce lethal floods. The Pakistan flood of 2010 is a case in point. Wide convective systems with large stratiform components became situated over the arid mountains of that region, with the result of the Indus River overflowed with disastrous consequences over a huge area. The potential of heavy rain in the region could have been inferred from the forecast synoptic-scale circulation, which indicated the occurrence of a great buildup of moisture in the region. Although the synoptic conditions were well forecast, that information alone was insufficient for predicting the flood conditions. It would have been necessary to anticipate also the mesoscale structure of the storms. Our TRMM satellite climatology of rainstorm structures in this region indicated that the mesoscale convective rainstorms responsible for the floods were of a type that does not normally occur in this region. Rather, this type of storm usually occurs and produces copious monsoon rain far to the east, over the mountains and wetlands of northeastern India and Bangladesh. In this event, catastrophic runoff and flooding resulted as these rainstorms occurred far to the west of where they usually occur, over an arid and mountainous region unaccustomed to such storms. This study indicates that taking into account the mesoscale structures of the cloud systems as well as the synoptic conditions in which they are embedded is essential for forecasting floods in this region of complex terrain.

  16. Regional responses of surface ozone in Europe to the location of high-latitude blocks and subtropical ridges (United States)

    Ordóñez, Carlos; Barriopedro, David; García-Herrera, Ricardo; Sousa, Pedro M.; Schnell, Jordan L.


    This paper analyses for the first time the impact of high-latitude blocks and subtropical ridges on near-surface ozone (O3) in Europe during a 15-year period. For this purpose, a catalogue of blocks and ridges over the Euro-Atlantic region is used together with a gridded dataset of maximum daily 8 h running average ozone (MDA8 O3) covering the period 1998-2012. The response of ozone to the location of blocks and ridges with centres in three longitudinal sectors (Atlantic, ATL, 30-0° W; European, EUR, 0-30° E; Russian, RUS, 30-60° E) is examined. The impact of blocks on ozone is regionally and seasonally dependent. In particular, blocks within the EUR sector yield positive ozone anomalies of ˜ 5-10 ppb over large parts of central Europe in spring and northern Europe in summer. Over 20 and 30 % of the days with blocks in that sector register exceedances of the 90th percentile of the seasonal ozone distribution at many European locations during spring and summer, respectively. The impacts of ridges during those seasons are subtle and more sensitive to their specific location, although they can trigger ozone anomalies above 10 ppb in northern Italy and the surrounding countries in summer, eventually exceeding European air quality (AQ) targets. During winter, surface ozone in the north-west of Europe presents completely opposite responses to blocks and ridges. The anticyclonic circulation associated with winter EUR blocking, and to a lesser extent with ATL blocking, yields negative ozone anomalies between -5 and -10 ppb over the UK, northern France and the Benelux. Conversely, the enhanced zonal flow around 50-60° N during the occurrence of ATL ridges favours the arrival of background air masses from the Atlantic and the ventilation of the boundary layer, producing positive ozone anomalies of ˜ 5 ppb in an area spanning from the British Isles to the northern half of Germany. We also show that multiple linear models on the seasonal frequency of occurrence of these

  17. Long-term seismicity of the Reykjanes Ridge (North Atlantic) recorded by a regional hydrophone array (United States)

    Goslin, Jean; Lourenço, Nuno; Dziak, Robert P.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Haxel, Joe; Luis, Joaquim


    The seismicity of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge was recorded by two hydrophone networks moored in the sound fixing and ranging (SOFAR) channel, on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, north and south of the Azores. During its period of operation (05/2002-09/2003), the northern `SIRENA' network, deployed between latitudes 40° 20'N and 50° 30'N, recorded acoustic signals generated by 809 earthquakes on the hotspot-influenced Reykjanes Ridge. This activity was distributed between five spatio-temporal event clusters, each initiated by a moderate-to-large magnitude (4.0-5.6 M) earthquake. The rate of earthquake occurrence within the initial portion of the largest sequence (which began on 2002 October 6) is described adequately by a modified Omori law aftershock model. Although this is consistent with triggering by tectonic processes, none of the Reykjanes Ridge sequences are dominated by a single large-magnitude earthquake, and they appear to be of relatively short duration (0.35-4.5 d) when compared to previously described mid-ocean ridge aftershock sequences. The occurrence of several near-equal magnitude events distributed throughout each sequence is inconsistent with the simple relaxation of mainshock-induced stresses and may reflect the involvement of magmatic or fluid processes along this deep (>2000 m) section of the Reykjanes Ridge.

  18. Sustainable Land Use in Mountain Regions Under Global Change: Synthesis Across Scales and Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Huber


    Full Text Available Mountain regions provide essential ecosystem goods and services (EGS for both mountain dwellers and people living outside these areas. Global change endangers the capacity of mountain ecosystems to provide key services. The Mountland project focused on three case study regions in the Swiss Alps and aimed to propose land-use practices and alternative policy solutions to ensure the provision of key EGS under climate and land-use changes. We summarized and synthesized the results of the project and provide insights into the ecological, socioeconomic, and political processes relevant for analyzing global change impacts on a European mountain region. In Mountland, an integrative approach was applied, combining methods from economics and the political and natural sciences to analyze ecosystem functioning from a holistic human-environment system perspective. In general, surveys, experiments, and model results revealed that climate and socioeconomic changes are likely to increase the vulnerability of the EGS analyzed. We regard the following key characteristics of coupled human-environment systems as central to our case study areas in mountain regions: thresholds, heterogeneity, trade-offs, and feedback. Our results suggest that the institutional framework should be strengthened in a way that better addresses these characteristics, allowing for (1 more integrative approaches, (2 a more network-oriented management and steering of political processes that integrate local stakeholders, and (3 enhanced capacity building to decrease the identified vulnerability as central elements in the policy process. Further, to maintain and support the future provision of EGS in mountain regions, policy making should also focus on project-oriented, cross-sectoral policies and spatial planning as a coordination instrument for land use in general.

  19. Visual Impairment, Hearing Loss and Cognitive Function in an Older Population: Longitudinal Findings from the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hong

    Full Text Available The presence of visual impairment (VI and hearing loss (HL with may be a marker for subsequent cognitive decline over time in older people. A prospective, longitudinal population-based study of the 3654 participants of the Blue Mountains Eye Study were assessed for the associations between VI and HL and a decline in mini-mental state examination (MMSE scores over a duration of 10 years from the 5-year (baseline of this report to the 15-year follow-up visits. MMSE was assessed at the 5-, 10- and 15-year follow-up visits. A decline ≥3 scores from 5-year to 10- or 15-year visits indicated possible cognitive decline. VI was defined as best-corrected visual acuity 40 decibels in the worse-ear and dual sensory impairment (DSI was defined by the co-presence of VI and HL, detected at 5-year follow-up (baseline of this report. Participants with no VI and HL over the same 5- or 10-year corresponding period were controls. Associations of VI, HL and DSI with possible cognitive decline were assessed using logistic regression models adjusting for age and sex after excluding subjects with a stroke history. The presence of VI, HL or DSI was not associated with possible cognitive decline over 5 years (odds ratio (OR 0.84, 95% confidence-intervals (CI 0.40-1.79, OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.61-1.70 and 1.41, 95% CI 0.54-3.72, respectively or 10 years (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.52-2.30, OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.65-1.82 and 1.15, 95% CI 0.28-4.73, respectively. There were no changes to these findings after adjustment for other potential confounders. Age was significantly associated with possible cognitive decline (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10 for both periods. Neither visual impairment, hearing loss nor dual sensory impairment was independently associated with subsequent decline in cognition.

  20. A contemporary approach for treatment planning of horizontally resorbed alveolar ridge: Ridge split technique with simultaneous implant placement using platelet rich fibrin membrane application in mandibular anterior region. (United States)

    Parthiban, Prathahini S; Lakshmi, R Vijaya; Mahendra, Jaideep; Sreekumar, K; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan


    Treatment of edentulous sites with horizontal atrophy represents a clinical situation in which the positioning of endosseous implants might be complex or sometimes impossible without a staged regenerative approach. This case report presents management of horizontally deficient mandibular anterior ridge with a contemporary approach to treatment planning and application of platelet-rich fibrin membrane for ridge split technique and simultaneous implant placement. Implants in anterior mandibular area are considered to be most predictable, stable, with high success rate and patients' satisfaction with implant esthetics. In contrast to traditional ridge augmentation techniques, ridge splitting allows for immediate implant placement following surgery and eradicates the possible morbidity from a second surgical site.

  1. Process identification of soil erosion in steep mountain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Konz


    Full Text Available Mountainous soil erosion processes were investigated in the Urseren Valley (Central Switzerland by means of measurements and simulations. The quantification of soil erosion was performed on hill slope scale (2·20 m for three different land use types: hayfields, pastures with dwarf shrubs and pastures without dwarf shrubs with three replicates each. Erosion rates during growing season were measured with sediment traps between June 2006 and November 2007. Long-term soil erosion rates were estimated based on Cs- 137 redistribution. In addition, soil moisture and surface flow were recorded during the growing season in the field and compared to model output. We chose the WEPP model (Water Erosion Prediction Project to simulate soil erosion during the growing season. Model parameters were determined in the field (slope, plant species, fractional vegetation cover, initial saturation level, by laboratory analyses (grain size, organic matter and by literature study. The WEPP model simulates sheet erosion processes (interrill and splash erosion processes, please note that no rill erosion occurs at our sites. Model output resulted in considerable smaller values than the measured erosion rates with sediment traps for the same period. We attribute the differences to observed random gravity driven erosion of soil conglomerates. The Cs-137 measurements deliver substantially higher mean annual erosion rates, which are most likely connected to snow cover related processes such as snow gliding and avalanche activities.

  2. Approach to identification and development of mountain tourism regions and destinations in Serbia with special reference to the Stara Planina mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijić Saša


    Full Text Available This paper deals with theoretical-methodological issues of tourism offer planning and regulation of settlements in mountain destinations. The basic determinants of the development of mountain tourist regions destinations in EU countries, in which respectable development results have been achieved, first of all in terms of income, together with appropriately adjusted development and environmental management system, have been emphasized. The ongoing transition and structural processes in Serbia will have an impact on application of these experiences. At the same time, a basis for competitiveness of mountain regions will not be determined only by spatial capacity and geological location, but also by creative-innovative developing environment. Taking into account the spatial-functional criteria and criteria for the development and protection, the possible spatial definition of mountain tourist regions/destinations in Serbia are presented. The justifiability and positioning of tourism development projects are analyzed aiming at uniform regional development, where two segments of demand are of particularly importance, i.e. demand for mountain tourism services and for real estates in mountain centers. Furthermore, holders of tourism offer will be analyzed through a contemporary approach which may be defined as the development and noncommercial and market and commercial one. International criteria which are evaluated while selecting city/mountain destination for Winter Olympic Games are particularly analyzed. Considering experience of countries with higher level of development of mountain regions, the main starting point for positioning projects for sustainable development of tourist destinations are defined by specifying them according to specific local and regional conditions. A rational model for spatial organization of tourism offer is shown on the example of the Stara Planina tourist region.

  3. Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraker Terry R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic wasting disease (CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE of cervids including white-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni, and moose (Alces alces. A leucine variant at position 132 (132L in prion protein of Rocky Mountain elk confers a long incubation time with CWD, but not complete resistance. However, variants in regulatory regions outside the open reading frame of PRNP have been associated with varying degrees of susceptibility to prion disease in other species, and some variants have been observed in similar regions of Rocky Mountain elk PRNP. Thus, additional genetic variants might provide increased protection, either alone or in combination with 132L. Findings This study provided genomic sequence of all exons for PRNP of Rocky Mountain elk. Many functional sites in and around the PRNP gene region were sequenced, and this report approximately doubled (to 75 the number of known variants in this region. A haplotype-tagging approach was used to reduce the number of genetic variants required to survey this variation in the PRNP gene region of 559 Rocky Mountain elk. Eight haplotypes were observed with frequencies over 1.0%, and one haplotype was present at 71.2% frequency, reflecting limited genetic diversity in the PRNP gene region. Conclusions The presence of 132L cut odds of CWD by more than half (Odds Ratio = 0.43; P = 0.0031, which was similar to a previous report. However after accounting for 132L, no association with CWD was found for any additional variants in the PRNP region (P > 0.05.

  4. Geomorphologic evolution and environmental changes in the Shaluli Mountain region during the Quaternary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shangzhe; XU Liubing; CUI Jianxin; ZHANG Xiaowei; ZHAO Jingdong


    Geologic and geomorphologic evidence from the Shaluli Mountain indicates that the planation surface that formed in the Late Tertiary disintegrated during the Late Pliocene-Early Quaternary. At the same time, rift basins appeared on some parts of the planation surface, and began to accumulate fluvial-lacustrine sediment. These are interpreted as being the response of this region to Phase-A of the Qingzang Tectonic Movement. After this, the Shaluli Mountain continued to rise in several pulses. Faulting and incision by some large tributaries of the Jinsha and Yalong Rivers resulted in several rift river valleys and the earliest terraces. Generally, the planation surface in this region had been uplifted to about 3500-3700 m a.s.l. no later than 550-600 ka BP, after the Kunlun-Huanghe Tectonic Movement, and coupled with global glacial climate, and resulted in the earliest glaciation recognized so far in the Hengduan Mountains. At the same time, loess was deposited in the Ganzi area of the northern Shaluli Mountain. During the last glacial period, the Shaluli Mountain approached its present altitude and developed several large ice caps, such as the Daocheng Ice Cap and Xinlong Ice Cap, as well as several huge valley glaciers. These paleoglaciers produced some of the most spectacular glacial topography on the Tibetan Plateau.

  5. Past and future changes in frost day indices on Catskill Mountains region of New York (United States)

    Changes in frost indices in New York's Catskill Mountains region, the location of water supply reservoirs for New York City, have potentially important implications. Frost day is defined as a day with Tmin < 0 deg C. The objective of this study was to investigate past and predicted changes in minimu...

  6. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China’s Southwestern Mountainous Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Taking agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions as research object,on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China’s southwestern mountainous regions,we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science,we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years.Finally we draw several general conclusions regarding structure innovation of agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions as follows:first,the structure innovation of agricultural organization,a gradual process,proceeds ceaselessly along with ongoing progress and development of agriculture,and in this process,farmers always play a fundamental role;second,the structure innovation of agricultural organization is affected by many factors,and government institutional arrangement and change in market conditions is undoubtedly the most critical factor;third,the probable evolving direction of structure innovation of agricultural organization includes internal differentiation of the same form of agricultural organization,association of different forms of agricultural organization,and emergence of other forms of agricultural organization.

  7. Differences in chanses of potential evaporation in the mountainous and oasis regions of the Tarim basin, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN SongJun; HU HePing; YANG DaWen; LIU QunChang


    Data from eleven meteorological stations in the Tianshan mountains and the north slope of west Kunlun mountains, and eighteen meteorological stations in the Keidu- Kongque river, Akesu river, Kashiger river and Yankant river oases were examined to assess the differences in changes in potential evaporation from 1960 to 2006 in the mountainous and oasis regions of the Tarim basin and the relationships of these changes to meteorological factors. The decreasing trends in potential evaporation were primarily due to the decrease in the aerodynamic terms in both the mountainous and oasis regions, but the trends in the oasis regions were more pronounced. Based on the complementary relationship between potential and actual evaporation, the decreasing trends in potential evaporation appeared to be related to the increasing trends in precipitation in the mountainous regions and the increasing trends in water consumption in the oasis regions, thus reflecting the different impacts of natural changes and anthropogenic influences.

  8. Differences in changes of potential evaporation in the mountainous and oasis regions of the Tarim basin, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Data from eleven meteorological stations in the Tianshan mountains and the north slope of west Kunlun mountains, and eighteen meteorological stations in the Kaidu-Kongque river, Akesu river, Kashiger river and Yankant river oases were examined to assess the differences in changes in potential evaporation from 1960 to 2006 in the mountainous and oasis regions of the Tarim basin and the relationships of these changes to meteorological factors. The decreasing trends in potential evaporation were primarily due to the decrease in the aerodynamic terms in both the mountainous and oasis regions, but the trends in the oasis regions were more pronounced. Based on the complementary relationship between potential and actual evaporation, the decreasing trends in potential evaporation appeared to be related to the increasing trends in precipitation in the mountainous regions and the increasing trends in water consumption in the oasis regions, thus reflecting the different impacts of natural changes and anthropogenic influences.

  9. A Survey of Butterflies at South Border Region in Hengduan Mountains%横断山南部边缘地区蝶类调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓合黎; 李爱民; 吴立伟


    横断山南部边缘地区调查获得蝶类258种,隶属于10科,128属.其中蛱蝶最多,为65种;其次是灰蝶和弄蝶,分别是51种和50种,这3科蝴蝶占总数约2/3(166/258).优势种12个(4.7%)、常见种91个(35.3%)、少见种43个(16.7%)、罕见种112个(43.3%);个体数分布的规律接近对数级数法则.仅3个横断山特有种符合本调查区域处于边缘的性质,东洋种占总数的79.1%,说明了本地区蝴蝶东洋区的基本属性.%On the basis of survey, the paper reports 258 species of the butterflies, belonging to 10 families and 128 genera at south border region in Hengduan Mountains.65 species of them are Nymphs, which is maximum, second is 51 species of Blues, third is 50 species of Skippers, the butterflies of this three families are nearly two thirds of the total at south border region in Hengduan Mountains.The faunistic composition of butterflies is made up by 3 specialized species, 204 Oriental species, 15 Palaearctic species, 13 species wide species and other 60 species, it shows the basic Oriental and its property of border region at south border region in Hengduan Mountains.The patterns of butterfly species abundance and distribution at south border region in Hengduan Mountaines approached a logarithmic progression distribution, favoring a niche pre-emption hypothesis.

  10. Early Paleozoic development of the Maine-Quebec boundary Mountains region (United States)

    Gerbi, C.C.; Johnson, S.E.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Bedard, J.H.; Dunning, G.R.; Fanning, C.M.


    Pre-Silurian bedrock units played key roles in the early Paleozoic history of the Maine-Quebec Appalachians. These units represent peri-Laurentian material whose collision with the craton deformed the Neoproteozoic passive margin and initiated the Appalachian mountain-building cycle. We present new field, petrological, geochronological, and geochemical data to support the following interpretations related to these units. (1) The Boil Mountain Complex and Jim Pond Formation do not represent part of a coherent ophiolite. (2) Gabbro and tonalite of the Boil Mountain Complex intruded the Chain Lakes massif at ca. 477 Ma. (3) The Skinner pluton, an arc-related granodiorite, intruded the Chain Lakes massif at ca. 472 Ma. (4) The Attean pluton, with a reconfirmed age of ca. 443 Ma, is unrelated to Early Ordovician orogenesis. (5) The most likely timing for the juxtaposition of the Jim Pond Formation and the Boil Mountain Complex was during regional Devonian deformation. These interpretations suggest that the Boundary Mountains were once part of a series of arcs extending at least from central New England through Newfoundland. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  11. Participatory and Integrated Research in Mountainous Regions of Thailand and Vietnam: Approaches and Lessons Learned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Neef; Franz Heidhues; Karl Stahr; Pittaya Sruamsiri


    Participatory and integrated research approaches employed by a long-term ThaiVietnamese-German collaborative research program,circles of resource scarcity, environmental degradation and rural poverty in mountainous regions of northern Thailand and northern Vietnam are discussed in this paper. We present two examples from the Thai component of the research program to show how different disciplines and stakeholders need to cooperate at different scales to make meaningful scientific contributions towards sustainable land use and rural development in mountainous regions. The case of resource conservation in the Thai highlands shows that local and scientific knowledge, conventional surveys and participatory modeling can be creatively combined. Integrated research on the potential of integrating fruit trees and associated technologies into mountain farming systems suggests that natural scientists have to work alongside economists and social scientists to avoid harmful effects of purely technology-driven and productivityenhancing approaches. The success of new technologies cannot be measured solely by adoption rates and yield increases, but also needs to take into account their long-term impact on various groups of farmers and the ecological, economic and social trade-offs that they entail. Technical and institutional innovations need to go hand in hand to provide viable livelihood opportunities for smallholder farmers in mountain watersheds. The major lesson learned from the first six years of our research in the mountains of Thailand and Vietnam is that conventional and participatory approaches are not antagonistic; if scientists from various disciplines and research paradigms are open-minded, the combination of both approaches can produce meaningful results that cater for the needs of both the academic community and local stakeholders in mountain environments.

  12. Role of blowing snow in snow processes in Qilian Mountainous region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongYi Li; Jian Wang; XiaoHua Hao


    Blowing snow is an important part of snow hydrologic processes in mountainous region, however the related researches were rare for the Qilian mountainous region where blowing snow is frequent. Using the observation dataset in 2008 snow season in Binggou wa-tershed in Qilian mountainous region, we systematically studied the energy and mass processes of blowing snow by field observation and model simulation. The results include the analysis of snow observation, the occurrence probability of blowing snow, blowing snow transport and blowing snow sublimation. It was found that blowing snow was obvious in high altitude region (4,146 m), the snow redistribution phenomena was remarkable. In Yakou station in the study region, blowing snow was easily occurred in midwinter and early spring when no snowmelt, the blowing snow transport was dominated in this period;when snowmelt beginning, the occur-rence probability of blowing snow decreased heavily because of the increasing air temperature, melt, and refrozen phenomena. The blowing snow sublimation accounted for 41.5%of total snow sublimation at Yakou station in 2008 snow season.

  13. Draped aeromagnetic survey in Transantarctic Mountains over the area of the Butcher Ridge igneous complex showing extent of underlying mafic intrusion (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.; Damaske, D.; Finn, C.A.; Kyle, P.; Wilson, T.J.


    A draped aeromagnetic survey over the area surrounding the Butcher Ridge igneous complex (BRIC), Transantarctic Mountains, was acquired in 1997-1998 as part of a larger Transantarctic Mountains Aerogeophysical Research Activity survey. The BRIC is a sill-like hypoabyssal intrusion ranging in composition from tholeiitic basalt to rhyolite. An 40Ar/39 Ar age of 174 Ma and the chemical character of the basaltic rocks show the BRIC to be part of the widespread Jurassic Ferrar suite of continental tholeiitic rocks, that extends for 3500 km across Antarctica. The aeromagnetic survey shows a horseshoe-shaped pattern of anomalies reaching amplitudes as great as 1900 nT generally associated with the bedrock topography where it is exposed. It is apparent that the high-amplitude anomaly pattern is more extensive than the 10-km-long exposed outcrop, first crossed by a single 1990 aeromagnetic profile. The highest-amplitude anomalies appear south of the profile acquired in 1990 and extend out of the survey area. The new aeromagnetic data allow determination of the extent of the interpreted Butcher mafic(?) intrusion beneath exposures of Beacon sedimentary rock and ice in the area covered, as well as beneath the small BRIC exposure. The magnetic anomalies show a minimum area of 3000 km2, a much greater extent than previously inferred. Magnetic models indicate a minimum thickness of ???1-2 km for a horizontal intrusion. However, nonunique models with magnetic layers decreasing in apparent susceptibility with depth are consistent with of a 4- to 8-km-thick layered intrusion. These magnetic models indicate progressively deeper erosion of the interpreted mafic-layered body from the south to north. The erosion has removed more magnetic upper layers that mask the magnetic effects of the lower less magnetic layers. The probable minimum volume of the intrusion in the area of the survey is ???6000 km3. An alternate, but less likely, interpretation of a series of dikes can also fit the

  14. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O' Leary


    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  15. Realisation of a joint consumer engagement strategy in the Nepean Blue Mountains region. (United States)

    Blignault, Ilse; Aspinall, Diana; Reay, Lizz; Hyman, Kay


    Ensuring consumer engagement at different levels of the health system - direct care, organisational design and governance and policy - has become a strategic priority. This case study explored, through interviews with six purposively selected 'insiders' and document review, how one Medicare Local (now a Primary Health Network, PHN) and Local Health District worked together with consumers, to establish a common consumer engagement structure and mechanisms to support locally responsive, integrated and consumer-centred services. The two healthcare organisations worked as partners across the health system, sharing ownership and responsibility. Critical success factors included a consumer champion working with other highly motivated consumers concerned with improving the health system, a budget, and ongoing commitment from the Medicare Local or PHN and the Local Health District at executive and board level. Shared boundaries were an enormous advantage. Activities were jointly planned and executed, with consumer participation paramount. Training and mentoring enhanced consumer capacity and confidence. Bringing everyone on board and building on existing structures required time, effort and resources. The initiative produced immediate and lasting benefits, with consumer engagement now embedded in organisational governance and practice.

  16. An EAV-HP insertion in 5' Flanking region of SLCO1B3 causes blue eggshell in the chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhepeng Wang

    Full Text Available The genetic determination of eggshell coloration has not been determined in birds. Here we report that the blue eggshell is caused by an EAV-HP insertion that promotes the expression of SLCO1B3 gene in the uterus (shell gland of the oviduct in chicken. In this study, the genetic map location of the blue eggshell gene was refined by linkage analysis in an F(2 chicken population, and four candidate genes within the refined interval were subsequently tested for their expression levels in the shell gland of the uterus from blue-shelled and non-blue-shelled hens. SLCO1B3 gene was found to be the only one expressed in the uterus of blue-shelled hens but not in that of non-blue-shelled hens. Results from a pyrosequencing analysis showed that only the allele of SLCO1B3 from blue-shelled chickens was expressed in the uterus of heterozygous hens (O*LC/O*N. SLCO1B3 gene belongs to the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP family; and the OATPs, functioning as membrane transporters, have been reported for the transportation of amphipathic organic compounds, including bile salt in mammals. We subsequently resequenced the whole genomic region of SLCO1B3 and discovered an EAV-HP insertion in the 5' flanking region of SLCO1B3. The EAV-HP insertion was found closely associated with blue eggshell phenotype following complete Mendelian segregation. In situ hybridization also demonstrated that the blue eggshell is associated with ectopic expression of SLCO1B3 in shell glands of uterus. Our finding strongly suggests that the EAV-HP insertion is the causative mutation for the blue eggshell phenotype. The insertion was also found in another Chinese blue-shelled breed and an American blue-shelled breed. In addition, we found that the insertion site in the blue-shelled chickens from Araucana is different from that in Chinese breeds, which implied independent integration events in the blue-shelled chickens from the two continents, providing a parallel evolutionary

  17. The Effects of Variable Welding and Devitrification on the Magnetic Fabric of Ash Flow Tuffs: An AMS and AARM Study of the Oligocene Carpenter Ridge Tuff, San Juan Mountains, Colorado (United States)

    Mason, S. N.; Geissman, J. W.


    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data have been shown to be a powerful means of estimating the transport direction, and thus inferred source region, for several large volume, regionally extensive ash-flow tuffs (ignimbrites). Anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM) data have, on the other hand, corroborated inferred controls by different assemblages of magnetic particles on magnetic fabrics. For ash-flow tuffs, the effects of variable degrees of welding and subsequent devitrification on the magnetic fabric of these pyroclastic deposits are not well understood. We have collected magnetic fabric data from a continuously exposed sequence of outflow facies of the ca. 27.55 Ma Carpenter Ridge Tuff (CRT), one of the major large volume ash-flow tuffs of the Southern Rocky Mountain Volcanic Field, southwest Colorado, about 3 km east of Buffalo Pass on Colorado Highway 114. The CRT, a compound cooling unit, is of reverse polarity (although there is considerable internal variability in direction through the section) and was sourced from the Bachelor Caldera, southwest of the sample locality. Some 21 total independently oriented samples, as very large oriented blocks, were collected in traverse fashion through most of the lowermost cooling unit of the tuff, and an additional ten block samples were collected from the moderately welded and completely devitrified third cooling unit. At least ten and often 20 to 30 discrete specimens were prepared for analyses from each block. Orientation of AMS principal axes are internally consistent at the oriented sample level and, overall, throughout the section sampled, and imply a west to east transport orientation in this area, consistent with several other sampling sites in the CRT in the northeast part of the Southern Rocky Mountain Volcanic Field. AARM data at the block sample level are usually more dispersed. All of the samples have positive T values, implying strong foliations. The degree of anisotropy (P

  18. Performance of CMORPH, TMPA, and PERSIANN rainfall datasets over plain, mountainous, and glacial regions of Pakistan (United States)

    Hussain, Yawar; Satgé, Frédéric; Hussain, Muhammad Babar; Martinez-Carvajal, Hernan; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Cárdenas-Soto, Martin; Roig, Henrique Llacer; Akhter, Gulraiz


    The present study aims at the assessment of six satellite rainfall estimates (SREs) in Pakistan. For each assessed products, both real-time (RT) and post adjusted (Adj) versions are considered to highlight their potential benefits in the rainfall estimation at annual, monthly, and daily temporal scales. Three geomorphological climatic zones, i.e., plain, mountainous, and glacial are taken under considerations for the determination of relative potentials of these SREs over Pakistan at global and regional scales. All SREs, in general, have well captured the annual north-south rainfall decreasing patterns and rainfall amounts over the typical arid regions of the country. Regarding the zonal approach, the performance of all SREs has remained good over mountainous region comparative to arid regions. This poor performance in accurate rainfall estimation of all the six SREs over arid regions has made their use questionable in these regions. Over glacier region, all SREs have highly overestimated the rainfall. One possible cause of this overestimation may be due to the low surface temperature and radiation absorption over snow and ice cover, resulting in their misidentification with rainy clouds as daily false alarm ratio has increased from mountainous to glacial regions. Among RT products, CMORPH-RT is the most biased product. The Bias was almost removed on CMORPH-Adj thanks to the gauge adjustment. On a general way, all Adj versions outperformed their respective RT versions at all considered temporal scales and have confirmed the positive effects of gauge adjustment. CMORPH-Adj and TMPA-Adj have shown the best agreement with in situ data in terms of Bias, RMSE, and CC over the entire study area.

  19. Isotopes as Tracers of Water Origin in and Near a Regional Carbonate Aquifer: The Southern Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Eastoe


    Full Text Available High-elevation groundwater sampled in 2003 in the Sacramento Mountains defines a line resembling an evaporation trend in δD-δ18O space. The trend results from recharge of winter precipitation into fractured limestone, with evaporation prior to recharge in broad mountain valleys. The same trend occurs in basin groundwater east and west of the range, indicating the high Sacramento Mountains as the principal regional water source, either direct from the limestone aquifers or from mountain-derived surface water. Tritium and carbon-14 indicate bulk residence times of a few decades in the high Sacramento Mountains and at Alamogordo, and of thousands of years south of Alamogordo and in the artesian aquifer near Artesia. Stable O, H isotope data fail to demonstrate the presence of Sacramento Mountains water in a saline aquifer of the Hueco Bolson (Texas.

  20. Development of State Interindustry Models for Rocky Mountain Region and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Kunin, Leonard


    Interindustry tables have been developed for the eight Rocky Mountain States and California. These tables are based on the 367-order 1967 national interindustry table. The national matrix was expanded to 404 sectors by disaggregating the seven minerals industries to 44 industries. The state tables can be used for energy and other resource analysis. Regional impacts of alternate development strategies can be evaluated with their use. A general computer program has been developed to facilitate construction of state interindustry tables.

  1. Magnetic and bathymetric investigations over the Vema Region of the Central Indian Ridge: Tectonic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Drolia, R.K.; Ghose, I.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Rao, M.M.M.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    estimated spreading rates which record motion between Africa and India/Australia plates since the time of anomaly 5. The ridge-axis and anomalies 5 and 3 have been used for computing the flank spreading rates after matching the observed anomaly shape... the WBZ, separating the Indian and Australian plates, intersects it. DeMets et al. (1994) interpreted the gradient in observed spread- ing rate change near 88S as the cross-over from Australia–Africa to India–Africa spreading. They interpret the area as a...

  2. Potential for Applying Intergenerational Practice to Protected Area Management in Mountainous Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Mitrofanenko


    Full Text Available One way of preserving the natural and cultural diversity of mountain areas and supporting their sustainable development is the establishment of protected areas. The scientific literature acknowledges the importance of participation by local stakeholders and of considering social cohesion in protected area management. Intergenerational practice has been shown to enhance participation and improve social cohesion; however, its potential role in natural resource management has not been considered by the research community. This paper explores the potential for integrating intergenerational practice into protected area management in mountainous regions, guided by 3 research questions: What challenges of protected area management could benefit from intergenerational practice? How can intergenerational practice help to address these challenges? And how could intergenerational practice be more strongly integrated into current protected area management? The paper focuses on selected management challenges, mostly related to the development function of protected areas, and suggests intergenerational practice solution pathways for each challenge, derived from qualitative content analysis of the literature, interviews with protected area and regional development experts, and participation in the project Big Foot: Crossing Generations, Crossing Mountains, which tested intergenerational learning approaches in 3 rural municipalities—one each in Bulgaria, Greece, and Italy. Recommendations are proposed for integrating intergenerational practice into protected area management policy and practice at the global, regional, and local levels.

  3. Climate variability in the Carpathian Mountains Region over 1961-2010 (United States)

    Cheval, Sorin; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru


    The Carpathian Mountains Region (CMR) lies over parts of the territories of seven Central and Southeastern European countries, and the mountain chain induces major changes in the temperate climate specific to the latitudes between 43° and 49°N. Different administrations govern the long-term meteorological networks; the infrastructure, collection protocols, and storage capacities are specific to each country, so that a comprehensive study on the climate of the area has met considerable difficulties along time. Climate of the Carpathian Region (CARPATCLIM) is a regional initiative developed between 2010 and 2013 aiming to enhance the climatic information in the area by providing comprehensive, temporally and spatially homogenous data sets of the main meteorological variables. Based on daily data aggregated to a monthly scale at 10-km resolution, this study exploits and promotes the results of the CARPATCLIM project, documenting the variability of the main climatic variables over 1961-2010. For each month, the significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified, mapped and placed in the context of previous studies and climate change perspectives. The study has revealed several patterns in the climatic variability, i.e., positive or negative trends prevailing over the entire area, very distinct delineation between various trends induced by the Carpathian Mountain chain, and pledges for further scientific approaches, i.e., causes of the variability and applications in other domains.

  4. Fire Regimes of Remnant Pitch Pine Communities in the Ridge and Valley Region of Central Pennsylvania, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Marschall


    Full Text Available Many fire-adapted ecosystems in the northeastern U.S. are converting to fire-intolerant vegetation communities due to fire suppression in the 20th century. Prescribed fire and other vegetation management activities that increase resilience and resistance to global changes are increasingly being implemented, particularly on public lands. For many fire-dependent communities, there is little quantitative data describing historical fire regime attributes such as frequency, severity, and seasonality, or how these varied through time. Where available, fire-scarred live and remnant trees, including stumps and snags, offer valuable insights into historical fire regimes through tree-ring and fire-scar analyses. In this study, we dated fire scars from 66 trees at two sites in the Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachian Mountains in central Pennsylvania, and described fire frequency, severity, and seasonality from the mid-17th century to 2013. Fires were historically frequent, of low to moderate severity, occurred mostly during the dormant season, and were influenced by aspect and topography. The current extended fire-free interval is unprecedented in the previous 250–300 years at both sites.

  5. Water and Streambed Sediment Quality, and Ecotoxicology of a Stream along the Blue Ridge Parkway, Adjacent to a Closed Landfill, near Roanoke, Virginia: 1999 (United States)

    Ebner, Donna Belval; Cherry, Donald S.; Currie, Rebecca J.


    A study was done of the effects of a closed landfill on the quality of water and streambed sediment and the benthic macroinvertebrate community of an unnamed stream and its tributary that flow through Blue Ridge Parkway lands in west-central Virginia. The primary water source for the tributary is a 4-inch polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe that protrudes from the slope at the base of the embankment bordering the landfill. An unusual expanse of precipitate was observed in the stream near the PVC pipe. Stream discharge was measured and water and streambed sediment samples were collected at a nearby reference site and at three sites downstream of the landfill in April and September 1999. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nitrate, total and dissolved metals, total dissolved solids, total organic carbon, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Streambed sediment samples were analyzed for total metals, total organic carbon, percent moisture, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, including organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. The benthic macroinvertebrate community within the stream channel also was sampled at the four chemical sampling sites and at one additional site in April and September. Each of the five sites was assessed for physical habitat quality. Water collected periodically at the PVC pipe discharge between November 1998 and November 1999 was used to conduct 48-hour acute and 7-day chronic toxicity tests using selected laboratory test organisms. Two 10-day chronic toxicity tests of streambed sediments collected near the discharge pipe also were conducted. Analyses showed that organic and inorganic constituents in water from beneath the landfill were discharged into the sampled tributary. In April, 79 percent of inorganic constituents detected in water had their highest concentrations at the site closest to the landfill; at the same site, 59 percent of inorganic

  6. Between a Rock and a Blue Chair: David Hockney’s Rocky Mountains and Tired Indians (1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hammer


    Full Text Available Travel and cultural exchange between the United Kingdom and the United States of America became a key feature of the 1960s, shaping the world view of many a British artist, curator, architect, writer, film-maker, and academic. Against that wider backdrop, I offer here a focused reading of David Hockney’s 1965 painting, Rocky Mountains and Tired Indians. With its faux-naive idiom and overt but quirkily un-modern American theme, the work conveys the artist’s singular take on what it felt like to be a Brit at large in the US, an environment at once wondrously exotic and at times strikingly banal. Close analysis discloses Hockney’s rich repertoire of artistic and literary allusions in Rocky Mountains, and the meanings and associations these may have encapsulated.

  7. Review article: Inferring permafrost and permafrost thaw in the mountains of the Hindu Kush Himalaya region (United States)

    Gruber, Stephan; Fleiner, Renate; Guegan, Emilie; Panday, Prajjwal; Schmid, Marc-Olivier; Stumm, Dorothea; Wester, Philippus; Zhang, Yinsheng; Zhao, Lin


    The cryosphere reacts sensitively to climate change, as evidenced by the widespread retreat of mountain glaciers. Subsurface ice contained in permafrost is similarly affected by climate change, causing persistent impacts on natural and human systems. In contrast to glaciers, permafrost is not observable spatially and therefore its presence and possible changes are frequently overlooked. Correspondingly, little is known about permafrost in the mountains of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region, despite permafrost area exceeding that of glaciers in nearly all countries. Based on evidence and insight gained mostly in other permafrost areas globally, this review provides a synopsis on what is known or can be inferred about permafrost in the mountains of the HKH region. Given the extreme nature of the environment concerned, it is to be expected that the diversity of conditions and phenomena encountered in permafrost exceed what has previously been described and investigated. We further argue that climate change in concert with increasing development will bring about diverse permafrost-related impacts on vegetation, water quality, geohazards, and livelihoods. To better anticipate and mitigate these effects, a deepened understanding of high-elevation permafrost in subtropical latitudes as well as the pathways interconnecting environmental changes and human livelihoods are needed.

  8. Living in a High Mountain Border Region: the Case of the 'Bhotiyas' of the Indo-Chinese Border Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Bergmann; Martin Gerwin; Marcus Nüsse; William S. Sax


    This article introduces one of South Asia's most important border regions into academic discourse, namely, the Central Himalayan mountain rim separating India and the Tibetan Autonomous Region (People's Republic of China). What makes this border region so interesting is a tangled interplay of changing environmental, cultural, and political forms to which the local populations constantly have to adapt in order to make a living there. We focused on the so-called 'Bhotiyas' of Uttarakhand, former trans-Himalayan traders whose ethnicity and livelihood was traditionally associated with the Indo-Chinese border that was sealed as a result of the India-China war in 1962. Drawing on the work of borderland scholarship, we identified the key processes and developments that changed the perspective of this area. Competing political aspirations as well as the 'Bhotiyas' countervailing strategies were considered equally important for understanding local livelihoods and identities within the dynamics of a 'high mountain border region'. Through an exemplary analysis of historical differences of power in one 'Bhotiya' valley, we further explored the ways in which shifting socio-spatial constellations are creatively re-interpreted by the borderlanders.

  9. Metabolic cold adaptation and aerobic performance of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) along a temperature gradient into the High Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Rysgaard, Søren; Blicher, Martin;


    and plasticity of blue mussels across latitudes spanning from 56 to 77ºN. This indicates that low ocean temperature per se does not constrain metabolic activity of Mytilus in the Arctic; rather, we speculate that maturation of reproductive tissues, larval supply and annual energy budgets are the most relevant......The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) has recently expanded its northern distribution in the Arctic and is therefore considered to be a sensitive indicator of climate changes in this region. In this study, we compared aerobic performance of blue mussels from High Arctic, Subarctic and temperate...... populations at different temperatures. Standard metabolic rates (SMR) and active metabolic rates (AMR) were measured for each population, and absolute (AMR − SMR) and factorial (AMR/SMR) scopes were calculated. Blue mussels from the temperate population had the lowest Q10 (= 1.8) and the largest thermal...

  10. Holocene climate changes in the central Asia mountain region inferred from a peat sequence from the Altai Mountains, Xinjiang, northwestern China (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Meyers, Philip A.; Liu, Xingtu; Wang, Guoping; Ma, Xuehui; Li, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Yuxiang; Wen, Bolong


    A continuous peat sequence collected in the Altai Mountains, Xinjiang Province, northwestern China, provides a new opportunity to reconstruct the Holocene climate history in the arid central mountain region of Asia. Based on AMS 14C dating, high resolution records of the humification degree and n-alkane distributions reveal that the region experienced a relatively warm and dry early Holocene (10.0-8.0 ka) and a cold and wet early mid-Holocene (8.0-6.3 ka), followed by a warm and dry mid-Holocene (6.3-5.5 ka). A shift to cold and wet conditions occurred between 5.5 and 4.0 ka, and then the climate entered into a warmer period from 4.0 to 2.5 ka. In the late Holocene (2.5-1.0 ka), the region experienced a colder and wetter climate. A gradual shift to warm and dry conditions occurred during the last 1.0 ky in this region. The regional climate patterns have been generally dominated by alternations of warm-dry and cold-wet episodes during the Holocene that were quite different from the warm-wet and cool-dry episodes in the Asian summer monsoon region. Regional comparisons indicate that the climate changes in arid central Asia have been mainly influenced by the North Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) via the westerlies. However, owing to the mountainous character of the study areas, glacial meltwater, and other local factors, the climate changes in the Altai Mountains region have not always been concordant with variations of North Atlantic Ocean SSTs. We postulate that the history of moisture balance between regional precipitation, glacier and snow meltwater, and evaporation has been modulated by air temperatures that were mainly influenced by changes in the summer insolation of the Northern Hemisphere.

  11. Consistent response of vegetation dynamics to recent climate change in tropical mountain regions. (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; John, Robert; Joseph, Shijo


    Global climate change has emerged as a major driver of ecosystem change. Here, we present evidence for globally consistent responses in vegetation dynamics to recent climate change in the world's mountain ecosystems located in the pan-tropical belt (30°N-30°S). We analyzed decadal-scale trends and seasonal cycles of vegetation greenness using monthly time series of satellite greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and climate data for the period 1982-2006 for 47 mountain protected areas in five biodiversity hotspots. The time series of annual maximum NDVI for each of five continental regions shows mild greening trends followed by reversal to stronger browning trends around the mid-1990s. During the same period we found increasing trends in temperature but only marginal change in precipitation. The amplitude of the annual greenness cycle increased with time, and was strongly associated with the observed increase in temperature amplitude. We applied dynamic models with time-dependent regression parameters to study the time evolution of NDVI-climate relationships. We found that the relationship between vegetation greenness and temperature weakened over time or was negative. Such loss of positive temperature sensitivity has been documented in other regions as a response to temperature-induced moisture stress. We also used dynamic models to extract the trends in vegetation greenness that remain after accounting for the effects of temperature and precipitation. We found residual browning and greening trends in all regions, which indicate that factors other than temperature and precipitation also influence vegetation dynamics. Browning rates became progressively weaker with increase in elevation as indicated by quantile regression models. Tropical mountain vegetation is considered sensitive to climatic changes, so these consistent vegetation responses across widespread regions indicate persistent global-scale effects of climate warming and associated moisture

  12. Variation in initiation condition of debris flows in the mountain regions surrounding Beijing (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Yu-jie; Du, Cui; Wang, Yun-qi; Li, Yun-peng


    Debris flows in the mountain regions surrounding Beijing have been occurring for a long time and have resulted in great economic losses. In this study, 23 rainstorm events, surficial sediments, and debris flow deposits were analyzed to quantify the area's rainfall threshold and to investigate how such conditions may be used to predict debris flow in this region. Rainfall threshold of intensity-duration (I-D) functions after vegetation recovery was higher than before recovery and also higher than I-D levels in other regions where debris flows are closely associated with runoff. Field investigations revealed that surficial sediments were characterized by coarse-grained sediments and that debris flow deposits lacked fine particles. Local debris flows can be triggered by runoff; however, no single standard equation is used to predict the conditions that lead to runoff-triggered debris flow; and commonly used equations give different values. Here, we propose an empirical function that takes into account peak discharge per width and particle diameter. This model should be verified with further investigations so that it can be used as a reference to analyze the conditions that lead to debris flow in the study area. Finally, debris flows may have been related to occasional storms in the study area, which has been experiencing substantially increased temperatures and decreased annual precipitation. This work provides important information about the conditions that initiated debris flow in the Beijing mountain regions in the last few decades.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yan


    The Changbai Mountains is rich in the resources of green food. At present, the low marketization of green food resources in the forest region of the Changbai Mountains becomes the bottleneck to restrict the benign development of its green food industry. With huge market demands at home and abroad, it is the urgent problem how to improve marketization process of green food resources and transfer the resources superiority into the market superiority in the region. According to the investigation, this paper analyzed the status quo and the cause of formation of low-marketization with the method of combining comparative research and practice research. It pointed out that necessary condition of marketization of green food resources in the forest region, such as strategy, economic environment, marketization allocation of sci-tech resources, etc. should be established. Furthermore, the concrete strategies of marketization of green food resources in the region such as market location, strategies of objective markets, combined strategy of marketing, etc. were advanced.

  14. Cheap Artificial AB-Mountains, Extraction of Water and Energy from Atmosphere and Change of Regional Climate

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander


    Author suggests and researches a new revolutionary method for changing the climates of entire countries or portions thereof, obtaining huge amounts of cheap water and energy from the atmosphere. In this paper is presented the idea of cheap artificial inflatable mountains, which may cardinally change the climate of a large region or country. Additional benefits: The potential of tapping large amounts of fresh water and energy. The mountains are inflatable semi-cylindrical constructions from thin film (gas bags) having heights of up to 3 - 5 km. They are located perpendicular to the main wind direction. Encountering these artificial mountains, humid air (wind) rises to crest altitude, is cooled and produces rain (or rain clouds). Many natural mountains are sources of rivers, and other forms of water and power production - and artificial mountains may provide these services for entire nations in the future. The film of these gasbags is supported at altitude by small additional atmospheric overpressure and may be...

  15. Regional and local correlations of feldspar geochemistry of the Peach Spring Tuff, Alvord Mountain, California (United States)

    Buesch, David C.


    The chemical composition of feldspar grains in an ignimbrite from the Spanish Canyon Formation in the Alvord Mountain area, California, have been used to confirm similarities in three measured sections locally, and they are similar to exposures of the Peach Spring Tuff (PST) regionally. Feldspar grains were identified on the basis of texture (zoning, as mantled feldspars, or in crystal clusters), whether the grains were attached to glass or were in pumice clasts, or were simply crystal fragments with no textural context. Chemistry was determined by electron microprobe analysis, and each analysis is calculated in terms of the percent endmember and plotted on orthoclase (Or) versus anorthite (An) plots. In general, the PST has sanidine and plagioclase compositions that are consistent with having formed in high-silica rhyolite and trachyte within a zoned magma chamber. Feldspars from the PST in Spanish Canyon area cluster along the rhyolitic trend with no grains along the trachytic trend. Similar clustering of feldspars along the rhyolitic trend with no grains along the trachytic trend also occur in the PST from Granite Spring and Providence Mountains to the east of the Alvord Mountain area, and the ranges in compositions are also similar in these locations. In contrast, the PST in the Kane Wash area of the Newberry Mountains has feldspars only from the rhyolitic trend in the basal deposits, but some grains from the trachytic trend are in the upper part of the deposit, and the range in compositions are greater than in the Spanish Canyon area. The variations in vertical compositional zoning and compositional range in these different deposits suggests there were probably different flow paths (or timing of the delivery) during the eruption and runout of the pyroclastic flow(s) generated from the climactic eruption of the PST magma chamber.

  16. Blue Ice Moraines as an Archive of Past EAIS dynamics: Mt. Achernar as a Case Study in the Central Transantarctic Mountains (United States)

    Kaplan, M. R.; Licht, K.; Winckler, G.; Schaefer, J. M.; Mathieson, C.; Bader, N.


    Observations from the interior of East Antarctica are essential for placing direct constraints on the ice sheet's history over multiple glacial cycles, which also can be used to test numerical modeling of its past dynamics. In particular, laterally extensive, blue ice or ablation moraines are important archives of the former behavior of the EAIS and WAIS during at least the Pleistocene and Holocene. We can now quantify changes in the former ice surfaces using such deposits, which have been studied for decades, but have lacked chronological information. We are carrying out 10Be-26Al-3He dating and provenance initiatives at Mt. Achernar, near the head of the Law Glacier, where there is a well-preserved archive of ice sheet history extending spatially over 5-10 km and temporally over the last few hundred thousand years, during which time the climate swung between full glacial and warm interglacial changes. Here, concentric moraines are continuous and well preserved, and the entire complex is no higher than about ~30 meters above the modern EAIS surface. The cosmogenic ages steadily progress away from the EAIS, over 103 to 105 timescales. In addition, agreement of 10Be and 26Al concentrations indicate that, at least over the long term, blue ice deposits at Mt Achernar do not have a complicated history of burial and re-exposure. This is consistent with the inferred process of blue ice moraine formation that involves debris coming up from below and accumulating on the surface, when ice encounters the Transantarctic Mountains. Based on our findings we conclude that the interior of EAIS has been relatively stable for the last few 100 kyr, with ice surface elevation changes on the order of tens of meters, including 20-30 meters since the LGM. In a net sense, the EAIS has also been getting slightly lower over the last half million years or so. We hypothesize that if the interior of the EAIS had undergone major lowering or more pronounced surface changes over the time

  17. Localized states in the active region of blue LEDs related to a system of extended defects (United States)

    Davydov, D. V.; Zakgeim, A. L.; Snegov, F. M.; Sobolev, M. M.; Chernyakov, A. E.; Usikov, A. S.; Shmidt, N. M.


    Blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) with different characters of the system of extended defects (SEDs) threading through the active region have been studied using the current-voltage (I U), capacitance-voltage (C V), and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements in the dark and under illumination with white light in a temperature range from 100 to 450 K. The DLTS curves exhibit broad E1 and E2 peaks with amplitudes dependent on the illumination. This behavior can be explained assuming the presence of localized states related to SEDs in the active region of the LED. The LEDs with more developed SEDs are characterized by a greater concentration of donor-type traps, which leads to an increase in the density of free charge carriers in QWs, which screen the electron-hole interaction. This circumstance can be among the factors responsible for a severalfold decrease in the quantum efficiency of such LEDs.

  18. Physical processes and effects of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, G.A.; Crowe, B.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Perry, F.V. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA). Dept. of Geology


    This paper describes initial studies related to the effects of volcanism on performance of the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and to the general processes of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region. Volcanism or igneous activity can affect the repository performance by ejection of waste onto the earth`s surface (eruptive effects), or by subsurface effects of hydrothermal processes and altered hydrology if an intrusion occurs within the repository block. Initial, conservative calculations of the volume of waste that might be erupted during a small-volume basaltic eruption (such as those which occurred in the Yucca Mountain region) indicate that regulatory limits might be exceeded. Current efforts to refine these calculations, based upon field studies at analog sites, are described. Studies of subsurface effects are just beginning, and are currently focused on field studies of intrusion properties and contact metamorphism at deeply eroded analog sites. General processes of magmatism are important for providing a physical basis for predictions of future volcanic activity. Initial studies have focused on modeling basaltic magma chambers in conjunction with petrographic and geochemical studies. An example of the thermal-fluid dynamic evolution of a small basaltic sill is described, based on numerical simulation. Quantification of eruption conditions can provide valuable information on the overall magmatic system. We are developing quantitative methods for mapping pyroclastic facies of small basaltic centers and, in combination with two-phase hydrodynamic simulation, using this information to estimate eruption conditions. Examples of such hydrodynamic simulations are presented, along with comparison to an historical eruption in Hawaii.

  19. Characteristics of soil seed bank in plantation forest in the rocky mountain region of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zeng-hui; YANG Yang; LENG Ping-sheng; DOU De-quan; ZHANG Bo; HOU Bing-fei


    We investigated characteristics (scales and composition) of soil seed banks at eight study sites in the rocky mountain region of Beijing by seed identification and germination monitoring.We also surveyed the vegetation communities at the eight study sites to explore the role of soil seed banks in vegetation restoration.The storage capacity of soil seed banks at the eight sites ranked from 766.26 to 2461.92 seedsm-2.A total of 23 plant species were found in soil seed banks,of which 63-80%of seeds were herbs in various soil layers and 60% of seeds were located in the soil layer at 0-5 cm depth.Biodiversity indices indicated clear differences in species diversity of soil seed banks among different plant communities.The species composition of aboveground vegetation showed low similarity with that based on soil seed banks.In the aboveground plant community,the afforestation tree species showed high importance values.The plant species originating from soil seed banks represented natural regeneration,which also showed relatively high importance values.This study suggests that in the rocky mountain region of Beijing the soil seed banks played a key role in the transformation from pure plantation forest to near-natural forest,promoting natural ecological processes,and the role of the seed banks in vegetation restoration was important to the improvement of ecological restoration methods.

  20. ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions (EGER – overview of design, methods, and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Foken


    Full Text Available To investigate the energy, matter and reactive and non-reactive trace gas exchange between the atmosphere and a spruce forest in the German mountain region, two intensive measuring periods were conducted at the FLUXNET site Waldstein-Weidenbrunnen in September/October 2007 and June/July 2008. They were part of the project "ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions" (EGER. Beyond a brief description of the experiment and links to the already published results of both experiments, the main focus of the paper is the problem of the coupling of the trunk space, the canopy and the atmosphere. Therefore, the relevant coherent structures were analyzed in different canopy levels and an already published coupling classification was applied to gradients and fluxes. It could be shown that fluxes above the canopy are only related to the gradient between the canopy and the atmosphere in the case of a fully coupled system. Changes in the concentration of especially reactive trace gases (NO-NO2-O3 and HONO could only be interpreted together with the coupling stage. Finally it was pointed out that the combination of air chemical measurements with micrometeorological turbulence measurements is urgently needed to understand the biosphere-atmosphere interaction.

  1. Characterizing and Assessing the Agricultural Land Use Intensity of the Beijing Mountainous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang


    Full Text Available Recently, land use and land cover change have received increased attention, and an approach is required that can assess agricultural land use intensity on a general basis. This study demonstrated the usefulness of a tool for characterizing and assessing agricultural land use intensity in Beijing mountainous region. An emergy analysis and principal component analysis (PCA were adopted to obtain agricultural input and output intensity data. Correlation and regression analyses were used to study the relationship among land capability, agricultural input, output intensity, and agricultural system sustainability. Ultimately, the agricultural land use intensity types in the Beijing mountainous region were identified through a cluster analysis. The results produced five indices of agricultural input intensity and five indices of output intensity. Non-renewable energy was the overwhelming input, and grain, meat, eggs, and vegetables were the major outputs of the agricultural system. The results also showed that there was better natural land quality, higher input intensity, greater output intensity, and lower agricultural system sustainability. Eight types of agricultural intensity were classified and assessed, and they may be used to evaluate and monitor sustainable land use and provide baseline measurements of land use intensity for land use analyses and change detection.

  2. Constructing a Core Collection for Maize (Zea mays L.) Landrace from Wuling Mountain Region in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the genetic clustering from 42 microsatellite (SSR) markers with a combination of their geographic origin and germplasm characteristics, 124 maize landraces from Wuling Mountain region in China were used for constructing a core collection. Four evaluating parameters for maize landrace core collection, including mean difference percentage (MD), variance difference percentage (VD), coincidence rate of range (CR), and variable rate of coefficient of variation (VR), were assessed with 20 quantitative traits. It was shown that genetic relationships among landraces in Wuling Mountain region had the tendency to associate with their geographic origins. The 124 landraces were clustered into 18 subgroups when the coefficient of genetic similarity (GS) is 0.28. Eighteen landraces, each of which was from one subgroup, were applied to construct the core collection with a sampling percentage of 15%. Comparison of the initial and core collection indicated that there existed no significant differences in most quantitative traits. An average of 6.3 and 6.5 alleles were detected in the initial and core collection, respectively. Mean polymorphism information content in the core collection (0.75) was higher than that in the initial one (0.72). MD was lesser than 20% and CR was more than 80%. The results showed that the sampling strategy would be feasible for constructing the core collection that well represents the genetic diversity of the initial one.

  3. Analysis of variance in acute mountain sickness among young men from different regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu WU


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS among young men from different regions when arriving in Tibet, and explore the medical geographic differences of high altitude adaptability of people from different regions. Methods Cluster sampling survey of AMS incidence was performed among the young men from different regions when arriving in high altitude area, by using the AMS symptoms scoring method, and the military standards were employed as reference, for classifying and scoring. For distinguishing the differences of geographic environment, the systematic cluster analysis of natural geographical factors of their native places was performed and verified by nonparametric tests. The one-way ANOVA was used to analyze the differences of AMS symptom scores among young men from different regions. Results The native places of the studied subjects were divided into 5 regions by cluster analysis, and the geographic factors among the 5 regions were found to be significantly different (P<0.01. It was found that there were significant differences in the AMS incidence among people came from different regions (P<0.05. Specifically, the AMS incidence was significantly higher (P<0.05 in people from region 2 than in people from region 3, 4 and 5. In terms of main symptoms of AMS, the incidence of headache in people from region 2 was 82.8%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from regions 3, 4 and 5; the incidence of nausea and vomiting was 37.9%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 3; the incidence of fatigue and drowsiness was 724.% and 27.6%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 5. The incidence of vertigo in people from region 1 and 3 was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 5. Conclusions The significant geographic differences of AMS incidence are found to exist among

  4. Risk Assessment of Geologic Formation Sequestration in The Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian


    The purpose of this report is to describe the outcome of a targeted risk assessment of a candidate geologic sequestration site in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. Specifically, a major goal of the probabilistic risk assessment was to quantify the possible spatiotemporal responses for Area of Review (AoR) and injection-induced pressure buildup associated with carbon dioxide (CO₂) injection into the subsurface. Because of the computational expense of a conventional Monte Carlo approach, especially given the likely uncertainties in model parameters, we applied a response surface method for probabilistic risk assessment of geologic CO₂ storage in the Permo-Penn Weber formation at a potential CCS site in Craig, Colorado. A site-specific aquifer model was built for the numerical simulation based on a regional geologic model.

  5. Assessing spatial distribution of soil erosion in a karst region in southwestern China: A case study in Jinfo Mountains (United States)

    Zhou, H. Y.; Pan, X. Y.; Zhou, W. Z.


    Soil erosion is serious with rocky desertification areas appearing in mountainous Karst regions in southwest China due to a conspicuous contradiction between man and the land resource. Land use and land cover play significant roles in regional soil erosion by water. This paper aimed to quantify regional soil erosion and to explore relationships between soil erosion and land use/land cover in order to locate high risk areas requiring soil conservation. Based on GIS, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was employed for erosion assessment for a typical Karst region, Jinfo Mountain region in southwest China, using local parameters. Spatial distribution of topsoil erosion was analyzed and relationships between soil erosion and land use/land cover changes (LULC) were statistically explored and discussed for regional erosion control. The overall values were under 25 t.ha.a, with the medium erosion areas accounting for 12.7% and the intense and very intense erosion areas totalled about 6%. The relations between soil erosion and LULC are complicated in this Karst mountainous region. Generally, the amount of ground cover, soil conservation measures, and cultivation disturbance have played critical roles in topsoil loss in the Jinfo mountain region. The reduced ground cover levels accompanying greater cultivation disturbance lead to higher erosion intensity in each landscape, and vice versa.

  6. Role of land use change in landslide-related sediment fluxes in tropical mountain regions (United States)

    Guns, M.; Vanacker, V.; Demoulin, A.


    Tropical mountain regions are characterised by high denudation rates. Landslides are known to be recurrent phenomena in active mountain belts, but their contribution to the overall sedimentary fluxes is not yet well known. Previous studies on sedimentary cascades have mostly focused on natural environments, without considering the impact of human and/or anthropogenic disturbances on sedimentary budgets. In our work, we hypothesise that human-induced land use change might alter the sediment cascade through shifts in the landslide magnitude-frequency relationship. We have tested this assumption in the Virgen Yacu catchment (approximately 11km2), in the Ecuadorian Cordillera Occidental. Landslide inventories and land use maps were established based on a series of sequential aerial photos (1963, 1977, 1984 and 1989), a HR Landsat image (2001) and a VHR WorldView2 image (2010). Aerial photographs were ortho-rectified, and coregistred with the WorldView2 satellite image. Field campaigns were realised in 2010 and 2011 to collect field-based data on landslide type and geometry (depth, width and length). This allowed us to establish an empirical relationship between landslide area and volume, which was then applied to the landslide inventories to estimate landslide-related sediment production rates for various time periods. The contribution of landslides to the overall sediment flux of the catchment was estimated by comparing the landslide-related sediment production to the total sediment yield. The empirical landslide area-volume relationship established here for the Ecuadorian Andes is similar to that derived for the Himalayas. It suggests that landslides are the main source of sediment in this mountainous catchment. First calculations indicate that human-induced land use change alters the magnitude-frequency relationship through strong increase of small landslides.

  7. Imaging of the subducted Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the Hyuga-nada region, western Nankai Trough subduction zone (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Obana, Koichiro; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nakanishi, Ayako; Kodaira, Shuichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki


    We performed 3D seismic tomography of the Hyuga-nada region, western Nankai subduction zone, to investigate the relationship of the subducted part of Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) to coseismic rupture propagation, seismicity, and shallow very low frequency earthquakes. Combining active-source and passive-source data recorded both onshore and offshore, we imaged the deep slab from near the trough axis to the coastal area. Our results show the subducted KPR as a low-velocity belt oriented NW-SE extending down the plate boundary to around 30 km depth. At this depth, we suggest that the subducted KPR detaches from the slab and becomes underplated on the overriding continental plate. As the coseismic slip areas of past large earthquakes do not extend into the subducted KPR, we suggest that it may inhibit rupture propagation. The interior of the subducted KPR shows active intraslab seismicity with a wide depth distribution. Shallow very low frequency earthquakes are continuously active above the location of the subducted KPR, whereas they are intermittent to the northeast of the subducted KPR. Thus, the subducted KPR appears to be an important factor in coseismic rupture propagation and seismic phenomena in this region.

  8. Differential insect and mammalian response to Late Quaternary climate change in the Rocky Mountain region of North America (United States)

    Elias, Scott A.


    Of the 200 beetle species identified from Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene insect faunal assemblages, 23% are no longer resident in this region. None of the 200 species is extinct. In contrast to this, only 8% of 73 identified mammal species from Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene assemblages are no longer resident in the Rockies, and 12 species are now extinct. Since both groups of organisms are highly mobile, it would appear that their responses to the large-scale fluctuations of climate associated with the last 125,000 years have been considerably different. Most strikingly contrasting with the insects, there are no mammals in the Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene fossil record that are found exclusively today in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region. The PNW does have a distinctive modern mammalian fauna, but only one of these, Keen's Myotis, has a fossil record outside the PNW region, in the eastern and central United States. No modern PNW vertebrate species have been found in any Rocky Mountain fossil assemblages. Based on these data, it appears that there has been little or no mammalian faunal exchange between the PNW region and the Rocky Mountains during the Late Pleistocene or Holocene. This is in stark contrast to the fossil beetle record, where PNW species are a substantial component in many faunas, right through to the Late Holocene.

  9. Interaction Between HII Region and AFGL333-Ridge: Implications to the Star Formation Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Makoto; Chibueze, James O; Nagayama, Takumi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Handa, Toshihiro; Sunada, Kazuyuki; Kamezaki, Tatsuya; Burns, Ross A


    We investigated the star formation activities in the AFGL333 region, which is in the vicinity of the W4 expanding bubble, by conducting NH3 (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) mapping observations with the 45 m Nobeyama Radio Telescope at an angular resolution of 75". The morphology of the NH3 (1,1) map shows a bow-shape structure with the size of 2.0 x 0.6 pc as seen in the dust continuum. At the interface between the W4 bubble and the dense NH3 cloud, the compact HII region G134.2+0.8, associated with IRAS02245+6115, is located. Interestingly, just north and south of G134.2+0.8 we found NH3 emission exhibiting large velocity widths of ~ 2.8 km/s, compared to 1.8 km/s at the other positions. As the possibility of mechanical energy injection through the activity of YSO(s) is low, we considered the origin of the large turbulent gas motion as indication of interaction between the compact HII region and the periphery of the dense molecular cloud. We also found expanding motion of the CO emission associated with G134.2+0.8. ...

  10. Habitat assessment for giant pandas in the Qinling Mountain region of China (United States)

    Feng, Tian-Tian; Van Manen, Frank T.; Zhao, Na-Xun; Li, Ming; Wei, Fu-Wen


    Because habitat loss and fragmentation threaten giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), habitat protection and restoration are important conservation measures for this endangered species. However, distribution and value of potential habitat to giant pandas on a regional scale are not fully known. Therefore, we identified and ranked giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve, Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, and adjacent areas in the Qinling Mountains of China. We used Mahalanobis distance and 11 digital habitat layers to develop a multivariate habitat signature associated with 247 surveyed giant panda locations, which we then applied to the study region. We identified approximately 128 km2 of giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve (43.6% of the reserve) and 49 km2 in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (33.6% of the reserve). We defined core habitat areas by incorporating a minimum patch-size criterion (5.5 km2) based on home-range size. Percentage of core habitat area was higher in Foping Nature Reserve (41.8% of the reserve) than Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (26.3% of the reserve). Within the larger analysis region, Foping Nature Reserve contained 32.7% of all core habitat areas we identified, indicating regional importance of the reserve. We observed a negative relationship between distribution of core areas and presence of roads and small villages. Protection of giant panda habitat at lower elevations and improvement of habitat linkages among core habitat areas are important in a regional approach to giant panda conservation.

  11. [Spatial variability and management zone of soil major nutrients in tobacco fields in Qiannan mountainous region]. (United States)

    Wu, De-Chuan; Luo, Hong-Xiang; Song, Ze-Min; Guo, Guang-Dong; Chen, Yong-An; Li, Yu-Xiang; Jiang, Yu-Ping; Li, Zhang-Hai


    Spatial variability and management zone of soil major nutrients in tobacco fields in Qian-nan mountainous region were analyzed using geostatistics and fuzzy c-mean algorithm. Results indicated that the level of soil organic matter (OM) was moderate, and alkalytic nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) were rich according to tobacco soil nutrient classification standards. Coefficients of variation (CV) of OM, AN, AP and AK were moderate. Contents of OM, AN, AP and AK fitted log-normal distributions. Correlation analysis showed moderate correlations between OM and AN, AP and AK. OM and AN were best described by Gaussian semivariogram models, while AP and AK were described by exponential models. The four nutrients displayed moderate spatial autocorrelation. There were significant differences among lag distances of four soil nutrients. OM, AN, AP and AK in the majority of studied regions varied at moderate to very rich levels, and deficiencies of OM, AN, AP and AK only accounted for 0.93%, 0.53%, 0.24% and 7.91% of the total studied region, respectively. Based on the results, the studied region was divided into two management zones (MZ), namely MZ1 and MZ2, accounting for 69. 8% and 30. 2% of the studied region respectively. The soil levels of OM, AN, AP and AK in MZ1 were significantly lower than those in MZ2 (P < 0.01).

  12. The geomorphic impact of catastrophic glacier ice loss in mountain regions (United States)

    Evans, S. G.


    Perhaps the most dramatic manifestation of global warming is catastrophic glacier ice loss in mountain regions. The geomorphic impact of this process was first outlined by Evans and Clague in 1994 and includes mountain slope instability, glacier avalanching, the formation and failure of moraine dammed lakes, and the formation and failure of ice dammed lakes. The present paper is an update of the 1994 publication and has three components. First, a global review of recent glacier-related geomorphic events is undertaken. Second, an analysis of two cases from the Coast Mountains of British Columbia - the 1975 Devastation Glacier landslide and the 1983 Nostetuko Lake outburst resulting from the failure of a moraine dam illustrates the interaction of glacier ice loss and related geomorphic events. At Devastation Glacier, approximately 13 M m3 of altered Quaternary volcanic rock and glacier ice was lost from the west flank of Pylon Peak in the Mount Meager volcanic complex. The events were initiated by a catastrophic rockslide, involving altered Quaternary pyroclastic rocks, which continued down Devastation Creek valley as a high velocity debris avalanche. The overall length of the slide path was 7 km and the vertical height of the path was 1220 m yielding a fahrboschung of 10°. Other large landslides occurred in Devastation Creek valley in 1931 and 1947. Stability analysis of the initial failure shows that the 1975 rockslide was the result of a complex history of glacial erosion, loading and unloading of the toe of the slide mass caused by the Little Ice Age advance and subsequent retreat of Devastation Glacier. The shearing resistance along the base of the rockslide mass was reduced prior to 1975 by substantial previous slope displacements related to glacial ice loss. Some of this displacement is likely to have occurred as subglacial slope deformation since ice fall and crevasse patterns suggest the presence of slide like shearing displacements below the base of

  13. Developing scenarios to assess future landslide risks: a model-based approach applied to mountainous regions (United States)

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas


    In the last century, European mountain landscapes have experienced significant transformations. Natural and anthropogenic changes, climate changes, touristic and industrial development, socio-economic interactions, and their implications in terms of LUCC (land use and land cover changes) have directly influenced the spatial organization and vulnerability of mountain landscapes. This study is conducted as part of the SAMCO project founded by the French National Science Agency (ANR). It aims at developing a methodological approach, combining various tools, modelling platforms and methods, to identify vulnerable regions to landslide hazards accounting for futures LUCC. It presents an integrated approach combining participative scenarios and a LULC changes simulation models to assess the combined effects of LUCC and climate change on landslide risks in the Cauterets valley (French Pyrenees Mountains) up to 2100. Through vulnerability and risk mapping, the objective is to gather information to support landscape planning and implement land use strategies with local stakeholders for risk management. Four contrasting scenarios are developed and exhibit contrasting trajectories of socio-economic development. Prospective scenarios are based on national and international socio-economic contexts relying on existing assessment reports. The methodological approach integrates knowledge from local stakeholders to refine each scenario during their construction and to reinforce their plausibility and relevance by accounting for local specificities, e.g. logging and pastoral activities, touristic development, urban planning, etc. A process-based model, the Forecasting Scenarios for Mountains (ForeSceM) model, developed on the Dinamica Ego modelling platform is used to spatially allocate futures LUCC for each prospective scenario. Concurrently, a spatial decision support tool, i.e. the SYLVACCESS model, is used to identify accessible areas for forestry in scenario projecting logging

  14. The Mountain Image in Regional Songs%国风诗中的山意象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper mainly applies the theory and method of archetypal criticism to the mountain image in Regional Songs from The Book of Poetry for further study their deeper connotations .From high-mountain, ascending and missing relatives ,“Nan-san” ,love story,and dual for love story , the paper explores the source for later literary imagery and finds traces in studying ancient literature.%主要运用原型批评的理论和方法,对《诗经》国风诗的山意象做进一步的探究,拟从山之高大、登高思亲、“南山”与男女情事、山隰对举象征男女爱情等几个层面进行阐述,以发掘其深层次意蕴,为后世文学意象找寻源头。

  15. Production of high-resolution digital terrain models in mountain regions to support risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Forlani


    Full Text Available Demand for high-accuracy digital terrain models (DTMs in the Alpine region has been steadily increasing in recent years in valleys as well as high mountains. In the former, the determination of the geo-mechanical parameters of rock masses is the main objective; global warming, which causes the retreat of glaciers and the reduction of permafrost, is the main drive of the latter. The consequence is the instability of rock masses in high mountains: new cost-effective monitoring techniques are required to deal with the peculiar characteristics of such environment, delivering results at short notice. After discussing the design and execution of photogrammetric surveys in such areas, with particular reference to block orientation and block control, the paper describes the production of DTMs of rock faces and glacier fronts with light instrumentation and data acquisition techniques, allowing highly automated data processing. To this aim, the PhotoGPS technique and structure from motion algorithms are used to speed up the orientation process, while dense matching area-based correlation techniques are used to generate the DTMs.

  16. Scattered Rural Settlements and Development of Mountainous Regions in Western Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yanjun; CHEN Guojie; SHEN Maoying


    Making rural settlements of Mountainous Regions in WesternSichuan as the study objects and using symbolic statistical methods, thencombining the case study of Daofu County, the paper analyzes the negativeimpact of the scattered rural settlements on infrastructure construction, farmers' income increase and mountain ecological reconstruction in mountainousregions of western Sichuan. The results indicate that economic density is positively related to both rural settlements density (R2=0.73) and rural populationdensity (R2=0.77), and it is the same for relationship between towns densityand rural settlements density (R2=0.88) and between towns density and economic density (R2=0.71), and the scattered distribution pattern of the ruralsettlements and shortage of economic centers is a major factor to the laggedsocioeconomic development. On the eco-economic zoning to Daofu County,the paper indicates the spatial distribution model and the industrial development model of the rural settlements need to be changed, and rural populationshould be concentrated in larger rural settlements with development ofoff-farm industries while infrastructure construction is to reinforced.

  17. Effect of climatic change on snowmelt runoffs in mountainous regions of inland rivers in Northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jian; LI; Shuo


    Climatic change has significant impacts on snow cover in mid-latitude mountainous regions, in the meantime, spatial and temporal changes of snow cover and snowmelt runoffs are considered as sensitive indicators for climatic change. In this study, the upper Heihe Watershed in the Qilian Mountains was selected as a typical area affected by snow cover and snowmelt runoffs in northwestern China. The changes in air temperatures, precipitation, snowfall and spring snowmelt runoffs were analyzed for the period from 1956 to 2001. The results indicate that climatic warming was apparent, particularly in January and February, but precipitation just fluctuated without a clear trend. The possible changes of snowmelt runoffs in the upper Heihe watershed in response to a warming of 4℃ were simulated using Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) based on the degree-day factor algorithm. The results of the simulation indicate that a forward shifting of snow melting season, an increase in water flows in earlier melting season, and a decline in flows in later melting season would occur under a 4℃ warming scenario.

  18. Stream flow regime of springs in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Souza de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The stream flow regime of four springs located in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region (MG was evaluated and correlated to the respective recharge area, relief characteristics, land cover and physical and hydrologic soil characteristics. The streamflow regime was characterized by monitoring of discharges, calculating the surface runoff and specific discharge and by modeling the discharge over the recession period using the Maillet method. As all recharge areas have similar relief the effect of it on the streamflow was not possible to identify. Analysis included determining the effect of drainage area size, soil characteristics and land cover on the indicators of the streamflow regime. Size of the recharge area had a positive influence on the indicators mean discharge and surface runoff volume and on the regulation of the streamflow regime (springs L4 and L1. The spring under the smallest area of influence provided the worst results for the above mentioned indicators (spring L3. The effect of forest cover (natural and planted, associated with soil characteristics, was evidenced by the indicators surface runoff (in depth and specific yield, both independent of the recharge area size (springs L4 and L2. The interaction of area size, soil characteristics and forest cover (natural and planted provided the best results for all indicators of streamflow regime in the springs studied in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range (spring L4.

  19. Snow covers detection using terrestrial photography. Application to a mountain catchment in Alps region (France). (United States)

    Barth, Thierry; Saulnier, Georges-Marie; Malet, Emmanuel


    In August 2005, a significant mudflow leaded to major impacts damages at the Sainte-Agnes village located downstream the Vorz torrent (35 km2, elevations ranging from 1248m and 2977m, Alps region, France). To meet the demand of populations and civil authorities a research program was launched to both monitor and model these regions to help to quantify water resources and vulnerability to such hazardous events, including their probable evolutions do to climatic changes. This communication focuses on one of the several forcing variables of the water cycle in mountainous regions: the snow covering. Indeed, its controls a significant part of the future available water resources and may strongly interact with liquid precipitations during snow melting season. Usual sensors such as remote sensing cannot easily quantify accurately the snow covering for small mountainous catchment at hydrological models spatial and temporal resolutions (typically Dx fog, clouds, etc.) taking into account for the very various luminosity and cloud covers conditions. To make the 2D to 3D conversion, the camera referential needs to be replaced in the catchment referential by geometrical transformations. This operation is automatically realized by automatic recognition of geo referenced ground points (particular DTM points) within the camera pictures and resolution of a matrix system. Solving this inverse matrix problem raises numerous mathematical difficulties that will be discussed in the presentation. When successfully solved, every picture pixel can then be dropped on the DTM taking into account classical problems such as hidden faces. The automatically detection of the snow pixels in each picture is then achieved. The recurrent problem is the changing of luminosity and cloud cover of the catchment. It is often very difficult to distinguish between white clouds and snow within the picture by automatic algorithm. Difficulties also arise when shading effects fade colours of the compressed

  20. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico. (United States)

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L


    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  1. Abbreviated bibliography on energy development—A focus on the Rocky Mountain Region (United States)

    Montag, Jessica M.; Willis, Carolyn J.; Glavin, Levi W.


    Energy development of all types continues to grow in the Rocky Mountain Region of the western United States. Federal resource managers increasingly need to balance energy demands, effects on the natural landscape and public perceptions towards these issues. To assist in efficient access to valuable information, this abbreviated bibliography provides citations to relevant information for myriad of issues for which resource managers must contend. The bibliography is organized by seven large topics with various sup-topics: broad energy topics (energy crisis, conservation, supply and demand, etc.); energy sources (fossil fuel, nuclear, renewable, etc.); natural landscape effects (climate change, ecosystem, mitigation, restoration, and reclamation, wildlife, water, etc.); human landscape effects (attitudes and perceptions, economics, community effects, health, Native Americans, etc.); research and technology; international research; and, methods and modeling. A large emphasis is placed on the natural and human landscape effects.

  2. Analysis and Modelling of Extreme Wind Speed Distributions in Complex Mountainous Regions (United States)

    Laib, Mohamed; Kanevski, Mikhail


    Modelling of wind speed distributions in complex mountainous regions is an important and challenging problem which interests many scientists from several fields. In the present research, high frequency (10 min) Swiss wind speed monitoring data (IDAWEB service, Meteosuisse) are analysed and modelled with different parametric distributions (Weibull, GEV, Gamma, etc.) using maximum likelihood method. In total, 111 stations placed in different geomorphological units and at different altitude (from 203 to 3580 meters) are studied. Then, this information is used for training machine learning algorithms (Extreme Learning Machines, Support vector machine) to predict the distribution at new places, potentially useful for aeolian energy generation. An important part of the research deals with the construction and application of a high dimensional input feature space, generated from digital elevation model. A comprehensive study was carried out using feature selection approach to get the best model for the prediction. The main results are presented as spatial patterns of distributions' parameters.

  3. Risk and size estimation of debris flow caused by storm rainfall in mountain regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Genwei


    Debris flow is a common disaster in mountain regions. The valley slope, storm rainfall and amassed sand-rock materials in a watershed may influence the types of debris flow. The bursting of debris flow is not a pure random event. Field investigations show the periodicity of its burst, but no directive evidence has been found yet. A risk definition of debris flow is proposed here based upon the accumulation and the starting conditions of loose material in channel. According to this definition, the risk of debris flow is of quasi-periodicity. A formula of risk estimation is derived. Analysis of relative factors reveals the relationship between frequency and size of debris flow. For a debris flow creek, the longer the time interval between two occurrences of debris flows is, the bigger the bursting event will be.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bendifallah


    Full Text Available Pistacia lentiscus L. (Pistaciaceae is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. For this study, the leaves were collected from the mountainous region of Boumerdes, in northern Algeria. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Pistacia lentiscus as a medicinal herb. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against three pathogenic bacterial strains and one pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in leucoanthocyanins, in glucosids, alcaloids, flavonoïds and in saponosids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against some species.

  5. Hydrogeological and geophysical study for deeper groundwater resource in quartzitic hard rock ridge region from 2D resistivity data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dewashish Kumar; V Ananda Rao; V S Sarma


    Electrical resistivity method is a versatile and economical technique for groundwater prospecting in different geological settings due to wide spectrum of resistivity compared to other geophysical parameters. Exploration and exploitation of groundwater, a vital and precious resource, is a challenging task in hard rock, which exhibits inherent heterogeneity. In the present study, two-dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography (2D-ERT) technique using two different arrays, viz., pole–dipole and pole–pole, were deployed to look into high signal strength data in a tectonically disturbed hard rock ridge region for groundwater. Four selected sites were investigated. 2D subsurface resistivity tomography data were collected using Syscal Pro Switch-10 channel system and covered a 2 km long profile in a tough terrain. The hydrogeological interpretation based on resistivity models reveal the water horizons trap within the clayey sand and weathered/fractured quartzite formations. Aquifer resistivity lies between ∼3–35 and 100–200 m. The results of the resistivity models decipher potential aquifer lying between 40 and 88 m depth, nevertheless, it corroborates with the static water level measurements in the area of study. The advantage of using pole–pole in conjunction with the pole–dipole array is well appreciated and proved worth which gives clear insight of the aquifer extent, variability and their dimension from shallow to deeper strata from the hydrogeological perspective in the present geological context.

  6. Geostatistical mapping of leakance in a regional aquitard, Oak Ridges Moraine area, Ontario, Canada (United States)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Hinton, M. J.; Logan, C. E.; Sharpe, D. R.


    The Newmarket Till forms a regionally extensive aquitard separating two major aquifer systems in the Greater Toronto area, Canada. The till is incised, and sometimes eroded entirely, by a network of sand- and gravel-filled channels forming productive aquifers and, locally, high-conductivity windows between aquifer systems. Leakage through the till may also be substantial in places. This study investigates the spatial variability of aquitard leakance in order to assess the relative importance of recharge processes to the lower aquifers. With a large database derived from water-well records and containing both hard and soft information, the Sequential Indicator Simulation method is used to generate maps of aquitard thickness and window probability. These can be used for targeting channel aquifers and for identifying potential areas of recharge to the lower aquifers. Conductivities are modeled from sparse data assuming that their correlation range is much smaller than the grid spacing. Block-scale leakances are obtained by upscaling nodal values based on simulated conductivity and thickness fields. Under the "aquifer-flow'' assumption, upscaling is performed by arithmetic spatial averaging. Histograms and maps of upscaled leakances show that heterogeneities associated with aquitard windows have the largest effect on regional groundwater flow patterns. Résumé. La moraine glaciaire de Newmarket constitue un imperméable d'extension régionale séparant deux systèmes aquifères dans la région du Grand Toronto (Canada). La moraine est entaillée, et parfois entièrement érodée, par un réseau de chenaux comblés de sables et de graviers formant des aquifères productifs et, localement, des «fenêtres», zones à forte conductivité hydraulique reliant les systèmes aquifères. Une drainance au travers de la moraine peut également être significative par endroits. Cette étude s'intéresse à la variabilité spatiale de la drainance au travers de l

  7. [Measurement and estimation of grassland evapotranspiration in a mountainous region at the upper reach of Heihe River basin, China]. (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Chen, Ren-sheng; Song, Yao-xuan; Liu, Jun-feng; Han, Chun-tan; Liu, Zhang-wen


    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of water cycle, but its measurement in high altitude mountainous region is quite difficult, inducing the insufficient understanding on the actual ET in high altitude mountainous region and the effects of ET on this region' s water cycle. In this paper, two small type weighing mini-lysimeters were applied to measure the daily ET in a piece of grassland in a high altitude mountainous region of the Heihe River basin from July 1st, 2009 to June 30th, 2010. Based on the measured data, the methods of FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (F-P-M), Priestley-Taylor (P-T), and Hargreaves-Samani (H-S) were employed to estimate the ET to analyze the applicability of the three methods for the mountainous region, and the pan coefficient at the measurement spots was discussed. During the measurement period, the total annual ET at the measurement spots was 439.9 mm, accounting for 96.5% of the precipitation in the same period, and the ET showed an obvious seasonal distribution, being 389. 3 mm in May-October, accounting for 88. 5% of the annual value. All the three methods could be well applied to estimate the summer ET but not the winter ET, and their applicability followed the sequence of P-T > F-P-M > H-S. At the measurement spots, the daily pan coefficient in summer was 0.7-0. 8, while that in winter was quite variable.

  8. Constructing Consistent Multiscale Scenarios by Transdisciplinary Processes: the Case of Mountain Regions Facing Global Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolin Simon. Brand


    Full Text Available Alpine regions in Europe, in particular, face demanding local challenges, e.g., the decline in the agriculture and timber industries, and are also prone to global changes, such as in climate, with potentially severe impacts on tourism. We focus on the Visp region in the Upper Valais, Switzerland, and ask how the process of stakeholder involvement in research practice can contribute to a better understanding of the specific challenges and future development of mountainous regions under global change. Based on a coupled human-environment system (HES perspective, we carried out a formative scenario analysis to develop a set of scenarios for the future directions of the Visp region. In addition, we linked these regional scenarios to context scenarios developed at the global and Swiss levels via an external consistency analysis. This method allows the coupling of both the scenario building process and the scenarios as such. We used a functional-dynamic approach to theory-practice cooperation, i.e., the involvement of key stakeholders from, for example, tourism, forestry, and administration, differed in type and intensity during the steps of the research process. In our study, we experienced strong problem awareness among the stakeholders concerning the impacts of global change and local challenges. The guiding research question was commonly defined and problem ownership was more or less balanced. We arrived at six multiscale scenarios that open up future trajectories for the Visp region, and present generic strategies to cope with global and local challenges. The results show that local identity, spatial planning, community budget, and demographic development are important steering elements in the region’s future development. We suggest that method-guided transdisciplinary processes result in a richer picture and a more systemic understanding, which enable a discussion of critical and surprising issues.

  9. Nonmethane hydrocarbons at Pico Mountain, Azores: 1. Oxidation chemistry in the North Atlantic region (United States)

    Helmig, D.; Tanner, D. M.; Honrath, R. E.; Owen, R. C.; Parrish, D. D.


    Measurements of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) at the Pico Mountain observatory at 2225 m asl on Pico Island, Azores, Portugal, from August 2004 to August 2005 (in part overlapping with the field campaign of the International Consortium on Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation study) were used to investigate NMHC sources and seasonal oxidation chemistry in the central North Atlantic region. Levels of anthropogenic NMHC were characteristic of the marine free troposphere. Their concentrations were low compared to continental sites at higher northern latitudes, but higher than data reported from a similarly located Pacific mountain site at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. These higher NMHC levels are indicative of a greater influence of the adjacent continents on air composition at Pico. Substantially enhanced NMHC concentrations during the summers of 2004 and 2005 were attributed to long-range transport of biomass burning plumes originating from fires in northern Canada, Alaska, and Siberia. This finding exemplifies the continuing impact of biomass burning plumes on atmospheric composition and chemistry many days downwind of these emission sources. Seasonal cycles with lower NMHC concentrations and lower ratios of more reactive to less reactive NMHC during summer reflect the higher degree of photochemical processing occurring during transport. The NMHC concentrations indicate no significant role of chlorine atom oxidation on NMHC. Ozone above 35 ppbv was measured at Pico Mountain throughout all seasons. Enhanced ozone levels were observed in air that had relatively "fresh" photochemical signatures (e.g., ln [propane]/[ethane] > -2.5). During spring-summer air that was more processed ("older" air with ln [propane]/[ethane] < -2.5) on average had lower ozone levels (down to <20 ppbv). This relationship indicates that conditions in the lower free troposphere over the mid-North Atlantic during the spring and summer lead to net photochemical ozone destruction

  10. Contrasting neogene denudation histories of different structural regions in the transantarctic mountains rift flank constrained by cosmogenic isotope measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wateren, F.M. van der; Dunai, T.J.; Balen, R.T. van; Klas, W.; Verbers, A.L.L.M.; Passchier, S.; Herpers, U.


    Separate regions within the Transantarctic Mountains, the uplifted flank of the West Antarctic rift system, appear to have distinct Neogene histories of glaciation and valley downcutting. Incision of deep glacial outlet valleys occurred at different times throughout central and northern Victoria Lan

  11. Massive post-fire flowering events in a tropical mountain region of Brazil: high episodic supply of floral resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Augusto Conceição


    Full Text Available The species Vellozia sincorana L.B.Sm. & Ayensu is key to biodiversity conservation in the tropical mountain region of Brazil. The massive post-fire flowering of this endemic species provides a large, episodic supply of floral resources, mostly nectar, to animals.

  12. [A preliminary report on the investigation of medicinal plant resources in the Liupan Mountains of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region]. (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Pu, X; Sun, J; Zhang, G


    In this paper, 423 species of medicinal plants belonging to 94 families in Liupan Mountains of Ningzia Hui Autonomous Region have been reported, of which 403 species belonging to 79 families are medicinal spermatophytes. The paper may serve as a reference for medical authorities in developing and utilizing plant resources.

  13. Monitoring land use and land cover change in mountain regions: An example in the Jalca grasslands of the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tovar, C.; Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.


    Mountains are rich in biodiversity and provide ecosystem services for their inhabitants. These regions are currently threatened by land use and land cover changes (LUCC), therefore an efficient monitoring is required to capture such changes. The aim of this study is to test a landscape change analys

  14. Does WEPP meet the specificity of soil erosion in steep mountain regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Konz


    Full Text Available We chose the WEPP model (Water Erosion Prediction Project to describe soil erosion in the Urseren Valley (central Switzerland as it seems to be one of the most promising models for steep mountain environments. Crucial model parameters were determined in the field (slope, plant species, fractional vegetation cover, initial saturation level, by laboratory analyses (grain size, organic matter or by the WEPP manual (rill- and interrill erodibility, effective hydraulic conductivity, cation exchange capacity. The quantification of soil erosion was performed on hill slope scale for three different land use types: meadows, pastures with dwarf shrubs and pastures without dwarf shrubs. Erosion rates for the vegetation period were measured with sediment traps between June 2006 and November 2007. Long-term soil erosion rates were estimated by measuring Cs-137 redistribution, deposited after the Chernobyl accident. In addition to the erosion rates, soil moisture and surface flow was additionally measured during the vegetation period in the field and compared to model output. Short-term erosion rates are simulated well whereas long term erosion rates were underestimated by the model. Simulated soil moisture has a parallel development compared to measured data from April onwards but a converse dynamic in early spring (simulated increase and measured decrease in March and April. The discrepancy in soil water during springtime was explained by delayed simulated snow cover melting. The underestimation of simulated long term erosion rates is attributed to alpine processes other than overland flow and splash. Snow gliding processes might dominate erosion processes during winter time. We assume that these differences lead to the general simulated underestimation of erosion rates. Thus, forcing erosion processes which dominate erosion rates in mountainous regions have to be implemented to WEPP for a successful application in the future.

  15. Segment-scale variations in seafloor volcanic and tectonic processes from multibeam sonar imaging, Mid-Atlantic Ridge Rainbow region (35°45'-36°35'N) (United States)

    Eason, Deborah E.; Dunn, Robert A.; Pablo Canales, J.; Sohn, Robert A.


    Along-axis variations in melt supply and thermal structure can lead to significant variations in the mode of crustal accretion at mid-ocean ridges. We examine variations in seafloor volcanic and tectonic processes on the scale of individual ridge segments in a region of the slow spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (35°45'-36°35'N) centered on the Rainbow nontransform discontinuity (NTD). We use multibeam sonar backscatter amplitude data, taking advantage of multifold and multidirectional coverage from the MARINER geophysical study to create a gridded compilation of seafloor reflectivity, and interpret the sonar image within the context of other data to examine seafloor properties and identify volcanic flow fields and tectonic features. Along the spreading segments, differences in volcanic productivity, faulting, eruption style, and frequency correlate with inferred magma supply. Regions of low magma supply are associated with more widely spaced faults, and larger volcanic flow fields that are more easily identified in the backscatter image. Identified flow fields with the highest backscatter occur near the ends of ridge segments. Their relatively smooth topography contrasts with the more hummocky, cone-dominated terrain that dominates most of the neovolcanic zone. Patches of seafloor with high, moderately high, and low backscatter intensity across the Rainbow massif are spatially correlated with observations of basalt, gabbro and serpentinized peridotite, and sediment, respectively. Large detachment faults have repeatedly formed along the inside corners of the Rainbow NTD, producing a series of oceanic core complexes along the wake of the NTD. A new detachment fault is currently forming in the ridge segment just north of the now inactive Rainbow massif.

  16. Potentials for development of spa tourism in region of Cer Mountain: Western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko


    Full Text Available Because of their particularities, thermal and mineral springs at the foothill of Cer Mountain deserve special analysis. This is the reason we wrote this article, aiming to take reader's attention to the touristic potentials of the spa zone of Cer Mountain and possibilities for its perspective development. From the medical and excursion-recreational tourism point of view, there is a possibility for combining the spa tourism with the complementary values of Cer Mountain.

  17. Remnant buried ice in the equatorial regions of Mars: Morphological indicators associated with the Arsia Mons tropical mountain glacier deposits (United States)

    Scanlon, Kathleen E.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.


    The fan-shaped deposit (FSD) on the western and northwestern flanks of Arsia Mons is the remnant of tropical mountain glaciers, deposited several tens to hundreds of millions of years ago during periods of high spin-axis obliquity. Previous workers have argued that the Smooth Facies in the FSD contains a core of ancient glacial ice. Here, we find evidence that additional glacial ice remains preserved within several other landforms in the Smooth Facies and Ridged Facies. These include landforms that we interpret as kame and kettle topography on the basis of their distribution, size, and morphologies ranging progressively from knobs to degraded knobs to pits. We argue that some moraines in the Ridged Facies are ice-cored on the basis of their interactions with lava flows and the axial troughs at the crests of some moraines. We also argue that dunes with axial troughs, found in and surrounding the FSD, are the remnants of sediment-covered snow dunes formed by reworking of snow or glacial ice, and that the axial troughs form as tension cracks in the sediment and deepen by sublimation of the underlying ice. Long-term preservation of water ice in equatorial environments is assisted by a meters- to decameters-thick debris cover (lag) formed from sublimation of dirty ice, as well as burial beneath volcanic tephra and aeolian deposits. This ancient ice could contain preserved biosignatures, provide information on Martian climate and atmospheric history, and serve as a resource for human exploration.

  18. Intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent photoluminescence emission in the blue-violet region from phosphorene quantum dots (United States)

    Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan


    Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources.

  19. Intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent photoluminescence emission in the blue-violet region from phosphorene quantum dots. (United States)

    Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan


    Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources.

  20. Accounting for canopy shading and emissivity in simulated radiation fields over a complex mountainous region (Invited) (United States)

    Marks, D. G.; Essery, R.; Link, T. E.; Winstral, A. H.; Reba, M. L.; Pomeroy, J. W.


    Radiation fields are required to model snow and hydrologic processes and properties over forested mountain regions. We present a method that utilizes a representation of terrain and forest structure (height, crown and trunk shape, canopy density and spacing) to modulate above-canopy solar and thermal radiation fields for canopy shading and emissivity effects. The method preserves gap fraction, and accounts for terrain features of slope, aspect and local horizon-induced terrain shading. The method is initiated over a very high resolution, pre-determined distribution of canopy crowns and gaps. For development of the method, terrain structure information was derived from a LiDAR representation of both terrain and canopy over the Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado. The method can also be applied to an artificial canopy structure, based on a statistical distribution of canopy crowns and gaps as simulated over a region. Though the method is computationally expensive, once the shading and emissivity functions have been computed for a full range of azmuthal conditions, they can be retained in look-up tables, and scaled to an arbitrary set of radiation conditions. The method is applied over the LiDAR domain at the Colorado site using by correcting above-canopy radiation fields for a series of selected dates representing high and low sun angles, and a variety of snow depth conditions.

  1. Altitudinal distribution of birds in a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mallet-Rodrigues


    Full Text Available We studied the altitudinal distribution of 426 bird species in the Serra dos Órgãos, a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil. Thirty-four localities were visited between 1991 and 2009. Our study revealed a decline in bird species richness with elevation, although a smaller number of species was recorded at lower altitudes (below 300 m possibly due to local extinctions caused by the intense human occupation of the region. A less diverse avifauna was found above 2,000 m, with only one species (Caprimulgus longirostris recorded exclusively in this altitudinal range. Most endemic species were found between 300 and 1,200 m, but the endemism was more significant at higher altitudes. Nearly half of the birds found above 1,400 m were endemic species. Most of the threatened species from the state of Rio de Janeiro recorded in our study were found below 1,200 m, but no significant difference was found between the proportions of threatened species among different altitudinal ranges. Species of seventeen genera have exhibited some replacement (sometimes with partial overlap along altitudinal gradients.

  2. A first estimate of mountain permafrost distribution in the Mount Cook region of New Zealand’s southern alps


    Allen, S; Owens, I.; Huggel, C


    The heavily glaciated Mount Cook Region of New Zealand has experienced several recent large rock instabilities, but permafrost conditions related to these events remain unknown. This work presents the first systematic approach for investigating the distribution of mountain permafrost in New Zealand. At this level of the investigation, a firstorder estimate is based upon the adaptation of established topo-climatic relationships from the European Alps. In the southeast of the study region...

  3. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Wernicke, B.P. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences


    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections through and These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses` ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

  4. Green Tourism in Mountain Regions - Reducing Vulnerability and Promoting People and Place Centric Development in the Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. B. Singh; D. K. Mishra


    In recent years, mountain regions are attracting great attention to Indian tourists in general and foreign tourists in particular. The potential mountain resources for promoting green tourism are enormous in the form of natural and cultural heritage such as biosphere reserves, flora and fauna, lakes and rivers and traditional rural resources. In order to utilise tourism industry market, uncontrolled numbers of tourists and related haphazard infrastructural facilities in the vulnerable mountain regions pose serious environmental implications. The ecological pressures are threatening land, water and wild life resources through direct and indirect environmental impacts together with generation of solid and liquid wastes, so green tourism is emerging as an important task in order to develop new relationship between communities, government agencies and private sectors. The strategy focuses on ecological understanding, environmental protection and ecodevelopment. The major attributes of the green tourism include environmental conservation and education and distribution of income to local people based on strong partnership. Various knowledge systems go a long way for achieving the goals of the green tourism, which creates awareness about the value of environmental resources.Mountains have ecological, recreational, educational and scientific values, which need to be utilised in sustainable way. Various tourist activities and facilities need to be diversified in order to achieve multiple benefits including scientific field excursion,recreation in natural and cultural areas, community festivals and sport tourisms. Green tourism considers tourism development as an integral part of a national and regional development. The paper discusses the social, economic and environmental dimensions of the green tourism with particular reference to village tourism development programme taking empirical evidences from the Himalaya. Such programme also minimises biophysical and human

  5. Gastrointestinal nematodes in rotationally grazing ewes in the mountainous region of central Mexico. (United States)

    Acevedo-Ramírez, P M C; Quiroz-Romero, H; Cruz-Mendoza, I; Ulloa-Arvizu, R; Ibarra-Velarde, F


    The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of egg shedding (percentage of egg-positive faecal samples) and faecal egg counts (FEC) over 13 months in two different breeds of ewes, both pregnant and non-pregnant, in a mountainous region of central Mexico. Additionally, the effect of ivermectin and albendazole treatments on FEC reduction was recorded. The study also aimed to relate temperature and rainfall to FEC. The gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) third-stage larvae genera recovered from both faeces and grassland pastures in a temperate region were also assessed. Faecal samples were collected from ewes at monthly intervals for 13 months to investigate the FEC population of GIN larvae, their concentration and genera in grass samples collected from grazed and rested pastures. Egg-shedding frequency ranged from 0 to 92% and FEC from 0 to 12,000 eggs per g faeces (epg), with counts in Suffolk higher than in Dorset ewes. The identified genera were Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Nematodirus and Strongyloides. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus were the most common genera. The number of L3 was higher in grazing lands than in those at rest. The highest FEC were recorded in the dry season due to peripartum, but the highest L3 counts were recorded in the rainy season. The coexistence of species of different geographical distributions at this site may be because there is a confluence of Nearctic and Neotropical geographic regions; thus, despite the temperate climate, tropical species can be found. Additionally, this study suggests that increasing temperatures could favour the presence of different tropical GIN species together with typical temperate-zone GIN species.

  6. A comparison of practice issues among occupational therapists in the rural Northwest and the Rocky Mountain regions. (United States)

    Kohler, E; Mayberry, W


    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that affected occupational therapy practice in the rural regions of the Rocky Mountains. It compared data from the Rocky Mountain region (Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Arizona) to a previous study of the Northwest region of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, and Washington and expanded on the Northwest study. Results indicated that the two areas were similar in their demographics and problems, including need for more occupational therapists. The results also have implications regarding specialized preservice training for rural-based occupational therapists, other professions' availability of continuing education, and other support systems. The authors provide recommendations based on the results, other literature, and conjectures, for recruitment, training, and ongoing support of rural occupational therapists through cooperative consortiums and distance learning.

  7. A Ten Step Protocol and Plan for CCS Site Characterization, Based on an Analysis of the Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince


    This report expresses a Ten-Step Protocol for CO2 Storage Site Characterization, the final outcome of an extensive Site Characterization analysis of the Rocky Mountain region, USA. These ten steps include: (1) regional assessment and data gathering; (2) identification and analysis of appropriate local sites for characterization; (3) public engagement; (4) geologic and geophysical analysis of local site(s); (5) stratigraphic well drilling and coring; (6) core analysis and interpretation with other data; (7) database assembly and static model development; (8) storage capacity assessment; (9) simulation and uncertainty assessment; (10) risk assessment. While the results detailed here are primarily germane to the Rocky Mountain region, the intent of this protocol is to be portable or generally applicable for CO2 storage site characterization.

  8. Cadmium and other elements in tissues from four ungulate species from the Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories, Canada. (United States)

    Larter, N C; Macdonald, C R; Elkin, B T; Wang, X; Harms, N J; Gamberg, M; Muir, D C G


    Tissue samples from four ungulate species from the south Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories (NT), Canada, were analysed for stable and radioactive elements and (15)N and (13)C stable isotopes. Elevated Cd concentrations in moose (Alces americanus) kidney have been observed in the region and are a health care concern for consumers of traditional foods. This study examined the factors associated with, and potential renal effects from, the accumulation of cadmium, and interactions with other elements in four sympatric ungulate species. Mean renal Cd concentration was highest in moose (48.3mg/kg ww), followed by mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) (13.9mg/kg ww) and mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) (5.78mg/kg ww). No local sources of Cd were evident and the elevated levels in moose are considered to be natural in origin. Conversely, total Hg concentration was significantly higher in mountain caribou kidney (0.21mg/kg ww) than in moose (0.011mg/kg ww). (134)Cs (t½=2.1 y) in mountain goat and Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli) muscle is evidence of deposition from the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011. (137)Cs (t½=30.2 y) in all four ungulates is primarily a remnant of the nuclear weapons tests of the 1960s. The levels of both nuclides are low and the risk to the animals and people consuming them is negligible. Stable isotope δ(15)N and δ(13)C signatures in muscle showed a separation between the mountain caribou, with a lichen-dominated diet, and moose, which browse shrubs and forbs. Isotope signatures for mountain goat and Dall's sheep showed generalist feeding patterns. Differences in elemental and radionuclide levels between species were attributed to relative levels of metal accumulation in the different food items in the diets of the respective species. Kidneys from each species showed minor histological changes in the proximal tubule and glomerulus, although glomerular changes were rare and all changes were rare in mountain goat kidney

  9. Community pico and micro hydropower for rural electrification: experiences from the mountain regions of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mandelli


    Full Text Available Less than 15% of rural areas of Cameroon have access to grid electricity. Only 53% of the population has access to grid electricity. Notwithstanding, Cameroon has a huge hydropower potential which could be harnessed. Mini grids, powered by pico and micro hydropower plants, are a relatively new rural electrification strategy in Cameroon. Several of such mini grids have been realized in the mountain regions of the country. Some of these systems have been more successful than others. This paper aims to share the experiences of community-based pico and micro hydropower schemes for rural electrification in Cameroon. The paper provides insight to the challenges that three of such mini grid systems powered by pico and micro hydropower plants had encountered and it attempts to identify issues related to their performances. The study was based on personal experience, field visits, participant observations, interviews and focus group discussions with key members of the beneficiary communities and documentations from the local NGO which implemented the schemes. Key findings of this study relate to the description of the main aspects about: planning of a robust system design, organizational aspects, like social cohesion at all levels of scheme management, community leadership and ownership of the system and involvement of the beneficiaries at all stages of the project cycle. These aspects were particularly addressed within the context of rural communities in Cameroon.

  10. Evaluating Satellite Products for Precipitation Estimation in Mountain Regions: A Case Study for Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarendra Lakhankar


    Full Text Available Precipitation in mountain regions is often highly variable and poorly observed, limiting abilities to manage water resource challenges. Here, we evaluate remote sensing and ground station-based gridded precipitation products over Nepal against weather station precipitation observations on a monthly timescale. We find that the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B-43 precipitation product exhibits little mean bias and reasonable skill in giving precipitation over Nepal. Compared to station observations, the TRMM precipitation product showed an overall Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.49, which is similar to the skill of the gridded station-based product Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE. The other satellite precipitation products considered (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP, the Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS were less skillful, as judged by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, and, on average, substantially underestimated precipitation compared to station observations, despite their, in some cases, higher nominal spatial resolution compared to TRMM. None of the products fully captured the dependence of mean precipitation on elevation seen in the station observations. Overall, the TRMM product is promising for use in water resources applications.

  11. Assessing Past Fracture Connectivity in Geothermal Reservoirs Using Clumped Isotopes: Proof of Concept in the Blue Mountain Geothermal Field, Nevada USA (United States)

    Huntington, K. W.; Sumner, K. K.; Camp, E. R.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Uddenberg, M.; Swyer, M.; Garrison, G. H.


    Subsurface fluid flow is strongly influenced by faults and fractures, yet the transmissivity of faults and fractures changes through time due to deformation and cement precipitation, making flow paths difficult to predict. Here we assess past fracture connectivity in an active hydrothermal system in the Basin and Range, Nevada, USA, using clumped isotope geochemistry and cold cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis of fracture filling cements from the Blue Mountain geothermal field. Calcite cements were sampled from drill cuttings and two cores at varying distances from faults. CL microscopy of some of the cements shows banding parallel to the fracture walls as well as brecciation, indicating that the cements record variations in the composition and source of fluids that moved through the fractures as they opened episodically. CL microscopy, δ13C and δ18O values were used to screen homogeneous samples for clumped isotope analysis. Clumped isotope thermometry of most samples indicates paleofluid temperatures of around 150°C, with several wells peaking at above 200°C. We suggest that the consistency of these temperatures is related to upwelling of fluids in the convective hydrothermal system, and interpret the similarity of the clumped isotope temperatures to modern geothermal fluid temperatures of ~160-180°C as evidence that average reservoir temperatures have changed little since precipitation of the calcite cements. In contrast, two samples, one of which was associated with fault gauge observed in drill logs, record significantly cooler temperatures of 19 and 73°C and anomalous δ13C and δ18Owater values, which point to fault-controlled pathways for downwelling meteoric fluid. Finally, we interpret correspondence of paleofluid temperatures and δ18Owater values constrained by clumped isotope thermometry of calcite from different wells to suggest past connectivity of fractures among wells within the geothermal field. Results show the ability of clumped isotope

  12. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Liang [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yin, Yan, E-mail: [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xiao, Hui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yu, Xingna [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); and others


    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core–shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ± 6% and ± 14% for external mixture and ± 9% and ± 31% for core–shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. - Highlights: • A spherical Mie

  13. Ultra-fast pulse propagation in nonlinear graphene/silicon ridge waveguide. (United States)

    Liu, Ken; Zhang, Jian Fa; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Zhi Hong; Guo, Chu Cai; Li, Xiu Jian; Qin, Shi Qiao


    We report the femtosecond laser propagation in a hybrid graphene/silicon ridge waveguide with demonstration of the ultra-large Kerr coefficient of graphene. We also fabricated a slot-like graphene/silicon ridge waveguide which can enhance its effective Kerr coefficient 1.5 times compared with the graphene/silicon ridge waveguide. Both transverse-electric-like (TE-like) mode and transverse-magnetic-like (TM-like) mode are experimentally measured and numerically analyzed. The results show nonlinearity dependence on mode polarization not in graphene/silicon ridge waveguide but in slot-like graphene/silicon ridge waveguide. Great spectral broadening was observed due to self-phase modulation (SPM) after propagation in the hybrid waveguide with length of 2 mm. Power dependence property of the slot-like hybrid waveguide is also measured and numerically analyzed. The results also confirm the effective Kerr coefficient estimation of the hybrid structures. Spectral blue shift of the output pulse was observed in the slot-like graphene/silicon ridge waveguide. One possible explanation is that the blue shift was caused by the ultra-fast free carrier effect with the optical absorption of the doped graphene. This interesting effect can be used for soliton compression in femtosecond region. We also discussed the broadband anomalous dispersion of the Kerr coefficient of graphene.

  14. Major Fault Systems and Mountain Building Processes in the Tibetan Foreland and Beishan Region, NW China (United States)

    Cunningham, D.; Zhang, J.


    In regions north of Tibet, active deformation associated with the Indo-Eurasia collision is diffusely distributed within large areas of NW China, Mongolia and S and SE Siberia. These regions are dominated by intraplate strike-slip and transpressional reactivation of Palaeozoic terrane collages. Because of relatively low historical seismicity, the Beishan region immediately north of Tibet is generally regarded as tectonically uninteresting from a neotectonic standpoint. However, our preliminary work in the region coupled with satellite image analysis indicates that the region is cut by at least five major sinistral strike-slip fault systems that are potentially active and which parallel the Altyn Tagh fault which bounds northern Tibet directly to the south. These fault systems generate localised uplifts within the Beishan and show typical geomorphological characteristics of active intracontinental deforming belts such as sharply defined mountain fronts, Quaternary alluvial fan complexes and tilted Cretaceous peneplain remnants. Specifically, the Yushi Shan and Mazong Shan are Late Cenozoic restraining bends that show clear evidence for Quaternary thrusting and uplift. Other minor localised uplifts also appear fault-controlled. However, at first-order, regional Beishan topography is difficult to explain by Late Cenozoic upper crustal faulting, unlike Tibet to the south and the Gobi Altai to the north. Directly adjacent to Tibet's northern margin, the Sanweishan and Nanjieshan blocks are thrust-bound basement-cored uplifts that interrupt the Tibetan sedimentary foreland in the Dunhuang-Anxi region. The faults that cut and bound these minor ranges appear to define an evolving transpressional duplex with north-directed thrusting, but perhaps surprisingly, also south-directed thrusting back towards the high Plateau. As noted by others, the Altyn Tagh Fault defines a profound topographic and structural boundary in Central Asia with significant differences in contractional

  15. Testing geostatistical methods to combine radar and rain gauges for precipitation mapping in a mountainous region (United States)

    Erdin, R.; Frei, C.; Sideris, I.; Kuensch, H.-R.


    There is an increasing demand for accurate mapping of precipitation at a spatial resolution of kilometers. Radar and rain gauges - the two main precipitation measurement systems - exhibit complementary strengths and weaknesses. Radar offers high spatial and temporal resolution but lacks accuracy of absolute values, whereas rain gauges provide accurate values at their specific point location but suffer from poor spatial representativeness. Methods of geostatistical mapping have been proposed to combine radar and rain gauge data for quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). The aim is to combine the respective strengths and compensate for the respective weaknesses of the two observation platforms. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of these methods over topography of moderate complexity, but their performance remains unclear for high-mountain regions where rainfall patterns are complex, the representativeness of rain gauge measurements is limited and radar observations are obstructed. In this study we examine the potential and limitations of two frequently used geostatistical mapping methods for the territory of Switzerland, where the mountain chain of the Alps poses particular challenges to QPE. The two geostatistical methods explored are kriging with external drift (KED) using radar as drift variable and ordinary kriging of radar errors (OKRE). The radar data is a composite from three C-band radars using a constant Z-R relationship, advanced correction processings for visibility, ground clutter and beam shielding and a climatological bias adjustment. The rain gauge data originates from an automatic network with a typical inter-station distance of 25 km. Both combination methods are applied to a set of case examples representing typical rainfall situations in the Alps with their inherent challenges at daily and hourly time resolution. The quality of precipitation estimates is assessed by several skill scores calculated from cross validation errors at

  16. Geophysical measures on a grassland of the high plateaus in the Vercors mountain (French Prealps): analysis of the local and regional hydroclimatic variations (United States)

    Bigot, Sylvain; Rome, Sandra; Biron, Romain; Laurent, Jean-Paul; Lebel, Thierry; Dedieu, Jean-Pierre


    Territorial administrators (regional parks and reserves, forestry service, national and regional environnemental services) look for precise scientific elements to understand, prevent or mitigate the consequences of climate change on the ecosystem and on the socioeconomic activities of the French Prealps. They wish for example especially to improve the environmental mapping of ecologically sensitive areas related to agro-pastoral activities and the management of water ressources in the Vercors massif. Geophysical measures at a local scale should allow scientists to validate outputs of regional climate model which are still widely improvable in mountain context. This study present an original network of hydrometeorological measuring equipment installed on a grassland (named ‘Meadow of Darbounouse', 44°58'N - 5°28'E; about 0.8 km²) and located at 1300 m asl elevation on the high plateau of Vercors. This little stony basin (3,8 km of perimeter) surrounded by forested ridge lines and located into the Biological Reserve, represents at the same time a well known grazing land and a place of huge thermal amplitude (i.e. 32°C in summer). Hydropedological variations are there also significant for this karstic catchment area, modulated by summer droughts and possible partial flooding from spring melting snow. Since 2005, an automatic weather Campbell station was installed in the North of the basin, measuring rainfall, temperatures, wind and global radiation. In 2009 several meteorological data loggers (temperature and relative humidity) were installed in suburb of the basin. In complement 24 soil moisture sensors (10HS, Decagon Devices) were buried below the surface of the ground (5 and 15 cm) to measure the dielectric constant (i.e. the volumetric water content) at 6 representative places of the basin. Finally a groundwater data logger (OTT Orpheus Mini) based on a pressure probe and for the storage of water level and temperature was settled in the well situated in the

  17. Geochemical and Geochronologic Investigations of Zircon-hosted Melt Inclusions in Rhyolites from the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge IOA-REE Deposit, St. Francois Mountains, Missouri (United States)

    Watts, K. E.; Mercer, C. N.; Vazquez, J. A.


    Silicic volcanic and plutonic rocks of an eroded Mesoproterozoic caldera complex were intruded and replaced by iron ore, and cross-cut by REE-enriched breccia pipes (~12% total REO) to form the Pea Ridge iron-oxide-apatite-REE (IOA-REE) deposit. Igneous activity, iron ore formation, and REE mineralization overlapped in space and time, however the source of REEs and other metals (Fe, Cu, Au) integral to these economically important deposits remains unclear. Melt inclusions (MI) hosted in refractory zircon phenocrysts are used to constrain magmatic components and processes in the formation of the Pea Ridge deposit. Homogenized (1.4 kbar, 1000°C, 1 hr) MI in zircons from rhyolites ~600 ft (PR-91) and ~1200 ft (PR-12) laterally from the ore body were analyzed for major elements by EPMA and volatiles and trace elements (H2O, S, F, Cl, REEs, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, U, Th) by SHRIMP-RG. Metals (including Cu, Au) will be measured in an upcoming SHRIMP-RG session. U-Pb ages, Ti and REE were determined by SHRIMP-RG for a subset of zircon spots adjacent to MI (1458 ± 18 Ma (PR-12); 1480 ± 45 Ma (PR-91)). MI glasses range from fresh and homogeneous dacite-rhyolite (65-75 wt% SiO2) to heterogeneous, patchy mixtures of K-spar and quartz (PR-12, 91), and more rarely mica, albite and/or anorthoclase (PR-91). MI are commonly attached to monazite and xenotime, particularly along re-entrants and zircon rims (PR-91). Fresh dacite-rhyolite glasses (PR-12) have moderate H2O (~2-2.5 wt%), Rb/Sr ratios (~8) and U (~5-7 ppm), and negative (chondrite-normalized) Eu anomalies (Eu ~0.4-0.7 ppm) (typical of rhyolites), whereas HREEs (Tb, Ho, Tm) are elevated (~2-3 ppm). Patchy K-spar and quartz inclusions (PR-12, 91) have flat LREE patterns, and positive anomalies in Tb, Ho, and Tm. One K-spar inclusion (PR-91) has a ~5-50 fold increase in HREEs (Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) and U (35 ppm) relative to other MI. U-Pb and REE analyses of its zircon host are not unusual (1484 ± 21 Ma); its irregular shape

  18. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Forested Wetlands and Riparian Areas in the Ozark Mountains Region of Arkansas (United States)


    structure varies due to gap-phase regeneration dynamics and microsite variability. Such variability includes the interspersion of low ridges...are of considerable significance to animal populations in forested wetlands. Litter provides ideal habitat for small animals such as salamanders ...without predatory fish populations are very important for some species of salamanders and frogs (Johnson 1987). While wetlands with temporary ponding

  19. [Variants of the clinical course of cerebrovascular diseases in various biogeochemical regions of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains]. (United States)

    Buletsa, B A; Fatula, M I; Fabri, Z I


    A total of 417 patients with cerebral circulatory disorders were examined in two biogeochemical regions of the UkrainianCarpathian Mountains. The first one is a region with iodine insufficiency; the second one is a region where the people use table salt in excess. It has been established that iodine insufficiency and excessive iodine concentration in the body of man are risk factors of the development of cerebrovascular disease. Besides, in persons with abnormal iodine metabolism, cerebrovascular diseases run a graver course than in those with normal content in the body of these trace elements.

  20. Types and formation mechanism of collapse in Tianchi region of Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangjie LI; Qian WANG; Li ZHANG; Shengwu QIN


    Collapse is a disaster in Changbai Mountain area. Based on the present stage of collapse, the anthors summarized three types of collapse and analyzed their formation mechanism. This research makes sense to further study.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Dovbenko


    Full Text Available Schools in the Ukrainian Carpathian mountain region work in specific conditions. They have original traditions, a special nature of learning and work. Indeed, because of a remote location mountain village school becomes the center for a cultural and spiritual life. Of course, it is related to a present social and economic situation in the country and a slow progress of society. Therefore, we need to look at mountain school with a broader angle, help it in comprehensive development of an individual and ensure an availability of quality education for children living in mountainous areas. Here we should talk about learning as well as laying the foundations for a life success. The international research project Mountain School. Status. Problems. Prospects for Development. Is established to help solve these problems. Precarpathian National University is an active member of the project.

  2. Integrated Futures for Europe's Mountain Regions: Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Human Livelihoods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan Mitchley; Martin F. Price; Joseph Tzanopoulos


    Europe's mountains cover nearly half of the continent's area and are home to one fifth of the European population. Mountain areas are hotspots of biodiversity and agriculture has played a multifunctional role in defining and sustaining mountain biodiversity. Ongoing trends of agricultural decline are having negative impacts on mountain biodiversity.This paper presents results from an interdisciplinary European research project, BioScene, which investigated the relationship between agriculture and biodiversity in six mountain study areas across Europe to provide recommendations for reconciling biodiversity conservation with social and economic activities through an integrated rural development strategy.BioScene used scenario analysis and stakeholder participation as tools for structuring the analysis of alternative mountain futures. Three main BioScene scenarios were evaluated: Business as Usual (BaU),Agricultural Liberalisation (Lib), Managed Change for Biodiversity (MCB). BioScene brought together ecologists, economists, sociologists and rural geographers, to carry out interdisciplinary analysis of the scenarios: identifying key drivers of change, assessing the biodiversity consequences and evaluating costeffectiveness. BioScene used a sustainability assessment to integrate the research outputs across natural and social science disciplines to assess the broader sustainability of the scenarios in terms of biodiversity,natural resources, rural development, social development, economic development and institutional capacity. The sustainability assessment showed that the MCB scenario was potentially the most sustainable of the three BioScene scenarios. Through the reconciliation of potentially conflicting objectives,such as conservation, economic development and human livelihoods, and with a strong participatory planning approach, the MCB scenario could represent an alternative approach to BaU for sustainable rural development in Europe's mountains. BioScene confirms

  3. Molecular evidence for the subspecific differentiation of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and polyphyletic origin of dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi). (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Zou, Dandan; Tang, Lei; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Quekun; Zeng, Bo; Zhang, Chen; Zou, Fangdong


    Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), a Central Asian ungulate with restricted geographic distribution, exhibits unclear variation in morphology and phylogeographic structure. The composition of species and subspecies in the genus Pseudois is controversial, particularly with respect to the taxonomic designation of geographically restricted populations. Here, 26 specimens including 5 dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi), which were collected from a broad geographic region in China, were analyzed for 2 mitochondrial DNA fragments (cytochrome b and control region sequences). In a pattern consistent with geographically defined subspecies, we found three deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages restricted to different geographic regions. The currently designated two subspecies of blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur nayaur and Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis, were recognized in the phylogenetic trees. In addition, the Helan Mountain population showed distinct genetic characteristics from other geographic populations, and thus should be classified as a new subspecies. In contrast, dwarf blue sheep clustered closely with some blue sheep from Sichuan Province in the phylogenetic trees. Therefore, dwarf blue sheep appear to be a subset of Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis. After considering both population genetic information and molecular clock analysis, we obtained some relevant molecular phylogeographic information concerning the historical biogeography of blue sheep. These results also indicate that western Sichuan was a potential refugium for blue sheep during the Quaternary period.

  4. Investigation of mineral aerosols radiative effects over High Mountain Asia in 1990-2009 using a regional climate model (United States)

    Ji, Zhenming; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan; Chen, Pengfei; Sillanpää, Mika


    Mineral aerosols scatter and absorb incident solar radiation in the atmosphere, and play an important role in the regional climate of High Mountain Asia (the domain includes the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau, Pamir, Hindu-kush, Karakorum and Tienshan Mountains). Dust deposition on snow/ice can also change the surface albedo, resulting in perturbations in the surface radiation balance. However, most studies that have made quantitative assessments of the climatic effect of mineral aerosols over the High Mountain Asia region did not consider the impact of dust on snow/ice at the surface. In this study, a regional climate model coupled with an aerosol-snow/ice feedback module was used to investigate the emission, distribution, and deposition of dust and the climatic effects of aerosols over High Mountain Asia. Two sets of simulations driven by a reanalysis boundary condition were performed, i.e., with and without dust-climate feedback. Results indicated that the model captured the spatial and temporal features of the climatology and aerosol optical depth (AOD). High dust emission fluxes were simulated in the interior of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the Yarlung Tsangpo Valley in March-April-May (MAM), with a decreasing trend during 1990-2009. Dry deposition was controlled by the topography, and its spatial and seasonal features agreed well with the dust emission fluxes. The maximum wet deposition occurred in the western (southern and central) TP in MAM (JJA). A positive surface radiative forcing was induced by dust, including aerosol-snow/ice feedback, resulting in 2-m temperature increases of 0.1-0.5 °C over the western TP and Kunlun Mountains in MAM. Mineral dust also caused a decrease of 5-25 mm in the snow water equivalent (SWE) over the western TP, Himalayas, and Pamir Mountains in DJF and MAM. The long-term regional mean radiative forcing via dust deposition on snow showed an rising trend during 1990-2009, which suggested the contribution of aerosols surface

  5. Impact of sublimation losses in the mass balance of glaciers in semi-arid mountain regions (United States)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Burlando, Paolo; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James


    Glaciers in semiarid mountain regions may lose an important part of their winter snow accumulation through sublimation processes that are enhanced by the high-elevation, intense radiation and dry atmosphere of these environments. As glaciers in these regions secure freshwater resources to lower valleys during summer and drought periods, it is important to advance in a detailed quantification of their sublimation losses. However, logistical concerns and complex meteorological features make the measuring and modelling of glacier mass balances a difficult task. In this study, we estimated the spring-summer mass balances of Tapado and Juncal Norte glaciers in the semiarid Andes of north-central Chile by running a distributed energy balance model that accounts for melt, refreezing and sublimation from the surface and blowing snow. Meteorological input data were available from on-glacier Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) that were installed during the ablation season of years 2005-06, 2008-09, 2013-14 and 2014-15. Snow pits, ablation stakes and a time-lapse camera that provided surface albedo were also available. Distributed air temperature and wind speed were dynamically downscaled from NASA MERRA reanalysis using the software WINDSIM and validated against the data from the AWSs. The rest of the meteorological variables were distributed using statistical relations with air temperature derived from the AWSs data. Initial snow conditions were estimated using satellite images and distributed manual snow depth measurements. Preliminary results show that total ablation diminishes with elevation and that, during the early ablation season (October-November), melt is the main ablation component below 4500 m with sublimation dominating the ablation above this elevation. Above 4500 m an important fraction of meltwater refreezes during night. As the ablation season advances (December-February), melt extends to higher elevations, refreezing plays a smaller role and sublimation is

  6. Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov., Isolated from Surface Soil in the Permafrost Region of Qilian Mountains, China. (United States)

    Piao, Ai-Lian; Feng, Xiao-Min; Nogi, Yuichi; Han, Lu; Li, Yonghong; Lv, Jie


    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated X1(T), was isolated from the permafrost region of Qilian Mountains in northwest of China. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain X1(T) was a member of the genus Sphingomonas and shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sphingomonas oligophenolica JCM 12082(T) (96.9%), followed by Sphingomonas glacialis CGMCC 1.8957(T) (96.7%) and Sphingomonas alpina DSM 22537(T) (96.4%). Strain X1(T) was able to grow at 15-30 °C, pH 6.0-10.0 and with 0-0.3% NaCl (w/v). The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 64.8 mol%. Strain X1(T)-contained Q-10 as the dominant ubiquinone and C(18:1)ω7c, C(16:1)ω7c, C(16:0) and C(14:0) 2-OH as the dominant fatty acids. The polar lipid profile of strain XI(T)-contained sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipid. Due to the phenotypic and genetic distinctiveness and other characteristic studied in this article, we consider X1(T) as a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas and propose to name it Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov. The type strain is X1(T) (=CGMCC 1.15349(T) = KCTC 42862(T)).

  7. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China (United States)

    Liu, Delin; Li, Yue


    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were identified using existing literature and discussions with experts from multiple disciplines and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA) and an expert scoring method. The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial work in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors of social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerability households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1 and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.748), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed, which included (1) improving the local residents' income and their disaster-related knowledge and evacuation skills, (2) developing emergency plans and carrying out emergency drills and training, (3) enhancing the accuracy of disaster monitoring and warning systems and (4) establishing a specific emergency management department and comprehensive rescue systems. These results can provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and respond to flood hazards, and the corresponding strategies can help local households to reduce their social vulnerability and improve their ability to resist flood hazard.

  8. Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico (United States)

    Scholl, Martha A.; Murphy, Sheila F.


    Like many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico have abundant rainfall and stream discharge and provide much of the water supply for the densely populated metropolitan areas nearby. Projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics as a result of global warming suggest that water availability will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns. It is essential to understand the relative importance of different weather systems to water supply to determine how changes in rainfall patterns, interacting with geology and vegetation, will affect the water balance. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, stable isotope signatures of precipitation from different weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Precipitation stable isotope values in the Luquillo Mountains had a large range, from fog/cloud water with δ2H, δ18O values as high as +12 ‰, −0.73 ‰ to tropical storm rain with values as low as −127 ‰, −16.8 ‰. Temporal isotope values exhibit a reverse seasonality from those observed in higher latitude continental watersheds, with higher isotopic values in the winter and lower values in the summer. Despite the higher volume of convective and low-pressure system rainfall, stable isotope analyses indicated that under the current rainfall regime, frequent trade -wind orographic showers contribute much of the groundwater recharge and stream base flow. Analysis of rain events using 20 years of 15 -minute resolution data at a mountain station (643 m) showed an increasing trend in rainfall amount, in agreement with increased precipitable water in the atmosphere, but differing from climate model projections of drying in the region. The mean intensity of rain events also showed an increasing trend. The determination of recharge sources from stable isotope tracers indicates that water

  9. Implication of Groundwater Resources Utilization in Mountainous Region for Slopeland Disaster Prevention (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chao; Hsu, Shih-Meng; Lo, Hung-Chieh


    In recent years, groundwater resources from mountainous regions have been considered as an alternative water resource in Taiwan. According to previous research outcomes (Hsu, 2011), such a groundwater resource is capable of providing stable and high quality water resources. Additionally, another advantage of using the water resources is attributed to the contribution of slopeland disaster prevention. While pumping groundwater as water resources in hilly areas (e.g., at landslide-prone sites), pore-water pressures can be dropped, which can result in stabilizing landslide-prone slopes. However, the benefit to slope stability by using groundwater resources needs to be quantified. The purpose of this study is to investigate groundwater potential of a deep-seated landslide site first, and then to evaluate variations of slope stability by changing well pumping rate conditions. In this paper, the Baolong landslide site located at the Jiasian district of Kaohsiung city in Southern Taiwan has been selected as a case study. Hydrogeological investigation for the landslide site was conducted to clarify the complexity of field characteristics and to establish a precise conceptual model for simulation. The investigation content includes surficial geology investigation, borehole drilling (6 drilling boreholes and 350 meters drilling length in total), 45 m pumping well construction, borehole hydrogeological tests (borehole televiewer, caliper, borehole electrical logging, sonic logging, flowmeter measurement, pumping test, and double packer test), and laboratory tests from rock core samples (physical properties test of soil and rocks, triaxial permeability test of soil, porosity determination test using helium, and gas permeability test). Based on the aforementioned investigation results, a hydrogeological conceptual model for the Baolong landslide site was constructed, and a 2D slope stability model coupled with transient seepage flow model was used for numerical simulation to

  10. Satellite Monitoring of Blue-Ice Extent in Grove Mountains,Antarctica%利用卫星影像进行南极格罗夫山蓝冰变化监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄂栋臣; 张辛; 王泽民; 周春霞


    利用MODIS及Landsat的系列影像数据,监测东南极格罗夫山的蓝冰变化。首先,使用MODIS原始数据进行蓝冰提取与范围统计,总结了蓝冰年度内的变化规律:蓝冰面积在9~12月间有上升趋势,直到第二年的1月中旬至下旬达到面积最大值,2~4月面积重新减小。然后,对Landsat影像使用监督分类结合目视判别的方法提取蓝冰地物。通过蓝冰边缘线的比较,得出蓝冰范围有东移趋势的结论。最后,揭示了短波辐射与气候变化对蓝冰范围变化的影响。%The series images of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiomete(MODIS) and Landsat are used to track seasonal and interannual variations of blue-ice extent in the Grove Mountains on East Antarctica.We introduce the process of using MODIS mapping algorithm to separate and calculate the blue-ice,and summarize the variation regularity of annual blue-ice exposure.The area grows rapidly from September to December,and peaks by the middle or late of next January.Then,it declines from February to April.We also analyze the images of Landsat sensors,and separate the blue-ice by supervised classification combined with the sight modification.According to the comparison of the edge lines of blue-ice,we find that the blue-ice extent has the eastward trend.And the sensitivity of blue-ice areas related to the changes of climate and shortwave radicalization is also revealed.

  11. Impact of moisture source regions on the isotopic composition of precipitation events at high-mountain continental site Kasprowy Wierch, southern Poland (United States)

    Rozanski, Kazimierz; Chmura, Lukasz; Dulinski, Marek


    Five-year record of deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope composition of precipitation events collected on top of the Kasprowy Wierch mountain (49° 14'N, 19° 59'E, 1989 m a.s.l.) located in north-western High Tatra mountain ridge, southern Poland, is presented and discussed. In total 670 precipitation samples have been collected and analysed. Stable isotope composition of the analysed precipitation events varied in a wide range, from -2.9 to -26.6‰ for δ18O and from -7 to -195 ‰ for δ2H. The local meteoric water line (LMWL) defined by single events data (δ2H=(7.86±0.05)δ18O+(12.9±0.6) deviate significantly from the analogous line defined by monthly composite precipitation data available for IAEA/GNIP station Krakow-Balice (50o04'N, 19o55'E, 220 m a.s.l.), located ca. 100 km north of Kasprowy Wierch ((δ2H=(7.82±0.11)δ18O+(6.9±1.1). While slopes of those two LMWLs are statistically indistinguishable, the intercept of Kasprowy Wierch line is almost two times higher that that characterizing Krakow monthly precipitation. This is well-documented effect associated with much higher elevation of Kasprowy Wierch sampling site when compared to Krakow. The isotope data for Kasprowy Wierch correlate significantly with air temperature, with the slope of the regression line being equal 0.35±0.02 ‰oC for δ18O, whereas no significant correlation with precipitation amount could be established. The impact of moisture source regions on the isotopic composition of precipitation events collected at Kasprowy Wierch site was analysed using HYSPLITE back trajectory model. Five-days back trajectories were calculated for all analysed precipitation events and seasonal maps of trajectory distribution were produced. They illustrate changes in the prevailing transport patterns of air masses bringing precipitation to the sampling site. Back trajectories for the events yielding extreme isotopic composition of precipitation collected at Kasprowy Wierch were analyzed in detail

  12. A regional analysis of elements at risk exposed to mountain hazards in the Eastern European Alps (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Zischg, Andreas


    We present a method to quantify the number and value of buildings exposed to torrents and snow avalanches in the Austrian Alps, as well as the number of exposed people. Based on a unique population and building register dataset, a relational SQL database was developed that allows in combination with GIS data a rule-based nation-wide automated analysis. Furthermore, possibilities and challenges are discussed with respect to the use of such data in vulnerability assessment and with respect to resilience measures. We comprehensively address the challenge of data accuracy, scale and uncertainties. From the total of approximately 2.4 million buildings with a clearly attributable geographical location, around 120,000 are exposed to torrent processes (5 %) and snow avalanches (0.4 %); exposition was defined here as located within the digitally available hazard maps of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control Service. Around 5 % of the population (360,000 out of 8.5 million inhabitants), based on those people being compulsory listed in the population register, are located in these areas. The analysis according to the building category resulted in 2.05 million residential buildings in Austria (85 %), 93,000 of which (4.5 %) are exposed to these hazards. In contrast, 37,300 buildings (1.6 %) throughout the country belong to the category of accommodation facilities, 5,600 of which are exposed (15 %). Out of the 140,500 commercial buildings, 8,000 (5 %) are exposed. A considerable spatial variation was detectable within the communities and Federal States. In general, an above-average exposition of buildings to torrent process and snow avalanches was detectable in communities located in the Federal State of Salzburg, Styria and Vorarlberg (torrents), and Tyrol and Vorarlberg (snow avalanches). In the alpine part of Austria, the share of exposed accommodation buildings was two times (Salzburg) and three times (Vorarlberg) higher than the regional average of exposed buildings

  13. Cooling Town - How landscape is affecting urban climates in mountain regions (United States)

    Hammerle, Albin; Leitinger, Georg; Heinl, Michael


    Cities and urban areas are known to have a local climate different from that of surrounding rural landscapes. The so-called 'urban heat island' phenomenon results from the replacement of natural with impervious, non-evaporative surfaces such as concrete and asphalt. Urban areas usually have higher solar radiation absorption and a greater thermal conductivity and capacity that lead to greater heat storage during the day and heat release at night. This results in a modified climate that is warmer than the surrounding rural areas. Despite being often considered as 'heating islands', cities are not isolated from their environment and are affected by their thermal properties. Reports for the cities of Vienna (Austria) or Stuttgart (Germany) document the importance of the environmental setting for the climate in the cities. Especially large forest areas around the cities have shown to provide cooling and higher air quality. It is therefore not only the core urban area that needs to be considered for climatic effects but also the large-scale surrounding and environmental setting of the city. But only very few studies (e.g. for rice fields in Japan and Taiwan) specifically investigated this temperature effect of surrounding landscapes on urban areas. The research project "Cooling Town" ( addresses this little knowledge on temperature regimes of urban areas and their thermal connectivity with surrounding landscapes, focusing on mountain environments. One major aspect in this research is to assess the summer temperature regime of the city of Bolzano in South Tyrol (northern Italy). The spatial distribution of air and surface temperatures is analyzed to derive rural and urban and regions with specific temperature regimes and climates and their connectivity. Twelve climate stations were placed in and around the city of Bolzano to measure air and surface temperatures together with wind parameters throughout summer 2012. Thermal infrared images were taken from

  14. The Altai Mountains environmental disaster (Eastern Kazakhstan) (United States)

    Akhmadiyeva, Z. K.


    The space centre "Baikoniyr" (Kazakhstan) has had substantial affects on the environment. During the past several decades as a result of the launching of carrier rockets, such as "Proton" that use as fuel the asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (ASDH), more well-known as "heptyl", the unique mountain landscapes in Eastern Kazakhstan have been subjected to pollution. In 2004, RSE "Kazakh research Institute of Ecology and Climate" carried out the complex geochemical and radiation researches in East Kazakhstan that is an impact area of second stages of carrier rockets. Such detailed examinations of this area were conducted for the first time because the Eastern Kazakhstan Mountains are difficult for human access. The landscape-geochemical research over the natural landscapes covered the ridge, low, and middle mountains with fir forests. The research results have shown the presence of heptyl in the samples of the soil, plants, and rivers’ bottom sediments. The findings of the influence of space activity on environment of the Kazakhstan part of the Altai Mountains confirm and complement the Russian scientific research results over the territory of the neighbouring Altai Krai. Though the heptyl pollution in the investigated region is of a local nature and highly spatially inhomogeneous, nevertheless, this anthropogenic effect intensifying from year to year increases the load on the natural ecosystems. In particular, it strengthens the desertification process of mountain regions of East Kazakhstan.

  15. Adolescent Drug Use in Three Small Rural Communities in the Rocky Mountain Region. (United States)

    Swaim, Randall; And Others


    Differences were found among three small Rocky Mountain towns in both lifetime prevalence and frequency of occurrence of different types of drug users, indicating that small, rural communities are likely to develop idiosyncratic patterns of drug use. These differences were more evident among eighth-grade than among twelfth-grade students.…

  16. Integrated Evaluation Model for Eco- Environmental Quality in Mountainous Region Based on Remote Sensing and GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ainong; WANG Angsheng; HE Xiaorong; FENG Wenlan; ZHOU Wancun


    Based on Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS), and combining Principal Component Analysis, this paper designed a numerical integrated evaluation model for mountain eco-environment on the base of grid scale. Using this model, we evaluated the mountain eco-environmental quality in a case study area-the upper reaches of Minjiang River, and achieved a good result, which accorded well with the real condition. The study indicates that, the integrated evaluation model is suitable for multi-layer spatial factor computation, effectively lowing man's subjective influence in the evaluation process; treating the whole river basin as a system, the model shows full respect to the circulation of material and energy, synthetically embodies the determining impact of such natural condition as water-heat and landform, as well as human interference in natural eco-system; the evaluation result not only clearly presents mountainous vertical distribution features of input factors, but also provides a scientific and reliable thought for quantitatively evaluating mountain eco-environment.

  17. Removing the remaining ridges in fingerprint segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU En; ZHANG Jian-ming; YIN Jian-ping; ZHANG Guo-min; HU Chun-feng


    Fingerprint segmentation is an important step in fingerprint recognition and is usually aimed to identify non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions and exclude them as background so as to reduce the time expenditure of image processing and avoid detecting false features. In high and in low quality ridge regions, often are some remaining ridges which are the afterimages of the previously scanned finger and are expected to be excluded from the foreground. However, existing segmentation methods generally do not take the case into consideration, and often, the remaining ridge regions are falsely classified as foreground by segmentation algorithm with spurious features produced erroneously including unrecoverable regions as foreground. This paper proposes two steps for fingerprint segmentation aimed at removing the remaining ridge region from the foreground. The non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions are removed as background in the first step, and then the foreground produced by the first step is further analyzed for possible remove of the remaining ridge region. The proposed method proved effective in avoiding detecting false ridges and in improving minutiae detection.

  18. Genetic differentiation in blue shark, Prionace glauca, from the central Pacific Ocean, as inferred by mitochondrial cytochrome b region. (United States)

    Li, Weiwen; Dai, Xiaojie; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Tian, Siquan; He, Shan; Wu, Feng


    Six hundred and ninety-seven base pairs of cytochrome b gene of mtDNA was sequenced and analyzed for 78 blue shark Prionace glauca individuals from three sampled locations in the central Pacific Ocean (CPO). In total, three polymorphic sites were detected which defined four haplotypes. The haplotype diversity (h) ranged from 0.517 to 0.768, and nucleotide diversity (π) was between 0.0007 and 0.0011. Analysis of molecular variance indicated a non-significant differentiation among subpopulations. Furthermore, pairwise FST score analysis revealed a non-significant differentiation among three sampled regions. Generally, low genetic differences were found between different geographic locations in the CPO. This study suggests a single panmictic population of P. glauca in the CPO.

  19. Spatial-temporal Pattern and Population Driving Force of Land Use Change in Liupan Mountains Region, Southern Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Bin; M J M R(O)MKENS; LI Bichen; TAO Jianjun; LI Chaokui; YU Guanghui; CHEN Qichun


    The Liupan Mountains is located in the southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China, which forms an important dividing line between iandforms and bio-geographic regions. The populated part of the Liupan Mountains region has suffered tremendous ecological damages over time due to population pressure, excessive demand and inap-propriate use of agricultural land resources. In this paper, datasets of land use between 1990 and 2000 were obtained from Landsat TM imagery, and then spatial models were used to characterize landscape conditions. Also, the relation-ship between the population density and land use/cover change (LUCC) was analyzed. Results indicate that cropland, forestland, and urban areas have increased by 44,186ha, 9001ha and 1550ha, respectively while the grassland area has appreciably decreased by 54,025ha in the study period. The decrease in grassland was most notable. Of the grassland lost, 49.4% was converted into cropland. The largest annual land conversion rate in the study area was less than 2%. These changes are attributed to industrial and agricultural development and population growth. To improve the eco-economic conditions in the study region, population control, urbanization and development of an ecological friendly agriculture were suggested.

  20. Remote sensing evaluation of the regional chemistry and element dispersion of porphyry copper deposits in the Silver Bell Mountains, Arizona (United States)

    Jaramillo-Nieves, Lorna G.

    Porphyry copper deposits in southeastern Arizona belong to a cluster of 38 mineralized centers covering a region extending from northern Mexico to western New Mexico and southern Arizona. Presently, some of these deposits are being actively mined and the rest are prospects or abandoned mining sites. As a result of the large number of porphyry copper deposits in this region, research on the interaction between mineralized centers and the environment is important; in particular, the dispersion characteristics of acid-generating metal-enriched materials at the shallow alluvial margins of these centers. The present research uses remote sensing techniques, groundwater chemistry, trace element, and mineralogical analysis to characterize dispersion chemistry surrounding porphyry copper deposits in the Silver Bell Mountains. Hyperspectral imagery obtained by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Spectrometer and HyMap are used to map supergene minerals by analyzing their spectral profiles in the visible and short wave infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Reflectance profiles are characteristic of each mineral and shifts in absorption features within one mineral are a result of differences in cation content. Image reflectance profiles are compared with stream sediment mineralogy and reflectance spectral profiles to better outline concentrations of Fe, S, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cu, and Al. In addition, groundwater modeling in the Silver Bell Mountains is considered for various flow paths within shallow aquifers in the region and compared to actual groundwater chemistry and surface lithology. The Silver Bell Mountains serve as a case study for element mobility and concentration distribution in other areas where undisturbed deposits, historic and present-day excavation activity occurs, where semi-arid climate and a deep vadose zone are variables that influence element mobility and concentration. Results obtained from hyperspectral image processing indicate the possible enrichment

  1. Spatiotemporal Variability of Mountain Block Recharge in Three Semiarid Watersheds along the U.S.-Mexico Border Region (United States)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mascaro, G.; Dominguez, F.; Rivera-fernandez, E. R.


    Groundwater recharge in semiarid mountains of the western U.S. remains a critical component of the regional water balance and has significant repercussions on water resources management, in particular during periods of drought. The bimodal distribution of annual precipitation in the southwest United States and northwest Mexico present a challenge as differential climate impacts during the winter and summer seasons are not currently well understood. In this work, we focus on the predictions of Mountain Block Recharge (MBR) using precipitation forcing from a reanalysis product, regional climate model-based precipitation products and available ground observations. MBR estimates in the Santa Cruz, San Pedro and Sonora River basins (>40,000 km2) are compared along a north to south gradient crossing the U.S.-Mexico border. As a result of the influence of the North American monsoon, the impact of seasonality in each of these systems is evaluated. Simulated precipitation fields under historical (1991-2000) conditions and climate change (2031-2040 and 2070-2080) scenarios are compared at resolutions of 10-km and 35-km as generated from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model using boundary conditions from two general circulation models (MPI-ECHAM and HadCM3). Mountain subbasins to apply a seasonal MBR method were delineated using a threshold in terrain slope that matched official boundaries of known aquifers in these transboundary watersheds. We evaluated the MBR outcomes from the various precipitation products to quantify biases involved in the historical estimates and to inform groundwater management on the uncertainties inherent in future projections. We also inspect the variability of MBR across pluvial and drought periods lasting several years. Seasonal comparisons across a north to south spatial gradient yield a valuable assessment on the impacts of climate change on MBR for important basins in the U.S.-Mexico border region.

  2. SRTM Anaglyph: Wheeler Ridge, California (United States)


    Wheeler Ridge and vicinity, California, is a site of major tectonic activity, both historically and over recent geologic time. The epicenter of the 7.5 magnitude Kern County earthquake occurred here on July 21,1952, and numerous geologic and topographic features indicate rapid geologic processes. The ridge itself (upper-right center) is a geologic fold that is growing out of the southern San Joaquin Valley. A prominent 'wind gap,' now used for passage of the California aquaduct (with the aid of a pumping station), is evidence that the ridge grew faster than tranversing streams could erode down. Nearby abrupt and/or landslid mountain fronts similarly indicate a vigorous tectonic setting here, just north of the San Andreas fault. The Interstate 5 freeway can be seen crossing agricultural fields on the right and entering the very rugged and steep Grapevine Canyon toward the bottom.This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  3. An erbium(III)-based NIR emitter with a highly conjugated β-diketonate for blue-region sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Ramos, P., E-mail: [Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Department of Physics and MALTA Consolider Team, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Martín, I.R.; Lahoz, F. [Department of Physics and MALTA Consolider Team, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Hernández-Navarro, S. [Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Pereira da Silva, P.S. [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Hernández, I. [CITIMAC Dept., Facultad de Ciencias, University of Cantabria, Avenida Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Lavín, V. [Department of Physics and MALTA Consolider Team, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Ramos Silva, M. [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)


    Highlights: • A new highly coordinated Er{sup 3+} complex has been synthesized and its properties studied. • X-ray diffraction shows that complex packs efficiently: no solvent accessible voids. • dnm ligand successfully extends the excitation bands to the blue region up to 550 nm. • Efficient energy transfer by antenna effect results in 1.53 μm emission from Er{sup 3+}. - Abstract: The sensitization of lanthanide complexes in the visible region is of particular interest for practical applications such as labeling, biological analysis and optoelectronics. A visible-light sensitized Er{sup 3+} complex based on the use of a highly conjugated β-diketonate (1,3-di(2-naphthyl)-1,3-propanedione, Hdnm) and 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline (5NO{sub 2}phen) as an ancillary ligand, [Er(dnm){sub 3}(5NO{sub 2}phen)], has been synthesized, fully characterized and its photophysical properties have been investigated. Suitably expanded π-conjugation in the complex molecule makes the excitation window red-shifted to the visible region (up to 550 nm). Efficient energy transfer by antenna effect results in 1.53 μm emission from the Er{sup 3+} ion.

  4. Spectral downshifting from blue to near infer red region in Ce3+-Nd3+ co-doped YAG phosphor (United States)

    Sawala, N. S.; Omanwar, S. K.


    The YAG phosphors co-doped with Ce3+-Nd3+ ions by varying concentration of Nd3+ ion from 1 mol% to 15 mol% were successfully synthesized by conventional solid state reaction method. The phosphors were characterized by powder X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and surface morphology was studied by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The photoluminescence (PL) properties were studied in near infra red (NIR) and ultra violet visible (UV-VIS) region. The synthesized phosphors can convert a blue region photon (453 nm) into photons of NIR region (1063 nm). The energy transfer (ET) process was studied by time decay curve and PL spectra. The theoretical value of energy transfer efficiency (ETE) was calculated from time decay luminescence measurement and the maximum efficiency approached up to 82.23%. Hence this phosphor could be prime candidate as a downshifting (DS) luminescent convertor (phosphor) in front of crystalline silicon solar cell (c-Si) panels to reduce thermalization loss in the solar cells.

  5. THE DRAINAGE EFFICIENCY INDEX (DEI) AS AN MORPHOLOGIAL INDICATOR OF LANDSLIDE SPATIAL OCCURRENCE IN MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENTS. A case of study applied in the mountainous region of Brazilian Southeastern. (United States)

    Henrique Muniz Lima, Pedro; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; do Couto Fernandes, Manoel


    Morphometric parameters, acquired notoriety mainly after the Drainage Density proposition (Horton 1932, 1945) and after they were applied by geomorphologists on the perspective to understand landscape functionalities, quantifying their characteristics through parameters and indexes. After the drainage density, many other parameters which describe the basin characteristics, behavior and dynamics have been proposed. Among them, for example, the DEI was proposed by Coelho Netto and contributors during the 80's, while they were seek to understand the hydrological and erosive dynamics on Bananal river basin (Brazilian Southeastern). Through this investigations the DEI was created, revealing the importance of parameters as hollow and drainage density, conjugated to the topographic gradient (Meis et al. 1982) who prosecute controls on the water flow efficiency along the hollows in order to activate the regressive erosion of the main channel. Later on this index was applied on the basin scale in several works developed in mountainous regions, showing a remarkable correlation with the occurrence of landslides such as showed by Coelho Netto et al. (2007); that posteriorly use this index as one of the components of the landslide susceptibility map for the Tijuca Massif, located in Rio de Janeiro Municipality. This work aims to establish patterns of the DEI index values (applied to mountainous low order basins) and the relationship on the occurrence of Debriflows or shallow translational slides. For this, the DEI index was applied on 4 different study areas located on the Southeastern mountainous region of Brazil to address deeply the connection between the index and the occurrence of landslides of different types applied for first and second order basins. The major study area is the Córrego Dantas Basin, situated in Nova Friburgo municipality (RJ), which is a 53 km² basin was affected by 327 landslides caused by a heavy rainfall on January 2011; Coelho Netto et al. (in

  6. Segmented seismicity of the Mw 6.2 Baladeh earthquake sequence (Alborz mountains, Iran) revealed from regional moment tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donner, Stefanie; Rössler, Dirk; Krüger, Frank


    The M w 6.2 Baladeh earthquake occurred on 28 May 2004 in the Alborz Mountains, northern Iran. This earthquake was the first strong shock in this intracontinental orogen for which digital regional broadband data are available. The Baladeh event provides a rare opportunity to study fault geometry...... and ongoing deformation processes using modern seismological methods. A joint inversion for hypocentres and a velocity model plus a surface-wave group dispersion curve analysis were used to obtain an adapted velocity model, customised for mid- and long-period waveform modelling. Based on the new velocity...

  7. The "APEC Blue" Phenomenon: Impacts of Regional emission control Meteorology Condition and Regional Transport from a Modeling Perspective (United States)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Liu, Z.; Ji, D.; Saide, P. E.; Wang, Y.; Xin, J.


    On November 5-11, China hosted the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Economic Leaders' Week in Beijing. To ensure good air quality during the APEC week, a series of strict emission control measures were taken in Beijing and surrounding provinces, which provide us with a great opportunity to examine the effectiveness of regional emission control. As important as emissions, meteorology can also significantly affect air quality in Beijing, so it's meaningful to understand the impact of meteorology conditions in the APEC week. Besides, it's important to study the impact of regional transport as its contribution to Beijing pollution levels is controversial. In this study, we investigate the impacts of emission control, meteorology and regional transport on the air quality during APEC week using a fully online coupled meteorology-chemistry model WRF-Chem. Compared to surface observations, the model has very good performance. The conclusions from this study will provide useful insights for government to control aerosol pollution in Beijing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. T. Omirzhanova


    Full Text Available Foothills of Trans Ili Alatau is a recreational area with buildings and sports facilities and resorts, sanatoriums, etc. In summer and winter there are a very large number of skiers, climbers, tourists and workers of organizations which located in the mountains. In this regard, forecasting natural destructive phenomena using GIS software is an important task of many scientific fields. The formation of avalanches, except meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed, snow thickness, especially affecting mountainous terrain. Great importance in the formation of avalanches play steepness (slope of the slope and exposure. If steep slopes contribute to the accumulation of snow in some places, increase the risk of flooding of the slope, the various irregularities can delay an avalanche. According to statistics, the bulk of the avalanche is formed on the slopes steeper than 30°. In the course of research a 3D model of the terrain was created with the help of programs ArcGIS and Surfer. Identified areas with steep slopes, the exposure is made to the cardinal. For dangerous terrain location is divided into three groups: favorable zone, danger zone and the zone of increased risk. The range of deviations from 30-45° is dangerous, since the angle of inclination of more than 30°, there is a maximum thickness of sliding snow, water, the upper layer of the surface and there is an increase rate of moving array, and the mountain slopes at an angle 450 above are the area increased risk. Created on DTM data are also plotted Weather Service for the winter of current year. The resulting model allows to get information upon request and display it on map base, assess the condition of the terrain by avalanches, as well as to solve the problem of life safety in mountainous areas, to develop measures to prevent emergency situations and prevent human losses.




    Foothills of Trans Ili Alatau is a recreational area with buildings and sports facilities and resorts, sanatoriums, etc. In summer and winter there are a very large number of skiers, climbers, tourists and workers of organizations which located in the mountains. In this regard, forecasting natural destructive phenomena using GIS software is an important task of many scientific fields. The formation of avalanches, except meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed, snow thicknes...

  10. GIS for Predicting the Avalanche Zones in the Mountain Regions of Kazakhstan (United States)

    Omirzhanova, Zh. T.; Urazaliev, A. S.; Aimenov, A. T.


    Foothills of Trans Ili Alatau is a recreational area with buildings and sports facilities and resorts, sanatoriums, etc. In summer and winter there are a very large number of skiers, climbers, tourists and workers of organizations which located in the mountains. In this regard, forecasting natural destructive phenomena using GIS software is an important task of many scientific fields. The formation of avalanches, except meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed, snow thickness, especially affecting mountainous terrain. Great importance in the formation of avalanches play steepness (slope) of the slope and exposure. If steep slopes contribute to the accumulation of snow in some places, increase the risk of flooding of the slope, the various irregularities can delay an avalanche. According to statistics, the bulk of the avalanche is formed on the slopes steeper than 30°. In the course of research a 3D model of the terrain was created with the help of programs ArcGIS and Surfer. Identified areas with steep slopes, the exposure is made to the cardinal. For dangerous terrain location is divided into three groups: favorable zone, danger zone and the zone of increased risk. The range of deviations from 30-45° is dangerous, since the angle of inclination of more than 30°, there is a maximum thickness of sliding snow, water, the upper layer of the surface and there is an increase rate of moving array, and the mountain slopes at an angle 450 above are the area increased risk. Created on DTM data are also plotted Weather Service for the winter of current year. The resulting model allows to get information upon request and display it on map base, assess the condition of the terrain by avalanches, as well as to solve the problem of life safety in mountainous areas, to develop measures to prevent emergency situations and prevent human losses.

  11. Bathyal demersal fishes of Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone region (49-54°N) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, I: Results from trawl surveys (United States)

    Cousins, Nicola J.; Shields, Mark A.; Crockard, Deborah; Priede, Imants G.


    Demersal fishes were sampled by single-warp otter trawl (OTSB) at three sites on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), to the northeast (NE), northwest (NW) and southeast (SE) of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone at approximately 2500 m depth. The mean abundance was 4109 fish km-2 (SD 3714) and biomass 897.1 kg km-2 (SD 842.9) compared with 1996 fish km-2 (SD 1497) and 721.2 kg km-2 (SD 387) at the same depth on the Porcupine Seabight (PSB) segment of the NE Atlantic Ocean margin from previous studies. There was no significant difference in biomass or abundance between the three sites on the MAR, nor in comparison with the ocean margin. A total of fish 22 species were recorded at the three MAR sites with evidence of highest species richness at the SE site. No unique species were found on the ridge; but there were differences in species composition between the PSB and the MAR. Coryphaenoides brevibarbis and Antimora rostrata were important at both the NE and NW trawl sites on the MAR whereas Halosauropsis macrochir was most important in the SE. We conclude that the MAR is an important habitat for species otherwise confined to narrow strips of appropriate depth around the North Atlantic Ocean margins. The MAR supports similar population densities to ocean margin settings but with differences in relative importance of different species between regions.

  12. Hydrological Utility and Uncertainty of Multi-Satellite Precipitation Products in the Mountainous Region of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Pil Kim


    Full Text Available Satellite-derived precipitation can be a potential source of forcing data for assessing water availability and managing water supply in mountainous regions of East Asia. This study investigates the hydrological utility of satellite-derived precipitation and uncertainties attributed to error propagation of satellite products in hydrological modeling. To this end, four satellite precipitation products (tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA version 6 (TMPAv6 and version 7 (TMPAv7, the global satellite mapping of precipitation (GSMaP, and the climate prediction center (CPC morphing technique (CMORPH were integrated into a physically-based hydrologic model for the mountainous region of South Korea. The satellite precipitation products displayed different levels of accuracy when compared to the intra- and inter-annual variations of ground-gauged precipitation. As compared to the GSMaP and CMORPH products, superior performances were seen when the TMPA products were used within streamflow simulations. Significant dry (negative biases in the GSMaP and CMORPH products led to large underestimates of streamflow during wet-summer seasons. Although the TMPA products displayed a good level of performance for hydrologic modeling, there were some over/underestimates of precipitation by satellites during the winter season that were induced by snow accumulation and snowmelt processes. These differences resulted in streamflow simulation uncertainties during the winter and spring seasons. This study highlights the crucial need to understand hydrological uncertainties from satellite-derived precipitation for improved water resource management and planning in mountainous basins. Furthermore, it is suggested that a reliable snowfall detection algorithm is necessary for the new global precipitation measurement (GPM mission.

  13. A Double Hotspot Model for the Origin of Line Islands Ridge (United States)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Barth, G. A.; Wertman, C.


    The origin of the various seamount chains in the central Pacific is often difficult to reconstruct due to the number of potential volcanic sources and the criss-crossing patterns associated with plate motion history. One particularly difficult seamount chain to reconstruct is the Line Islands Ridge and the possibly-related Mid-Pacific Mountains and Tuamotu Chain. While the general geographic and age-progressive trends of these features resemble the predicted pattern for Pacific plate motion over the past 120 to 130 My, the relative ages of volcanism along the Line Islands Ridge are not consistent with a conventional hotspot model. To explore potential models of the origin of the Line Islands Ridge, we use GPlates software in conjunction with published seamount dates and known hotspot locations to constrain tectonic reconstructions. Our primary results suggest the Line Islands Ridge was formed by at least two different volcanic sources. The initial source formed the southern section of the Line Island Ridge (4˚N to 1˚S) around 95 to 83 Ma and corresponds to the present-day Crough hotspot. The hotspot also likely generated the linear Boudeuse Ridge (a.k.a. Southern Line Islands) volcanic chain (5˚S to 13˚S) from about 70 to 50 Ma. The second volcanic source, which we call the Larson Hotspot in memory of Roger Larson, formed the northern section of the Line Islands Ridge (7˚N to 4˚N) around 77 to 64 Ma and corresponds to a new "hotspot" region centered on 17˚S and 125˚W near the eastern extension of the Pukapuka Ridge. This source may also account for the formation of the Mid-Pacific Mountains (130 to 105 Ma), the Necker Ridge (105 to 90 Ma), and the later volcanism on the southern section of the Line Island Ridge (65 to 55 Ma). This volcanic source also roughly coincides with the Pukapuka Ridge and more recent volcanism along the same trend, but closer to the East Pacific Rise.

  14. Deformation Styles of the Uthai Thani-Nakhon Sawan Ridge within the Chainat Duplex, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pattarapong Prasongtham; Pitsanupong Kanjanapayont


    Uthai Thani-Nakhon Sawan structural ridge is the 35 km mountain length lying in N-S direction within the Chainat duplex at the Central Thailand. The ridge, which is clearly seen from sat-ellite image in the flat areas of the Central Plain, is composed of Triassic mylonitic granite and Silurian-Devonian metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. Satellite image interpretation, geological map-ping, field data and microstructure analysis have been integrated for the understanding of structural style of Uthai Thani-Nakhon Sawan ridge. The rocks within the ridge had been deformed under sinis-tral ductile shear which was shown by foliations, stretching lineations, S-C fabrics, sigmoid clasts, mineral fish and S-folded both in outcrops and under microscope. The major N-S, minor NNW-SSE striking ridges and foliation planes indicate the paleostress ofσ1 in the NW-SE direction. The major sinistral motion of this region probably ended at ~30 Ma. All structural elements and deformation style of Uthai Thani-Nakhon Sawan ridge relate to the Chainat duplex geometry and Mae Ping fault zone activity during Tertiary.

  15. Boundary layer processes in a mountainous region south of Vienna, Austria (United States)

    Schicker, Irene


    The Rosalia Lehrforst, southeast of Vienna and one of the boundaries of the Vienna basin, is a semi-complex forested mountain range used for teaching and studies of the atmosphere, land-surface interactions, hydrological studies such as heavy precipitation events, and many more. Different kinds of observation data sets, including three meteorological observations sites within the Lehrforst and several observations sites outside, are available. Within this study the WRF model is used to evaluate the effects of different kinds of land-use and soil types, including different soil moisture conditions on the boundary layer and boundary layer processes within the Lehrforst and the southern Vienna basin.

  16. Invasive blue mussels threaten regional scale genetic diversity in mainland and remote offshore locations: the need for baseline data and enhanced protection in the Southern Ocean. (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P A; Zbawicka, Małgorzata; Westfall, Kristen M; Wenne, Roman


    Human-mediated biological transfers of species have substantially modified many ecosystems with profound environmental and economic consequences. However, in many cases, invasion events are very hard to identify because of the absence of an appropriate baseline of information for receiving sites/regions. In this study, use of high-resolution genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms - SNPs) highlights the threat of introduced Northern Hemisphere blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) at a regional scale to Southern Hemisphere lineages of blue mussels via hybridization and introgression. Analysis of a multispecies SNP dataset reveals hotspots of invasive Northern Hemisphere blue mussels in some mainland New Zealand locations, as well as the existence of unique native lineages of blue mussels on remote oceanic islands in the Southern Ocean that are now threatened by invasive mussels. Samples collected from an oil rig that has moved between South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand were identified as invasive Northern Hemisphere mussels, revealing the relative ease with which such non-native species may be moved from region to region. In combination, our results highlight the existence of unique lineages of mussels (and by extension, presumably of other taxa) on remote offshore islands in the Southern Ocean, the need for more baseline data to help identify bioinvasion events, the ongoing threat of hybridization and introgression posed by invasive species, and the need for greater protection of some of the world's last great remote areas.

  17. Validation of MODIS and Deep Blue aerosol optical depth retrievals in an arid/semi-arid region of northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Li; Xiangao Xia; Shengli Wang; Jietai Mao; Yan Liu


    The global aerosol optical depth (AOD or τ) has been retrieved using the Dark Target algorithm (the C004 and C005 products) and the Deep Blue algorithm (DB product).Few validations have thus far been performed in arid/semi-arid regions,especially in northwest China.The ground-based remote sensing of AOD from sun photometers at four sites in Xinjiang during the years 2002-2003 is used to validate aerosol products,including C004,C005 and DB of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS).The results show substantial improvement in the C005 aerosol product over the C004 product.The average correlation coefficient of regression with ground measurements increased from 0.59 to 0.69,and the average offset decreased from 0.28 to 0.13.The slopes of the linear regressions tended to be close to unity.The percentage of AODs falling within the retrieval errors of 30% (or △τ =±0.1 ± 0.2τ)increased from 16.1% to 45.6%.The best retrievals are obtained over an oasis region,whereas the worst are obtained over urban areas.Both the MODIS C004 and C005 products overestimate AOD,which is likely related to improper assumptions of the aerosol model and of the estimation of surface reflectance.An encouraging result has been derived with regard to validation of the DB AOD.Overall,the average offset,slope and correlation coefficient of regression with sun-photometer measurements are -0.04,0.88 and 0.85,respectively.Approximately 73% of the DB AOD retrievals fall within the expected error of 30%.Underestimation of the AOD by the DB products is observed.The aerosol model and estimations of surface reflectance in this region require further improvements.

  18. Polygonal Ridge Networks on Mars (United States)

    Kerber, Laura; Dickson, James; Grosfils, Eric; Head, James W.


    Polygonal ridge networks, also known as boxwork or reticulate ridges, are found in numerous locations and geological contexts across Mars. While networks formed from mineralized fractures hint at hot, possibly life-sustaining circulating ground waters, networks formed by impact-driven clasting diking, magmatic dikes, gas escape, or lava flows do not have the same astrobiological implications. Distinguishing the morphologies and geological context of the ridge networks sheds light on their potential as astrobiological and mineral resource sites of interest. The most widespread type of ridge morphology is characteristic of the Nili Fossae and Nilosyrtis region and consists of thin, criss-crossing ridges with a variety of heights, widths, and intersection angles. They are found in ancient Noachian terrains at a variety of altitudes and geographic locations and may be a mixture of clastic dikes, brecciated dikes, and mineral veins. They occur in the same general areas as valley networks and ancient lake basins, but they are not more numerous where these features are concentrated, and can appear in places where they morphologies are absent. Similarly, some of the ridge networks are associated with hydrated mineral detections, but some occur in locations without detections. Smaller, light-toned ridges of variable widths have been found in Gale Crater and other rover sites and are interpreted to be smaller version of the Nili-like ridges, in this case formed by the mineralization of fractures. This type of ridge is likely to be found in many other places on Mars as more high-resolution data becomes available. Hellas Basin is host to a third type of ridge morphology consisting of large, thick, light-toned ridges forming regular polygons at several superimposed scales. While still enigmatic, these are most likely to be the result of sediment-filled fractures. The Eastern Medusae Fossae Formation contains large swaths of a fourth, previously undocumented, ridge network type

  19. New ridge parameters for ridge regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Dorugade


    Full Text Available Hoerl and Kennard (1970a introduced the ridge regression estimator as an alternative to the ordinary least squares (OLS estimator in the presence of multicollinearity. In ridge regression, ridge parameter plays an important role in parameter estimation. In this article, a new method for estimating ridge parameters in both situations of ordinary ridge regression (ORR and generalized ridge regression (GRR is proposed. The simulation study evaluates the performance of the proposed estimator based on the mean squared error (MSE criterion and indicates that under certain conditions the proposed estimators perform well compared to OLS and other well-known estimators reviewed in this article.

  20. Drought Occurrence in Central European Mountainous Region (Tatra National Park, Slovakia within the Period 1961–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Vido


    Full Text Available Drought has recently become a significant topic in the Central European region. It has been observed that the drought phenomenon has severe impacts on the agriculture, hydrology, social, and economic sectors of lowland areas. This study focuses on how drought, defined as a precipitation shortage, occurs in higher altitudes of the Tatra National Park (Tatra Mts., Slovakia, which is a significant biological reserve of the Central European fauna and flora. The main goals of this research include identifying drought variability and its characteristics over the Tatra National Park in the West Carpathians (Slovakia, especially to characterizing drought variability and its spatial pattern across the Tatra National Park from 1961 to 2010 using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and standard Geographic Information System (GIS methods. The results showed that frequency of drought occurrence has cyclic pattern with approximately 30-year period. The spatial analyses showed that precipitation shadow of the mountains influences the risk of drought occurrence. The drought-prone areas over the mountains are also identified.

  1. Landslides susceptibility change over time according to terrain conditions in a mountain area of the tropic region. (United States)

    Pineda, M C; Viloria, J; Martínez-Casasnovas, J A


    Susceptibility to landslides in mountain areas results from the interaction of various factors related to relief formation and soil development. The assessment of landslide susceptibility has generally taken into account individual events, or it has been aimed at establishing relationships between landslide-inventory maps and maps of environmental factors, without considering that such relationships can change in space and time. In this work, temporal and space changes in landslides were analysed in six different combinations of date and geomorphological conditions, including two different geological units, in a mountainous area in the north-centre of Venezuela, in northern South America. Landslide inventories from different years were compared with a number of environmental factors by means of logistic regression analysis. The resulting equations predicted landslide susceptibility from a range of geomorphometric parameters and a vegetation index, with diverse accuracy, in the study area. The variation of the obtained models and their prediction accuracy between geological units and dates suggests that the complexity of the landslide processes and their explanatory factors changed over space and time in the studied area. This calls into question the use of a single model to evaluate landslide susceptibility over large regions.

  2. StaMPS Improvement for Deformation Analysis in Mountainous Regions: Implications for the Damavand Volcano and Mosha Fault in Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Vajedian


    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR capability to detect slow deformation over terrain areas is limited by temporal decorrelation, geometric decorrelation and atmospheric artefacts. Multitemporal InSAR methods such as Persistent Scatterer (PS-InSAR and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS have been developed to deal with various aspects of decorrelation and atmospheric problems affecting InSAR observations. Nevertheless, the applicability of both PS-InSAR and SBAS in mountainous regions is still challenging. Correct phase unwrapping in both methods is hampered due to geometric decorrelation in particular when using C-band SAR data for deformation analysis. In this paper, we build upon the SBAS method implemented in StaMPS software and improved the technique, here called ISBAS, to assess tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz Mountains in Iran using both Envisat and ALOS SAR data. We modify several aspects within the chain of the processing including: filtering prior to phase unwrapping, topographic correction within three-dimensional phase unwrapping, reducing the atmospheric noise with the help of additional GPS data, and removing the ramp caused by ionosphere turbulence and/or orbit errors to better estimate crustal deformation in this tectonically active region. Topographic correction is done within the three-dimensional unwrapping in order to improve the phase unwrapping process, which is in contrast to previous methods in which DEM error is estimated before/after phase unwrapping. Our experiments show that our improved SBAS approach is able to better characterize the tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz region than the classical SBAS. In particular, Damavand volcano shows an average uplift rate of about 3 mm/year in the year 2003–2010. The Mosha fault illustrates left-lateral motion that could be explained with a fault that is locked up to 17–18 km depths and slips with 2–4 mm

  3. Atmospheric deposition of polybromodiphenyl ethers in remote mountain regions of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Arellano


    Full Text Available Polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs were analyzed in bulk atmospheric deposition collected in four European remote mountain areas over a period of two years (2004–2006: Lake Redon (Pyrenees, Gossenköllesee (Alps, Lochnagar (Grampian Mountains and Skalnate (Tatras. In all sites, the PBDE distributions were dominated by BDE209. BDE47 and BDE99 were the major low-brominated congeners, followed by BDE100 and BDE183. This composition is consistent with predominant inputs from the commercial mixtures decaBDE and pentaBDE. The total congener site-averaged fluxes ranged between 100 ng m−2 mo−1 (Alps and 190 ng m−2 mo−1 (Tatras. Significant correlations between PBDE deposition and percent of North Atlantic backwards air mass trajectories in the collected samples of the westernmost sites, Lochnagar and Redon, suggested an impact of transcontinental transfer of these pollutants from North American sources into Europe. Skalnate and, to a lower extent Redon, recorded another main PBDE source from central Europe corresponding to secondary emissions of the penta BDE commercial mixture. The fluxes of these secondary emissions were temperature dependent and correlated to total particle deposition and rainfall. Higher PBDE fluxes were observed at increasing temperature, particle deposition and precipitation. Another specific PBDE source was observed in United Kingdom and recorded in Lochnagar. Photolytic degradation during transport decreased the relative abundance of BDE209 and modified the emitted pentaBDE technical mixtures by depletion of the relative composition of BDE99 and, to a lower extent, BDE47. The transformations were more intense in the sites located above 2000 m, Redon and Gossenköllesee, and, particularly, during the warm periods.

  4. New location of Alsodes tumultuosus Veloso, Iturra & Galleguillos, 1979 (Amphibia, Alsodidae in the Andes Mountains of the O’Higgins Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ramírez Álvarez


    Full Text Available Alsodes tumultuosus Veloso, Iturra & Galleguillos, 1979 is an amphibian species endemic to Chile, described and known just from its type locality: the mountain streams in La Parva zone, Metropolitan region, central Chile. In this manuscript I report a new location for this species (the Andes Mountains of the O’Higgins Region, Chile, thus extending its current geographical range in about 100 kilometers southward. This finding suggests that we need to invest more efforts to clearly establish its conservation status in Chile.

  5. Landscape pattern and diversity of natural secondary forests in the eastern mountainous region, northeast China: A case study of Mao'ershan region in HeUongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShu-juan; SUIYu-zheng; FENGHai-qing; WANGFeng-you; LIYu-wen


    Mao'ershan region is a representative natural secondary forested region in the eastern mountainous region, northeast of China. Under the support of ARC/INFO, the landscape pattern and landscape diversity of Mao'erhshan region were sudied by combining the forest type map (1:10 000), which was drawn from the aerial photographs (1999), field investigation and land utilization map (1:10 000). The selected indices included patch number, patch size, patch density index, richness index,dominance index, evenness index and diversity index. The results showed that the landscape dominant forest type in Mao'ershan region was softwood broad-leaved forest. In all landscape types, the average patch area of natural secondary forests was bigger than that of artificial forest. The patch density index of each landscape formed in artificial forest was higher than that of natural secondary forest. The landscape diversity index and landscape evenness index of natural forest were highest, the landscape heterogeneity was also, but the landscape dominance was lower. In natural forest, the control effects of landscape elements on landscape-structure, function and its change were weakened. The artificial forest was on the contrary.

  6. Changing regional emissions of airborne pollutants reflected in the chemistry of snowpacks and wetfall in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, 1993–2012 (United States)

    Ingersoll, George P.; Miller, Debra C.; Morris, Kristi H.; McMurray, Jill A.; Port, Garrett M.; Caruso, Brian


    Wintertime precipitation sample data from 55 Snowpack sites and 17 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network Wetfall sites in the Rocky Mountain region were examined to identify long-term trends in chemical concentration, deposition, and precipitation using Regional and Seasonal Kendall tests. The Natural Resources Conservation Service snow-telemetry (SNOTEL) network provided snow-water-equivalent data from 33 sites located near Snowpack- and NADP Wetfall-sampling sites for further comparisons. Concentration and deposition of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, and sulfate were tested for trends for the period 1993–2012. Precipitation trends were compared between the three monitoring networks for the winter seasons and downward trends were observed for both Snowpack and SNOTEL networks, but not for the NADP Wetfall network. The dry-deposition fraction of total atmospheric deposition, relative to wet deposition, was shown to be considerable in the region. Potential sources of regional airborne pollutant emissions were identified from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2011 National Emissions Inventory, and from long-term emissions data for the period 1996–2013. Changes in the emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide were reflected in significant trends in snowpack and wetfall chemistry. In general, ammonia emissions in the western USA showed a gradual increase over the past decade, while ammonium concentrations and deposition in snowpacks and wetfall showed upward trends. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide declined while regional trends in snowpack and wetfall concentrations and deposition of nitrate and sulfate were downward.

  7. [Characteristics of heat resource in mountainous region of northern Guangdong, South China based on three-dimensional climate observation]. (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Chun-Lin; Chen, Xin-Guang; Chen, Hui-Hua


    Based on the 2009-2011 daily air temperature observation data from 11 automatic weather stations in the mountainous region of northern Guangdong, this paper calculated the heat factors in the region, including the beginning date of 10 degrees C, the ending date of 15 degrees C, the duration days of 10-15 degrees C, the accumulated temperature above 10 degrees C, the days of minimum temperature below 5 degrees C, and the mean monthly temperature, with the linear regression model of the heat factors and latitude established. In 2009-2011, the heat factors in the region had significant correlations with latitude, and the heat resource at the same latitudes differed apparently between south and north slopes. With the increase of latitude, the beginning date of 10 degrees C delayed, the ending date of 10 degrees C advanced, and the duration days of 10-15 degrees C, the accumulated temperature above 10 degrees C, the days of temperature above 10 degrees C, and the mean annual air temperature decreased. The vertical variation rates of the heat factors were larger on south slope than on north slope. The results of this study could be used for fitting the vertical distribution of heat resource in the areas with no weather station, and provide basis for the fine regionalization of agricultural climate.

  8. Low-level gamma spectrometry of forest and moor soils from exposed mountain regions in Saxony (Erzgebirge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, N. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Preusse, W. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Degering, D. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Unterricker, S. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics


    In soils with distinct organic and mineral horizons, radionuclides (RN) can be used to understand geochemical migration processes. In the study presented here high sensitivity HPGe-detectors with active and passive shielding were employed to determine the low activity levels of various natural, cosmogenic and artificial RN. Soils of a spruce forest and a moor from exposed mountain regions in Saxony (Erzgebirge) were investigated as they provide a good example of layered soil systems with vertical transfer of chemical elements. Different soil horizons were sub-sampled as thin slices and analysed to examine the migration processes at sub-horizon level. The depth distributions of chemically different RN were studied considering the geochemical and pedological soil characteristics of the profiles. (orig.)

  9. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in animals and human populations in the western mountains region in Libya, December 2006-January 2008. (United States)

    Ahmed, M O; Elmeshri, S E; Abuzweda, A R; Blauo, M; Abouzeed, Y M; Ibrahim, A; Salem, H; Alzwam, F; Abid, S; Elfahem, A; Elrais, A


    Brucellosis is a global zoonotic disease, endemic in North African countries and around the Mediterranean.A prospective study of Brucella seroprevalence was conducted in north-western Libya (western mountains region). Blood samples collected over 13 months in the period December 2006 to January 2008 from 561 animals (goats, sheep, cattle and camels) and 546 human volunteers were tested for Brucella using the Rose Bengal test, tube agglutination test and ELISA assays. Amongst livestock, 31% of goats and 42% of cattle were seropositive. Human samples showed a high seropositivity of 40%, with 95 (43%) of the 221 positive samples positive for IgM, indicating active or recent infection. Control measures are needed to reduce this high prevalence of brucellosis in Libya.

  10. Evaluation of Nitrogen Cycling Associated with Agricultural Production and Environmental Load in a Mountain Region, in Hokkaido, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lei; JIN Datian; HU Ning


    This study examined the nitrogen cycling associated with agricultural production and environmental load in central Hokkaido. The nitrogen (N) budget analysis model offers a new set of tools for evaluating N cycling in agro-ecosystems. The cycling index (CI) is a useful tool for estimating optimal N flows in farmlands. The fertilization index (FI) is a useful indicator for characterizing the N flows related to farms. Using these parameters, we analyzed all farm systems to estimate the optimal N cycling for minimizing N pollution in groundwater and maximizing agricultural production in mountain regions of Japan. The results showed that the critical N application rate (chemical fertilizer + manure) was 143.3 kg N ha-1 y-1. The critical inter-system input (chemical fertilizer N, imported food and feed N, and natural supplied N) was 169.9 kg N ha-1y-1.

  11. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information


    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  12. Quality and change analysis of forest resource in typical Changbai Mountain forest region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUDe-yong; HAOZhan-qing; XlONGZai-ping; WANGDian-zhong; YANGXiu-ying


    The utilization and changes of forest resources were studied in the Lishuihe Forest Bureau. Based on remote sensing images in 1985 and 1999, changes of major forest resources were analyzed by statistical and overlap method and classified quantitatively. The results showed that in recent 15 years, logging spots and man-made young forest changed violently, which was due to human activities. Different forest management manners and harvesting intensity played an important role in forest resources change. Dongsheng and Xilinhe tree farms were typical cases of different forest status and management for the Bureau, where forest succession was intervened by either human or natural disturbance. Dongsheng Tree Farm underwent a lighth arvest intensity and maintained a unit stock volume of 536.27 m3. hm-2, as much as that of broadleaf/Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountain Natural Reserve; Xilinhe Tree Farm underwent an intense harvest and was composed of secondary forests,where mature forests just had a small percentage and the unit stock volume was low. The study was useful to guide future forest management. What's more, problems found in the research were also analyzed and reasonable advice was given to the local forest management.

  13. Retrieval of snow Specific Surface Area (SSA) from MODIS data in mountainous regions (United States)

    Mary, A.; Dumont, M.; Dedieu, J.-P.; Durand, Y.; Sirguey, P.; Milhem, H.; Mestre, O.; Negi, H. S.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.


    This study describes a method to retrieve snow specific surface area (SSA) from satellite radiance reasurements in mountainous terrain. It aims at comparing different retrieval methods and at addressing topographic corrections of reflectance, namely slope and aspect of terrain and multiple reflections on neighbouring slopes. We use an iterative algorithm to compute reflectance from radiance of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) with a comprehensive correction of local illumination with regards to topography. The retrieved SSA is compared to the results of the snowpack model Crocus, fed by driving data from the SAFRAN meteorological analysis, over a large domain in the French Alps. We compared SSA retrievals with and without topographic or anisotropy correction, and with a spherical or non-spherical snow reflectance model. The topographic correction enables SSA to be retrieved in better agreement with those from SAFRAN-Crocus. The root mean square deviation is 10.0 m2 kg-1 and the bias is -0.6 m2 kg-1, over 3829 pixels representing seven different dates and snow conditions. The standard deviation of MODIS retrieved data, larger than the one of SAFRAN-Crocus estimates, is responsible for half this RMSD. It is due to the topographic classes used by SAFRAN-Crocus. In addition, MODIS retrieved data show SSA gradients with elevation and solar exposition, physically consistent and in good agreement with SAFRAN-Crocus.

  14. Retrieval of snow Specific Surface Area (SSA from MODIS data in mountainous regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mary


    Full Text Available This study describes a method to retrieve snow specific surface area (SSA from satellite radiance reasurements in mountainous terrain. It aims at comparing different retrieval methods and at addressing topographic corrections of reflectance, namely slope and aspect of terrain and multiple reflections on neighbouring slopes. We use an iterative algorithm to compute reflectance from radiance of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS with a comprehensive correction of local illumination with regards to topography. The retrieved SSA is compared to the results of the snowpack model Crocus, fed by driving data from the SAFRAN meteorological analysis, over a large domain in the French Alps. We compared SSA retrievals with and without topographic or anisotropy correction, and with a spherical or non-spherical snow reflectance model. The topographic correction enables SSA to be retrieved in better agreement with those from SAFRAN-Crocus. The root mean square deviation is 10.0 m2 kg−1 and the bias is −0.6 m2 kg−1, over 3829 pixels representing seven different dates and snow conditions. The standard deviation of MODIS retrieved data, larger than the one of SAFRAN-Crocus estimates, is responsible for half this RMSD. It is due to the topographic classes used by SAFRAN-Crocus. In addition, MODIS retrieved data show SSA gradients with elevation and solar exposition, physically consistent and in good agreement with SAFRAN-Crocus.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sohan Kumar GHIMIRE; Mukand Singh BABEL


    This study verifies the applicability of EPIC model for an erosion plot (61.2 m2) and anupland terraced watershed (72 ha) using a total of 94 rainfall events over a study period of two years.In order to analyze the effect of storm size on runoff and soil loss processes,rainfall events are divided into three groups:small (<25mm),moderate (25-50mm) and large (>50mm).Results indicate that the model could predict reasonably well the runoff and soil loss from the erosion plot and the watershed for the moderate and large rainfall events.However,the runoff and soil loss prediction for the small rainfall events is found to be poor.On annual basis,both surface runoffand soil loss predictions match well the observations.In light of the importance of the moderate and large rainfall events in producing most of the annual runoff and soil loss in the study area,the EPIC model is applied to assess the impacts of erosion on agricultural productivity and to evaluate management practices to protect watersheds in the middle mountainous area of Nepal.

  16. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) over mountainous region of Cameron Highlands- Batang Padang Catchment of Malaysia (United States)

    Sidek, L. M.; Mohd Nor, M. D.; Rakhecha, P. R.; Basri, H.; Jayothisa, W.; Muda, R. S.; Ahmad, M. N.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul


    The Cameron Highland Batang Padang (CHBP) catchment situated on the main mountain range of Peninsular Malaysia is of large economical importance where currently a series of three dams (Sultan Abu Bakar, Jor and Mahang) exist in the development of water resources and hydropower. The prediction of the design storm rainfall values for different return periods including PMP values can be useful to review the adequacy of the current spillway capacities of these dams. In this paper estimates of the design storm rainfalls for various return periods and also the PMP values for rainfall stations in the CHBP catchment have been computed for the three different durations of 1, 3 & 5 days. The maximum values for 1 day, 3 days and 5 days PMP values are found to be 730.08mm, 966.17mm and 969.0mm respectively at Station number 4513033 Gunung Brinchang. The PMP values obtained were compared with previous study results undertaken by NAHRIM. However, the highest ratio of 1 day, 3 day and 5 day PMP to highest observed rainfall are found to be 2.30, 1.94 and 1.82 respectively. This shows that the ratio tend to decrease as the duration increase. Finally, the temporal pattern for 1 day, 3day and 5 days have been developed based on observed extreme rainfall at station 4513033 Gunung Brinchang for the generation of Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) in dam break analysis.

  17. Regional flood susceptibility analysis in mountainous areas through the use of morphometric and land cover indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Rogelis


    Full Text Available A classification of susceptibility to flooding of 106 mountain watersheds was carried out in Bogotá (Colombia through the use of an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows. Morphological variables recognised in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows were used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator was compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement, showing that even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. On the contrary, if good morphometric conditions are present but deterioration of the land cover in the watershed takes place then the susceptibility to debris flow events increases.

  18. Mapping Asbestos-Cement Roofing with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing over a Large Mountain Region of the Italian Western Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Frassy


    Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d’Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification’s accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Kuchay


    Full Text Available The cataclastic method developed by Yu.L. Rebetsky is applied to reconstruct the recent field of stresses related to aftershock sequences of earthquakes that occurred in the Altai-Sayan mountainous region, specifically the Altai earthquake of 27 September 2003 (М=7.3; φ=50.061o; λ=87.966o and the Busingol earthquake of 27 December 1991 (М=5.0; φ=51.1o; λ=98.13o. Upon reconstruction of the field of stresses from data on aftershocks of different magnitudes, it is revealed that orientations of maximum stresses are misaligned, and this may suggest a lack of similarity of fields of stresses in different scale ranks. The fields of stresses reconstructed from data on sequences of weak aftershocks of the Altai and Busingol earthquakes show changes in orientations of major stress axes at opposite sides of the shear faults under study. The orientation of the maximum deviation stress axes due to strong aftershocks is consistent with the regional field of stresses and does not change in the vicinity of the fault plane associated with the strong earthquakes the Altai and Sayan regions.

  20. Interim Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region (United States)


    habitats . However, these areas often support a well-developed and diverse ground cover of bryophytes . Lichvar et al. (2007) developed a list of common...21 Table 4. Bryophyte species that are highly associated with wetlands in western hemlock...wetlands have formed. Nonetheless, wetlands and other shallow aquatic habitats occupy only a few percent of the land sur- face (Dahl 1990). Regional

  1. Acidity Regimes of Soils Under Different Vegetations in the Changbai Mountains Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The acidity regimes of representative soils on the north slope of the Changbai Mountains were examined through determinations of pH and pCa of the soil paste as well as in-situ determinations,For soils under broad-leaf forest or broad-leaf-Korean pine forest,the pH decreased from the litte to lower layers gradually until it did not change or decreased further slightly .For soils under coniferous of Erans birch forest,ther was a minimum in pH at a depth of 3-6 cm where the content of humus was high,The pCa increased gradually from the soil surface downward to a constant value.The lime potential(pH-0.5pCa) showed a similar trend as the pH in its distribution.For a given soil,the measured pH value of the thick paste,ranging from 4.5 to 5.5,was lower by about 0.5 units than the value determined by the conventional method with a water to soil ratio of 5:1 ,The pH determined in situ was even lower.It was found that there was a firly close relationship between soil acidity and the type of vegetation.The pH showed a trend of decreasing from soils under broda-leaf forest through broad-leaf-conifer mixed rorest and coniferos forest to Ermans birch forest,and the pCa showed an opposite trend in variation.

  2. Integrated Indicators-based Gradation of Cultivated Land Quality in Mountainous Region of Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jing'an; WEI Chaofu; XIE Deti; ZHOU Yan


    The gradation of cultivated land is to assess the suitability of cultivated land for agricultural production in terms of natural and economic properties of land. It can be used to evaluate sustainability of land use and soil management practices. Formal and informal surveys, Delphi and comprehensive index method are adopted to identify appropriate integrated indicators, and measure the gradation of cultivated land quality. The determination of integrated indicators presents three basic features of cultivated land quality: stable plant productivity, social acceptability and maintenance of environmental quality.Pronounced concentration-dissipation law of total function score value occurs in paddy field units, with three ranges, I.e., 79-68.5, 68.5~59 and 59-51. Total function score value in dryland units mainly ranges from 40 to 70, but slight concentration-dissipation law of each unit is still observed, with four ranges, I.e., 79~68, 68~51, 51~37 and 37~15. Paddy field quality is divided into three gradations, and the scales are 18 220.9 ha, 5410.6 ha and 2890.9 ha. Dryland quality is classified into four gradations, and the scales are 1548.6 ha, 8153.8 ha, 3316.3 ha and 685.2 ha. The total function score value of every gradation unit is conformed to the results of farmers' assessment. Research results meet with the needs of accurate degree of the gradation of cultivated land quality. Integrated indicators-based gradation of cultivated land assessment accords with the characteristics of land resources and human preference in the mountains of southwestern China. This study will be useful to promote the monitoring of cultivated land quality, and to supply fine ground and knowledge for establishing appropriate cultivated land management practices in Southwestern China.

  3. Mountainous units in the Martian Gusev Highland region: volcanic, tectonic, or impact related?


    Zegers, T.; Kan, M.; Foing, B.; Pischel, R.; Gwinner, K.; Scholten, F.; Werner, S.; Neukum, G.


    Geological mapping and structural analysis of the highland region of Gusev crater was carried out, combining THEMIS and HRSC image data and HRSC digital terrain models (DTM), based on HRSC stereo capabilities.

  4. Analysis of magnetotelluric profile data from the Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex and southern Carlin Trend region, Nevada (United States)

    Wannamaker, Philip E.; Doerner, William M.; Stodt, John A.; Sodergen, Timothy L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.


    We have collected about 150 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings in northeastern Nevada in the region of the Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex uplift and southern Carlin mineral trend, in an effort to illuminate controls on core complex evolution and deposition of world-class gold deposits. The region has experienced a broad range of tectonic events including several periods of compressional and extensional deformation, which have contributed to the total expression of electrical resistivity. Most of the soundings are in three east-west profiles across increasing degrees of core uplift to the north (Bald Mountain, Harrison Pass and Secret Pass latitudes). Two shorter lines cross a prominent east-west structure to the north of the northern profile. MT impedance tensor and vertical magnetic field rotations imply a N-NNE average regional geoelectric strike, similar to surface geologic trends. Model resistivity cross sections were derived using a 2-D inversion algorithm, which damps departures of model parameters from an a priori structure, emphasizing the transverse magnetic (TM) mode and vertical magnetic field data. Geological interpretation of the resistivity combines previous seismic, potential field and isotope models, structural and petrological models for regional compression and extension, and detailed structural/stratigraphic interpretations incorporating drilling for petroleum and mineral exploration. To first order, the resistivity structure is one of a moderately conductive, Phanerozoic sedimentary section fundamentally disrupted by intrusion and uplift of resistive crystalline rocks. Late Devonian and early Mississippian shales of the Pilot and Chainman Formations together form an important conductive marker sequence in the stratigraphy and show pronounced increases in conductance (conductivity-thickness product) from east to west. These increases in conductance are attributed to graphitization caused by Elko-Sevier era compressional shear deformation and

  5. Defining Hydrogeological Boundaries for Mountain Front Recharge (MFR) Predictions in Multi-Catchment Mountainous Systems (United States)

    Neilson-Welch, L. A.; Allen, D. M.


    Cross-catchment groundwater flow in mountainous watersheds results from the development of local, intermediate, and regional groundwater flow pathways in multi-catchment systems. As such, hydrogeological analysis (e.g. water balance calculations and numerical modelling) to assess contributions of groundwater to mountain front recharge (MFR) must consider the choice of boundaries based on hydrological divides. Numerical 3-dimensional hydrogeological modelling was completed using FeFlow (DHI-WASY), for conceptual regional-scale multi-catchment systems; extending from a watershed boundary to a mountain front. The modelled systems were designed to represent major ridge and valley configurations observed in mountainous watersheds including: nested, adjacent, disconnected, non-parallel, and parallel catchments. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity scenarios were simulated; with the heterogeneous scenario including a shallow zone of higher hydraulic conductivity bedrock overlying less permeable bedrock. The influence of cross-catchment flow in the development of groundwater flow pathways contributing to MFR was examined. The results provide a basis for identifying topographic scenarios where contributions to MFR may originate outside hydrological divides. This understanding will contribute to improving MFR predictions using both the numerical modelling approach and the water balance approach.

  6. Late Paleogene topography of the Central Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains region using hydrogen isotope ratios in volcanic glass (United States)

    Rossetto, G.; Fricke, H. C.; Cassel, E. J.; Evanoff, E.


    The Central Rocky Mountains (CRM), located in southern Wyoming, Colorado, and northern New Mexico, are characterized by the highest elevation basins (up to 2500 m) and mountains (over 4000 m) in the North American Cordillera. The timing and drivers for surface uplift of the CRM have not been conclusively determined. The goal of this study is to constrain the timing of surface uplift of the CRM by comparing hydrogen isotope ratios of hydration waters (δDglass) in late Paleogene volcanic glasses preserved in felsic tuffs deposited in CRM basins to δDglass values from glasses of similar age (34.9 to 32.2 Ma) preserved in tuffs from the surrounding Great Plains. The tuffs deposited in the Great Plains, to the north and east of the CRM, are currently at elevations of 1100-1600 m. Volcanic glass hydrates shortly after deposition, preserving the δD of ancient meteoric water on geologic timescales, and can thus be used as a proxy for ancient precipitation δD values. Volcanic glasses from the CRM have δDglass values that are an average of ~31‰ higher than δDglass values from the Great Plains, while modern day precipitation δD values in the CRM are ~25‰ lower than δD values in the Great Plains. These results suggest that the uplift of the CRM relative to the surrounding Great Plains occurred after ~32 Ma. This requires a mechanism such as mantle upwelling or differential crustal hydration, not solely Laramide tectonism, to uplift the CRM to current elevations. Elevation, however, may not have been the only control on the spatial distribution of precipitation δD values across the western US. Similar to the modern, mixing of Pacific and Gulf coast air masses likely occurred during the latest Paleogene, driving regional variability in δD values of precipitation.

  7. Techniques of Ozone Monitoring in a Mountain Forest Region: Passive and Continuous Sampling, Vertical and Canopy Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa


    Full Text Available Ozone is the most harmful air pollutant for plant ecosystems in the Mediterranean and Alpine areas due to its biological and economic damage to crops and forests. In order to evaluate the relation between ozone exposure and vegetation injury under on-field conditions, suitable ozone monitoring techniques were investi-gated. In the framework of a 5-year research project aimed at ozone risk assessment on forests, both continuous analysers and passive samplers were employed during the summer seasons (1994�1998 in different sites of a wide mountain region (80 x 40 km2 on the southern slope of the European Alps. Continuous analysers allowed the recording of ozone hourly concentration means necessary both to calculate specific exposure indexes (such as AOT, SUM, W126 and to record daily time-courses. Passive samplers, even though supplied only weekly mean concentration values, made it possible to estimate the altitude concentration gradient useful to correct the altitude dependence of ozone concentrations to be inserted into exposure indexes. In-canopy ozone profiles were also determined by placing passive samplers at different heights inside the forest canopy. Vertical ozone soundings by means of tethered balloons (kytoons allowed the measurement of the vertical concentration gradient above the forest canopy. They also revealed ozone reservoirs aloft and were useful to explain the ozone advection dynamic in mountain slopes where ground measurement proved to be inadequate. An intercomparison between passive (PASSAM, CH and continuous measurements highlighted the necessity to accurately standardize all the exposure operations, particularly the pre- and postexposure conservation at cold temperature to avoid dye (DPE activity. Advantages and disadvantages from each mentioned technique are discussed.

  8. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region (Version 2.0) (United States)


    coast, they are not as extensive as those on the Atlantic coast. Salt and brackish marshes in the region often support Lyngbye’s sedge ( Carex lyngbyei...salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis), and slough sedge ( Carex obnupta); Sphagnum wetlands with trees such as shore pine (Pinus contorta ssp. contorta) and...supported vast expanses of wet prairie dominated by tufted hairgrass, California oatgrass (Danthonia californica), a variety of sedges (e.g., Carex densa

  9. Moving beyond Component Research in Mountain Regions: Operationalizing Systems Integration .at Farm and Landscape Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura German


    Most research in support of agricultural development and natural resource management in densely settled mountain ecosystems continues to emphasize component over system-level goals.Research by plant breeders, foresters and animal scientists is generally designed to maximize the yield of products within their particular area of expertise(edible plant parts, tree products and livestock products, respectively), while soil scientists aim largely to increase soil nutrient stocks. At landscape level the same dynamic holds within the agronomic sciences, while water engineers work independently to conserve water through its isolation from broader landscape dynamics, and other common property resources remain largely ignored. Opportunities to foster positive synergies between system components,and to integrate livelihood with conservation goals,are generally missed.This paper presents experiences of the African Highlands Initiative, an ecoregional program of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and a network of the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA), in operationalizing integrated research at farm and landscape scale.Following a discussion of the shortcomings of the conventional research paradigm that beg for stronger integration and a review of the contributions of extant research paradigms that help us move in the right direction, the paper lays a conceptual foundation for integrated research. System components at farm and landscape level are delineated, and this somewhat arbitrary conceptual partitioning of agroecological systems shown to influence the current research paradigm as well as the partitioning of institutional mandates. Diverse meanings of systems integration are then discussed to illustrate the synergies that might be built into agricultural and natural resource research programs. The distinction between the logic of maximization and optimization is then utilized to

  10. Rocky Mountain Regional CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Esser, Richard; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian


    The purpose of this study includes extensive characterization of the most promising geologic CO{sub 2} storage formations on the Colorado Plateau, including estimates of maximum possible storage capacity. The primary targets of characterization and capacity analysis include the Cretaceous Dakota Formation, the Jurassic Entrada Formation and the Permian Weber Formation and their equivalents in the Colorado Plateau region. The total CO{sub 2} capacity estimates for the deep saline formations of the Colorado Plateau region range between 9.8 metric GT and 143 metric GT, depending on assumed storage efficiency, formations included, and other factors.

  11. Mid-21st century projections in temperature extremes in the southern Colorado Rocky Mountains from regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangwala, Imtiaz [NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Physical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO (United States); Rutgers University, Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barsugli, Joseph [NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Physical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO (United States); Cozzetto, Karen; Neff, Jason [University of Colorado, Geological Sciences Department and Environmental Studies Program, Boulder, CO (United States); Prairie, James [University of Colorado, Bureau of Reclamation, Boulder, CO (United States)


    This study analyzes mid-21st century projections of daily surface air minimum (T{sub min}) and maximum (T{sub max}) temperatures, by season and elevation, over the southern range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The projections are from four regional climate models (RCMs) that are part of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). All four RCMs project 2 C or higher increases in T{sub min} and T{sub max} for all seasons. However, there are much greater (>3 C) increases in T{sub max} during summer at higher elevations and in T{sub min} during winter at lower elevations. T{sub max} increases during summer are associated with drying conditions. The models simulate large reductions in latent heat fluxes and increases in sensible heat fluxes that are, in part, caused by decreases in precipitation and soil moisture. T{sub min} increases during winter are found to be associated with decreases in surface snow cover, and increases in soil moisture and atmospheric water vapor. The increased moistening of the soil and atmosphere facilitates a greater diurnal retention of the daytime solar energy in the land surface and amplifies the longwave heating of the land surface at night. We hypothesize that the presence of significant surface moisture fluxes can modify the effects of snow-albedo feedback and results in greater wintertime warming at night than during the day. (orig.)

  12. Isotopic composition in precipitation and groundwater in the northern mountainous region of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. (United States)

    Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Esquivel-Hernández, Germain; Sáenz-Rosales, Oscar; Piedra-Marín, Gilberto; Fonseca-Sánchez, Alicia; Madrigal-Solís, Helga; Ulloa-Chaverri, Franz; Rojas-Jiménez, Luis D; Vargas-Víquez, José A


    The linkage between precipitation and recharge is still poorly understood in the Central America region. This study focuses on stable isotopic composition in precipitation and groundwater in the northern mountainous region of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. During the dry season, rainfall samples corresponded to enriched events with high deuterium excess. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone poses over Costa Rica resulting in a depletion of (18)O/(16)O and (2)H/H ratios. A parsimonious four-variable regression model (r(2 )= 0.52) was able to predict daily δ(18)O in precipitation. Air mass back trajectories indicated a combination of Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean sources, which is clearly depicted in groundwater isoscape. Aquifers relying on Pacific-originated recharge exhibited a more depleted pattern, whereas recharge areas relying on Caribbean parental moisture showed an enrichment trend. These results can be used to enhance modelling efforts in Central America where scarcity of long-term data limits water resources management plans.

  13. Crustal structure of the Bighorn Mountains region: Precambrian influence on Laramide shortening and uplift in north-central Wyoming (United States)

    Worthington, Lindsay L.; Miller, Kate C.; Erslev, Eric A.; Anderson, Megan L.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Yeck, William L.; Harder, Steven H.; Siddoway, Christine S.


    The crustal structure of north-central Wyoming records a history of complex lithospheric evolution from Precambrian accretion to Cretaceous-Paleogene Laramide shortening. We present two active source P wave velocity model profiles collected as part of the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment in 2010. Analyses of these velocity models and single-fold reflection data, together with potential field modeling of regional gravity and magnetic signals, constrain crustal structure and thickness of the Bighorn region. We image a west dipping reflection boundary and model a sharp magnetic contact east of the Bighorn Arch that together may delineate a previously undetected Precambrian suture zone. Localized patches of a high-velocity, high-density lower crustal layer (the "7.× layer") occur across the study area but are largely absent beneath the Bighorn Arch culmination. Moho topography is relatively smooth with no large-scale offsets, with depths ranging from ~50 to 37 km, and is largely decoupled from Laramide basement topography. These observations suggest that (1) the edge of the Archean Wyoming craton lies just east of the Bighorn Mountains, approximately 300 km west of previous interpretations, and (2) Laramide deformation localized in an area with thin or absent 7.× layer, due to its relatively weak lower crust, leading to detachment faulting. Our findings show that Precambrian tectonics in northern Wyoming may be more complicated than previously determined and subsequent Laramide deformation may have been critically dependent on laterally heterogeneous crustal structure that can be linked to Precambrian origins.

  14. Spatio-temporal variability of the snow cover in different Mediterranean mountain regions from in situ and remote sensing data (United States)

    Gascoin, Simon; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Herrero, Javier; Sproles, Eric; Hanich, Lahoucine; Boudhar, Abdelghani; Pons, Marc; Alonso-González, Esteban; Musselman, Keith


    The snow cover is an essential water resource in many regions with a Mediterranean climate. In the mountainous areas of these regions, in situ snow measurements are often too sparse to cover the range of spatial variability due to the topography. In contrast, satellite snow products are not sufficient to understand the processes governing the snowpack evolution. The combination of both data sources is useful to understand the effects of climate variability on the snow cover. Here we gathered the data of several high-elevation, snow-observing stations in the Pyrenees (Spain, Andorra), High-Atlas (Morocco), Sierra Nevada (Spain), Sierra Nevada (USA) and the Andes of Norte Chico (Chile) to run a point-scale snowpack energy-balance model. We extracted and gapfilled the MODIS snow product over 2000-2015 around each station to determine the mean snow cover duration as a function of elevation. The results of the energy-balance model highlight the importance of the snow sublimation, which amounts from 10% to 30% of the mean annual solid precipitation in these sites. The MODIS data indicate that the relationship between the snow cover duration and the elevation is almost entirely explained by the distance from of each site to the equator, which further indicates that radiation and humidity are important drivers of the snowpack dynamics. These factors should not be overlooked in the projections of the melt water contribution to runoff under future climate conditions.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Plant Diversity of Pinus tabulaeformis Forests in Ten Regions of Beijing Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liping; Xing Shaohua; Zhao Bo; Wang Qingchun; Cui Guofa


    Based on investigations during 1998-2003,shrubs and herbs,as well as indicators of similarity and diversity in Pinus tabulaeformis forests of ten regions around Beijing were compared and analyzed,and protection measures were suggested.Generally,the shrubs and herbs in P.tabulaeformis forests of Shidu,Mutianyu,and Yunfengshan are rich in species diversity and have great similarities.The percentages of common species in each of these three paired regions are above 50%,while many peculiar plant species that could not be found in the other nine regions exist in Labagoumen.As for plant diversity indices,plants in the P.tabulaeformis forests of Baihuashan,Shidu,and Labagoumen occur more frequently than in other regions,while the number of plants in Tanjiesi and Miaofengshan are far less.Some endangered orchid species were found distributed in P.tabulaeformis forests with a clumped spatial pattern but rarely appeared in other forest types,indicating that P.tabulaeformis forests are ideal habitats for orchid species.

  16. Geology of the Luna-Sil region, Cantabrian Mountains (NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den W.J.


    After a late-Precambrian folding, clastic deposits, partly continental, spread out over the region during the Lower Cambrian; later, marine intercalations became more abundant when upper Lower Cambrian marine sediments were deposited. This sedimentation continued until the Upper Carboniferous and oc

  17. The direct impact of landslides on household income in tropical regions: A case study from the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda. (United States)

    Mertens, K; Jacobs, L; Maes, J; Kabaseke, C; Maertens, M; Poesen, J; Kervyn, M; Vranken, L


    Landslides affect millions of people worldwide, but theoretical and empirical studies on the impact of landslides remain scarce, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study proposes and applies a method to estimate the direct impact of landslides on household income and to investigate the presence of specific risk sharing and mitigation strategies towards landslides in a tropical and rural environment. An original cross-sectional household survey is used in combination with geographical data to acquire detailed information on livelihoods and on hazards in the Rwenzori mountains, Uganda. Ordinary least square regressions and probit estimations with village fixed effects are used to estimate the impact of landslides and the presence of mitigation strategies. Geographical information at household level allows to disentangle the direct impact from the indirect effects of landslides. We show that the income of affected households is substantially reduced during the first years after a landslide has occurred. We find that members of recently affected households participate more in wage-employment or in self-employed activities, presumably to address income losses following a landslide. Yet, we see that these jobs do not provide sufficient revenue to compensate for the loss of income from agriculture. Given that landslides cause localized shocks, finding a significant direct impact in our study indicates that no adequate risk sharing mechanisms are in place in the Rwenzori sub-region. These insights are used to derive policy recommendations for alleviating the impact of landslides in the region. By quantifying the direct impact of landslides on household income in an agricultural context in Africa this study draws the attention towards a problem that has been broadly underestimated so far and provides a sound scientific base for disaster risk reduction in the region. Both the methodology and the findings of this research are applicable to other tropical regions with high

  18. Moisture source in the Hyblean Mountains region (south-eastern Sicily, Italy): Evidence from stable isotopes signature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassa, Fausto [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail:; Favara, Rocco [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Valenza, Mariano [Dipartimento CFTA, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36, 90123, Palermo (Italy)


    Here the authors present results of an isotope study on precipitation collected during a 2-a period from a rain-gauge network consisting of 6 stations located at different elevations in the Hyblean Mountains (HM) region, in south-eastern Sicily. The slope of the local meteoric water line ({delta}D = 6.50 {delta} {sup 18}O + 9.87) obtained for the region suggests that precipitation is affected by evaporation during rainfall events. The main variations in rainwater isotope composition are due to seasonal effects and elevation. An average {sup 2}H excess value of +21.2 per mille was found for precipitation events less affected by evaporation (i.e. when the rainfall was >65 mm/month). The spatial distribution of O isotope composition of precipitation shows a negative gradient from east and south to the inner areas. The depositional rate of Cl, used as a tracer of the origin of air masses, is highest at the coastal rain-gauges (SR and MRG stations) and lowest on the northern flank of the HM region (SC station). Based on these findings, a model is proposed for the origin of precipitation in the HM region, which assumes that a Mediterranean-derived component is the main source of moisture in the studied area. D/H and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios of inferred meteoric recharge waters were also compared with the isotope composition of waters collected from the main local springs and wells. The best linear fit of the {delta} {sup 18}O vs {delta}D relationship for Hyblean groundwater is {delta}D = 4.85 {delta} {sup 18}O-2.01. The enrichment of heavy isotopes in Hyblean groundwater is probably due to evaporation occurring after precipitation events or to a recharging contribution from surface waters (lakes or rivers) enriched in heavy isotopes.

  19. Rehabilitation of the severely atrophied dentoalveolar ridge in the aesthetic region with corticocancellous grafts from the iliac crest and dental implants (United States)

    Lehmijoki, Miikka; Holming, Heli; Thorén, Hanna


    Background The aim of this study was to assess changes in bone volume after block bone augmentation and placement of dental implants and further evaluate the aesthetic outcome of the treatment. Material and Methods 9 Patients with atrophied anterior maxilla were included in this study. They received total of 21 implants. Dimensions of the alveolar ridge were measured from cone-beam computed tomography x-rays. The bone level at the implant sites was analysed from intraoral x-rays and the aesthetic outcome was assessed from clinical photographs using a pink aesthetic score (PES) scaling. Results The mean gained horizontal bone width at the marginal crest and 5 mm apically was accordingly 2.7mm and 5.0 mm. The mean PES rating was 9.8/14. The survival rate of. Conclusions Reconstruction of the atrophied anterior maxilla with bone blocks and dental implants is a safe procedure with high survival rate and acceptable aesthetic outcome. Key words:Dental implants, aesthetic region, corticocancellous bone grafts, pink aesthetic score, survival rate. PMID:27475690

  20. How a geomorphosite inventory can contribute to regional sustainable development? The case of the Simen Mountains National Park, Ethiopia (United States)

    Mauerhofer, Lukas; Reynard, Emmanuel; Asrat, Asfawossen; Hurni, Hans; Wildlife Conservation Authority, Ethiopian


    This research aimed at investigating how an inventory of geomorphosites can foster or improve the knowledge and management of geomorphological heritages in the context of developing countries. Accordingly, a geomorphosite inventory in the Simen Mountains National Park (SMNP), Ethiopia was conducted following the method of Reynard et al. (2015). The national context of geoheritage and geoconservation in Ethiopia was appraised and a road map for the management of the inventoried sites in the SMNP was elaborated. Ethiopia hosts numerous geoheritage sites, some of which of highest international significance. Therefore, geotourism has recently been promoted throughout the country (Asrat et al., 2008). Despite numerous trials of the scientific community, there is not yet a national policy for geoconservation in the country. Many parts of Ethiopia are underdeveloped in terms of economic subsistence and infrastructure, making these immediate priorities over conservation efforts. Nevertheless, this study showed that the Simen Mountains have the potential to become a UNESCO Global Geopark and that geosites could be used to develop geotourism within SMNP, and that development and conservation are not contradictory. Twenty-one geomorphosites were identified and assessed. Diverse geomorphological contexts including fluvial, structural, glacial, periglacial, anthropic and organic characterize the SMNP. The temporal stages, which allow the reconstitution of the morphogenesis of the Simen Mountains, are the Cenozoic volcanism, Last Glacial Maximum, Holocene as well as historic/modern landscape modification. Four synthesis maps were elaborated to present the results of the assessment. The average scientific value of the inventoried geomorphosites is very high compared to other inventories realized using the same method. This is particularly due to the extremely high integrity of the sites. Almost all geomorphosites are in a good state of conservation and only few sites are

  1. Analysis on the Choice of Economic Development Mode for an Area with Good Ecological Environment——A Case Study of Economically Coordinated Region of Wuling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [Objective] The study aimed at choosing a suitable economic development mode for an area with good ecological environment. [Method] Taking the economically coordinated region of Wuling Mountain as an object, two economic development ways existing in the region, namely the traditional and low-carbon economic development mode, were compared from development prospects, policy support and so forth. [Result] Given the development prospects and policy support, it is necessary to choose low-carbon development mode...

  2. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke


    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  3. Local and regional influences over soil microbial metacommunities in the Transantarctic Mountains


    Sokol, E. R.; Herbold, C.W.; C.K. LEE; Cary, S. C.; Barrett, J E


    The metacommunity concept provides a useful framework to assess the influence of local and regional controls over diversity patterns. Culture-independent studies of soil microbial communities in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of East Antarctica (77 degrees S) have shown that bacterial diversity is related to soil geochemical gradients, while studies targeting edaphic cyanobacteria have linked local diversity patterns to dispersal-based processes. In this study, we increased the spatial extent of obs...

  4. Accelerated construction of a regional DNA-barcode reference library: Caddisflies (Trichoptera) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Robinson, J.L.; Geraci, C.J.; Parker, C.R.; Flint, O.S.; Etnier, D.A.; Ruiter, D.; DeWalt, R.E.; Jacobus, L.M.; Hebert, P.D.N.


    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding is an effective tool for species identification and lifestage association in a wide range of animal taxa. We developed a strategy for rapid construction of a regional DNA-barcode reference library and used the caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) as a model. Nearly 1000 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences, representing 209 caddisfly species previously recorded from GSMNP, were obtained from the global Trichoptera Barcode of Life campaign. Most of these sequences were collected from outside the GSMNP area. Another 645 COI sequences, representing 80 species, were obtained from specimens collected in a 3-d bioblitz (short-term, intense sampling program) in GSMNP. The joint collections provided barcode coverage for 212 species, 91% of the GSMNP fauna. Inclusion of samples from other localities greatly expedited construction of the regional DNA-barcode reference library. This strategy increased intraspecific divergence and decreased average distances to nearest neighboring species, but the DNA-barcode library was able to differentiate 93% of the GSMNP Trichoptera species examined. Global barcoding projects will aid construction of regional DNA-barcode libraries, but local surveys make crucial contributions to progress by contributing rare or endemic species and full-length barcodes generated from high-quality DNA. DNA taxonomy is not a goal of our present work, but the investigation of COI divergence patterns in caddisflies is providing new insights into broader biodiversity patterns in this group and has directed attention to various issues, ranging from the need to re-evaluate species taxonomy with integrated morphological and molecular evidence to the necessity of an appropriate interpretation of barcode analyses and its implications in understanding species diversity (in contrast to a simple claim for barcoding failure).

  5. THE MOUNTAINS OF YEMEN: The most suitable location for a Regional Observatory (United States)

    Sultan, A. H.; Querci, F. R.

    The authors explain how they introduced astrophysics as an optional course, then as an essential course in the B.Sc. degree in the Physics Department of Sana'a University, and how they will finally open an astrophysics section. The major part of the paper is devoted to the steps and scientific measurements ýproposed by the authors to choose the ideal site (from seven Yemeni summits over 3,000 meters) to install a Regional Observatory for the Oriental Robotic Telescopes (ORT) network.

  6. The forecast of seasonal precipitation trend at the north Helan Mountain and Baiyinaobao regions, Inner Mongolia for the next 20 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; V. Shishov; SHI Jiangfeng; E. Vaganov; SUN Junyan; CAI Qiufang; I. Djanseitov; AN Zhisheng


    By using Caterpillar-SSA analysis method, through the process of embedding, singular value decomposition, grouping and diagonal averaging, the seasonal precipitation trend at north Helan Mountain and Baiyinaobo regions, Inner Mongolia for the next 20 years is forecasted. The results show an increasing precipitation trend from 1992 to 2004. In the subsequent decade the precipitation should reduce quickly, and it will reach a minimum near 2012 to 2014 in both regions. The drought caused by the decrease of the precipitation from May to July in the north Helan Mountain area during the period of 2013-2014 is probably quite similar to that around 1929. Further, the period of precipitation gradual increase follows in the researched regions.

  7. Long-Term Seismicity of Northern (15° N-60° N) Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) Recorded by two Regional Hydrophone Arrays: a Widespread Along-Ridge Influence of the Azores and Iceland Hotspots (United States)

    Goslin, J.; Bazin, S.; Dziak, R. P.; Fox, C.; Fowler, M.; Haxel, J.; Lourenco, N.; Luis, J.; Martin, C.; Matsumoto, H.; Perrot, J.; Royer, J.


    The seismicity of the North Atlantic was recorded by two networks of hydrophones moored in the SOFAR channel, north and south of the Azores Plateau. The interpretation of the hydro-acoustic signals recorded during the first six-month common period of operation of the two networks (June 2002 to Nov. 2002) provides a unique data set on the spatial and time distributions of the numerous low-magnitude earthquakes which occurred along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Close to 2000 events were localized during this six-month period between latitudes 15° N and 63° N, 501 of which are localized within the SIRENA network (40° N-51° N) and 692 within the wider South Azores network (17° N-33° N). Using hydrophones to locate seafloor earthquakes by interpreting T-wave signals lowers the detection threshold of Mid-Atlantic Ridge events to 3.0 mb from the 4.7 mb of global seismic networks. This represents an average thirty-fold increase in the number of events: 62 events were detected by global seismological networks within the same area during the same period. An along-ridge spatial distribution of the seismicity is obtained by computing the cumulated numbers of events in 1° -wide latitudinal bins. When plotted vs. latitude, this first-order distribution shows remarkable long-wavelength patterns: the seismicity rate is low when approaching the Azores and Iceland (reaching values as low as 10 events/d° ), while it peaks to 70 events/d° in the vicinity of the Gibbs FZ. Moreover, the latitudinal distribution of the seismicity hints at an asymmetric influence of the Azores hotpot on the MAR. Finally, the spatial distribution of the seismicity anti-correlates well at long wavelengths with the zero-age depths along the MAR and correlates with the zero-age Mantle Bouguer (MBA) anomaly values and the Vs velocity anomalies at 100 km in the upper mantle. It is thus proposed that the seismicity level would be partly tied to the rheology and thickness of the brittle layer and be thus

  8. Otter (Lutra lutra presence in Lattari mountains (Campania Region, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fasano


    Full Text Available Abstract A new area of presence of the otter (Lutra lutra was found in Campania region (Southern Italy. It included the "Valle delle Ferriere" and "Vècite" canyons close to Amalfi town (Salerno province. A total of 24 sprainting sites was recorded. Riassunto Presenza della lontra (Lutra lutra nei monti Lattari (Campania - Si descrive un'area di presenza della lontra (Lutra lutra in Campania mai segnalata prima, comprendente la "Valle delle Ferriere" attraversata dal torrente Ceraso e la valle denominata "Vècite" (Amalfi, Provincia di Salerno. In totale sono stati trovati 24 siti di marcamento.

  9. Risk Assessment and Regionalization of Mountain Torrent Disaster in Sichuan Province%四川省山洪灾害风险评估与区划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁文峰; 杜俊; 陈小平; 任洪玉; 张平仓


    Based on GIS technology and the national planning data about prevention of mountain torrent disaster , the risk of mountain torrent disaster,vulnerability and risk degree of Sichuan province were quantified and analyzed in this paper by using the concept of natural disaster risk .According to the general principles of the regionalization theory and the regionalization classification of national mountain torrent disasters,the risk regionalization of Sichuan province was put forward.Results show that the risk levels of mountain torrent disaster in Sichuan province can be divided into 5 kinds:low risk,low-middle risk,middle risk,middle-high risk,and high risk.The percentage of area of the five risk levels accounting for total area of the province is 59.9%,12.8%,14.9%,5.9% and 6.5%, respectively.In the Sichuan basin and the surrounding regions,risk level of mountain torrent disaster is high,for area with the risk level middle or above takes up nearly 80% of total area of these regions .Furthermore,mountain torrent disaster in mountain regions of Qinling and Dabashan is relatively serious,for the risk level is middle or a-bove in nearly 18% of total area of the mountain regions.Finally,risk levels of mountain torrent disaster in several other regions is not high,most of them are low risk and low-middle risk.%基于 GIS 技术以及全国山洪灾害防治规划资料,以四川省为例,借鉴自然灾害风险概念,对山洪灾害危险度、易损度和风险度进行了量化与分析,并根据区划理论的一般原则和全国山洪灾害一、二级防治分区范围,对四川省山洪灾害风险进行了区划。结果表明:四川省山洪灾害可划分为6个风险区划单元,5个风险等级(低风险区、较低风险区、中风险区、较高风险区、高风险区),各风险等级所占全省面积的比例分别为59.9%,12.8%,14.9%,5.9%和6.5%。其中,四川盆地及周边地区山洪灾害风险水

  10. Influence of topographic and environmental variability on model uncertainty: a case study on snow and ground temperatures in mountain regions (United States)

    Gubler, S.; Gruber, S.; Purves, R.; Endrizzi, S.


    A variety of physically based models to predict and understand the spatio-temporal behaviour of snow and ground temperatures have been developed in recent years. Model evaluation including the analysis of model uncertainty and validation is widely accepted as fundamental in enhancing trust in decisions that are based on model simulations. Due to constraints on resources or lack of distributed validation data, model evaluation is often restricted to one or few locations only, even if the model is applied to make predictions for large spatial areas and time periods. Thus, conclusions about model behaviour entail the tacit assumption that validation at one point can inform decisions about model performance in different environmental conditions. The effect of this assumption on model application and development when modeling phenomena in highly variable terrain or over large distances has rarely been studied. This study is focused on a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of an energy and mass balance model that simulates snow and ground temperatures. It serves as a case study examining the role of topography and soil on parametric model uncertainty and sensitivity. A sensitivity analysis on individual parameters and a Monte Carlo based uncertainty study are performed at a variety of locations covering the range of topographic and environmental variability typically found in mountain regions. The results indicate that model uncertainties and sensitivities vary strongly under differing environmental conditions. This demonstrates that model evaluation (validation, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses) benefits strongly from the consideration of differing variables and, especially, the environmental variation of their behaviour.

  11. Woody species diversity in forest plantations in a mountainous region of Beijing, China: effects of sampling scale and species selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Zhang

    Full Text Available The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr., planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr., and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer, while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation.

  12. Ethnoveterinary treatments by dromedary camel herders in the Suleiman Mountainous Region in Pakistan: an observation and questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younas Muhammad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Suleiman mountainous region is an important cradle of animal domestication and the habitat of many indigenous livestock breeds. The dromedary camel is a highly appreciated and valued animal and represents an important genetic resource. Camel herders, living in remote areas, have developed their own ways to treat diseases in camels, based on a long time of experience. Methods Information about the diseases and the ethnoveterinary practices performed was collected from a total of 90 herders and healers by interviews and participant observations. Results The respondents classified the diseased in major and minor fractions. Clinical signs were given in detail. Mange followed by trypanosomosis and orf were considered the most prevalent diseases, and also caused the greatest economic losses. Orf was regarded the most complex disease. The season was considered to have great influence on the occurrence of the diseases. A variety of different treatments were described, such as medicinal plants, cauterization, odorant/fly repellents, pesticides, larvicides, cold drink, yogurt and supportive therapy (hot food, hot drink. Conclusions There is paramount need to document and validate the indigenous knowledge about animal agriculture in general and ethnoveterinary practices in particular. This knowledge is rapidly disappearing and represents a cultural heritage as well as a valuable resource for attaining food security and sovereignty.

  13. Land Use and Land Cover Change in the Bale Mountain Eco-Region of Ethiopia during 1985 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Nune Hailemariam


    Full Text Available Anthropogenic factors are responsible for major land use and land cover changes (LULCC. Bale Mountain Eco-Region in Ethiopia is a biodiversity-rich ecosystem where such LULCC have occurred. The specific objectives of this study were to: (i determine which LULC types gained or lost most as a result of the observed LULCC; (ii identify the major drivers of the LULCC/deforestation; and (iii assess the approximate amount of carbon stock removed as a result of deforestation during the study period. Remote sensing and GIS were used to analyze LULCC. Landsat images acquired in 1985, 1995, 2005, and 2015 were used. Additionally, data from the Central Statistics Agency on cropland expansion, and human and livestock population growth were analyzed and correlations were made. The results showed that forest lost 123,751 ha while farmland gained 292,294 ha. Farmland and urban settlement expansion were found to be major drivers of LULCC. Aboveground carbon stock removed from forest and shrubland was more than 24 million tons. In the future, allocation of land to different uses must be based on appropriate land use policies. Integrating biodiversity and ecosystem values for each land cover as per the UN Sustainable Development Goal (UN-SDG 15.9 may be one of the mechanisms to limit unplanned expansion or invasion of one sector at the expense of another.

  14. Mapping Plant Functional Types over Broad Mountainous Regions: A Hierarchical Soft Time-Space Classification Applied to the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danlu Cai


    Full Text Available Research on global climate change requires plant functional type (PFT products. Although several PFT mapping procedures for remote sensing imagery are being used, none of them appears to be specifically designed to map and evaluate PFTs over broad mountainous areas which are highly relevant regions to identify and analyze the response of natural ecosystems. We present a methodology for generating soft classifications of PFTs from remotely sensed time series that are based on a hierarchical strategy by integrating time varying integrated NDVI and phenological information with topography: (i Temporal variability: a Fourier transform of a vegetation index (MODIS NDVI, 2006 to 2010. (ii Spatial partitioning: a primary image segmentation based on a small number of thresholds applied to the Fourier amplitude. (iii Classification by a supervised soft classification step is based on a normalized distance metric constructed from a subset of Fourier coefficients and complimentary altitude data from a digital elevation model. Applicability and effectiveness is tested for the eastern Tibetan Plateau. A classification nomenclature is determined from temporally stable pixels in the MCD12Q1 time series. Overall accuracy statistics of the resulting classification reveal a gain of about 7% from 64.4% compared to 57.7% by the MODIS PFT products.

  15. Chloroplast DNA variation and phylogeography of Ligularia tongolensis (Asteraceae), a species endemic to the Hengduan Mountains region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Feng WANG; Yue-Zhi PAN; Xun GONG; Yu-Chung CHIANG; Chiaki KURODA


    In this research, we aimed to study the genetic variation and phylogeographic pattern of Ligularia tongolensis, a perennial herb endemic to the Hengduan Mountains region of China. We sequenced two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) intergenic spacers (trnQ-5'rps 16, trnL-rpl32) in 140 individuals from 14 populations of three groups (Jinshajiang vs. Yalongjiang vs. Wumeng) within this species range. High levels of haplotype diversity (Hd= 0.814)and total genetic diversity (Ht = 0.862) were detected at the species level, based on a total of 12 haplotypes identified.Low levels of intrapopulation diversity (Hs = 0.349), high levels of genetic divergence (Gst = 0.595, Nst = 0.614,Fst = 0.597), and the absence of isolation by distance tests were also found in L. tongolensis. Furthermore, H2 and H5, the dominant haplotypes that located at internal nodes and deviated from extinct ancestral haplotype in the network, were found to be shared between Jinshajiang and Yalongjiang groups. These results indicate that past fragmentation may be the important factor responsible for the present phylogeographical pattern of L. tongolensis.Meanwhile, the locations occupied by each group might have served as independent refugia for L. tongolensis during the Quaternary glaciation. Unimodal mismatch distribution and star-like genealogies indicated this species underwent past demographic expansion events, with expansion ages of 274 ka BP.

  16. Strong topographic sheltering effects lead to spatially complex treeline advance and increased forest density in a subtropical mountain region. (United States)

    Greenwood, Sarah; Chen, Jan-Chang; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Jump, Alistair S


    Altitudinal treelines are typically temperature limited such that increasing temperatures linked to global climate change are causing upslope shifts of treelines worldwide. While such elevational increases are readily predicted based on shifting isotherms, at the regional level the realized response is often much more complex, with topography and local environmental conditions playing an important modifying role. Here, we used repeated aerial photographs in combination with forest inventory data to investigate changes in treeline position in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan over the last 60 years. A highly spatially variable upslope advance of treeline was identified in which topography is a major driver of both treeline form and advance. The changes in treeline position that we observed occurred alongside substantial increases in forest density, and lead to a large increase in overall forest area. These changes will have a significant impact on carbon stocking in the high altitude zone, while the concomitant decrease in alpine grassland area is likely to have negative implications for alpine species. The complex and spatially variable changes that we report highlight the necessity for considering local factors such as topography when attempting to predict species distributional responses to warming climate.

  17. Pollen Morphology of Pedicularis sect. Cyathophora, a Group Endemic to the Eastern Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bin Yu; Hong Wang


    Pedicularis sect. Cyathophora is a distinctive group endemic to the eastern Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains region. It was regarded as a 'grex' or section and Included all four general corolla types of Pedicularis. A unique feature of it is that the leaf and bract bases are fused together to form a cup-like structure around the stem at each node. Pollen morphology of seven species In sect. Cyathophora was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). Two different pollen apertures could be distinguished (i.e. trisyncolpate and bisyncolpate) using LM, while examination with SEM made it possible to recognize three types of exine ornamentation (i.e. microscabrate, microfoveolate and microreticulate). The microfoveolata exlne ornamentation was found in trisyncolpata pollen grains for the first time. Possible relationships between pollen data and the corolla types were discussed. Comparisons of floral and phyllotaxy characters of the genus Pedicularis, together with the pollen characters of sect. Cyathophora, could help us to better understand the evolutionary trends in Pedicularis.

  18. Slope deformations in high-mountain regions as observed by InSAR: Examples from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (United States)

    Frey, Holger; Strozzi, Tazio; Caduff, Rafael; Huggel, Christian; Klimeš, Jan; Vilímek, Vít; Wiesmann, Andreas; Kääb, Andreas; Cochachin, Alejo; Plummer, Stephen


    Steep topography, the world's highest concentration of tropical glaciers, numerous glacial lakes and strong seismic activity combined with a densely populated valley bottom in the Rio Santa basin characterize the Cordillera Blanca in Peru. Besides glacier-related processes, a variety of landslide types and processes is present outside the glaciated areas, favoured by the steep terrain, geological conditions, sparse vegetation, intense precipitation, and strong seismicity. This combination of high hazard potentials and vulnerabilities results in a long list of natural disasters. Information on surface displacements is very valuable for early detection of emerging hazard potentials and their assessment. Interferometric processing of SAR data (InSAR) provides the possibility to remotely detect different types of surface displacement processes, also in remote locations where no other monitoring data are available. This contribution, developed under the ESA-funded S:GLA:MO project (, shows the potential of InSAR products for hazard assessments and glaciological investigations in high-mountain regions. We present a selection of different surface displacements as observed in the Cordillera Blanca based on InSAR data: a landslide zone near the Rampac Grande village, where in 2009 a landslide caused casualties and property loss; a landslide at the entry of the Santa Cruz Valley, northern Cordillera Blanca, where the displacement history could be reconstructed over five years; surface displacements at the interior moraine slopes surrounding Laguna Palcacocha, a major glacier lake above the city of Huaraz, which are compared to and complemented by geophysical investigations in the field; surface displacements at the moraine damming Laguna Safuna Alta, a glacier lake in the northern part of the Cordillera Blanca; glacier velocities across the entire Cordillera Blanca, revealing ice flow velocities of more than 200 m yr-1 at certain locations at the end of

  19. Origin and Distribution of PAHs in Ambient Particulate Samples at High Mountain Region in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-hui Li


    Full Text Available To understand the deposition and transport of PAHs in southern China, a measurement campaign was conducted at a high-elevation site (the summit of Mount Heng, 1269 m A.S.L. from April 4 to May 31, 2009, and a total of 39 total suspended particulate samples were collected for measurement of PAH concentrations. The observed particulate-bound PAHs concentrations ranged from 1.63 to 29.83 ng/m3, with a mean concentration of 6.03 ng/m3. BbF, FLA, and PYR were the predominant compounds. Good correlations were found between individual PAHs and meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and ambient temperature. The backward trajectory analysis suggested that particulate samples measured at the Mount Heng region were predominantly associated with the air masses from southern China, while the air masses transported over northern and northwestern China had relative higher PAHs concentrations. Based on the diagnostic ratios and factor analysis, vehicular emission, coal combustion, industry emission, and unburned fossil fuels were suggested to be the PAHs sources at Mount Heng site. However, the reactivity and degradation of individual PAHs could influence the results of PAH source profiles, which deserves further investigations in the future.

  20. Resolving place names in Amdo and Kham: A gazetteer for the Hengduan Mountains region of Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan L.KELLEY


    Perhaps no region on earth presents such a confusing array of place names as does the area made up of the former provinces of Kham and Amdo in historic Tibet (Xizang). Within these areas, cities, towns, villages, mountains, lakes and other geographic features have at least two names applied to them, one Tibetan, the other Chinese. Overlying this indigenous nomenclature are the names applied by outsiders, mostly Europeans, each of whom used their native language to transliterate the names they heard or read from Tibetan or Chinese script, and names in the languages of other ethnic minorities who live within the area. Adding to the confusion are the conflicting "standards" for transliterating Tibetan and Chinese names. To resolve the inconsistencies and uncertainties of place names in this region, a multilingual gazetteer and thesaurus was prepared. The gazetteer-thesaurus was compiled to be used as a tool for correlating the often radically different names assigned to a single place or feature and to provide the geographic coordinates for each. The impetus for this project was the need to assign geographic coordinates to plant specimens collected in the area since the latter part of the 19th century up until the advent and widespread use of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers in the 1990s. Georeferencing specimens is necessary for plotting the historical distribution of species and for more completely understanding the information contained on specimen labels. Knowing the distribution of plants is important for answering phylogenetic questions, determining local and widespread biogeographical patterns, identifying areas of unusually high diversity or endemism, and determining areas in need of special protection. The value of such a gazetteer, however, extends well beyond the field of botany. It is intended to be of use to anyone with a desire to know the nomenclatural history of places in the area and for pinpointing with a fair degree of accuracy the location

  1. The influence of regional urbanization and abnormal weather conditions on the processes of human climatic adaptation on mountain resorts (United States)

    Artamonova, M.; Golitsyn, G.; Senik, I.; Safronov, A.; Babyakin, A.; Efimenko, N.; Povolotskaya, N.; Topuriya, D.; Chalaya, E.


    in patients with coronary heart disease, hypertension stage I-II syndrome disadaptative using the transcranial mezo diencephalic modulation / L.I.Zherlitsina, N.V. Efimenko, N.P. Povolotskaya, I.I. Velikanov. the Patent for the invention No.2422128, RU (11) 2 422 128 (13) C1 from 6/27/2011; Bull.13). We have observed that such anthropogenic characteristics as accumulation of aerosol with the size of particles 500-5000 nanometers in the lower atmosphere in the quantity more than 60 particles/sm3 (getting to alveoli); decrease in quantity of negative ions (N-) lower than 200 ions/sm3, high coefficient of ions unipolarity (N+/N-) - more than 4-6; mass concentration of aerosol more than 150 mkg/m3 and other modules of the environment can act as limited markers for the forecast of dangerous NAR, SAD and taking of urgent radical preventive measures. These techniques of medical weather forecast and meteo prevention can be used in other mountain regions of the world. The studies were performed by support of the Program "Basic Sciences for Medicine" and RFBR project No.10-05-01014_a.

  2. Chronology and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks in Woruo Mountain region, Northern Qiangtang depression: Implications to the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; FU XiuGen; CHEN WenXi; WANG ZhengJiang; TAN FuWen; CHEN Ming; ZHUO JieWen


    A suite of sedimentary-volcaniclastic rocks intercalated with the volcanic rocks unconformably overlies the Triassic Xiaochaka Formation in the Woruo Mountain region, Qiangtang Basin, northern Tibet. The sents the age of the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events in the Woruo Mountain region, and is consistent with that of the formation of the volcanic rocks from the Nadi Kangri Formation in the Nadigangri-Shishui River zone. There is a striking similarity in geochemical signatures of the volcanic rocks from the Woruo Mountain region and its adjacent Nadigangri-Shishui River zone, indicating that all the volcanic rocks from the Qiangtang region might have the same magmatic source and similar tectonic setting during the Late Triassic. The proper recognition of the Late Triassic large-scale volcanic eruption and volcanic-sedimentary events has important implications for the interpretation of the Late Triassic biotic extinction, climatic changes and regressive events in the eastern Tethyan domain,as well as the understanding of the initiation and nature, and sedimentary features of the Qiangtang Basin during the Late Triassic-Jurassic.

  3. Chronology and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks in Woruo Mountain region,Northern Qiangtang depression:Implications to the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A suite of sedimentary-volcaniclastic rocks intercalated with the volcanic rocks unconformably overlies the Triassic Xiaochaka Formation in the Woruo Mountain region, Qiangtang Basin, northern Tibet. The vitric tuff from the base of these strata gives a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of 216 ± 4.5 Ma, which represents the age of the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events in the Woruo Mountain region, and is consistent with that of the formation of the volcanic rocks from the Nadi Kangri Formation in the Nadigangri-Shishui River zone. There is a striking similarity in geochemical signatures of the volcanic rocks from the Woruo Mountain region and its adjacent Nadigangri-Shishui River zone, indicating that all the volcanic rocks from the Qiangtang region might have the same magmatic source and similar tectonic setting during the Late Triassic. The proper recognition of the Late Triassic large-scale volcanic eruption and volcanic-sedimentary events has important implications for the interpretation of the Late Triassic biotic extinction, climatic changes and regressive events in the eastern Tethyan domain, as well as the understanding of the initiation and nature, and sedimentary features of the Qiangtang Basin during the Late Triassic-Jurassic.

  4. Impact of land surface conditions on the predictability of hydrologic processes and mountain-valley circulations in the North American Monsoon region (United States)

    Xiang, T.; Vivoni, E. R.; Gochis, D. J.; Mascaro, G.


    Heterogeneous land surface conditions are essential components of land-atmosphere interactions in regions of complex terrain and have the potential to affect convective precipitation formation. Yet, due to their high complexity, hydrologic processes over mountainous regions are not well understood, and are usually parameterized in simple ways within coupled land-atmosphere modeling frameworks. With the improving model physics and spatial resolution of numerical weather prediction models, there is an urgent need to understand how land surface processes affect local and regional meteorological processes. In the North American Monsoon (NAM) region, the summer rainy season is accompanied by a dramatic greening of mountain ecosystems that adds spatiotemporal variability in vegetation which is anticipated to impact the conditions leading to convection, mountain-valley circulations and mesoscale organization. In this study, we present results from a detailed analysis of a high-resolution (1 km) land surface model, Noah-MP, in a large, mountainous watershed of the NAM region - the Rio Sonora (21,264 km2) in Mexico. In addition to capturing the spatial variations in terrain and soil distributions, recently-developed features in Noah-MP allow the model to read time-varying vegetation parameters derived from remotely-sensed vegetation indices; however, this new implementation has not been fully evaluated. Therefore, we assess the simulated spatiotemporal fields of soil moisture, surface temperature and surface energy fluxes through comparisons to remote sensing products and results from coarser land surface models obtained from the North American Land Data Assimilation System. We focus attention on the impact of vegetation changes along different elevation bands on the diurnal cycle of surface energy fluxes to provide a baseline for future analyses of mountain-valley circulations using a coupled land-atmosphere modeling system. Our study also compares limited streamflow

  5. Hair Micro-morphology Characteristics between Summer and Winter in Blue Sheep from Helan Mountains%贺兰山岩羊冬夏季的上毛显微形态特征比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芮; 滕丽微; 刘振生


    应用光学显微镜和扫描电镜技术,对贺兰山岩羊(Pseu dois nayaur)颈部、背部、腹侧部、腹下部、臀部、腿部、蹄部7个部位冬毛及夏毛形态特征进行观察与比较.结果表明:除过鳞片花纹类型及排列顺序表现出一致性外,贺兰山岩羊7个部位冬毛和夏毛在毛长度、毛伸直长度、卷曲度、毛细度、髓质细度、毛髓质指数上均存在一定差异.贺兰山岩羊上毛髓质指数较高,除蹄部外,其它6个部位保持在90%以上.躯干部毛长度和毛髓质指数显著高于腿部和蹄部(P<0.05),主要起到保温功能.腿部和蹄部杂波型鳞片比例最大,皮质发达,主要起到保护功能.这将为贺兰山岩羊的形态学及物种鉴定研究提供一些基础资料.%We observed the hair of blue sheep ( Pseudois nayaur) in Helan Mountains using optical microscopy and scanning elec-tron microscopy to compare morphology characteristics among neck , back, veutro, abdomen, hip, leg and hoof both in winter and summer .Seven different parts had similarity and consistency in scale types and the order of scale type arrange -ment.While there was difference in hair curled length , hair uncurled length, crimp ratio, medullary diameter of hair, di-ameter of hair , and medullary index of hair .The medullary index of hair in blue sheep was high , in addition to the hoof , the other six parts remained above 90%.The hair length and hair medulla index of the trunk were significantly higher than those of the legs and hooves ( P<0.05) , and the hair of trunk had main function in heat preservation .Legs and hooves , owning the largest proportion of irregular wave scale and cortex , had main function in protection .

  6. Experience of developing rural surgical care in a remote mountainous region of Pakistan: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alvi


    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan is one of the most populated countries with a population of 160 million; 67% are rural population but all the tertiary care facilities are concentrated in large cities. The Northern Areas is the most remote region with difficult terrain, harsh weather conditions and the tertiary care hospital at a distance of 600 km with traveling time of 16 h. The Aga Khan Medical Centre, Singul (AKMCS is a secondary healthcare facility in Ghizer district with a population of 132,000. AKMCS was established in 1992 to provide emergency and common elective surgical care. It has strengthened the primary health service through training, education and referral mechanism. It also provided an opportunity for family physicians to be trained in common surgical operations with special emphasis on emergency obstetric care. In addition it offers elective rotations for the residents and medical students to see the spectrum of diseases and to understand the concept of optimal care with limited resources. Methods and Results: The clinical data was collected prospectively using international classification of diseases ICD -9 coding and the database was developed on a desktop computer. Information about the operative procedures and outcome was separately collected on an Excel worksheet. The data from January 1998 to December 2001 were retrieved and descriptive analysis was done on epi info-6. Thirty-one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two patients were seen during this period, 53% were medical, 24% surgical, 16% obstetric and 7% with psychiatric illness. Out of 1990 surgical operations 32% were general surgery, 31% orthopedic, 21% pediatric, 12% obstetric and 4% urological cases; 42% of operations were done under general anesthesia, 22% spinal, 9% intravenous (IV ketamine, 6% IV sedation and 21% under local anesthesia. Six hundred and sixty-two were done in the main operation room including general surgery 337, obstetric 132, urological 67, pediatric 66

  7. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain basin and range. Final technical report, January 1980-March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  8. Relationship between landslide processes and land use-land cover changes in mountain regions: footprint identification approach. (United States)

    Petitta, Marcello; Pregnolato, Marco; Pedoth, Lydia; Schneiderbauer, Stefan


    The present investigation aims to better understand the relationship between landslide events and land use-land cover (LULC) changes. Starting from the approach presented last year at national level ("In search of a footprint: an investigation about the potentiality of large datasets and territorial analysis in disaster and resilience research", Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-11253, 2014) we focused our study at regional scale considering South Tyrol, a mountain region in Italy near the Austrian border. Based on the concept exploited in the previous work, in which a disaster footprint was shown using land features and changes maps, in this study we start from the hypothesis that LULC can have a role in activation of landslides events. In this study, we used LULC data from CORINE and from a regional map called REAKART and we used the Italian national database IFFI (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia, Italian inventory of landslides) from which it is possible to select the landslides present in the national inventory together with other vector layers (the urban areas - Corine Land Cover 2000, the roads and railways, the administrative boundaries, the drainage system) and raster layers (the digital terrain model, digital orthophoto TerraItaly it2000, Landsat satellite images and IGM topographic map). Moreover it's possible to obtain information on the most important parameters of landslides, view documents, photos and videos. For South Tyrol, the IFFI database is updated in real time. In our investigation we analyzed: 1) LULC from CORINE and from REAKART, 2) landslides occurred nearby a border of two different LULC classes, 3) landslides occurred in a location in which a change in LULC classification in observed in time, 4) landslides occurred nearby road and railroad. Using classification methods and statistical approaches we investigated relationship between the LULC and the landslides events. The results confirm that specific LULC classes are

  9. Mountainous Region Wind Power Project Features and Turbine Hoisting Technology%山区风电工程特点与风机吊装技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In recent years,domestic mountainous region wind power location is allocated in higher and higher altitude, thereby leading to more and more difficult turbine installation.How to safely and efficiently complete turbine installation is an important issue faced by all wind power construction enterprises.Hebei Bashang Luotuogou Stage II wind power field is adopted as an example in the paper.Mountainous region wind power project features and turbine hoisting technologies are summarized and analyzed,thereby providing some guidance experience for installing more mountainous region turbines.%近年来国内山区风电场所处海拔越来越高,风机安装难度越来越大,如何保证在紧张的工期内安全高效地完成风机安装,是每个风电施工企业面临的重要课题。本文以河北坝上骆驼沟二期风电场为例,对山区风电工程特点和风机吊装技术进行总结分析,以期对更多山区风机安装作一些指导。

  10. Mercury Speciation and Bioaccumulation In Riparian and Upland Food Webs of the White Mountains Region, New Hampshire, USA (United States)

    Rodenhouse, N.; Gebauer, R.; Lowe, W.; McFarland, K.; Bank, M. S.


    The soils and foods webs associated with mid to high elevation, forested, headwater streams are potential hotspots for mercury methylation and bioaccumulation but are not well studied. We tested the hypothesis that spatial variation in mercury bioaccumulation in upland taxa associated with headwater streams can be explained by variation in soil conditions promoting Hg methylation such as soil moisture, pH, and sulfur and organic matter content. We sampled at high (c. 700m) and mid elevation (c. 500m) in northern hardwood forest adjacent to and away from (75m) replicate headwater streams in the Hubbard Brook and Jeffers Brook watersheds of the White Mountains region, New Hampshire, USA. These forested watersheds differed primarily in soil calcium content and pH. We measured and assessed spatial variation in total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations in soils, insects, spiders, salamanders and birds. We also tested whether trophic position, as determined by nitrogen stable isotopes, was a major predictor of Hg bioaccumulation across these riparian and upland forest taxa. We found elevated levels of THg in all measured components of the food web, and conditions for methylation were better in the upland forest sites compared to the riparian sites located adjacent to headwater streams. Both THg and MeHg in biota were positively correlated with trophic position as indicated by 15N enrichment. In fact, trophic position was a better predictor of THg and MeHg content than spatial location, but the spatial patterning of bioaccumulation differed among taxa. Our data show that that significant Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification can occur in soils and food webs of mid to high elevation temperate deciduous forests of the Northeast. They also suggest that mercury methylation in forested watersheds is a widespread phenomenon and not limited to areas with high soil moisture, such as lotic environments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In Brazil, consumer preference of tropical native fruits has increased; however, many fruits are not commercially exploited, such as gabiroba (Campomanesia lineatifolia and myrtle (Blepharocalyx salicifolius, from the Myrtaceae family. The present study aimed to evaluate the physical, physico-chemical, and functional characteristics of gabiroba and myrtle, harvested from native plants in the mountainous region of Ibiapaba–CE. The following characters were analyzed: pH, soluble solids, total acidity, total extractable polyphenols, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activity by using the ABTS method. After pulping, the samples were divided into two groups. From the results, it was found that gabiroba had a low total acidity value (0.12 ± 0.01% indicating a higher level of sweetness relative to myrtle. Myrtle presented values of longitudinal (0.94 cm and transverse(1.35 cm diameters, fresh weight (0.85g, pulp yield (68.0%, pH (4.5 ± 0.0, and total soluble solids (23.6 ± 1.7 °Bx similar to those obtained in other studies. Bioactive compounds in gabiroba and myrtle included phenolics (GAE 229.37 ± 1.04and 511.65 ± 1.34mg/100g, ascorbic acid (74.44 ± 0.03 369.1 ± 0.28 mg/100g, and antioxidants (14.54 ± 1.0 and 16.05 ± 0.63 μ Mtrolox/g. Therefore, these fruits have the potential to be used as functional foods characterized by various health benefits.

  12. Characterization of traditional healers in the mountain forest region of Kahuzi-Biega, South-Kivu, DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalukoma, C.


    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Several ethnobotanical studies have demonstrated links between traditional medicine practices and the ethnicity and geographical location of healers, while many others have concluded the opposite. This study deals with the typology of traditional healers in the mountain region of Kahuzi-Biega. Objectives. The goal is to understand whether the typology of traditional healers is related to their inter-ethnic and inter-zonal differences, based on diseases treated and plants used. Method. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted using the "PSSVV" method. This involved 88 traditional healers recognized as "specialists" in 33 villages adjacent to the forest of Kahuzi-Biega, in DR Congo. Multivariate analysis (clustering, ordination, Mantel test, IndVal were applied to establish typologies of traditional healers. Results. Multivariate analyses showed that ethnicity and geographical location did not explain the practices and knowledge of healers. However, by using the IndVal method, differences were observed in their degree of specialization. Non-specialized healers (70% could be distinguished from specialized healers (30%. Two clear groups of specialists emerged; those who treat bone trauma and those who treat obstetric-gynecological complaints. The Mantel correlation test revealed a positive association (r = 0.134, p < 0.05 between the "healers-plants" and "healers-diseases" matrices. This indicates that healers who treat similar diseases use similar herbs. Both typologies have shown their preferences for forest species (81%, especially trees (51%. Conclusions. This exploratory study suggests that traditional healers are characterized based on their specializations. This result helps in creating strategies to preserve local traditional knowledge and apply it to the conservation of species.

  13. Land-use and soil depth affect resource and microbial stoichiometry in a tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador. (United States)

    Tischer, Alexander; Potthast, Karin; Hamer, Ute


    Global change phenomena, such as forest disturbance and land-use change, significantly affect elemental balances as well as the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the importance of shifts in soil nutrient stoichiometry for the regulation of belowground biota and soil food webs have not been intensively studied for tropical ecosystems. In the present account, we examine the effects of land-use change and soil depth on soil and microbial stoichiometry along a land-use sequence (natural forest, pastures of different ages, secondary succession) in the tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador. Furthermore, we analyzed (PLFA-method) whether shifts in the microbial community structure were related to alterations in soil and microbial stoichiometry. Soil and microbial stoichiometry were affected by both land-use change and soil depth. After forest disturbance, significant decreases of soil C:N:P ratios at the pastures were followed by increases during secondary succession. Microbial C:N ratios varied slightly in response to land-use change, whereas no fixed microbial C:P and N:P ratios were observed. Shifts in microbial community composition were associated with soil and microbial stoichiometry. Strong positive relationships between PLFA-markers 18:2n6,9c (saprotrophic fungi) and 20:4 (animals) and negative associations between 20:4 and microbial N:P point to land-use change affecting the structure of soil food webs. Significant deviations from global soil and microbial C:N:P ratios indicated a major force of land-use change to alter stoichiometric relationships and to structure biological systems. Our results support the idea that soil biotic communities are stoichiometrically flexible in order to adapt to alterations in resource stoichiometry.

  14. Snow Cover Variability in the Black Forest Region as an Example of a German Low Mountain Range under the Influence of Climate Change (United States)

    Schoenbein, J.; Schneider, C.


    During the last decades high snow cover variability was observed in the German low mountain ranges. In addition, average snow cover periods have decreased at most localities. This process involves a strong economic impact on skiing resorts of low mountain ranges. Based on data sets from weather stations of the German meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD)) which cover up to the last 60 years, the temporal development of the mean seasonal snow cover period in the low mountain ranges of Black Forest (south-west), Harz (north), and Bavarian Forest (south-east) of Germany was examined. Mean wintertime air temperature in the low mountain ranges is increasing more rapidly compared to the annual mean air temperature. Additionally the south west is the warmest region in Germany. Therefore, the snow cover of the Black Forest is much more susceptible to an increase in air temperature than in the other low mountain ranges in Germany. In the Black Forest region air temperatures near the melting point are observed even in January. Snow cover in the Bavarian Forest region with its much more continental climate is less affected by temperature variations but subject to variations in wintertime precipitation. Seasonal snow cover in the Harz region starts about two weeks earlier compared to Bavarian Forest and the Black Forest. The future snow cover development of Black Forest was examined using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) prognosis of future air temperature development and trend analysis within observed time series at low mountain range weather stations. The IPCC scenarios were adopted specifically with respect to region, season and altitude and afterwards compared to the observed trend. A transfer function describes the relation between seasonal air temperature change and snow cover duration. A mean reduction of snow cover duration until 2025 for each mountain range is approximated. For instance, the period of a snow cover with a minimum height

  15. SRTM Stereo Pair: Wheeler Ridge, California (United States)


    Wheeler Ridge and vicinity, California, is a site of major tectonic activity, both historically and over recent geologic time. The epicenter of the 7.5 magnitude Kern County earthquake occurred here on July 21,1952, and numerous geologic and topographic features indicate rapid geologic processes. The ridge itself (upper-right center) is a geologic fold that is growing out of the southern San Joaquin Valley. A prominent 'wind gap,' now used for passage of the California aquaduct (with the aid of a pumping station), is evidence that the ridge grew faster than tranversing streams could erode down. Nearby abrupt and/or landslid mountain fronts similarly indicate a vigorous tectonic setting here, just north of the San Andreas fault. The Interstate 5 freeway can be seen crossing agricultural fields on the right and entering the very rugged and steep Grapevine Canyon toward the bottom.This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994

  16. Risk-based consequences of extreme natural hazard processes in mountain regions - Multi-hazard analysis in Tyrol (Austria) (United States)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Stötter, Johann


    Reinsurance companies are stating a high increase in natural hazard related losses, both insured and economic losses, within the last decades on a global scale. This ongoing trend can be described as a product of the dynamic in the natural and in the anthroposphere. To analyze the potential impact of natural hazard process to a certain insurance portfolio or to the society in general, reinsurance companies or risk management consultants have developed loss models. However, those models are generally not fitting the scale dependent demand on regional scales like it is appropriate (i) for analyses on the scale of a specific province or (ii) for portfolio analyses of regional insurance companies. Moreover, the scientific basis of most of the models is not transparent documented and therefore scientific evaluations concerning the methodology concepts are not possible (black box). This is contrary to the scientific principles of transparency and traceability. Especially in mountain regions like the European Alps with their inherent (i) specific characteristic on small scales, (ii) the relative high process dynamics in general, (iii) the occurrence of gravitative mass movements which are related to high relief energy and thus only exists in mountain regions, (iv) the small proportion of the area of permanent settlement on the overall area, (v) the high value concentration in the valley floors, (vi) the exposition of important infrastructures and lifelines, and others, analyses must consider these circumstances adequately. Therefore, risk-based analyses are methodically estimating the potential consequences of hazard process on the built environment standardized with the risk components (i) hazard, (ii) elements at risk, and (iii) vulnerability. However, most research and progress have been made in the field of hazard analyses, whereas the other both components are not developed accordingly. Since these three general components are influencing factors without any

  17. Kind of Blue - Europa Blues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tore; Kirkegaard, Peter


    Bidraget reflekterer over sammenhænge mellem to værker fra det musikalske og litterære område. Det drejer sig om Miles Davis' Kind of Blue fra 1959 og Arne Dahls krimi, Europa Blues fra 2001. Den grundlæggende indfaldsvinkel er det performative, den frie, men samtidigt disciplinerede musikalske...

  18. Characterizing the emission implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and Rocky Mountain region: A scenario-based energy system modeling approach (United States)

    McLeod, Jeffrey

    The recent increase in U.S. natural gas production made possible through advancements in extraction techniques including hydraulic fracturing has transformed the U.S. energy supply landscape while raising questions regarding the balance of environmental impacts associated with natural gas production and use. Impact areas at issue include emissions of methane and criteria pollutants from natural gas production, alongside changes in emissions from increased use of natural gas in place of coal for electricity generation. In the Rocky Mountain region, these impact areas have been subject to additional scrutiny due to the high level of regional oil and gas production activity and concerns over its links to air quality. Here, the MARKAL (MArket ALlocation) least-cost energy system optimization model in conjunction with the EPA-MARKAL nine-region database has been used to characterize future regional and national emissions of CO 2, CH4, VOC, and NOx attributed to natural gas production and use in several sectors of the economy. The analysis is informed by comparing and contrasting a base case, business-as-usual scenario with scenarios featuring variations in future natural gas supply characteristics, constraints affecting the electricity generation mix, carbon emission reduction strategies and increased demand for natural gas in the transportation sector. Emission trends and their associated sensitivities are identified and contrasted between the Rocky Mountain region and the U.S. as a whole. The modeling results of this study illustrate the resilience of the short term greenhouse gas emission benefits associated with fuel switching from coal to gas in the electric sector, but also call attention to the long term implications of increasing natural gas production and use for emissions of methane and VOCs, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. This analysis can help to inform the broader discussion of the potential environmental impacts of future natural gas production

  19. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIntosh, D.L. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  20. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIntosh, D.L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs; Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  1. Heavy metals in precipitation waters under conditions of varied anthropopressure in typical of European low mountain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabajczyk A.


    Full Text Available The environment is a dynamic system, subject to change resulting from a variety of physicochemical factors, such as temperature, pressure, pH, redox potential and human activity. The quantity and variety of these determinants cause the inflow of substances into individual environmental elements to vary in both time and space, as well as in terms of substance types and quantities. The energy and matter flow in the environment determines its integrity, which means that the processes occurring in one element of the environment affect the others. A certain measure of the energy and matter flow is the migration of chemical substances in various forms from one place to another. In a particular geographical space, under natural conditions, a specific level of balance between individual processes appears; in areas subject to anthropopressure, the correlations are different. In small areas, varying deposition volumes and chemism of precipitation waters which reach the substratum directly can both be observed. The study area is similar in terms of geological origins as well as morphological, structural and physico-chemical properties, and is typical of European low mountain regions. A qualitative and quantitative study of wet atmospheric precipitation was conducted between February 2009 and May 2011 in the Bobrza river catchment in the Holy Cross (Świętokrzyskie Mountains (Poland, at three sampling sites of varying land development and distance from sources of various acidic-alkaline emissions. Field and laboratory work was conducted over 29 months, from February 2009 to May 2011. Atmospheric precipitation measurements were carried out in a continuous manner by means of a Hellman rain gauge (200cm2. The collecting surface was placed at ground level (0m AGL. The application of a collecting funnel and an adequately prepared polyethylene collecting can in the rain gauge enabled the measurement of precipitation volume and water sampling for chemical

  2. The Glasma and the Hard Ridge

    CERN Document Server

    Moschelli, George


    Correlation measurements indicate that excess two particle correlations extend over causally disconnected rapidity ranges. Although, this enhancement is broad in relative rapidity $\\eta=\\eta_1 - \\eta_2$, it is focused in a narrow region in relative azimuthal angle $\\phi=\\phi_1 - \\phi_2$. The resulting structure looks like a ridge centered at $\\eta = \\phi=0$. Similar ridge structures are observed in correlations of particles associated with a jet trigger (the hard ridge) and in correlations without a trigger (the soft ridge). The long range rapidity behavior requires that the correlation originates in the earliest stage of the collision, and probes properties of the production mechanism. Glasma initial conditions as predicted by the theory of Color Glass Condensate and provide a and early stage correlation that naturally extends far in rapidity. We have previously shown that the soft ridge is a consequence of particles forming from an initial Glasma phase that experience a later stage transverse flow. We exten...

  3. [Cysticercus bovis in bovines under federal inspection (SIF) at slaughterhouse in mountain region of the State of Rio de Janeiro from 2003 and 2004]. (United States)

    Garcia, Luize Néli N; Pereira, Maria Angélica V Da Costa; Miranda, Farlen Jose B; Gomes, Francimar Fernandes; Resende, Márcio Alonso; Lira, Bruno R


    The purpose of this work was to determine the importance of bovine cysticercosis in mountain region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with data from SIF 193, located at Itaperuna. In this study, data from 23,501 animals were used, while 15,078 were analyzed in the first year and 8,423 in the second year, with 304 (2.02%) animals parasited in 2003 and 225 (2.67%) in 2004. This work studied the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in the region, and tried to show the importance of sanitary inspection as a means of preventing human taeniasis.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of the endangered takin in the confluent zone of the Qinling and Minshan Mountains using mtDNA control region. (United States)

    Yao, Gang; Li, Yanhong; Li, Dayong; Williams, Peter; Hu, Jie


    The takin (Budorcas taxicolor) is an Endangered ungulate. We analyzed the variation within mtDNA control region sequences of takin populations in the Qinling Mountains, the Minshan Mountains and the confluence of these two mountain ranges. We did not find any shared haplotypes among the populations. We observed apparent variation in the control region length among the three populations, and independent population expansions in the late of Pleistocene, which suggests these populations may have independent evolutionary histories. We found only one haplotype, and the lowest measures of genetic diversity (h = 0; π = 0) in the population from the confluent zone, which suggests populations in the confluent zone may have grown from small founder populations and gene flow with other populations has ceased. Based on their phylogenetic relationships, we concluded that the takin population in the confluent zone was in the same clade as the Tangjiahe population, which suggests that these takin populations are Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana).

  5. Use of passive samplers to detect organochlorine pesticides in air and water at wetland mountain region sites (S-SE Brazil). (United States)

    Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Khairy, Mohammed; Targino, Admir Créso; Galvão, Petrus Magnus Amaral; Torres, Joåo Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Lohmann, Rainer


    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) passive samplers were deployed in upland surface waters and the overlying atmosphere during May and June 2012, to determine the transport and trends of freely dissolved and gaseous organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) along altitudinal gradients in mountain regions in south and southeast Brazil. Gaseous OCP concentrations were dominated by hexachlorobenzene (3.0-29 pg m(-3)) and endosulfans (Ʃ = α-endosulfan + β-endosulfan + endosulfan sulphate, 170-260 pg m(-3)), whereas freely dissolved endosulfans were significantly higher than all other OCPs (p pesticides at the highest elevation sites indicated their efficient high-altitude transport from regional sources. Air-water exchange gradients indicated net deposition of most volatile and recently banned OCPs (e.g., HCB, endosulfan) over Brazilian mountains. Moreover, the exposure of these sites to large-scale continental airflows with varying source contributions may partly explain the atmospheric deposition of selected OCPs over upland freshwaters at tropical and subtropical mountains sites in Brazil. These findings, coupled with LDPE passive air and water sampling measurements, point out the potential inputs from distant sources of semi-volatile chemicals to the two high-altitude sites.

  6. Risk regionalization of highway flood disasters in mountainous areas%山区公路洪水灾害危险性区划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹超; 田伟平; 李家春


    文章在采用相对高差和坡度将公路地貌划分为平原区和山区的基础上,将山区公路洪水灾害分为山区沿河公路水毁和山区公路边坡水毁;采用模糊综合评价法和专家调查法建立了危险性评价模型,构建了危险性评价指标体系和各指标权重;依托ArcGIS10.0软件开展了山区公路洪水灾害综合危险性评价,完成了山区公路洪水灾害危险性区划。结果显示:山区公路洪水灾害综合危险度值为[1.24,7.52];全国可划分为微度危险、中度危险、重度危险和极重危险4级;区划方案与山区公路洪水灾害实际分布状况相符。%Based on distributing highway landform into plain areas and mountainous areas by relative elevation and slope ,the types of highway flood disasters in mountainous areas are divided into highway flood disaster a‐long river and highway slope flood disaster .The risk assessment model is established by using fuzzy compre‐hensive assessment method and expert grading method ,and the assessment indicator system as well as their weights is also established .The risk assessment on highway flood disasters in mountainous areas is conducted by ArcGIS10.0 software and the risk regionalization is made .The results show that the comprehensive risk index of highway flood disasters in mountainous areas ranges from 1.24 to 7.52;the mountainous areas are divided into micro risk areas ,moderate risk areas ,severe risk areas and extremely severe risk areas ;and the regionalization scheme is coincident with the distribution of highway flood disasters in mountainous areas .

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Constant Power Prime-Mover Driven Isolated 3-φ SEIG for Pico-Hydro Power Generation System in Remote Mountainous Region of Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathore Umesh C.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental evaluation of the performance of 3-φ self-excited induction generator (SEIG suitable for pico-hydro power generation system feeding domestic load in remote mountainous region. The use of induction generators is most suitable for renewable energy conversion systems due to their enormous advantages over conventional synchronous generators. Important features of induction generators include the simplicity in construction, ruggedness, simplified control, ease in maintenance and small size per generated kW. The performance characteristics of 3-φ SEIG feeding isolated load are evaluated using MATLAB-Simulink model based on the prevalent renewable energy sources inputs and loading conditions in mountainous terrain of Himalayas. The results are validated using an experimental set-up comprising of 3-φ, 3 HP induction motor run as 3- φ induction generator driven by 5HP, 4-pole DC shunt motor acting as prime-mover.

  8. An evaluation of high-resolution regional climate model simulations of snow cover and albedo over the Rocky Mountains, with implications for the simulated snow-albedo feedback (United States)

    Minder, Justin R.; Letcher, Theodore W.; Skiles, S. McKenzie


    The snow-albedo feedback (SAF) strongly influences climate over midlatitude mountainous regions. However, over these regions the skill of regional climate models (RCMs) at simulating properties such as snow cover and surface albedo is poorly characterized. These properties are evaluated in a pair of 7 year long high-resolution RCM simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model over the central Rocky Mountains. Key differences between the simulations include the computational domain (regional versus continental) and land surface model used (Noah versus Noah-MP). Simulations are evaluated against high-resolution satellite estimates of snow cover and albedo from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. Both simulations generally reproduce the observed seasonal and spatial variability of snow cover and also exhibit important biases. One simulation substantially overpredicts subpixel fractional snow cover over snowy pixels (by up to 0.4) causing large positive biases in surface albedo, likely due in part to inadequate representation of canopy effects. The other simulation exhibits a negative bias in areal snow extent (as much as 19% of the analysis domain). Surface measurements reveal large positive biases in snow albedo (exceeding 0.2) during late spring caused by neglecting radiative effects of impurities deposited onto snow. Semi-idealized climate change experiments show substantially different magnitudes of SAF-enhanced warming in the two simulations that can be tied to the differences in snow cover in their control climates. More confident projections of regional climate change over mountains will require further work to evaluate and improve representation of snow cover and albedo in RCMs.

  9. Blue Laser. (United States)


    HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION 13 4. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BLUE LASER 18 4.1 Operational and Processing Experience 18 4.2 Performance Testing 20 5...34 -. - . •. SECTION 3 BLUE HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION This section presents an overview of the steps taken in creating a HCL. There the laser assembly. These steps can actually be considered as the final steps in laser fabrication because some of them involve adding various

  10. An interdisciplinary management of severely resorbed maxillary anterior ridge complicated by traumatic bite using a ridge splitting technique (United States)

    Gupta, Narender Dev; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Chaudhari, Prabhat Kumar; Rathi, Shraddha


    Injury to the teeth and alveolar ridge of the maxillary anterior region due to trauma can cause severe alveolar ridge deficiency. Ridge augmentation is a valuable periodontal plastic surgical method for the correction of ridge defects for esthetic purpose. Although ridge augmentation can help to restore the ridge volume, the grafting procedures can significantly increase the patient morbidity, treatment time, and the cost. Among the ridge augmentation techniques, the ridge split procedure demonstrates many benefits such as no need for donor site, the rare risk of damage to underlying anatomical structures, less pain, and swelling. This case report presents a vertical split technique for increasing the bone volume. There was a remarkable healing and significant increase in bone volume. We have followed the case for 6 months. PMID:25810602

  11. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Capacity and Associated Aspects of the Most Promising Geologic Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region: Local-Scale Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Scott, Phyllis; Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Esser, Richard; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian


    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of individual local-­scale CCS site characterization studies conducted in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. These site-­ specific characterization analyses were performed as part of the “Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region” (RMCCS) project. The primary objective of these local-­scale analyses is to provide a basis for regional-­scale characterization efforts within each state. Specifically, limits on time and funding will typically inhibit CCS projects from conducting high-­ resolution characterization of a state-­sized region, but smaller (< 10,000 km{sup 2}) site analyses are usually possible, and such can provide insight regarding limiting factors for the regional-­scale geology. For the RMCCS project, the outcomes of these local-­scale studies provide a starting point for future local-­scale site characterization efforts in the Rocky Mountain region.

  12. The H-band Emitting Region of the Luminous Blue Variable P Cygni: Spectrophotometry and Interferometry of the Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, N D; Gies, D R; Chesneau, O; Monnier, J D; Baron, F; Che, X; Parks, J R; Matson, R A; Touhami, Y; Clemens, D P; Aldoretta, E J; Morrison, N D; Brummelaar, T A ten; McAlister, H A; Kraus, S; Ridgway, S T; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Taylor, B; Turner, N H; Farrington, C D; Goldfinger, P J


    We present the first high angular resolution observations in the nearinfrared H-band (1.6 microns) of the Luminous Blue Variable star P Cygni. We obtained six-telescope interferometric observations with the CHARA Array and the MIRC beam combiner. These show that the spatial flux distribution is larger than expected for the stellar photosphere. A two component model for the star (uniform disk) plus a halo (two-dimensional Gaussian) yields an excellent fit of the observations, and we suggest that the halo corresponds to flux emitted from the base of the stellar wind. This wind component contributes about 45% of the H-band flux and has an angular FWHM = 0.96 mas, compared to the predicted stellar diameter of 0.41 mas. We show several images reconstructed from the interferometric visibilities and closure phases, and they indicate a generally spherical geometry for the wind. We also obtained near-infrared spectrophotometry of P Cygni from which we derive the flux excess compared to a purely photospheric spectral e...

  13. Host associations and incidence of Diuraphis spp. in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States, and pictorial key for their identification. (United States)

    Puterka, Gary J; Hammon, Robert W; Burd, John D; Peairs, Frank B; Randolph, Terri; Cooper, W Rodney


    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, is an introduced species first identified in 1986 into the United States. It has since become a major pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and other small grains in the western United States. Three other Diuraphis species, Diuraphis frequens (Walker), Diuraphis mexicana (McVicar Baker), and Diuraphis tritici (Gillette), were already endemic to the United States before the introduction of D. noxia. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence and host associations of these four Diuraphis spp. in the Rocky Mountain region that borders the western Great Plains to better understand their distribution and ecological interactions. In addition, a key to these species with photographs of live or fresh preparations of specimens is presented to aid in their identification. D. noxia was the most widely distributed species in the study area spanning the Rocky Mountain areas of Wyoming, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado. This species was most common in the cereal-producing areas of the Colorado Plateau ecoregion. D. frequens was found to be the predominant species in the Alpine/Aspen Mountain areas of the South Central Rockies and Colorado Rockies ecoregions. The other Diuraphis species were rarely encountered even though their plant hosts occurred in the ecoregions sampled. D. noxia shared common hosts and was found co-infesting grasses with other Diuraphis species. Therefore, the potential exists for D. noxia to impact the other native Diuraphis species.

  14. [Dynamics of nitrogen and sulfur wet deposition in typical forest stand at different spatial levels in Simian Mountain, mid-subtropical region]. (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Ma, Ming; Wang, Ding-yong; Huang, Li-xin


    In order to investigate the dynamics of nitrogen and sulfur wet deposition in subtropical forest ecosystem, one typical forest stand, evergreen broad-leaved forest, at Simian Mountain located in Chongqing was selected in this research. Based on field monitoring, effects of precipitation, throughfall, litterfall, and groundwater runoff of the typical forest stand on the quality of water of Simian Mountain were investigated from September 2012 to August 2013. Results showed that the rainfall of Simian Mountain was apparently acidic, with average pH of 4.89 and maximum pH of 5.14. The soil, canopies and trunks could increase pH of precipitation, with soils having the maximum increment, followed by the forest canopy. Forest canopy had the function of adsorption and purification of NO3-, NO2- and SO4(2-), and the average entrapment rate was 56.68%, 45.84% and 35.51%, respectively. Moreover, the degradation of litter was probably the main reason for the increase of ion concentrations in the surface litter water. Forest soils could absorb and neutralize NO3-, SO2- and NH4+, and release NO2-. The evergreen broad-leaf forest of mid-subtropical region had the function of interception on NO3-, NO2-, NH4+ and SO4(2-), and the total entrapment rate was 92.86%, 57.86%, 87.24% and 87.25%, respectively, and it had a certain buffering function for the acid rain.

  15. Evolution of fold-thrust belts and Cenozoic uplifting of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the Kuqa region, Northwest China (United States)

    Wen, Lei; Li, Yue-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Ya; Tian, Zuo-Ji; Peng, Geng-Xin; Qiu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-Bin; Luo, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Qiang


    The evolution of the Kuqa fold-thrust belt is accompanied with the Cenozoic uplifting of South Tianshan Mountain range. The critical Coubomb wedge theory can be well applied to the structural evolution of the Kuqa fold-thrust belt where the décollement structures are well developed. Following the initial hypotheses of this theory, with the base of the taper wedge (not the sea level) as the reference level, we propose a geometric relationship between the evolution of fold-thrust belt and tectonic uplifting of orogen, and deduce a calculation formula between orogen tectonic uplifting amount (very different from the topographic uplifting) (∂H), fold-thrust belt extending distance (∂S) and crustal shortening amount (∂L): ∂H = (∂S - ∂L) ∗ tan(α + ∂α) + [tan(α + ∂α)/tanα - 1] ∗ H0. In this paper we select two representative seismic profiles across the Kuqa fold-thrust belt to reconstruct the structural evolution, and use the calculation formula to get the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in Kuqa region during two geological periods. The results showed: during the end of Miocene to the end of Pliocene, the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the middle segment of Kuqa (∂HM1) is 4.1 km; during the end of Pliocene to the present, the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the middle segment of Kuqa (∂HM2) is 4.7 km, and in the east segment of Kuqa (∂HE) is 5.0 km.

  16. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China Southwestern Mountainous Regions%西南山地农业组织结构创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜强; 罗敏; 王平


    以西南山地农业组织为研究对象,运用经济学和组织学等相关理论知识,在对西南山地农业组织发展现状进行分析的基础上,深入研究近30年来西南山地农业组织结构的创新过程及其作用机制,得出关于西南山地农业组织结构创新的一般性结论:①农业组织结构创新伴随着农业发展进步而不断进行,是一个循序渐进的过程,在此过程中,农户始终起着基础性作用;②农业组织结构创新受到多种因素的影响,而政府制度安排和市场环境变化无疑是最为关键的因素;③农业组织结构创新的可能方向有:同种农业组织形式内部的分化;不同农业组织形式之间的联合;其他农业组织形式的出现.%Taking agricultural organization in Chinas southwestern mountainous regions as research object,on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in Chinas southwestern mountainous regions,we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science,we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning agricultural organization in Chinas southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years. Finally we draw several general conclusions regarding structure innovation of agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions as follows: first, the structure innovation of agricultural organization, a gradual process, proceeds ceaselessly along with ongoing progress and development of agriculture, and in this process, fanners always play a fundamental role; second, the structure innovation of agricultural organization is affected by many factors,and government institutional arrangement and change in market conditions is undoubtedly the most critical factor; third,the probable evolving direction of structure innovation of agricultural organization incudes internal differentiation of the same form of agricultural organization,association of

  17. The Mountains of Io: Global and Geological Perspectives from Voyager and Galileo (United States)

    Schenk, Paul; Hargitai, Henrik; Wilson, Ronda; McEwen, Alfred; Thomas, Peter; Bredekamp, Joe (Technical Monitor)


    To search for local and global scale geologic associations that may be related to the internal dynamics of Io, we have completed a global catalog of all mountains and volcanic centers. We have identified 115 mountain structures (covering approx. 3% of the surface) and 541 volcanic centers, including paterae (calderas and dark spots) and shield volcanoes. The average length of an Ionian mountain is 157 km, with the longest being 570 km. The mean height of Ionian mountains is 6.3 km, and the highest known mountain is Boosaule Montes (17.5 +/- 3 km). Five basic morphologic types of mountains have been identified; mesa, plateau peak, ridge, and massif. Very few mountains bear any physical similarity. to classic volcanic landforms, but many resemble flatiron mountains on Earth and are interpreted as tilted crustal blocks. This would be consistent with the hypothesis that most mountains are thrust blocks formed as a result of compressive stresses built up in the lower crust due to the global subsidence of volcanic layers as they are buried over time. More than one mechanism may be responsible for all Ionian mountains, however. The proximity of some mountains to paterae may indicate a direct link between some mountains and volcanism, although it is not always clear which came first. In contrast to earlier studies, a pronounced bimodal pattern is observed in the global distribution of both mountains and volcanic centers. The regions of highest areal densities of volcanic centers are near the sub- and anti-Jovian regions, but are offset roughly 90deg in longitude from the two, regions of greatest concentration of mountains. This anticorrelation may indicate the overprinting of a second stress field on the global compressive stresses due to subsidence. The bimodal distribution of volcanic centers and mountains is consistent with models of asthenospheric tidal heating and internal convection developed by Tackley et al.Over regions of mantle upwelling, compressive stresses in

  18. Integrated Vulnerability and Impacts Assessment for Natural and Engineered Water-Energy Systems in the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolfsberg, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    In the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountains (SWSRM), energy production, energy resource extraction, and other high volume uses depend on water supply from systems that are highly vulnerable to extreme, coupled hydro-ecosystem-climate events including prolonged drought, flooding, degrading snow cover, forest die off, and wildfire. These vulnerabilities, which increase under climate change, present a challenge for energy and resource planners in the region with the highest population growth rate in the nation. Currently, analytical tools are designed to address individual aspects of these regional energy and water vulnerabilities. Further, these tools are not linked, severely limiting the effectiveness of each individual tool. Linking established tools, which have varying degrees of spatial and temporal resolution as well as modeling objectives, and developing next-generation capabilities where needed would provide a unique and replicable platform for regional analyses of climate-water-ecosystem-energy interactions, while leveraging prior investments and current expertise (both within DOE and across other Federal agencies).

  19. Multi-stage uplift of the Rocky Mountains: new age constraints on the Telluride Conglomerate and regional compilation of apatite fission track ages (United States)

    Donahue, M. S.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Gonzales, D. A.; Pecha, M.; McKeon, R. E.


    The Telluride Conglomerate, exposed on the western flanks of Oligocene caldera complexes of the San Juan Mountains of Colorado, has historically been considered an Eocene alluvial deposit overlying the "Rocky Mountain erosion surface" and pre-dating Oligocene volcanism. Measured sections show that the Telluride preserves an unroofing sequence with basal units dominated by Paleozoic sedimentary clasts transitioning into upper units dominated by locally derived Proterozoic basement mixed with previously unrecognized andesitic Oligocene volcanics. Paleoflow directions and thicknesses of the preserved unit indicate the Telluride Conglomerate was deposited by a large, high-energy WNW- flowing braided river system. Detrital zircon analysis indicates minimum ages for individual grains within the Telluride Conglomerate of 28.0 to 31.5 Ma. This, plus the entrained volcanic clasts, redefines the unit as being of Oligocene age and indicates that conglomeratic deposition overlapped with regional San Juan volcanism and just predated major caldera eruptions at 28.4 Ma (San Juan and Uncompahgre) and 27.6 Ma (Silverton). We interpret the deposition of the Telluride Conglomerate to be the depositional response to regional uplift and erosion related to early stages of San Juan magmatism. These units have undergone significant post-depositional tectonism: the Telluride Conglomerate is found at ~9,000ft elevation near Telluride, CO, but is at ~13,000' at its westernmost exposure at Mt. Wilson. We attribute this differential uplift to be associated with faulting, pluton emplacement, and additional mantle driven uplift associated with the emplacement and cooling of the Wilson Stock in the last 20-22 Ma as documented by Miocene cooling seen in apatite helium (AHe) ages. This cooling fits into our regional compilation of published apatite fission track (AFT) and AHe data showing temporally and spatially partitioned Cenozoic cooling indicative of multistage uplift of the Rocky Mountain

  20. Bird Diversity During Ripe Berry Period of Morus Mocrora in Mountain Region,Xishuangbanna,Yunnan%长果桑果熟期摄食鸟类多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王直军; 陈进; 邓晓保; 白智林; 刘勇; 刘志秋


    A gap in current knowledge is in the ways of conver sion and recovery of mountain ecosystem, however, mobile species such as birds c an help us to know the basic dynamics of the natural processes. This work was th rough a comparative study on Morus mocroura and bird divers ity in Menglun and Nangong Mountain of Xishuangbanna to understand the dynamics. Data were analyzed using the Shannon-Wiener function formula and overlap functi on formula.   This field work was carried out during the ripe period of polymeric berries of Morus mocroura which were eaten by birds. The sizes of the fragrant polymeric berri es are suitable for different gape width that attract many species of birds, and these birds easily swallow the berries in different ways. There is a harmonious relationship between birds and food resources to coexist, however it is changin g because of the influence of human in some areas of Xishuangbanna. Through a c omparativ e study in Menglun and Nangong Mountain, concerning forest plots, the diversity( H and Hmax) of birds, and foraging ratio is higher at the Nangong Mountain, the overlap of the foraging birds and their competition is higher in Menglun forest plots. There are 35 species including 23 species and subspecies of native birds , 10 species of special protected birds have been recorded in Nangong Mountain, only 20 species including 12 species and subspecies of native birds in Menglun f orest plots. Many species of birds are quickly disappearing with the destruction of primary frest ecosystem in Menglun mountain region.   Biodiversity conservation should be put into ecosystem as a whole. If we do n ot study mountain ecosystem soon, we shall face a grave problem with a poorer en vironment and living condition. It is essential that restoration and conservatio n should be undertaken before substantial losses of species have occurred. The p roblem of bird diversity reducing should be solved by applying a system matical approach combining

  1. Alveolar ridge rehabilitation to increase full denture retention and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mefina Kuntjoro


    Full Text Available Background: Atrophic mandibular alveolar ridge generally complicates prostetic restoration expecially full denture. Low residual alveolar ridge and basal seat can cause unstable denture, permanent ulcer, pain, neuralgia, and mastication difficulty. Pre-proshetic surgery is needed to improve denture retention and stability. Augmentation is a major surgery to increase vertical height of the atrophic mandible while vestibuloplasty is aimed to increase the denture bearing area. Purpose: The augmentation and vestibuloplasty was aimed to provide stability and retentive denture atrophic mandibular alveolar ridge. Case: A 65 years old woman patient complained about uncomfortable denture. Clinical evaluate showed flat ridge in the anterior mandible, flabby tissue and candidiasis, while residual ridge height was classified into class IV. Case management: Augmentation using autograph was conducted as the mandible vertical height is less than 15 mm. Autograph was used to achieve better bone quantity and quality. Separated alveolar ridge was conducted from left to right canine region and was elevated 0.5 mm from the previous position to get new ridge in the anterior region. The separated alveolar ridge was fixated by using T-plate and ligature wire. Three months after augmentation fixation appliances was removed vestibuloplasty was performed to increase denture bearing area that can make a stable and retentive denture. Conclusion: Augmentation and vestibuloplasty can improve flat ridge to become prominent.Latar belakang: Ridge mandibula yang atrofi pada umumnya mempersulit pembuatan restorasi prostetik terutama gigi tiruan lengkap (GTL. Residual alveolar ridge dan basal seat yang rendah menyebabkan gigi tiruan menjadi tidak stabil, menimbulkan ulser permanen, nyeri, neuralgia, dan kesulitan mengunyah. Tujuan: Augmentasi dan vestibuloplasti pada ridge mandibula yang atrofi dilakukan untuk menciptakan gigi tiruan yang stabil dan retentive. Kasus: Pasien wanita

  2. Human impacts to mountain streams (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen


    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  3. Community Tourism as Practiced in the Mountainous Qiang Region of Sichuan Province, China-a Case Study in Zhenghe Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lianbin; LIU Kaibang


    In China, community tourism is still a relatively new phenomenon, but the villagers of a small Qiang village in the Qiang Autonomous County of Beichuan in Southwestern Sichuan have initiated tourism in a way which conforms to the basic theory of community tourism development. This demonstrates that community tourism possesses a strength and vitality that can promote the development of tourism in the rural and mountainous areas. In the district of Zhenghe Village, the tourism industry, based on the community tourism model, is the mainstay of its economy. The practice of community tourism in the village not only promotes the economic development of the village community, but also leads to the protection of the mountainous natural environment and of the culture of the Qiang people. This paper investigates the development process of community tourism in Zhenghe and shows how the local residents participate in this process. It also looks at how profits have been distributed within the community. It demonstrates that community tourism is a correct choice by the Zhenghe people as they have clearly been moving from poverty to prosperity, while the local ecology and environment have been simultaneously protected. The authors hope that other minority villages with similar local conditions and natural resources will be able to use this example to develop their own community tourism.

  4. Climatic Factors Drive Population Divergence and Demography: Insights Based on the Phylogeography of a Riparian Plant Species Endemic to the Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions. (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Shao-Tian; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Zhou, Zhuo; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang


    Quaternary climatic factors have played a significant role in population divergence and demography. Here we investigated the phylogeography of Osteomeles schwerinae, a dominant riparian plant species of the hot/warm-dry river valleys of the Hengduan Mountains (HDM), Qinling Mountains (QLM) and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YGP). Three chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions (trnD-trnT, psbD-trnT, petL-psbE), one single copy nuclear gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; G3pdh), and climatic data during the Last Interglacial (LIG; c. 120-140 ka), Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; c. 21 ka), and Current (c. 1950-2000) periods were used in this study. Six cpDNA haplotypes and 15 nuclear DNA (nDNA) haplotypes were identified in the 40 populations of O. schwerinae. Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variance, median-joining networks, and Bayesian phylogenetic trees based on the cpDNA and nDNA datasets, all suggested population divergence between the QLM and HDM-YGP regions. Our climatic analysis identified significant heterogeneity of the climatic factors in the QLM and HDM-YGP regions during the aforementioned three periods. The divergence times based on cpDNA and nDNA haplotypes were estimated to be 466.4-159.4 ka and 315.8-160.3 ka, respectively, which coincide with the time of the weakening of the Asian monsoons in these regions. In addition, unimodal pairwise mismatch distribution curves, expansion times, and Ecological Niche Modeling suggested a history of population expansion (rather than contraction) during the last glaciation. Interestingly, the expansion times were found being well consistent with the intensification of the Asian monsoons during this period. We inferred that the divergence between the two main lineages is probably caused by disruption of more continuous distribution because of weakening of monsoons/less precipitation, whilst subsequent intensification of the Asian monsoons during the last glaciation facilitated the expansion of O. schwerinae populations.

  5. Spectroscopy and Optical Properties of Novel Metal(Ⅱ)-Azo Complex Films in Blue-Violet Light Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄福新; 吴谊群; 顾冬红; 干福熹


    A novel azo derivative, α-(2-azoxyisoxazole)-β-diketone derivative (ADD), and its copper (Ⅱ) and nickel (Ⅱ) complex (CuADD and NiADD) films have been prepared respectively by spin-coated method. The absorption spectra of the films on a K9 glass substrate in the 300-800 nm wavelength region have been measured. The optical constants (complex refractive index N = n + ik) and thickness of the complex films on a single-crystal silicon substrate in the 300-600 nm wavelength region have been investigated on an improved rotating analyser-polarizer (RAP) type of scanning ellipsometer, and the dielectric constants ε(ε=ε1 +iε2), absorption coefficients α as well as reflectance R of the films were calculated. It is found that the absorption maxima of the ADD, CuADD and NiADD films are at 324 nm, 372 nm and 385 nm, respectively, and small absorption values and steep absorption band edges of the CuADD and NiADD films are observed at the 405 nm side; the CuADD and NiADD films give high n values of 2.08 and 1.98, and low k values of 0.2 and 0.28, respectively, at 405nm, and their thicknesses are in the range of 130-150nm; the high reflectivity of 58.5% and 45.5% of the CuADD and NiADD films withAg as a reflective layer were obtained at the film thicknesses of 70nm and 80nm respectively. These results show that the novel CuADD and NiADD films seem to be a very promising organic recording material for the next generation of high density digital versatile disc-recordable (HD-DVD-R) systems that use a high numerical aperture of 0.85 at 405nm wavelength.

  6. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment. Part 1: Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.


    Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons


    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  8. Impacts of Climate Change and Vegetation Dynamics on Runoff in the Mountainous Region of the Haihe River Basin in the Past Five Decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Huimin; Yang, Dawen; Huang, Maoyi


    Climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration have changed significantly in the mountainous region of the Haihe River basin over the past five decades. In the study, a process-based terrestrial model, version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4), was used to quantify the spatiotemporal changes in runoff over the region, driven by the varying climate factors and CO2 concentration. Overall, our simulations suggest that climate-induced change in runoff in this region show a decreasing trend since 1960. Changes in precipitation, solar radiation, air temperature, and wind speed accounts for 56%, -14%, 13%, -5% of the overall decrease in annual runoff, respectively, but their relative contributions vary across the study area. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration was found to have limited impacts on runoff. Significant decrease in runoff over the southern and northeastern portion of the region is primarily attributed to decreasing precipitation, while decreasing solar radiation and increasing air temperature are the main causes of slight runoff increase in the northern portion. Our results also suggest that the magnitude of decreasing trend could be greatly underestimated if the dynamical interactions of vegetation phenology with the environmental factors are not considered in the modeling, highlighting the importance of including dynamic vegetation phenology in the prediction of runoff in this region.

  9. Sustainable Permaculture systems demonstration in the high mountain desert region of New Mexico -- results of five years practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, V. [Apache Creek Ranch, Santa Fe, NM (United States)


    This paper reports on five years of results in the Permaculture restoration of a mountain drylands ranch outside Santa Fe, New Mexico. Dramatic results have been produced in the areas of erosion control, pastureland restoration, wild species propagation, aquaculture, riparian zone (wetland) restoration, edible landscape design and installation methodologies. Recently completed work includes a grant-financed (US Fish and Wildlife Service Partners for Wildlife Program) replanting and redevelopment of the entire riparian zone of the ranch and the design and development of a trout-spawning pond system that is self contained and self-purifying, with circulation through a structured wetland provided by a photovoltaic pumping system. The paper presents the design philosophy, overall design strategy and significant details of specific strategies, projects, and systems.

  10. Sustainable permaculture systems demonstration in the high mountain desert region of New Mexico -- results of three years practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, V. [EarthLink, Santa Fe, NM (United States)


    This paper reports on three years of results in the Permaculture restoration of a mountain drylands ranch outside Santa Fe, New Mexico which receives less than 11 inches rainfall/year. Dramatic results have been produced in the areas of erosion control, pastureland restoration, wild species propagation, aquaculture, riparian zone (wetland) restoration, edible landscape design and installation methodologies. Additionally, significant work has been performed in the area of youth education and community development. Current work includes a grant-financed (US Fish and Wildlife Service ``Partners for Wildlife`` Program) replanting and redevelopment of the entire riparian zone of the ranch and the design and development of a trout-spawning pond system that is self contained and self-purifying, with circulation through a structured wetland provided by a photovoltaic pumping system. This paper presents the design philosophy, overall design strategy and significant details of specific strategies, projects, and systems.

  11. The economic viability of value-based food chain for dairy farms in mountain regions: an econometric analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Prišenk


    Full Text Available The attention of this paper is drawn to analyze the economic potential of involvement of farmers into the small-medium sized value-based food chain (VBFC. The survey represents a solid dana basis from which econometric modelling approach was further developed. Empirical results reveal the positive economic viability on a general level; this means more stable purchase price of raw milk for dairy farms, which are the part of value-based food chain. Results point at inelastic demand for milk and milk related products. Furthermore, there are some accompanying and underlying indirect social benefits, such as production of high-quality food products, more stable and constant demand for raw milk, steady payments and better social situation. The last one is especially important for the farms operating in less-favored mountain areas where the survey was actually conducted.

  12. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Danilin


    Full Text Available Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don L. Hanosh


    This report discusses: (1) being able to resume marginal oil production operations in the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in McKinley County, New Mexico by installing a cable suspended electric submersible pumping system (HDESP); (2) determining if this system can reduce life costs making it a more cost effective production system for similar oil fields within the region, and if warranted, drill additional wells to improve the economics. In April 2003, a cooperative 50% cost share agreement between Enerdyne and the DOE was executed to investigate the feasibility of using cable suspended electric submersible pumps to reduce the life costs and increase the ultimate oil recovery of the Red Mountain Oil Field, located on the Chaco Slope of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. The field was discovered in 1934 and has produced approximately 55,650 cubic meters (m{sup 3}), (350,000 barrels, 42 gallons) of oil. Prior to April 2003, the field was producing only a few cubic meters of oil each month; however, the reservoir characteristics suggest that the field retains ample oil to be economic. This field is unique, in that, the oil accumulations, above fresh water, occur at depths from 88-305 meters, (290 feet to 1000 feet), and serves as a relatively good test area for this experiment.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pat Fort; Don L. Hanosh


    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps. Resume marginal oil production operations in the Red Mountain oil fields located in McKinley County, New Mexico by installing a cable suspended electric submersible pumping system (HDESP), determine if this system can reduce lift costs making it a more cost effective production system for similar oil fields within the region, and if warranted, drill additional wells to improved the economics. Three Phases of work have been defined in the DOE Form 4600.1 Notice of Financial Assistance Award for this project, in which the project objectives are to be attained through a joint venture between Enerdyne LLC (Enerdyne), owner and operator of the fields and Pumping Solutions Inc. (PSI), developer of the submersible pumping system. Upon analysis of the results of each Phase, the DOE will determine if the results justify the continuation of the project and approve the next Phase to proceed or terminate the project and request that the wells be plugged. This topical report shall provide the DOE with Phase I results and conclusions reached by Enerdyne and PSI.

  15. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang


    Full Text Available Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF. SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  16. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image (United States)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.


    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  17. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)


    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  18. US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Environmental Management Public Involvement Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements for writing community relations plans. It includes information on how the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office prepares and executes Environmental Management Community relations activities. It is divided into three sections: the public involvement plan, public involvement in Oak Ridge, and public involvement in 1995. Four appendices are also included: environmental management in Oak Ridge; community and regional overview; key laws, agreements, and policy; and principal contacts.

  19. Ridge jump process in Iceland


    Garcia, Sebastian


    Eastward ridge jumps bring the volcanic zones of Iceland back to the centre of the hotspot in response to the absolute westward drift of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Mantellic pulses triggers these ridge jumps. One of them is occurring in Southern Iceland, whereas the exact conditions of the last ridge jump in Northern Iceland remain controversial. The diachronous evolution of these two parts of Iceland may be related to the asymmetric plume-ridge interaction when comparing Northern and Southern I...

  20. Star Formation History of Early-Type Galaxies in Low Density Environments; 5, Blue line-strength indices for the nuclear region

    CERN Document Server

    Longhetti, M; Chiosi, C; Rampazzo, R


    We analyze the star formation properties of a sample of 21 shell galaxies and 30 early-type galaxies members of interacting pairs, located in low density environments (Longhetti et al 1998a, 1998b). The study is based on new models developed to interpret the information coming from `blue' H$\\delta$/FeI, H+K(CaII) and \\D4000 line-strength indices proposed by Rose (1984; 1985) and Hamilton (1985). We find that the last star forming event that occurred in the nuclear region of shell galaxies is statistically old (from 0.1 up to several Gyr) with respect to the corresponding one in the sub-sample of pair galaxies (<0.1 Gyr or even ongoing star formation). If the stellar activity is somehow related to the formation of shells, as predicted by several dynamical models of galaxy interaction, shells have to be considered long lasting structures. Since pair members show evidence of very recent star formation, we suggest that either large reservoirs of gas have to be present to maintain active star formation, if thes...

  1. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac


    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  2. Finescale parameterizations of energy dissipation in a region of strong internal tides and sheared flow, the Lucky-Strike segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Pasquet, Simon; Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Reverdin, Gilles; Turnherr, Andreas; Laurent, Lou St.


    The relevance of finescale parameterizations of dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy is addressed using finescale and microstructure measurements collected in the Lucky Strike segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). There, high amplitude internal tides and a strongly sheared mean flow sustain a high level of dissipation rate and turbulent mixing. Two sets of parameterizations are considered: the first ones (Gregg, 1989; Kunze et al., 2006) were derived to estimate dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy induced by internal wave breaking, while the second one aimed to estimate dissipation induced by shear instability of a strongly sheared mean flow and is a function of the Richardson number (Kunze et al., 1990; Polzin, 1996). The latter parameterization has low skill in reproducing the observed dissipation rate when shear unstable events are resolved presumably because there is no scale separation between the duration of unstable events and the inverse growth rate of unstable billows. Instead GM based parameterizations were found to be relevant although slight biases were observed. Part of these biases result from the small value of the upper vertical wavenumber integration limit in the computation of shear variance in Kunze et al. (2006) parameterization that does not take into account internal wave signal of high vertical wavenumbers. We showed that significant improvement is obtained when the upper integration limit is set using a signal to noise ratio criterion and that the spatial structure of dissipation rates is reproduced with this parameterization.

  3. Simulation model analysis of the most promising geological sequestration formation candidates in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, with focus on uncertainty assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zaluski, Wade [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Will, Robert [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Eisinger, Chris [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); Matthews, Vince [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); McPherson, Brian [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of “random pseudo wells” to represent virtual characterization wells.

  4. National coal resource assessment non-proprietary data: Location, stratigraphy, and coal quality for selected tertiary coal in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, A.M.; Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.; Roberts, S.B.; Keighin, C.W.; Murphy, E.C.; Cavaroc, V.V.; Johnson, R.C.; Wilde, E.M.


    One of the objectives of the National Coal Resource Assessment in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region was to compile stratigraphic and coal quality-trace-element data on selected and potentially minable coal beds and zones of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) and equivalent formations. In order to implement this objective, drill-hole information was compiled from hard-copy and digital files of the: (1) U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) offices in Casper, Rawlins, and Rock Springs, Wyoming, and in Billings, Montana, (2) State geological surveys of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming, (3) Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality in Cheyenne, (4) U.S. Office of Surface Mining in Denver, Colorado, (5) U.S. Geological Survey, National Coal Resource Data System (NCRDS) in Reston, Virginia, (6) U.S. Geological Survey coal publications, (7) university theses, and (8) mining companies.

  5. New lakes in de-glaciating high-mountain regions - a challenge for integrative research about hazard protection and sustainable use (United States)

    Haeberli, W.


    As a consequence of rapid glacier vanishing, an increasing number of smaller and larger lakes are forming in high-mountain regions worldwide. Such new lakes can be touristic landscape attractions and may also represent interesting potentials for hydropower production. However, they more and more often come into existence at the foot of very large and steep icy mountain walls, which are progressively destabilizing due to changing surface and subsurface ice conditions. The probability of far-reaching flood and debris flow catastrophes caused by impact waves from large rock/ice avalanches into lakes may still appear to be small now but steadily increases for long time periods to come. Corresponding projects related to hazard protection and sustainable use should be combined in an integrative and participatory planning process. This planning process must start soon, because the development in nature is fast and most likely accelerating. Technical tools for creating the necessary scientific knowledge basis at local to regional scales exist and can be used. The location of future new lakes in topographic bed depressions of now still glacier-covered areas can be quite safely assessed on the basis of morphological criteria or by applying ice thickness estimates using digital terrain information. Models for ice-thickness estimates couple the depth to bedrock via the basal shear stress with the surface slope and provide a (relative) bed topography which is much more robust than the (absolute) value of the calculated ice thickness. Numerical models at various levels of sophistication can be used to simulate possible future glacier changes in order to establish the probable time of lake formation and the effects of glacier shrinking on runoff seasonality and water supply. The largest uncertainties thereby relate to the large uncertainties of (absolute) ice thickness and mass/energy fluxes at the surface (climate scenarios, precipitation and albedo changes, etc.). Combined

  6. Tactic of Using Police Dogs in Searching Mountainous Regions%警犬在山地环境搜捕的战术运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆; 张志


    It' s an important task of police dogs to track down certain run-away suspects in mountainous regions. In such circumstance, it will be a quite effective tactic by making advantage of police dogs' fierce bite, attack and olfaction sensitivity in running. It can help the public security organs to solve problems such as engaging too many human resource in large-scale searching. The principles and pre-arranged plans of u- sing police dogs in searching mountainous regions shall be clearly defined. This essay has made research on the conditions and requirements for applying this tactic, in order to provide some basic reference for standard operation in this field.%使用警犬在山地环境下对逃匿的犯罪嫌疑人进行搜捕,是刑侦用警犬的重要作业内容,侦破此类案件,利用警犬凶猛的咬捕和奔跑中搜索气味能力搜捕人犯是比较有效的技术手段,可以解决公安机关通过拉网式和大面积靠人力搜捕带来的诸多问题。要明确警犬山地搜捕使用的原则和处置预案,警犬山地搜捕作业的条件及要求,对警犬山地搜捕战术运用进行研究,以期为规范其操作程序提供一些基础性依据。

  7. Fingermark ridge drift. (United States)

    De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Roberts, Katherine A; Feixat, Carme Barrot; Hogrebe, Gregory G; Badia, Manel Gené


    Distortions of the fingermark topography are usually considered when comparing latent and exemplar fingerprints. These alterations are characterized as caused by an extrinsic action, which affects entire areas of the deposition and alters the overall flow of a series of contiguous ridges. Here we introduce a novel visual phenomenon that does not follow these principles, named fingermark ridge drift. An experiment was designed that included variables such as type of secretion (eccrine and sebaceous), substrate (glass and polystyrene), and degrees of exposure to natural light (darkness, shade, and direct light) indoors. Fingermarks were sequentially visualized with titanium dioxide powder, photographed and analyzed. The comparison between fresh and aged depositions revealed that under certain environmental conditions an individual ridge could randomly change its original position regardless of its unaltered adjacent ridges. The causes of the drift phenomenon are not well understood. We believe it is exclusively associated with intrinsic natural aging processes of latent fingermarks. This discovery will help explain the detection of certain dissimilarities at the minutiae/ridge level; determine more accurate "hits"; identify potentially erroneous corresponding points; and rethink identification protocols, especially the criteria of "no single minutiae discrepancy" for a positive identification.

  8. Small mammals of the Mongolian mountain steppe region near Erdensant: insights from live-trapping and bird pellet remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. Isaac


    Full Text Available Relatively little is known of the distribution, abundance and ecology of small mammals in Mongolia and as a result there is scant knowledge of the effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors on small mammal populations. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of small mammals in mountain steppe habitat from live-trapping and analysis of mammal remains from raptor pellets and below nests. During live-trapping, root voles ( Microtus oeconemus were the most commonly caught species accounting for 47.5 % of captures, striped hamsters ( Cricetulus barabensis and pika ( Ochotona hyperborea accounted for 30 % and 22.5 % of captures respectively. Temperature influenced trapping success, with small mammals appearing to avoid being active at temperatures over 20 ̊C. The three species caught on the trapping grid appeared to avoid competition for resources through both temporal and spatial differences in the use of available habitat. Mammals identified from raptor pellets and other remains included the grey hamster ( Cricatulus migratorius , Siberian marmot ( Marmota sibirica , red fox ( Vulpes vulpes , long-tailed souslik ( Citellus undulatus and the Daurian mole ( Myospalax aspalax. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to the conservation of mammals in Mongolia and their co-existence with livestock and humans.

  9. 翻译社会学视角下张翎小说《金山》英译传播研究%The English Translation and Circulation of Zhang Ling’ s NovelGold Mountain Blues from a Sociological Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper analyzes the English translation and circulation of Zhang Ling’ s novel Gold Mountain Blues from a sociological perspective, including the author’s writing, the translator’s selection of the original works, the process of its translation, publishing and circulation, and the comments favorably on the relevant translation and circulation strategies.%基于翻译社会学视角,探讨张翎小说《金山》的英文翻译和传播,包括作者创作、译者原文本选择、译本翻译、出版、传播过程,评述其翻译和传播策略可取之处。

  10. 武陵山区生态旅游区域协作研究%The Research on Region-collaboration of Eco-tourism in Wuling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋芳; 张旺


    Eco-tourism is the hot issues of industry and academia on tourism. Implementing eco-tourism of regional cooperation is one of the effective ways about regional sustainable development. Based on its poorly traffic location, flimsiness ecological conditions, lower savings capacity, divided administrative regions and fuzzy collaboration consciousness, the article discussed the drive mechanisms, the base, the pathway and the key points of cooperation as the eco -tourism collaboration of the Wuling mountains, focused on the cooperation patterns and organizational structure as well as the“a pole, a axes, three radiation belt, three associated regions” of space development arrangement. This purpose is designed to establish the overall image of eco-tourism about Wuling mountains, create regional eco -tourism brand, extend eco-tourism industry chain, enhance driving effects and radiation ability of eco-tourism.%开展生态旅游的区域协作是实现区域可持续发展的有效途径之一。文章以武陵山区为研究对象,基于其不便的交通区位、脆弱的生态条件、低下的积蓄能力、分治的行政区域和模糊的协作意识,论述了大武陵生态旅游协作区合作的动力机制、合作基础、合作途径和合作要点,重点探讨了生态旅游协作的模式和组织架构,以及“一极、一轴线、三条辐射带、三个关联地区”的空间发展格局,旨在树立武陵山区的生态旅游整体形象,打造区域生态旅游品牌,延伸生态旅游产业链条,增强生态旅游辐射能力和带动效应。

  11. Geology and geothermal waters of Lightning Dock region, Animas Valley and Pyramid Mountains, Hidalgo County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, W.E.; Deal, E.G.; Logsdon, M.J.


    This circular covers the geology of the Pyramid Peak, Swallow Fork Peak, Table Top Mountain, and South Pyramid Peak 7-1/2-min quadrangles, which include the Lightning Dock KGRA. Hot wells (70 to 115.5/sup 0/C) seem to be structurally controlled by intersections of the ring-fracture zone of an Oligocene ash-flow tuff cauldron (Muir cauldron), a Miocene-to-Holocene north-trending basin-and-range fault (Animas Valley fault), and a northeast-trending lineament that appears to control anomalously heated underground waters and Pliocene-Pleistocene basalt cones in the San Bernardino, San Simon, and Animas Valleys. The Muir cauldron, approximately 20 km in diameter, collapsed in two stages, each associated with the eruption of a rhyolite ash-flow-tuff sheet and of ring-fracture domes. Most of the hydrothermal alteration of the Lightning Dock KGRA is related to the first stage of eruption and collapse, not to the modern geothermal system. Contrary to previous reports, no silicic volcanic rocks younger than basin-and-range faulting are known; unconformities beneath rhyolite ring-fracture domes are caused by Oligocene caldera collapse, not by basin-and-range faulting. The Animas Valley is the site of widespread post-20 My travertine deposits and near-surface veins of calcite, fluorite, and/or psilomelane, controlled by north- or northwest-trending basin-and-range faults. The fluoride-bearing waters of the Lightning Dock KGRA may be a late stage of this hydrothermal activity. Distribution of Pliocene-Pleistocene basalt suggests that deep-seated basalt near the solids may be the ultimate heat source.

  12. Public choice on coordinated development of border regions and its empirical research: a case study of Wuling mountain area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Quanguang; Tu Shan


    the obvious strategic position at the junction of Chongqing, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei provinces from the angle of regional pubhc management and pubhc chotce to present tssue awareness and academtc purpose.

  13. Vegetation - Napa County and Blue Ridge Berryessa [ds201 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In 1995, the Manual of California Vegetation (MCV) introduced a quantitatively based method for classifying and mapping vegetation in California. In 2002 Department...

  14. Mountaineering Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Maher


    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountaineering Tourism Edited by Ghazali Musa, James Higham, and Anna Thompson-Carr. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2015. xxvi + 358 pp. Hardcover. US$ 145.00. ISBN 978-1-138-78237-2.

  15. Impacts of Spatial Climatic Representation on Hydrological Model Calibration and Prediction Uncertainty: A Mountainous Catchment of Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li


    Full Text Available Sparse climatic observations represent a major challenge for hydrological modeling of mountain catchments with implications for decision-making in water resources management. Employing elevation bands in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool-Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SWAT2012-SUFI2 model enabled representation of precipitation and temperature variation with altitude in the Daning river catchment (Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China where meteorological inputs are limited in spatial extent and are derived from observations from relatively low lying locations. Inclusion of elevation bands produced better model performance for 1987–1993 with the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE increasing by at least 0.11 prior to calibration. During calibration prediction uncertainty was greatly reduced. With similar R-factors from the earlier calibration iterations, a further 11% of observations were included within the 95% prediction uncertainty (95PPU compared to the model without elevation bands. For behavioral simulations defined in SWAT calibration using a NSE threshold of 0.3, an additional 3.9% of observations were within the 95PPU while the uncertainty reduced by 7.6% in the model with elevation bands. The calibrated model with elevation bands reproduced observed river discharges with the performance in the calibration period changing to “very good” from “poor” without elevation bands. The output uncertainty of calibrated model with elevation bands was satisfactory, having 85% of flow observations included within the 95PPU. These results clearly demonstrate the requirement to account for orographic effects on precipitation and temperature in hydrological models of mountainous catchments.

  16. Deformation of forearcs caused by subduction of aseismic ridges: The role of ridge orientation and convergence direction investigated with 3D finite-element models (United States)

    Zeumann, Stefanie; Hampel, Andrea


    Subduction of aseismic oceanic ridges causes considerable deformation of the forearc region. To investigate the role of ridge orientation relative to the margin and convergence direction on the style of forearc deformation, we developed a series of 3D finite-elemente models, in which a rigid oceanic plate carrying the model ridge subducts beneath a deformable forearc wedge. Experiments were carried out for angles of 30°, 60° and 90° between the ridge axis and the trench and for different convergence directions. In the experiments, in which the ridge axis is parallel to the convergence direction, the ridge is stationary; in all other experiments, the ridge migrates along the margin and thus affects different regions of the forearc. Our results show that the ridge indents and uplifts the forearc in all models. For obliquely subducting ridges the displacement and strain fields become highly asymmetric regardless if the ridge is stationary or migrates along the forearc. Only if the ridge is stationary and oriented perpendicular to the margin, the deformation is symmetric relative to the ridge axis. Stationary ridges show uplift only above the ridge tip, whereas a migrating ridge causes a wave of uplift above the leading flank of the ridge followed by subsidence above the trailing flank. Horizontal strain components show domains of both extension and shortening, with extension occurring above the ridge tip and shortening above the ridge flanks. To compare our results with natural case studies, we computed additional models reflecting the setting of the stationary Cocos Ridge subducting beneath southern Costa Rica and of the Nazca Ridge, which migrates along the Peruvian margin. The results of these adjusted models are in good agreement with field observations. For the model of the Cocos Ridge the highest degree of shortening occurs normal to the margin, which coincides with the location of a thrust belt in the forearc of Costa Rica with its maximum shortening inboard

  17. Determining the sensitivity of the high mountain region in Northern Romania to climate and land use changes through multi-proxy analysis (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Geanta, Anca; Tantau, Ioan; Auer, Andreea; Hutchinson, Simon


    Climate and land use changes can have a great impact on high altitude environments due to their species' narrow tolerance capabilities, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. Since trees at the timberline and the treeline ecotone grow at their temperature and soil tolerance limit, even small alterations in these parameters can result in marked changes in the position of the treeline ecotone, diversity, and species composition. Current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree and timberlines upwards, whereas land use changes can drive this movement in the opposite direction. Therefore the long-term responses of vegetation to past climate variations and land use changes are of particular relevance for the prediction of future vegetation change in high mountain areas. Here, we use a multi-proxy analysis (pollen, spores, micro and macrocharcoal, mineral magnetic properties and AMS 14C dating) of a 1m lacustrine sequence covering the last 5000 years located in the subalpine zone (1910 m a.s.l.) in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians) to determine the sensitivity of high mountain habitats (i.e., movements of the timberline and treeline ecotones, and changes in vegetation composition diversity) in response to climate, fires and land use. The pollen and stomata records reveal regional forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris between ca. 5000 and 4250 cal yrs BP, which were replaced by Picea abies, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica from about 4200 cal yrs BP onwards. The proximity of the lake was treeless, dominated by sub-alpine shrubs (Alnus viridis), alpine herbaceous communities (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae Tubuliflorae, A. Liguliflorae, Thalictrum) and ruderal species (Artemisia, Rumex, Chenopodiaceae) through almost the whole record. However, Pinus stomata found between 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP probably indicate a higher position of the treeline and the local occurrence of Pinus before 4000 cal yr BP. Our results show

  18. Soil properties in forest gaps and under canopy in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests in Changbai Mountainous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chunyu; ZHAO Xiuhai


    The species composition and diversities,and soil properties under canopy gaps in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests were studied in the Changbai Mountains.The results indicated that the species composition and diversifies in gap were different from those under canopy.The Shannon-Wiener index,evenness index,and abundance index in gap were higher than those under canopy in the seedling layer,while the community dominance in the seedling layer increased in closed canopy.The physicochemical properties of soil changed with the change of space and resource availability in gaps.The thickness,standing crop,and water holding capacity of the litter layer under canopy were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those in gap.The content of total nitrogen and total potassium of litter in gap were 10.47% and 20.73% higher than those under canopy,however,the content of total phosphorus and organic carbon under canopy were 15.23% and 12.66% more than those under canopy.The water content of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm of soil layer in gap were 17.65% and 16.17% more than those under canopy.The soil buck density of 0-10 cm were slightly higher under canopy than that in gaps,but there was no significant difference in the soil buck density of the 10-20 cm soil layer.The soil pH values were 5.80 and 5.85 in gap and under canopy,respectively,and were not significantly different.The content of soil organic matter,total nitrogen,and total potassium in gap were 12.85%,7.67%,and 2.38% higher than those under canopy.The content of NH4+-N,available phosphorus,available potassium,and total phosphorus in soil under canopy were 13.33%,20.04%,16.52%,and 4.30% higher than those in gap.

  19. Geodiversity and geohazards of the Susa Valley (W-Alps, Italy): combining scientific research and new technologies for enhanced knowledge and proactive management of geoheritage in mountain regions (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Bacenetti, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Palomba, Mauro


    Mountain regions have a range of geological and geomorphological features that make them very attractive for tourism activities. As a consequence, increased human "pressure" causes impacts on geoheritage sites and higher geomorphological risks. These effects are magnified by active geomorphic processes characterizing mountains areas, highly sensitive to climate change. In term of "human sensitivity", several sociological surveys have shown that "perceived risk", not "real risk", influences people's behavior towards natural hazards. The same approach can be applied to geodiversity and geoheritage. Based on these assumptions, we considered the possible strategic roles played by diffusion of scientific research and application of new technologies: 1) to enhance awareness, either of geodiversity or environmental dynamics and 2) to improve knowledge, both on geoheritage management and natural risk reduction. Within the activities of the "ProGEO-Piemonte Project" (Progetti d'Ateneo 2011, cofunded by Universita? degli Studi di Torino and Compagnia di San Paolo Bank Foundation), we performed a systematic review of geodiversity and natural hazards information in the Piemonte Region (NW-Italy). Then we focused our attention on the Susa Valley, an area of the Western Alps where the geoheritage is affected by very active morphodynamics, as well as by a growing tourism, after the 2006 winter Olympics. The Susa Valley became one of the 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, each characterized by high potential for enhancement of public understanding of science, and recreation activities supported by local communities. Then we contributed to the awareness-raising communication strategy of the "RiskNat project" (Interreg Alcotra 2007-2013, Action A.4.3) by synthesizing geoscience knowledge on the Susa Valley and information on slope instabilities and models/prevention measures/warning systems. Visual representations

  20. Evidence of varying magma chambers and magmatic evolutionary histories for the Table Mountain Formation in the Carson-Iceberg Wilderness region, Sonora Pass, California (United States)

    Asami, R.; Putirka, K. D.; Pluhar, C. J.; Farner, M. J.; Torrez, G.; Shrum, B. L.; Jones, S.


    The Sonora Pass- Dardanelles region in the Carson- Iceberg Wilderness area is located in the central Sierra Nevada and home to the type section for latites (Slemmons, 1953), a volcanic rock that contains high potassium, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase phenocysts. Latite lavas and tuffs exposed in the Sonora Pass region originated from the sources in the eastern Sierra Nevada (Noble et al., 1974) where lavas flowed toward California's Great Valley, and were emplaced in stream valleys along the way, which are now inverted to form "table mountains", ergo the name "Table Mountain Latite" (TML) (Slemmons, 1966). Similarly high-K volcanic rocks of the same age are exposed at Grouse Meadows, which is just north of the Walker Lane Caldera east of Sonora Pass, and at the type section, between Red Peak and Bald Peak west of Sonora Pass. Latites lavas and tuffs in all three regions were analyzed for major oxides and trace elements with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry at California State University, Fresno. Analysis of three locations of (TML) at the type section show that they (Ransome, 1898), may have a different magmatic evolutionary history compared to other latites, exposed at Sonora Pass and Grouse Meadows, as the latter two show similar major oxide and trace element compositions. Most compelling is the contrast in the behavior of Al2O3 and CaO at the type section. Variation diagrams show that at the type section Al2O3 and CaO enrichment decreases with increasing amounts of MgO as fractional crystallization occurs. Conversely, at Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadows, CaO and Al2O3 concentrations mostly increase as MgO decreases with fractional crystallization. This contrasts shows that plagioclase was a major fractioning phase at the type section, but not at the other two localities. This suggests that the lava flows at the type section were erupted from a distinct set of magma chambers and vents that underwent a very distinct magmatic evolutionary history, perhaps involving

  1. Ridge and Furrow Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per Grau


    Ridge and furrow is a specific way of ploughing which makes fields of systematic ridges and furrows like a rubbing washboard. They are part of an overall openfield system, but the focus in this paper is on the functionality of the fields. There are many indications that agro-technological reasons...... systems and the establishment of basic structures like villages (with churches) and townships and states (in northern Europe). The fields can be considered as a resilient structure lasting for 800 years, along with the same basic physical structures in society.......Ridge and furrow is a specific way of ploughing which makes fields of systematic ridges and furrows like a rubbing washboard. They are part of an overall openfield system, but the focus in this paper is on the functionality of the fields. There are many indications that agro-technological reasons...... form the background for the fields. The fields were used in northern Europe ca. 1000–1800 in low-technological agricultural societies, although introducing them was probably an innovation that led to higher yields. At least, it can be argued that, chronologically, there is a coincidence of field...

  2. A revised lithostratigraphic framework for the southern Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada (United States)

    Spengler, R.W.; Byers, F.M.; Dickerson, R.P.


    An informal, revised lithostratigraphic framework for the southern Yucca Mountain area, Nevada has been developed to accommodate new information derived from subsurface investigations of the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program. Lithologies penetrated by recently drilled boreholes at locations between Stagecoach Road and Highway 95 in southern Nye County include Quaternary and Pliocene alluvium and alluvial breccia, Miocene pyroclastic flow deposits, Miocene intercalated lacustrine siltstone and claystone sequences, early Miocene to Oligocene pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks, and Paleozoic strata. Of the 37 boreholes currently drilled, 21 boreholes have sufficient depth, spatial distribution, or traceable pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic fall, and reworked tuff deposits to aid in the lateral correlation of lithostrata. Medial and distal parts of regional pyroclastic flow deposits of Miocene age can be correlated with the Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, Crater Flat, and Tram Ridge Groups. Rocks intercalated between these regional pyroclastic flow deposits are substantially thicker than in the central part of Yucca Mountain, particularly near the downthrown side of major faults and along the southern extent of exposures at Yucca Mountain.

  3. Numerical Simulations of Local Circulation and Its Response to Land Cover Changes over the Yellow Mountains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this study, local circulations and their responses to land use and land cover (LULC) changes over the Yellow Mountains of China are examined by using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model simulations of a selected case under weak-gradient synoptic conditions. The results show that mountain-valley breezes over the region are characterized by an intense upslope flow lasting for about 11 h (0600–1700 LST) along the northern slope during daytime. A convergence zone occurs at the mountain ridge and moves northwest-ward with time. During nighttime, wind directions are reversed, starting first at higher elevations. Three sensitivity experiments are conducted, in which the current land covers are replaced by grassland, mixed forest, and bare soil, respectively, while keeping the other model conditions identical to a control run. These sensitivity simulations are designed to represent the changes of LULC over the Yellow Mountains area during the past decades. The results show that changes in land cover could affect substantially land-surface and atmosphere interactions, the evolution of local circulations, and characteristics of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Significant differences are noted in horizontal winds, and sensible and latent heat fluxes. On the other hand, when the surface is covered by mixed forest, slight variations in local winds and surface variables are identified. The results appear to have important implications to urban planning and constructions as well as the transport of air pollutants over mountainous regions.

  4. Color vision: retinal blues. (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon


    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  5. Drainage isolation and climate change-driven population expansion shape the genetic structures of Tuber indicum complex in the Hengduan Mountains region. (United States)

    Feng, Bang; Zhao, Qi; Xu, Jianping; Qin, Jiao; Yang, Zhu L


    The orogenesis of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the Quaternary climate changes have played key roles in driving the evolution of flora and fauna in Southwest China, but their effects on higher fungi are poorly addressed. In this study, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of the Tuber indicum species complex, an economically important fungal group distributed in the Hengduan Mountains region. Our data confirmed the existence of two distinct lineages, T. indicum and T. himalayense, within this species complex. Three geographic groups (Groups W, N and C) were revealed within T. indicum, with Group W found in the paleo-Lancang River region, while Groups N and C corresponded to the two banks along the contemporary Jinsha River, suggesting that rivers have acted as barriers for gene flow among populations from different drainages. Historical range expansion resulted from climate changes was inferred in Group C, contributing to the observed gene flow among geographic populations within this group. Although no significant geographic structure was identified in T. himalayense, evidence of drainage isolation for this species was also detected. Our findings demonstrate that both topographic changes and Quaternary climate oscillations have played important roles in driving the genetic structures of the T. indicum species complex.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Zečević


    Full Text Available During the World War I conflict between the Austrian and Italian army, Austrian engineer units constructed hallways in the karst region of Soča river. Those hallways, karst phenomena (caverns, caves and other fortifications, gave the Austrian army a tactical advantage. The construction principle of caverns is the consequence of the geological structure of the terrain. We are watching another military conflict in Afghanistan. In country where many armies in history have been defeated, where the terrain morphology condition a guerilla tactic, where the function effect of modern military technology is limited by battlefield configuration and with low military value of individual target, we are creating a "picture" of the possible view of the future battlefield. Al-Qai'da operatives in east Afghanistan take advantage of the opportunity of geological structure of the terrain and construct tunnel network across natural caves. Although the tunnel network in Afghanistan is constructed mostly in sandstones and metamorphic rocks, we may partly compare it with Austrian hallways. In that sense this work shows the influence of geological structure of the terrain on the effect of military operations in mountains and karst regions, and the analogy between military operations on the Soča river and military operations in Afghanistan.

  7. 基于GIS的武陵山区洪水灾害风险评估%GIS-based flood disaster risk assessment in Wuling Mountain Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷洁; 裴志远; 陈曦炜; 易湘生; 孙丽


    Flood disasters happen frequently in recent years and causes great loss in parts of China. Wuling Mountain Region is one of fourteen Continuous Extremely Poverty Areas (CEPA), across three provinces and one municipality city (respectively is Hubei Province, Hunan Province, Guizhou Province and Chongqing City). The region is characterized with large minority population and wide poor people distribution, where annual precipitation is between 730 and 1260mm, and flood disasters occur frequently. The flood disaster threatens the communities usually, which pushes the people in worse condition. Based on the natural and social conditions, the resistance of economic development is relatively large, for the outstanding phenomenon of “disaster induced poverty and disaster recurrent poverty”in this region. In this paper, on the basis of disaster system theory, flood disaster risk indicator system was established in the varied topography and poor people wide distribution mountainous area. The flood disaster risk indicator system divided into three main components, namely hazard indicator (H), sensitivity indicator(S) and vulnerability indicator (V). In the indicator system, precipitation was driving factor of flood, belonged to hazard indicator(H), terrain, river system, soil and resistance ability were factors for flood redistribution, belonged to sensitivity indicator(S), population, crops and buildings were belonged to vulnerability indicator(V). According to geographical information system (GIS), some counties in the middle eastern of study area had higher hazard level for strong rainfall. The hazard environment was complex involving seven factors, and the result showed the higher sensitive area was in band from northeastern to southwestern. And the vulnerability was in different pattern from hazard and sensitivity, the higher sensitive areas were located in eastern and western, and the lower areas was seated on the middle part of the region. Applying risk assessment

  8. Phytoplankton and littoral epilithic diatoms in high mountain lakes of the Adamello-Brenta Regional Park (Trentino, Italy and their relation to trophic status and acidification risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica TOLOTTI


    Full Text Available A survey of phytoplankton and littoral epilithic diatom communities was carried out on 16 high mountain lakes in the Adamello- Brenta Regional Park (NE Italy as part of a wider research project aimed to the limnological characterisation of the seldom-studied lakes in this Alpine Region. The regional study was supplemented by the analysis of seasonal variations in two representative lakes. The principal goals of this paper are 1 to identify the most important environmental variables regulating patterns in the species composition of both phytoplankton and littoral diatoms, 2 to evaluate whether these algal communities can be used to improve trophic classification and 3 whether they can facilitate monitoring of diffuse human impacts (e.g. airborne pollution on high altitude lakes. The relevance to monitoring is based on the acid sensitivity of all lakes studied, as indicated by the very low average alkalinity values (4-97 μeq l-1 recorded during the investigation period. Chlorophyll-a concentrations and phytoplankton biovolume recorded in the lakes were very low, with maxima in the deep-water layers and in late summer. Phytoplankton communities were dominated by flagellated algae (Chrysophyceae and Dinophyceae. Several coccal green algae were present, while planktonic diatoms were almost completely absent. Littoral diatom communities were dominated by alpine and acidophilous taxa (mainly belonging to the genera Achnanthes and Eunotia. Trophic classification based on phytoplankton and littoral diatoms, respectively, ascribed all lakes to the oligotrophic range. In both algal communities species indicative of acidified conditions were found. Multivariate analyses indicated that both the regional distribution and seasonal variation of phytoplankton are mainly driven by nutrient concentration. Diatoms are predominantly affected by geochemical characteristics including pH and mineralization level.

  9. A Method of Weather Threat Level Modeling and Assessment for UAVs Mountainous Region%山地条件下的无人机气象威胁度建模与评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 周树道; 叶松; 朱国涛; 程龙


    In view of the complicated and changeable weather threat when the UAV flying in mountainous region, we proposed an algorithm for mountainous region meteorology threat level modeling and assessment. A Bayesian Network model was constructed combining with the expert knowledge and EM algorithm, and the Polytree Propagation was used for mountainous region meteorology threat level evaluation. Simulation results showed that the algorithm can correctly rank the mountainous meteorology threat level to UAV, which is important for intelligent decision-making of the UAV.%针对无人机在山地条件下飞行时气象威胁因素复杂多变,提出一种基于贝叶斯网络的山地气象威胁度建模与评估方法.结合专家知识与EM算法构建贝叶斯网络模型,利用多树传播推理算法对山地气象要素进行威胁等级评估.评估结果表明,基于贝叶斯网络的气象威胁度评估能够正确直观地划分山地气象要素对无人机的威胁等级,对无人机智能决策具有重要意义.

  10. Metasomatic Origin of Some of the Eclogite—Bearing Carbonate Rocks in the Dabie Mountain Region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾连兴; 杜建国; 等


    Carbonate rocks are one of the major hosts to eclogite in the Mt.Dabie region.Eclogite bodies enclosed in the carbonate rocks occur mostly as knobs,ovoids and lenses measuring centimeters to tens of centimeters in size.The bodies have been intensely carbonatized and usually have transitional contacts with their carbonate hosts.The carbonate rocks have abundant relics of eclogite minerals and their tetrogressive derivatives.The REE patterns of the carbonate rocks are characterized by the absence of negative Ce anomaly.These features suggest that a considerable portion of the eclogite-bearing carbonate rocks in the Mt .Dabie region was produced by carbonatization of eclogites and their retrogressive derivatives.These carbonate rocks suffered deformation and recrystllization after their formation.

  11. Advancing scientific base lines for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation in mountain regions in developing countries (United States)

    Huggel, C.; Jurt, N. Salzmann, C.; Calanca, P.; Ordonez, A. Diaz, J.; Zappa, T. Jonas M.; Konzelmann, T.; Lagos, P.; Obersteiner, M.; Rohrer, M.; Silverio, W.


    Adaptation to climate change impacts is a major challenge for the human society. For countries in development, consistent base lines of expected impacts at the regional scale are required to plan and implement low-cost adaptation measures that effectively address societal needs. However, donors and implementing agencies are often confronted with a lack of scientific data. This poses a serious problem to global adaptation funds, such as the one established under the UNFCCC, which are predominantly directed towards developing countries. This contribution summarizes recent experiences gained from international projects in the Andes, by the Peruvian and Swiss Governments, and the World Bank, on the development of scientific base lines for selected regions in the Peruvian Andes. The focus is on the nexus between water resources, food security and natural disasters. The analysis shows that Peruvian Andes are among the most vulnerable regions to climate change. Negative impacts on water resources are expected from the rapid retreat of glaciers, extended and more frequent drought periods and increasing human needs. Climate change impacts are exacerbated by continued sub-optimal resource management. As a consequence of growing stresses, water availability for human consumption, agriculture and energy generation is increasingly limited. Assessment of the current conditions and reliable projections for the future are hampered by scarce data availability and methodological problems, such as downscaling of global and regional climate scenarios, cross-sector effects, and others. It is critical that related uncertainties, and the propagation thereof, are assessed throughout the impact analysis for an improved management of adaptation measures. Challenges furthermore include communication and understanding among different actors, including the scientific community, political and implementation agencies, and local population. Based on our experiences we will outline a good practice

  12. An EAV-HP Insertion in 5′ Flanking Region of SLCO1B3 Causes Blue Eggshell in the Chicken


    Zhepeng Wang; Lujiang Qu; Junfeng Yao; Xiaolin Yang; Guangqi Li; Yuanyuan Zhang; Junying Li; Xiaotong Wang; Jirong Bai; Guiyun Xu; Xuemei Deng; Ning Yang; Changxin Wu


    The genetic determination of eggshell coloration has not been determined in birds. Here we report that the blue eggshell is caused by an EAV-HP insertion that promotes the expression of SLCO1B3 gene in the uterus (shell gland) of the oviduct in chicken. In this study, the genetic map location of the blue eggshell gene was refined by linkage analysis in an F(2) chicken population, and four candidate genes within the refined interval were subsequently tested for their expression levels in the s...

  13. Upper crustal structure from the Santa Monica Mountains to the Sierra Nevada, Southern California: Tomographic results from the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment, Phase II (LARSE II) (United States)

    Lutter, W.J.; Fuis, G.S.; Ryberg, T.; Okaya, D.A.; Clayton, R.W.; Davis, P.M.; Prodehl, C.; Murphy, J.M.; Langenheim, V.E.; Benthien, M.L.; Godfrey, N.J.; Christensen, N.I.; Thygesen, K.; Thurber, C.H.; Simila, G.; Keller, Gordon R.


    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) collected refraction and low-fold reflection data along a 150-km-long corridor extending from the Santa Monica Mountains northward to the Sierra Nevada. This profile was part of the second phase of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II). Chief imaging targets included sedimentary basins beneath the San Fernando and Santa Clarita Valleys and the deep structure of major faults along the transect, including causative faults for the 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando and 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquakes, the San Gabriel Fault, and the San Andreas Fault. Tomographic modeling of first arrivals using the methods of Hole (1992) and Lutter et al. (1999) produces velocity models that are similar to each other and are well resolved to depths of 5-7.5 km. These models, together with oil-test well data and independent forward modeling of LARSE II refraction data, suggest that regions of relatively low velocity and high velocity gradient in the San Fernando Valley and the northern Santa Clarita Valley (north of the San Gabriel Fault) correspond to Cenozoic sedimentary basin fill and reach maximum depths along the profile of ???4.3 km and >3 km , respectively. The Antelope Valley, within the western Mojave Desert, is also underlain by low-velocity, high-gradient sedimentary fill to an interpreted maximum depth of ???2.4 km. Below depths of ???2 km, velocities of basement rocks in the Santa Monica Mountains and the central Transverse Ranges vary between 5.5 and 6.0 km/sec, but in the Mojave Desert, basement rocks vary in velocity between 5.25 and 6.25 km/sec. The San Andreas Fault separates differing velocity structures of the central Transverse Ranges and Mojave Desert. A weak low-velocity zone is centered approximately on the north-dipping aftershock zone of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and possibly along the deep projection of the San Gabriel Fault. Modeling of gravity data, using

  14. Variation of forest surface and carbon fixation in mountain areas of the Regione Veneto (Italy and the application of the Kyoto protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anfodillo T


    Full Text Available The Parties that have signed the Kyoto Protocol must reduce global emissions of Greenhouse Gasses (GHG during the First Commitment Period (2008 - 2012 by at least 5% with respect to 1990. This share is 6.5% for Italy. The Kyoto Protocol lays down some measures for reducing GHG emissions, which include actions in agriculture and forestry. it will thus be possible to take emissions and absorptions resulting from land use changes into account in the National Balances. Given the widespread forests in Italy, it is very important to have an assessment of the aptitude of this sector to act as a carbon sink. In this study we analysed the variation of forestland cover in a mountain area of the Veneto Region (NE Italy. The analysis was done by comparing aerial photos taken in 1991 with orthophotos reported to 2003, by photointerpretation of points with casual distribution on sample areas, according to a stratified sampling. We estimated a statistically relevant increment of about 0.095% of forest land only up to 1500 m compared to the estimated forest cover for 1990 (about 42 ha, underlining how this low increase is mainly due to forest management. The second step was to estimate the fixed carbon in the areas where forests increased. This was achieved by collecting biometrical data in the field, and then using allometric functions. The annual carbon sink was estimated as 0.69 Mg ha-1 year-1. Comparing these results with previous studies done in the pre-alpine region we estimate the annual increment of the forest area in the whole Veneto region to be about 409.94 ha and that the total carbon sink is about 282.86 Mg C year-1. A method for estimating carbon sink in afforestation/reforestation areas is proposed that could also be applied to other sites in Italy.

  15. Ecogeochemistry in Mountain Region-Definition, Progress and Prospection%山地生态地球化学——定义、进展及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳宏; 邴海健


    ecogeochemistry and so on, has developed on the purpose of assessment of ecosystem safety and health, based on the ecogeochemistry mapping. Mountain is the major geomorphological unit and possesses the unique ecological characteristics. The ecogeochemistry in mountain region has not been systemically launched, although a large amount of achievements have been obtained in element geochemistry, biogeochemistry and ecogeochemical assessment. For the further work in ecogeochemistry in mountain region, more theoretical research should be propelled; meanwhile impeccable method system, research system and assessment system should be established.

  16. Successful Female Mountaineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Third Mountaineering Meet took place from September 26 to October 8, 2003. It was sponsored by the Tibet Association for Mountaineers and undertaken by the Tibet Mountaineering Team and the Tibet Mountaineering School.

  17. Type distribution pattern and pairing of ordinary chondrites from Grove Mountains, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Twenty-eight meteorites were collected on blue ice in the Grove Mountains region, Antarctica, by the 16th Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE). 26 out of the stones are ordinary chondrites, and their chemical-petrographic types are assigned based on electron probe microanalyses, petrography and mineralogy. 6 of them are unequilibrated L-chondrites, and the other 20 chondrites are equilibrated, including 6 H-group (3 H4, 1 H5 and 2 H6), 9 L-group (3 L4, 1 L5 and 5 L6) and 5 LL-group (2 LL4 and 3 LL5). Detailed comparative study suggests that 10 of them (including other 2 chondrites collected by the 15th CHINARE) could be paired, and represent 5 individual fall events. Hence, all 32 meteorites collected from the Grove Mountains probably belong to 27 fall events, suggestive of meteorite transferring and concentrating processes. The Grove Mountains are likely a new meteorite-enriched region. Distribution patterns of chemical-petrographic type and mass of the Grove Mountains meteorites are significantly distinct from those found in other regions, indicative of their unique sources and/or concentration mechanism. However, more studies are required in order to clarify these differences.

  18. A Study on the Regional Development of Teachers in the Poor Mountainous Areas%贫困山区中教师专业地域化发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    由于地理条件与生存文化的影响,贫困山区小学与城市同级教育的教学质量差距不断扩大。为了实现区域教育公平与均衡发展,本文从贫困山区地域文化对教师专业成长的影响因素出发,提出结合地域文化促进贫困山区小学教师专业成长的建议,从而促进贫困山区教学质量提升。%Due to the geographical conditions and the influence of the survival culture, the gap between the teaching quality of the primary school and the urban education in the poor mountainous area is expanding. In order to realize educational equity and bal-anced development, The article starts from the influence factors of the regional culture of the poor mountain area to the teacher pro-fessional development,put forward the suggestion of combining regional culture to promote the professional development of prima-ry school teachers in poor mountain area,so as to promote the quality of teaching in poor mountainous areas.

  19. Analysis of meteorology and emission in haze episode prevalence over mountain-bounded region for early warning. (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Leelasakultum, Ketsiri


    This study investigated the main causes of haze episodes in the northwestern Thailand to provide early warning and prediction. In an absence of emission input data required for chemical transport modeling to predict the haze, the climatological approach in combination with statistical analysis was used. An automatic meteorological classification scheme was developed using regional meteorological station data of 8years (2001-2008) which classified the prevailing synoptic patterns over Northern Thailand into 4 patterns. Pattern 2, occurring with high frequency in March, was found to associate with the highest levels of 24h PM(10) in Chiangmai, the largest city in Northern Thailand. Typical features of this pattern were the dominance of thermal lows over India, Western China and Northern Thailand with hot, dry and stagnant air in Northern Thailand. March 2007, the month with the most severe haze episode in Chiangmai, was found to have a high frequency of occurrence of pattern 2 coupled with the highest emission intensities from biomass open burning. Backward trajectories showed that, on haze episode days, air masses passed over the region of dense biomass fire hotspots before arriving at Chiangmai. A stepwise regression model was developed to predict 24h PM(10) for days of meteorology pattern 2 using February-April data of 2007-2009 and tested with 2004-2010 data. The model performed satisfactorily for the model development dataset (R(2)=87%) and test dataset (R(2)=81%), which appeared to be superior over a simple persistence regression of 24h PM(10) (R(2)=76%). Our developed model had an accuracy over 90% for the categorical forecast of PM(10)>120μg/m(3). The episode warning procedure would identify synoptic pattern 2 and predict 24h PM(10) in Chiangmai 24h in advance. This approach would be applicable for air pollution episode management in other areas with complex terrain where similar conditions exist.

  20. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.


    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  1. Evaluation on the Risks of Agricultural Industrial Chain Based on FAHP——A Case of Regions Inhabited by Ethnic Groups in Wuling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Through recognizing the risking factors of industrial chain and selecting appropriate evaluation method, the index system on evaluating risking factors including market risk, natural risk, contact risk and efficiency risk in industrial chain is constructed,26 weighting indicators under the four layers are set up. Taking regions inhabited by ethnic groups in Wuling Mountain as an example, the risking factors of agricultural industrial chain in the area are analyzed by adopting the FAHP. The influencing degree of each risking factor on credit risks is analyzed. The results assume that with the market risk, contract risk, natural risk and efficiency risk. The natural risks become the principal risks of agricultural industrial chain and it should be paid much attention to. The low credit risk is a major factor that causes the contract between enterprise and rural households. The flood, pests, diseases and disasters also should be paid high attention to that is regarded as risking factors. The risking factors that come from the efficiency risk layer, for example, the unequal profit distribution among enterprises has little effect on enterprises in industrial chain. The research results provide evidence for stipulating risk prevention measures.

  2. Establishment of Aedes aegypti (L.) in mountainous regions in Mexico: Increasing number of population at risk of mosquito-borne disease and future climate conditions. (United States)

    Equihua, Miguel; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Benítez, Griselda; Estrada-Contreras, Israel; Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Mendoza-Palmero, Fredy S


    The study was conducted in the central region of Veracruz Mexico, in the metropolitan area of Xalapa. It is a mountainous area where Aedes aegypti (L.) is not currently endemic. An entomological survey was done along an elevation gradient using the Ae. aegypti occurrences at different life cycle stages. Seven sites were sampled and a total of 24 mosquito species were recorded: 9 species were found in urban areas, 18 in non-urban areas with remnant vegetation, and 3 occurred in both environments. Ae. aegypti was found only in the urban areas, usually below 1200m a.s.l., but in this study was recorded for the first time at 1420m a.s.l. These occurrences, together with additional distribution data in the state of Veracruz were used to developed species distribution models using Maxlike software in R to identify the current projected suitable areas for the establishment of this vector and the human populations that might be affected by dengue transmission at higher elevations. Its emergence in previously unsuitable places appears to be driven by both habitat destruction and biodiversity loss associated with biotic homogenization. A border study using data from the edges of the vector's distribution might allow sensitive monitoring to detect any changes in this mosquito's distribution pattern, and any changes in the anthropic drivers or climate that could increase transmission risk.

  3. Logistic regression and artificial neural network models for mapping of regional-scale landslide susceptibility in volcanic mountains of West Java (Indonesia) (United States)

    Ngadisih, Bhandary, Netra P.; Yatabe, Ryuichi; Dahal, Ranjan K.


    West Java Province is the most landslide risky area in Indonesia owing to extreme geo-morphological conditions, climatic conditions and densely populated settlements with immense completed and ongoing development activities. So, a landslide susceptibility map at regional scale in this province is a fundamental tool for risk management and land-use planning. Logistic regression and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are the most frequently used tools for landslide susceptibility assessment, mainly because they are capable of handling the nature of landslide data. The main objective of this study is to apply logistic regression and ANN models and compare their performance for landslide susceptibility mapping in volcanic mountains of West Java Province. In addition, the model application is proposed to identify the most contributing factors to landslide events in the study area. The spatial database built in GIS platform consists of landslide inventory, four topographical parameters (slope, aspect, relief, distance to river), three geological parameters (distance to volcano crater, distance to thrust and fault, geological formation), and two anthropogenic parameters (distance to road, land use). The logistic regression model in this study revealed that slope, geological formations, distance to road and distance to volcano are the most influential factors of landslide events while, the ANN model revealed that distance to volcano crater, geological formation, distance to road, and land-use are the most important causal factors of landslides in the study area. Moreover, an evaluation of the model showed that the ANN model has a higher accuracy than the logistic regression model.

  4. Evaluation of Landscape Pattern Changes and Ecological Effects in Land Reclamation Project of Homestead in Hilly and Mountainous Regions of Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO You-jin


    Full Text Available In order to research the effects of landscape pattern and ecological effects caused by homestead land reclamation in hilly and mountainous regions of southwest China, taking land reclamation project of homestead in Dazhu Village, Qiantang Town, Hechuan District of Chongqing City as an example, the land use structure and landscape pattern changes were studied based on ArcGIS and methods of landscape ecology. The ecological effects were evaluated with an indices system which was constructed with optimized landscape pattern and the weight assigned for each index by AHP (analytic hierarchy process method. The results showed that the ecological environment was improved as a result of homestead land reclamation project. Almost of the evaluation index, such as length and density of corridor and ecological services value, had positive effects on ecosystem. But the dominance index and fractal dimension index had negative effects. In conclusion, the rural scattered residential areas were concentrated to some extent by implement of the homestead land reclamation project, which saved the rural residents living area to provide the land utilization index for urban and rural construction and conducive to the development of new rural construction and rural ecological civilization construction.

  5. New data on the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous limestones from Bihor Mountains: case study of Gârda Seacă-Hodobana region, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Turi


    Full Text Available This study refers to some problems regarding the lithological succession, facies and carbonate microfacies, and to biostratigraphic markers of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonates from Bihor Mountains. Three types of facies (external marginal facies, subtidal and peritidal facies were separated for the Upper Jurassic, and two (coastal-peritidal and open shelf facies for the Lower Cretaceous carbonates. The micropaleontological assemblages identified contain species that allow the separation of the two formations of different age: Labyrinthina mirabilis, Kurnubia palastiniensis, Neokilianina rahonensis, Clypeina sulcata (Kimmeridgian-Lower Tithonian and Parakoskinolina? jourdanensis, Montseciella arabica, Palorbitolina lenticularis, Falsolikanella danilovae (Barremian – Lower Aptian. Field observations and data obtained from studies on thin sections and polished slabs indicate that a large part of the Triassic (Ladinian-Lower Carnian and Lower Cretaceous limestones from Gârda Seacă-Hodobana region, delimited on the geological maps 1:50 000 scale, sheets 56b (Poiana Horea and 56d (Avram Iancu (Bleahu et al., 1980; Dimitrescu et al., 1977, belong in fact to the Upper Jurassic carbonate succession.

  6. The regional stratotype section and point for the base of the Hirnantian Stage (the uppermost Ordovician at Mirny Creek, Omulev Mountains, Northeast Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koren, Tatyana N.


    Full Text Available A complete Hirnantian sequence comprising the Normalograptus extraordinarius and N. persculptus biozones is well developed at the Mirny Creek section in the Omulev Mountains. The underlying beds are assigned to the Appendispinograptus supernus Biozone, and in the overlying strata the lower boundary of the Silurian is precisely defined at the base of the Akidograptus ascensus Biozone. Due to the completeness of the sedimentary and palaeontological record, the Mirny Creek section can be considered as a reference section for the Hirnantian Stage. The succession, about 100 m thick, is composed of calcareous siltstones and marls with pebble-shaped limestones, deposited at a high sedimentation rate in shallow shelf settings. The regional stratotype section and point (RSSP for the lower boundary of the Hirnantian is established at the base of member 68, where Normalograptus extraordinarius first appears. This level can be precisely correlated with that at the GSSP section in Yichang and with the sections in Kazakhstan and North America. The position of the Ordovician-Silurian boundary is redefined and placed at the FAD of A. ascensus at the base of member 74.

  7. Late Pleistocene glaciation of the Changbai Mountains in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; NIU YunBo; YAN Ling; CUI ZhiJiu; LI ChuanChuan; MU KeHua


    The Changbai Mountains (2749 m a.s.l.) in northeastern China are one of the typical mountain regions with glaciation since late Pleistocene as evidenced by well-preserved erosive and accumulative land-forms at elevations above 2000 m a.s.l. Formed by glaciers around the crater lake, Tianchi Lake. Cirque glaciers developed on both the inner and outer sides of the volcanic cone. Well-preserved cirques, glacial trough valleys, glacial threholds, polished surfaces of the glacial erratics and the moraine ridges indicate that several glaciation processes took place during the last glacial period in this region. Re-sults of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on the moraine sediments, and the K/Ar, ther-mal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), electronic spinning resonance (ESR) dating on the volcanic rocks suggest two periods of glacier advances. One is named the Black Wind Mouth glacier advance taking place on the west and north slopes of the volcanic cone at an elevation of 2000-2100 m a.s.l.,which is dated to about 20 ka, being the result of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The other is named the Meteorological Station glacier advance at the elevation of 2400--2600 m a.s.l., dated to 11 ka during the late glacial period, and is tentatively correlated to the Younger Dryas stage. The scope of the former glacier advance is larger than that of the latter. Regional comparisons showed that the glacial se-quences in the Changbai Mountains are similar to other glaciated areas in eastern Asia during the later part of the last glacial cycle.

  8. The Impact of Moisture on Mountain Waves During T-REX (United States)


    terrain height is given by Nh eff U c 5M c , (4) where Mc is the critical nondimensional mountain height for the Sierra ridge. The depth of the blocked...moist nearly neutral flow over a ridge. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 1410 –1427. Reeves, H. D., and R. Rotunno, 2008: Orographic flow response to variations in

  9. Distribution features of stable oxygen isotopes in the typical monsoon temperate-glacier region, Mountain Yulong in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    During the summers of 1999 and 2000, sampling was carried out in Mt.Yulong, for the investigation of the spatial distribution of oxygen stable isotope in the atmospheric-glacial-hydro system and similar results obtained in the two years have confirmed our conclusion. There is an evident negative correlation between stable isotopic composition and air temperature-precipitation amount, suggesting that there exits a strong “precipitation amount effect” in this typical monsoon temperate-glacier region. There are marked differences between the δ1'O values in winter-accumulated snow, glacial meltwater, summer precipitation and glacier-feeding stream. Under the control of varied climatic conditions, spatial and temporal variations of above glacialhydro mediums are apparent. Isotopic depletion or fractionation and ionic changes had occurred during the phase-change and transformation processes of snow-ice, icemeltwater, flowing of runoff and contact with bedrock. The variation of stable isotope in a runoff can reflect not only its own flowing process but also its different feeding sources.

  10. Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Changbai Mountains are located within the boundaries of Antu County, Fusong County and Changbai County of Jilin City of Jilin Province. They cover a total area of more than 200,000 hectares and is one of the largest nature preserves in China. There are abundant species of living things, such as Dongbei Tiger, sika, sable and

  11. Mountain medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen


    Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain...

  12. Individual aerosol particles in ambient and updraft conditions below convective cloud bases in the Oman mountain region (United States)

    Semeniuk, T. A.; Bruintjes, R. T.; Salazar, V.; Breed, D. W.; Jensen, T. L.; Buseck, P. R.


    An airborne study of cloud microphysics provided an opportunity to collect aerosol particles in ambient and updraft conditions of natural convection systems for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Particles were collected simultaneously on lacey carbon and calcium-coated carbon (Ca-C) TEM grids, providing information on particle morphology and chemistry and a unique record of the particle's physical state on impact. In total, 22 particle categories were identified, including single, coated, aggregate, and droplet types. The fine fraction comprised up to 90% mixed cation sulfate (MCS) droplets, while the coarse fraction comprised up to 80% mineral-containing aggregates. Insoluble (dry), partially soluble (wet), and fully soluble particles (droplets) were recorded on Ca-C grids. Dry particles were typically silicate grains; wet particles were mineral aggregates with chloride, nitrate, or sulfate components; and droplets were mainly aqueous NaCl and MCS. Higher numbers of droplets were present in updrafts (80% relative humidity (RH)) compared with ambient conditions (60% RH), and almost all particles activated at cloud base (100% RH). Greatest changes in size and shape were observed in NaCl-containing aggregates (>0.3 µm diameter) along updraft trajectories. Their abundance was associated with high numbers of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud droplets, as well as large droplet sizes in updrafts. Thus, compositional dependence was observed in activation behavior recorded for coarse and fine fractions. Soluble salts from local pollution and natural sources clearly affected aerosol-cloud interactions, enhancing the spectrum of particles forming CCN and by forming giant CCN from aggregates, thus, making cloud seeding with hygroscopic flares ineffective in this region.

  13. [Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in general population of coast, mountain and forest regions of Peru. A preliminary report]. (United States)

    Vildósola, H; Farfán, G; Colan, E; Delgado, G; Mendoza, L; Pineda, R; Linares, O; Miyasato, D; Lescano, R


    A prospective study was performed in order to establish HBsAg prevalence on population living in urban areas of three geographical regions of Peru. There were included 100 apparently healthy people of each city, with a residence major to 5 years, no migrate neither transitory. Each subdivided group in 50 adults and 50 children. Of these last ones 15 between 1 to 7 years old and 20 cases between 7 to 14 years old. Samples were obtained by venipuncture, then they were centrifuged and the serum obtained was stored at -20 degrees C before being sent to Lima for processing. Determination of HBsAg was made by the Elisa's technic (Abbott Lab-III.-USA). In this preliminary report we informed about results in 7 cities (Lima, Iquitos, Chiclayo, Arequipa,Ica, Chachapoyas y Tarapoto) that include 680 persons of which 373 were adults and 307 children. The HBsAg, was positive in 26 cases (3.8%). In the adult group were 13 positives (3.4%), and in the children also 13 cases (4.2%). Result of all sample shows figures of prevalence (3.8%) major to that reported before at national level. The same phenomenon was observed in the cost while in the jungle our results were similar to those found before. In the andean area not studied previously there were obtained similar results to the rest of the country. It is also interesting to mention the high percentages of prevalence in children. These results indicate that hepatitis B is a serious problem of public health in our country that merit to take immediate prophylactic measures.

  14. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA) (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus


    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  15. 山东半岛蓝色经济区旅游联动开发模式研究%Study on the Combined Development of Regional Tourism in the Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    区域旅游联动开发本质上是区域合作的一种方式,是避免同质旅游地恶性厮杀的必由之路.山东半岛蓝色经济区规划已上升为国家战略,此背景下,在对山东半岛蓝色经济区七城市旅游经济联系强度与旅游业发展水平分析的基础上,针对七城市区域旅游联动开发的优势条件,提出亚圈层多边联动、区域定位的地域分工两大联动开发模式.%Combined development essentially is one strategy of regional cooperation, and also the only route to avoid vicious fight of coessential tourism areas. Nowadays, Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone Planning has rose to national strategies, under this background, based on the analysis of tourism economic linkage and development level between seven cities in the Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone, in the light of studying the advantageous conditions for seven cities of regional tourism development, this paper proposes two combined development modes of sub layer interaction of multi cooperation and regional distribution of regional location.

  16. The effect of inter-annual variability of consumption, production, trade and climate on crop-related green and blue water footprints and inter-regional virtual water trade: A study for China (1978-2008). (United States)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y


    Previous studies into the relation between human consumption and indirect water resources use have unveiled the remote connections in virtual water (VW) trade networks, which show how communities externalize their water footprint (WF) to places far beyond their own region, but little has been done to understand variability in time. This study quantifies the effect of inter-annual variability of consumption, production, trade and climate on WF and VW trade, using China over the period 1978-2008 as a case study. Evapotranspiration, crop yields and green and blue WFs of crops are estimated at a 5 × 5 arc-minute resolution for 22 crops, for each year in the study period, thus accounting for climate variability. The results show that crop yield improvements during the study period helped to reduce the national average WF of crop consumption per capita by 23%, with a decreasing contribution to the total from cereals and increasing contribution from oil crops. The total consumptive WFs of national crop consumption and crop production, however, grew by 6% and 7%, respectively. By 2008, 28% of total water consumption in crop fields in China served the production of crops for export to other regions and, on average, 35% of the crop-related WF of a Chinese consumer was outside its own province. Historically, the net VW within China was from the water-rich South to the water-scarce North, but intensifying North-to-South crop trade reversed the net VW flow since 2000, which amounted 6% of North's WF of crop production in 2008. South China thus gradually became dependent on food supply from the water-scarce North. Besides, during the whole study period, China's domestic inter-regional VW flows went dominantly from areas with a relatively large to areas with a relatively small blue WF per unit of crop, which in 2008 resulted in a trade-related blue water loss of 7% of the national total blue WF of crop production. The case of China shows that domestic trade, as governed by

  17. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues. (United States)

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari


    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  18. Regional glacier mass loss estimated by ICESat-GLAS data and SRTM digital elevation model in the West Kunlun Mountains, Tibetan Plateau, 2003-2009 (United States)

    Wu, Hongbo; Wang, Ninglian; Guo, Zhongming; Wu, Yuwei


    The Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) altimetry and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data are used to estimate glacier mass loss changes in the West Kunlun Mountains, Tibetan Plateau (TP), 2003 to 2009. We integrated Landsat thematic mapper (TM)/enhanced TM images and GIS spatial analysis to map glacier surface elevation changes during 2003 to 2009. The ICESat-GLAS data can be used as baselines for surface elevation changes in altimetry as well as for TM imagery changes for depicting glacier area. Least-squares regression of an ICESat-derived thickness series shows the regional glacier mass decreased at an average rate of 1.41±0.23 km3/year water equivalent from 2003 to 2009, during the period of 2003 to 2009, the trend in thickness change became weaker. The ICESat-GLAS and SRTM DEM elevation differences between February 2003 and October 2009 show that the glacier surface elevations were decreasing below 5800 m but increased by 1.1±0.7 m above 6000 m a.s.l. region over that period. Thickness changes in the lower reaches of the glaciers indicate that the glacier ice ablation was mainly due to the summer temperature increases of 0.23°C and the summer precipitation decreases of 47.8 mm as measured at four stations, as well as the effects of sand and dust sources from the Tarim Basin. Meanwhile, in the upper parts of the glaciers (above 5800 m a.s.l.), ice surface elevation was increasing even though the Hetian station summer temperature at the 500 hPa level showed an obvious decrease of 0.78°C compared to 2003. In the upper part of the glacier-covered region, firn compaction and surface density should be taken into account. The glacier surges and bedrock movement may also lead to an underestimate of the volume loss due to the reduced mass conversion.

  19. The contribute of DInSAR techniques to landslide hazard evaluation in mountain and hilly regions: a case study from Agno Valley (North-Eastern Italian Alps) (United States)

    De Agostini, A.; Floris, M.; Pasquali, P.; Barbieri, M.; Cantone, A.; Riccardi, P.; Stevan, G.; Genevois, R.


    In the last twenty years, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques have been widely used to investigate geological processes, such as subsidence, earthquakes and landslides, through the evaluation of earth surface displacements caused by these processes. In the study of mass movements, contribution of interferometry can be limited due to the acquisition geometry of RADAR images and the rough morphology of mountain and hilly regions which represent typical landslide-prone areas. In this study, the advanced DInSAR techniques (i.e. Small Baseline Subset and Persistent Scatterers techniques), available in SARscape software, are used. These methods involve the use of multiple acquisitions stacks (large SAR temporal series) allowing improvements and refinements in landslide identification, characterization and hazard evaluation at the basin scale. Potential and limits of above mentioned techniques are outlined and discussed. The study area is the Agno Valley, located in the North-Eastern sector of Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto Region, Italy). This area and the entire Vicenza Province were hit by an exceptional rainfall event on November 2010 that triggered more than 500 slope instabilities. The main aim of the work is to verify if spatial information available before the rainfall event, including ERS and ENVISAT RADAR data from 1992 to 2010, were able to predict the landslides occurred in the study area, in order to implement an effectiveness forecasting model. In the first step of the work a susceptibility analysis is carried out using landslide dataset from the IFFI project (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia, Landslide Italian Inventory) and related predisposing factors, which consist of morphometric (elevation, slope, aspect and curvature) and non-morphometric (land use, distance of roads and distance of river) factors available from the Veneto Region spatial database. Then, to test the prediction, the

  20. Classification of 24 New Ordinary Chondrites from the Grove Mountains, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ren; MIAO Bingkui; WANG Guiqing; DAI Deqiu; LIN Yangting; OUYANG Ziyuan; LI Chunlai


    Petrography and mineral chemistry of 24 ordinary chondrites from the Grove Mountains, Antarctica, have been studied in order to identify their chemical-petrographic types. These samples were selected from a total of 4448 Grove Mountains (GRV) meteorites collected during the 19th Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition so as to make an estimation of the large GRV meteorite collection. The chemical-petrographic types of these meteorites are presented below: 1 H3, 2 H4,4 H5, 2 H6, 1 L4, 7 L5, 5 L6, 1 LL4 and 1 LL6. The new data weaken the previous report that unequilibrated ordinary chondrites are unusually abundant in the Grove Mountains region. However, this work confirms significant differences in distribution patterns of chemical-petrographic types between the Grove Mountains and other regions in Antarctica. Many of these meteorites show significant terrestrial weathering, probably due to a high abundance ratio of meteorites found in moraines to those on blue ice. Nine meteorites experienced severe shock metamorphism, as evidenced by undulose extinction and intense fracturing of silicates and presence of shock-induced melt veins and pockets. These heavily shocked meteorites provided us with natural samples for the study of high-pressure polymorphs of minerals.

  1. An analysis of socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountain Villages in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey, with consideration of gender roles. (United States)

    Davran, Müge K; Ocak, Sezen; Secer, Arzu


    This paper aims to reveal socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountains' villages in Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey: with consideration of gender roles. Goat production sector is the most important livelihood activity in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. According to various new regulations of the Ministry of Forestry, goat production in the mountainous villages of Taurus Mountains has been banned for recent year for various reasons such as; the destruction of shoots and branches in trees, forest degradation and erosion. Therefore, goat production is decreasing dramatically in that region. Data were collected in 4 districts of 8 villages in which goat production has been done intensively (two villages in each district) by face to face interview with 52 women and 58 men. Data were analyzed in Statistical Program of Social Science (SPSS). According to our findings, goat production has different affects on the lives of men and women and the sustainability of the sector is dependent on social factors, primarily education.

  2. Variation of Thornthwaite Moisture Index in Hengduan Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guofeng; QIN Dahe; TONG Huali; LIU Yuanfeng; LI Jiafang; CHEN Dongdong; WANG Kai


    The Thornthwaite moisture index,an index of the supply of water (precipitation) in an area relative to the climatic demand for water (potential evapotranspiration),was used to examine the spatial and temporal variation of drought and to verify the influence of environmental factors on the drought in the Hengduan Mountains,China.Results indicate that the Thornthwaite moisture index in the Hengduan Mountains had been increasing since 1960 with a rate of 0.1938/yr.Annual Thornthwaite moisture index in Hengduan Mountains was between-97.47 and 67.43 and the spatial heterogeneity was obvious in different seasons.Thornthwaite moisture index was high in the north and low in the south,and the monsoon rainfall had a significant impact on its spatial distribution.The tendency rate of Thomthwaite moisture index variation varied in different seasons,and the increasing trends in spring were greater than that in summer and autumn.However,the Thornthwaite moisture index decreased in winter.Thornthwaite moisture index increased greatly in the north and there was a small growth in the south of Hengduan Mountains.The increase of precipitation and decrease of evaporation lead to the increase of Thornthwaite moisture index.Thomthwaite moisture index has strong correlation with vegetation coverage.It can be seen that the correlation between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Thornthwaite moisture index was positive in spring and summer,but negative in autumn and winter.Correlation between Thornthwaite moisture index and relative soil relative moisture content was positive in spring,surnmer and autumn,but negative in winter.The typical mountainous terrain affect the distribution of temperature,precipitation,wind speed and other meteorological factors in this region,and then affect the spatial distribution of Thornthwaite moisture index.The unique ridge-gorge terrain caused the continuity of water-heat distribution from the north to south,and the water-heat was stronger

  3. Early results of experimental 222Rn flux campaign carried out at a mountain Spanish region and comparison with available radon flux inventories results (United States)

    Nofuentes, Manel; Grossi, Claudia; Morguí, Josep Anton; Curcoll, Roger; Cañas, Lidia; Occhipinti, Paola; Borràs, Silvia; Vazquez, Eusebi; Rodó, Xavier


    The atmospheric concentrations of components impacting the greenhouse effect (CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, and aerosols) have increased significantly in the last two centuries, leading to a direct impact on our climate. These climatic changes deeply affect the geochemistry and the dynamics of the main reservoirs such as the atmosphere, the ocean, and the biosphere. Therefore, reductions of the emissions are needed for all four of the most important anthropogenic GHGs: CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. Particularly, the relative contribution of human induced CH4 in the atmosphere to the total human direct greenhouse effect is about 25%. Furthermore, the CH4 has the shortest lifetime in the atmosphere (about 9 years), so that emissions reduction measures for CH4 will lead to changes in concentration growth rates, or even a concentration decline, at relatively shor time scales. All these reasons make the CH4 an attractive compound to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. Nowadays, the study and attribution of categories for GHGs sources is carried out by using bottom-up inventories and top-down techniques. The atmospheric concentrations and the fluxes of the noble and radioactive 222Rn gas are widely used for retriving indirectly GHGs fluxes, improving top-down techniques and analysing different type of sources. In the frame of the "Methane exchange between soil and atmosphere over the Iberian Peninsula" (MIP) project (Reference: CGL2013-46186-R, Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness) four experimental radon flux campaigns are carried out at mountain as well as at coastal Spanish regions using integrated and continuous monitors. The early results of first radon flux campaign carried out at the Gredos and Iruelas climate station (GIC3) of the Catalan Institute of Climate Science (IC3) are presented and compared with available radon flux inventories maps.

  4. Why Do Proteins Glow Blue?

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Sohini; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj


    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band structure of proteins with the optical band-gap in the visible region is possibly the origin of this phenomenon. We show here that the band structure of proteins is primarily the result of electron delocalization through the peptide chain, rather than through the hydrogen bond network in secondary structure.

  5. The Global Distribution of Wrinkle Ridges on Venus (United States)

    Bilotti, Frank; Suppe, John


    New digital mapping of over 65,000 wrinkle ridges of the plains of Venus shows a strong correlation between the location and orientation of these long, low-amplitude compressive anticlines and major features of the geoid and long-wavelength topography. Regions with wrinkle ridges occupy 43% of the plains and are strongly skewed toward low elevations and negative geoid anomalies. About 93% of the wrinkle ridge plains lie below mean planetary radius and 72% have negative geoid anomalies. In contrast, the extensional rift zones of Venus are strongly skewed toward high elevations and positive geoid anomalies. Thus compressive deformation dominates the topographic and geoid lows, whereas extensional rifting is generally restricted to the highs. These observations are consistent with geoid-based stress models that predict compression in geoid lows and extension in geoid highs. The orientations of wrinkle ridges are generally consistent over regions extending for 1000-10,000 km. Many regions have multiple sets of wrinkle ridges of different orientations reflecting multiple episodes and directions of compression; however, about 80% of the regions display a single dominant wrinkle ridge orientation, with secondary orientations subordinate. The dominant wrinkle ridge orientations in many regions follow the contours of long-wavelength topography and geoid or lie along the axes of troughs in the geoid. Thus the maximum horizontal compression recorded by the folds is commonly parallel to the present-day gradient in geoid and topography, although some regions are strong exceptions, perhaps reflecting changes in topography and geoid with time. The dominant wrinkle ridge trends ring several major geoid and topographic swells, especially Western Aphrodite Terra and Lada Terra, with ring diameters of 75-120° (8000-13,000 km). In addition there are smaller rings of wrinkle ridges around the swells in Themis, Eistla, and Bell regiones, especially Gula Mons, with ring diameters of 25

  6. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka


    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  7. The Role of Aga Khan Rural Support Programme in Rural Development in the Karakorum, Hindu Kush & Himalayan Region: Examples from the Northern Mountainous Belt of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Pakistan is predominantly a mountainous country where rural development activities are characterised by inconsistency, politically motivated short-term projects without proper feedback. Since the inception of the country, the top-down approach has been followed, and the same development plans that were formulated for the plain areas have been extended to the mountains without any modification.In doing so, neither the participation of the local communities was cared for, nor the mountain specificities were considered in the planning process.Moreover, the representation of the local inhabitants was improper and contradictory to the facts. This biased approach has been one of the main causes for the failure of development projects carried out by different agencies of the Government. Contrary to the perception of the state authorities, the mountain communities proved to be more open to accept new approaches and demonstrated the capacity and capability of being a dependable development partner.In this paper, a detailed account of the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (AKRSP) has been presented to assess and evaluate the approach followed by this non-governmental organisation (NGO), and the response of the local inhabitants as collaborators in the development process. The achievements of the AKRSP from project planning,implementation and monitoring can be adopted as a model for rural development not only in the plains,but also in the mountainous areas of the developing countries in the world.

  8. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.


    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  9. Tectonic controls on large landslide complex: Williams Fork Mountains near Dillon, Colorado (United States)

    Kellogg, K.S.


    An extensive (~ 25 km2) landslide complex covers a large area on the west side of the Williams Fork Mountains in central Colorado. The complex is deeply weathered and incised, and in most places geomorphic evidence of sliding (breakaways, hummocky topography, transverse ridges, and lobate distal zones) are no longer visible, indicating that the main mass of the slide has long been inactive. However, localized Holocene reactivation of the landslide deposits is common above the timberline (at about 3300 m) and locally at lower elevations. Clasts within the complex, as long as several tens of meters, are entirely of crystalline basement (Proterozoic gneiss and granitic rocks) from the hanging wall of the Laramide (Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary), west-directed Williams Range thrust, which forms the western structural boundary of the Colorado Front Range. Late Cretaceous shale and sandstone compose most footwall rocks. The crystalline hanging-wall rocks are pervasively fractured or shattered, and alteration to clay minerals is locally well developed. Sackung structures (trenches or small-scale grabens and upslope-facing scarps) are common near the rounded crest of the range, suggesting gravitational spreading of the fractured rocks and oversteepening of the mountain flanks. Late Tertiary and Quaternary incision of the Blue River Valley, just west of the Williams Fork Mountains, contributed to the oversteepening. Major landslide movement is suspected during periods of deglaciation when abundant meltwater increased pore-water pressure in bedrock fractures. A fault-flexure model for the development of the widespread fracturing and weakening of the Proterozoic basement proposes that the surface of the Williams Range thrust contains a concave-downward flexure, the axis of which coincides approximately with the contact in the footwall between Proterozoic basement and mostly Cretaceous rocks. Movement of brittle, hanging-wall rocks through the flexure during Laramide

  10. Location Awareness in a Mountain Rescue Domain


    Georgopoulos, Panagiotis; Edwards, Christopher; Dunmore, Martin


    Aiding the efficient collaboration and coordination of rescue teams is a challenging task especially in a heterogeneous mountainous region. Knowing the exact location of the rescuers during a mountain search and rescue mission can be of great value for the successful progress of the mission and help the mission coordinator in taking informed decisions. The devised Location Awareness System can provide, in a quasi real time manner, exact location information of the rescuers on the mountain, to...

  11. Resources, tourism and mountain territorial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Rationale and objectivesThe Journal of Alpine Research is preparing a special issue dedicated to the theme “Resources”, tourism and mountain territorial development.” The objective is to bring together analyses concerning the identification, “invention,” communication and exploitation of territorial resources in development initiatives including tourism in African and European mountainous regions, or beyond. It will particularly stress the capacity of referring to “mountains,” as a generic ca...

  12. Use of ridge points in partial fingerprint matching (United States)

    Fang, Gang; Srihari, Sargur N.; Srinivasan, Harish; Phatak, Prasad


    Matching of partial fingerprints has important applications in both biometrics and forensics. It is well-known that the accuracy of minutiae-based matching algorithms dramatically decrease as the number of available minutiae decreases. When singular structures such as core and delta are unavailable, general ridges can be utilized. Some existing highly accurate minutiae matchers do use local ridge similarity for fingerprint alignment. However, ridges cover relatively larger regions, and therefore ridge similarity models are sensitive to non-linear deformation. An algorithm is proposed here to utilize ridges more effectively- by utilizing representative ridge points. These points are represented similar to minutiae and used together with minutiae in existing minutiae matchers with simple modification. Algorithm effectiveness is demonstrated using both full and partial fingerprints. The performance is compared against two minutiae-only matchers (Bozorth and k-minutiae). Effectiveness with full fingerprint matching is demonstrated using the four databases of FVC2002- where the error rate decreases by 0.2-0.7% using the best matching algorithm. The effectiveness is more significant in the case of partial fingerprint matching- which is demonstrated with sixty partial fingerprint databases generated from FVC2002 (with five levels of numbers of minutiae available). When only 15 minutiae are available the error rate decreases 5-7.5%. Thus the method, which involves selecting representative ridge points, minutiae matcher modification, and a group of minutiae matchers, demonstrates improved performance on full and especially partial fingerprint matching.

  13. Research on regional risk zonation of mountain torrent disasters in Huangshan scenic area%黄山风景区暴雨山洪灾害风险区划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高展; 许剑勇; 王胜; 田红


    Taking Huangshan scenic area as the research area, this study discusses the applicability of risk zonation of mountain torrent di-sasters in relatively closed regions. Based on natural disaster risk assessment theory and mountain torrent risk formation mechanism, the risk zoning of mountain torrent disaster was formed for Huangshan scenic area by using meteorological data, integrating factors of nature, social economy, geographic information data as well as mountain torrent-caused disaster. Results indicate that the high-risk areas are mainly dis-tributed in the northeast and southwest of scenic region, including Ciguangge, Wenquan, Yungusi, Paiyunlou, northern of Beihai, Tianhai, etc., which are dense region of tourist and essence of scenic spots. While the low risk areas are mainly distributed in the northeast and south-west of scenic region, including Fugu, Yanghu, and Fuxi, etc. Tangkou town is the base of life and tourist reception, which is located in medi-um to high risk area. Because of population and buildings being highly concentrated, the mountain torrents disaster of Tangkou should be highly vigilant. The result of regionalizing risks is consistent with the actual situation according to historically typical rainstorm torrent disas-ters. The paper introduces the technology and method of regional risk zonation of mountain torrent disasters in Huangshan scenic area, which could provide scientific basis and reference for prevention of weather disasters in mountain tourism scenic spot.%以黄山风景区为研究对象,探讨相对封闭的区域山洪灾害风险区划方法的适用性.基于自然灾害风险评价理论,利用黄山风景区气象、社会经济、地理信息以及山洪灾情等资料,开展山岳型景区暴雨山洪灾害风险区划研究.结果表明:山洪灾害高风险区主要位于景区中部及西部,包括慈光阁、温泉、云谷寺、排云楼、北海北部、天海等地.低风险区主要位于景区中部、

  14. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (United States)

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ... New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases ...

  15. Active convection beneath ridges: a new spin (United States)

    Katz, R. F.


    The role of buoyancy-driven, "active" upwelling beneath mid-ocean ridges has been long debated [1,2,3], with the naysayers holding sway in recent years. Recent work on tomographic imaging of the sub-ridge mantle has revealed patterns in velocity variation that seem inconsistent with what we expect of passive upwelling and melting [4]. The irregular distribution, asymmetry, and off-axis locations of slow regions in tomographic results are suggestive of time-dependent convective flow. Using 2D numerical simulations of internally consistent mantle and magmatic flow plus melting/freezing [5,6], I investigate the parametric subspace in which active convection is expected to occur. For low mantle viscosities, interesting symmetry-breaking behavior is predicted. References: [1] Rabinowicz, et al., EPSL, 1984; [2] Buck & Su, GRL, 1989; [3] Scott & Stevenson, JGR, 1989; [4] Toomey et al., Nature, 2007; [5] McKenzie, J.Pet., 1984; [6] Katz, J.Pet., 2008;

  16. Evaluation of the SAFRAN-ISBA-RAPID hydrometeorological chain on a mountainous catchment in a semi-arid region. Case of the Rheraya (Marrakech, Morocco) (United States)

    Szczypta, Camille; Gascoin, Simon; Habets, Florence; Saaidi, Amina; Berjamy, Brahim; Marchane, Ahmed; Boulet, Gilles; Hanich, Lahoucine; Jarlan, Lionel


    The water content of snow pack is an important resource for many watershed in semi-arid areas where downstream plains are dominated by irrigated agriculture. As part of the ANR Amethyst, this work is to develop, adapt and evaluate a hydro-meteorological forecasting chain for quantifying streamflows at the outlet of a mountainous watershed (Rheraya wadi, Marrakech region, Morocco), a pilot basin instrumented since 2003 as part of SudMed project. Two sets of atmospheric forcing were used: (1) The first was generated by spatializing meteorological data observed on 6 stations (Asni, Aremdt, Tachedert, Oukaimeden, Imskerbour and Neltner) using the semi-physical module Micromet (Liston and Elder, 2006) on the hydrological period September 2003 - August 2012; (2) the second is provided by the SAFRAN re-analysis, implemented by the Metoffice of Morocco (Casablanca, Morocco), during the period August 2004 - July 2008. These two sets were then used as inputs for the ISBA surface model, within the modeling platform SURFEX. Finally, runoff and drainage simulations derived from ISBA were forced into the hydrological model RAPID to predict streamflows. The flows predictions and the snow covered area (SCA) were compared respectively to the observations available for the 2003-2009 period and to the daily MODIS products of SCA. Despite time unsystematic lags and low biases on flow values, the initial results are encouraging due to topographical and hydro-complexity of the studied area. Despite a slight tendency to underestimate the SCA for the "Micromet" run and to over-estimate for the "Safran" run, SCA is well reproduced with a determination coefficient of r²=0.76 and r²=0.79, respectively. Given the complex topography of the basin, a sensitivity analysis to the size of the grid point (from 8 km to 250 m) was conducted. If the different simulated series of SCA are close from a resolution to another, streamflows simulations are, by contrast, highly sensitive to the resolution

  17. Economic benefits analysis of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Ougan in mountainous region%山地无籽瓯柑栽培经济效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐象华; 朱国华; 颜福花


    采用技术经济分析方法,研究了山地无籽瓯柑良种栽培的成本构成和各项经济指标。结果表明:在15 a一个生产周期中,其内部收益率为34.28%,投资回收期5.82 a,每公顷净现值299240元,设计产量或价格收益率的盈亏平衡点为52.88%。在影响无籽瓯柑良种栽培经济效果的诸因素中,以销售收入变动影响最大,其次为生产成本,从现实情况分析,其市场风险和政策风险是很小的。政府在无籽瓯柑产业资金扶持政策上,应重点考虑对基地建设的资金扶持,或扩大小额贷款范围、延迟还贷时间等政策措施,促进无籽瓯柑产业的发展。%The cost composition and economic indicators of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv .Ougan in mountainous region was analyzed by technical and economic analysis method .The results showed that the internal rate of return in 15-year production cycle was 34.28%, period for recovery of investment was 5.82 years, the net present value was 299 240 yuan· hm-2 , the break-even point of planned output or earnings price ratio was 52.88%.Among the influence factors on economic benefit of cultivation of improved Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Ougan, the effect of sales revenue was the largest , the production cost took the second place .According to market in recent years , its market risk and policy risk were quite low.In order to promote the industry development of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Ougan, the government should make fund policies to build orchard , enlarge scope of small-amount loans , or delay the time of repay loans and so on .

  18. Foods, macronutrients and fibre in the diet of blue sheep (Psuedois nayaur) in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. (United States)

    Aryal, Achyut; Coogan, Sean C P; Ji, Weihong; Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David


    Food resources are often critical regulating factors affecting individual fitness and population densities. In the Himalayan Mountains, Bharal "blue sheep" (Pseudois nayaur) are the main food resource for the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia), as well as being preyed upon by other predators. Blue sheep, however, may face a number of challenges including food resource competition with other wild and domestic ungulates, and hunting pressure. Here, we characterized the diet of blue sheep in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) of Nepal and conducted proximate nutritional analysis on a limited number of plants identified as foods. Furthermore, we investigated the macronutrient and fiber balance of these plants using nutritional geometry which is a state-space approach to modeling multidimensional and interactive nutritional aspects of foraging. A total of 19 plant species/genera were identified in blue sheep pellets using microhistological analysis. On average, across seasons and regions of the study area, the two most frequently occurring plants in pellets were graminoids: Kobressia sp. and Carex spp. The macronutrient balance of Kobresia sp. was relatively high in carbohydrate and low in protein, while other plants in the diet were generally higher in protein and lipid content. Analysis of fiber balance showed that the two most consumed plants of blue sheep (i.e., Kobresia spp. and Carex spp.) contained the highest concentration of hemicellulose, which is likely digestible by blue sheep. The hemicellulose and lignin balance of plants ranged relatively widely, yet their cellulose contents showed less variation. Foraging by blue sheep may therefore be a balance between consuming highly digestible high-carbohydrate plants and plants less-digestible but higher in protein and/or lipid.

  19. Validation of MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval over Mountains in Central China Based on a Sun-Sky Radiometer Site of SONET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ma


    Full Text Available The 3 km Dark Target (DT aerosol optical depth (AOD products, 10 km DT and Deep Blue (DB AOD products from the Collection 6 (C6 product data of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS are compared with Sun-sky Radiometer Network (SONET measurements at Song Mountain in central China, where ground-based remote sensing measurements of aerosol properties are still very limited. The seasonal variations of AODs are significant in the Song Mountain region, with higher AODs in spring and summer and lower AODs in autumn and winter. Annual mean AODs (0.55 µm vary in the range of 0.5–0.7, which indicates particle matter (PM pollutions in this mountain region. Validation against one-year ground-based measurements shows that AOD retrievals from the MODIS onboard Aqua satellite are better than those from the Terra satellite in Song Mountain. The 3 km and 10 km AODs from DT algorithms are comparable over this region, while the AOD accuracy of DB algorithm is relatively lower. However, the spatial coverage of DB products is higher than that of 10 km DT products. Moreover, the optical and microphysical characteristics of aerosols at Song Mountain are analyzed on the basis of SONET observations. It suggests that coarse-mode aerosol particles dominate in spring, and fine-mode particles dominate in summer. The aerosol property models are also established and compared to aerosol types used by MODIS algorithm.

  20. Unfaulting the Sardarapat Ridge, Southwest Armenia (United States)

    Wetmore, P.; Connor, C.; Connor, L. J.; Savov, I. P.; Karakhanyan, A.


    Armenia is located near the core of contractional deformation associated with the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian tectonic plates. Several studies of this region, including portions of adjacent Georgia, Iran, and Turkey, have indicated that 1-2 mm/yr of intra-plate, north-south shortening is primarily accommodated by a network of E-W trending thrust faults, and NW-trending (dextral) and NE-trending (sinistral) strike-slip faults. One proposed fault in this network, the Sardarapat Fault (SF), was investigated as part of a regional seismic hazard assessment ahead of the installation of a replacement reactor at the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP). The SF is primarily defined by the Sardarapat Ridge (SR), which is a WNW-trending, 40-70 m high topographic feature located just north of the Arax River and the Turkey-Armenia border. The stratigraphy comprising this ridge includes alluvium overlying several meters of lacustrine deposits above a crystal-rich basaltic lava flow that yields an Ar-Ar age of 0.9 +/- 0.02 Ma. The alluvial sediments on the ridge contain early Bronze age (3832-3470 BP) artifacts at an elevation 25 m above those of the surrounding alluvial plane. This has lead to the suggestion that the SR is bound to the south (the steepest side) by the SF, which is uplifting the ridge at a rate of 0.7 mm/yr. However, despite the prominence and trend of the ridge there are no unequivocal observations, such as scarps or exposures of fault rocks, to support the existence of the SF. The goal of the investigation of the SR area was to test various models for the formation of the ridge including faulting and combined volcanic and erosional processes. We therefore collected gravimetric, magnetic, magneto-tellurics (MT), and transient electromagnetic (TEM) data across an area of ~400 km2, and used correlations of stratigraphic data from coreholes drilled proximal to the study area to define the geometry of the contact between the basement and basin fill to

  1. Investigation of Health Risks and Their Prevention in the Rapid Climate Changes and the Rise of Pollution of the Atmosphere in the Mountain Region of the North Caucasus (United States)

    Babyakin, Alexander; Polozkov, Igor; Golitsyn, Georgy; Efimenko, Natalia; Zherlitsina, Liubov; Povolotskaya, Nina; Senik, Irina; Chalaya, Elena; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor


    The current global climate change is determined by changes in the structure of weather conditions, whose impact on the health of various regions of the planet has not been studied sufficiently. To study this effect on the low-altitude mountains resort of Kislovodsk (southern Russia) multi-factor assessment of the impact of the environment on human health is carried out. There were taking in account atmosphere condition, atmospheric aerosol pollution relationship with atmospheric circulation, the level of pollution matching with different types of weather, and, on the base of analysis of meteopathic reactions (MPR), the extent of their biotropism was revealed. Two sides of weather-climatic influences - specific and nonspecific - are interconnected. They manifest themselves differently in humans with different levels of regulation of vital activity and the adaptive capacity of the organism to the complex environmental effects. This complicates the precise physiological basis of quantitative criteria for the prediction of "biotropic" (adverse) weathers. Nevertheless, clinical observations have shown the existence of the "limiting" physiological bound on the size of medical-meteorological modules (MMM). The reactions of the organism to unfavorable weather factors on the results of a questionnaire monitoring surveillance of patients treated in clinics of Federal State Institution "Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Curortology, FMBA of Russia" (PSRIC), in comparison with clinical data, have identified various MPR of the organism, the clinical manifestation of which depends on age, sex of the patient, the availability of principal and attendant pathology, reactivity, etc. Analysis of the results of clinical observation, cases of medical aid appealability to the station an ambulance at the sudden ill health, as well as the uptake of advice of sick people among immigrants during their short stay at the resort, and the local population, allowed the first approximation

  2. Mid-ocean ridges, InRidge and the future

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Drolia, R.K.; Ray, Dwijesh

    In this article, we chronicle the events that lead to the creation of a global scientific network for midoceanic ridge research, identify areas where Indian researchers could participate and built a case to support and gain momentum within...

  3. Ridge 2000 Data Management System (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Haxby, W. F.; Ryan, W. B.; Chayes, D. N.; Lehnert, K. A.; Shank, T. M.


    Hosted at Lamont by the marine geoscience Data Management group, mgDMS, the NSF-funded Ridge 2000 electronic database,, is a key component of the Ridge 2000 multi-disciplinary program. The database covers each of the three Ridge 2000 Integrated Study Sites: Endeavour Segment, Lau Basin, and 8-11N Segment. It promotes the sharing of information to the broader community, facilitates integration of the suite of information collected at each study site, and enables comparisons between sites. The Ridge 2000 data system provides easy web access to a relational database that is built around a catalogue of cruise metadata. Any web browser can be used to perform a versatile text-based search which returns basic cruise and submersible dive information, sample and data inventories, navigation, and other relevant metadata such as shipboard personnel and links to NSF program awards. In addition, non-proprietary data files, images, and derived products which are hosted locally or in national repositories, as well as science and technical reports, can be freely downloaded. On the Ridge 2000 database page, our Data Link allows users to search the database using a broad range of parameters including data type, cruise ID, chief scientist, geographical location. The first Ridge 2000 field programs sailed in 2004 and, in addition to numerous data sets collected prior to the Ridge 2000 program, the database currently contains information on fifteen Ridge 2000-funded cruises and almost sixty Alvin dives. Track lines can be viewed using a recently- implemented Web Map Service button labelled Map View. The Ridge 2000 database is fully integrated with databases hosted by the mgDMS group for MARGINS and the Antarctic multibeam and seismic reflection data initiatives. Links are provided to partner databases including PetDB, SIOExplorer, and the ODP Janus system. Improved inter-operability with existing and new partner repositories continues to be

  4. Initiation of Ridges and Transform Faults (United States)

    Nyst, M.; Thompson, G. A.; Parsons, T.


    . In a simple 2-D finite-element modeling setup we simulate the initiation of rifting by the dike intrusion and opening of several mis-aligned cracks in a pre-extended elastic basalt-like crust. The design of the model parameterization and the dimensions of the cracks, their mis-alignments and mutual distances resemble beginning rift systems observed in the Gulf of California and the Red Sea. Two major processes are assumed to control the expansion and interaction of the cracks and the subsequent development of transform faults. Tectonic extension and dike inflation widen the cracks and stress concentration causes the tips to propagate. Intruding magma aids the opening by exerting stresses on the crack boundaries. Then stress changes induced by the interacting cracks cause the region between the cracks to break. In our modeling the Coulomb failure criterion controls the development of faults around the cracks. Under plane stress assumptions we study the evolution of the stress regime with time, while varying the spreading rate of the lithosphere, the melt pressure of the intruding magma, the degree of mis-alignment and the distance between the cracks. We propose a process of dike intrusion to explain the orientation of ridges; mis-alignment of dikes propagating from different magma supply centers leads to formation of transforms. The hypothesis is supported by the discovery of magma-poor, ultra-slow spreading ridges that are spreading obliquely and generally lack transforms [Dick, Lin and Schouten, Nature, 426, 2003].

  5. Spatiotemporal variation of the surface water effect on the groundwater recharge in a low-precipitation region: Application of the multi-tracer approach to the Taihang Mountains, North China (United States)

    Sakakibara, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Jie


    Groundwater recharge variations in time and space are crucial for effective water management, especially in low-precipitation regions. To determine comprehensive groundwater recharge processes in a catchment with large seasonal hydrological variations, intensive field surveys were conducted in the Wangkuai Reservoir watershed located in the Taihang Mountains, North China, during three different times of the year: beginning of the rainy season (June 2011), mid-rainy season (August 2012), and dry season (November 2012). Oxygen and hydrogen isotope and chemical analyses were conducted on the groundwater, spring water, stream water, and reservoir water of the Wangkuai Reservoir watershed. The results were processed using endmember mixing analysis to determine the amount of contribution of the groundwater recharging processes. Similar isotopic and chemical signatures between the surface water and groundwater in the target area indicate that the surface water in the mountain-plain transitional area and the Wangkuai Reservoir are the principal groundwater recharge sources, which result from the highly permeable geological structure of the target area and perennial large-scale surface water, respectively. Additionally, the widespread and significant effect of the diffuse groundwater recharge on the Wangkuai Reservoir was confirmed with the deuterium (d) excess indicator and the high contribution throughout the year, calculated using endmember mixing analysis. Conversely, the contribution of the stream water to the groundwater recharge in the mountain-plain transitional area clearly decreases from the beginning of the rainy season to the mid-rainy season, whereas that of the precipitation increases. This suggests that the main groundwater recharge source shifts from stream water to episodic/continuous heavy precipitation in the mid-rainy season. In other words, the surface water and precipitation commonly affect the groundwater recharge in the rainy season, whereas the

  6. Thermal and barometric constraints on the intrusive and unroofing history of the Black Mountains: Implications for timing, initial dip, and kinematics of detachment faulting in the Death Valley Region, California (United States)

    Holm, Daniel K.; Snow, J. Kent; Lux, Daniel R.


    Unroofing of the Black Mountains, Death Valley, California, has resulted in the exposure of 1.7 Ga crystalline basement, late Precambrian amphibolite facies metasedimentary rocks, and a Tertiary magmatic complex. The 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages, obtained from samples collected across the entire length of the range (>55 km), combined with geobarometric results from synextensional intrusions, provide time-depth constraints on the Miocene intrusive history and extensional unroofing of the Black Mountains. Data from the southeastern Black Mountains and adjacent Greenwater Range suggest unroofing from shallow depths between 9 and 10 Ma. To the northwest in the crystalline core of the range, biotite plateau ages from ˜13 to 6.8 Ma from rocks making up the Death Valley turtlebacks indicate a midcrustal residence (with temperatures >300°C) prior to extensional unroofing. Biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages from both Precambrian basement and Tertiary plutons reveal a diachronous cooling pattern of decreasing ages toward the northwest, subparallel to the regional extension direction. Diachronous cooling was accompanied by dike intrusion which also decreases in age toward the northwest. The cooling age pattern and geobarometric constraints in crystalline rocks of the Black Mountains suggest denudation of 10-15 km along a northwest directed detachment system, consistent with regional reconstructions of Tertiary extension and with unroofing of a northwest deepening crustal section. Mica cooling ages that deviate from the northwest younging trend are consistent with northwestward transport of rocks initially at shallower crustal levels onto deeper levels along splays of the detachment. The well-known Amargosa chaos and perhaps the Badwater turtleback are examples of this "splaying" process. Considering the current distance of the structurally deepest samples away from moderately to steeply east tilted Tertiary strata in the southeastern Black Mountains, these data indicate an average initial

  7. Growth of a tectonic ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.W.; Messerich, J.A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Johnson, A.M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences


    The 28 June 1992 Landers, California, earthquake of M 7.6 created an impressive record of surface rupture and ground deformation. Fractures extend over a length of more than 80 km including zones of right-lateral shift, steps in the fault zones, fault intersections and vertical changes. Among the vertical changes was the growth of a tectonic ridge described here. In this paper the authors describe the Emerson fault zone and the Tortoise Hill ridge including the relations between the fault zone and the ridge. They present data on the horizontal deformation at several scales associated with activity within the ridge and belt of shear zones and show the differential vertical uplifts. And, they conclude with a discussion of potential models for the observed deformation.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of a Land-Use Change Model with and without Agents to Assess Land Abandonment and Long-Term Re-Forestation in a Swiss Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maria Brändle


    Full Text Available Land abandonment and the subsequent re-forestation are important drivers behind the loss of ecosystem services in mountain regions. Agent-based models can help to identify global change impacts on farmland abandonment and can test policy and management options to counteract this development. Realigning the representation of human decision making with time scales of ecological processes such as reforestation presents a major challenge in this context. Models either focus on the agent-specific behavior anchored in the current generation of farmers at the expense of representing longer scale environmental processes or they emphasize the simulation of long-term economic and forest developments where representation of human behavior is simplified in time and space. In this context, we compare the representation of individual and aggregated decision-making in the same model structure and by doing so address some implications of choosing short or long term time horizons in land-use modeling. Based on survey data, we integrate dynamic agents into a comparative static economic sector supply model in a Swiss mountain region. The results from an extensive sensitivity analysis show that this agent-based land-use change model can reproduce observed data correctly and that both model versions are sensitive to the same model parameters. In particular, in both models the specification of opportunity costs determines the extent of production activities and land-use changes by restricting the output space. Our results point out that the agent-based model can capture short and medium term developments in land abandonment better than the aggregated version without losing its sensitivity to important socio-economic drivers. For comparative static approaches, extensive sensitivity analysis with respect to opportunity costs, i.e., the measure of benefits forgone due to alternative uses of labor is essential for the assessment of the impact of climate change on land

  9. Repeat ridge jumps associated with plume-ridge interaction, melt transport, and ridge migration (United States)

    Mittelstaedt, Eric; Ito, Garrett; van Hunen, Jeroen


    Repeated shifts, or jumps, of mid-ocean ridge segments toward nearby hot spots can produce large, long-term changes to the geometry and location of the tectonic plate boundaries. Ridge jumps associated with hot spot-ridge interaction are likely caused by several processes including shear on the base of the plate due to expanding plume material as well as reheating of lithosphere as magma passes through it to feed off-axis volcanism. To study how these processes influence ridge jumps, we use numerical models to simulate 2-D (in cross section) viscous flow of the mantle, viscoplastic deformation of the lithosphere, and melt migration upward from the asthenospheric melting zone, laterally along the base of the lithosphere, and vertically through the lithosphere. The locations and rates that magma penetrates and heats the lithosphere are controlled by the time-varying accumulation of melt beneath the plate and the depth-averaged lithospheric porosity. We examine the effect of four key parameters: magmatic heating rate of the lithosphere, plate spreading rate, age of the seafloor overlying the plume, and the plume-ridge migration rate. Results indicate that the minimum value of the magmatic heating rate needed to initiate a ridge jump increases with plate age and spreading rate. The time required to complete a ridge jump decreases with larger values of magmatic heating rate, younger plate age, and faster spreading rate. For cases with migrating ridges, models predict a range of behaviors including repeating ridge jumps, much like those exhibited on Earth. Repeating ridge jumps occur at moderate magmatic heating rates and are the result of changes in the hot spot magma flux in response to magma migration along the base of an evolving lithosphere. The tendency of slow spreading to promote ridge jumps could help explain the observed clustering of hot spots near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Model results also suggest that magmatic heating may significantly thin the lithosphere

  10. Demographic characteristics and life satisfaction in settlements of Fruška Gora mountain region: Bešenovo case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerčan Bojan


    Full Text Available Serbia has been facing an economic crisis for the last two decades, which is one of the causes of poor demographic situation in the country. Along with low or negative rates of population growth and ageing of population, the majority of municipalities in Vojvodina have a negative migration balance. Vojvodina is characterized by lo