WorldWideScience

Sample records for blue ribbon task

  1. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  2. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  3. Blue Ribbon Panel Report - BRP - Cancer Moonshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Blue Ribbon Panel Report outlines 10 recommendations to accelerate progress against cancer. The panel was established to ensure that the Cancer Moonshot's approaches are grounded in the best science.

  4. Blue Ribbon Panel 2016 Video Playlist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue Ribbon Panel members discuss recommendations from the panel report that was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7, 2016. The playlist includes an overview video and 10 videos on the specific recommendations.

  5. 76 FR 63329 - U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... the Antarctic Treaty. Agenda: First meeting of the Panel to present the Panel with an overview of... U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review; Notice of Meeting In accordance with Federal... following meeting: Name: U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review (76826). Date/Time: November...

  6. 77 FR 20852 - U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... the Antarctic Treaty. Agenda: Present the Panel with additional programmatic information related to... U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review; Notice of Meeting In accordance with Federal... following meeting: Name: U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review, 76826. Date/Time: April 20,...

  7. 77 FR 1743 - U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... sound, safe, innovative, affordable, sustainable, and consistent with the Antarctic Treaty. Agenda... U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel; Notice of Meeting In accordance with Federal Advisory...: Name: U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review, 76826. Date/Time: January 24, 2012, 8 a.m. to...

  8. 77 FR 9707 - U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ..., innovative, affordable, sustainable, and consistent with the Antarctic Treaty. Agenda: Present the Panel with... U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review; Notice of Meeting In accordance with Federal... following meeting: Name: U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review, 76826. Date/Time: March 5, 2012,...

  9. The Impact of Leadership Behaviors of Blue Ribbon Catholic School Principals on School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Rosaline

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an analysis of six successful Blue Ribbon Catholic schools to determine the relationship between principal's leadership behaviors, teacher's perceptions of principals and resulting school culture within six successful Blue Ribbon schools. A mixed methods approach for analysis was used through both…

  10. 75 FR 57898 - NIST Blue Ribbon Commission on Management and Safety-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... sector experience in one or more of the following areas: (a) Management and organizational structure; (b... National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST Blue Ribbon Commission on Management and Safety--II... establishment of the NIST Blue Ribbon Commission on Management and Safety--II and Notice of Open...

  11. 75 FR 51025 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technology Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technology Subcommittee AGENCY... announces an open meeting of the Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technology (RFCT) Subcommittee. The RFCT Subcommittee is a subcommittee of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the Commission)....

  12. 75 FR 35001 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies Subcommittee AGENCY... announces an open meeting of the Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies (RFCT) Subcommittee. The RFCT Subcommittee is a subcommittee of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the Commission)....

  13. The Blue Ribbon Commission and siting radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 21 September 2010, the NEA Secretariat was invited to address the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. This paper is a summary of the remarks made. The successful siting of radioactive waste disposal facilities implies creating the conditions for continued ownership of the facility over time. Acceptance of the facility at a single point in time is not good enough. Continued ownership implies the creation of conscious, constructive and durable relationships between the (most affected) communities and the waste management facility. Being comfortable about the technical safety of the facility requires a degree of familiarity and control . Having peace of mind about the safety of the facility requires trust in the waste management system and its actors as well as some control over the decision making. Regulators are especially important players who need to be visible in the community. The ideal site selection process should be step- wise, combining procedures for excluding sites that do not meet pre-identified criteria with those for identifying sites where nearby and more distant residents are willing to discuss acceptance of the facility. The regional authorities are just as important as the local authorities. Before approaching a potential siting region or community, there should be clear results of national (and state) debates establishing the role of nuclear power in the energy mix, as well as information on the magnitude of the ensuing waste commitment and its management end-points, and the allocation of the financial and legal responsibilities until the closure of the project. Once the waste inventories and type of facilities have been decided upon, there should be agreement that all significant changes will require a new decision-making process. Any proposed project has a much better chance to move forward positively if the affected populations can participate in its definition, including, at the appropriate time, its technical details. A

  14. 75 FR 10791 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... about the history and current status of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste disposal in the United... to include presentations on the history of efforts to dispose of civilian light- water reactor spent... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear...

  15. 75 FR 53685 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy... facsimile (202) 586- 0544; e-mail CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov . Additional information will be...DFO@nuclear.energy.gov , or post comments on the Commission Web site at...

  16. 76 FR 23798 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy...- 0544; e-mail ] CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov . Additional information will be available at http... Independence Avenue, SW., Washington DC 20585; e-mail to CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov , or post comments...

  17. 76 FR 1608 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy... and nuclear waste. The Commission is scheduled to submit a draft report to the Secretary of Energy by... to CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov , or post comments on the Commission Web site at...

  18. 75 FR 25850 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy...- 0544; e-mail CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov . Additional information may also be available at http... to CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov , or post comments on the Commission Web site at...

  19. 75 FR 66766 - NIAID Blue Ribbon Panel Meeting on Adjuvant Discovery and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... knowledge and capabilities, and defines NIAID's goals for the continued discovery, development and... HUMAN SERVICES NIAID Blue Ribbon Panel Meeting on Adjuvant Discovery and Development Notice is hereby... discovery, development and clinical evaluation of adjuvants for use with preventive vaccines. NIAID...

  20. A Quantitative Examination of the Educational Technology Characteristics of Ohio Schools and Their Blue Ribbon Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from Ohio schools and the frequency of use of educational technology, a teacher's comfort level using technology, and a teacher's beliefs about the effect of educational technology on teaching and learning based upon the school's Blue Ribbon award status. The study used an ex-post facto,…

  1. Connecting Technology with Student Achievement: The Use of Technology by Blue Ribbon School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A. Styron, Jr.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions and technology usage of K-12 school principals of Blue Ribbon Schools to identify technological characteristics of successful school leaders. Items on the questionnaire were aligned with the International Society of Technology Education National Educational Technology Standards and Performance Indicators for School Administrators. The researchers sent questionnaires to 500 principals throughout the United States with a return rate of nearly 37%. Pearson and Spearman correlations were conducted to determine the level of agreement with NETS-A Standards of Blue Ribbon School Principals and if there was a relationship between use of technology and NETS-A Standards. Independent-sample t-tests were also conducted to determine if the levels of agreement with NETS-A Standards differed by gender. Results of this study indicated that there is evidence to support high levels of agreement of Blue Ribbon School Principals with the NETS-A Standards with females reporting higher levels of agreement then males, and the need for professional development to support technology integration.

  2. The Time Needed to Implement the Blue Ribbon Commission Recommendation on Interim Storage - 13124

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future [1] makes a number of important recommendations to be considered if Congress elects to redirect U.S. high-level radioactive waste disposal policy. Setting aside for the purposes of this discussion any issues related to political forces leading to stopping progress on the Yucca Mountain project and driving the creation of the Commission, an important recommendation of the Commission was to institute prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities. The Blue Ribbon Commission noted that this recommended strategy for future storage and disposal facilities and operations should be implemented regardless of what happens with Yucca Mountain. It is too easy, however, to focus on interim storage as an alternative to geologic disposal. The Blue Ribbon Commission report does not go far enough in addressing the magnitude of the contentious problems associated with reopening the issues of relative authorities of the states and federal government with which Congress wrestled in crafting the Nuclear Waste Policy Act [2]. The Blue Ribbon Commission recommendation for prompt adoption of an interim storage program does not appear to be fully informed about the actions that must be taken, the relative cost of the effort, or the realistic time line that would be involved. In essence, the recommendation leaves to others the details of the systems engineering analyses needed to understand the nature and details of all the operations required to reach an operational interim storage facility without derailing forever the true end goal of geologic disposal. The material presented identifies a number of impediments that must be overcome before the country could develop a centralized federal interim storage facility. In summary, and in the order presented, they are: 1. Change the law, HJR 87, PL 107-200, designating Yucca Mountain for the development of a repository. 2. Bring new nuclear waste

  3. Many-Task Computing and Blue Waters

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Daniel S; Zhang, Zhao; Wilde, Michael; Wozniak, Justin M

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses many-task computing (MTC) generically and in the context of the proposed Blue Waters systems, which is planned to be the largest NSF-funded supercomputer when it begins production use in 2012. The aim of this report is to inform the BW project about MTC, including understanding aspects of MTC applications that can be used to characterize the domain and understanding the implications of these aspects to middleware and policies. Many MTC applications do not neatly fit the stereotypes of high-performance computing (HPC) or high-throughput computing (HTC) applications. Like HTC applications, by definition MTC applications are structured as graphs of discrete tasks, with explicit input and output dependencies forming the graph edges. However, MTC applications have significant features that distinguish them from typical HTC applications. In particular, different engineering constraints for hardware and software must be met in order to support these applications. HTC applications have tradition...

  4. Blue Ribbon Commission, Yucca Mountain Closure, Court Actions - Future of Decommissioned Reactors, Operating Reactors and Nuclear Power - 13249

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issues related to back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle continue to be difficult for the commercial nuclear power industry and for the decision makers at the national and international level. In the US, the 1982 NWPA required DOE to develop geological repositories for SNF and HLW but in spite of extensive site characterization efforts and over ten billion dollars spent, a repository opening is nowhere in sight. There has been constant litigation against the DOE by the nuclear utilities for breach of the 'standard contract' they signed with the DOE under the NWPA. The SNF inventory continues to rise both in the US and globally and the nuclear industry has turned to dry storage facilities at reactor locations. In US, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future issued its report in January 2012 and among other items, it recommends a new, consent-based approach to siting of facilities, prompt efforts to develop one or more geologic disposal facilities, and prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities. In addition, the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident had a severe impact on the future growth of nuclear power. The nuclear industry is focusing on mitigation strategies for beyond design basis events and in the US, the industry is in the process of implementing the recommendations from NRC's Near Term Task Force. (authors)

  5. Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future: Report to the Secretary of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Preamble The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future (BRC) was formed by the Secretary of Energy at the request of the President to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and recommend a new strategy. It was co-chaired by Rep. Lee H. Hamilton and Gen. Brent Scowcroft. Other Commissioners are Mr. Mark H. Ayers, the Hon. Vicky A. Bailey, Dr. Albert Carnesale, Sen. Pete Domenici, Ms. Susan Eisenhower, Sen. Chuck Hagel, Mr. Jonathan Lash, Dr. Allison M. Macfarlane, Dr. Richard A. Meserve, Dr. Ernest J. Moniz, Dr. Per Peterson, Mr. John Rowe, and Rep. Phil Sharp. The Commission and its subcommittees met more than two dozen times between March 2010 and January 2012 to hear testimony from experts and stakeholders, to visit nuclear waste management facilities in the United States and abroad, and to discuss the issues identified in its Charter. Additionally, in September and October 2011, the Commission held five public meetings, in different regions of the country, to hear feedback on its draft report. A wide variety of organizations, interest groups, and individuals provided input to the Commission at these meetings and through the submission of written materials. Copies of all of these submissions, along with records and transcripts of past meetings, are available at the BRC website (www.brc.gov). This report highlights the Commission’s findings and conclusions and presents recommendations for consideration by the Administration and Congress, as well as interested state, tribal and local governments, other stakeholders, and the public.

  6. 75 FR 36648 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies Subcommittee AGENCY... Department of Energy published a notice announcing an open meeting of the Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies (RFCT) Subcommittee, 75 FR 35001. In that notice, the date of the meeting listed under DATES was...

  7. 75 FR 61139 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technology Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technology Subcommittee AGENCY... advantages and disadvantages of adopting new fuel cycle technologies and the associated waste management... announces an open meeting of the Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technology (RFCT) Subcommittee. The...

  8. Transforming Teacher Education through Clinical Practice: A National Strategy to Prepare Effective Teachers. Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Clinical Preparation and Partnerships for Improved Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The vision for transforming the education of the nation's nearly four million teacher workforce presented in this report comes not from any one group but from a diverse group representing a broad range of perspectives. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) Blue Ribbon Panel on Clinical Preparation and Partnerships for…

  9. Executive Summary From the National Strength and Conditioning Association's Second Blue Ribbon Panel on Military Physical Readiness: Military Physical Performance Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Alvar, Brent A; R Dudley, Jason; Favre, Mike W; Martin, Gerard J; Sharp, Marilyn A; Warr, Brad J; Stephenson, Mark D; Kraemer, William J

    2015-11-01

    The National Strength and Conditioning Association's tactical strength and conditioning program sponsored the second Blue Ribbon Panel on military physical readiness: military physical performance testing, April 18-19, 2013, Norfolk, VA. This meeting brought together a total of 20 subject matter experts (SMEs) from the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and academia representing practitioners, operators, researchers, and policy advisors to discuss the current state of physical performance testing across the Armed Services. The SME panel initially rated 9 common military tasks (jumping over obstacles, moving with agility, carrying heavy loads, dragging heavy loads, running long distances, moving quickly over short distances, climbing over obstacles, lifting heavy objects, loading equipment) by the degree to which health-related fitness components (e.g., aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition) and skill-related fitness components (e.g., muscular power, agility, balance, coordination, speed, and reaction time) were required to accomplish these tasks. A scale from 1 to 10 (10 being highest) was used. Muscular strength, power, and endurance received the highest rating scores. Panel consensus concluded that (a) selected fitness components (particularly for skill-related fitness components) are currently not being assessed by the military; (b) field-expedient options to measure both health-based and skill-based fitness components are currently available; and PMID:26506191

  10. 76 FR 38648 - Availability of the Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Report and Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Availability of the Geothermal Technologies Program Blue... Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Geothermal...

  11. Ribbon crystals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Bohr

    Full Text Available A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons using a ruled procedure where ribbons are uniquely described by two generating functions. This construction defines a differentiable frame, the ribbon frame, which does not have singular points, whereby we avoid the shortcomings of the Frenet-Serret frame. The observed spontaneous pattern is modeled using planar triangles and cylindrical arcs, and the ribbon structure is shown to arise from a maximization of the end-to-end length of the ribbon, i.e. from an optimal use of ribbon length. The phenomenon is discussed in the perspectives of incompatible intrinsic geometries and of the emergence of long-range order.

  12. Ribbon Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Markvorsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    using a ruled procedure where ribbons are uniquely described by two generating functions. This construction defines a differentiable frame, the ribbon frame, which does not have singular points, whereby we avoid the shortcomings of the Frenet–Serret frame. The observed spontaneous pattern is modeled...... using planar triangles and cylindrical arcs, and the ribbon structure is shown to arise from a maximization of the end-to-end length of the ribbon, i.e. from an optimal use of ribbon length. The phenomenon is discussed in the perspectives of incompatible intrinsic geometries and of the emergence of long...

  13. The Environmental Protection Agency's Safety Standards for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Potential Path Forward in Response to the Report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future - 13388

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the decision to withdraw the Yucca Mountain license application, the Department of Energy created a Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future, tasked with recommending a national strategy to manage the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The BRC issued its final report in January 2012, with recommendations covering transportation, storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF); potential reprocessing; and supporting institutional measures. The BRC recommendations on disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) are relevant to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which shares regulatory responsibility with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC): EPA issues 'generally applicable' performance standards for disposal repositories, which are then implemented in licensing. For disposal, the BRC endorses developing one or more geological repositories, with siting based on an approach that is adaptive, staged and consent-based. The BRC recommends that EPA and NRC work cooperatively to issue generic disposal standards-applying equally to all sites-early in any siting process. EPA previously issued generic disposal standards that apply to all sites other than Yucca Mountain. However, the BRC concluded that the existing regulations should be revisited and revised. The BRC proposes a number of general principles to guide the development of future regulations. EPA continues to review the BRC report and to assess the implications for Agency action, including potential regulatory issues and considerations if EPA develops new or revised generic disposal standards. This review also involves preparatory activities to define potential process and public engagement approaches. (authors)

  14. Code Blue Emergencies: A Team Task Analysis and Educational Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Price, James W.; Applegarth, Oliver; Vu, Mark; Price, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to identify factors that have a positive or negative influence on resuscitation team performance during emergencies in the operating room (OR) and post-operative recovery unit (PAR) at a major Canadian teaching hospital. This information was then used to implement a team training program for code blue emergencies. Methods In 2009/10, all OR and PAR nurses and 19 anesthesiologists at Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) were invited to complete an anony...

  15. Blue or red? Exploring the effect of color on cognitive task performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ravi; Zhu, Rui Juliet

    2009-02-27

    Existing research reports inconsistent findings with regard to the effect of color on cognitive task performances. Some research suggests that blue or green leads to better performances than red; other studies record the opposite. Current work reconciles this discrepancy. We demonstrate that red (versus blue) color induces primarily an avoidance (versus approach) motivation (study 1, n = 69) and that red enhances performance on a detail-oriented task, whereas blue enhances performance on a creative task (studies 2 and 3, n = 208 and 118). Further, we replicate these results in the domains of product design (study 4, n = 42) and persuasive message evaluation (study 5, n = 161) and show that these effects occur outside of individuals' consciousness (study 6, n = 68). We also provide process evidence suggesting that the activation of alternative motivations mediates the effect of color on cognitive task performances. PMID:19197022

  16. Societal-Equity-Enhancing Criteria and Facility-Host Incentives Supporting Five Key Elements in the January 2012 Blue Ribbon Commission Report - 13015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February 2009, the Obama Administration announced it would abandon USA's only candidate SNF/HLW-disposal facility since 1987. In 2010, all related activities were stopped and the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future was established 'to recommend a new strategy for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle', which it did in January 2012, emphasizing eight key elements. However, Key Element 1, 'A new, consent-based approach to siting future nuclear facilities', is qualitative/indeterminate rather than quantitative/measurable. It is thus highly-susceptible to semantic permutations that could extend rather than, as intended, expedite the siting of future nuclear facilities unless it also defines: a) Whose consent is needed?; and b) What constitutes consent? The following 'generic', radiation-risk- and societal-equity-based criteria address these questions: 1. Identify areas affected by projected radiation and other health risks from: a. The proposed nuclear facility (facility stakeholders); and b. The related nuclear-materials-transportation routes (transportation stakeholders); then 2. Surround each stakeholder area with a buffer zone and use this enlarged foot print to identify: a. Stakeholder hosts; and b. Areas not hosting any stakeholder category (interested parties). 3. Define 'consent-based' as being at least 60 percent of the 'population' in the respective stakeholder category and apply this yardstick to both 'in favor' and 'against' votes. Although criteria 1 and 2 also need facility-based definitions to make Key Element 1 measurable, the described siting approach, augmented by related facility-host incentives, would expedite the schedule and reduce the cost for achieving Key Elements 4-6 and 8, politics permitting. (authors)

  17. Ribbon Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Venaille, Antoine; Vallis, Geoffrey K

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the non-linear equilibration of a two-layer quasi-geostrophic flow in a channel forced by an imposed unstable zonal mean flow, paying particular attention to the role of bottom friction. In the limit of low bottom friction, classical theory of geostrophic turbulence predicts an inverse cascade of kinetic energy in the horizontal with condensation at the domain scale and barotropization on the vertical. By contrast, in the limit of large bottom friction, the flow is dominated by ribbons of high kinetic energy in the upper layer. These ribbons correspond to meandering jets separating regions of homogenized potential vorticity. We interpret these result by taking advantage of the peculiar conservation laws satisfied by this system: the dynamics can be recast in such a way that the imposed mean flow appears as an initial source of potential vorticity levels in the upper layer. The initial baroclinic instability leads to a turbulent flow that stirs this potential vorticity field while conserving the...

  18. Laser-zone growth in a Ribbon-to-Ribbon (RTR) process. Silicon sheet growth development for the Large Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Technical quarterly report No. 7, January 1--March 31, 1978. Motorola report No. 2256/9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurtler, R W; Baghdadi, A; Legge, R; Sopori, B; Ellis, R J

    1978-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made both in crystal growth and in processing. A growth rate of 12.5 cm/min with 2 cm wide ribbon was achieved. This high growth-rate ribbon has a dendritic structure. The maximum non-dentritic growth rate was increased to 8 to 9 cm/min by using active cooling (inert gas jets) to steepen the postheater temperature gradient. Also, RTR ribbon was grown from 2.5 cm wide CVD polycrystalline feedstock. Doped CVD feedstock can now be grown in widths from 1 in. to 3 in., and thicknesses from 125 ..mu..m to 250 ..mu..m. The poly ribbon thickness is uniform within +-5 percent along the length of the ribbon. First attempts to grow 5 cm wide ribbon from CVD feedstock were only partially successful, due to buckling in the ribbon prior to crystallization. This buckling creates both longitudinal and lateral curvatures in the ribbon. The curvature is often so great that the sample cannot pass through the 0.1 in. wide slot of the postheater. The probable cause for this buckling is the non-ideal longitudinal temperature distribution. The temperature profile must be controlled in the feedstock ribbon (as well as in the growing ribbon) in order to overcome this problem. Solar cells were fabricated on dendritic ribbon. Preliminary measurements indicate that their performance is at least as high as cells fabricated on non-dendritic substrates.

  19. Fine structure of flare ribbons and evolution of electric currents

    CERN Document Server

    Sharykin, I N

    2014-01-01

    Emission of solar flares across the electromagnetic spectrum is often observed in the form of two expanding ribbons. The standard flare model explains the flare ribbons as footpoints of magnetic arcades, emitting due to interaction of energetic particles with the chromospheric plasma. However, the physics of this interaction and properties of the accelerated particles are still unknown. We present results of multiwavelength observations of C2.1 flare of August 15, 2013, observed with New Solar Telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), GOES and FERMI spacecraft. The observations reveal previously unresolved sub-arcsecond structure of the flare ribbons in regions of strong magnetic field consisting from numerous small-scale bright knots. We observe red-blue asymmetry of H alpha flare ribbons with a width as small as 100 km. We discuss the relationship between the ribbons and vertical electric currents estimated from vector magnetograms, and show that Joule heating can be r...

  20. Circular Ribbon Flares and Homologous Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Haimin

    2012-01-01

    Solar flare emissions in the chromosphere often appear as elongated ribbons on both sides of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), and this has been regarded as evidence of a typical configuration of magnetic reconnection. However, flares having a closed circular ribbon have rarely been reported, although it is expected in the fan--spine magnetic topology involving reconnection at a three-dimensional (3D) coronal null point. We present five circular ribbon flares with associated surges, using high-resolution and high-cadence \\ha blue wing observations obtained from the recently digitized films of Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). In all the events, a central parasitic magnetic field is encompassed by the opposite magnetic polarity, forming a circular PIL that is also traced by filament material. Consequently, a flare kernel at the center is surrounded by a circular flare ribbon. The four homologous jet-related flares on 1991 March 17 and 18 are of particular interest, as (1) the circular ribbons bright...

  1. Slender-ribbon theory

    CERN Document Server

    Koens, Lyndon

    2016-01-01

    Ribbons are long narrow strips possessing three distinct material length scales (thickness, width, and length) which allow them to produce unique shapes unobtainable by wires or filaments. For example when a ribbon has half a twist and is bent into a circle it produces a M\\"obius strip. Significant effort has gone into determining the structural shapes of ribbons but less is know about their behavior in viscous fluids. In this paper we determine, asymptotically, the leading-order hydrodynamic behavior of a slender ribbon in Stokes flows. The derivation, reminiscent of slender-body theory for filaments, assumes that the length of the ribbon is much larger than its width, which itself is much larger than its thickness. The final result is an integral equation for the force density on a mathematical ruled surface, termed the ribbon plane, located inside the ribbon. A numerical implementation of our derivation shows good agreement with the known hydrodynamics of long flat ellipsoids, and successfully captures the...

  2. Ribbon Seal Distribution Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) and reported breeding areas of ribbon seals (Histriophoca fasciata). It...

  3. FINE STRUCTURE OF FLARE RIBBONS AND EVOLUTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission of solar flares across the electromagnetic spectrum is often observed in the form of two expanding ribbons. The standard flare model explains flare ribbons as footpoints of magnetic arcades, emitting due to interaction of energetic particles with the chromospheric plasma. However, the physics of this interaction and properties of the accelerated particles are still unknown. We present results of multiwavelength observations of the C2.1 flare of 2013 August 15, observed with the New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Solar Observatory, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, GOES, and Fermi spacecraft. The observations reveal previously unresolved sub-arcsecond structure of flare ribbons in regions of strong magnetic field consisting from numerous small-scale bright knots. We observe a red-blue asymmetry of Hα flare ribbons with a width as small as ∼100 km. We discuss the relationship between the ribbons and vertical electric currents estimated from vector magnetograms, and show that Joule heating can be responsible for energization of Hα knots in the ribbons

  4. Hair cell ribbon synapses

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Tobias; Brandt, Andreas; Lysakowski, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Hearing and balance rely on the faithful synaptic coding of mechanical input by the auditory and vestibular hair cells of the inner ear. Mechanical deflection of their stereocilia causes the opening of mechanosensitive channels, resulting in hair cell depolarization, which controls the release of glutamate at ribbon-type synapses. Hair cells have a compact shape with strong polarity. Mechanoelectrical transduction and active membrane turnover associated with stereociliar renewal dominate the ...

  5. Antiguided Ribbon Laser Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R; Feit, M; Page, R; Brasure, L; Wilcox, R; Payne, S

    2000-12-13

    We propose a new, robustly scalable technique for phase locking multiple gain cores in a fiber structure based on antiguiding or radiative coupling, rather than the more commonly pursued method of evanescent wave phase locking. Our focus is on a ribbon-like geometry in which a waveguide region contains multiple gain cores arranged in a periodic array. The distinguishing feature of such antiguiding structures is that refractive index of the gain cores is lower than or equal to that of the surrounding waveguide regions. This is just the opposite of evanescently phase locked structures in which the gain cores have higher refractive index than the surrounding regions. The critical design considerations in the structures proposed within are: first that they strongly favor oscillation in a single transverse mode, and second that this strongly favored mode exhibits good intensity uniformity across the entire array of gain cores. We require single mode operation so that a static phase corrector placed in the near field of the ribbon laser's output can optimize the phase across the aperture to achieve a high Strehl ratio in the far field. The requirement that the strongly favored mode exhibit good uniformity across the entire array of gain cores is necessary to ensure that the ribbon structure's gain saturates in a uniform manner, so as not to increase the propensity of the device to operate in multiple transverse modes. Taken together, these two design considerations lead to the surprising result that optimized structures have equal refractive indices in their gain cores and the no-gain surrounding waveguide regions.

  6. Sculpturing Surfaces with Cartan Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffaelli, Matteo; Bohr, Jakob; Markvorsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Using the concepts of Cartan development and rolling from differential geometry we develop a method for sculpturing any surface with the use of Cartan ribbons.......Using the concepts of Cartan development and rolling from differential geometry we develop a method for sculpturing any surface with the use of Cartan ribbons....

  7. Graphene nano-ribbon waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    He, S; He, Y

    2013-01-01

    Graphene as a one-atom-thick platform for infrared metamaterial plays an important role in optical science and engineering. Here we study the unique properties of some plasmonic waveguides based on graphene nano-ribbon. It is found that a graphene ribbon of finite width leads to the occurrence of coupled edge mode. The single-mode region of a single freestanding graphene ribbon is identified at a fixed frequency of 30 THz. A low-loss waveguide structure, consisting of a graphene layer, a silica buffer layer and silicon substrate is proposed to reduce the propagation loss and obtain a high figure of merit for future integration of waveguide devices. Furthermore, two coupled ribbon configurations, namely, side-side coupling and top-bottom coupling, are investigated. As a device example, a nano-ring cavity of ultra-small size is designed.

  8. Temporal variation of the IBEX Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    We present a study of the time variation over half a solar cycle of the ENA flux composing the IBEX Ribbon, with the goal of determining how closely the Ribbon's temporal variation matches that of the adjacent globally distributed ENA flux (GDF). A high degree of similarity implies that the Ribbon flux originates in the same heliospheric regions as the GDF, presumably the inner heliosheath. If the Ribbon flux shows a separate time history, then it likely originates elsewhere, possibly in the outer heliosheath or beyond. Determining the source region places strong constraints on Ribbon formation theories. Prior Ribbon studies have either treated the Ribbon and the GDF as static over the mission, or have not attempted to separate the GDF from the Ribbon when looking at time variation.

  9. Melt dumping in string stabilized ribbon growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Emanuel M.

    1986-12-09

    A method and apparatus for stabilizing the edge positions of a ribbon drawn from a melt includes the use of wettable strings drawn in parallel up through the melt surface, the ribbon being grown between the strings. A furnace and various features of the crucible used therein permit continuous automatic growth of flat ribbons without close temperature control or the need for visual inspection.

  10. A spiraled niobium tin superconductive ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Copper film is vapor-deposited on clean ribbon and sprayed with photosensitive etch-resistant material. Photographic film masks are placed on ribbon and exposed to ultraviolet light. Etchant removes copper and exposure to oxidizing atmosphere forms niobium oxide. Photosensitive material is removed and ribbon is immersed in molten temperatures.

  11. Laser cleaning of tungsten ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Aniruddha, E-mail: nontee65@rediffmail.com [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Sonar, V.R.; Das, D.K.; Bhatt, R.B.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Nilaya, J.P.; Biswas, D.J. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, 400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon was achieved using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiation from a Q- switched Nd-YAG laser. It was found that beyond the threshold, oxide removal was achieved at all wavelengths for a wide range of fluence values. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer was found to be critically dependent on both wavelength and fluence of the incident radiation and has been identified as ejection or sublimation. The un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of Neodymium atoms.

  12. Domain imaging in FINEMET ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveyra, J.M., E-mail: jsilveyra@fi.uba.a [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, UBA-CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, (C1063ACV) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vlasak, G.; Svec, P.; Janickovic, D. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Cremaschi, V.J., E-mail: vcremas@gmail.co [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, UBA-CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, (C1063ACV) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Member of Carrera del Investigador, CONICET (Argentina)

    2010-09-15

    The magnetization behaviour of a ferromagnetic material depends on its domain structure, which in turn is largely determined by magnetic anisotropies. In this work, domain patterns were observed by a quite forgotten but still the simplest and the cheapest technique: the Bitter method. A systematic study of the evolution of the domain structure in FINEMET ribbons after thermal annealing is presented, correlating the results with the crystalline structure, magnetostriction and coercivity measurements.

  13. 76 FR 4646 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... fuel and commercial power reactors, and Navy nuclear fuel. Therefore, the purpose for closing this... nuclear fuel cycle. The Commission will provide advice and make recommendations on issues including... comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle, including all......

  14. 75 FR 81592 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    .... EST. ADDRESSES: Augusta Marriott Hotel and Suites, Two Tenth Street, Augusta, GA 30901, (706) 722-8900.... at the Augusta Marriott Hotel and Suites. The Commission will hear presentations and statements from... register to do so beginning at 8 a.m. on January 7, 2011, at the Augusta Marriott Hotel and...

  15. 75 FR 67958 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... logistical circumstances and the inability to delay and reschedule the meeting in a timely fashion. In... fashion that will facilitate the orderly conduct of business. Those wishing to speak should register to...

  16. Homotopy classification of ribbon tubes and welded string links

    OpenAIRE

    Audoux, Benjamin; Bellingeri , Paolo; Meilhan, Jean-Baptiste; Wagner, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Ribbon 2-knotted objects are locally flat embeddings of surfaces in 4-space which bound immersed 3-manifolds with only ribbon singularities. They appear as topological realizations of welded knotted objects, which is a natural quotient of virtual knot theory. In this paper, we consider ribbon tubes, which are knotted annuli bounding ribbon 3-balls. We show how ribbon tubes naturally act on the reduced free group, and how this action classifies ribbon tubes up to link-homotopy, that is when al...

  17. Helicoids, wrinkles, and loops in twisted ribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Julien; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2013-10-25

    We investigate the instabilities of a flat elastic ribbon subject to twist under tension and develop an integrated phase diagram of the observed shapes and transitions. We find that the primary buckling mode switches from being localized longitudinally along the length of the ribbon to transverse above a triple point characterized by a crossover tension that scales with ribbon elasticity and aspect ratio. Far from threshold, the longitudinally buckled ribbon evolves continuously into a self-creased helicoid with focusing of the curvature along the triangular edges. Further twist causes an anomalous transition to loops compared with rods due to the self-rigidity induced by the creases. When the ribbon is twisted under high tension, transverse wrinkles are observed due to the development of compressive stresses with higher harmonics for greater width-to-length ratios. Our results can be used to develop functional structures using a wide range of elastic materials and length scales.

  18. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... blues: Talk to your partner or a good friend about how you feel Get plenty of rest ...

  19. Growth and characterization of string ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanoka, J.I. [Evergreen Solar, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Behnin, B.; Michel, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Symko, M.; Sopori, B.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Evergreen Solar, a new photovoltaics company, makes solar cells and modules based on String Ribbon. String Ribbon is a silicon sheet growth method wherein two high temperature strings are pulled through a shallow melt of silicon and a crystalline silicon sheet then grows between the two strings. The strings serve to stabilize the edges of the growing silicon sheet. The growth process is primarily meniscus controlled and, compared to other silicon ribbon growth methods such as d-web and EFG, relatively insensitive to temperature fluctuations as great as {+-}10{degrees}C. Growth speed is about 2 cm/minute.

  20. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  1. Research on reasonable winding angle of ribbons of Flat Steel Ribbon Wound Pressure Vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Flat Steel Ribbon Wound Pressure Vessels (FSRWPVs) are used in many important industry areas. There is no such kind of pressure vessel exploding on operation for its reasonable structure design. Many explosion experiments on Flat Steel Ribbon Wound Pressure Vessel showed that their limited load pressure is related to the winding angle of the steel ribbons.FSRWPVs with reasonable winding angle have better security and lower cost. Reasonable angels given at the end of this paper facilitate engineering design.

  2. On the Geometry of the IBEX Ribbon

    CERN Document Server

    Sylla, Adama

    2015-01-01

    The Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) full-sky maps obtained with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) show an unexpected bright narrow band of increased intensity. This so-called ENA ribbon results from charge exchange of interstellar neutral atoms with protons in the outer heliosphere or beyond. Amongst other hypotheses it has been argued that this ribbon may be related to a neutral density enhancement, or H-wave, in the local interstellar medium. Here we quantitatively demonstrate, on the basis of an analytical model of the principal large-scale heliospheric structure, that this scenario for the ribbon formation leads to results that are fully consistent with the observed location of the ribbon in the full-sky maps at all energies detected with high-energy sensor IBEX-Hi.

  3. LISM Inhomogeneities and the IBEX Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Adama; Fichtner, Horst

    2016-04-01

    The Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) full-sky maps obtained with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) show an unexpected bright narrow band of increased intensity. This so-called ENA ribbon results from charge exchange of interstellar neutral atoms with protons in the inner heliosheath and/or beyond. According to a recent hypothesis this ribbon may be related to a neutral density enhancement, a so-called H-wave, in the local interstellar medium. It is shown on the basis of an analytical model of the principal large-scale heliospheric structure that this scenario for the ribbon formation is consistent with the observed location of the ribbon in the full-sky maps at all energies detected with high-energy sensor IBEX-Hi.

  4. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems ... delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians ...

  5. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with this condition are happy most of the time. But compared to how she usually feels, the ... the "blues" usually lessens and goes away over time. What causes the baby blues? Medical experts believe ...

  6. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... Postpartum care > The postpartum blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  7. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women do ... can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women do ...

  8. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... Feels sad Feels confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end ... Feels sad Feels confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end ...

  9. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... postpartum blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  10. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... Medical experts believe that changes in the woman's hormones after delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can ... Medical experts believe that changes in the woman's hormones after delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can ...

  11. Is Borg's perceived exertion scale a useful indicator of muscular and cardiovascular load in blue-collar workers with lifting tasks? A cross-sectional workplace study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Persson, R.;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate associations between perceived exertion and objectively assessed muscular and cardiovascular load during a full working day among workers with manual lifting tasks. Methods A total of 159 men and 41 women from 14 workplaces with manual lifting tasks participated. Participants...

  12. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  13. Thermoplastic Ribbon-Ply Bonding Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Marchello, Joseph M.; Messier, Bernadette C.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to identify key variables in rapid weldbonding of thermoplastic tow (ribbon) and their relationship to matrix polymer properties and to ribbon microstructure. Theoretical models for viscosity, establishment of ply-ply contact, instantaneous (Velcro) bonding, molecular interdiffusion (healing), void growth suppression, and gap filling were reviewed and synthesized. Consideration of the theoretical bonding mechanisms and length scales and of the experimental weld/peel data allow the prediction of such quantities as the time and pressure required to achieve good contact between a ribbon and a flat substrate, the time dependence of bond strength, pressures needed to prevent void growth from dissolved moisture and conditions for filling gaps and smoothing overlaps.

  14. Flare Ribbon Expansion and Energy Release

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayumi Asai; Takaaki Yokoyama; Masumi Shimojo; Satoshi Masuda; Kazunari Shibata

    2006-06-01

    We report a detailed examination about the relationship between the evolution of the H flare ribbons and the released magnetic energy during the April 10 2001 flare. In the H images, several bright kernels are observed in the flare ribbons. We identified the conjugated footpoints, by analyzing the lightcurves at each H kernels, and showed their connectivities during the flare. Then, based on the magnetic reconnection model, we calculated quantitatively the released energy by using the photospheric magnetic field strengths and separation speeds of the H flare ribbons. Finally, we examined the downward motions which are observed at the H kernels. We found that the stronger the red-asymmetry tends to be associated with the brighter the H kernel.

  15. Low-loss terahertz ribbon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Cavour; Shimabukuro, Fred; Siegel, Peter H.

    2005-10-01

    The submillimeter wave or terahertz (THz) band (1 mm-100 µm) is one of the last unexplored frontiers in the electromagnetic spectrum. A major stumbling block hampering instrument deployment in this frequency regime is the lack of a low-loss guiding structure equivalent to the optical fiber that is so prevalent at the visible wavelengths. The presence of strong inherent vibrational absorption bands in solids and the high skin-depth losses of conductors make the traditional microstripline circuits, conventional dielectric lines, or metallic waveguides, which are common at microwave frequencies, much too lossy to be used in the THz bands. Even the modern surface plasmon polariton waveguides are much too lossy for long-distance transmission in the THz bands. We describe a concept for overcoming this drawback and describe a new family of ultra-low-loss ribbon-based guide structures and matching components for propagating single-mode THz signals. For straight runs this ribbon-based waveguide can provide an attenuation constant that is more than 100 times less than that of a conventional dielectric or metallic waveguide. Problems dealing with efficient coupling of power into and out of the ribbon guide, achieving low-loss bends and branches, and forming THz circuit elements are discussed in detail. One notes that active circuit elements can be integrated directly onto the ribbon structure (when it is made with semiconductor material) and that the absence of metallic structures in the ribbon guide provides the possibility of high-power carrying capability. It thus appears that this ribbon-based dielectric waveguide and associated components can be used as fundamental building blocks for a new generation of ultra-high-speed electronic integrated circuits or THz interconnects.

  16. Ribbon Tilings and Multidimensional Height Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffield, Scott

    2001-01-01

    We fix $n$ and say a square in the two-dimensional grid indexed by $(x,y)$ has color $c$ if $x+y \\equiv c \\pmod{n}$. A {\\it ribbon tile} of order $n$ is a connected polyomino containing exactly one square of each color. We show that the set of order-$n$ ribbon tilings of a simply connected region $R$ is in one-to-one correspondence with a set of {\\it height functions} from the vertices of $R$ to $\\mathbb Z^{n}$ satisfying certain difference restrictions. It is also in one-to-one correspondenc...

  17. Mobility and Turnover of Vesicles at the Synaptic Ribbon

    OpenAIRE

    LoGiudice, Lisamarie; Sterling, Peter; Matthews, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Ribbon synapses release neurotransmitter continuously at high rates, and the ribbons tether a large pool of synaptic vesicles. To determine if the tethered vesicles are actually released, we tracked vesicles labeled with FM4-64 dye in mouse retinal bipolar cell terminals whose ribbons had been labeled with a fluorescent peptide. We photobleached vesicles in regions with ribbons and without them and then followed recovery of fluorescence as bleached regions were repopulated by labeled vesicles...

  18. High-Cadence and High-Resolution Halpha Imaging Spectroscopy of a Circular Flare's Remote Ribbon with IBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Na; Tritschler, A.; Jing, J.; Chen, X.; Liu, C.; Reardon, K. P.; Denker, C.; Xu, Y.; Wang, H.

    2013-07-01

    We present an unprecedented high-resolution halpha imaging spectroscopic observation of a C4.1 flare taken with IBIS on 2011 October 22. The flare consists of a main circular ribbon that occurred in a parasitic magnetic configuration and a remote ribbon that was observed by the IBIS. Such a circular-ribbon flare with a remote brightening is predicted in 3D fan-spine reconnection but so far has been rarely reported. During the flare impulsive phase, we define "core" and "halo" structures in the observed ribbon. Examining the halpha emission spectra averaged in the flare core and halo areas, we find that only those from the flare cores show typical nonthermal electron beam heating characteristics. These characteristics include: broad and centrally reversed emission spectra, excess emission in the red wing with regard to the blue wing (i.e., red asymmetry), and redshifted bisectors of the emission spectra. We also observe rather quick timescales for the heating (30 s) and cooling (14--33 s) in the flare core locations. Therefore, we suggest that the flare cores revealed by IBIS track the sites of electron beam precipitation with exceptional spatial and temporal resolution. The flare cores show two-stage motion (a parallel motion along the ribbon followed by an expansion motion perpendicular to the ribbon) during the two impulsive phases of the flare. Some cores jump quickly (30 km/s) between discrete magnetic elements implying reconnection involving different flux tubes. We observe a very high temporal correlation (>0.9) between the integrated halpha and HXR emission during the flare impulsive phase. A short time delay (4.6 s) is also found in the halpha emission spikes relative to HXR bursts. The ionization timescale of the cool chromosphere and the extra time taken for the electrons to travel to the remote ribbon site may contribute to this delay.

  19. Target efficiency comparison between free stream ribbon and surface-mounted ribbon in a turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of solid boundary under a surface-mounted ribbon on particle collection efficiency was studied. The turbulent fluid velocity was obtained by solving the Navier-Stokes equation based on k-ε turbulence model. The trajectory model was adopted to obtain the information on the particle phase trajectories. The equation of particle motion included inertial, viscous drag and gravity forces. To check the validity of numerical results, target efficiency of particles over the free-stream ribbon with respect to Stockes number was compared with the same experimental data. It was observed that the agreement between these is excellent. For the surface-mounted ribbon, the target efficiency in the range of small Stokes numbers is larger than that for the free-stream ribbon, but for larger Stockes number is smaller. The Stokes and gravity numbers were introduced to interpret the effect of gravity and inertial impaction on particle deposition at the back and front of the surface-mounted ribbon. The dominant deposition mechanism inertial impaction, gravity force) over the surface-mounted ribbon depends on Stokes and gravity numbers

  20. Kind of Blue - Europa Blues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tore; Kirkegaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Bidraget reflekterer over sammenhænge mellem to værker fra det musikalske og litterære område. Det drejer sig om Miles Davis' Kind of Blue fra 1959 og Arne Dahls krimi, Europa Blues fra 2001. Den grundlæggende indfaldsvinkel er det performative, den frie, men samtidigt disciplinerede musikalske...

  1. Edge Stabilized Ribbon (ESR); Stress, Dislocation Density and Electronic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    The edge stabilized ribbon (ESR) silicon ribbon was grown in widths of 1, 2.2 and 4.0 inches at speeds ranging from .6 to 7 in/min, which result in ribbon thicknesses of 5 to 400 microns. One of the primary problems remaining in ESR growth is that of thermally induced mechanical stresses. This problem is manifested as ribbon with a high degree of residual stress or as ribbon with buckled ribbon. Thermal stresses result in a high dislocation density in the grown material, resulting in compromised electronic performance. Improvements in ribbon flatness were accomplished by modification of the ribbon cooling profile. Ribbon flatness and other experimental observations of ESR ribbon are discussed. Laser scanner measurements show a good correlation between diffusion length and dislocation density which indicates that the high dislocation densities are the primary cause of the poor current performance of ESR materials. Dislocation densities were reduced and improved electronic performance resulted. Laser scanner data on new and old material are presented.

  2. Oxygen measurements in thin ribbon silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, S. L.; Ast, D. G.; Baghdadi, A.

    1987-03-01

    The oxygen content of thin silicon ribbons grown by the dendritic web technique was measured using a modification of the ASTM method based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Web silicon was found to have a high oxygen content, ranging from 13 to 19 ppma, calculated from the absorption peak associated with interstitial oxygen and using the new ASTM conversion coefficient. The oxygen concentration changed by about 10 percent along the growth direction of the ribbon. In some samples, a shoulder was detected on the absorption peak. A similar shoulder in Czochralski grown material has been variously interpreted in the literature as due to a complex of silicon, oxygen, and vacancies, or to a phase of SiO2 developed along dislocations in the material. In the case of web silicon, it is not clear which is the correct interpretation.

  3. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day Your support helps babies We are determined to ... confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end by the tenth ...

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    Full Text Available ... dashboard . After the baby is born, many new mothers have the postpartum blues (also called the baby ... compared to how she usually feels, the new mother: Is more irritable Cries more easily Feels sad ...

  6. Postpartum Blues

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  7. High-Cadence and High-Resolution Halpha Imaging Spectroscopy of a Circular Flare's Remote Ribbon with IBIS

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Na; Jing, Ju; Chen, Xin; Liu, Chang; Reardon, Kevin; Denker, Carsten; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin

    2013-01-01

    We present an unprecedented high-resolution \\ha\\ imaging spectroscopic observation of a C4.1 flare taken with IBIS on 2011 October 22. The flare consists of a main circular ribbon that occurred in a parasitic magnetic configuration and a remote ribbon that was observed by the IBIS. Such a circular-ribbon flare with a remote brightening is predicted in 3D fan-spine reconnection but so far has been rarely observed. During the flare impulsive phase, we define "core" and "halo" structures in the observed ribbon. Examining the \\ha\\ emission spectra averaged in the flare core and halo areas, we find that only those from the flare cores show typical nonthermal electron beam heating characteristics. These characteristics include: broad and centrally reversed emission spectra, excess emission in the red wing with regard to the blue wing (i.e., red asymmetry), and redshifted bisectors of the emission spectra. We also observe rather quick timescales for the heating (30 s) and cooling (14--33 s) in the flare core locatio...

  8. High-cadence and High-resolution Hα Imaging Spectroscopy of a Circular Flare's Remote Ribbon with IBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Na; Tritschler, Alexandra; Jing, Ju; Chen, Xin; Liu, Chang; Reardon, Kevin; Denker, Carsten; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin

    2013-06-01

    We present an unprecedented high-resolution Hα imaging spectroscopic observation of a C4.1 flare taken with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) in conjunction with the adaptive optics system at the 76 cm Dunn Solar Telescope on 2011 October 22 in the active region NOAA 11324. Such a two-dimensional spectroscopic observation covering the entire evolution of a flare ribbon with high spatial (0.''1 pixel-1 image scale), cadence (4.8 s), and spectral (0.1 Å step size) resolution is rarely reported. The flare consists of a main circular ribbon that occurred in a parasitic magnetic configuration and a remote ribbon that was observed by the IBIS. Such a circular-ribbon flare with a remote brightening is predicted in three-dimensional fan-spine reconnection but so far has been rarely studied. During the flare impulsive phase, we define "core" and "halo" structures in the observed ribbon based on IBIS narrowband images in the Hα line wing and line center. Examining the Hα emission spectra averaged in the flare core and halo areas, we find that only those from the flare cores show typical nonthermal electron beam heating characteristics that have been revealed by previous theoretical simulations and observations of flaring Hα line profiles. These characteristics include broad and centrally reversed emission spectra, excess emission in the red wing with regard to the blue wing (i.e., red asymmetry), and redshifted bisectors of the emission spectra. We also observe rather quick timescales for the heating (~30 s) and cooling (~14-33 s) in the flare core locations. Therefore, we suggest that the flare cores revealed by IBIS track the sites of electron beam precipitation with exceptional spatial and temporal resolution. The flare cores show two-stage motion (a parallel motion along the ribbon followed by an expansion motion perpendicular to the ribbon) during the two impulsive phases of the flare. Some cores jump quickly (30 km s-1) between discrete

  9. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today. PMID:8065194

  10. Study of growth of single crystal ribbon in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, V. E.; Markworth, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The technical feasibility is studied of growing single-crystal silicon ribbon in the space environment. Procedures are described for calculating the electromagnetic fields produced in a silicon ribbon by an rf shaping coil. The forces on the ribbon and the degree of shaping to be expected are determined. The expected steady-state temperature distribution in the ribbon is calculated in the one-dimensional approximation. Calculations on simplified models indicate, that lack of flatness of the shaped ribbon and excessive heating of the melt by the eddy currents induced by the shaping fields may pose problems. An analysis of the relative effects of various kinds of forces other than electromagnetic showed that in the space environment capillarity forces would dominate, and that the shape of the melt is thus principally determined by the shape of any solids with which it comes in contact. This suggests that ribbon may be produced simply by drawing between parallel wires. A concept is developed for a process of off-angle growth, in which the ribbon is pulled at an angle to the solidification front. Such a process promises to offer increased growth rate, better homogeneity, and thinner ribbon.

  11. Universality for polynomial invariants on ribbon graphs with flags

    OpenAIRE

    Avohou, Remi C.; Geloun, Joseph Ben; Hounkonnou , Mahouton N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the Bollobas and Riordan polynomial for ribbon graphs with flags introduced in arXiv:1301.1987 and prove its universality. We also show that this polynomial can be defined on some equivalence classes of ribbon graphs involving flag moves and that the new polynomial is still universal on these classes.

  12. Twisted Ribbons: Theory, Experiment and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Julien; Davidovitch, Benjamin; Silva, Flavio A.; Toledo Filho, Romildo D.; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2014-03-01

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, the buckling and wrinkling instabilities of a pre-stretched ribbon upon twisting and propose strategies for the fabrication of structured yarns. Our experiment consists in a thin elastic sheet in the form of a ribbon which is initially stretched by a fixed load and then subjected to a twist by rotating the ends through a prescribed angle. We show that a wide variety of shapes and instabilities can be obtained by simply varying the applied twist and tension. The observed structures which include helicoids with and without longitudinal and transverse wrinkles, and spontaneous creases, can be organized in a phase diagram with the tension and twist angle as control parameters [J. Chopin and A. Kudrolli, PRL (2013)]. Using a far-from-threshold analysis and a slender body approximation, we provide a comprehensive understanding of the longitudinal and transverse instabilities and show that several regimes emerge depending on subtle combinations of loading and geometrical parameters. Further, we show that the wrinkling instabilities can be manipulated to fabricate structured yarns which may be used to encapsulate amorphous materials or serve as efficient reinforcements for cement-based composites. COPPETEC / CNPq - Science Without Border Program

  13. Localized modes in nonlinear binary kagome ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beličev, P. P.; Gligorić, G.; Radosavljević, A.; Maluckov, A.; Stepić, M.; Vicencio, R. A.; Johansson, M.

    2015-11-01

    The localized mode propagation in binary nonlinear kagome ribbons is investigated with the premise to ensure controlled light propagation through photonic lattice media. Particularity of the linear system characterized by the dispersionless flat band in the spectrum is the opening of new minigaps due to the "binarism." Together with the presence of nonlinearity, this determines the guiding mode types and properties. Nonlinearity destabilizes the staggered rings found to be nondiffracting in the linear system, but can give rise to dynamically stable ringlike solutions of several types: unstaggered rings, low-power staggered rings, hour-glass-like solutions, and vortex rings with high power. The type of solutions, i.e., the energy and angular momentum circulation through the nonlinear lattice, can be controlled by suitable initial excitation of the ribbon. In addition, by controlling the system "binarism" various localized modes can be generated and guided through the system, owing to the opening of the minigaps in the spectrum. All these findings offer diverse technical possibilities, especially with respect to the high-speed optical communications and high-power lasers.

  14. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  15. Diagrammatic documentation for ribbon computing in Microsoft Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Farbeh-Tabrizi

    Full Text Available In 2007 Microsoft changed the graphical user interface of MS Office, and moved away from the long -established drop down menu approach to a ribbon graphical user interface. There have been mixed reactions to Microsoft\\'s ribbon interface. Ericson (2006 mentioned that even the experienced user might have difficulty adopting the interface, and Dostal (2010 concluded that the biggest issue with the Ribbon User Interface is to get accustomed to a redesigned user interface. Reaction to this change was negative among our new and current students. For years the students had tried to memorise how to apply the right commands in Microsoft Office applications by selecting the correct items from the dropdown menus of the WIMP (windows, icons, menus, pointer interface, and now that they were confronted with the new interface their confusion had begun to slow their progress down. The major effect in transition from the traditional WIMP interface to the Ribbon interface had created a difficulty for most students who had their original training with the older versions of MS Office software, as they were not able to locate the commands that they had learnt with the earlier versions of the MS Office in the new Ribbon interfaced version. The shrinking nature of the ribbon that would hide some commands on the ribbon when the resolution of the screen changes was also confusing for those students as they could not quickly locate the command they were looking for because the Ribbon had compacted them to save space. For both new students and also more experienced ones, the approach to learning the Ribbon Interface seemed to be difficult due to the fact that they had to memorise the hierarchy of tab names, group names and then the commands. This led us to enhance our current teaching methods to try to deal with this change.

  16. Nanoscale Morphology in Tensile Fracture of a Brittle Amorphous Ribbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xifeng LI; Kaifeng ZHANG; Guofeng WANG

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on the observation of nanoscale morphology on the tensile fracture surface of a brittle amorphous Fe-based ribbon. The formation of nanoscale damage cavity structure is a main characteristic morphology on the fracture surfaces. Approaching the ribbon boundary, these damage cavities assemble and form the nanoscale periodic corrugations, which are neither Wallner lines nor crack front waves. The periodic corrugations result from the interactions between the reflected elastic waves by the boundaries of amorphous ribbon and the stress fields of the crack tip.

  17. Transmittance characteristics and tunable sensor performances of plasmonic graphene ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Yueke; Sang, Tian; Yang, Guofeng

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the transmittance characteristics of graphene ribbons numerically. It is found that the transmission dips originate from the transverse and longitudinal resonances of edge graphene plasmon modes, supported by the graphene ribbon resonator. The environmental refractive index changes are detected by measuring the resulting spectral shifts of the resonant transmission dip, so the graphene ribbons can be applied to plasmonic sensor in infrared. Simulation results show that sensing performances for each resonant mode are similar, and figure of merit can be up to 6. Beside, thanks to the tunable permittivity of graphene by bias voltages, the transmittance spectra and sensor performances can be easily tuned.

  18. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  19. Intracellular calcium stores drive slow non-ribbon vesicle release from rod photoreceptors

    OpenAIRE

    Minghui eChen; David eKrizaj; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2014-01-01

    Rods are capable of greater slow release than cones contributing to overall slower release kinetics. Slow release in rods involves Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR). By impairing release from ribbons, we found that unlike cones where release occurs entirely at ribbon-style active zones, slow release from rods occurs mostly at ectopic, non-ribbon sites. To investigate the role of CICR in ribbon and non-ribbon release from rods, we used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) a...

  20. Ribbon electron beam formation by a forevacuum plasma electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimov, A. S., E-mail: klimov@main.tusur.ru; Burdovitsin, V. A. [Tomsk State University of Control System and Radioelectronics (Russian Federation); Grishkov, A. A. [SB RAS, Institute of High Current Electronics (Russian Federation); Oks, E. M.; Zenin, A. A.; Yushkov, Yu. G. [Tomsk State University of Control System and Radioelectronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Results of the numerical analysis and experimental research on ribbon electron beam generation based on hollow cathode discharge at forevacuum gas pressure are presented. Geometry of the accelerating gap has modified. It lets us focus the ribbon electron beam and to transport it on a distance of several tens of centimeters in the absence of an axial magnetic field. The results of numerical simulations are confirmed by the experiment.

  1. Distance to the IBEX Ribbon Source Inferred from Parallax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaczyna, P.; Bzowski, M.; Christian, E. R.; Funsten, H. O.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2016-06-01

    Maps of energetic neutral atom (ENA) fluxes obtained from observations made by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) revealed a bright structure extending over the sky, subsequently dubbed the IBEX ribbon. The ribbon had not been expected from the existing models and theories prior to IBEX, and a number of mechanisms have since been proposed to explain the observations. In these mechanisms, the observed ENAs emerge from source plasmas located at different distances from the Sun. Since each part of the sky is observed by IBEX twice during the year from opposite sides of the Sun, the apparent position of the ribbon as observed in the sky is shifted due to parallax. To determine the ribbon’s parallax, we found the precise location of the maximum signal of the ribbon observed in each orbital arc. The apparent positions obtained were subsequently corrected for the Compton-Getting effect, gravitational deflection, and radiation pressure. Finally, we selected a part of the ribbon where its position is similar in the different IBEX energy passbands. We compared the apparent positions obtained from the viewing locations on the opposite sides of the Sun, and found that they are shifted by a parallax angle of 0.°41 ± 0.°15, which corresponds to a distance of {140}-38+84 AU. This finding supports models of the ribbon with the source located just outside the heliopause.

  2. Distance to the IBEX Ribbon Source Inferred from Parallax

    CERN Document Server

    Swaczyna, P; Christian, E R; Funsten, H O; McComas, D J; Schwadron, N A

    2016-01-01

    Maps of Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) fluxes obtained from Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observations revealed a bright structure extending over the sky, subsequently dubbed the IBEX ribbon. The ribbon had not been expected from the existing models and theories prior to IBEX, and a number of mechanisms have since been proposed to explain the observations. In these mechanisms, the observed ENAs emerge from source plasmas located at different distances from the Sun. Since each part of the sky is observed by IBEX twice during the year from opposite sides of the Sun, the apparent position of the ribbon as observed in the sky is shifted due to parallax. To determine the ribbon parallax, we found the precise location of the maximum signal of the ribbon observed in each orbital arc. The obtained apparent positions were subsequently corrected for the Compton-Getting effect, gravitational deflection, and radiation pressure. Finally, we selected a part of the ribbon where its position is similar between the IBEX...

  3. Color vision: retinal blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2012-08-21

    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  4. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

  5. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  6. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  7. Nanoporous Cu wide ribbons with good mechanical integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.M., E-mail: wym@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Zhang, W. [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Inoue, A. [WPI, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2012-04-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu{sub 28}Mn{sub 70}Si{sub 2} ribbon samples of 10 mm width were made by liquid quenching. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoporous Cu wide ribbons with good mechanical integrity were made by dealloying. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A layer of grain boundary glue structure was formed in the dealloyed structure. - Abstract: In this work we report the fabrication of nanoporous Cu wide ribbon samples by electrochemical dealloying the minor Si alloyed {gamma}-Cu{sub 30}Mn{sub 70} solid solution alloys. The {gamma}-Cu{sub 30}Mn{sub 70} structure was found to be capable of trapping a minor amount of Si as solute by liquid quenching. Ribbon samples of 10 mm wide with tunable thickness were made at the Cu{sub 28}Mn{sub 70}Si{sub 2} composition. The {gamma}-Cu{sub 28}Mn{sub 70}Si{sub 2} alloy can be turned into wide ribbon nanoporous Cu with the pore size of {approx}30-50 nm and with good mechanical integrity. A thin layer of Si-enriched glue structure with {approx}50 nm thickness was formed continuously along the grain boundaries to play the role of reinforcement for the dealloyed structure.

  8. The Local Interstellar Magnetic Field Determined from the IBEX Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirnstein, E.; Funsten, H. O.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2015-12-01

    As the solar wind plasma flows away from the Sun, it eventually collides with the local interstellar medium, creating the heliosphere. Neutral atoms from interstellar space travel inside the heliosphere and charge-exchange with the solar wind plasma, creating energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). Some of these ENAs travel outside the heliosphere, undergo two charge-exchange events, and travel back inside the heliosphere towards Earth, with the strongest intensity in directions perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field (IMF). It is widely believed that this process generates the "ribbon" of enhanced ENA intensity observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), and has been shown to explain many key features of the observations. IBEX observations of the ribbon are composed of a complex, line-of-sight integration of ENAs that come from different distances beyond the heliopause, and thus the ENAs detected by IBEX over a wide range of energies are uniquely coupled to the IMF draped around the heliosphere. We present a detailed analysis of the IBEX ribbon measurements using 3D simulations of the heliosphere and computations of the ribbon flux at Earth based on IBEX capabilities, and derive the magnitude and direction of the IMF required to reproduce the position of the IBEX ribbon in the sky. These results have potentially large implications for our understanding of the solar-interstellar environment.

  9. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-07-26

    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (blue energy harvesting. In this Perspective, we describe some of the recent progress and also address concerns related to durable packaging of TENGs in consideration of harsh marine environments and power management for an efficient power transfer and distribution for commercial applications.

  10. A Magnetic Ribbon Model for Star-Forming Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Auddy, Sayantan; Kudoh, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    We develop a magnetic ribbon model for molecular cloud filaments. These result from turbulent compression in a molecular cloud in which the background magnetic field sets a preferred direction. We argue that this is a natural model for filaments and is based on the interplay between turbulence, strong magnetic fields, and gravitationally-driven ambipolar diffusion, rather than pure gravity and thermal pressure. An analytic model for the formation of magnetic ribbons that is based on numerical simulations is used to derive a lateral width of a magnetic ribbon. This differs from the thickness along the magnetic field direction, which is essentially the Jeans scale. We use our model to calculate a synthetic observed relation between apparent width in projection versus observed column density. The relationship is relatively flat, similar to observations, and unlike the simple expectation based on a Jeans length argument.

  11. From Cylindrical to Stretching Ridges and Wrinkles in Twisted Ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham Dinh, Huy; Démery, Vincent; Davidovitch, Benny; Brau, Fabian; Damman, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    Twisted ribbons under tension exhibit a remarkably rich morphology, from smooth and wrinkled helicoids, to cylindrical or faceted patterns. This complexity emanates from the instability of the natural, helicoidal symmetry of the system, which generates both longitudinal and transverse stresses, thereby leading to buckling of the ribbon. Here, we focus on the tessellation patterns made of triangular facets. Our experimental observations are described within an "asymptotic isometry" approach that brings together geometry and elasticity. The geometry consists of parametrized families of surfaces, isometric to the undeformed ribbon in the singular limit of vanishing thickness and tensile load. The energy, whose minimization selects the favored structure among those families, is governed by the tensile work and bending cost of the pattern. This framework describes the coexistence lines in a morphological phase diagram, and determines the domain of existence of faceted structures.

  12. Ribbon channel plate rotating drum DNA sequencing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthart, R J; Welt, M; Walling, L

    1996-01-01

    A new design DNA sequencing electrophoresis device is described. The device, called the ribbon channeled plate rotating drum (rprd), consists of two major components, the plate assembly and the drum assembly. The plate assembly contains a machined or etched plate of individual micro-channels called the ribbon channeled plate. The ribbon channeled plate and other components of the plate assembly combine the advantages of thin gels and capillary arrays in a single unit with few of the disadvantages. The other major component of rprd is the drum assembly, which facilitates direct blotting onto deposition membranes affixed to a large plastic drum. The drum with attached membrane and deposited electrophoretically resolved ladders is easily moved to special units facilitating downstream processing and detection. The drum unit, although versatile, is specifically designed to be used with multiplex sequencing. PMID:8907517

  13. Hydrostatic extrusion of Cu-Ag melt spun ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary Ann; Bingert, John F.; Bingert, Sherri A.; Thoma, Dan J.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of producing high-strength and high-conductance copper and silver materials comprising the steps of combining a predetermined ratio of the copper with the silver to produce a composite material, and melt spinning the composite material to produce a ribbon of copper and silver. The ribbon of copper and silver is heated in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thereafter die pressed into a slug. The slug then is placed into a high-purity copper vessel and the vessel is sealed with an electron beam. The vessel and slug then are extruded into wire form using a cold hydrostatic extrusion process.

  14. Full-mesh optical backplane with standard MM fiber ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, M.; Coviello, D.; Boffi, P.; Martinelli, M.; Basile, V.; Fassi, I.; Falcucci, M.; Renghini, C.; Scalmati, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    A new optical backplane solution is proposed for high-capacity ICT apparatus. A modular, scalable and full-mesh bandwidth-upgradable optical interconnection between optoelectronic boards is guaranteed thanks to an optimized layout of standard MM 12-fiber ribbons which divides the overall backplane into several independent optical sub-circuits. The novel automated assembly procedure of fiber ribbons inside sub-circuits with a robotic work-cell is described. System validation of the optical backplane performed with commercially available MM 12-fiber transceivers @10Gb/s proved the feasibility of the proposed solution for future optical interconnections with terabit overall capacity.

  15. Optical Möbius strips and twisted ribbon cloaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Isaac

    2014-02-15

    Optical Möbius strips that surround points of circular polarization, C points, in a generic three-dimensional optical field are cloaked by lines of twisted ribbons attached to the C points. When cloaking occurs, the observable signed twist index that counts the number of half-twists (one or three), and also measures the handedness (right or left), of a generic Möbius strip is determined by the twisted ribbon cloaks. Although some cloaks can be detached, they can never all be removed.

  16. Powder and other divided solids mixing. Scale-up and parametric study of a ribbon blender used in pharmaceutical powders mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Pascal; Abatzoglou, Nicolas

    2006-02-01

    This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of ribbon blender operational parameters on mixture quality. Mix quality parameters and blend uniformity limits are enforced by regulatory bodies. These limits have served in this present work as targets for blending end-points. In a laboratory-scale model ribbon blender, built by scaling down a real industrial unit, powder mixtures composed of white and blue microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were blended. Blend uniformity was evaluated using a statistical analysis method under various operating conditions such as loading patterns, blender filling percentage, impeller rotational speeds, and mixing times. It was shown that the filling percentage is the most influential mixing parameter. At high impeller rotational speed, the blending end-point was never reached during experimentation.

  17. 75 FR 65465 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Disposal Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The Commission will provide advice and make recommendations on... nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The Co-chairs of the Commission requested the formation of the Disposal... beginning at 8 a.m. on November 4, 2010, at the St. Regis Hotel. Registration to speak will close at...

  18. 75 FR 45608 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... the Act. DATES: Thursday, August 19, 2010, 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m. ADDRESSES: Washington Marriott Hotel, 1221... at approximately 8:30 a.m. at the Washington Marriott Hotel, 1221 22nd Street, NW., Washington, DC....m. on August 19, 2010, at the Washington Marriott Hotel. Those not able to attend the meeting...

  19. Through a glass darkly: reflections on change in health care, nursing, and blue ribbon committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Edward H

    2011-06-01

    The confluence of the Future of Nursing report and the calls for comprehensive reform of the health care system in the United States presents a unique opportunity for nursing to redefine its leadership role. This redefinition should be mindful of those places where nursing has and does provide leadership and the unique set of competencies that every nurse possesses that can be focused on leadership work.

  20. 76 FR 31988 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Red Ribbon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ...: Red Ribbon Week Patch; DEA Form 316 and 316A ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection under... Collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Intent to Participate and Red Ribbon Week Patch Activity Report... Scout Troop Leaders that express an interest in participating in DEA Red Ribbon Week Activities....

  1. Polycrystalline silicon ribbons for solar cells prepared by fast cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, J.; Verpalen, J.L.P.W.; Os, C.F.A. van

    1984-01-01

    Experiments on the production of 0.1 mm thick polycrystalline silicon ribbons by jet casting and flow casting are reported. The processes are described with models for heat transport and momentum transport. Attention is paid to process stability. Grain growth, which is necessary for solar cell appli

  2. A new thermotropic smectic phase made of ribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Hardouin, F.; Nguyen Huu Tinh,; Achard, M. F.; Levelut, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    From microscopical observations and structural studies on the mesophases of a new thermotropic polar compound — the nitrobenzoyloxybenzoate of octylphenyl — we have shown the existence of a novel fluid mesophase built with ribbons forming a two-dimensional oblique lattice. We propose a crude model based upon structure factor calculations.

  3. Extrusion of metal oxide superconducting wire, tube or ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Joseph T.

    1993-10-05

    A process for extruding a superconducting metal oxide composition YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x provides a wire (tube or ribbon) having a cohesive mass and a degree of flexibility together with enhanced electrical properties. Wire diameters in the range of 6-85 mils have been produced with smaller wires on the order of 10 mils in diameter exhibiting enhanced flexibility for forming braided, or multistrand, configurations for greater current carrying capacity. The composition for extrusion contains a polymeric binder to provide a cohesive mass to bind the particles together during the extrusion process with the binder subsequently removed at lower temperatures during sintering. The composition for extrusion further includes a deflocculent, an organic plasticizer and a solvent which also are subsequently removed during sintering. Electrically conductive tubing with an inner diameter of 52 mil and an outer diameter of 87-355 mil has also been produced. Flat ribbons have been produced in the range of 10-125 mil thick by 100-500 mil wide. The superconducting wire, tube or ribbon may include an outer ceramic insulating sheath co-extruded with the wire, tubing or ribbon.

  4. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  5. Dosimetry of wires and single ribbons of Iridium 192; Dosimetria de alambres y ribbons individuales de Iridio-192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzucco, L.D. [Centro Medico Nuclear S.R.L. San Juan (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this work is in order to present in table formats the dosimetry of wires and single ribbons of Iridium with lengths 1-12 cm for each one linear source along the bisector which is perpendicular at tissue sources (water) computed for linear activity 1 mCi/cm in the case of wires, and 1 mCi/seed for ribbons. The above tables are of direct use, adaptable at particular cases so they facilitate logarithmic graphics of doses in function of the distance for interpolation and use in the treatments planning. It was shown that for two sources with identical linear activity and total length, one of the equidistant seeds at 1 cm (ribbon) and one wire on the other hand, the differences in dose rates in near positions can be about the 15% so corroborating that it is not possible to use wire tables for seeds neither vice versa. Moreover it was elaborated tables of practical direct use for dose rate in water at c Gy/hr for wires and Ribbons 1-12 cm length and from 0.5-10 cm of distance in the perpendicular bisector at the Iridium implant. (Author)

  6. Floquet Spectrum and Transport Through an Irradiated Graphene Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, H. A.; Gu, Zhenghao; Arovas, Daniel; Auerbach, Assa

    2012-02-01

    Graphene subject to a spatially uniform, circularly-polarized electric field supports a Floquet spectrum with properties akin to those of a topological insulator, including non-vanishing Chern numbers associated with bulk bands and current-carrying edge states. Transport properties of this system however are complicated by the non-equilibrium occupations of the Floquet states. We address this by considering transport in a two-terminal ribbon geometry for which the leads have well-defined chemical potentials, with an irradiated central scattering region. We demonstrate the presence of edge states, which for infinite mass boundary conditions may be associated with only one of the two valleys. At low frequencies, the bulk DC conductivity near zero energy is shown to be dominated by a series of states with very narrow anticrossings, leading to super-diffusive behavior. For very long ribbons, a ballistic regime emerges in which edge state transport dominates.

  7. Terahertz wavefront control by tunable metasurface made of graphene ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatooshi, Takumi; Ishikawa, Atsushi, E-mail: a-ishikawa@okayama-u.ac.jp; Tsuruta, Kenji [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushimanaka, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2015-08-03

    We propose a tunable metasurface consisting of an array of graphene ribbons on a silver mirror with a SiO{sub 2} gap layer to control reflected wavefront at terahertz frequencies. The graphene ribbons exhibit localized plasmon resonances depending on their Fermi levels to introduce abrupt phase shifts along the metasurface. With interference of the Fabry-Perot resonances in the SiO{sub 2} layer, phase shift through the system is largely accumulated, covering the 0-to-2π range for full control of the wavefront. Numerical simulations prove that wide-angle beam steering up to 53° with a high reflection efficiency of 60% is achieved at 5 THz within a switching time shorter than 0.6 ps.

  8. Magnetoimpedance of cobalt-based amorphous ribbons/polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semirov, A. V.; Derevyanko, M. S.; Bukreev, D. A.; Moiseev, A. A.; Kudryavtsev, V. O.; Safronov, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    The combined influence of the temperature, the elastic tensile stress and the external magnetic field on the total impedance and impedance components were studied for rapidly quenched amorphous Co75Fe5Si4B16 ribbons. Both as-cast amorphous ribbons and Co75Fe5Si4B16/polymer amorphous ribbon based composites were considered. Following polymer coverings were studied: modified rubber solution in o-xylene, solution of butyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid copolymer in isopropanol and solution of polymethylphenylsiloxane resin in toluene. All selected composites showed very good adhesion of the coverings and allowed to provide temperature measurements from 163 K up to 383 K under the applied deforming tensile force up to 30 N. The dependence of the modulus of the impedance and its components on the external magnetic field was influenced by the elastic tensile stresses and was affected by the temperature of the samples. It was shown that maximal sensitivity of the impedance and its components to the external magnetic field was observed at minimal temperature and maximal deforming force depended on the frequency of an alternating current.

  9. Explosive Chromospheric Evaporation in a Circular-ribbon Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Q M; Ning, Z J; Su, Y N; Ji, H S; Guo, Y

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report our multiwavelength observations of the C4.2 circular-ribbon flare in active region (AR) 12434 on 2015 October 16. The short-lived flare was associated with positive magnetic polarities and a negative polarity inside, as revealed by the photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms. Such magnetic pattern is strongly indicative of a magnetic null point and spine-fan configuration in the corona. The flare was triggered by the eruption of a mini-filament residing in the AR, which produced the inner flare ribbon (IFR) and the southern part of a closed circular flare ribbon (CFR). When the eruptive filament reached the null point, it triggered null point magnetic reconnection with the ambient open field and generated the bright CFR and a blowout jet. Raster observations of the \\textit{Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph} (\\textit{IRIS}) show plasma upflow at speed of 35$-$120 km s$^{-1}$ in the Fe {\\sc xxi} 1354.09 {\\AA} line ($\\log T\\approx7.05$) and downflow at speed of 10$-$60 km s$^{-1}$ i...

  10. Symmetry breaking induced excitations of dark plasmonic modes in multilayer graphene ribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Y Y; Chen, A; Xia, Y Y; Han, D Z; Liu, X H; Shi, L; Zi, J

    2016-09-01

    Multilayer graphene can support multiple plasmon bands. If structured into graphene ribbons, they can support multiple localized plasmonic modes with interesting optical properties. However, not all such plasmonic modes can be excited directly due to the constrains of the structural symmetry. We show by numerical simulations that by breaking the symmetry all plasmonic modes can be excited. We discuss the general principles and properties of two-layer graphene ribbons and then extend to multilayer graphene ribbons. In multilayer graphene ribbons with different ribbon widths, a tunable broadband absorption can be attained due to the excitations of all plasmonic modes. Our results suggest that these symmetry-broken multilayer graphene ribbons could offer more degrees of freedom in designing photonic devices. PMID:27607610

  11. Microstructures of Ti-48%Ni shape memory melt-spun ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Hong-yan; H. Y. KIM; S. MIYAZAKI

    2006-01-01

    The effect of wheel speed on microstructures of Ti-48%Ni (mole fraction) melt-spun ribbons was investigated by X-ray diffractometry,scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. When the wheel speed is 26 and 42 m/s,the as-spun ribbons are completely crystallized to the Ti-Ni B2 phase. The Ti-rich plate precipitates lying on {100} planes are observed in the as-spun ribbon fabricated with a wheel speed of 26 m/s. The spherical Ti2Ni precipitates are observed at grain boundaries in the as-spun ribbons fabricated with a wheel speed of 42 m/s. Amorphous and B2 phases coexist in the as-spun ribbon fabricated with a wheel speed of 52 m/s. The uniformity of grain size in heat treated ribbons decreases with increasing wheel speed.

  12. Blue and White Pot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Many recent archaeological studies have proven that the earliest blue and white porcelain was produced from the kiln in Gongxian County, Henan Province in the Tang Dynasty (618-907). It was an important variety of porcelain available for export then. The early blue and white porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty appeared dark and gray. During the reign of Zhizheng, clear blue and white porcelain was produced, indicating

  13. Orientational dynamics of colloidal ribbons self-assembled from microscopic magnetic ellipsoids

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Cebers, Andrejs; Tierno, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    We combine experiments and theory to investigate the orientational dynamics of dipolar ellipsoids, which self-assemble into elongated ribbon-like structures due to the presence in each particle of a permanent magnetic moment perpendicular to the long axis. Monodisperse hematite ellipsoids are synthesized via sol-gel technique, and arrange into ribbons in presence of static or time-dependent magnetic fields. We find that under an oscillating field, the ribbons reorient perpendicular to the fie...

  14. Alteration of in vivo cellulose ribbon assembly by carboxymethylcellulose and other cellulose derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    In vivo cellulose ribbon assembly by the Gram-negative bacterium Acetobacter xylinum can be altered by incubation in carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), a negatively charged water-soluble cellulose derivative, and also by incubation in a variety of neutral, water-soluble cellulose derivatives. In the presence of all of these substituted celluloses, normal fasciation of microfibril bundles to form the typical twisting ribbon is prevented. Alteration of ribbon assembly is most extensive in the presen...

  15. Feeling blue? Blue phosphors for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hungshin Fu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs has been revitalized, partly due to the debut of the OLED TV by SONY in 2008. While there is still plenty of room for improvement in efficiency, cost-effectiveness and longevity, it is timely to report on the advances of light emitting materials, the core of OLEDs, and their future perspectives. The focus of this account is primarily to chronicle the blue phosphors developed in our laboratory. Special attention is paid to the design strategy, synthetic novelty, and their OLED performance. The report also underscores the importance of the interplay between chemistry and photophysics en route to true-blue phosphors.

  16. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  17. From blue jeans to blue genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-03-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes.

  18. Magnetoband structures of AB-stacked zigzag nanographite ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.P.; Chiu, C.W.; Shyu, F.L.; Chen, R.B.; Lin, M.F

    2002-12-30

    Magnetoband structures of AB-stacked zigzag nanographite ribbons are studied by the tight-binding model. The magnetic field changes band width, energy space, and energy dispersions (the produce of Landau subbands and Landau levels). It causes many zero energy points. Such points and corresponding localized states are studied in detail. There are certain important differences between localized states and edge states. Oscillation period of Landau subbands are determined by these points. The interribbon interactions also affect magnetoband structures, such as energy dispersions, band width, oscillation period of Landau subbands, and flux dependence of Hofstadter butterflies.

  19. Klein tunneling through an oblique barrier in graphene ribbons

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, J H

    2010-01-01

    We study a transmission coefficient of graphene nanoribbons with a top gate which acts as an oblique barrier. Using a Green function method based on the Dirac-like equation, scattering among transverse modes due to the oblique barrier is taken into account numerically. In contrast to the 2-dimensional graphene sheet, we find that the pattern of transmission in graphene ribbons depends strongly on the electronic structure in the region of the barrier. Consequently, irregular structures in the transmission coefficient are predicted while perfect transmission is still calculated in the case of metallic graphene independently of angle and length of the oblique barrier.

  20. The mechanics of Ribbons and Möbius bands

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, Eliot

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in biology and nanotechnology have stimulated a rapidly growing interest in the mechanics of thin, flexible ribbons and Mobius bands. This edited volume contains English translations of four seminal papers on this topic, all originally written in German; of these, Michael A. Sadowsky published the first in 1929, followed by two others in 1930, and Walter Wunderlich published the last in 1962. The volume also contains invited, peer-reviewed, original research articles on related topics. Previously published in the Journal of Elasticity, Volume 119, Issue 1-2, 2015.

  1. Transmittance characteristics of plasmonic graphene ribbons with a wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lin; Yan, Xin; Wang, Yueke; Sang, Tian; Yang, Guofeng

    2016-09-01

    We numerically investigate the transmittance characteristics of graphene ribbons with a wing by the finite element method. By determining the dispersion relation of edge graphene plasmon (EGP) modes and analyzing the mode distributions, it is considered that the transmission dips originate from the resonances of three EGP modes, namely, the symmetrical EGPs, antisymmetrical EGPs, and EGPs of a semi-infinite sheet. By changing the width and length of the wing, it was further confirmed that transmission dips originate from the EGP modes. Owing to the tunable permittivity of graphene by adjusting the gate voltage, the transmittance dips can be easily tuned.

  2. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  3. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  4. ANNEALING EFFECT ON MAGNETO-ELASTIC WAVE PROPAGATION IN IRON-RICH AMORPHOUS RIBBON

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, K; Matsumoto, K.; Hasegawa, A.; Hiratsuka, N.

    1988-01-01

    The appropriate annealing of the iron-rich amorphous ribbon caused an enhancement of the magneto-elastic wave (MEW) amplitude. But the fluctuation of MEW with the distance along the ribbon became larger by any annealing. The differential magnetization curve sensitively showed a structural relaxation by the annealing.

  5. Fluid-Structure Interaction Study on a Pre-Buckled Deformable Flat Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovargue, Lauren; Shams, Ehsan; Watterson, Amy; Corson, Dave; Filardo, Benjamin; Zimmerman, Daniel; Shan, Bob; Oberai, Assad

    2015-11-01

    A Fluid-Structure Interaction study is conducted for the flow over a deformable flat ribbon. This mechanism, which is called ribbon frond, maybe used as a device for pumping water and/or harvesting energy in rivers. We use a lower dimensional mathematical model, which represents the ribbon as a pre-buckled structure. The surface forces from the fluid flow, dictate the deformation of the ribbon, and the ribbon in turn imposes boundary conditions for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The mesh motion is handled using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) scheme and the fluid-structure coupling is handled by iterating over the staggered governing equations for the structure, the fluid and the mesh. Simulations are conducted at three different free stream velocities. The results, including the frequency of oscillations, show agreement with experimental data. The vortical structures near the surface of the ribbon and its deformation are highly correlated. It is observed that the ribbon motion exhibits deviation from a harmonic motion, especially at lower free stream velocities. The behavior of the ribbon is compared to swimming animals, such as eels, in order to better understand its performance. The authors acknowledge support from ONR SBIR Phase II, contract No. N0001412C0604 and USDA, NIFA SBIR Phase I, contract No. 2013-33610-20836 and NYSERDA PON 2569, contract No. 30364.

  6. 76 FR 46325 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Red Ribbon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ...: Red Ribbon Week Patch DEA Form 316 and 316A ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection under... Participate and Red Ribbon Week Patch Activity Report. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable... the information from Boy/Girl Scout Troop Leaders that express an interest in participating in DEA...

  7. Research on PCC Control Method for Ribbon-free Random Winding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Jian; WANG Ming-hong; TANG Yi-fan; LU Wen-hua; WU Wen-ying

    2004-01-01

    Based on analyzing the overlap appearance of random winding, basic principles of ribbon-free random winding and parametric selections for anti-overlap are discussed. The ribbon-free random winding control system and its related hardware construction as well as its software design are introduced by applying PCC technology to high speed spinning machine of synthetic filament.

  8. Magnetic properties of Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbons and their borides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Saito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbons exhibited low coercivity and partly or mostly consisted of the amorphous phase. Annealing of Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbon resulted in the formation of the Sm5Fe17 phase. The annealed Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbon exhibited a high coercivity. It was found that the addition of B to the Sm5Fe17 alloy resulted in the promotion of the Sm2Fe14B phase. Annealed Sm5Fe17Bx (x = 0.5 melt-spun ribbons consisted of the Sm5Fe17 phase together with the Sm2Fe14B and SmFe2 phases. On the other hand, annealed Sm5Fe17Bx (x = 1.0-1.5 melt-spun ribbons consisted of the Sm2Fe14B and SmFe2 phases without the Sm5Fe17 phase. The resultant Sm5Fe17Bx (x = 1.0-1.5 melt-spun ribbons still showed a coercivity of around 2 kOe. The annealed Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbon exhibited a high coercivity over 25 kOe and a remanence of 40 emu/g, whereas the annealed Sm5Fe17B1.0 melt-spun ribbon exhibited a high remanence of 65 emu/g and a coercivity of 2.0 kOe.

  9. 77 FR 32938 - Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... the petitioner, Berwick Offray LLC and its wholly- owned subsidiary Lion Ribbon Company, Inc... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Bar From India, 70 FR 54023, 54025-26... China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 75 FR 53632 (Sept. 1, 2010), as amended in Narrow Woven Ribbons...

  10. On the temperature dependent magnetic properties of as-spun Mn-Bi ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavita, S.; Seelam, U. M. R.; Prabhu, D.; Gopalan, R.

    2015-03-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of melt-spun ribbons with nominal composition of Mn55Bi45 were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and magnetometer measurements. A large coercivity (Hc) of 0.8 T was observed in the as-spun ribbons. Microstructure reveals the presence of Mn-Bi nanoparticles in the as-spun ribbons. Coercivity was found to increase with increasing temperature with a maximum coercivity of 1.4 T at T=503 K in the as-spun ribbons. Heat treatment of the as-spun ribbons resulted in the increase of LTP MnBi phase. Spin reorientation transition (TSR) was observed around 100 K.

  11. On the temperature dependent magnetic properties of as-spun Mn–Bi ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavita, S., E-mail: srikanti.kavita@gmail.com [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Chennai 600113 (India); Seelam, U.M.R. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Prabhu, D.; Gopalan, R. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Chennai 600113 (India)

    2015-03-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of melt-spun ribbons with nominal composition of Mn{sub 55}Bi{sub 45} were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and magnetometer measurements. A large coercivity (H{sub c}) of 0.8 T was observed in the as-spun ribbons. Microstructure reveals the presence of Mn–Bi nanoparticles in the as-spun ribbons. Coercivity was found to increase with increasing temperature with a maximum coercivity of 1.4 T at T=503 K in the as-spun ribbons. Heat treatment of the as-spun ribbons resulted in the increase of LTP MnBi phase. Spin reorientation transition (T{sub SR}) was observed around 100 K. - Highlights: • Mn–Bi system by melt spinning • Coercivity increases with temperature • The LTP phase increases with heat treatment.

  12. GPU-accelerated visualization of protein dynamics in ribbon mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahle, Manuel; Birmanns, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Proteins are biomolecules present in living organisms and essential for carrying out vital functions. Inherent to their functioning is folding into different spatial conformations, and to understand these processes, it is crucial to visually explore the structural changes. In recent years, significant advancements in experimental techniques and novel algorithms for post-processing of protein data have routinely revealed static and dynamic structures of increasing sizes. In turn, interactive visualization of the systems and their transitions became more challenging. Therefore, much research for the efficient display of protein dynamics has been done, with the focus being space filling models, but for the important class of abstract ribbon or cartoon representations, there exist only few methods for an efficient rendering. Yet, these models are of high interest to scientists, as they provide a compact and concise description of the structure elements along the protein main chain. In this work, a method was developed to speed up ribbon and cartoon visualizations. Separating two phases in the calculation of geometry allows to offload computational work from the CPU to the GPU. The first phase consists of computing a smooth curve along the protein's main chain on the CPU. In the second phase, conducted independently by the GPU, vertices along that curve are moved to set up the final geometrical representation of the molecule.

  13. Hooked flare ribbons and flux-rope related QSL footprints

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jie; Aulanier, Guillaume; Schmieder, Brigitte; Pariat, Etienne; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    We studied the magnetic topology of active region 12158 on 2014 September 10 and compared it with the observations before and early in the flare which begins at 17:21 UT (SOL2014-09-10T17:45:00). Our results show that the sigmoidal structure and flare ribbons of this active region observed by SDO/AIA can be well reproduced from a Grad-Rubin non linear force free field extrapolation method. Various inverse-S and -J shaped magnetic field lines, that surround a coronal flux rope, coincide with the sigmoid as observed in different extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, including its multi-threaded curved ends. Also, the observed distribution of surface currents in the magnetic polarity where it was not prescribed is well reproduced. This validates our numerical implementation and set-up of the Grad-Rubin method. The modeled double inverse-J shaped Quasi-Separatrix Layer (QSL) footprints match the observed flare ribbons during the rising phase of the flare, including their hooked parts. The spiral-like shape of the latt...

  14. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-07-26

    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (easy to fabricate. Several important steps have been taken by Wang's group to develop TENG technology for blue energy harvesting. In this Perspective, we describe some of the recent progress and also address concerns related to durable packaging of TENGs in consideration of harsh marine environments and power management for an efficient power transfer and distribution for commercial applications. PMID:27408982

  15. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  16. Separation of the IBEX Ribbon from the Globally Distributed Energetic Neutral Atom Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Allegrini, F.; Bzowski, M.; Christian, E. R.; Crew, G. B.; Dayeh, M. A.; Demajistre, R.; Frisch, P. C.; Funsten, H. O.; Fuselier, S. A.; Goodrich, K. A.; Gruntman, M.; Janzen, P. H.; Kucharek, H.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Prested, C. L.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Reno, M. L.; Roelof, E. C.; Siegel, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Mission observes a remarkable feature, the IBEX ribbon. This very narrow ~20° wide feature has energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux ~2-3 times the ENA flux that is globally distributed over other portions of the IBEX maps. Here, we separate ENA emissions in the ribbon from the globally distributed flux by applying a mask over the ribbon and regions where ENAs are produced from sources other than the heliosphere. We then solve for the globally distributed flux using two distinct methods: (1) an interpolation scheme and (2) a decomposition based on real-valued spherical harmonics. Our analysis shows that the energy spectrum and the spatial distribution of the ribbon are distinct from the surrounding globally distributed flux. The ribbon energy spectrum exhibits a knee between ~1 and 4 keV, and the angular distribution transverse to the ribbon is approximately independent of energy. In contrast, the globally distributed flux does not show a clear knee, and more closely conforms to a power-law over much of the sky. The slope of the power-law steepens from the nose to tail, suggesting a weaker termination shock toward the tail as compared to the nose. Both the slope in the energy distribution of the globally distributed flux and the knee in the energy distribution of the ribbon are ordered by latitude. Thus, we develop several methods to separate the ribbon from the globally distributed ENA flux in the maps observed by IBEX. Our analysis shows that the IBEX ribbon is distinct not only in its spatial distribution, but also its energy distribution, which suggests that the source plasma populations of the ribbon and globally distributed flux are produced via a distinct physical process.

  17. The Blues of David Lynch

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, David

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to elaborate a typology of the color blue in the color films of David Lynch up to and including Mulholland Drive (2001). The color blue is considered alternately as light, matter or verbal language. The author studies the use, function, value and meaning of blue lighting, divided into static and flashing light, and of the blue objects in Blue Velvet (1986) and Mulholland Drive. The author shows how Lynch appropriates connotations Western culture, under the influence...

  18. The energy-dependent position of the IBEX ribbon due to the solar wind structure

    CERN Document Server

    Swaczyna, Paweł; Sokół, Justyna M

    2016-01-01

    Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) allow for remote studies of the plasma condition in the heliosphere and the neighboring local interstellar medium. The first IBEX results revealed an arc-like enhancement of the ENA flux in the sky, known as the ribbon. The ribbon was not expected from the heliospheric models prior to the IBEX launch. One of the proposed explanations of the ribbon is the mechanism of the secondary ENA emission. The ribbon reveals energy-dependent structure in the relative intensity along its circumference and in the position. Namely, the ribbon geometric center varies systematically by about 10$^\\circ$ in the energy range 0.7-4.3 keV. Here, we show by analytic modeling that this effect is a consequence of the helio-latitudinal structure of the solar wind reflected in the secondary ENAs. Along with a recently measured distance to the ribbon source just beyond the heliopause, our findings support the connection of the ribbon with the local interstellar magnetic field by the mechani...

  19. SYMMETRY OF THE IBEX RIBBON OF ENHANCED ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM (ENA) FLUX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funsten, H. O.; Cai, D. M.; Higdon, D. M.; Larsen, B. A., E-mail: hfunsten@lanl.gov, E-mail: dmc@lanl.gov, E-mail: dhigdon@lanl.gov, E-mail: balarsen@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); and others

    2015-01-20

    The circular ribbon of enhanced energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission remains a critical signature for understanding the interaction between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium. We study the symmetry of the ribbon flux and find strong, spectrally dependent reflection symmetry throughout the energy range 0.7-4.3 keV. The distribution of ENA flux around the ribbon is predominantly unimodal at 0.7 and 1.1 keV, distinctly bimodal at 2.7 and 4.3 keV, and a mixture of both at 1.7 keV. The bimodal flux distribution consists of partially opposing bilateral flux lobes, located at highest and lowest heliographic latitude extents of the ribbon. The vector between the ribbon center and heliospheric nose (which defines the so-called BV plane) appears to play an organizing role in the spectral dependence of the symmetry axis locations as well as asymmetric contributions to the ribbon flux. The symmetry planes at 2.7 and 4.3 keV, derived by projecting the symmetry axes to a great circle in the sky, are equivalent to tilting the heliographic equatorial plane to the ribbon center, suggesting a global heliospheric ordering. The presence and energy dependence of symmetric unilateral and bilateral flux distributions suggest strong spectral filtration from processes encountered by an ion along its journey from the source plasma to its eventual detection at IBEX.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of amorphous–crystalline TiNiCu melt-spun ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Amorphous–crystalline ribbon as composite material with two-way shape memory effect. ► Ti–50Ni–25Cu (at.%) alloy ribbons are fabricated by the melt spinning technique. ► Thickness of crystalline layer of composite depends on cooling rate of the melt. ► Elemental composition does not change in the cross-section of ribbons. ► Laminated amorphous–crystalline composite can be used in micromechanical devices. -- Abstract: This study reports on the development of a composite material, amorphous–crystalline TiNiCu alloy ribbons, exhibiting reversible shape memory effect. A Ti–25Ni–25Cu (at.%) alloy was fabricated by the melt spinning technique at different cooling rates in the form of a ribbon with a thickness of approximately 40 μm. The samples were characterized by means of inverted metallographic and scanning electron microscopy techniques, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and microhardness measurements. The ribbons were mainly amorphous but had a crystalline surface layer with orthorhombic structure on one side. The thickness of the crystalline layer varied from 5 to 10 μm depending on cooling rate of the melt. No elemental composition change was found in the cross-section of the ribbons. This laminated amorphous–crystalline composite material demonstrated two-way shape memory behavior without any additional thermomechanical treatments and can be used to create micromechanical devices

  1. Dependence of polarization mode dispersion of slotted core NZDF ribbon on cable design and environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlik, Sait Eser; Yilmaz, Gunes

    2006-09-01

    Non-zero dispersion fiber (NZDF) ribbon cable has recently become a considerable alternative in long-haul high-speed network construction. Since long-distance high-bit rate transmission requires low polarization mode dispersion (PMD), it is very important to know the PMD performance of this type of optical fiber cables. In this paper, we report experimental analysis of effects of the cable design and environmental parameters, in particular ribbon thickness, positions of fibers in the ribbon, flexing and vibration, on PMD performances of several slotted-core fiber ribbon cables. Results show that ribbon thickness and positions of fibers in the ribbon alter the PMD values of NZDF ribbon cables. Also, 23% and 11% PMD variations have been determined in flexing and vibration experiments, respectively. Moreover, it has been observed that vibration amplitude has significant effects and vibration frequency has little effects (14% and 6% variations, respectively) on fiber PMD. Results are important for understanding effects of installation conditions and wind, especially for aerial fibers, on PMD values of cables.

  2. Magnetostriction and microstructure of the melt-spun Fe83Ga17 alloy ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Maocai; GAO Xuexu; JIANG Honglin; ZHU Jie; ZHOU Shouzeng

    2007-01-01

    Fe83Ga17 alloy ribbons with four thicknesses were prepared by the melt-spun method.The measured results show that magnetostriction is related to the thickness of the ribbons,and its maximum value,-2100 ppm,has been obtained in the ribbon with a thickness of 75 μm.The results of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the differential scanning caloric (DSC) show that a phase with DO3 structure emerges in those ribbons with the thicknesses of 45,55 and 75 μm,and a phase transition of A2 + DO2 →A2 occurred at 669℃ for the ribbon with the thickness of 75 μm.The increase in the cool-ing rate can restrain the precipitation of the Ga-rich phase in the ribbon.It is considered that the giant magnetostriction of ribbons originates from the A2 + special DO3 structure and shape magnetic anisotropy.

  3. Separation of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer Ribbon from Globally Distributed Energetic Neutral Atom Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Allegrini, F.; Bzowski, M.; Christian, E. R.; Crew, G. B.; Dayeh, M.; DeMajistre, R.; Frisch, P.; Funsten, H. O.; Fuselier, S. A.; Goodrich, K.; Gruntman, M.; Janzen, P.; Kucharek, H.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Prested, C.; Reisenfeld, D.; Reno, M.; Roelof, E.; Siegel, J.; Vanderspek, R.

    2011-04-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes a remarkable feature, the IBEX ribbon, which has energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux over a narrow region ~20° wide, a factor of 2-3 higher than the more globally distributed ENA flux. Here, we separate ENA emissions in the ribbon from the distributed flux by applying a transparency mask over the ribbon and regions of high emissions, and then solve for the distributed flux using an interpolation scheme. Our analysis shows that the energy spectrum and spatial distribution of the ribbon are distinct from the surrounding globally distributed flux. The ribbon energy spectrum shows a knee between ~1 and 4 keV, and the angular distribution is approximately independent of energy. In contrast, the distributed flux does not show a clear knee and more closely conforms to a power law over much of the sky. Consistent with previous analyses, the slope of the power law steepens from the nose to tail, suggesting a weaker termination shock toward the tail as compared to the nose. The knee in the energy spectrum of the ribbon suggests that its source plasma population is generated via a distinct physical process. Both the slope in the energy distribution of the distributed flux and the knee in the energy distribution of the ribbon are ordered by latitude. The heliotail may be identified in maps of globally distributed flux as a broad region of low flux centered ~44°W of the interstellar downwind direction, suggesting heliotail deflection by the interstellar magnetic field.

  4. The influence of ribbon holes on fuel assembly thermal hydraulic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two kinds of PWR space grids, structure mixing grid (MG) and mid span mixing grid (MSMG) exist in fuel assembly. There are spring, dimple, ribbon and mixing vanes in Structure mixing grid. The ribbon with hole or without hole will influence the fuel assembly thermal-hydraulic performance. Two 5×5 rod bundle with two space girds, one is structure mixing grid, another is mid span mixing grid are analyzed using CFD method. The two calculations are different in structure mixing grid, one with holes on ribbon, the other one without holes on ribbon. The fuel rods are heated. The whole meshes are about 20 million. The result shows that the ribbon with holes increases pressure loss in space grid area. The holes’ influence on temperature field and flow field are mainly observed at structure space grid downstream, near the mid span mixing grid. Though the ribbon with holes shows limit influence on temperature field, it makes the low pressure area appears around peripheral fuel rods, and the swirl near the ribbon somewhere disappear, thus bubbles are more possible to cluster near the peripheral fuel rods. For further research, two phase CFD could be used to analyze the bubble behaviors. (author)

  5. Self-assembled guanine ribbons as wide-bandgap semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Felice, Rosa; Calzolari, Arrigo; Molinari, Elisa; Garbesi, Anna; Rinaldi, Ross; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Cingolani, Roberto

    2002-03-01

    We present a new class of biomolecular wide-bandgap semiconductors, that spontaneously form by the self-assembling of deoxyguanosine molecules (a modified DNA base) in the solid state. Their deposition onto planar metallic nanocircuits allows the fabrication of hybrid nanodiodes and metal/semiconductor/metal devices. By means of first-principle calculations, we describe the structure and the electronic properties of stacked guanine ribbons. We discuss the formation of extended Bloch orbitals, resulting from the superposition of base-localized states, as a function of H-bonding and π-π coupling. The oveall band-like conduction is affected by a dipole-field that spontaneously arise along the ribb n axis. Our theoretical model explains both the basic transport mechanism and the current-voltage characteristics of the devices.

  6. Spatial Confinement of the IBEX Ribbon: A Dominant Turbulence Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Isenberg, Philip A

    2014-01-01

    The narrow ribbon of enhanced energetic neutral atom flux observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) spacecraft has prompted numerous ideas to explain its structure and properties. One of these ideas is the "neutral solar wind" scenario, which identifies the source particles as pickup protons in the local interstellar medium originating in solar wind charge-exchange interactions. This scenario has been thought to require unrealistically weak pitch-angle scattering of the pickup protons to explain the narrow structure. Recently, Schwadron & McComas (2013) suggested that this structure could result from a spatial retention of the pickup protons, rather than from a restricted pitch-angle distribution. Here, we present a physically motivated, quantitative mechanism to produce such a spatial configuration. This mechanism is based on the "dominant turbulence" assumption, which can be applied where the production of new pickup protons is slow, and has been used to successfully explain the level of tur...

  7. Paramagnetic colloidal ribbons in a precessing magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Nodarse, R.; Quintero, N. R.; Mertens, F. G.; Casic, N.; Fischer, Th. M.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a kink in a damped parametrically driven nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation. We show by using a method of averaging that, in the high-frequency limit, the kink moves in an effective potential and is driven by an effective constant force. We demonstrate that the shape of the solitary wave can be controlled via the frequency and the eccentricity of the modulation. This is in accordance with the experimental results reported in a recent paper [Casic et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 168302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.168302], where the dynamic self-assembly and propulsion of a ribbon formed from paramagnetic colloids in a time-dependent magnetic field has been studied.

  8. Paramagnetic colloidal ribbons in a precessing magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Nodarse, R; Quintero, N R; Mertens, F G; Casic, N; Fischer, Th M

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a kink in a damped parametrically driven nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation. We show by using a method of averaging that, in the high-frequency limit, the kink moves in an effective potential and is driven by an effective constant force. We demonstrate that the shape of the solitary wave can be controlled via the frequency and the eccentricity of the modulation. This is in accordance with the experimental results reported in a recent paper [Casic et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 168302 (2013)], where the dynamic self-assembly and propulsion of a ribbon formed from paramagnetic colloids in a time-dependent magnetic field has been studied.

  9. Magnetostriction measurements of amorphous ribbons and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Chien

    The theme of the present work is to measure the saturation magnetostriction constants of amorphous ribbons and thin films. The saturation magnetostriction constants of amorphous ribbons, and thin films of Cosb{39}Nisb{31}Fesb8Sisb8Bsb{14}, CoZrY, and CoZrTb have been measured either by the Small Angle Magnetization Rotation (SAMR) method or by the initial susceptibility method. The SAMR method is used for the soft materials. It is found that the amorphous Cosb{39}Nisb{31}Fesb8Sisb8Bsb{14} prepared by ion beam deposition from an alloy target shows very soft magnetic properties and has a very small negative saturation magnetostriction, lambdasb{s}, of about {-}1×10sp{-7}. Sputtered films of CoZrTb show a strong perpendicular anisotropy when the Tb content is high. We have found that the SAMR method can be applied to CoZrTb films when the Tb content is low. The saturation magnetostriction constant of a sputtered film of Cosb{78.4}Zrsb{20.8}Tbsb{0.8} is 2×10sp{-6}. When the material is not magnetically soft or has a strong perpendicular anisotropy, the initial susceptibility method is used. The saturation magnetostriction constants of amorphous Cosb{77.2}Zrsb{20.4}Tbsb{2.4} and Cosb{72.2}Zrsb{14.6}Ysb{13.2} thin films are 6×10sp{-6}, and (2{˜}6)×10sp{-7}, respectively. The two methods, the SAMR and the initial susceptibility, utilize the same measurement setup making it a very convenient technique which is applicable for a range of materials.

  10. Dynamic changes in hair cell ribbon synapse induced by loss of spiral ganglion neurons in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yasheng; Chi Fanglu

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that primary degeneration of hair cells causes secondary degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs),but the effect of SGN degeneration on hair cells has not been studied.In the adult mouse inner ear ouabain can selectively and permanently induce the degeneration of type 1 SGNs while leaving type 2 SGNs,efferent fibers,and sensory hair cells relatively intact.This study aimed to investigate the dynamic changes in hair cell ribbon synapse induced by loss of SGNs using ouabain application to the round window niche of adult mice.Methods In the analysis,24 CBA/CAJ mice aged 8-10 weeks,were used,of which 6 normal mice were used as the control group.After ouabain application in the round window niche 6 times in an hour,ABR threshold shifts at least 30 dB in the three experimental groups which had six mice for 1-week group,six for 1-month group,and six for 3-month group.All 24 animals underwent function test at 1 week and then immunostaining at 1 week,1 month,and 3 months.Results The loss of neurons was followed by degeneration of postsynaptic specializations at the afferent synapse with hair cells.One week after ouabain treatment,the nerve endings of type 1 SGNs and postsynaptic densities,as measured by Na/K ATPase and PSD-95,were affected but not entirely missing,but their partial loss had consequences for synaptic ribbons that form the presynaptic specialization at the synapse between hair cells and primary afferent neurons.Ribbon numbers in inner hair cells decreased (some of them broken and the ribbon number much decreased),and the arrangement of the synaptic ribbons had undergone a dynamic reorganization:ribbons with or without associated postsynaptic densities moved from their normal location in the basal membrane of the cell to a more apical location and the neural endings alone were also found at more apical locations without associated ribbons.After 1 month,when the neural postsynaptic densities had completed their

  11. Simulation of non-Abelian anyons using ribbon operators connected to a common base site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Xiwang; Han Yongjian; Guo Guangcan; Zhou Xingxiang; Zhou Zhengwei [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2011-11-15

    A convenient and effective way in the quantum double model to study anyons in a topological space with a tensor product structure is to create and braid anyons using ribbon operators connected to a common base site [A. Kitaev, Ann. Phys. (NY) 303, 2 (2003)]. We show how this scheme can be simulated in a physical system by constructing long ribbon operators connected to a base site that is placed far away. We describe how to move and braid anyons using these ribbon operators, and how to perform measurement on them. We also give the smallest scale of a system that is sufficient for proof-of-principle demonstration of our scheme.

  12. Utilization of multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes for the reinforcement of lightweight aluminum ribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Maho; Pakdel, Amir; Zhi, Chunyi; Bando, Yoshio; Tang, Dai-Ming; Faerstein, Konstantin; Shtansky, Dmitry; Golberg, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    Multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have very attractive mechanical and thermal properties, e.g., elasticity, tensile strength, and high resistance to oxidation, and may be considered as ideal reinforcing agents in lightweight metal matrix composites. Herein, for the first time, Al-BNNT ribbons with various BNNT contents (up to 3 wt.%) were fabricated via melt spinning in an argon atmosphere. BNNTs were randomly dispersed within a microcrystalline Al matrix under ribbon casting and led to more than doubling of room-temperature ultimate tensile strength of the composites compared to pure Al ribbons produced at the similar conditions. PMID:23279813

  13. The Electronic transport of a Graphene nano ribbon in the presence of the electric impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the electronic transport of a Graphene nano ribbon in the presence and absence of electric impurity by using Green's function method at the tight-binding approach within the nearest neighbor approximation. The results show that the existence of electric impurity in the nano ribbon destroys the symmetrical behavior of the conductance spectrum and causes the increasing of conductance at zero energy. The existence of electric impurity on the atoms which located at both up and down edges of the nano ribbon increases the number of oscillating peaks in the conductance when it is considered as a function of energy.

  14. Beyond Deep Blue

    CERN Document Server

    Newborn, Monty

    2011-01-01

    More than a decade has passed since IBM's Deep Blue computer stunned the world by defeating Garry Kasparov, the world chess champion at that time. Beyond Deep Blue tells the continuing story of the chess engine and its steady improvement. The book provides analysis of the games alongside a detailed examination of the remarkable technological progress made by the engines - asking which one is best, how good is it, and how much better can it get. Features: presents a total of 118 games, played by 17 different chess engines, collected together for the first time in a single reference; details the

  15. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  16. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  17. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for 6 months relieves allergy symptoms in adults. Arsenic poisoning. Early research shows that taking a combination of blue-green algae and zinc by mouth twice daily for 12 weeks reduces arsenic levels and its effects on the skin in ...

  18. The Blue Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    This paper makes an important contribution to the discussion about knowledge based localised externalities in the context of shipping and the maritime sector in Denmark. In the paper we ask if there is a national, knowledge‐based maritime cluster configured around the shipowners in Denmark. This ...... talk about The Blue Denmark....

  19. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  20. Magnetic Properties of Fe- and FeNi-based Amorphous Composite Ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    M8-T curves and hysteresis loops were investigated for amorphous Fe78Si9B13, (FeNi)78(CrSiB)22, their lap-wound-cores, and their composite ribbons made by two-chamber-crucible technique. The properties of the lap-wound cores of the two kinds of ribbons are similar. For the composite ribbons, the intrinsic properties are the average of the two alloys. Their technological properties, i.e., hysteresis loops, however, are no longer the average of the two alloys. Instead, they show some dramatic changes compared to the lap-wound-cores. Especially, the shape of the hysteresis loop of the composite ribbon cores is largely different from that of lap-wound-cores. The reason for the difference is supposed to be internal stress induced from cooling after annealing.

  1. Short range order transformation and magnetostriction of Fe83Ga17 ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jie; Peng Fu-Ling; Fang Mei-Ling; Li Ji-Heng; Gao Xue-Xu; Yu Rong-Hai

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between magnetostriction and structure of melt-spun Fe83Ga17 ribbons are investigated by XRD and Mossbauer spectrum technique (MS). As the heat-treatment temperature increases from 650℃ to 800℃, the magnetostriction coefficient of Fe83Ga17 ribbon first increases and then decreases. The largest magnetostriction coefficient (-578.4 ppm) is achieved in those specimens quenched at 750℃. According to the XRD and M(o)ssbauer spectrum analysis, a small quantity of DO3 phase is precipitated in Fe83Ga17 ribbons when quenched from 650℃ and the DO3 phase is gradually transformed into B2-like phase if quenched at higher temperature. However, both DO3 and B2-like phases disappear when the temperature increases up to 800℃. From this point of view, B2-like phase might be beneficial to the enhancement of magnetostrictive properties of melt-spun ribbons.

  2. Continuum Elasticity Theory Approach for Spontaneous Bending and Twisting of Ribbons Induced by Mechanical Anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zi; Srolovitz, David J; Haataja, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Helical ribbons arise in many biological and engineered systems, often driven by anisotropic surface stress, residual strain, and geometric or elastic mismatch between layers of a laminated composite. A full mathematical analysis is developed to analytically predict the equilibrium deformed helical shape of an initially flat, straight ribbon, with prescribed magnitudes and orientations of the principal curvatures when subjected to arbitrary surface stress and/or internal residual strain distribution. The helix angle, radius, axis and chirality of the deformed helical ribbons are predicted with a comprehensive, three-dimensional model that incorporates elasticity, differential geometry, and variational principles. In general, the mechanical anisotropy (e.g., in surface/external stress, residual strain or elastic modulus) will lead to spontaneous, three-dimensional helical deformations. Ring shapes are formed when the principle axes of deformation coincide with the geometric axes of the ribbon. The transition f...

  3. The application of terahertz pulsed imaging in characterising density distribution of roll-compacted ribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyi; Pei, Chunlei; Schiano, Serena; Heaps, David; Wu, Chuan-Yu

    2016-09-01

    Roll compaction is a commonly used dry granulation process in pharmaceutical, fine chemical and agrochemical industries for materials sensitive to heat or moisture. The ribbon density distribution plays an important role in controlling properties of granules (e.g. granule size distribution, porosity and strength). Accurate characterisation of ribbon density distribution is critical in process control and quality assurance. The terahertz imaging system has a great application potential in achieving this as the terahertz radiation has the ability to penetrate most of the pharmaceutical excipients and the refractive index reflects variations in density and chemical compositions. The aim of this study is to explore whether terahertz pulse imaging is a feasible technique for quantifying ribbon density distribution. Ribbons were made of two grades of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), Avicel PH102 and DG, using a roll compactor at various process conditions and the ribbon density variation was investigated using terahertz imaging and section methods. The density variations obtained from both methods were compared to explore the reliability and accuracy of the terahertz imaging system. An average refractive index is calculated from the refractive index values in the frequency range between 0.5 and 1.5THz. It is shown that the refractive index gradually decreases from the middle of the ribbon towards to the edges. Variations of density distribution across the width of the ribbons are also obtained using both the section method and the terahertz imaging system. It is found that the terahertz imaging results are in excellent agreement with that obtained using the section method, demonstrating that terahertz imaging is a feasible and rapid tool to characterise ribbon density distributions. PMID:26826401

  4. Vesicle recycling at ribbon synapses in the finely branched axon terminals of mouse retinal bipolar neurons

    OpenAIRE

    LoGiudice, Lisamarie; Sterling, Peter; Matthews, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In retinal bipolar neurons, synaptic ribbons mark the presence of exocytotic active zones in the synaptic terminal. It is unknown, however, where compensatory vesicle retrieval is localized in this cell type and by what mechanism(s) excess membrane is recaptured. To determine whether endocytosis is localized or diffuse in mouse bipolar neurons, we imaged FM4-64 to track vesicles in cells whose synaptic ribbons were tagged with a fluorescent peptide. In synaptic terminals, vesicle retrieval oc...

  5. Pressure stress-impedance effect in FeCuNbSiB amorphours ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The stress-impedance effect in Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (at%) ribbons is measured to investigate the influences of vacuum annealing and pressure stress. The results can be explained by the influence of induced anisotropy in the magnetization processes at the chosen drive current frequency of 90 MHz. The maximum SI% value of the ribbon annealed at 300 ℃ is 2.52%.

  6. Using Two-Ribbon Flare Observations and MHD Simulations to Constrain Flare Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachenko, Maria D.; Lynch, Benjamin J.; Welsch, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Flare ribbons are emission structures that are frequently observed during flares in transition-region and chromospheric radiation. These typically straddle a polarity inversion line (PIL) of the radial magnetic field at the photosphere, and move apart as the flare progresses. The ribbon flux - the amount of unsigned photospheric magnetic flux swept out by flare ribbons - is thought to be related to the amount coronal magnetic reconnection, and hence provides a key diagnostic tool for understanding the physical processes at work in flares and CMEs. Previous measurements of the magnetic flux swept out by flare ribbons required time-consuming co-alignment between magnetograph and intensity data from different instruments, explaining why those studies only analyzed, at most, a few events. The launch of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), both aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), presented a rare opportunity to compile a much larger sample of flare-ribbon events than could readily be assembled before. We created a dataset of 363 events of both flare ribbon positions and fluxes, as a function of time, for all C9.-class and greater flares within 45 degrees of disk center observed by SDO from June 2010 till April 2015. For this purpose, we used vector magnetograms (2D magnetic field maps) from HMI and UV images from AIA. A critical problem with using unprocessed AIA data is the existence of spurious intensities in AIA data associated with strong flare emission, most notably "blooming" (spurious smearing of saturated signal into neighboring pixels, often in streaks). To overcome this difficulty, we have developed an algorithmic procedure that effectively excludes artifacts like blooming. We present our database and compare statistical properties of flare ribbons, e.g. evolutions of ribbon reconnection fluxes, reconnection flux rates and vertical currents with the properties from MHD simulations.

  7. Manufacture of ribbon and solar cells of material of semiconductor grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described of producing ribbon-like substantially monocrystalline bodies of silicon or other materials of semiconductor grade suitable for use in solar cells or other semiconductor devices. A tube of the material is made and a photovoltaic junction formed in it. The tube is then divided lengthwise into a number of ribbon-like bodies. The photovoltaic junction can be formed either by diffusion or by ion-implantation. (U.K.)

  8. Magnetic behaviour of amorphous ribbons with creep-induced helical anisotropy and their fluxgate properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füzer, Jan; Brauer, Peter; Nielsen, Otto V

    1998-01-01

    We have induced a helical destributionby a tortional and tensile stress annealing, in low magnetostriction amorphous ribbons. In this paper we report a theoretical studyof predicted magnetisation curvesand the comparisonwith experimental measurements.......We have induced a helical destributionby a tortional and tensile stress annealing, in low magnetostriction amorphous ribbons. In this paper we report a theoretical studyof predicted magnetisation curvesand the comparisonwith experimental measurements....

  9. Magnetostriction Dependence of the Relaxation Frequency in the Magnetoimpedance Effect for Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.L.Sánchez; V.M.Prida; B.Hernando; G.V.Kurlyandskaya; J.D.Santos; M.Tejedor; M.Vázquez

    2002-01-01

    The magnetoimpedance effect and changes of the relaxation frequency fx are studied in CoFeSiB and CoFeMoSiB amorphous and FeCuNbSiB nanocrystalline ribbons. The evolution of the magnetostriction constant λs and relaxation frequency is analysed for the states with different magnetic anisotropies induced in the same ribbons.A monotonic decrease of the relaxation frequency is observed for shifting of λs towards positive values.

  10. SEPARATION OF THE RIBBON FROM GLOBALLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM FLUX USING THE FIRST FIVE YEARS OF IBEX OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes the IBEX ribbon, which stretches across much of the sky observed in energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). The ribbon covers a narrow (∼20°-50°) region that is believed to be roughly perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field. Superimposed on the IBEX ribbon is the globally distributed flux that is controlled by the processes and properties of the heliosheath. This is a second study that utilizes a previously developed technique to separate ENA emissions in the ribbon from the globally distributed flux. A transparency mask is applied over the ribbon and regions of high emissions. We then solve for the globally distributed flux using an interpolation scheme. Previously, ribbon separation techniques were applied to the first year of IBEX-Hi data at and above 0.71 keV. Here we extend the separation analysis down to 0.2 keV and to five years of IBEX data enabling first maps of the ribbon and the globally distributed flux across the full sky of ENA emissions. Our analysis shows the broadening of the ribbon peak at energies below 0.71 keV and demonstrates the apparent deformation of the ribbon in the nose and heliotail. We show global asymmetries of the heliosheath, including both deflection of the heliotail and differing widths of the lobes, in context of the direction, draping, and compression of the heliospheric magnetic field. We discuss implications of the ribbon maps for the wide array of concepts that attempt to explain the ribbon's origin. Thus, we present the five-year separation of the IBEX ribbon from the globally distributed flux in preparation for a formal IBEX data release of ribbon and globally distributed flux maps to the heliophysics community

  11. Numerical Simulation of the Flat Ribbon Wound Explosion Containment Vessels Subjected to Internal Blast Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yanze; LI Zhiqiang; ZHAO Longmao; ZHENG Jinyang

    2006-01-01

    In order to constitute engineering design methods of the flat ribbon wound explosion containment vessels,the dynamic response of such vessels subjected to internal explosion loading is simulated using LS-DYNA3D.Three winding angles,10°,15°and 20°,are considered.It is shown that among ribbon vessels investigated,the center displacement of outermost ribbons of the vessel with 10°winding angle is the smallest under the same blast loading.The response of vessels loaded in inner core is local.From the center of the cylindrical shell to the bottom cover,the maximum strain gradually decreases.The ribbons are subjected to tension in the length direction and compression in the width direction.Blasting shock energy concentrates on where is close to center section of blasting.For comparison,numerical simulation of a monobloc thick-walled explosion containment vessel is also investigated.It can be found that the biggest deformation of the flat ribbon wound explosion containment vessels is bigger than that of the monobloc thick-walled explosion containment vessel in the center section of blasting under the same TNT.Numerical results are approximately in agreement with experimental ones.It is proved that the ribbon vessels have the valuable properties of "leak before burst at worst" compared with the monobloc vessels through numerical simulation.

  12. The Energy-Dependent Position of the IBEX Ribbon Due to the Solar Wind Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaczyna, Paweł; Bzowski, Maciej; Sokół, Justyna M.

    2016-08-01

    Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) allow for remote studies of the condition of plasma in the heliosphere and the neighboring local interstellar medium. The first results from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) revealed an arc-like enhancement of the ENA intensity in the sky, known as the ribbon. The ribbon was not expected from the heliospheric models prior to the launch of IBEX. One proposed explanation for the ribbon is the mechanism of secondary ENA emission. The ribbon reveals energy-dependent structure in the relative intensity along its circumference and in its position. That is, the geometric center of the ribbon varies systematically by about 10° in the energy range 0.7-4.3 keV. Here, we show by analytical modeling that this effect is a consequence of the helio-latitudinal structure of the solar wind reflected in the secondary ENAs. Along with a recently measured distance to the ribbon’s source just beyond the heliopause, our findings support the connection of the ribbon with the local interstellar magnetic field by the mechanism of secondary ENA emission. However, the magnitude of the center shift in the highest IBEX energy channel is much larger in the observations than expected from the modeling. This may be due to another, not currently recognized, process of ENA generation.

  13. The Blue Emu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  14. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups: photographing femininity after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Kaitlyn

    2012-01-01

    Many treatments for breast cancer are traumatic, invasive and harshly visible. In addition to physical trauma, breast cancer is often associated with a variety of psychosocial issues surrounding romantic relationships, sexuality and feminine identity. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups was a pin-up girl calendar wherein all the models were women who were living with, or had survived, breast cancer. The project's purpose was to raise funds and awareness for breast cancer research and to create a space where survivors could explore and express their post-cancer sexuality. This study uses an observational approach, paired with semi-structured interviews, to explore the ways that breast cancer survivors perceive their post-cancer body and the subsequent impact on relationships and feminine identity. By examining contemporary discussions regarding breast cancer, body image and the objectification of women, it is concluded that although this photographic approach may be at odds with some modern breast cancer activism, it does appear to meet the expressed needs of a particular group of women living with the disease. PMID:22624706

  15. Spectral Modulation of the IBEX Ribbon Flux by the Dynamic Draping of the Interstellar Medium over the Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, H. O.; Pittman, K. T.; Frisch, P. C.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Janzen, P. H.; McComas, D. J.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Schwadron, N.; Zirnstein, E.

    2015-12-01

    The bright energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission in the circular ribbon observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) ribbon is a key ordering parameter of the interaction region between the heliosphere and the insterstellar medium. The ribbon is hypothesized to result from the condition in which the interstellar magnetic field, which is draped over the heliosphere and is the emission location in the "secondary" reibbon hypothesis, is oriented perpendicular to the line-of-sight view from IBEX. Here, we consider the relative motion of the draped magnetic field line for modulating ribbon intensity. Using the 0.7 keV and 1.1 keV ENA maps from the IBEX-Hi instrument, we find that this relative motion may significantly contribute to the variation of ribbon flux around the ribbon. We discuss the implications of this relative motion on our understanding the global structure and dynamics of the heliosphere-insterstellar medium interaction.

  16. Magnetic Properties and Core Loss Behavior of Fe-6.5wt.%Si Ribbons Prepared by Melt Spinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-6.5wt.%Si alloy is prepared in the form of continuous ribbons with 25 mm in width and 0.03 mm in thickness by using melt spinning technique. The ribbons are flexible and could be wounded into tapes. DC magnetic properties and core loss behaviors of the ribbons after heat treatment are investigated in this paper. The magnetic properties are compared with ribbons by cold rolling and CVD methods. The melt spinning ribbons exhibit much less core loss in the frequencies more than 10 kHz. The melt spinning ribbons are promising to be used for electric devices used in medium or higher frequencies.

  17. Synthesizing a Blue Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Vester, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this Master thesis was to determine how electronic musical instrument companies could utilize innovation strategies to add value to their products and create new business markets beyond their core. The theoretical framework was established by outlining competitive strategies suitable for adoption by electronic musical instrument companies. The Blue Ocean Strategy was compared to traditional competitive strategies such as Porter’s Five Forces, and subsequently chosen because of ...

  18. 76 FR 61719 - Notice of a meeting of a working group of the NIH Blue Ribbon Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Boston University Medical Center. The meeting will be held Wednesday, November 2, 2011, at the Hyatt... assessment study being conducted for the Boston University NEIDL. The National Research Council Committee on.... The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance limited to space available. There will be...

  19. Dissociating stimulus-stimulus and response-response effects in the Stroop task

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, James; Cheesman, J

    2005-01-01

    The separate semantic and response competition interactions between colour and word processing in a manual Stroop task were evaluated by comparing three trial types. Identity trials are both semantically compatible and response compatible (e.g., BLUE in the colour blue), different response trials are both semantically incompatible and response incompatible (e.g., BLUE in the colour green, where blue and green have different response keys), and same response trials are semantically incompatibl...

  20. Microstructure and microhardness of nanostructured Al-4.6Cu-Mn alloy ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-wei Chen; Qin-ying Fan; Kai Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural characteristics and microhardness of nanostructured Al−4.6Cu−Mn ribbons produced by melt spinning were investigated using field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and hardness testing, and the results were compared to those of similar ribbons manufactured by direct-chill casting. It is shown that the nanostructure of the as-melt-spun ribbons consists ofα-Al dendrites with a secondary dendrite arm spacing of approximately 0.55−0.80μm and ultrafine eutectic crystals of a nanosized scale of approximately 100−200 nm on dendritic boundaries. The solidification time and cooling rate of 46-μm-thick ribbons were estimated to be 1.3 × 10−6 s and 4.04 × 106 K·s−1, respectively. At an aging temperature of 190°C, thecoherentθ″ phase in aged ribbons gradually transforms into nanoscaleθ′-phase platelets as the aging time is extended from 2 to 8 h; the rod-like morphology of the T (Al20Cu2Mn3) dispersoid with 120−160-nm diameter also forms, which results in peak aging hardness. The precipitation behaviors of aged ribbons cannot be changed at the high cooling rates of as-cast ribbons. However, a finer and more uniformly distributed microstructure and a supersaturated solid solution at a high cooling rate can shorten the time required to obtain a certain aging hardness before peak hardness.

  1. Investigation on the temperature distribution and strength of flat steel ribbon wound cryogenic high-pressure vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xiao-long; CHEN Guang-ming

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing heat transfer on the wall of flat steel ribbon wound vessel (FSRWV), a numerical model of temperature distribution on the entire wall (including inner core wall, flat steel ribbons, outside cylinder of jacket and insulating layer) was established by the authors. With the model, the temperature distribution and the length change in the vessel walls and flat steel ribbons in low temperature are calculated and analyzed. The results show that the flat steel ribbon wound cryogenic high-pressure vessel is simpler in structure, safer and easier to manufacture than those of conventional ones.

  2. Silicon ribbon growth by a capillary action shaping technique. Annual report (Quarterly technical progress report No. 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Kran, A.

    1977-10-01

    Progress on the technological and economical assessment of ribbon growth of silicon by a capillary action shaping technique is reported. Progress in scale-up of the process from 50 mm to 100 mm ribbon widths is presented, the use of vitreous carbon as a crucible material is analyzed, and preliminary tests of CVD Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ as a potential die material are reported. Diffusion length measurements by SEM, equipment and procedure for defect display under MOS structure in silicon ribbon for lifetime interpretation, and an assessment of ribbon technology are discussed. (WHK)

  3. ILQINS hexapeptide, identified in lysozyme left-handed helical ribbons and nanotubes, forms right-handed helical ribbons and crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Cecile; Reynolds, Nicholas P; Berryman, Joshua T; Xu, Anqiu; Zhang, Afang; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2014-03-26

    Amyloid fibrils are implicated in over 20 neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanisms of fibril structuring and formation are not only of medical and biological importance but are also relevant for material science and nanotechnologies due to the unique structural and physical properties of amyloids. We previously found that hen egg white lysozyme, homologous to the disease-related human lysozyme, can form left-handed giant ribbons, closing into nanotubes. By using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry analysis, we here identify a key component of such structures: the ILQINS hexapeptide. By combining atomic force microscopy and circular dichorism, we find that this fragment, synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis, also forms fibrillar structures in water at pH 2. However, all fibrillar structures formed possess an unexpected right-handed twist, a rare chirality within the corpus of amyloid experimental observations. We confirm by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations that these fibrils are composed of conventional left-handed β-sheets, but that packing stresses between adjacent sheets create this twist of unusual handedness. We also show that the right-handed fibrils represent a metastable state toward β-sheet-based microcrystals formation.

  4. Estruturas fundamentais no blues

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rafael Palmeira da

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Esta pesquisa tem como objeto de estudo a aplicação e adaptação da teoria de Schenker como ferramenta analítica aplicada ao jazz, tendo em vista a possibilidade de encontrar estruturas fundamentais distintas na música popular. Tendo como base as análises feitas por Larson (1998; 2009), Forte (2011) e Stock (1993) a pesquisa abordará, em um primeiro momento, as origens do jazz (blues e ragtime) como parte essencial para sua abordagem analítica, através da ótica etno-schenkeriana propos...

  5. Highly conductive ribbons prepared by stick-slip assembly of organosoluble gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jimmy; Pham, Jonathan T; Lee, Dong Yun; Liu, Yujie; Crosby, Alfred J; Emrick, Todd

    2014-02-25

    Precisely positioning and assembling nanoparticles (NPs) into hierarchical nanostructures is opening opportunities in a wide variety of applications. Many techniques employed to produce hierarchical micrometer and nanoscale structures are limited by complex fabrication of templates and difficulties with scalability. Here we describe the fabrication and characterization of conductive nanoparticle ribbons prepared from surfactant-free organosoluble gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). We used a flow-coating technique in a controlled, stick-slip assembly to regulate the deposition of Au NPs into densely packed, multilayered structures. This affords centimeter-scale long, high-resolution Au NP ribbons with precise periodic spacing in a rapid manner, up to 2 orders-of-magnitude finer and faster than previously reported methods. These Au NP ribbons exhibit linear ohmic response, with conductivity that varies by changing the binding headgroup of the ligands. Controlling NP percolation during sintering (e.g., by adding polymer to retard rapid NP coalescence) enables the formation of highly conductive ribbons, similar to thermally sintered conductive adhesives. Hierarchical, conductive Au NP ribbons represent a promising platform to enable opportunities in sensing, optoelectronics, and electromechanical devices. PMID:24417627

  6. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  7. Postpartum Blues and Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Ö et al.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum blues which is seen during the postpartum period is a transient psychological state. Most of the mothers experience maternity blues in postpartum period. It remains usually unrecognized by the others. Some sensitive families can misattribute these feelings as depression. In this article, we tried to review the characteristics of maternity blues and its differences from depression. We defined depression and presented the incidence and diagnostic criteria, of major depression as well as the risk factors and clinic findings of postpartum depression. Thus, especially at primary care we aimed to prevent misdiagnosis of both maternity blues and depression

  8. THE SURFACE STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE AMORPHOUS CO22Y54AL24 RIBBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bukowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to manufacture amorphous Co22Y54Al24 alloy in a form of thin ribbons and to investigate their properties. The investigated ribbons were prepared by rapid solidification of molten metal on a rotating copper cylinder (melt-spinning. In order to obtain the material with amorphous structure, the cooling rate of the liquid alloy should vary in a range from 104 to 106 K/s. The microstructure studies were performed using X-ray diffractometery. The mechanical properties were investigated by metallographic studies, micro-hardness and tribological resistance tests moreover the surface roughness profile were analyzed. All studies were performed for two sides of tapes, since the differences in ribbons surface, related with manufacturing process, are clearly visible. The surface from the bottom (drum side was glossy and from the top side it was shiny.

  9. Evaluation of Dynamic Mechanical Loading as an Accelerated Test Method for Ribbon Fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, Nick; Silverman, Timothy J.; Wohlgemuth, John; Kurtz, Sarah; Inoue, Masanao; Sakurai, Keiichiro; Shioda, Tsuyoshi; Zenkoh, Hirofumi; Hirota, Kusato; Miyashita, Masanori; Tadanori, Tanahashi; Suzuki, Soh; Chen, Yifeng; Verlinden, Pierre J.

    2014-12-31

    Dynamic Mechanical Loading (DML) of photovoltaic modules is explored as a route to quickly fatigue copper interconnect ribbons. Results indicate that most of the interconnect ribbons may be strained through module mechanical loading to a level that will result in failure in a few hundred to thousands of cycles. Considering the speed at which DML may be applied, this translates into a few hours of testing. To evaluate the equivalence of DML to thermal cycling, parallel tests were conducted with thermal cycling. Preliminary analysis suggests that one +/-1 kPa DML cycle is roughly equivalent to one standard accelerated thermal cycle and approximately 175 of these cycles are equivalent to a 25-year exposure in Golden Colorado for the mechanism of module ribbon fatigue.

  10. Evaluation of Dynamic Mechanical Loading as an Accelerated Test Method for Ribbon Fatigue: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, N.; Silverman, T. J.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shinoda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Hirota, K.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2015-04-07

    Dynamic Mechanical Loading (DML) of photovoltaic modules is explored as a route to quickly fatigue copper interconnect ribbons. Results indicate that most of the interconnect ribbons may be strained through module mechanical loading to a level that will result in failure in a few hundred to thousands of cycles. Considering the speed at which DML may be applied, this translates into a few hours o testing. To evaluate the equivalence of DML to thermal cycling, parallel tests were conducted with thermal cycling. Preliminary analysis suggests that one +/-1 kPa DML cycle is roughly equivalent to one standard accelerated thermal cycle and approximately 175 of these cycles are equivalent to a 25-year exposure in Golden Colorado for the mechanism of module ribbon fatigue.

  11. Mechanical properties of metallic ribbons investigated by depth sensing indentation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesek, Ladislav [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engeneering, Institute of Engeneering Materials and Biomaterials, Konarskiego 18A Street, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Dobrzanski, Leszek A. [Technical University of Kosice, Department of Materials Science, Park Komenskeho 11, 042 00 Kosice (Slovakia); Zubko, Pavol [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engeneering, Institute of Engeneering Materials and Biomaterials, Konarskiego 18A Street, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Konieczny, Jaroslaw [Technical University of Kosice, Department of Materials Science, Park Komenskeho 11, 042 00 Kosice (Slovakia)]. E-mail: jaroslaw.konieczny@polsl.pl

    2006-09-15

    The paper presents mechanical properties of two kinds of Co-based and one Fe-based metallic ribbons by the depth sensing indentation (DSI) technique. Investigations were carried out on two kinds ternary alloy Co{sub 77}Si{sub 11,5}B{sub 11,5} and Fe{sub 78}Si{sub 13}B{sub 9} and multicomponent Co{sub 68}Fe{sub 4}Mo{sub 1}Si{sub 13,5}B{sub 13,5}, which are so-called 'zero-magnetostriction' materials. Metallic ribbons were investigated in amorphous state and partially crystallized state after annealing in 400deg. C in argon atmosphere. Heating of ribbons obtained by melt spinning technique was performed to check its effect on changes of mechanical properties.

  12. Design and performance of ultra-high-density optical fiber cable with rollable optical fiber ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogari, Kazuo; Yamada, Yusuke; Toge, Kunihiro

    2010-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel ultra-high-density optical fiber cable that employs rollable optical fiber ribbons. The cable has great advantages in terms of cable weight and diameter, and fiber splicing workability. Moreover, it will be easy to install in a small space in underground ducts and on residential and business premises. The structural design of the rollable optical fiber ribbon is evaluated theoretically and experimentally, and an optimum adhesion pitch P in the longitudinal direction is obtained. In addition, we examined the performance of ultra-high-density cables with a small diameter that employ rollable optical fiber ribbons and bending-loss insensitive optical fibers. The transmission, mechanical and mid-span access performance of these cables was confirmed to be excellent.

  13. Space-efficient fiber ribbon composed of reduced-cladding single-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. H.; Bae, S. H.; Kim, Hoon; Ouh, C. H.; Jung, C. H.; Cho, H. S.; Chung, Y. C.

    2016-09-01

    We develop a space-efficient single-mode fiber (SMF) having a cladding diameter of only 82 μm. This SMF has the depressed-cladding index profile and its mode-field diameter, cutoff wavelength, and macro bending loss are designed to be similar to those of the conventional step-index SMF. We fabricate this reduced-cladding SMF and measure its optical and mechanical characteristics. The results show that this fiber satisfies major specifications of the ITU-T G.654 recommendations. We also fabricate a fiber ribbon by using twelve of these reduced-cladding SMFs. Compared to a commercial fiber ribbon made of twelve standard SMFs having 125-μm cladding diameter, this fiber ribbon can improve the spatial efficiency by ∼75%.

  14. Mechanical properties of metallic ribbons investigated by depth sensing indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents mechanical properties of two kinds of Co-based and one Fe-based metallic ribbons by the depth sensing indentation (DSI) technique. Investigations were carried out on two kinds ternary alloy Co77Si11,5B11,5 and Fe78Si13B9 and multicomponent Co68Fe4Mo1Si13,5B13,5, which are so-called 'zero-magnetostriction' materials. Metallic ribbons were investigated in amorphous state and partially crystallized state after annealing in 400deg. C in argon atmosphere. Heating of ribbons obtained by melt spinning technique was performed to check its effect on changes of mechanical properties

  15. Magnetic properties and coercivity mechanism of precipitation-hardened Gd-Co based ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Chuan-Bing; Zhang Jian; Du Xiao-Bo; Zhang Hong-Wei; Zhang Shao-Ying; Shen Bao-Gen

    2004-01-01

    Gd(Co0.88-xCuxFe0.09Zr0.03)z ribbons with x = 0.075 - 0.200 and z=6.4-7.7 have been prepared by a meltspinning technique. A cellular microstructure consisting of 2:17 cells surrounded by the 1:5 cell boundary phase is obtained after precipitation hardening. The dependence of room temperature coercivity on the heat treatment process suggests that the long-time isothermal aging is not helpful for the development of magnetic properties. Positive temperature coefficient of remanence from room temperature to about 673K is typical for all samples, while positive temperature coefficient of coercivity is obtained only in ribbons with low Cu content. The coercivity mechanism of the precipitation-hardened ribbons at different temperatures is also discussed.

  16. Electric gating induced bandgaps and enhanced Seebeck effect in zigzag bilayer graphene ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thanh-Tra; Tran, Van-Truong

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically investigate the effect of a transverse electric field generated by side gates and a vertical electric field generated by top/back gates on energy bands and transport properties of zigzag bilayer graphene ribbons (Bernal stacking). Using atomistic tight binding calculations and Green’s function formalism we demonstrate that a bandgap is opened when either field is applied and even enlarged under simultaneous influence of the two fields. Interestingly, although vertical electric fields are widely used to control the bandgap in bilayer graphene, here we show that transverse fields exhibit a more positive effect in terms of modulating a larger range of bandgap and retaining good electrical conductance. The Seebeck effect is also demonstrated to be enhanced strongly—by about 13 times for a zigzag bilayer graphene ribbon with 16 chain lines. These results may motivate new designs of devices made of bilayer graphene ribbons using electric gates.

  17. Edge plasmons and cut-off behavior of graphene nano-ribbon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Haowen; Teng, Jinghua; Palacios, Tomás; Chua, Soojin

    2016-07-01

    Graphene nano-ribbon waveguides with ultra-short plasmon wavelength are a promising candidate for nanoscale photonic applications. Graphene edge plasmons are the fundamental and lowest losses mode. Through finite element method, edge plasmons show large effective refractive index and strong field confinement on nanoscale ribbons. The edge plasmons follow a k1/2 dispersion relation. The wavelengths of the edge plasmons and center plasmons differ by a fixed factor. The width of edge plasmon is inversely proportional to wave vector of edge plasmon kedge. Edge defects associate with graphene nano-ribbon induce extra losses and reduce the propagation length. Cut-off width of edge plasmons reduces with increasing frequency. Cut-off width of center plasmon is enlarged by edge component but the enlargement effect diminishing with the increase of kedge. The results are important for the application of graphene plasmon towards ultra-compact photonic devices.

  18. A new dental powder from nanocrystalline melt-spun Ag-Sn-Cu alloy ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new non-gamma-two dental powder has been developed from nanocrystalline melt-spun Ag-Sn-Cu alloy ribbons. The amalgam made from this powder exhibits excellent properties for dental filling. The nanocrystalline microstructure was found for the first time in as-spun and heat treated Ag(27-28)Sn(9-32) Cu alloy ribbons, using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. As-spun ribbons exhibited a multi-phase microstructure with preferred existence of β (Ag4Sn) phase formed during rapid solidification (RS) due to supersaturating of copper (Cu) atoms and homogenous nanostructure with subgrain size of about (40-50) nm, which seems to be developed during RS process and can be caused by eutectic reaction of the Ag3Sn/Ag4Sn-Cu3Sn system. In heat treated ribbons the clustering of Cu atoms was always favored and stable in an ageing temperature and time interval determined by Cu content. The heat treatment led to essential changes of subgrain morphology, resulted in the appearance of large-angle boundaries with fine Cu3Sn precipitates and forming typical recrystallization twins. Such a microstructure variation in melt-spun ribbons could eventually yield enhanced technological, clinical and physical properties of the dental products, controlled by the ADA Specification N deg 1 and reported before. Thus, using the rapid solidification technique a new non-gamma-two dental material of high quality, nanocrystalline ribbon powder, can be produced. Copyright (2003) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  19. Salt effects in the formation of self-assembled lithocholate helical ribbons and tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terech, Pierre; K P Velu, Sabareesh; Pernot, Petra; Wiegart, Lutz

    2012-09-13

    The formation of self-assembled nanotubes is usually accounted for by anisotropic elastic properties of membranelike precursors. We present experimental data as evidence of the role played by electrostatics in the formation of self-assembled tubes in alkaline aqueous suspensions of lithocholic acid (LCA). Striking salt effects are characterized by comparing the rheological, dynamical, and scattering properties of systems prepared either in stoichiometric neutralization conditions (SC) of LCA or in a large excess of sodium hydroxide (EOC, experimentally optimized conditions) and finally, in two steps: stoichiometric neutralization followed by an appropriate addition of NaCl (AISC). The SC liquid system is originally made up of loose helical ribbons (previous transmission electron microscopy data), and upon aging they exhibit both intra- and interordering processes. Initially, the helical ribbons are loose and progressively wind around a cylinder (R = 330 Å) with their edges exposed to the solvent. They can be temporarily organized in a centered rectangular two-dimensional lattice (pgg, a = 224 Å, b = 687 Å). Upon further aging, the ribbons wind into more compact helical ribbons (or tubes with helical grooves): their edges are less-exposed and their ordering vanishes. Upon addition of NaCl salt (as in the AISC systems), the specific screening of the intra-aggregate electrostatic repulsions induces the closure of the ribbons into tubes (R(ext) = 260 Å, R(int) = 245 Å as in the EOC systems). Simultaneously with the closure of the ribbons into plain tubes, a drastic enhancement of their interconnectivity through van der Waals attractions develops. Eventually, gels are obtained with networks having hexagonal bundles of tubes. PMID:22905756

  20. Observations of an X-shaped Ribbon Flare in the Sun and Its Three-dimensional Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Qiu, J.; Longcope, D. W.; Ding, M. D.; Yang, K.

    2016-05-01

    We report evolution of an atypical X-shaped flare ribbon that provides novel observational evidence of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic reconnection at a separator. The flare occurred on 2014 November 9. High-resolution slit-jaw 1330 Å images from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal four chromospheric flare ribbons that converge and form an X-shape. Flare brightening in the upper chromosphere spreads along the ribbons toward the center of the “X” (the X-point), and then spreads outward in a direction more perpendicular to the ribbons. These four ribbons are located in a quadrupolar magnetic field. Reconstruction of magnetic topology in the active region suggests the presence of a separator connecting to the X-point outlined by the ribbons. The inward motion of flare ribbons in the early stage therefore indicates 3D magnetic reconnection between two sets of non-coplanar loops that approach laterally, and reconnection proceeds downward along a section of vertical current sheet. Coronal loops are also observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory confirming the reconnection morphology illustrated by ribbon evolution.

  1. Ribbon thickness dependence of the Magnetic Alloy core characteristics in the accelerating frequency region of the J-PARC synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, M.; Shimada, T.; Tamura, F.; Yamamoto, M.; Hara, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Ohmori, C.; Takata, K.; Toda, M.; Yoshii, M.; Schnase, A.

    2014-06-01

    We employ Magnetic Alloy (MA) core loaded RF cavities for the J-PARC synchrotrons to achieve a high field gradient. The MA core has a laminated structure of 18 μm thick ribbon layers. We have been developing high shunt impedance MA cores to prepare for an increase of beam power. At low frequencies, it is well known that the eddy current loss in the ribbon is proportional to the square of the ribbon thickness. The MA core shunt impedance can be increased by using thinner ribbons. On the other hand, at high frequencies, the MA core magnetic characteristics are largely different from low frequencies. Using thinner ribbons might be effective to increase the MA core shunt impedance in the accelerating frequency region of the J-PARC synchrotrons. We reviewed the theoretical calculations of the ribbon thickness dependence of the MA core magnetic characteristics and we derived the ribbon thickness dependence from measured data. The measured data show that the MA core shunt impedance is inversely proportional to the ribbon thickness in the accelerating frequency region of the J-PARC synchrotrons, which is consistent with our calculations.

  2. Influence of stresses on martensitic transformation in ferromagnetic shape memory Ni50Mn19Fe6Ga25 ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fanbin; LI Yangxian; LIU Heyan; QU Jingping; LIU Zhuhong; CHEN Jinglan; WU Guangheng

    2004-01-01

    The influence of stresses on martensitic transformation in Nis0Mn19Fe6Ga25 melt-spun ribbons was studied. X-ray diffraction examination shows that the ribbon has a pure cubic L21 phase at room temperature and that the ribbon surface exhibits [100] preferentially oriented texture, while the [110] axis is about 45° tilted from the normal of the ribbon. By calculating the d spacing at different angles with the length direction of the ribbon, the tension was observed. It was found that the direction of the stress was along [010] direction of the oriented textured grains. During cooling, there is no obvious structural transition observed in as-spun ribbons. However, when the ribbons were annealed at 900 K for 24 h, the tension along [010] direction disappeared and the structural transition from cubic to tetragonal occurred obviously during cooling. It indicates that it is the tension along [010] direction to suppress the martensitic transformation in the as-spun ribbons.

  3. Temporal evolution of multiple evaporating ribbon sources in a solar flare

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, D.R.; Cauzzi, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present new results from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph showing the dynamic evolution of chromospheric evaporation and condensation in a flare ribbon, with the highest temporal and spatial resolution to date. IRIS observed the entire impulsive phase of the X-class flare SOL2014-09-10T17:45 using a 9.4 second cadence `sit-and-stare' mode. As the ribbon brightened successively at new positions along the slit, a unique impulsive phase evolution was observed for many tens of individ...

  4. Space Flight Qualification on a Multi-Fiber Ribbon Cable and Array Connector Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaodan, Linda Jin; Ott, Melanie N.; LaRocca, Frank V.; Baker, Ronald M.; Keeler, Bianca E. N.; Friedberg, Patricia R.; Chuska, Richard F.; Malenab, Mary C.; Macmurphy, Shawn L.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) cooperatively with Sandia National Laboratories completed a series of tests on three separate configurations of multi-fiber ribbon cable and MTP connector assemblies. These tests simulate the aging process of components during launch and long-term space environmental exposure. The multi-fiber ribbon cable assembly was constructed of non-outgassing materials, with radiation-hardened, graded index 100/140-micron optical fiber. The results of this characterization presented here include vibration testing, thermal vacuum monitoring, and extended radiation exposure testing data.

  5. Sources and Formation of the Ribbon Observed by IBEX: ``... Good Things may be Close by''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharek, H.; Fuselier, S. A.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Lee, M. A.; Moebius, E.; Wurz, P.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Funsten, H. O.; Schwadron, N. A.; McComas, D. J.; Janzen, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    Taking the first images of heliospheric boundary with Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs), the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) discovered a giant structure across the sky, called “the Ribbon”. The location and the orientation of the Ribbon seem to be associated with the interstellar magnetic field. Fine structures as well as temporal variations^{1} have been found in the Ribbon. While there are first model attempts to explain its location in the sky and its possible formation, the source of this Ribbon is not yet known. It could well consist of several components, for instance, a static component whose source is deeper in the heliosheath or beyond and a dynamic component that is close to or at the termination shock. IBEX data show that the peak energy is around 1 keV, which strongly indicates a close association with the solar wind, either the bulk ions or the entrained pickup ions. Models have been proposed using a distant source region well beyond the heliopause (HP) that extend over several hundred AU into the interstellar medium, in which pickup ions from neutral solar wind produce ENAs by charge exchange. Such a model could produce a ribbon structure, however, temporal variations are difficult to explain. In this alternative model, we concentrate on a population of reflected solar wind ions reflected and gyrating at the termination shock (TS). A large fraction of the incident ions forms a gyrotropic distribution concentrated perpendicular to the upstream magnetic field direction. These ions will charge exchange with interstellar neutral atoms and thus may form a major source for the observed ENA flux, which forms the Ribbon. One advantage of such a model is that it allows relatively rapid time variations of the observed ENA flux. In this model, it is the global shape of the TS, mediated by the interstellar magnetic field, which controls the location of the enhanced ENA intensity as well as the width of the ribbon. The model assumption is that the external

  6. Giant Magnetoimpedance Effect in Surface Modified CoFeMoSiB Amorphous Ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. A. Cerdeira; G. V. Kurlyandskaya; A. Fernandez; M. Tejedor; H. Garcia-Miquel

    2003-01-01

    Thin magnetic Fe layers in thickness of 10-240 nm were deposited onto a wheel surface of CoFeMoSiB amorphous ribbons to check our concept of a new type of heterogeneous magnetoimpedancematerials formed by two different magnetic parts. The presence of an additional iron layer modifies the magnetoimpedance response of the composite material and leads to increase of the magnetoimpedance ratio from 330 to 345% at a frequency of 3.5MHz.Two possible mechanisms are discussed for explanation to the observed behaviour. Modification of the surface properties of the amorphous ribbons may have certain potential for techmological applications.

  7. High frequency behaviours and Mössbauer study of field annealed FeCuNbSiB alloy ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the high frequency behaviours and magnetic anisotropy of rapidly solidified FINEMET (Fe73.5Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1) alloy ribbons annealed in an applied magnetic field. It finds that the ribbons annealed with the applied magnetic field show much higher resonance frequencies and have even higher permeability at higher frequencies than the samples annealed without the magnetic field and the non-annealed ribbons. Mössbauer spectroscopy had been employed to study the spatial distribution of the magnetic moments of five selected FINEMET alloy ribbons in different heat-treated conditions. The results show that an easy plane has been established after annealling in the magnetic field, while for the other ribbons this effect is not significant. Hence, the relationship between magnetic field annealing and high frequency property has been bridged by the bianisotropic theory. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. Nanocrystallization in Co67Cr7Fe4Si8B14 Amorphous Alloy Ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jamili-Shirvan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nanocrystallization of Co67Fe4Cr7Si8B14 amorphous ribbons which prepared by planar flow melt spinning process (PFMS was investigated. Crystallization of the ribbons was studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The DTA result of amorphous ribbon at heating rate of 10˚C/min showedoccurrence of phase transitions in two stages. The ribbons were isothermally annealed for 30 minutes in argon atmosphere at different temperatures between 300 and 650ºC with 25ºC steps. The magnetic properties of annealed samples were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The VSM results revealed that optimum soft magnetic properties occurred at 400ºC. XRD patterns showed that the samples isothermally annealed up to 450ºC were amorphous, while TEM results at 400ºC indicated 7-8 nm mean size nanocrytallites in amorphous matrix and size of the nanocrystallites increased by increasing temperature. Also by X-ray diffraction pattern, precipitation of different phases at higher temperatures confirmed.

  9. Chromospheric Condensation and Quasi-periodic Pulsations in a Circular-ribbon Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Q M; Ning, Z J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report our multiwavelength observations of the C3.1 circular-ribbon flare SOL2015-10-16T10:20 in AR 12434. The flare consisted of a circular flare ribbon (CFR), an inner flare ribbon (IFR) inside, and a pair of short parallel flare ribbons (PFRs). During the impulsive phase of the flare, "two-step" raster observations of \\textit{IRIS} with a cadence of 6 s and an exposure time of 2 s show plasma downflow at the CFR in the Si {\\sc iv} $\\lambda$1402.77 line, suggesting chromospheric condensation. The downflow speeds first increased rapidly from a few km s$^{-1}$ to the peak values of 45$-$52 km s$^{-1}$, before decreasing gradually to the initial levels. The decay timescales of condensation were 3$-$4 minutes, indicating ongoing magnetic reconnection. Interestingly, the downflow speeds are positively correlated with logarithm of the Si {\\sc iv} line intensity and time derivative of the \\textit{GOES} soft X-ray (SXR) flux in 1$-$8 {\\AA}. The radio dynamic spectra are characterized by a type \\Rm...

  10. The Relation between Solar Eruption Topologies and Observed Flare Features I: Flare Ribbons

    CERN Document Server

    Savcheva, A; McKillop, S; McCauley, P; Hanson, E; Su, Y; Werner, E; DeLuca, E E

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a topological magnetic field investigation of seven two-ribbon flares in sigmoidal active regions observed with Hinode, STEREO, and SDO. We first derive the 3D coronal magnetic field structure of all regions using marginally unstable 3D coronal magnetic field models created with the flux rope insertion method. The unstable models have been shown to be a good model of the flaring magnetic field configurations. Regions are selected based on their pre-flare configurations along with the appearance and observational coverage of flare ribbons, and the model is constrained using pre-flare features observed in extreme ultraviolet and X-ray passbands. We perform a topology analysis of the models by computing the squashing factor, Q, in order to determine the locations of prominent quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). QSLs from these maps are compared to flare ribbons at their full extents. We show that in all cases the straight segments of the two J-shaped ribbons are matched very well by the flux...

  11. MAGNETIC VISCOSITY AND DEMAGNETIZATION BEHAVIOUR IN ISOTROPIC NANOCRYSTALLINE Pr12Fe82B6 RIBBONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HONG-WEI; ZHANG SHAO-YING; SHEN BAO-GEN; D. GOLL; H. KRONM(U)LLER

    2001-01-01

    We present the experimental results of the magnetic viscosity, demagnetization curve and recoil loop for isotropic nanocrystalline Pr12Fes2B6 ribbons prepared by melt-spinning. The thermal fluctuation field, activation volume and irreversible demagnetization are discussed. The coercivity mechanism is mainly determined by the inhomogeneous nucleation rather than a simple nucleation of reverse domain.

  12. Flare Ribbons In The Early Phase Of An SDO Flare: Emission Measure And Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hannah, I. G.; Hudson, H. S.; Innes, D. E.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the M1.0 flare of 7th August 2010, which displayed extended early phase chromospheric ribbons, well observed by SDO/AIA and RHESSI. Most large flares saturate rapidly in the high-temperature AIA channels, however this event could be followed in unsaturated AIA images for ten minutes in the build-up to and first few minutes of the impulsive phase. Analysis of GOES, RHESSI and SDO/AIA demonstrates the presence of high temperature ( 10MK), compact plasma volumes in the chromospheric flare ribbons, with a column emission measure of on average 3-7 x 1028 cm-5. We construct a time-resolved energy budget for the ribbon plasma, including also SDO/EVE data, and discuss the implications of the observed ribbon properties for flare energisation. This work was supported by the UK’s Science and Technology Facilities Council (ST/1001801), and by the European Commission through the FP7 HESPE project (FP7-2010-SPACE-263086).

  13. Nanostructured thin ribbons of a shape memory TiNiCu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the investigation of the nanostructured shape memory alloys for the purpose of development of micromechanical devices. The Ti50Ni25Cu25 (at.%) alloy fabricated by the melt spinning technique in the form of a ribbon with a thickness around 40 μm and a width about 1.5 mm was chosen as a starting material. Technological parameters were optimized to produce the alloy in an amorphous state. The thickness of the ribbon was reduced to 5-10 μm by means of electrochemical polishing. A special nanostructurization of the thin ribbons was obtained via the dynamic crystallization of the amorphous alloy by application of a single electric pulse with duration near 500 μs. A composite micromanipulator with overall dimensions of 20 x 5 x 0.9 μm was developed and produced on the basis of the obtained nanostructured thin ribbons by means of the focused ion beam (FIB) technique.

  14. Highly sensitive giant magnetoimpedance in a solenoid containing FeCo-based ribbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yun-Zhang; Xu Qi-Ming; Zheng Jin-Ju; Wu Feng-Min; Ye Hui-Qun; Si Jian-Xiao; Zheng Jian-Long; Fan Xiao-Zhen; Yang Xiao-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The highly sensitive giant magneto-impedance effect in a solenoid containing a magnetic core of Fe36Co36Nb4Si4.sB19.2 (FeCo-based) ribbon under a weak magnetic field (WMF) is presented in this paper. The FeCo-based amorphous ribbon is prepared by single roller quenching and annealed with Joule heat in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere.The giant magnetoimpedance effect in solenoid (GMIES) profiles are measured with an HP4294A impedance analyzer.The result shows that the GMIES responds to the WMF sensitively (as high as 1580 %/A·m-l).The high sensitivity can be obtained in a moderate narrow range of annealing current density (30-34 A/mm2) and closely depends on the driven current frequency.The highest sensitivity (1580 %/A.m-1) is obtained when the FeCobased amorphous ribbon is annealed at 32 A/mm2 for 10 min and then driven with an alterning current (AC) at the frequency of 350 kHz.The highly sensitive GMIES under the WMF may result from the multiple magnetic-anisotropic structure,which is induced by the temperature gradient produced during Joule-heating the ribbon.

  15. Treatment with Piribedil and Memantine Reduces Noise-Induced Loss of Inner Hair Cell Synaptic Ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Richard A.; Wys, Noel; Prieskorn, Diane; Martin, Cathy; DeRemer, Susan; Bledsoe, Sanford; Miller, Josef M.

    2016-01-01

    Noise overstimulation can induce loss of synaptic ribbons associated with loss of Inner Hair Cell – Auditory Nerve synaptic connections. This study examined if systemic administration of Piribedil, a dopamine agonist that reduces the sound evoked auditory nerve compound action potential and/or Memantine, an NMDA receptor open channel blocker, would reduce noise-induced loss of Inner Hair Cell ribbons. Rats received systemic Memantine and/or Piribedil for 3 days before and 3 days after a 3 hour 4 kHz octave band noise at 117 dB (SPL). At 21 days following the noise there was a 26% and 38% loss of synaptic ribbons in regions 5.5 and 6.5 mm from apex, respectively, elevations in 4-, 8- and 20 kHz tonal ABR thresholds and reduced dynamic output at higher intensities of stimulation. Combined treatment with Piribedil and Memantine produced a significant reduction in the noise-induced loss of ribbons in both regions and changes in ABR sensitivity and dynamic responsiveness. Piribedil alone gave significant reduction in only the 5.5 mm region and Memantine alone did not reach significance in either region. Results identify treatments that could prevent the hearing loss and hearing disorders that result from noise-induced loss of Inner Hair Cell – Auditory Nerve synaptic connections. PMID:27686418

  16. The electro-mechanical responses of suspended graphene ribbons for electrostatic discharge applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ma, Rui; Chen, Qi; Xia, Ming; Ng, Jimmy; Wang, Albert; Xie, Ya-Hong

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a suspended graphene ribbon device for electrostatic discharge (ESD) applications. The device structure was proposed and fabricated after careful design considerations. Compared to the conventional ESD devices such as diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, the proposed device structure is believed to render several advantages including zero leakage, low parasitic effects, fast response, and high critical current density. A process flow was developed for higher yield and reliability of the suspended graphene ribbons. Direct current (DC) and transmission-line pulse (TLP) measurements were carried out to investigate the switching behavior of the device, which is crucial for ESD operation. DC measurements with a different configuration were used to assess the mechanical shape evolution of the graphene ribbon upon biasing. Finite Element Simulations were conducted and agreed well with the experimental results. Furthermore, the current carrying capability of non-suspended graphene ribbons was tested using TLP. It was found that the critical current density of graphene is higher than that of copper wires widely used as interconnects in integrated circuits (ICs).

  17. A new amorphous ribbon fluxgate sensor based on torsional-creep-induced anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto V.; Gutierrez, J.; Hernando, B.;

    1990-01-01

    The fluxgate sensor presented consists of a hairpin-shaped nonmagnetostrictive amorphous metal ribbon which carries the excitation AC current. Even harmonics are induced in a surrounding coil, which can be used both as a pickup coil and as a field compensation coil. The principle of operation is ...

  18. “Yama Ribbons & Bows” Succeeds in “Double Anti-” Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    U.S. Department of Commerce’s final ruling finally made one-year long "double anti-" investigation (anti-dumping and anti-subsidy) in the made-in-China narrow ribbons come to a settlement on July 13th Washington time.

  19. Blue-sky thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global environmental problems - such as the greenhouse effect, the depletion of natural resources and the accumulation of wastes - have been recognized as common international issues affecting humanity since the 1990s. Sustainable development on a global scale is now sought, for instance, with the establishment of the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, and with the adoption of the Declaration on Sustainable Development at the 2002 Johannesburg Summit. Honda launched the slogan 'Blue Sky for Children' in the 1960s when environmental pollution became a highly visible issue. During that decade we started an aggressive approach aimed at substantial environmental improvement, and unveiled the Compound Vortex Controlled Combustion (CVCC) engine - which used unique low-emission technology - in the United States and Japan. Since then, we have developed the Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electric Control System (VTEC) and the i-VTEC series with innovative engine technology, permitting global production of vehicles that combine high performance with state-of-the-art low-emission technologies. And we continued to work to preserve the global environment by releasing a hybrid vehicle, the Insight, which achieved the most efficient fuel consumption in the world at the time of its introduction in 1998

  20. Changes in the Numbers of Ribbon Synapses and Expression of RIBEYE in Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Ying Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was performed to explore the mechanism underlying tinnitus by investigating the changes in the synaptic ribbons and RIBEYE expression in cochlear inner hair cells in salicylate-induced tinnitus. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were injected with salicylate (350 mg/kg for 10 days and grouped. Behavioral procedures were performed to assess whether the animals experienced tinnitus. The specific presynaptic RIBEYE protein and non-specific postsynaptic glutamate receptor 2&3 protein in basilar membrane samples were examined by immunofluorescent labeling. RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to examine RIBEYE expression. Serial sections were used to build three-dimensional models using 3ds MAX software to evaluate the changes in the synaptic ribbons. Results: The administration of salicylate increased false positives in the behavioral procedure from 3 d to 10 d. The membrane profiles of inner hair cells in all mice were intact. The number of synaptic ribbons in the salicylate group increased on the 7th d and decreased on the 9th and 10th d. mRNA and protein expression of RIBEYE were initially up-regulated and later down-regulated by injecting salicylate for 10 consecutive days. Conclusion: This change in the ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells in salicylate-induced mice might serve as a compensatory mechanism in the early stages of ototoxicity and contribute to tinnitus later. The alteration of RIBEYE expression could be responsible for the changes in the morphology of ribbon synapses and for salicylate-induced tinnitus.

  1. A CIRCULAR-RIBBON SOLAR FLARE FOLLOWING AN ASYMMETRIC FILAMENT ERUPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Lee, Jeongwoo; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Liu, Rui [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Pariat, Étienne [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universits, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-92190 Meudon (France); Wiegelmann, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Liu, Yang [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Kleint, Lucia, E-mail: chang.liu@njit.edu [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland)

    2015-10-20

    The dynamic properties of flare ribbons and the often associated filament eruptions can provide crucial information on the flaring coronal magnetic field. This Letter analyzes the GOES-class X1.0 flare on 2014 March 29 (SOL2014-03-29T17:48), in which we found an asymmetric eruption of a sigmoidal filament and an ensuing circular flare ribbon. Initially both EUV images and a preflare nonlinear force-free field model show that the filament is embedded in magnetic fields with a fan-spine-like structure. In the first phase, which is defined by a weak but still increasing X-ray emission, the western portion of the sigmoidal filament arches upward and then remains quasi-static for about five minutes. The western fan-like and the outer spine-like fields display an ascending motion, and several associated ribbons begin to brighten. Also found is a bright EUV flow that streams down along the eastern fan-like field. In the second phase that includes the main peak of hard X-ray (HXR) emission, the filament erupts, leaving behind two major HXR sources formed around its central dip portion and a circular ribbon brightened sequentially. The expanding western fan-like field interacts intensively with the outer spine-like field, as clearly seen in running difference EUV images. We discuss these observations in favor of a scenario where the asymmetric eruption of the sigmoidal filament is initiated due to an MHD instability and further facilitated by reconnection at a quasi-null in corona; the latter is in turn enhanced by the filament eruption and subsequently produces the circular flare ribbon.

  2. Observations of an X-shaped Ribbon Flare in the Sun and Its Three-dimensional Magnetic Reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Y; Longcope, D W; Ding, M D; Yang, K

    2016-01-01

    We report evolution of an atypical X-shaped flare ribbon which provides novel observational evidence of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic reconnection at a separator. The flare occurred on 2014 November 9. High-resolution slit-jaw 1330 A images from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal four chromospheric flare ribbons that converge and form an X-shape. Flare brightening in the upper chromosphere spreads along the ribbons toward the center of the "X" (the X-point), and then spreads outward in a direction more perpendicular to the ribbons. These four ribbons are located in a quadrupolar magnetic field. Reconstruction of magnetic topology in the active region suggests the presence of a separator connecting to the X-point outlined by the ribbons. The inward motion of flare ribbons in the early stage therefore indicates 3D magnetic reconnection between two sets of non-coplanar loops that approach laterally, and reconnection proceeds downward along a section of vertical current sheet. Coronal loops are al...

  3. Surface valence transformation during thermal activation and hydrogenation thermodynamics of Mg-Ni-Y melt-spun ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiebang; Song, Wenjie; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan

    2016-05-01

    In this work, phase compositions and chemical valence states on the surface and subsurface of Mg67Ni33-xYx (x = 0, 1, 3, 6) ribbons during thermal activation have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that the surface contaminants of melt-spun ribbons are mainly MgO, NiO, Y2O3 and organics. The oxides/hydroxides of Mg67Ni33-xYx (x = 0, 1, 3, 6) melt-spun ribbons are removed from the surface during thermal activation. Surface chemical valence firstly transforms from oxidized state to the metallic one during thermal activation, which accounts for hydrogenation of Mg67Ni33-xYx melt-spun ribbons. Hydrogen absorption capacities of Mg67Ni33-xYx (x = 0, 1, 3, 6) melt-spun ribbons are enhanced with the increase of cycle numbers during thermal activation. Hydrogenation thermodynamics of activated Mg67Ni33-xYx (x = 0, 1, 3, 6) melt-spun ribbons have been also compared and correlated with the surface valence transformation. The obtained enthalpy of hydride formation is -55.5, -50.5, -46.9 and -48.6 kJ/mol for Mg67Ni33-xYx melt-spun ribbons with x = 0, 1, 3 and 6, respectively.

  4. Blue Man袭东京

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naomi Saeki; 李宝怡

    2008-01-01

    <正>20年前在美国曼克顿风靡一时的Blue Man Group,最近在东京出现,马上成为城中话题。在东京,每年有不少舞台剧演出,但是像Blue Man Group这样备受注目的,近年罕见。Blue Man Group in Tokyo于上年12月开始公演·1个月的门票早在9月中旬

  5. Blue Angel for green electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher-Tiedemann, C.; Jacobs, B. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The Blue Angel was the first eco-label worldwide. It has been in existence for 26 years. For the last 12 years, modern electronic office and communications equipment has been among the products that are eligible for award of the Blue Angel. The Blue Angel eco-label is an important element of integrated product policy and is aimed towards environmentally sound product design. In addition, health aspects are increasingly being taken into account in criteria development. The use of the label gives innovative companies better market opportunities for products so labelled. For consumers and for purchasers in businesses and public administrations, it gives valuable guidance for product purchase. (orig.)

  6. Effects of solar wind speed on the secondary energetic neutral source of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Funsten, H. O.; Heerikhuisen, J.; McComas, D. J.

    2016-02-01

    The Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) ribbon is an intense energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission feature encircling the sky, spanning energies ≤0.5-6 keV. The ribbon may be produced by the "secondary ENA" mechanism, where ENAs emitted from a source plasma population inside the heliosphere propagate outside the heliopause, undergo two charge-exchange events, and become secondary ENAs that may be directed back toward Earth and detected by IBEX. In this scenario, the source plasma population is governed by the interaction of the solar wind (SW) with the interstellar medium and is thus sensitive to the global SW properties. Moreover, this scenario predicts that the distance to the source of secondary ENAs depends on the ENA energy and SW speed, which in turn may affect the shape of the ribbon. In this paper, we use a computational model of the heliosphere with simplified SW boundary conditions to analyze the influence of ENA energy and SW speed, independent of time and latitude, on the global spatial and geometric properties of the ribbon. We find a strong dependence of the simulated ribbon energy spectrum and spatial symmetry on SW speed and ENA energy, and only a slight dependence on ribbon geometry. Our results suggest a significant number of primary ENAs from the inner heliosheath may contribute to the pickup ion source population outside the heliopause, depending on the ENA energy and SW speed. The lack of variation in the simulated ribbon center as a function of ENA energy and SW speed, in contrast to the observations, implies that the asymmetry of the SW plays an important role in determining the position of the ribbon. Comparisons to the IBEX data also signify the ribbon's dependence on the properties of the local interstellar medium, particularly the interstellar magnetic field.

  7. The Effect of External Magnetic Field on Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Melt-Spun Nd-Fe-B/Fe-Co Nanocomposite Ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Truong Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ribbons Nd2Fe14B/Fe-Co were prepared with the nominal composition Nd16Fe76B8/40% wt. Fe65Co35 by the conventional and the developed magnetic field-assisted melt-spinning (MFMS techniques. Both ribbons are nanocomposites with the smooth single-phase-like magnetization loops. The 0.32 T magnetic field perpendicular to the wheel surface and assisting the melt-spinning process reduces the grain size inside the ribbon, increases the texture of the ribbon, improves the exchange coupling, and, in sequence, increases the energy product (BHmax of the isotropic powdered samples of MFMS ribbon in ~9% by comparison with that of the ribbon melt-spun conventionally. The grain size reduction effect caused by the assisted magnetic field has also been described quantitatively. The MFMS technique seems to be promising for producing high-performance nanocomposite ribbons.

  8. Gradient Distribution of Martensite Phase in Melt-Spun Ribbons of a Fe-Ni-Ti-Al Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Bondar, Volodymyr; Danilchenko, Vitalij; Dzevin, Ievgenij

    2016-01-01

    Metallographic, X-ray diffraction and magnetometric analysis were used to study the regularities of martensitic transformation in melt-spun ribbons of a Fe – 28 wt. % Ni – 2.1 wt. % Ti – 2 wt. % Al – 0.05 wt. % C alloy. The substantial differences in volume fractions of the martensite phase in local regions of thin melt-spun ribbons of the alloy are related to the size effect of the transformation and structural inhomogeneity of the ribbons. The distribution of austenitic grain size in differ...

  9. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  10. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  11. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  12. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew; Stel, André; Thurik, Roy

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increasing profits. The authors conclude that the blue-ocean strategy or innovation approach is sustainable.

  13. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultramarine blue. 73.50 Section 73.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.50 Ultramarine blue. (a) Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained...

  14. Illustration of the development of bacterial cellulose bundles/ribbons by Gluconacetobacter xylinus via atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai

    2013-05-01

    The development of bacterial cellulose (BC) fibrils biosynthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). After various incubation times at 30 °C, both the length of BC fibrils and their average diameters increased significantly. After the first 2-h incubation, not only single BC microfibrils with an average diameter of 5.8 ± 0.7 nm were biosynthesized but single microfibrils also began to bind with each other forming bundles. After longer incubation times of 6 h, 16 h, and 48 h, only BC bundles and ribbons or even only ribbons were detectable. The development of BC fibrils and the formation of BC bundles/ribbons along with the biosynthesis time were illustrated using AFM. Furthermore, single BC fibrils were twisted in a right-handed manner. The twisting of BC fibrils possibly promoted the formation of bigger ribbons.

  15. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  16. Data Set of Flare-Ribbon Reconnected Magnetic Fluxes: A Critical Tool for Understanding Solar Flares and Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachenko, M.; Lynch, B. J.; Welsch, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Flare ribbons are emission structures that are frequently observed during flares in transition-region and chromospheric radiation. These typically straddle a polarity inversion line (PIL) of the radial magnetic field at the photosphere, and move apart as the flare progresses. The ribbon flux - the amount of unsigned photospheric magnetic flux swept out by flare ribbons - is thought to be related to the amount coronal magnetic reconnection, and hence provides a key diagnostic tool for understanding the physical processes at work in flares and CMEs. Previous measurements of the magnetic flux swept out by flare ribbons required time-consuming co-alignment between magnetograph and intensity data from different instruments, explaining why those studies only analyzed, at most, a few events. The launch of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), both aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), presented a rare opportunity to compile a much larger sample of flare-ribbon events than could readily be assembled before. We created a dataset of 141 events of both flare ribbon positions and fluxes, as a function of time, for all C9.-class and greater flares within 45 degrees of disk center observed by SDO from January 2013 till April 2015. For this purpose, we used vector magnetograms (2D magnetic field maps) from HMI and UV images from AIA. A critical problem with using unprocessed AIA data is the existence of spurious intensities in AIA data associated with strong flare emission, most notably "blooming" (spurious smearing of saturated signal into neighboring pixels, often in streaks). To overcome this difficulty, we have developed an algorithmic procedure that effectively excludes artifacts like blooming. We present our database and compare statistical properties of flare ribbons, e.g. evolutions of ribbon reconnection fluxes and reconnection flux rates, with the properties from theoretical models.

  17. Observations of an X-shaped Ribbon Flare and Its Three-dimensional Magnetic Reconnection with IRIS and SDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Qiu, Jiong; Longcope, Dana; Ding, Mingde

    2016-05-01

    We report evolution of an atypical X-shaped flare ribbon which provides novel observational evidence of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic reconnection at a separator. The flare occurred on 2014 November 9, and high-resolution slit-jaw 1330 images from IRIS reveal four chromospheric flare ribbons that converge and form an X-shape. These four ribbons are located in a quadrupolar magnetic field. Reconstruction of magnetic topology in the active region suggests the presence of a separator connecting to the X-point outlined by the ribbons. The inward motion of flare ribbons, as well as coronal loops observed by the SDO/AIA, indicates 3D magnetic reconnection between two sets of non-coplanar loops that approach laterally, and the reconnection proceeds downward to a very low height. We also study spectra of Si IV, C II, and Mg II observed with the IRIS slit, which cuts across the flare ribbons near the X-point. We have found two distinct types of line profiles. At the flare ribbon, all the lines show evident redshifts with a velocity up to 50 km/s, and the redshifts are well correlated with the line intensity and width. These redshifts suggest chromospheric condensation caused by impulsive energy deposition from the separator reconnection. While right outside the flare ribbon, the lines exhibit unshifted, symmetric, yet broadened profiles; in particular, the Si IV line is significantly broadened at the far wing. The line broadening persists for 20 minutes till after the end of the flare. The distinct spectral features near the X-point indicate different dynamics associated with the separator reconnection.

  18. Fabrication and Dealloying Behavior of Monolithic Nanoporous Copper Ribbons with Bimodal Channel Size Distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbo Liu; Shichao Zhang; Ning Li; Jiwei Zheng; Yalan Xing

    2012-01-01

    Monolithic nanoporous copper (NPC) ribbons with bimodal channel size distributions can be fabricated through chemical dealloying of Mg-32 Cu alloy in an acidic solution at room temperature. The microstructure of the as- dealloyed samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. These NPC ribbons are composed of interconnected large-sized channels (hundreds of nm) with highly porous channel walls (tens of nm). Both large- and small-sized channels are open, bicontinuous, and interpenetrating. Additionally, it is the first time to find that the evolution process of porous structure along the thickness direction of samples during the dealloying is from the interior to exterior, which is just contrary to the coarsening process along the thickness direction during the post-dealloying. Meanwhile, the corresponding mechanism is discussed in detail.

  19. Modeling the Excitation of Graphene Plasmons in Periodic Grids of Graphene Ribbons: An Analytical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, P A D; Bludov, Yu V; Peres, N M R

    2016-01-01

    We study electromagnetic scattering and subsequent plasmonic excitations in periodic grids of graphene ribbons. To address this problem, we develop an analytical method to describe the plasmon-assisted absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a periodic structure of graphene ribbons forming a diffraction grating for THz and mid-IR light. The major advantage of this method lies in its ability to accurately describe the excitation of graphene surface plasmons (GSPs) in one-dimensional (1D) graphene gratings without the use of both time-consuming, and computationally-demanding full-wave numerical simulations. We thus provide analytical expressions for the reflectance, transmittance and plasmon-enhanced absorbance spectra, which can be readily evaluated in any personal laptop with little-to-none programming. We also introduce a semi-analytical method to benchmark our previous results and further compare the theoretical data with spectra taken from experiments, to which we observe a very good agreement. These th...

  20. Oxygen measurements in thin ribbon silicon. [edge-defined film-fed grown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, S. L.; Ast, D. G.; Baghdadi, A.

    1987-01-01

    The oxygen content of thin silicon ribbons grown by the dendritic web technique was measured using a modification of the ASTM method based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Web silicon was found to have a high oxygen content, ranging from 13 to 19 ppma, calculated from the absorption peak associated with interstitial oxygen and using the new ASTM conversion coefficient. The oxygen concentration changed by about 10 percent along the growth direction of the ribbon. In some samples, a shoulder was detected on the absorption peak. A similar shoulder in Czochralski grown material has been variously interpreted in the literature as due to a complex of silicon, oxygen, and vacancies, or to a phase of SiO2 developed along dislocations in the material. In the case of web silicon, it is not clear which is the correct interpretation.

  1. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional flow field of a paddle-spiral ribbon impeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impeller is the core component of stirrer, which is widely applied in many industrial fields, therefore more and more endeavor is made to design and optimize its structure, in order to improve the efficiency and reliability of stirrer. In this paper, a paddle-spiral ribbon impeller is introduced. 3-D numerical simulation is carried out to study the mixing performances of four different combined forms of this kind of impeller. In the numerical studies, unstructured grid and multi-reference frame (MRF) are used; standard k-ε turbulent model and mixture model are adopted to simulate the mixing process of solid-liquid two-phase flow. From the non-steady state simulations, velocity field, mixing time and power consumption are obtained. The results indicate that this kind of impeller is effective for stirring serious fluid. The fist combination form of paddle-spiral ribbon impeller has the best stirring performance.

  2. Inequalities for Single Crystal Ribbon Growth by Edge-Defined Film-Fed Growth Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta M. Balint

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A second-order nonlinear differential equation, of which some solutions describe the static meniscus free surface (the static liquid bridge free surface between the shaper and the crystal surface occurring in single crystal ribbon growth, is analyzed. The analysis is focusing on the dependence of the solutions of the equation on the pressure difference p across the free surface. Inequalities are deduced for p, which are necessary or sufficient conditions for the stable and convex free surface of a static meniscus. The obtained results are numerically illustrated in the case of a silicon single crystal ribbon growth. The advantage of these kinds of inequalities is that from them special results can be gleaned concerning the experiment planning and technology design. With this aim this study was undertaken.

  3. Inequalities for Single Crystal Ribbon Growth by Edge-Defined Film-Fed Growth Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint AgnetaM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A second-order nonlinear differential equation, of which some solutions describe the static meniscus free surface (the static liquid bridge free surface between the shaper and the crystal surface occurring in single crystal ribbon growth, is analyzed. The analysis is focusing on the dependence of the solutions of the equation on the pressure difference across the free surface. Inequalities are deduced for , which are necessary or sufficient conditions for the stable and convex free surface of a static meniscus. The obtained results are numerically illustrated in the case of a silicon single crystal ribbon growth. The advantage of these kinds of inequalities is that from them special results can be gleaned concerning the experiment planning and technology design. With this aim this study was undertaken.

  4. Specific heat capacity and emissivity measurements of ribbon-shaped graphite using pulse current heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement method for specific heat capacity and hemispherical total emissivity of electrically conductive materials with pulse current heating is investigated, in which a ribbon-shaped sample is heated up to 3000 K in a subsecond-duration experiment. Specific heat capacity and hemispherical total emissivity of the sample are calculated from the time variations of heat generation and surface temperature of the sample measured during heating and cooling phases. The true surface temperature of the ribbon-shaped sample is obtained with a radiation thermometer, the directional spectral emissivity of the sample surface is measured using a hemispherical mirror centered at the sample surface. Measurements are performed for POCO AXM-5Q1 graphite in the temperature range from 1500 to 3000 K

  5. Investigation on the magnetocaloric effect in RNi2 (R: Dy, tb) melt-spun ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    We report a theoretical and experimental investigation on the magnetocaloric properties of the rare earth RNi2 (R=Dy,Tb) in melt-spun ribbon and bulk form. The theoretical calculations were performed using a Hamiltonian model including the Zeeman-exchange interactions and the crystalline electrical field. Thus the magnetocaloric potential was calculated in the easy magnetic axes, in order an average over all of the possible directions. The isothermal entropy-change dependence on temperature calculated was compared with available experimental data for melt-spun ribbon and bulk material. We also investigated, theoretically and experimentally, the behavior of a DyNi2 and TbNi2 composite with optimized molar proportions and discussed this in the context of the optimum regeneration Ericsson cycle.

  6. Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seyoon; Jang, Min Seok; Brar, Victor W.; Tolstova, Yulia; Mauser, Kelly W.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-08-01

    Subwavelength metallic slit arrays have been shown to exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, whereby tunnelling surface plasmonic waves constructively interfere to create large forward light propagation. The intricate balancing needed for this interference to occur allows for resonant transmission to be highly sensitive to changes in the environment. Here we demonstrate that extraordinary optical transmission resonance can be coupled to electrostatically tunable graphene plasmonic ribbons to create electrostatic modulation of mid-infrared light. Absorption in graphene plasmonic ribbons situated inside metallic slits can efficiently block the coupling channel for resonant transmission, leading to a suppression of transmission. Full-wave simulations predict a transmission modulation of 95.7% via this mechanism. Experimental measurements reveal a modulation efficiency of 28.6% in transmission at 1,397 cm-1, corresponding to a 2.67-fold improvement over transmission without a metallic slit array. This work paves the way for enhancing light modulation in graphene plasmonics by employing noble metal plasmonic structures.

  7. Crystal structures and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe3O4)/Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiyanti, Harlina; Suharyadi, Edi; Kato, Takeshi; Iwata, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Ribbon of magnetite (Fe3O4)/Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) nanoparticles have been successfully fabricated with various concentration of PVA synthesized by co-precipitation method. Particle size of nanoparticles Fe3O4 sample and ribbon Fe3O4/PVA 25% sample is about 9.34 nm and 11.29 nm, respectively. The result of Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) showed that saturation magnetization value decreased from 76.99 emu/g to 15.01 emu/g and coercivity increased from 49.30 Oe to 158.35 Oe as increasing concentration of PVA. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that encapsulated PVA given decreasing agglomeration, controlled shape of nanoparticles Fe3O4 more spherical and dispersed. Surface roughness decreased with increasing concentration of PVA.

  8. Fabrication of Fe-6.5wt%Si Ribbons by Melt Spinning Method on Large Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Melt spinning method has been widely applied for fabrication of Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline ribbons in industry. Compared with Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline alloys, Fe-6.5wt%Si high silicon steel is of low cost and has comparable excellent soft magnetic properties. Due to higher melting point and absence of supercooled liquid region, fabrication of Fe-6.5wt%Si ribbons is very hard and is only on lab scale. In this paper, we report that large scale fabrication of Fe-6.5wt%Si ribbons was successful and microstructures, ordered structures, and mechanical and soft magnetic properties of the ribbons were investigated. Due to rapid solidification rate, the ribbons were of ultrafine grains, and low degree of order and exhibited some extent of bending and tensile ductility. After heat treatment, excellent soft magnetic properties were obtained. Due to near-zero magnetostriction, the ribbons are promising to be used in electric devices with high frequencies where low noises are required.

  9. Gradient Distribution of Martensite Phase in Melt-Spun Ribbons of a Fe-Ni-Ti-Al Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Volodymyr; Danilchenko, Vitalij; Dzevin, Ievgenij

    2016-12-01

    Metallographic, X-ray diffraction and magnetometric analysis were used to study the regularities of martensitic transformation in melt-spun ribbons of a Fe - 28 wt. % Ni - 2.1 wt. % Ti - 2 wt. % Al - 0.05 wt. % C alloy. The substantial differences in volume fractions of the martensite phase in local regions of thin melt-spun ribbons of the alloy are related to the size effect of the transformation and structural inhomogeneity of the ribbons. The distribution of austenitic grain size in different local areas of melt-spun ribbons is significantly different. The principal factor for changing the completeness of the martensitic transformation is the size effect of transformation. Difference in the martensite volume fraction in local regions of a ribbon is mainly determined by the different volume fractions of ultrafine-grained (500-1000 nm) and nanosized (80-100 nm and less) initial austenite grains, in which the transformation was slowed down or completely suppressed. Other factors almost do not affect the completeness of the martensitic transformation. The strong stabilizing effect of the reverse α-γ transformation with respect to the subsequent direct γ-α transformation in the melt-spun ribbons is also related to the grain size effect. PMID:26897002

  10. Martensitic transformation and mechanical properties of Ti-rich Ti-Ni-Cu melt-spun ribbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wen-jun; MIN Guang-hui; YIN Yan-sheng; O.TOLOCHKO

    2009-01-01

    Martensitic transformation,mechanical and thermomechanical properties of a Ti-rich Ti_(52)Ni_(23)Cu_(25) melt spun ribbon annealed at a temperature below the crystallization temperature were studied by XRD,DSC and DMA.After annealing the initially amorphous ribbon at 400 ℃ for 10 h,the ribbon is fully crystallized and exhibits one-stage B2-B19 phase transformation with the temperature hysteresis of 14 ℃.The annealed ribbon is composed of B2,B19 and B11-TiCu phase with (001) preferential orientation.On the stress―strain curves,the rearrangement of the martensite variants and stress-induced martensitic transformation are observed below the M_f temperature and above the A_f temperature,respectively.The annealed ribbon exhibits up to 1.6% superelastic shape recovery with small stress hysteresis of 25 Mpa.No flat stress-plateau is associated with the superelasticity.The annealed ribbon shows a well-defined shape memory effect during thermal cycling from -60 to 100 ℃.The transformation strain and recovery strain increase with increasing the applied external stress.Under the external stress above 150 Mpa,the shape recovery strain is not sensitive to it and keeps stable at about 1.74%.

  11. Enhancement of the martensitic transformation and magnetocaloric effect of Ni-Mn-V-Sn ribbons by annealing treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuan, H.C. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials for Jiang Su Province, Nanjing University (China); Zhang, Y.Q.; Li, H.; Han, P.D. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology (China); Wang, D.H.; Du, Y.W. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials for Jiang Su Province, Nanjing University (China)

    2015-09-15

    The rapidly solidified Ni{sub 41.98}Mn{sub 42.97}V{sub 2.08}Sn{sub 12.97} ribbons are prepared by the melt-spinning technique. The microstructure, martensitic transformation (MT), and magnetocaloric effect of the ribbons are greatly affected by annealing treatment. The equiaxed crystallized grains with the relatively homogeneous size distribution are observed for these ribbons. After annealing, the grain size becomes obviously large, the lattice constants decreases, and the exchange bias effect gets improved. The MT temperatures increase obviously for the annealed ribbons. Large magnetic entropy change (ΔS) is obtained in the annealed Ni-Mn-V-Sn ribbons. The peak values of ΔS in the annealed ribbons are 41.6 and -2.3 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} in the vicinity of MT temperature and Curie temperature of austenite, respectively, for the field change of 30 kOe. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Gradient Distribution of Martensite Phase in Melt-Spun Ribbons of a Fe-Ni-Ti-Al Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Volodymyr; Danilchenko, Vitalij; Dzevin, Ievgenij

    2016-12-01

    Metallographic, X-ray diffraction and magnetometric analysis were used to study the regularities of martensitic transformation in melt-spun ribbons of a Fe - 28 wt. % Ni - 2.1 wt. % Ti - 2 wt. % Al - 0.05 wt. % C alloy. The substantial differences in volume fractions of the martensite phase in local regions of thin melt-spun ribbons of the alloy are related to the size effect of the transformation and structural inhomogeneity of the ribbons. The distribution of austenitic grain size in different local areas of melt-spun ribbons is significantly different. The principal factor for changing the completeness of the martensitic transformation is the size effect of transformation. Difference in the martensite volume fraction in local regions of a ribbon is mainly determined by the different volume fractions of ultrafine-grained (500-1000 nm) and nanosized (80-100 nm and less) initial austenite grains, in which the transformation was slowed down or completely suppressed. Other factors almost do not affect the completeness of the martensitic transformation. The strong stabilizing effect of the reverse α-γ transformation with respect to the subsequent direct γ-α transformation in the melt-spun ribbons is also related to the grain size effect.

  13. New analysis of the small-angle-magnetization-rotation method for magnetostriction measurements on amorphous ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, A. M.; Missell, F. P.

    1987-09-01

    The small-angle-magnetization-rotation (SAMR) method for measuring the saturation magnetostrictin λ s has been reanalyzed, taking into account the underlying domain structure of the amorphous ribbon. Although the condition for determining λ s reamins unchenged, the modifications introduced allow one to understand many additional features of the experimental data. With the appropriate modifications, the SAMR method can be used to study stress relaxation in amorphous alloys. Examples are given Fe-based and Co-based alloys.

  14. The Electromechanical Responses of Suspended Graphene Ribbons for Electrostatic Discharge Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei

    This dissertation presents a novel suspended graphene ribbon device for electrostatic discharge (ESD) applications. The device structure is proposed and fabricated after careful design considerations. Compared to the conventional ESD devices such as diodes, bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), the proposed device structure is believed to render several advantages including zero leakage, low parasitic effects, fast response, and high current carrying capability, etc. A process flow is developed for higher yield and reliability of the suspended graphene ribbon device which is very delicate in nature. Direct current (DC) and transmission-line pulse test (TLP) measurements are carried out to investigate the switch-on behavior of the device which is crucial for ESD protection. DC measurement with a different configuration is used to characterize the mechanical shape evolution of the graphene ribbon upon biasing. Finite Element Simulations are also conducted to verify the experimental results, which are in good agreements. Furthermore, the breakdown properties of graphene ribbons are tested using TLP. It is found that graphene has a better current drivability compared to copper wires which is widely used as interconnects in integrated circuits (ICs). Also, bi-layer graphene has a higher breakdown current than monolayer graphene which indicates that multilayer graphene should be superior in current discharging. Last, Ab inito calculations are carried out to study the growth mechanism of multilayer graphene which is needed for graphene homo-epitaxy with precise control. It is found that a carbon cluster with six carbon atoms has the smallest kinetic barrier thus largest surface diffusivity during surface diffusion. So it is believed to be the most favorable diffusing species for graphene homo-epitaxy.

  15. A robotic device with a passive undulating ribbon fin: kinematics and propulsive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanlin; Curet, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Many aquatic animals swim with high maneuverability using undulating ribbon fins. In this type of swimming, the organism propels by sending one or multiple traveling waves along an elongated fin. In previous work, robotic models with fully actuated fins where the parameters of the traveling waves are fully prescribed have been used to study the propulsive performance and fluid dynamics of this type of propulsion. However, less work has been done in ribbon fins with passively undulating waves. In this work, we use a robotic device to study the kinematics and propulsive performance of a passively undulating ribbon fin. The physical model is composed of fifteen rays interconnected with a membrane. Only two rays are actuated while the other rays are free to rotate through a common axis. The robotic fin was tested in a flume at different flow conditions. In a series of experiments we measured fin kinematics, propulsive forces and power consumption. As the leading two rays are actuated, a traveling wave with decaying amplitude passes through the passive rays. As the frequency of the actuated rays increases, the enclosed area of the undulating wave and the traveling wave frequency increase while the wavelength decreases. Our data also show that the propulsive force generated by the fin scaled with the enclosed area and the square of the relative velocity between incoming flow and traveling wave. These results suggest that both natural swimmers and underwater vehicles using ribbon-fin-based propulsion can potentially take advantage of passive undulating waves. National Science Foundation Grant No. 1420774

  16. Magnetocaloric properties of rapidly solidified Dy{sub 3}Co alloy ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez Llamazares, J. L., E-mail: jose.sanchez@ipicyt.edu.mx; Flores-Zúñiga, H.; Sánchez-Valdés, C. F. [Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica A.C., Camino a la Presa San José 2055 Col. Lomas 4" a, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. 78216 (Mexico); Álvarez-Alonso, Pablo [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, UPV/EHU, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Lara Rodríguez, G. A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, México, D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Fernández-Gubieda, M. L. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, UPV/EHU, 48940 Leioa (Spain); BC Materials, Camino de Ibaizabal, Edificio 500, Planta 1, Parque Científico y Tecnológico de Zamudio, 48160 Derio (Spain)

    2015-05-07

    The magnetic and magnetocaloric (MC) properties of melt-spun ribbons of the Dy{sub 3}Co intermetallic compound were investigated. Samples were fabricated in an Ar environment using a homemade melt spinner system at a linear speed of the rotating copper wheel of 40 ms{sup −1}. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that ribbons crystallize into a single-phase with the Fe{sub 3}C-type orthorhombic crystal structure. The M(T) curve measured at 5 mT reveals the occurrence of a transition at 32 K from a first to a second antiferromagnetic (AFM) state and an AFM-to-paramagnetic transition at T{sub N} = 43 K. Furthermore, a metamagnetic transition is observed below T{sub N}, but the magnetization change ΔM is well below the one reported for bulk alloys. Below 12 K, large inverse MC effect and hysteresis losses are observed. This behavior is related to the metamagnetic transition. For a magnetic field change of 5 T (2 T) applied along the ribbon length, the produced ribbons show a peak value of the magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M}{sup peak} of −6.5 (− 2.1) Jkg{sup −1}K{sup −1} occurring close to T{sub N} with a full-width at half-maximum δT{sub FWHM} of 53 (37) K, and refrigerant capacity RC = 364 (83) Jkg{sup −1} (estimated from the product |ΔS{sub M}{sup peak}| × δT{sub FWHM})

  17. Silicon ribbon technology assessment 1978-1986 - A computer-assisted analysis using PECAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kran, A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a 1978-1986 economic outlook for silicon ribbon technology based on the capillary action shaping technique. The outlook is presented within the framework of two sets of scenarios, which develop strategy for approaching the 1986 national energy capacity cost objective of $0.50/WE peak. The PECAN (Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Analysis) simulation technique is used to develop a 1986 sheet material price ($50/sq m) which apparently can be attained without further scientific breakthrough.

  18. The influence of operational parameters and feed preparation in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer

    OpenAIRE

    Yeow ST; Shahar A; Abdul Aziz N; Anuar MS; Yusof YA; Taip FS

    2011-01-01

    Sin Tung Yeow, Asnawi Shahar, Norashikin Abdul Aziz, Mohd Shamsul Anuar, Yus Aniza Yusof, Farah Saleena TaipDepartment of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaPurpose: To investigate the effect of feed preparation characteristics and operational parameters on mixing homogeneity in a convective batch ribbon mixer.Methods: Lactose 100M, lactose 200M, ascorbic acid, and zinc oxide powders were used for the mixing study. Operational pa...

  19. Highly Toxic Ribbon Worm Cephalothrix simula Containing Tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Asakawa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX was 25,590 mouse units (MU per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-fluorescent detection (FLD (HPLC-FLD, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, infrared (IR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as “strongly toxic” (≥1000 MU/g. Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665–5300 MU/g (n = 10. These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat.

  20. Neurotrophin-3 regulates ribbon synapse density in the cochlea and induces synapse regeneration after acoustic trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Guoqiang; Gómez-Casati, Maria E; Gigliello, Angelica R.; Liberman, M. Charles; Corfas, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophin-3 (Ntf3) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) are critical for sensory neuron survival and establishment of neuronal projections to sensory epithelia in the embryonic inner ear, but their postnatal functions remain poorly understood. Using cell-specific inducible gene recombination in mice we found that, in the postnatal inner ear, Bbnf and Ntf3 are required for the formation and maintenance of hair cell ribbon synapses in the vestibular and cochlear epithelia, respective...

  1. Development Of An 80'-Diameter Ribbon Drogue Parachute For The NASA X-38 Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Vance L.; Wolf, Dean F.; Rutledge, Bruce A.; Hillebrandt, F. David

    2001-01-01

    The NASA X-38 program required a larger, more robust drogue parachute. A multi-organizational team from NASA, Sandia National Laboratories, United Space Alliance, and Pioneer Aerospace Corporation has developed and tested a new 80-ft.-dia., quarter-spherical, ribbon drogue parachute. The design requirements, design specifics, margin analyses, and results of testing are all discussed herein. Some of the weight advantages of switching from Kevlar to Zylon for radial, line and riser materials are presented.

  2. Vortex core timelines and ribbon summarizations: flow summarization over time and simulation ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alexis Y. L.; Lee, Joohwi; Taylor, Russell M.

    2013-01-01

    We present two new vortex-summarization techniques designed to portray vortex motion over an entire simulation and over an ensemble of simulations in a single image. Linear "vortex core timelines" with cone glyphs summarize flow over all time steps of a single simulation, with color varying to indicate time. Simplified "ribbon summarizations" with hue nominally encoding ensemble membership and saturation encoding time enable direct visual comparison of the distribution of vortices in time and space for a set of simulations.

  3. Behaviour of Internal Stress in Melt-Spun Ni-Mn-Ga Ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵韦人; 李健靓; 祁炎; 王新林

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the martensitic transition of melt-spun Ni-Mn-Ga ribbons, during which an abrupt release of internal stress occurs. The release results in the appearance of two peaks on the curve of field-induced strains versus temperature. During and after the transformation, a large lag of field-induced strains was observed, indicating a competition between the stress energy and Zeemann energy. The lag leads to an unusual relation of the strains to the inducing field.

  4. Magnetocaloric Properties Response in High-Speed Melt-Spun La-Ce-Fe-Si Ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xueling; Han, Ning; Xue, Yun; Lu, Qianqian; Wang, Xiaochen; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2016-10-01

    The structure and magnetocaloric properties of La-Ce-Fe-Si alloys have been studied. The samples were prepared by melt spinning, the surface speed of the Cu wheel being 55 m/s. The as-spun ribbons were subsequently annealed at 1273 K for different times (10 min-1 h) and then quenched to room temperature. When the annealing time was 20 min, on a 1.5-T applied magnetic field, the maximum magnetic entropy change (Δ S M) of the ribbons reached values of 33.8 J/kg K at the Curie temperature of T C ˜ 182 K. When the annealing time was longer than 20 min, the maximum magnetic entropy change (|Δ S M,Max|) tended to decrease while the T C remained almost unchanged. In the annealing process, La/Ce located at grain boundaries was easily oxidized on the ribbon surface. The presence of large grain sizes and La2O3 or LaO were shown to degrade the magnetocaloric properties. On the other hand, the substitution of Ce for La improved the magnetocaloric effect of La-Fe-Si compounds, which is of practical importance for magnetic refrigeration.

  5. The correlation between expansion speed and magnetic field in solar flare ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the correlation between the expansion speed of two-ribbon flares and the magnetic field measured in the ribbon location, and compare such correlation for two events with different magnetic configurations. These two events are: an M1.0 flare in the quiet sun on September 12, 2000 and an X2.3 flare in Active Region NOAA 9415 on April 10, 2001. The magnetic configuration of the M1.0 flare is simple, while that of X2.3 event is complex. We have derived a power-law correlation between the ribbon expansion speed (V r) and the longitudinal magnetic field (Bz) with an empirical relationship V r = A×Bz-δ, where A is a constant and δ is the index of the power-law correlation. We have found that δ for the M1.0 flare in the simple magnetic configuration is larger than that for the X2.3 flare in the complex magnetic configuration.

  6. Plasma immersion ion implantation of boron for ribbon silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derbouz K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report for the first time on the solar cell fabrication on n-type silicon RST (for Ribbon on Sacrificial Template using plasma immersion ion implantation. The experiments were also carried out on FZ silicon as a reference. Boron was implanted at energies from 10 to 15 kV and doses from 1015 to 1016 cm-2, then activated by a thermal annealing in a conventional furnace at 900 and 950 °C for 30 min. The n+ region acting as a back surface field was achieved by phosphorus spin-coating. The frontside boron emitter was passivated either by applying a 10 nm deposited SiOX plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD or with a 10 nm grown thermal oxide. The anti-reflection coating layer formed a 60 nm thick SiNX layer. We show that energies less than 15 kV and doses around 5 × 1015 cm-2 are appropriate to achieve open circuit voltage higher than 590 mV and efficiency around 16.7% on FZ-Si. The photovoltaic performances on ribbon silicon are so far limited by the bulk quality of the material and by the quality of the junction through the presence of silicon carbide precipitates at the surface. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that plasma immersion ion implantation is very promising for solar cell fabrication on ultrathin silicon wafers such as ribbons.

  7. Plasma immersion ion implantation of boron for ribbon silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbouz, K.; Michel, T.; De Moro, F.; Spiegel, Y.; Torregrosa, F.; Belouet, C.; Slaoui, A.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we report for the first time on the solar cell fabrication on n-type silicon RST (for Ribbon on Sacrificial Template) using plasma immersion ion implantation. The experiments were also carried out on FZ silicon as a reference. Boron was implanted at energies from 10 to 15 kV and doses from 1015 to 1016 cm-2, then activated by a thermal annealing in a conventional furnace at 900 and 950 °C for 30 min. The n+ region acting as a back surface field was achieved by phosphorus spin-coating. The frontside boron emitter was passivated either by applying a 10 nm deposited SiOX plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or with a 10 nm grown thermal oxide. The anti-reflection coating layer formed a 60 nm thick SiNX layer. We show that energies less than 15 kV and doses around 5 × 1015 cm-2 are appropriate to achieve open circuit voltage higher than 590 mV and efficiency around 16.7% on FZ-Si. The photovoltaic performances on ribbon silicon are so far limited by the bulk quality of the material and by the quality of the junction through the presence of silicon carbide precipitates at the surface. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that plasma immersion ion implantation is very promising for solar cell fabrication on ultrathin silicon wafers such as ribbons.

  8. Thermal conductance at millikelvin temperatures of woven ribbon cable with phosphor-bronze clad superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcraft, Adam L.; Ventura, Guglielmo; Martelli, Valentina; Holland, Wayne S.

    2010-08-01

    Woven Nomex® ribbon cables made up with superconducting niobium-titanium wire are used at millikelvin temperatures in many large cryogenic instruments. It is important to know how much heat in transmitted down such cables. However, the conductivity of the materials used is not well known. Another problem is that the wires are normally clad with alloys which exhibit some magnetism. This is a potential problem for instruments employing superconducting detectors. A safe non-magnetic alternative to the usual materials is phosphor-bronze clad niobium-titanium wiring. However, there is little experience with such wires. We have therefore measured the conductance of a ribbon cable made up with these wires. The measured values are in good agreement with our predictions, suggesting that the values we have used to model the cable are sufficiently accurate, and could therefore be used to predict the performance of ribbon cables using other cladding materials, so long as the conductivity of the cladding is reasonably well known. As part of our analysis, we consider the likely variation in thermal conductivity values for C51000 phosphor bronze caused by legitimate variations in composition.

  9. Orientational dynamics of colloidal ribbons self-assembled from microscopic magnetic ellipsoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Cebers, Andrejs; Tierno, Pietro

    2016-04-20

    We combine experiments and theory to investigate the orientational dynamics of dipolar ellipsoids, which self-assemble into elongated ribbon-like structures due to the presence of a permanent magnetic moment, perpendicular to the long axis in each particle. Monodisperse hematite ellipsoids are synthesized via the sol-gel technique and arrange into ribbons in the presence of static or time-dependent magnetic fields. We find that under an oscillating field, the ribbons reorient perpendicular to the field direction, in contrast with the behaviour observed under a static field. This observation is explained theoretically by treating a chain of interacting ellipsoids as a single particle with orientational and demagnetizing field energy. The model allows us to describe the orientational behaviour of the chain and captures well its dynamics at different strengths of the actuating field. The understanding of the complex dynamics and assembly of anisotropic magnetic colloids is a necessary step for controlling the structure formation, which has direct applications in different fluid-based microscale technologies. PMID:26936015

  10. Magnetocaloric Properties Response in High-Speed Melt-Spun La-Ce-Fe-Si Ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xueling; Han, Ning; Xue, Yun; Lu, Qianqian; Wang, Xiaochen; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2016-06-01

    The structure and magnetocaloric properties of La-Ce-Fe-Si alloys have been studied. The samples were prepared by melt spinning, the surface speed of the Cu wheel being 55 m/s. The as-spun ribbons were subsequently annealed at 1273 K for different times (10 min-1 h) and then quenched to room temperature. When the annealing time was 20 min, on a 1.5-T applied magnetic field, the maximum magnetic entropy change (ΔS M) of the ribbons reached values of 33.8 J/kg K at the Curie temperature of T C ˜ 182 K. When the annealing time was longer than 20 min, the maximum magnetic entropy change (|ΔS M,Max|) tended to decrease while the T C remained almost unchanged. In the annealing process, La/Ce located at grain boundaries was easily oxidized on the ribbon surface. The presence of large grain sizes and La2O3 or LaO were shown to degrade the magnetocaloric properties. On the other hand, the substitution of Ce for La improved the magnetocaloric effect of La-Fe-Si compounds, which is of practical importance for magnetic refrigeration.

  11. A Circular-ribbon Solar Flare Following an Asymmetric Filament Eruption

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Rui; Lee, Jeongwoo; Pariat, Etienne; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Liu, Yang; Kleint, Lucia; Wang, Haimin

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic properties of flare ribbons and the often associated filament eruptions can provide crucial information on the flaring coronal magnetic field. This Letter analyzes the GOES-class X1.0 flare on 2014 March 29 (SOL2014-03-29T17:48), in which we found an asymmetric eruption of a sigmoidal filament and an ensuing circular flare ribbon. Initially both EUV images and a preflare nonlinear force-free field model show that the filament is embedded in magnetic fields with a fan-spine-like structure. In the first phase, which is defined by a weak but still increasing X-ray emission, the western portion of the sigmoidal filament arches upward and then remains quasi-static for about five minutes. The western fan-like and the outer spine-like fields display an ascending motion, and several associated ribbons begin to brighten. Also found is a bright EUV flow that streams down along the eastern fan-like field. In the second phase that includes the main peak of hard X-ray (HXR) emission, the filament erupts, leavi...

  12. Comparisons of the Interstellar Magnetic Field Directions obtained from the IBEX Ribbon and Interstellar Polarizations

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Priscilla C; Berdyugin, Andrei; Funsten, Herbert O; Magalhaes, Mario; McComas, David J; Piirola, Vilppu; Schwadron, Nathan A; Slavin, Jonathan D; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J

    2010-01-01

    Variations in the spatial configuration of the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) near the Sun can be constrained by comparing the ISMF direction at the heliosphere found from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer spacecraft (IBEX) observations of a 'Ribbon' of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), with the ISMF direction derived from optical polarization data for stars within ~40 pc. Using interstellar polarization observations towards ~30 nearby stars within 90 deg of the heliosphere nose, we find that the best fits to the polarization position angles are obtained for a magnetic pole directed towards ecliptic coordinates of lambda, beta 263 deg, 37 deg (or galactic coordinates of L,B 38 deg, 23deg), with uncertainties of +/- 35 deg, based on the broad minimum of the best fits and the range of data quality. This magnetic pole is 33 deg from the magnetic pole that is defined by the center of the arc of the ENA Ribbon. The IBEX ENA ribbon is seen in sightlines that are perpendicular to the ISMF as it drapes over the he...

  13. The correlation between expansion speed and magnetic field in solar flare ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE WenBin; WANG HaiMin; JING Ju; BAO XingMing; ZHANG HongQi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the correlation between the expansion speed of two-ribbon flares and the mag-netic field measured in the ribbon location, and compare such correlation for two events with different magnetic configurations. These two events are: an M1.0 flare in the quiet sun on September 12, 2000 and an X2.3 flare in Active Region NOAA 9415 on April 10, 2001. The magnetic configuration of the M1.0 flare is simple, while that of X2.3 event is complex. We have derived a power-law correlation between the ribbon expansion speed (V_r) and the longitudinal magnetic field (B_z) with an empirical relationship V_r=A×B_(z~(-δ)), where A is a constant and δ is the index of the power-law correlation. We have found that δ for the M1.0 flare in the simple magnetic configuration is larger than that for the X2.3 flare in the complex magnetic configuration.

  14. Mechanism of High-Frequency Signaling at a Depressing Ribbon Synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Chad P; Ratliff, Charles P; Light, Adam C; DeVries, Steven H

    2016-07-01

    Ribbon synapses mediate continuous release in neurons that have graded voltage responses. While mammalian retinas can signal visual flicker at 80-100 Hz, the time constant, τ, for the refilling of a depleted vesicle release pool at cone photoreceptor ribbons is 0.7-1.1 s. Due to this prolonged depression, the mechanism for encoding high temporal frequencies is unclear. To determine the mechanism of high-frequency signaling, we focused on an "Off" cone bipolar cell type in the ground squirrel, the cb2, whose transient postsynaptic responses recovered following presynaptic depletion with a τ of ∼0.1 s, or 7- to 10-fold faster than the τ for presynaptic pool refilling. The difference in recovery time course is caused by AMPA receptor saturation, where partial refilling of the presynaptic pool is sufficient for a full postsynaptic response. By limiting the dynamic range of the synapse, receptor saturation counteracts ribbon depression to produce rapid recovery and facilitate high-frequency signaling. PMID:27292536

  15. Influence of fabrication conditions on giant magnetocaloric effect of Ni–Mn–Sn ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetocaloric effect of Ni50Mn50−xSnx ribbons (x = 11–15) prepared by using melt-spinning and subsequent annealing has been investigated. The x-ray diffraction data of specimens show that all the samples are partially crystallized with Ni2MnSn phase. The magnetic transitions of these ribbons strongly depend on Sn-concentration and annealing process. Particularly, the antiferromagnetic–ferromagnetic transition is just observed at a narrow range of the Sn-concentration (x = 12–14). The positive magnetic entropy changes occurring at the transition temperature of the antiferromagnetic phase are quite large, |ΔSm|max = 5.7 J kg−1 K−1 (for x = 13) with external magnetic field change ΔH = 12 kOe. Besides that, the negative magnetic entropy changes take place near Curie temperature and their magnitude is also large, |ΔSm|max = 1.9 J kg−1 K−1 (for x = 13). The obtained results indicate that Ni50Mn50−xSnx ribbons are good candidates for magnetic refrigeration application at room temperature. (paper)

  16. Mixing behaviour of cohesive and non-cohesive particle mixtures in a ribbon mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musha, H.; Dong, K.; Chandratilleke, G. R.; Bridgwater, J.; Yu, A. B.

    2013-06-01

    Ribbon mixers are used in a wide range of applications involving pharmaceuticals, ceramics and cosmetics, to name a few. Here, the discrete element method is used to investigate the effect of impeller speed on the mixing behaviours of cohesive as well as non-cohesive particle mixtures in a ribbon mixer, which has a horizontal cylindrical vessel. The mixing behaviours are characterized by particle-scale and macroscopic mixing indexes. Simulations show that the mixing rate increases with the impeller speed for both the cohesive and non-cohesive mixtures up to a certain speed, beyond which it showed a reduction. There is a possibility that the mixture quality becomes poorer at higher impeller speeds for the non-cohesive particles, but it was not the case with the cohesive particles. Inspection of velocity fields shows that many local recirculation regions exist in the case of non-cohesive particle mixing, preventing the overall mixing. By contrast, in the case of the cohesive mixture, there exists a circumferential motion about the shaft and a convective motion in the horizontal axial direction, improving the particle mixing. Force analyses are also carried out, which show that the particle contact forces increase with the impeller speed for non-cohesive particles, but in the case of cohesive particles, they increase initially with the impeller speed, and then show a reduction after a certain speed. The results will be useful in selecting operation conditions of a ribbon mixer.

  17. Hard X-ray and UV Observations of the 2005 January 15 Two-ribbon Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, J X; Qiu, J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present comprehensive analysis of a two-ribbon flare observed in UV 1600{\\AA} by Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and in HXRs by Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. HXR (25-100 keV) imaging observations show two kernels of size (FWHM) 15?? moving along the two UV ribbons. We find the following results. (1) UV brightening is substantially enhanced wherever and whenever the compact HXR kernel is passing, and during the HXR transit across a certain region, the UV count light curve in that region is temporally correlated with the HXR total flux light curve. After the passage of the HXR kernel, the UV light curve exhibits smooth monotonical decay. (2)We measure the apparent motion speed of the HXR sources and UV ribbon fronts, and decompose the motion into parallel and perpendicular motions with respect to the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL). It is found that HXR kernels and UV fronts exhibit similar apparent motion patterns and speeds. The parallel motion dominates...

  18. Laser directed lithography of asymmetric graphene ribbons on a polydimethylsiloxane trench structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Ren, Tian-Ling; Shu, Yi; Sun, Hui; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Liu, Xuan; Tao, Lu-Qi; Ge, Jie; Zhang, Cang-Hai; Zhang, Yuegang

    2013-05-14

    Recently, manipulating heat transport by asymmetric graphene ribbons has received significant attention, in which phonons in the carbon lattice are used to carry energy. In addition to heat control, asymmetric graphene ribbons might also have broad applications in renewable energy engineering, such as thermoelectric energy harvesting. Here, we transfer a single sheet of graphene over a 5 μm trench of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structure. By using a laser (1.77 mW, 1 μm diameter spot size, 517 nm wavelength) focusing on one side of the suspended graphene, a triangular shaped graphene ribbon is obtained. As the graphene has a negative thermal expansion coefficient, local laser heating could make the affected graphene area shrink and eventually break. Theoretical calculation shows that the 1.77 mW laser could create a local hot spot as high as 1462.5 °C, which could induce an asymmetric shape structure. We also find the temperature coefficient (-13.06 cm(-1) mW) of suspended graphene on PDMS trench substrate is ten times higher than that reported on SiO2/Si trench substrate. Collectively, our results raise the exciting prospect that the realization of graphene with asymmetric shape on thermally insulating substrate is technologically feasible, which may open up important applications in thermal circuits and thermal management.

  19. Atlas-based rib-bone detection in chest X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candemir, Sema; Jaeger, Stefan; Antani, Sameer; Bagci, Ulas; Folio, Les R; Xu, Ziyue; Thoma, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates using rib-bone atlases for automatic detection of rib-bones in chest X-rays (CXRs). We built a system that takes patient X-ray and model atlases as input and automatically computes the posterior rib borders with high accuracy and efficiency. In addition to conventional atlas, we propose two alternative atlases: (i) automatically computed rib bone models using Computed Tomography (CT) scans, and (ii) dual energy CXRs. We test the proposed approach with each model on 25 CXRs from the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) dataset and another 25 CXRs from the National Library of Medicine CXR dataset. We achieve an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of about 95% for Montgomery and 91% for JSRT datasets. Using the optimal operating point of the ROC curve, we achieve a segmentation accuracy of 88.91±1.8% for Montgomery and 85.48±3.3% for JSRT datasets. Our method produces comparable results with the state-of-the-art algorithms. The performance of our method is also excellent on challenging X-rays as it successfully addressed the rib-shape variance between patients and number of visible rib-bones due to patient respiration.

  20. Aeroelastic modelling of a Piezo-solar tensioned energy harvesting ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Punnag; Bryant, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    A multifunctional compliant structure is proposed that can harvest electrical power from both incident sunlight and ambient mechanical energy including wind flow or vibration. The proposed energy harvesting device consists of a slender, ribbon-like, flexible thin film solar cell that is laminated with piezoelectric patches at either ends and mounted in the cross flow of wind in a clamped-clamped end condition with an adjustable axial preload. Taking this motivation forward a system model of the energy harvester is developed which captures the structural response of the solar ribbon and couples it with Theodorsen unsteady aerodynamics to predict the flutter boundary conditions as a function of applied axial preload tension. The model also accounts for geometric and material discontinuities, by effective use of Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) modeling technique both in bending and torsional degrees of freedom. This paper also derives TMM technique for torsional vibrations with an applied axial load from first principles, verifies the method and presents its applicability for the proposed energy harvester. The paper also points out that the flutter instability arises out of different structural modes at different values applied axial tension, with the help of a sample modal convergence plot. The analysis also presents the possibility to tune the solar ribbon to operate at an optimal reduced frequency by adjusting the applied axial preload.

  1. Why Do Proteins Glow Blue?

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Sohini; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band structure of proteins with the optical band-gap in the visible region is possibly the origin of this phenomenon. We show here that the band structure of proteins is primarily the result of electron delocalization through the peptide chain, rather than through the hydrogen bond network in secondary structure.

  2. The blue-collar brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  3. No psychological effect of color context in a low level vision task

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Pedley; Wade, Alex R

    2013-01-01

    Background: A remarkable series of recent papers have shown that colour can influence performance in cognitive tasks. In particular, they suggest that viewing a participant number printed in red ink or other red ancillary stimulus elements improves performance in tasks requiring local processing and impedes performance in tasks requiring global processing whilst the reverse is true for the colour blue. The tasks in these experiments require high level cognitive processing such as analogy solv...

  4. Martensitic Transformation and Magnetic-Field-Induced Strain in Magnetic Shape Memory Alloy NiMnGa Melt-Spun Ribbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihai GUO; Yanghuan ZHANG; Jianliang LI; Baiyun QUAN; Yan QI; Xinlin WANG

    2005-01-01

    A magnetic shape memory alloy with nonstoichiometric Ni5oMn27Ga23 was prepared by using melt-spinning technology. The martensitic transformation and the magnetic-field-induced strain (MFIS) of the polycrystalline melt-spun ribbon were investigated. The experimental results showed that the melt-spun ribbons underwent thermal-elastic martensitic transformation and reverse transformation in cooling and heating process and exhibited typical thermoelastic shape memory effect. However the start temperature for martensitic transformation decreased from 286 K for as-cast alloy to 254 K for as-quenched ribbon and Curie temperature remains approximately constant. A particular internal stress induced by melt-spinning resulted in the formation of a texture structure in the ribbons, which made the ribbons obtain larger martensitic transformation strain and MFIS. The internal stress was released substantially after annealing, which resulted in a decrease of MFIS of the ribbons.

  5. Magnetoimpedance studies on laser and microwave annealed Fe{sub 66}Ni{sub 7}si{sub 7}B{sub 20} ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotagiri, Ganesh [Advanced Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Ramarao, S.D. [Microwave Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Markandeyulu, G., E-mail: mark@iitm.ac.in [Advanced Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Magnetoimpedance (MI) has been investigated in the laser and microwave annealed Fe{sub 66}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 7}B{sub 20} ribbons. The largest MI [(MI){sub m}] values of the ribbons annealed using laser with energies of 150, 200 and 250 mJ/pulse (mJp) are 25% (at 7 MHz), 30% (at 5 MHz) and 21% (at 7 MHz) respectively. The effect of domain wall pinning on MI was observed as field insensitive regions in the MI profiles in the ribbon annealed using 150 mJp energy. Flower shaped grains in amorphous matrix in the ribbon annealed with 200 mJp energy are responsible for highest (MI){sub m} due to the least anisotropy. In the ribbons annealed for 40, 45 and 50 min at 400 °C using microwaves, (MI){sub m} values are 35% (at 5 MHz), 46% (at 6 MHz) and 29% (at 7 MHz) respectively. The large DC conductivity and the least anisotropy (smallest H{sub k} values) in the ribbon microwave annealed for 45 min at 400 °C resulted in (MI){sub m} reaching its highest value in the ribbons investigated. - Highlights: • Magnetoimpedance studied on Fe{sub 66}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 7}B{sub 20} ribbons annealed using laser/microwaves. • Domain wall pinning observed in the ribbon annealed with 150 mJ/pulse of laser. • Flower shaped grains observed in the ribbon annealed with 200 mJ/pulse of laser. • Large magnetoimpedance and least anisotropy observed in the above ribbon. • Microwave annealed ribbons exhibited conductivity-magnetoimpedance correlation.

  6. The Blue Revolution in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid; Jespersen, Karen Sau;

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  7. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...

  8. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  9. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increa

  10. Recalling academic tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  11. Flavour production of Stilton blue cheese microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    In the blue cheese Stilton the starter mould Penicillium roqueforti grows and sporulates during the ripening period and is considered to be responsible for the unique blue cheese aroma. However, the sporulation of the mould, which results in the formation of blue veins, takes place in a fraction of the Stilton matrix which overall is very heterogeneous. Most blue cheeses develop a secondary microflora of yeasts which may affect their aroma. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast f...

  12. Interaction of the surface of ribbons of amorphous soft-magnetic alloys with vapor during isothermal holding upon heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulkina, N. A.; Ivanov, O. A.; Pavlova, I. O.; Minina, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of in-air heat treatment in combination with water vapor on the magnetization distribution and magnetic properties has been investigated based on the example of ribbons of amorphous soft-magnetic alloys Fe77Ni1Si9B13 and Fe81B13Si4C2 with positive magnetostriction. The results of the investigation showed the temperature lag of the dependence of the maximum magnetic permeability and of relative volume of domains with orthogonal magnetization on the isothermal-holding temperature. This effect can be associated with the inhibition of processes of surface crystallization by hydrogen and oxygen atoms introduced into the ribbon surface. Distinctive features of the heat treatment with and without vapor on the magnetization distribution in the ribbon plane that are explained within the theory of directed ordering with allowance for the processes of crystallization at the cooling stage have been found. This demonstrates the importance of the contribution of diffusion processes at this stage of treatment to the formation of the level of magnetic properties. It has been shown that the interaction of the ribbon surface with water vapor is not physical adsorption. Interaction with atmospheric gases is carried out by dispersion forces and exerts an influence on the magnetization distribution in the ribbon plane and maximum magnetic permeability.

  13. Combined effects of vertical and lateral confinement on the magnetic properties of MnAs micro and nano-ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steren, L. B.; Tortarolo, M.; Fernandez Baldis, F.; Sirena, M.; Sacchi, M.; Etgens, V. H.; Eddrief, M.; Santos, B.; Mentes, T. O.; Locatelli, A.

    2016-09-01

    The micromagnetic domain structure of MnAs films gave place to an intense research activity in the last few years due to its potential application in magneto-electronic devices such as domain-wall track memories and logic circuits. These applications require a full knowledge of miniaturization effects on the magnetic properties of the material. In this work, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy has been used for imaging magnetic domains in lithographically fabricated MnAs ribbons, addressing the dependence of the domain configuration on film thickness and ribbon width. Our experiments show a transition from head-on to regular stripe domains below a critical width/thickness ratio wc ≈ 6. Micromagnetic simulations suggest that this transition is correlated to the magnetic structure of the surface plane. Depending on the ribbon width and thickness, the magnetic configuration is shown to evolve from flux-closure domain structure to a state of almost homogeneous magnetization, observed for narrower ribbons. The evolution of the domain structure, magnetic fraction, and magnetization with temperature has been studied across the ferromagnetic/paramagnetic transition. Our experiments show that the magnetic configuration in ribbons exhibits higher stability to temperature variations than in as-cast films.

  14. Food habits of blue grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R.E.

    1944-01-01

    The food habits of Blue Grouse vary from a simple winter diet that is made up predominantly of coniferous needles to a complex diet during the summer months, characterized by great variety of foods including green leaves, fruits and seeds, flowers, animal matter and coniferous needles. The spring and fall, which represent the transition periods between these two, are characterized by feeding habits that are generally intermediate. The diets of the two species of Blue Grouse, Dendrugapus obscurus and Dendragapus juliginosus, are quite similar as far as major types of food are concerned, but they differ considerably in the species that are taken. Such differences reflect differences in the vegetation within the ecologic and geographic ranges occupied by the two species.

  15. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.

    1988-01-01

    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  16. The Physics of the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  17. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  18. Effect of increasing length on the electronic transport of an armchair graphene nano-ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Aghamiri Esfahani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we have investigated the effect of increasing length on the electronic transport of an armchair graphene nano-ribbons with nitrogen atom impurity and without impurity. The semi-infinite, one-dimensional molecular systems are connected to two electrodes and the electron-electron interaction is ignored. The system is described by a simple tight binding model. All calculations are based on the Green's function and Landauer–Buttiker approach, and the electrodes are described in a wide band approximation.

  19. Ribbon structure stabilized by C10 and C12 turns in αγ hybrid peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Naiem Ahmad; Kant, Rajni; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Aravinda, Subrayashastry; Rai, Rajkishor

    2016-04-01

    The present study describes the synthesis and crystallographic analysis of αγ hybrid peptides, Boc-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (1), Boc-Aib-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (2), and Boc-L-Pro-Aib-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (3). Peptides 1 and 2 adopt expanded 12-membered (C12 ) helical turn over γα segment. Peptide 3 promotes the ribbon structure stabilized by type II β-turn (C10 ) followed by the expanded C12 helical γα turn. Both right-handed and left-handed helical conformations for Aib residue are observed in peptides 2 and 3, respectively.

  20. Magnetic response of FeNbCuBSi RQ ribbons to bi-axial strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline strip samples of the FeNbCuBSi class that are macroscopically heterogeneous due to surface /volume differences have been investigated. This heterogeneity is found to be a general property of the class. It represents a base for mutual force influence between the surface and the majority volume beneath. The bi-axial in-plane stress exerted by the ribbon surfaces on the volume is demonstrated first of all by a magnetoelastic anisotropy. The contribution of the creep-induced anisotropy, which can build up under the surface stress at post-treatment temperature, is also found possible

  1. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer studies of Fe-Si based amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamohammadzadeh, H

    1998-04-01

    {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy has been used to study the mean magnetic moment direction and the distribution of moment directions in ribbon and thin film of amorphous ferromagnets known as Metglass and Finemet. We have studied them in As Received (AR) and Stress Relieved (SR) or Heat Treated (HT) states. These samples are excellent 'soft magnetic materials' with low coercivity of 8 A/m and 0.5 A/m respectively. Annealing has different effects on these samples. Although following annealing coercivity decreases for both Metglass and Finemet samples, in the Finemet it creates a second phase of DO{sub 3} structure which is a nanocrystallite. Our analysis also shows that in the Heat Treated Finemet ribbon 34 % (vol.) of the sample is amorphous and 64 % (vol.) nanocrystalline. In the HT Finemet there are seven different iron sites of which 6 sites belong to the crystalline phase and one site to the amorphous phase. We have studied the distribution of the hyperfine fields, which cause broadening of the spectral lines in the amorphous state. Each iron site has a different environment which is in turn the reason for the field distribution.Our results show that following annealing the mean magnetic field decreases from about 211 kOe in the AR Finemet to 165 kOe in the amorphous phase of the heat treated Finemet which means in this phase there is a depletion in the iron atoms. The spectra were recorded for a range of inclinations between the {gamma}-rays and the normal to the sample plane. Different phenomenological models have been used to investigate the moment direction distribution (anisotropy) in our sample. The results show that in both Metglass and Finemet samples annealing decreases the in-plane anisotropy substantially but not the out-of-plane anisotropy. We also show that the properties of Metglass thin film are quite different from its ribbon sample. Low temperature studies of the Metglass Ribbon sample allow us to investigate the temperature

  2. 57Fe Moessbauer studies of Fe-Si based amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    57Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy has been used to study the mean magnetic moment direction and the distribution of moment directions in ribbon and thin film of amorphous ferromagnets known as Metglass and Finemet. We have studied them in As Received (AR) and Stress Relieved (SR) or Heat Treated (HT) states. These samples are excellent 'soft magnetic materials' with low coercivity of 8 A/m and 0.5 A/m respectively. Annealing has different effects on these samples. Although following annealing coercivity decreases for both Metglass and Finemet samples, in the Finemet it creates a second phase of DO3 structure which is a nanocrystallite. Our analysis also shows that in the Heat Treated Finemet ribbon 34 % (vol.) of the sample is amorphous and 64 % (vol.) nanocrystalline. In the HT Finemet there are seven different iron sites of which 6 sites belong to the crystalline phase and one site to the amorphous phase. We have studied the distribution of the hyperfine fields, which cause broadening of the spectral lines in the amorphous state. Each iron site has a different environment which is in turn the reason for the field distribution. Our results show that following annealing the mean magnetic field decreases from about 211 kOe in the AR Finemet to 165 kOe in the amorphous phase of the heat treated Finemet which means in this phase there is a depletion in the iron atoms. The spectra were recorded for a range of inclinations between the γ-rays and the normal to the sample plane. Different phenomenological models have been used to investigate the moment direction distribution (anisotropy) in our sample. The results show that in both Metglass and Finemet samples annealing decreases the in-plane anisotropy substantially but not the out-of-plane anisotropy. We also show that the properties of Metglass thin film are quite different from its ribbon sample. Low temperature studies of the Metglass Ribbon sample allow us to investigate the temperature dependence of the moment

  3. Magnetocaloric effect in ribbon samples of Heusler alloys Ni-Mn-M (M=In,Sn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, A. M.; Batdalov, A. B.; Kamilov, I. K.; Koledov, V. V.; Shavrov, V. G.; Buchelnikov, V. D.; García, J.; Prida, V. M.; Hernando, B.

    2010-11-01

    Direct measurements of the magnetocaloric effect in samples of rapidly quenched ribbons of Mn50Ni40In10 and Ni50Mn37Sn13 Heusler alloys with potential applications in magnetic refrigeration technology are carried out. The measurements were made by a precise method based on the measurement of the oscillation amplitude of the temperature in the sample while is subjected to a modulated magnetic field. In the studied compositions both direct and inverse magnetocaloric effects associated with magnetic (paramagnet-ferromagnet-antiferromagnet) and structural (austenite-martensite) phase transitions are found. Additional inverse magnetocaloric effects of small value are observed around the ferromagnetic transitions.

  4. Studying the conductance and transport in low-dimensional graphene nano ribbon under ballistic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Surender; Sarkar, Niladri

    2016-05-01

    NEGF procedure has been discussed in detail to study the conductance in Graphene Nano-Ribbons (GNR). The discretization procedure for the GNRs and CNTs for zig-zag configurations has been discussed in detail. We have explained this with a block diagram where each block represents a block diagonal matrix. We have used tight-binding procedure to obtain the block diagonal matrices for GNRs. We have applied a recursive method to obtain the Green's function for GNR based channels. Also a self consistent procedure is shown here which can be used to calculate the I-V characteristic of a GNR based Nano-scale devices.

  5. Corrosion-Resistant Amorphous Alloy Ribbons for Electromagnetic Filtration of Iron Rusts from Water

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Asahi; Asami, Katsuhiko; Sato, Takeaki; Hashimoto, Koji

    1985-01-01

    An attempt was made to use corrosion-resistant amorphous Fe-9Cr-13P-7C alloy ribbons as an electromagnetic filter material for trapping various iron rusts suspended in water at 40℃. The ferrimagnetic Fe_3O_4 rust was trapped with the 100% efficiency and paramagnetic rusts such as α-Fe_2O_3, α-FeOOH and amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide were trapped with certain efficiencies at the magnetic field strength of 0.5-10 kOe. The regeneration of the filter by back-washing was easy. The trapping capacity...

  6. Launching Complex Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  7. Effects of quenching speed and Joule heating on the magnetic properties of Nd9Fe86B5 ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Kang; HU Jifan; WANG Dongling; QIN Hongwei; SUN Guangfei; CHEN Jufang; YU Xiaojun; LI Bo

    2005-01-01

    The influences of quenching speed and current annealing on the magnetic properties of Nd9Fe86B5 ribbons were investigated. There is an optimum quenching speed (v ≈ 15 m/s) for preparing hard magnetic ribbons, where the remanence of 1.22 T, the intrinsic coercivity of 521 kA.m1 and the energy products of 150 kJ.m-3 are obtained. After annealing ribbons prepared with v = 20 m/s at a dc current of 0.85 A, the remanence reaches a quite large value of 1.47 T, which attributes to the strong exchange coupling interactions between the fine grains of Nd2Fe14B and α-Fe.

  8. GMI field sensitivity near a zero external field in Co-based amorphous alloy ribbons: experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in Co66Fe4Ni1Si15B14 amorphous ribbons was investigated, and the obvious blunt peaks of GMI curves were observed in a weak external magnetic field (0∼3 Oe). The shape of the blunt peaks could be changed by different treatments, such as changing the aspect ratio of the ribbons, premagnetization before magnetoimpedance measurement, and rapid heat-treatment, and the GMI sensitivity is improved. Based on the experimental results, a model in view of magnetostrictive energy is proposed to analyze the bluntness of the peak of the GMI curve and the process of transverse permeability varying with the external field near zero-field in the Co-based amorphous ribbons, and all the experimental results have good agreement with our model. (paper)

  9. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  10. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives

  11. 络筒机智能防叠装置的研究%Sudy on intelligent ribboning breaker of a winder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元昌; 薛卫; 肖荣

    2002-01-01

    现有的络筒机防叠装置不管有无重叠发生都按预设的周期作防叠动作,所以有多余的动作,又不能完全消除重叠.针对这一问题,笔者开发了智能防叠装置.这一装置在发生重叠时做防叠动作,否则络简机保持满速度运转.文中导出了纱圈重叠的条件,设计了微机的软件与硬件系统.%The ribboning breaker in a winder available does the anti-ribboning motion according to the preset-up period whatever ribboing or not. So there are motions to be unnecessary, moreover, it cannot eliminate the ribboning completely. Intelligent ribboning breaker does an anti-ribboning motion when produced ribboning, otherwise the winder keeps running fully. In this paper, the yarn loops ribboning conditions are deduced. Each spindle is controlled by a single-chip microcomputer to determine whether the yarn loop or not according to the ribboning conditions every yarn traverse to and fro, and to control the motor driving the grooved drum to change its rotational speed. The hardware and software design are written.

  12. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  13. Measurement of magnetostriction and induced magnetic anisotropy by SAMR method in Co-rich stress + field annealed amorphous ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J. M.; González, J.; Vázquez, M.; Barandiarán, J. M.; Hernando, A.

    1991-10-01

    The saturation magnetostriction (λ s) and induced magnetic anisotropy ( Kind) in (Co 0.95Fe 0.05) 80Si 10B 10 annealed amorphous alloy ribbons have been measured at room temperature with the SAMR (small-angle magnetization rotation) method. The ribbons were annealed under simulataneous action of a stress and/or magnetic field. The variations of λ s and Kind show parallel trends in the cases of stress and stress+field annealings but not for single field annealing. These variations are connected with microstructural changes originated during the treatments.

  14. Herringbone array of hydrogen-bonded ribbons in 2-ethoxybenzamide from high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagola, Silvina; Stephens, Peter W

    2009-11-01

    In 2-ethoxybenzamide, C(9)H(11)NO(2), the amide substituents are linked into centrosymmetric head-to-head hydrogen-bonded dimers. Additional hydrogen bonds between adjacent dimers give rise to ribbon-like packing motifs, which extend along the c axis and possess a third dimension caused by twisting of the 2-ethoxyphenyl substituent with respect to the hydrogen-bonded amide groups. The ribbons are arranged in a T-shaped herringbone pattern and cohesion between them is achieved by van der Waals forces. PMID:19893241

  15. Herringbone Array of Hydrogen-bonded Ribbons in 2-ethoxybenzamide from High-resolution X-ray Powder Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagola, S.; Stephens, P

    2009-01-01

    In 2-ethoxybenzamide, C{sub 9}H{sub 11}NO{sub 2}, the amide substituents are linked into centrosymmetric head-to-head hydrogen-bonded dimers. Additional hydrogen bonds between adjacent dimers give rise to ribbon-like packing motifs, which extend along the c axis and possess a third dimension caused by twisting of the 2-ethoxyphenyl substituent with respect to the hydrogen-bonded amide groups. The ribbons are arranged in a T-shaped herringbone pattern and cohesion between them is achieved by van der Waals forces.

  16. Evolution of flare ribbons, electric currents, and quasi-separatrix layers during an X-class flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, M.; Savcheva, A.; Pariat, E.; Tassev, S.; Millholland, S.; Bommier, V.; McCauley, P.; McKillop, S.; Dougan, F.

    2016-07-01

    Context. The standard model for eruptive flares has been extended to three dimensions (3D) in the past few years. This model predicts typical J-shaped photospheric footprints of the coronal current layer, forming at similar locations as the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). Such a morphology is also found for flare ribbons observed in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) band, and in nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) magnetic field extrapolations and models. Aims: We study the evolution of the photospheric traces of the current density and flare ribbons, both obtained with the Solar Dynamics Observatory instruments. We aim to compare their morphology and their time evolution, before and during the flare, with the topological features found in a NLFFF model. Methods: We investigated the photospheric current evolution during the 06 September 2011 X-class flare (SOL2011-09-06T22:20) occurring in NOAA AR 11283 from observational data of the magnetic field obtained with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We compared this evolution with that of the flare ribbons observed in the EUV filters of the Atmospheric Imager Assembly. We also compared the observed electric current density and the flare ribbon morphology with that of the QSLs computed from the flux rope insertion method-NLFFF model. Results: The NLFFF model shows the presence of a fan-spine configuration of overlying field lines, due to the presence of a parasitic polarity, embedding an elongated flux rope that appears in the observations as two parts of a filament. The QSL signatures of the fan configuration appear as a circular flare ribbon that encircles the J-shaped ribbons related to the filament ejection. The QSLs, evolved via a magnetofrictional method, also show similar morphology and evolution as both the current ribbons and the EUV flare ribbons obtained several times during the flare. Conclusions: For the first time, we propose a combined analysis of the photospheric

  17. Investigation of the heat exchange processes during growth of basal-plane-faceted sapphire ribbons by the Stepanov method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional model is proposed for the global heat exchange during growth of basal-plane-faceted sapphire ribbons. The model is based on the method for solving three-dimensional problems of radiative heat transfer in complex regions with diffusely and specularly reflecting boundaries. The temperature distributions in the ribbon and elements of the thermal zone are investigated. It is shown that the developed model correctly reflects the main features of the processes of heat exchange in the crystallization setup and makes it possible to purposefully modify the thermal zone.

  18. The Homotopic Probability Distribution and the Partition Function for the Entangled System Around a Ribbon Segment Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Shang-Wu; GU Zhi-Yu

    2001-01-01

    Using the Feynman's path integral with topological constraints arising from the presence of one singular line, we find the homotopic probability distribution PnL for the winding number n and the partition function PL of the entangled system around a ribbon segment chain. We find that when the width of the ribbon segment chain 2a increases,the partition function exponentially decreases, whereas the free energy increases an amount, which is proportional to the square of the width. When the width tends to zero we obtain the same results as those of a single chain with one singular point.

  19. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld;

    2014-01-01

    the light source as far from the bottom edge as possible. The main results of the project show opportunities for energy savings in an office environment by reducing the installed power for the general lighting by applying a task light with a wide light distribution across the desk area , providing high...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...... and the strategy also allows for the task area to be redefined in the space . The task lighting follows the task area as the developed task light is designed to be placed on the desktop of an office desk. The work carried out within this project is the architectural design of the task light, the optical design...

  20. Evidence of microstructures and fluid inclusions for the origin of polycrystalline quartz ribbons in high-grade metamorphic rocks in Daqingshan resion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ZhengHong; XU ZhongYuan; WANG KeYong

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline quartz ribbons in high-grade metamorphic rocks from the Daqingshan region, are typical microfabrics of, and provide information for, deep crust deformation and metamorphism. The quartz ribbons have straight boundaries and extend stably along gneissosity. They truncate other mineral grains in the rocks and may contain inclusions of such minerals that are lens-shaped and oriented. They frequently end into branching termination. Analysis fluid inclusions in polycrystalline quartz ribbons reveal that the complex types of fluid inclusions are inhomogeneously distributed. They are obviously different from inclusions captured at granulite facies, in both fluid compositions and T-P estimations. Based on microfabric and fluid inclusion analysis, the polycrystalline quartz ribbons are suggested to be formed by SO2-rich fluids filling micro-fractures that are parallel to early gneissosity. The SO2 composition is derived from the deformed host rocks. The fluid phase has significant effects on the rheological characteristics, fracturing of rocks, and formation of quartz ribbons.

  1. Martensitic transformation and magnetic-field-induced strain in magnetic shape memory alloy NiMnGa melt-spun ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Shihai; Zhang Yanghuan; Quan Baiyun; Li Jianliang; Wang Xinlin [Dept. of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    2005-07-01

    A non-stoichiometric polycrystalline Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 27}Ga{sub 23} magnetic shape memory alloy was prepared by melt-spinning technology. The effects of melt-spinning on the martensitic transformation and magnetic-field-induced strain (MFIS) of the melt-spun ribbon were investigated. The experimental results show that the melt-spun ribbon undergoes the thermal-elastic martensitic transformation and exhibits the thermo-elastic shape memory effect. But the martensitic transformation temperature decreases and Curie temperature remains unchanged. A particular internal stress induced by melt-spinning made a texture structure in the melt-spun ribbon, which made the melt-spun ribbon obtain larger transition-induced strain and MFIS. The internal stress was released under cycling of magnetic field. This resulted in a decrease of MFIS of the melt-spun ribbon. (orig.)

  2. Nanoporous copper oxide ribbon assembly of free-standing nanoneedles as biosensors for glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaodong; Sun, Yuexia; Chen, Anran; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Yang, Zhimao

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by a sequential hydrolysis-precipitation mechanism, morphology-controllable hierarchical cupric oxide (CuO) nanostructures are facilely fabricated by a green water/ethanol solution-phase transformation of Cu(x)(OH)(2x-2)(SO4) precursors in the absence of any organic capping agents and without annealing treatment in air. Antlerite Cu3(OH)4(SO4) precursors formed in a low volume ratio between water and ethanol can transform into a two-dimensional (2D) hierarchical nanoporous CuO ribbon assembly of free-standing nanoneedle building blocks and hierarchical nanoneedle-aggregated CuO flowers. Brochantite Cu4(OH)6(SO4) precursors formed in a high volume ratio between water and ethanol can transform into hierarchical nanoplate-aggregated CuO nanoribbons and nanoflowers. Such 2D hierarchical nanoporous CuO ribbons serving as a promising electrode material for nonenzymatic glucose detection show high sensitivity, a low detection limit, fast amperometric response and good selectivity. Significantly, this green water-induced precursor-hydrolysis method might be used to control effectively the growth of other metal oxide micro-/nanostructures. PMID:26057132

  3. Microstructural study of the crystallization of amorphous Fe–Sn–B ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maťko, Igor, E-mail: igor.matko@savba.sk [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Illeková, Emília; Peter Švec Sr; Švec, Peter; Janičkovič, Dušan [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Vodárek, Vlastimil [VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Department of Materials Engineering, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Amorphous Fe{sub 78}Sn{sub 5}B{sub 17} ribbons were prepared by planar flow casting. • Crystallization was studied by thermal analysis, XRD and TEM. • The crystallization begins by formation of specific nanocrystalline Fe(Sn) phase. • Role of Sn in formation of the nanocrystalline phase is discussed. • Next step of the crystallization corresponding to complex process is also analysed. - Abstract: Amorphous Fe{sub 78}Sn{sub 5}B{sub 17} ribbons were prepared by planar flow casting. The thermodynamic stability and the kinetics of observed phase transformations were monitored by thermal analysis. The structure and morphology of phases forming upon the thermally activated crystallization is studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The crystallization begins by nucleation-and-growth of specific nanocrystalline bcc-Fe(Sn) phase, its structure is explored more in details and the role of Sn in its formation is discussed. In the next step of the crystallization a transformation of remaining amorphous matrix to iron borides runs via rather complex process, which is inspected more in details as well.

  4. Magnetization Dynamics of Amorphous Ribbons and Wires Studied by Inductance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Betancourt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Inductance spectroscopy is a particular formulation variant of the well known complex impedance formalism typically used for the electric characterization of dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric materials. It has been successfully exploited as a versatile tool for characterization of the magnetization dynamics in amorphous ribbons and wires by means of simple experiments involving coils for sample holding and impedance analyzer equipment. This technique affords the resolution of the magnetization processes in soft magnetic materials, in terms of reversible deformation of pinned domain walls, domain wall displacements and spin rotation, for which characteristic parameters such as the alloy initial permeability and the relaxation frequencies, indicating the dispersion of each process, can be defined. Additionally, these parameters can be correlated with chemical composition variation, size effects and induced anisotropies, leading to a more physical insight for the understanding of the frequency dependent magnetic response of amorphous alloys, which is of prime interest for the development of novel applications in the field of telecommunication and sensing technologies. In this work, a brief overview, together with recent progress on the magnetization dynamics of amorphous ribbons, wires, microwires and biphase wires, is presented and discussed for the intermediate frequency interval between 10 Hz and 13 MHz.

  5. Assessment of energetic neutral He atom intensities expected from the IBEX Ribbon

    CERN Document Server

    Swaczyna, P; Bzowski, M

    2014-01-01

    Full sky maps of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) obtained with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer revealed a bright, arc-like Ribbon. We compare possible, thought as yet undetected, He ENA emission in two models of the Ribbon origin. The models were originally developed for hydrogen ENA. In the first one, ENA are produced outside the heliopause from the ionized neutral solar wind in the direction where the local interstellar magnetic field is perpendicular to the line-of-sight. The second model proposes production at the interface between the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC) and the Local Bubble (LB). The models are redesigned to helium using relevant interactions between atoms and ions. Resulting intensities are compared with possible emission of helium ENA from the heliosheath. In the first model, expected intensity is ~ 0.014 (cm^2 s sr keV)^-1, i.e., of the order of the He emission from the heliosheath, whereas in the second, the LIC/LB interface model, the intensity is ~ (2 - 7) (cm^2 s sr keV)^-1, i.e., a f...

  6. Local Interstellar Magnetic Field Determined from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Funsten, H. O.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2016-02-01

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  7. Electric current in flares ribbons: from the standard model in 3D to observations

    CERN Document Server

    Janvier, Miho; Bommier, V; Schmieder, B; Démoulin, P; Pariat, E

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents for the first time a quantification of the photospheric electric current ribbon evolutions during an eruptive flare, accurately predicted by the standard 3D flare model. The standard flare model in 3D has been developed with the MHD code OHM, which models the evolution of an unstable flux rope. Through a series of paper, the model has been successful in explaining observational characteristics of eruptive flares, as well as the intrinsic 3D reconnection mechanism. Such a model also explains the increase of the photospheric currents as a consequence of the evolution of the coronal current layer where reconnection takes place. The photospheric footprints of the 3D current layer reveal a ribbon shape structure. In the present paper, the evolution of the current density is analyzed for the X-class flare that occurred on 15/02/2011 in AR 11158. We first describe the structural evolution of the high vertical current density regions derived with the UNNOFIT inversion code from magnetograms (HMI, e...

  8. Energy-storage Welding Connection Characteristics of Rapid Solidification AZ91D Mg Alloy Ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinfeng XU; Qiuya ZHAI; Sen YUAN

    2004-01-01

    Energy-storage welding connection characteristics of rapidly solidified AZ91D Mg alloy ribbons with 40~70 μm thickness are investigated using a microtype energy-storage welding machine. The microstructure and performance of the connection joints are analyzed and studied. The research results indicate that energy-storage welding is able to realize the spot welding connection of AZ9lD Mg alloy ribbons. The welding nugget consists of developed α-Mg equiaxed grains with the sizes of 1.2~2.7 μm and intergranular distributed β-Mg17Al12 compounds. The thickness of bond zone is about 4 μm and the solidification microstructure is characterized by the fine equiaxed grains with the sizes of 0.8~1.2μm, and grain boundary has become coarsening. The columnar crystal in HAZ also becomes slightly coarsening and the grain boundary has broadened,however, there is no obvious change in its primitive morphology and crystallographic direction. When welding energy is about 2.0 J, the welding joints with higher shear strength and smaller electrical resistivity are obtained.

  9. Two modes of release shape the postsynaptic response at the inner hair cell ribbon synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lisa; Yi, Eunyoung; Glowatzki, Elisabeth

    2010-03-24

    Cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) convert sounds into receptor potentials and via their ribbon synapses into firing rates in auditory nerve fibers. Multivesicular release at individual IHC ribbon synapses activates AMPA-mediated EPSCs with widely ranging amplitudes. The underlying mechanisms and specific role for multivesicular release in encoding sound are not well understood. Here we characterize the waveforms of individual EPSCs recorded from afferent boutons contacting IHCs and compare their characteristics in immature rats (postnatal days 8-11) and hearing rats (postnatal days 19-21). Two types of EPSC waveforms were found in every recording: monophasic EPSCs, with sharp rising phases and monoexponential decays, and multiphasic EPSCs, exhibiting inflections on rising and decaying phases. Multiphasic EPSCs exhibited slower rise times and smaller amplitudes than monophasic EPSCs. Both types of EPSCs had comparable charge transfers, suggesting that they were activated by the release of similar numbers of vesicles, which for multiphasic EPSCs occurred in a less coordinated manner. On average, a higher proportion of larger, monophasic EPSCs was found in hearing compared to immature rats. In addition, EPSCs became significantly faster with age. The developmental increase in size and speed could improve auditory signaling acuity. Multiphasic EPSCs persisted in hearing animals, in some fibers constituting half of the EPSCs. The proportion of monophasic versus multiphasic EPSCs varied widely across fibers, resulting in marked heterogeneity of amplitude distributions. We propose that the relative contribution of two modes of multivesicular release, generating monophasic and multiphasic EPSCs, may underlie fundamental characteristics of auditory nerve fibers.

  10. Transfer matrix modeling of a tensioned piezo-solar hybrid energy harvesting ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Punnag; Bryant, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a multifunctional compliant structure that can harvest electrical power from both incident sunlight and ambient mechanical energy including wind flow or vibration. The energy harvesting device consists of a slender, ribbon-like, flexible thin film solar cell that is laminated with piezoelectric patches. The harvester is mounted in longitudinal tension and subjected to a transverse wind flow to excite flow-induced aeroelastic vibrations. This paper formulates an analytic model of the bending dynamics of the device. We present a Transfer Matrix formulation that also accounts for the changes in natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system when subjected to axial loads in a beam. It also observed that mode shape obtained using TMM formulation shows numerical stability even for very high tensile loads providing results consistent with the geometric boundary conditions applied at the ends of a beam. This article also discusses about structurally modeling a piezo - solar energy harvester using TMM methodology, where a thin clampedclamped solar film is bonded with piezo patches having a much higher bending stiffness. Additionally, the effect of axial tension on the mode shape of the thin host structure of the piezo-solar ribbon is presented and it is shown how this tension can be used advantageously to affect the strain distribution of the entire structure and introduce higher strains at the piezo patches.

  11. Graphene nano-ribbon with nano-breaks as efficient thermoelectric device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sharafat; Al-Dirini, Feras; Jiang, Liming; Hossain, Faruque M.; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2015-12-01

    It has been well established that delta-like transport distribution of electron gives the best thermoelectric performance. On another front, it has been experimentally verified that graphene nano-ribbon with nano-break in the channel region exhibits tunnelling. Here, we utilize the tunnelling phenomena observed in graphene break junctions to achieve delta like transport distribution. Indeed our device exhibit record ZT ranging from 10 to 100. This high ZT can be attributed to complete blockage of phonon transport due to the break. The electrical conductance also goes very low, however, near the tunnelling energy it becomes significant, giving rise to an enhanced ZT value. In this report we investigate the effect edge orientation and the width of the ribbon on thermoelectric property. Moreover, we investigate the effect of temperature on tunnelling and how it affect thermoelectric performance. We find that there is an optimal temperature at which the device performs best. In the simulations, we assumed ballistic transport and used first principle approach to obtain the electrical properties. The phononic system was characterized by a Tersoff empirical potential model. The proposed device structure has potential applications as a two-dimensional nanoscale local cooler and as a thermoelectric power generator when connected in arrays.

  12. Study of Critical Behavior in Amorphous Fe85Sn5Zr10 Alloy Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L. A.; Hua, X. H.; Zhu, H. Z.; Yang, J.; Yang, H. P.; Yan, Z. X.; Zhang, T.

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the critical behavior in amorphous Fe85Sn5Zr10 alloy ribbon prepared using a single-roller melt-spinning method. This alloy shows a second-order magnetic transition from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic (FM) state at the Curie temperature T C (˜306 K). To obtain more information on the features of the magnetic transition, a detailed critical exponent study was carried out using isothermal magnetization M (H, T) data in the vicinity of the T C. Modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher plot, Widom's scaling relation and critical isotherm analysis techniques were used to investigate the critical behavior of this alloy system around its phase transition point. The values of critical exponents determined using the above methods are self-consistent. The estimated critical exponents are fairly close to the theoretical prediction of the three-dimensional (3D) Heisenberg model, implying that short-range FM interactions dominate the critical behavior in amorphous Fe85Sn5Zr10 alloy ribbon.

  13. Imaging Observations of Quasi-Periodic Pulsatory Non-Thermal Emission in Ribbon Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Zimovets, I V

    2008-01-01

    Using RHESSI and some auxiliary observations we examine possible connections between spatial and temporal morphology of the sources of non-thermal hard X-ray (HXR) emission which revealed minute quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) during the two-ribbon flares on 2003 May 29 and 2005 January 19. Microwave emission also reveals the same quasi-periodicity. The sources of non-thermal HXR emission are situated mainly inside the footpoints of the flare arcade loops observed by the TRACE and SOHO instruments. At least one of the sources moves systematically both during the QPP-phase and after it in each flare that allows to examine the sources velocities and the energy release rate via the process of magnetic reconnection. The sources move predominantly parallel to the magnetic inversion line or the appropriate flare ribbon during the QPP-phase whereas the movement slightly changes to more perpendicular regime after the QPPs. Each QPP is emitted from its own position. It is also seen that the velocity and the energy re...

  14. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in Fe90- x Sn x Zr10 alloy ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, T. L.; Dan, N. H.; Thanh, T. D.; Mai, N. T.; Ho, T. A.; Yu, S. C.; Le, Anh-Tuan; Phan, M. H.

    2015-04-01

    This work points out the possibility of tuning the magnetocaloric (MC) effect in Fe90- x Sn x Zr10 alloy ribbons in the temperature range from 235 to 315 K by changing the Sn-doping content ( x). Under an applied field change from 0 to 50 kOe, the maximum magnetic-entropy changes around the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition are about 3.6, 4.1 and 3.3 J kg-1·K-1 for x = 0, 2 and 4, respectively, which correspond to relative cooling powers of 280 ˜ 410 J·kg-1. Studying the magnetic properties of the alloy ribbons based on Banerjee's criteria and assessing the magneticordering parameter n = dLn|Δ S m |/dLn H (where Δ S m and H are the magnetic-entropy change and the magnetic field, respectively) reveals that the alloys undergo a second-order phase transition and exhibit a short-range ferromagnetic order. The nature of these phenomena is further analyzed by means of the results obtained from the analyses of the crystal structure, the Curie-Weiss law, and the Griffith phase.

  15. Temporal evolution of multiple evaporating ribbon sources in a solar flare

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, D R

    2015-01-01

    We present new results from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph showing the dynamic evolution of chromospheric evaporation and condensation in a flare ribbon, with the highest temporal and spatial resolution to date. IRIS observed the entire impulsive phase of the X-class flare SOL2014-09-10T17:45 using a 9.4 second cadence `sit-and-stare' mode. As the ribbon brightened successively at new positions along the slit, a unique impulsive phase evolution was observed for many tens of individual pixels in both coronal and chromospheric lines. Each activation of a new footpoint displays the same initial coronal up-flows of up to ~300 km/s, and chromospheric downflows up to 40 km/s. Although the coronal flows can be delayed by over 1 minute with respect to those in the chromosphere, the temporal evolution of flows is strikingly similar between all pixels, and consistent with predictions from hydrodynamic flare models. Given the large sample of independent footpoints, we conclude that each flaring pixel can be c...

  16. Novel hydrated graphene ribbon unexpectedly promotes aged seed germination and root differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangang; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-01-21

    It is well known that graphene (G) induces nanotoxicity towards living organisms. Here, a novel and biocompatible hydrated graphene ribbon (HGR) unexpectedly promoted aged (two years) seed germination. HGR formed at the normal temperature and pressure (120 days hydration), presented 17.1% oxygen, 0.9% nitrogen groups, disorder-layer structure, with 0.38 nm thickness ribbon morphology. Interestingly, there were bulges around the edges of HGR. Compared to G and graphene oxide (GO), HGR increased seed germination by 15% root differentiation between 52 and 59% and enhanced resistance to oxidative stress. The metabonomics analysis discovered that HGR upregulated carbohydrate, amino acid, and fatty acids metabolism that determined secondary metabolism, nitrogen sequestration, cell membrane integrity, permeability, and oxidation resistance. Hexadecanoic acid as a biomarker promoted root differentiation and increased the germination rate. Our discovery is a novel HGR that promotes aged seed germination, illustrates metabolic specificity among graphene-based materials, and inspires innovative concepts in the regulation of seed development.

  17. TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF MULTIPLE EVAPORATING RIBBON SOURCES IN A SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, D. R.; Cauzzi, G., E-mail: dgraham@arcetri.astro.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-07-10

    We present new results from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) showing the dynamic evolution of chromospheric evaporation and condensation in a flare ribbon, with the highest temporal and spatial resolution to date. IRIS observed the entire impulsive phase of the X-class flare SOL2014-09-10T17:45 using a 9.4 s cadence “sit-and-stare” mode. As the ribbon brightened successively at new positions along the slit, a unique impulsive phase evolution was observed for many tens of individual pixels in both coronal and chromospheric lines. Each activation of a new footpoint displays the same initial coronal upflows of up to ∼300 km s{sup −1} and chromospheric downflows up to 40 km s{sup −1}. Although the coronal flows can be delayed by over 1 minute with respect to those in the chromosphere, the temporal evolution of flows is strikingly similar between all pixels and consistent with predictions from hydrodynamic flare models. Given the large sample of independent footpoints, we conclude that each flaring pixel can be considered a prototypical, “elementary” flare kernel.

  18. Various Shades of Blue's Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Janik, R A; Papp, G; Zahed, I; Janik, Romuald A.; Nowak, Maciej A.; Papp, Gabor; Zahed, Ismail

    1997-01-01

    We discuss random matrix models in terms of elementary operations on Blue's functions (functional inverse of Green's functions). We show that such operations embody the essence of a number of physical phenomena whether at/or away from the critical points. We illustrate these assertions by borrowing on a number of recent results in effective QCD in vacuum and matter. We provide simple physical arguments in favor of the universality of the continuum QCD spectral oscillations, whether at zero virtuality, in the bulk of the spectrum or at the chiral critical points. We also discuss effective quantum systems of disorder with strong or weak dissipation (Hatano-Nelson localization).

  19. Deep Blue Cannot Play Checkers: The Need for Generalized Intelligence for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy D. Kelley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized intelligence is much more difficult than originally anticipated when Artificial Intelligence (AI was first introduced in the early 1960s. Deep Blue, the chess playing supercomputer, was developed to defeat the top rated human chess player and successfully did so by defeating Gary Kasporov in 1997. However, Deep Blue only played chess; it did not play checkers, or any other games. Other examples of AI programs which learned and played games were successful at specific tasks, but generalizing the learned behavior to other domains was not attempted. So the question remains: Why is generalized intelligence so difficult? If complex tasks require a significant amount of development, time and task generalization is not easily accomplished, then a significant amount of effort is going to be required to develop an intelligent system. This approach will require a system of systems approach that uses many AI techniques: neural networks, fuzzy logic, and cognitive architectures.

  20. Anomalous magnetic configuration of Mn2NiAl ribbon and the role of hybridization in the martensitic transformation of Mn50Ni50-xAlx ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R. B.; Zhao, D. W.; Li, G. K.; Ma, L.; Zhen, C. M.; Hou, D. L.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, E. K.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic configuration of Mn2NiAl ribbon has been investigated. In contrast to Ni2MnAl, the compound Mn2NiAl with considerable disorder does exhibit ferromagnetism and, due to exchange interaction competition, both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic moment orientations can coexist between nearest neighbor Mn atoms. This is unexpected in Heusler alloys. Regarding the mechanism of the martensitic transformation in Mn50Ni50-xAlx, it is found that increasing the Al content results in an unusual change in the lattice constant, a decrease of the transformation entropy change, and enhancement of the calculated electron localization. These results indicate that the p-d covalent hybridization between Mn (or Ni) and Al atoms gradually increases at the expense of the d-d hybridization between Ni and Mn atoms. This leads to an increased stability of the austenite phase and a decrease of the martensitic transformation temperature. For 11 ≤ x ≤ 14, Mn50Ni50-xAlx ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are obtained.

  1. Blue-sheet instability of Schwarzschild wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Schwarzschild wormhole geometry is found to be unstable against the gravitational effects of accumulated, blue-shifted matter and radiation, or ''blue sheets'', accreting along the past horizons. This is shown by constructing a simple model of a wormhole geometry featuring such blue sheets and manifesting their effects. In this model the blue sheets are treated as null delta-function surface layers, and we derive here general conditions for matching spacetime geometries across such null hypersurfaces of discontinuity. These junction conditions are then applied to the construction of the wormhole model. The wormhole evolution depicted in this model shows that the gravitational focussing produced by the blue-sheet mass-energy eventually encloses the blue sheets and past horizons within future horizons, leaving a black-hole geometry. These effects limit emission processes from the region of a wormhole's past singularity into the external universe, and severely restrict the possible role of wormholes in cosmological contexts. (author)

  2. African Music: Source of the Blues

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Konrad Sidney

    2010-01-01

    [Abstract] African music is the primary source for the blues. Scholars have supplied ample evidence to support this assertion. However, the African retentions still present in the blues are not immediately apparent. African music and the blues share many similarities, including the predominance of rhythm, the uses of music as social commentary and critique, types of instruments, and musical structure. Slaves brought their culture with them to the New World when they were forcibly taken from t...

  3. Transport Task Force Leadership, Task 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport

  4. Development of Ribbon Fiber Type Multi-Channel Power Level Monitor with Low-Insertion/Polarization Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maki Inai; Akira Haraguchi; Takeo Komiya; Kiyotaka Murashima; Takashi Sasaki; Kazuhito Saitoh

    2003-01-01

    We would like to propose a new in-line multi-channel power level monitor, which is applicable as tap-monitor for multi-channel WDM signals. Its ribbon fiber structure has far exceeded PLC performance and realized compact-size and lower insertion/polarization dependent loss.

  5. Microstructural study of nanocrystalline Fe-(Cu-Nb)-Si-B ribbons obtained by a nitriding thermochemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization process of amorphous Fe74Si14B12, Fe73.5Cu1Si13.5B12, Fe74Nb3Si14B9 and Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 ribbons was investigated by annealing the ribbons under vacuum at 520 deg. C for 6 h. Only Nb containing samples show a nanocrystalline state consisting of α-Fe(Si) nanograins embedded in a remaining amorphous phase. The amorphous ribbons were then submitted to a nitriding thermochemical treatment at 520 deg. C for 6 and 18 h under ammonia. It is observed that crystallization occurs prior to nitrogenation. Upon nitrogenation, a reactive diffusion process of nitrogen is observed, which appears to be slower in the partially crystallized ribbons, due to the presence of a remaining amorphous phase. In the crystalline regions, the α-Fe(Si) phase is disproportionated into α-Fe and probably Si-N precipitates. Then Fe4N is formed when nitrogenation proceeds further

  6. Interaction of the surfaces of ribbons of amorphous magnetically soft alloys with vapor at various stages of heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulkina, N. A.; Ivanov, O. A.; Pavlova, I. O.; Minina, O. A.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of heat treatment in air atmosphere combined with water vapor on the distribution of magnetization and on magnetic characteristics has been studied based on the example of a rapidly quenched amorphous magnetically soft Fe77Ni1Si9B13 alloy, which possesses a positive saturation magnetostriction. The interaction of the surface of a ribbon made of the alloy with vapor was implemented at various stages of heat treatment, such as heating, cooling, and isothermal holding. The results of the study have confirmed an important contribution of the stresses induced by hydrogen and oxygen atoms, which are incorporated into the surface of the ribbon, to the formation of the magnetic characteristics of the alloy. The heat treatment of the surface of the ribbon with vapor at various stages together with varying rate of cooling substantially enhance the maximum magnetic permeability at an optimum duration of isothermal holding. This is primarily due to a decrease in the relative volume of orthogonal-magnetization domains because of an additional rise in predominantly plane tensile stresses induced by hydrogen and oxygen atoms which are incorporated into the surface of the ribbon.

  7. The magnetohydrodynamic development of two-ribbon flares or a five-finger theory for solar flares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A semi-analytical model for the electrodynamic development of two-ribbon flares is presented. A current filament above a bipolar active region starts rising according to the model of Van Tend and Kuperus. Due to this motion large induced electric fields arise at a magnetic neutral line far below the

  8. 77 FR 47363 - Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... wholly-owned subsidiary Lion Ribbon Company, Inc. (collectively, ``Petitioners''), in accordance with 19... 71104, 71104-05 (December 20, 1999) (where the respondent was wholly foreign-owned and, thus, qualified... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Bar from India, 70 FR 54023,...

  9. 75 FR 41808 - Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ...: Berwick Offray LLC and its wholly owned subsidiary Lion Ribbon Company, Inc. (``Petitioner''); Yama; and... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 67306, 67307... and Postponement of Final Determination, 75 FR 7244 (February 18, 2010) (``Preliminary...

  10. Evolution of Flare Ribbons, Electric Currents and Quasi-separatrix Layers During an X-class Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Janvier, M; Pariat, E; Tassev, S; Millholland, S; Bommier, V; McCauley, P; McKillop, S; Dougan, F

    2016-01-01

    The standard model for eruptive flares has in the past few years been extended to 3D. It predicts typical J-shaped photospheric footprints of the coronal current layer, forming at similar locations as the Quasi-Separatrix Layers (QSLs). Such a morphology is also found for flare ribbons observed in the EUV band, as well as in non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) magnetic field extrapolations and models. We study the evolution of the photospheric traces of the current density and flare ribbons, both obtained with the SDO instruments. We investigate the photospheric current evolution during the 6 September 2011 X-class flare (SOL2011-09-06T22:20) from observational data of the magnetic field obtained with HMI. This evolution is compared with that of the flare ribbons observed in the EUV filters of the AIA. We also compare the observed electric current density and the flare ribbon morphology with that of the QSLs computed from the flux rope insertion method/NLFFF model. The NLFFF model shows the presence of a fan-...

  11. A Brief Analysis of Communication Tasks in Task- based Teaehing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaoying

    2011-01-01

    Task -Based Language Teaching (TBLT) aims at proving opportunities for the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities. This passage further exam if the following four communicative tasks jigsaw tasks, role - play tasks, problem solving tasks, and information gap tasks can assist classroom learning.

  12. Variable blue straggler stars in NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine variable blue stragglers have been found in the globular cluster NGC 5466. The six dwarf Cepheids in this cluster coexist in the instability strip with other nonvariable stars. The three eclipsing binaries are among the hottest of the blue stragglers. The hypothesis is discussed that all blue stragglers in this cluster have undergone mass transfer in close binaries. Under this hypothesis, rotation and spin-down play important roles in controlling the evolution of blue stragglers in old clusters and in affecting some of their observational properties. 14 refs

  13. Microstructure, biocorrosion and cytotoxicity evaluations of rapid solidified Mg-3Ca alloy ribbons as a biodegradable material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X N; Zhou, W R; Zheng, Y F [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, X L [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Cheng, Y, E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.c [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Rapidly solidified (RS) Mg-3Ca alloy ribbons were prepared by the melt-spinning technique at different wheel rotating speeds (15 m s{sup -1}, 30 m s{sup -1} and 45 m s{sup -1}) with the as-cast Mg-3Ca alloy ingot as a raw material. The RS45 Mg-3Ca alloy ribbon showed a much more fine grain size feature (approximately 200-500 nm) in comparison to the coarse grain size (50-100 {mu}m) of the original as-cast Mg-3Ca alloy ingot. The corrosion electrochemical tests in simulated body fluid indicated that the corrosion rate of the as-cast Mg-3Ca alloy was strongly reduced by the RS procedure and tended to be further decreased with increasing wheel rotating speeds (1.43 mm yr{sup -1} for RS15, 0.94 mm yr{sup -1} for RS30 and 0.36 mm yr{sup -1} for RS45). The RS Mg-3Ca alloy ribbons showed more uniform corrosion morphology compared with the as-cast Mg-3Ca alloy after polarization. The cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that the three experimental as-spun Mg-3Ca alloy ribbon extracts did not induce toxicity to the L-929 cells, whereas the as-cast Mg-3Ca alloy ingot extract did. The L-929 cells showed more improved adhesion on the surfaces of the three as-spun Mg-3Ca alloy ribbons than that of the as-cast Mg-3Ca alloy ingot.

  14. Microstructure, biocorrosion and cytotoxicity evaluations of rapid solidified Mg-3Ca alloy ribbons as a biodegradable material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Li, X L; Zhou, W R; Cheng, Y; Zheng, Y F

    2010-06-01

    Rapidly solidified (RS) Mg–3Ca alloy ribbons were prepared by the melt-spinning technique at different wheel rotating speeds (15 m s(-1), 30 m s(-1) and 45 m s(-1) with the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot as a raw material. The RS45 Mg–3Ca alloy ribbon showed a much more fine grain size feature (approximately 200–500 nm) in comparison to the coarse grain size (50–100 μm)of the original as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot. The corrosion electrochemical tests in simulated body fluid indicated that the corrosion rate of the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy was strongly reduced by the RS procedure and tended to be further decreased with increasing wheel rotating speeds(1.43 mm yr(-1) for RS15, 0.94 mm yr(-1) for RS30 and 0.36 mm yr(-1) for RS45). The RS Mg–3Ca alloy ribbons showed more uniform corrosion morphology compared with the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy after polarization. The cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that the three experimental as-spun Mg–3Ca alloy ribbon extracts did not induce toxicity to the L-929 cells,whereas the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot extract did. The L-929 cells showed more improved adhesion on the surfaces of the three as-spun Mg–3Ca alloy ribbons than that of the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot.

  15. A STUDY OF THE COMPLICATIONS OF RIBBON GAUZE IMPREGNATED WITH SOFRAMYCIN NASAL PACKING AND MEROCEL PACKING IN POST SEPTOPLASTY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroop Dev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the complications of Ribbon Gauze Impregnated with soframycin nasal packing and Merocel Packing in Post Septoplasty patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A randomized trial was conducted in the department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Sur gery of Sri Siddhartha Medical College, Tumkur, Karnataka from July 2011 - September 2014. In our study 100 patients who underwent septoplasty were divided into two groups. Group A and Group B consisting of 50 patients each. The Patients were alternately ass igned into the two groups. In patients of Group A Merocel packing (size 8cm impregnated with soframycin ointement was done. In patients of Group B Ribbon Gauze Impregnated with Soframycin packing was done. Cottle’s maxillary - premaxillary septoplasty appr oach was employed in all the 100 patients under local anaesthesia. The complications of nasal packing like Bleeding during pack in situ, Bleeding during pack removal, Pain score during pack in - situ, Pain score during pack removal, Septal Hematoma, nasal sy nechia and Septal perforation were compared between the two groups. Both the groups were followed up for 8 weeks. RESULTS: In our study group A patients show statistically significant less pain score while pack was in situ and during pack removal compared with group B patients. Bleeding during pack removal and development of synechia in group A patients were statistically les s compared to group B patients. None of the patients developed septal hematoma and septal perforation in both the groups. CONCLUSION: The use of Merocel nasal packing in post septoplasty patients have better compliance with respect to pain compared with co nventional ribbon gauze. Although bleeding is well controlled with both Merocel and Ribbon gauze when the pack is in situ, Merocel cause less bleeding during pack removal and less nasal synechia compared to conventional ribbon gauze.

  16. Quantitative analysis of the ribbon synapse number of cochlear inner hair cells in C57BL/6J mice using the three-dimensional modeling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Li, ShuNa; Jiang, XueJun

    2009-09-01

    In mammals, the ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells are a synaptic structure of the first sensory nerve in the pathway of acoustical signal transmission to the acoustic center, and it is directly involved in voice coding and neurotransmitter release. It is difficult to quantitatively analyze the ribbon synaptic number only using an electron microscope, because the ribbon synaptic number is relatively limited and their location is deep. In this study, the specific presynaptic structure-RIBEYE, and non-specific postsynaptic structure-GluR 2 & 3 in C57BL/6J mouse basilar membrane samples were treated by immunofluorescent labeling. Serial section was performed on the samples using a laser scanning confocal microscope, and then the serial sections were used to build three-dimensional models using 3DS MAX software. Each fluorescein color pair indicates one synapse, so the number of ribbon synapses of inner hair cells is obtained. The spatial distribution and the number of ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells were clearly shown in this experiment, and the mean number of ribbon synapses per inner hair cell was 16.10+/-1.03. Our results have demonstrated the number of ribbon synapses is accurately calculated by double immunofluorescent labeling to presynaptic and postsynaptic structures, serial sections obtained using a laser scanning confocal microscope, and three-dimensional modeling obtained using 3DS MAX software. The method above is feasible and has important significance for further exploring the mechanism of sensorineural deafness. PMID:19802738

  17. Role of aluminium addition on structure of Fe substituted Fe73.5−Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1Al alloy ribbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Agarwal; Himanshu Agrawal; M Srinivas; B Majumdar; N K Mukhopadhyay

    2013-08-01

    The investigation has dealt with the structure and magnetic properties of rapidly solidified and annealed Fe73.5−Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1Al ( = 0, 2, 4, 6 at%) ribbons prepared by melt spinning. Complete amorphous structure was obtained in as-spun ribbons of = 0 and 2 at% compositions, whereas structure of ribbons containing higher Al was found to be partially crystalline. Detailed thermal analyses of the alloys and the melt spun ribbons revealed that the glass forming ability in the form of x/l (ratio between crystallization and liquidus temperature) is the highest for 2 at% Al alloys and decreases with further addition of Al. Annealing of all as spun ribbons resulted in the precipitation of nanocrystalline phase embedded in amorphous matrix in the form of either 3 phase or -Fe(Si/Al) solid solution depending on the initial composition of the alloy. Only -Fe(Si/Al) solid solution was formed in 2 at% Al ribbons whereas ordered DO3 structure was found to be stabilized in other ribbons including 0 at% Al. A detailed study on determination of precision lattice parameter of nanocrystalline phase revealed that the lattice parameter increases with the addition of Al indicating the partitioning behaviour of Al in nanocrystalline phase.

  18. Quantitative analysis of the ribbon synapse number of cochlear inner hair cells in C57BL/6J mice using the three-dimensional modeling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ke; LI ShuNa; JIANG XueJun

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, the ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells are a synaptic structure of the first sensory nerve in the pathway of acoustical signal transmission to the acoustic center, and it is directly involved in voice coding and neurotransmitter release. It is difficult to quantitatively analyze the ribbon synaptic number only using an electron microscope, because the ribbon synaptic number is relatively limited and their location is deep. In this study, the specific presynaptic structure-RIBEYE, and non-specific postsynaptic structure-GluR 2 & 3 in C57BL/6J mouse basilar membrane samples were treated by immunofluorescent labeling. Serial section was performed on the samples using a laser scanning confocal microscope, and then the serial sections were used to build three-dimensional models using 3DS MAX software. Each fluorescein color pair indicates one synapse, so the number of ribbon synapses of inner hair cells is obtained. The spatial distribution and the number of ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells were clearly shown in this experiment, and the mean number of ribbon synapses per inner hair cell was 16.10±1.03. Our results have demonstrated the number of ribbon synapses is accurately calculated by double immunofluorescent labeling to presynaptic and postsynaptic structures, serial sections obtained using a laser scanning confocal microscope, and three-dimensional modeling obtained using 3DS MAX software. The method above is feasible and has important significance for further exploring the mechanism of sensorineural deafness.

  19. Early diagenetic deformation structures of the Furongian ribbon rocks in Shandong Province of China——A new perspective of the genesis of limestone conglomerates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Ribbon rocks are characterized by an alternation of millimeter-to centimeter-thick limestone and argillaceous deposits (marlstone or shale).The sedimentary processes and diagenetic characteristics of ribbon rocks might be critical to the formation of limestone conglomerates.According to detailed field measurement and laboratory analyses (thin section observation and XRD analysis),four types of ribbon rocks are classified,i.e.,limestone and marlstone couplet (L-M),limestone and shale couplet (L-S),thin-bedded lime mudstone (Ltb),and laminated limestone and marlstone couplet (Cl).These ribbon rocks were mostly deposited in low-energy subtidal environments (below fair-weather wave base).Ribbon rocks exhibit various subtle deformation structures such as intrastratal cracks and "boudin" structures.Differential cementation of carbonate and argillaceous layers during early diagenesis is a prerequisite condition for the deformation of ribbon rock under compaction.Ribbon rocks would be deformed into limestone conglomerates under differential compaction that might be triggered by external forces such as storm and earthquake.

  20. What Task Designers Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Describes a research project that is concerned with the design procedures followed by those engaged in designing pedagogic tasks for use in classrooms. Focuses on the part of the project that involves actual observation of designers in the process of developing one specific task for class use. Findings are presented under three headers: control…

  1. Scheduling PVM Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠九滨; 王勇; 等

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a PVM task scheduler designed and implemented by the authors.The scheduler supports selecting idle workstations,scheduling pool tasks and dynamically produced subtasks.It can improve resource utilization,reduce job response time and simplify programming.

  2. Ribbon structure stabilized by C10 and C12 turns in αγ hybrid peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Naiem Ahmad; Kant, Rajni; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Aravinda, Subrayashastry; Rai, Rajkishor

    2016-04-01

    The present study describes the synthesis and crystallographic analysis of αγ hybrid peptides, Boc-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (1), Boc-Aib-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (2), and Boc-L-Pro-Aib-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (3). Peptides 1 and 2 adopt expanded 12-membered (C12 ) helical turn over γα segment. Peptide 3 promotes the ribbon structure stabilized by type II β-turn (C10 ) followed by the expanded C12 helical γα turn. Both right-handed and left-handed helical conformations for Aib residue are observed in peptides 2 and 3, respectively Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27028205

  3. Distribution of tetrodotoxin in the ribbon worm Lineus alborostratus (Takakura, 1898) (nemertea): Immunoelectron and immunofluorescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarlamov, Timur Yu; Shokur, Olga A; Chernyshev, Alexey V

    2016-03-15

    Transmission electron and confocal laser scanning (CLSM) microscopies with monoclonal anti-tetrodotoxin antibodies were used to locate tetrodotoxin (TTX) in tissues and gland cells of the ribbon worm Lineus alborostratus. CLSM studies have shown that the toxin is primarily localized in the cutis (special subepidermal layer) of the body wall and in the glandular epithelium of the proboscis. Immunoelectron micrographs have shown that only subepidermal bacillary gland cells type I in cutis and pseudocnidae-containing and mucoid gland cells manifested TTX-gold labeling. TTX was associated with the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and secretory granules of TTX-positive gland cells. These studies indicate that ТТХ is brought into the cytoplasm of the glandular cells of the cutis and proboscis epithelium, where it is associated with membrane-enclosed organelles involved in protein secretion and then concentrated in glandular granules. PMID:26821373

  4. Reverse rectification and negative differential resistance effects in doped armchair graphene ribbons device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peipei; Zheng, Yapeng; Bian, Baoan; Liao, Bin

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, we perform first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function to study the electronic transport properties of the 10-armchair graphene ribbons devices doped by boron and phosphorus atoms. Two kinds of device show a strong inverse rectification and negative differential resistance (NDR) effect. The effect of doping position on rectifying phenomenon are analyzed by calculating the transmission spectra and the energy band structures of the related electrodes as well as the projected density of states for two devices at different bias. And the observed NDR effect is explained by the local density of states. The results indicate that the asymmetric doping of the impurity atom contributes to the electron transport of the device, being used to design a molecular rectifier with good performance.

  5. A bizarre Jurassic maniraptoran from China with elongate ribbon-like feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fucheng; Zhou, Zhonghe; Xu, Xing; Wang, Xiaolin; Sullivan, Corwin

    2008-10-23

    Recent coelurosaurian discoveries have greatly enriched our knowledge of the transition from dinosaurs to birds, but all reported taxa close to this transition are from relatively well known coelurosaurian groups. Here we report a new basal avialan, Epidexipteryx hui gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle to Late Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. This new species is characterized by an unexpected combination of characters seen in several different theropod groups, particularly the Oviraptorosauria. Phylogenetic analysis shows it to be the sister taxon to Epidendrosaurus, forming a new clade at the base of Avialae. Epidexipteryx also possesses two pairs of elongate ribbon-like tail feathers, and its limbs lack contour feathers for flight. This finding shows that a member of the avialan lineage experimented with integumentary ornamentation as early as the Middle to Late Jurassic, and provides further evidence relating to this aspect of the transition from non-avian theropods to birds.

  6. Macroscopic heterogeneity effects in FeNiNbCuBSi ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Ni substitution on the magnetic response to macroscopic heterogeneity has been investigated on (FeNi)73.5Nb3Cu1B9Si13.5 ribbons. 10, 20 and 30 at% of Ni was alloyed to the detriment of Fe. No significant change was observed as to the bias to build heterogeneity in a non-protective annealing ambience. Instead, the favorable insensitivity of magnetic properties to the heterogeneity, as known for the standard Finemet, gets lost with Ni substitution and serious magnetic hardening takes place for higher Ni percentage. These changes are mainly due to the changed intrinsic properties of the Ni-substituted alloys, as high magnetostriction and the occurrence of a Ni-containing phase, if the alloy is nanocrystallized

  7. Standard test method for abrasiveness of ink-impregnated fabric printer ribbons and other web materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the abrasiveness of ink-impregnated fabric printer ribbons and other web materials by means of a sliding wear test. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Competition between spin-orbit interaction and exchange coupling within a honeycomb lattice ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Son-Hsien; Hu, C. D.; Chang, Ching-Ray

    2016-01-01

    Spin density patterns of a pinned magnetic impurity that is embedded in a honeycomb lattice with zigzag edges are investigated by employing a mean-field assisted Landauer-Keldysh formalism. Both the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and the extrinsic localized magnetic moments are considered, and the effects of the pinning directions and the species of the sublattice on the electron spins are analyzed. A local time-reversal symmetry breaking cannot destroy the equilibrium edge-state spin accumulation that is induced by intrinsic spin-orbit coupling when the pinning field lies in the plane of the ribbon and the embedding position is the A-site at the edge. The induced local spin can be either parallel or antiparallel to the localized impurity moment, depending on the location of the pinned impurity, because itinerant electrons are found only at the B-site of the edge, but not at the A-site.

  9. A novel Tunneling Graphene Nano Ribbon Field Effect Transistor with dual material gate: Numerical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Seyed Saleh; Saghafi, Kamyar; Yousefi, Reza; Moravvej-farshi, Mohammad Kazem

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present Dual Material Gate Tunneling Graphene Nano-Ribbon Field Effect Transistors (DMG-T-GNRFET) mainly to suppress the am-bipolar current with assumption that sub-threshold swing which is one of the important characteristics of tunneling transistors must not be degraded. In the proposed structure, dual material gates with different work functions are used. Our investigations are based on numerical simulations which self-consistently solves the 2D Poisson based on an atomistic mode-space approach and Schrodinger equations, within the Non-Equilibrium Green's (NEGF). The proposed device shows lower off-current and on-off ratio becomes 5order of magnitude greater than the conventional device. Also two different short channel effects: Drain Induced Barrier Shortening (DIBS) and hot-electron effect are improved in the proposed device compare to the main structure.

  10. Magnetic, Thermal and Dynamical Evolution of AN M3.2 Two-Ribbon Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collados, Manuel; Kuckein, Christoph; Manso Sainz, Rafael; Asensio Ramos, Andres

    On 2013, 17th May, a two-ribbon M3.2 flare took place in the solar atmosphere on the active region AR 11748. The flare evolution was observed at the German VTT of the Observatorio del Teide using the instrument TIP-II, with spectropolarimetric measurements of the photosphere (Si I at 1082.7 nm) and the chromosphere (Helium triplet at 1083 nm). Simultaneous spectroscopic data of the chromospheric spectral line of Ca II at 854.2 nm and filtergrams at Halpha were also obtained. The flare evolution as observed from the ground can be compared with the changes observed by AIA@SDO at different ultraviolet wavelengths. The ground observations covered several hours, including the pre-flare, impulsive, gradual and post-flare phases. We present maps of the magnetic field, thermal and dynamical properties of the region during its evolution from pre- to post-flare phase.

  11. Stretchable Spin Valve with Stable Magnetic Field Sensitivity by Ribbon-Patterned Periodic Wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huihui; Zhan, Qingfeng; Liu, Yiwei; Liu, Luping; Yang, Huali; Zuo, Zhenghu; Shang, Tian; Wang, Baomin; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-04-26

    A strain-relief structure by combining the strain-engineered periodic wrinkles and the parallel ribbons was employed to fabricate flexible dual spin valves onto PDMS substrates in a direct sputtering method. The strain-relief structure can accommodate the biaxial strain accompanying with stretching operation (the uniaxial applied tensile strain and the induced transverse compressive strain due to the Poisson effect), thus significantly reducing the influence of the residual strain on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) performance. The fabricated GMR dual spin-valve sensor exhibits the nearly unchanged MR ratio of 9.9%, magnetic field sensitivity up to 0.69%/Oe, and zero-field resistance in a wide range of stretching strain, making it promising for applications on a conformal shape or a movement part. PMID:27032033

  12. Observation of chiral edge states with neutral fermions in synthetic Hall ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, M.; Pagano, G.; Cappellini, G.; Livi, L.; Rider, M.; Catani, J.; Sias, C.; Zoller, P.; Inguscio, M.; Dalmonte, M.; Fallani, L.

    2015-09-01

    Chiral edge states are a hallmark of quantum Hall physics. In electronic systems, they appear as a macroscopic consequence of the cyclotron orbits induced by a magnetic field, which are naturally truncated at the physical boundary of the sample. Here we report on the experimental realization of chiral edge states in a ribbon geometry with an ultracold gas of neutral fermions subjected to an artificial gauge field. By imaging individual sites along a synthetic dimension, encoded in the nuclear spin of the atoms, we detect the existence of the edge states and observe the edge-cyclotron orbits induced during quench dynamics. The realization of fermionic chiral edge states opens the door for edge state interferometry and the study of non-Abelian anyons in atomic systems.

  13. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  14. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina;

    2012-01-01

    identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings...... influence board tasks, and how the context moderates the relationship between processes and tasks. Our hypotheses are tested on a survey-based dataset of 535 medium-sized and large industrial firms in Italy and Norway, which are considered to substantially differ along legal and cultural dimensions....... The findings show that: (i) Board processes have a larger potential than demographic variables to explain board task performance; (ii) board task performance differs significantly between boards operating in different contexts; and (iii) national context moderates the relationships between board processes...

  15. Task Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  16. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    , and recommendations, and supporting exploratory search to sensemaking and analytics, UI and UX design pose an overconstrained challenge. How do we know that our approach is any good? Supporting complex search task requires new collaborations across the whole field of IR, and the proposed workshop will bring together......There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...

  17. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD DETERMINED FROM THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Funsten, H. O., E-mail: ezirnstein@swri.edu [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  18. The influence of operational parameters and feed preparation in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeow ST

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sin Tung Yeow, Asnawi Shahar, Norashikin Abdul Aziz, Mohd Shamsul Anuar, Yus Aniza Yusof, Farah Saleena TaipDepartment of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaPurpose: To investigate the effect of feed preparation characteristics and operational parameters on mixing homogeneity in a convective batch ribbon mixer.Methods: Lactose 100M, lactose 200M, ascorbic acid, and zinc oxide powders were used for the mixing study. Operational parameters studied were rotational speed and mixing time. The feed preparations studied were the use of preblending and the particle size of the feed materials. The blends of ascorbic acid, zinc oxide, and lactose were prepared with preblending and without preblending, prior to mixing at different blender rotation speeds and mixing times. Chemical tests were performed to measure the homogeneity of the ascorbic acid in the model mixture.Results: With preblending, a mixture with lactose 200M achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed.Conclusion: The results indicated that the homogeneity of the mixtures was influenced by the blender rotation speed and mixing time. Better mixing can be obtained with higher rotation speeds and longer mixing time. It was also observed that preblending and smaller feed particle size achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. These results illustrate that using binders with a smaller particle size and a preblending technique improves the mixing process in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer. However, prolonged periods of high-speed mixing will lead to mixture segregation.Keywords: powder blending, ascorbic acid, rotational speed, particle size, preblending

  19. Why Are Flare Ribbons Associated with the Spines of Magnetic Null Points Generically Elongated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, David; Galsgaard, Klaus; Démoulin, Pascal

    2016-08-01

    Coronal magnetic null points exist in abundance, as demonstrated by extrapolations of the coronal field, and have been inferred to be important for a broad range of energetic events. These null points and their associated separatrix and spine field lines represent discontinuities of the field line mapping, making them preferential locations for reconnection. This field line mapping also exhibits strong gradients adjacent to the separatrix (fan) and spine field lines, which can be analysed using the "squashing factor", Q. In this article we analyse in detail the distribution of Q in the presence of magnetic nulls. While Q is formally infinite on both the spine and fan of the null, the decay of Q away from these structures is shown in general to depend strongly on the null-point structure. For the generic case of a non-radially-symmetric null, Q decays most slowly away from the spine or fan in the direction in which |{B}| increases most slowly. In particular, this demonstrates that the extended elliptical high-Q halo around the spine footpoints observed by Masson et al. ( Astrophys. J. 700, 559, 2009) is a generic feature. This extension of the Q halos around the spine or fan footpoints is important for diagnosing the regions of the photosphere that are magnetically connected to any current layer that forms at the null. In light of this, we discuss how our results can be used to interpret the geometry of observed flare ribbons in circular ribbon flares, in which typically a coronal null is implicated. We conclude that both the physics in the vicinity of the null and how this is related to the extension of Q away from the spine or fan can be used in tandem to understand observational signatures of reconnection at coronal null points.

  20. Why Are Flare Ribbons Associated with the Spines of Magnetic Null Points Generically Elongated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, David; Galsgaard, Klaus; Démoulin, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    Coronal magnetic null points exist in abundance, as demonstrated by extrapolations of the coronal field, and have been inferred to be important for a broad range of energetic events. These null points and their associated separatrix and spine field lines represent discontinuities of the field line mapping, making them preferential locations for reconnection. This field line mapping also exhibits strong gradients adjacent to the separatrix (fan) and spine field lines, which can be analysed using the "squashing factor", Q. In this article we analyse in detail the distribution of Q in the presence of magnetic nulls. While Q is formally infinite on both the spine and fan of the null, the decay of Q away from these structures is shown in general to depend strongly on the null-point structure. For the generic case of a non-radially-symmetric null, Q decays most slowly away from the spine or fan in the direction in which |{B}| increases most slowly. In particular, this demonstrates that the extended elliptical high- Q halo around the spine footpoints observed by Masson et al. (Astrophys. J. 700, 559, 2009) is a generic feature. This extension of the Q halos around the spine or fan footpoints is important for diagnosing the regions of the photosphere that are magnetically connected to any current layer that forms at the null. In light of this, we discuss how our results can be used to interpret the geometry of observed flare ribbons in circular ribbon flares, in which typically a coronal null is implicated. We conclude that both the physics in the vicinity of the null and how this is related to the extension of Q away from the spine or fan can be used in tandem to understand observational signatures of reconnection at coronal null points.

  1. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  2. From Desktop to Teraflop: Exploiting the U.S. Lead in High Performance Computing. NSF Blue Ribbon Panel on High Performance Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report addresses an opportunity to accelerate progress in virtually every branch of science and engineering concurrently, while also boosting the American economy as business firms also learn to exploit these new capabilities. The successful rapid advancement in both science and technology creates its own challenges, four of which are…

  3. DC bias immune nanocrystalline magnetic cores made of Fe73Nb3Cu1B7Si16 ribbon with induced transverse magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, Anton; Rudenko, Olexandr; Mika, Taras; Yevlash, Igor; Semyrga, Olexandr; Nosenko, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    The comparative analysis of magnetic properties of cut cores made of nanocrystalline Fe73Nb3Cu1B7Si16 alloy ribbon and cores made of the same ribbon with preliminary tension-induced transverse magnetic anisotropy was carried out. The possibility of improving magnetic properties of cut cores, decreasing loss, and increasing DC bias immunity of reversible magnetic permeability is presented. The influence of induced magnetic anisotropy on DC bias immunity of reversible magnetic permeability was investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of new cores (made of ribbon heated under tensile stress) over cut ones were determined.

  4. Microstructure and magnetic properties of hard magnetic Pr9Fe52Co13Zr1Ti3B22 alloy ribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlik K.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work the phase constitution, microstructure and magnetic properties of the Pr9Fe52Co13Zr1Ti3B22 alloy ribbons in the as-cast state and subjected to short time annealing were investigated. The ribbons were obtained by melt-spinning technique (with the velocity of the copper roll surface of 15 m/s). Subsequently, the samples were annealed for 5 min at temperatures ranging from 923 to 1013K. The ribbon samples in as-cast state were fully amorphous and exhibited soft magnetic prope...

  5. DC bias immune nanocrystalline magnetic cores made of Fe73Nb3Cu1B7Si16 ribbon with induced transverse magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, Anton; Rudenko, Olexandr; Mika, Taras; Yevlash, Igor; Semyrga, Olexandr; Nosenko, Viktor

    2016-12-01

    The comparative analysis of magnetic properties of cut cores made of nanocrystalline Fe73Nb3Cu1B7Si16 alloy ribbon and cores made of the same ribbon with preliminary tension-induced transverse magnetic anisotropy was carried out. The possibility of improving magnetic properties of cut cores, decreasing loss, and increasing DC bias immunity of reversible magnetic permeability is presented. The influence of induced magnetic anisotropy on DC bias immunity of reversible magnetic permeability was investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of new cores (made of ribbon heated under tensile stress) over cut ones were determined. PMID:26847696

  6. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  7. Task-baseret kommunikativ sprogundervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Svendsen

    2015-01-01

    Definition af task-baseret sprogundervisning, kriterier for task. Forskning i Second Language Acquisition med brug af task, tilrettelæggelse af task-baseret kommunikativ undervisning. Begrænsninger i og perspektiver for videreudvikling af task-baseret sprogundervising-......Definition af task-baseret sprogundervisning, kriterier for task. Forskning i Second Language Acquisition med brug af task, tilrettelæggelse af task-baseret kommunikativ undervisning. Begrænsninger i og perspektiver for videreudvikling af task-baseret sprogundervising-...

  8. What are task-sets: a single, integrated representation or a collection of multiple control representations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan eRangelov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Performing two randomly alternating tasks typically results in higher reaction times (RTs following a task switch, relative to a task repetition. These task switch costs (TSC reflect processes of switching between control settings for different tasks. The present study investigated whether task sets operate as a single, integrated representation or as an agglomeration of relatively independent components. In a cued task switch paradigm, target detection (present/absent and discrimination (blue/green/right-/left-tilted tasks alternated randomly across trials. The target was either a color or an orientation singleton among homogeneous distractors. Across two trials, the task and target-defining dimension repeated or changed randomly. For task switch trials, agglomerated task sets predict a difference between dimension changes and repetitions: joint task and dimension switches require full task set reconfiguration, while dimension repetitions permit re-using some control settings from the previous trial. By contrast, integrated task sets always require full switches, predicting dimension repetition effects (DREs to be absent across task switches. RT analyses showed significant DREs across task switches as well as repetitions supporting the notion of agglomerated task sets. Additionally, two event-related potentials (ERP were analyzed: the Posterior-Contralateral-Negativity (PCN indexing spatial selection dynamics, and the Sustained-Posterior-Contralateral-Negativity (SPCN indexing post-selective perceptual/semantic analysis. Significant DREs across task switches were observed for both the PCN and SPCN components. Together, DREs across task switches for RTs and two functionally distinct ERP components suggest that re-using control settings across different tasks is possible. The results thus support the ‘agglomerated-task-set’ hypothesis, and are inconsistent with ‘integrated task sets’.

  9. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    Civil servants conduct the work which makes welfare states functions on an everyday bases: Police men police, school teachers teach, and tax inspectors inspect. Focus in this paper is on the core tasks of tax inspectors. The paper argues that their core task of securing the collection of revenue...... has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  10. Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper;

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge.......Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....

  11. Blue jays nest in an unusual structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin L.; Lyons, Curtis P.; Sedgwick, James A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a successful Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) nest in an unusual structure on the side of a building.  The nest was located near the edge of the species' range along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.  The nest was completely obvious, suggesting that the structure itself provided adequate cover and sercurity for the jays.  Blue Jays appear to be declining in some areas of the United States such as the Southeast.  Structures such as the one we describe may be more useful in attracting Blue Jays than the nesting platforms available commercially.

  12. Effect of meander structure and line width on GMI effect in micro-patterned Co-based ribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect is observed in micro-patterned Co-based commercial amorphous ribbon. The effect of structure (meander, single strip) and line width (200, 400, 600 and 800 μm) on the GMI effect is investigated. The GMI reaches its maximum value of 193.7% in the three-turns meander ribbon with 600 μm line width at a frequency of 20 MHz and a field of 10 Oe. The corresponding GMI sensitivity is 19.4% Oe-1. Meander structure and line width both have a strong influence on the GMI effect. An explanation based on the changes in inductance, resistance and the complex magnetic interaction are presented.

  13. Electronic structure and trajectory control of Dirac fermions in graphene ribbons under the competition between electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mou, E-mail: yangmou1222@gmail.com [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Cui, Yan; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Zhao, Hong-Bo [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-03-05

    We investigate the electronic structure of graphene ribbons under the competition between lateral electric and normal magnetic fields. The squeezing of quantum level spacings caused by either field is studied. Based on the knowledge of the dispersion under both fields, we analyze the electronic trajectories near the junctions of different electric and magnetic fields configurations. The junctions can split and join electron beams, and the conductance is quite robust against disorder near the junction interfaces. These junction devices can be used as bricks for building more complicated interference devices. -- Highlights: ► Unified physical picture of graphene ribbon under electric and magnetic fields is provided. ► Squeezing of level spacings caused by electric and magnetic fields is investigated. ► Graphene devices for electron beam split and joint are proposed.

  14. Hydrogen passivation of defects and rapid thermal processing for high-efficiency silicon ribbon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji-Weon

    2002-01-01

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) system offers a unique opportunity to solve the energy and the environmental problems simultaneously because solar energy is free and can be directly converted into electrical energy by solar cells without any undesirable impact on the environment. In spite of the many advantages, PV still accounts for less than 0.05% of the current U.S. energy portfolio. This is mainly because PV is 2-4 times more expensive than traditional energy sources. PV modules should cost about $1/W to produce electricity at a rate of 6¢/kWh and to compete with fossil fuels. Since Si material accounts for ˜40% of the cost of current Si PV modules, the use of low-cost Si substrate is critical for cost reduction. Edge-defined film-fed grown (EFG) Si ribbon is the focus as substrate materials for this research because it is one of the most promising for low-cost PV. However, as-grown EFG Si has a lot of impurities and crystal defects resulted from the Si feedstock and its growth system, which reduce the bulk lifetime of less than 3 ms. In this research, first, the requirements for achieving 16% efficiency have been established using computer model simulations. To improve the bulk lifetime, manufacturable P and Al gettering techniques are developed to remove the lifetime-killing impurities from the active to inactive device regions. PECVD SiN-induced hydrogen defect passivation is investigated and maximized through the fundamental understanding of the role of Al, the impact of RTP firing, and the difference between two PECVD SiN films. For low-cost contact formation, a novel RTP firing process is developed for high-quality screen-printed contacts and Al-BSF. Finally, a complete process sequence that involves the optimal conditions for defect passivation and contacts is developed to produce ˜16% efficiency on screen-printed EFG Si solar cells, which is the highest efficiency for any screen-printed Si ribbon solar cells to date.

  15. Bruchpilot in Ribbon-Like Axonal Agglomerates, Behavioral Defects, and Early Death in SRPK79D Kinase Mutants of Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Nieratschker; Alice Schubert; Mandy Jauch; Nicole Bock; Daniel Bucher; Sonja Dippacher; Georg Krohne; Esther Asan; Sigrid Buchner; Erich Buchner

    2009-01-01

    Defining the molecular structure and function of synapses is a central theme in brain research. In Drosophila the Bruchpilot (BRP) protein is associated with T-shaped ribbons ("T-bars") at presynaptic active zones (AZs). BRP is required for intact AZ structure and normal evoked neurotransmitter release. By screening for mutations that affect the tissue distribution of Bruchpilot, we have identified a P-transposon insertion in gene CG11489 (location 79D) which shows high homology to mammalian ...

  16. Initial Magnetization Curve and Hardening Mechanism in the Nanocomposite Nd8Fe85Nb1B6 Ribbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The melt-spun Nd8Fe85Nb1B6 ribbon was prepared by the single roller method with the tangential speed of 20 m/s. A mixture of Nd2Fe14B and α-Fe phases with the average crystalline grain size of about 20 nm was found to exist in the as-quenched ribbons. The initial magnetization curve of the nanocomposite Nd8Fe85Nb1B6 ribbon can be divided into four sections by the inflection points on it. The magnetically hardening mechanism corresponding to each section was investigated. The initial susceptibility of the Nd8Fe85Nb1B6 ribbon is higher than that of the Nd15Fe85B9 powder, which may be attributed to the reversible magnetization rotation in the central region not influenced by the exchange-coupling effect within the α-Fe grains.The above-mentioned magnetization rotation leads to the formation of equilibrium 180 deg. domain walls at the boundaries of the α-Fe grains. With the increase of applied field, these domain walls are compressed reversibly towards the Nd2Fe14B grains and eventually invade into them.The irreversible movement of the domain walls in the Nd2Fe14B grains accounts for the steepest growth of magnetization with the applied field. Finally, the magnetically inhomogeneous “core regions” are formed in the Nd2Fe14B grains, and the magnetization rotation in these“core regions”indicates the end of the whole initial saturation process.

  17. Magnetostructural transitions in Mn-rich Heusler Mn–Ni–In melt-spun ribbons with enhanced magnetocaloric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongwei; Feng, Shutong; Ren, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhai, Qijie; Fu, Jianxun [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Luo, Zhiping [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Fayetteville State University, Fayetteville, NC 28301 (United States); Zheng, Hongxing, E-mail: hxzheng@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2015-10-01

    The magnetostructural transition behavior and magnetocaloric effect of Mn-rich Heusler Mn–Ni–In melt-spun ribbons have been investigated in the present study. Experimental results showed that the martensitic transition temperatures decreased by substituting small amounts of Ni with Mn in Mn{sub 49+x}Ni{sub 42−x}In{sub 9} (x=0,1,2). Within a temperature range from 100 K to 380 K, the Mn{sub 49}Ni{sub 41}In{sub 9} underwent a martensitic transformation from a paramagnetic L2{sub 1}-type cubic austenite to a ferromagnetic modulated fourteen-layered monoclinic (14M) martensite, followed with a ferromagnetic→weak-magnetic transition in martensite upon cooling. While for both Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 41}In{sub 9} and Mn{sub 51}Ni{sub 40}In{sub 9}, the paramagnetic→ferromagnetic transition in austenite occurred prior to the martensitic transformation upon cooling. Under a magnetic field change of 30 kOe, the maximum magnetic entropy changes of the Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 41}In{sub 9} melt-spun ribbons were found to be 5.7 J/kg K and −2.3 J/kg K in the vicinity of martensitic transformation and magnetic transition of austenite, respectively. An enhanced total effective refrigeration capacity as high as 184.2 J/kg was obtained in the Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 41}In{sub 9} melt-spun ribbons. - Highlights: • Mn-rich Heusler Mn–Ni–In melt-spun ribbons were investigated in the present study. • The compositional dependence on the magnetostructural transition behavior was clarified. • An enhanced refrigeration capacity as high as 184.2 J/kg was obtained in Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 41}In{sub 9}.

  18. Magnetic-field-induced strain in Ni{sub 2}MnGa melt-spun ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algarabel, P.A. E-mail: algarabe@posta.unizar.es; Magen, C.; Morellon, L.; Ibarra, M.R.; Albertini, F.; Magnani, N.; Paoluzi, A.; Pareti, L.; Pasquale, M.; Besseghini, S

    2004-05-01

    Linear thermal expansion (300-350 K) and magnetostriction measurements in magnetic fields up to 15 kOe have been performed on a Ni{sub 2}MnGa melt-spun ribbon. The magnetic-field-induced strain has been studied on a field-cooling process through the martensitic transformation and shows a maximum as a function of the applied field. This previously unreported behaviour is discussed.

  19. A novel Si/Sn composite with entangled ribbon structure as anode materials for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinbo; Zhu, Zhengwang; Zhang, Hongwei; Fu, Huameng; Li, Hong; Wang, Aimin; Zhang, Haifeng

    2016-07-01

    A novel Si/Sn composite anode material with unique ribbon structure was synthesized by Mechanical Milling (MM) and the structural transformation was studied in the present work. The microstructure characterization shows that Si/Sn composite with idealized entangled ribbon structured can be obtained by milling the mixture of the starting materials, Si and Sn for 20 h. According to the calculated results based on the XRD data, the as-milled 20 h sample has the smallest avergae crystalline size. It is supposed that the flexible ribbon structure allows for accommodation of intrinsic damage, which significantly improves the fracture toughness of the composite. The charge and discharge tests of the as-milled 20 h sample have been performed with reference to Li+/Li at a current density of 400 mA g‑1 in the voltage from 1.5 to 0.03 V (vs Li/Li+) and the result shows that the initial capacity is ∼1400 mA h g‑1, with a retention of ∼1100 mA h g‑1 reversible capacity after 50 cycles, which is possible serving as the promising anode material for the lithium ion battery application.

  20. STRUCTURE OF THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON FROM SECONDARY CHARGE-EXCHANGE AT THE SOLAR–INTERSTELLAR INTERFACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Heerikhuisen, J., E-mail: ezirnstein@swri.edu, E-mail: dmccomas@swri.edu, E-mail: jacob.heerikhuisen@uah.edu [Department of Space Science and Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, the Interstellar Boundary Explorer discovered a bright “ribbon” of energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux in the energy range ≤0.4–6 keV, encircling a large portion of the sky. This observation was not previously predicted by any models or theories, and since its discovery, it has been the subject of numerous studies of its origin and properties. One of the most studied mechanisms for its creation is the “secondary ENA” process. Here, solar wind ions, neutralized by charge-exchange with interstellar atoms, propagate outside the heliopause; experience two charge-exchange events in the dense outer heliosheath; and then propagate back inside the heliosphere, preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the local interstellar magnetic field. This process has been extensively analyzed using state-of-the-art modeling and simulation techniques, but it has been difficult to visualize. In this Letter, we show the three-dimensional structure of the source of the ribbon, providing a physical picture of the spatial and energy scales over which the secondary ENA process occurs. These results help us understand how the ribbon is generated and further supports a secondary ENA process as the leading ribbon source mechanism.

  1. Scatter-free pickup ions beyond the heliopause as a model for the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) ribbon

    CERN Document Server

    Chalov, S V; McComas, D; Izmodenov, V V; Malama, Yu G; Schwadron, N

    2010-01-01

    We present new kinetic-gasdynamic model of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium. The model incorporates several processes suggested by McComas et al. (2009) for the origin of the heliospheric ENA ribbon -- the most prominent feature seen in the all sky maps of heliospheric ENAs discovered by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). The ribbon is a region of enhanced fluxes of ENAs crossing almost the entire sky. Soon after the ribbon's discovery it was realized (McComas et al., 2009) that the enhancement of the fluxes could be in the directions where the radial component of the interstellar magnetic field around the heliopause is close to zero (Schwadron et al., 2009). Our model includes secondary charge exchange of the interstellar H atoms with the interstellar pickup protons outside the heliopause and is a further advancement of the kinetic-gasdynamic model by Malama et al. (2006) where pickup protons were treated as a separate kinetic component. Izmodenov et al. (2009) have shown...

  2. A novel Si/Sn composite with entangled ribbon structure as anode materials for lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinbo; Zhu, Zhengwang; Zhang, Hongwei; Fu, Huameng; Li, Hong; Wang, Aimin; Zhang, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    A novel Si/Sn composite anode material with unique ribbon structure was synthesized by Mechanical Milling (MM) and the structural transformation was studied in the present work. The microstructure characterization shows that Si/Sn composite with idealized entangled ribbon structured can be obtained by milling the mixture of the starting materials, Si and Sn for 20 h. According to the calculated results based on the XRD data, the as-milled 20 h sample has the smallest avergae crystalline size. It is supposed that the flexible ribbon structure allows for accommodation of intrinsic damage, which significantly improves the fracture toughness of the composite. The charge and discharge tests of the as-milled 20 h sample have been performed with reference to Li(+)/Li at a current density of 400 mA g(-1) in the voltage from 1.5 to 0.03 V (vs Li/Li(+)) and the result shows that the initial capacity is ∼1400 mA h g(-1), with a retention of ∼1100 mA h g(-1) reversible capacity after 50 cycles, which is possible serving as the promising anode material for the lithium ion battery application. PMID:27390015

  3. THE COCHlEAR RIBBON SYNAPTIC RESPONSE TO AMINOGIYCOSIDE OTOTOXICITY IN C57BL/6J MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ke; ZHAO Ning; SHI Chuang; WU Nan; LIU Huizhan; ZHANG Yue; YANG Weiyan; YANG Shiming

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the early change of cochlear ribbon synapses on inner hair cells in response to aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Methods C57BL/6J mice received intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day), and the apical coil organ of Corti was examined on the 4th, 7th and 10th day (n=10). Litter-mates without gentamicin treatment served as controls (n=10). RIBEYE on the presynaptic membrane and AMPA receptors on the postsynaptic membrane were labeled with CtBP2 or GluR2/3 respectively. Three di-mension reconstruction was conducted using the 3DS MAX 8.0 software. Results There were no disruptions of outer or inner hair cells in all groups. However, the number of ribbon synapses on cochlear inner hair cells increased significantly within 7 days after gentamicin exposure (P<0.01), followed by a significant de-crease after 7 days.Conclusion During the early stage of aminoglycoside ototoxicity, increased population of cochlear ribbon synapses may indicate a significant down-regulation of synaptic function.

  4. {gamma}-Fe phase plasma-induced on the surface of thin S3A alloy ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral-Prieto, A., E-mail: agustin.cabral@inin.gob.mx; Garcia-Sosa, I., E-mail: irma.garcia@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Quimica (Mexico); Nava, N., E-mail: tnava@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas (Mexico); Camps, E., E-mail: enrique.camps@inin.gob.mx; Escobar, Luis, E-mail: luis.escobar@inin.gov.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Quimica (Mexico); Lopez-Castanarez, R., E-mail: rlc@anuies.mx; Olea-Cardoso, O., E-mail: olc@anuies.mx [Universidad Autonoma del Edo. de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Amorphous alloy ribbons of Fe{sub 77}Cr{sub 2}B{sub 16}Si{sub 5} were exposed to cold plasmas of N{sub 2} and Ar-N{sub 2} at temperatures lower than T{sub x} = 808 K. The conversion X-ray Moessbauer spectra of the plasma-exposed ribbons consist of a singlet and a broadened magnetic sextet. The singlet with isomer shift {delta} = -0.11 mm/s can be assigned to {gamma}-Fe austenite phase. Minor bulk magnetic changes in the alloy were measured as a consequence of these treatments; e.g. the relative intensities A23 of the transmission Moessbauer spectra of the untreated and treated samples, were 3.22 and 3.56, respectively, the B{sub hf} values changed from 22.9 T (untreated sample) to 22.4 T (plasma treated samples). Unexpectedly, the {gamma}-Fe phase can also be produced by simply heating the alloy ribbons under N{sub 2} flux at temperatures as low as 423 K. Moessbauer data of the crystallized samples are also reported, and a qualitative assessment on the mechanical properties of the Fe{sub 77}Cr{sub 2}B{sub 16}Si{sub 5} alloy associated with the plasma and/or temperature surface induced {gamma}-Fe phase is given.

  5. Kane-Mele Hubbard model on a zigzag ribbon: Stability of the topological edge states and quantum phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chung-Hou; Lee, Der-Hau; Chao, Sung-Po

    2014-07-01

    We study the quantum phases and phase transitions of the Kane-Mele Hubbard (KMH) model on a zigzag ribbon of honeycomb lattice at a finite size via the weak-coupling renormalization group (RG) approach. In the noninteracting limit, the Kane-Mele (KM) model is known to support topological edge states where electrons show helical property with orientations of the spin and momentum being locked. The effective interedge hopping terms are generated due to finite-size effect. In the presence of an on-site Coulomb (Hubbard) interaction and the interedge hoppings, special focus is put on the stability of the topological edge states (TI phase) in the KMH model against (i) the charge and spin gaped (II) phase, (ii) the charge gaped but spin gapless (IC) phase, and (iii) the spin gaped but charge gapless (CI) phase depending on the number (even/odd) of the zigzag ribbons, doping level (electron filling factor) and the ratio of the Coulomb interaction to the interedge tunneling. We discuss different phase diagrams for even and odd numbers of zigzag ribbons. We find the TI-CI, II-IC, and II-CI quantum phase transitions are of the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) type. By computing various correlation functions, we further analyze the nature and leading instabilities of these phases. The relevance of our results for graphene is discussed.

  6. Properties of blue-stained wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Humar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Discoloration of wood is frequently caused by blue-stain fungi. Among them Aureobasidium pullulans and Sclerophoma pithyophila are reported as the most important staining organism. In previous researches, it was generally considered that blue-stain fungi do not influence mechanical properties. However, there were some opposite results published as well. In order to elucidate this issue, specimens made of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris sapwood were exposed to two blue stain fungi A. pullulans and S. pithyophila for periods between two and eight weeks. FTIR, weight, colour and non-destructive modulus of elasticity measurements were performed before and after exposure. The results showed that blue stain fungi, besides considerable discoloration, do not cause any significant damage to wood. Surprisingly the non-destructive MoE analysis showed that modulus of elasticity even slightly increase after fungal exposure.

  7. Blue Ocean Strategy and marketing Icelandic fish

    OpenAIRE

    Sigrún Guðbjartsdóttir 1976

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to explore if practice of Blue Ocean Strategy, through value innovation, or certain tools and framework of the strategy can be useful for Icelandic fish marketing companies. Blue Ocean Strategy is an innovative strategy that pushes companies to look beyond conventional boundaries of an industry and discover new market space through value innovation and consequently make competition irrelevant. Data was gathered through qualitative research methods, interviews as we...

  8. Blue Flag: a Symbol of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Blue Flag is a high standard symbol of environmental protection and it is awarded to the beaches and agreement ports by the Foundation of Education for the Environment. The beaches having been awarded this distinction warrant particular protection for their visitors, which is a particular point of tourism attractiveness: the result, they are preferred by tourists and, therefore, by tour operators selling tourism packages for the littoral. In 2009, Romanian beaches were not awarded any Blue Flags.

  9. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and inter......This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...

  10. Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana L Melcón; Amanda J Cummins; Kerosky, Sara M; Lauren K Roche; Wiggins, Sean M.; John A. Hildebrand

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to...

  11. Performing Task Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    by shared goals and knowledge as well as mutual respect and frequent, timely, accurate and problem-solving ways of communication with the purpose of dealing with the tasks at hand in an integrated way. We introduce and discuss relational coordination theory through a case-study within public healthcare....... Here cross-professional coordination of work was done by scheduled communication twice a day. When we proposed a way for further integration of tasks through an all-inclusive team organization, we were met with resistance. We use the study to discuss whether relational coordination theory is able to do...

  12. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  13. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  14. Slipping magnetic reconnections with multiple flare ribbons during an X-class solar flare

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Wang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    With the observations of the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we present the slipping magnetic reconnections with multiple flare ribbons (FRs) during an X1.2 eruptive flare on 2014 January 7. A center negative polarity was surrounded by several positive ones, and there appeared three FRs. The three FRs showed apparent slipping motions, and hook structures formed at their ends. Due to the moving footpoints of the erupting structures, one tight semi-circular hook disappeared after the slippage along its inner and outer edge, and coronal dimmings formed within the hook. The east hook also faded as a result of the magnetic reconnection between the arcades of a remote filament and a hot loop that was impulsively heated by the under flare loops. Our results are accordant with the slipping magnetic reconnection regime in 3D standard model for eruptive flares. We suggest that complex structures of the flare is likely a consequence of the more complex flux distribution in the photosphere, and the eruption involves at least...

  15. Short-range Ferromagnetism in Alloy Ribbons of Fe-Cr-Si-Nb-(Ag, Cu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanh, P. Q.; Hoa, N. Q.; Chau, N.;

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties of two amorphous alloy ribbons Fe72Cr6Si4Nb5B12Ag1 (FCSNB-Ag) and Fe72Cr6Si4Nb5B12Cu1 (FCSNB-Cu), prepared by using a melt-spinning technique. Magnetization (M) measurements for various temperatures (T) and magnetic fields (H) indicate that ferromagnetic......-paramagnetic (FM-PM) phase transitions take place in FCSNB-Ag and FCSNB-Cu at Curie temperatures (TC) of about 308.3 K and 322.5 K, respectively. Analyses of M - H data at different temperatures in the vicinity of the FM-PM phase transition based on the modified Arrott plot method and scaling hypothesis yielded...... the exponent values of beta = 0.369 +/- 0.005, gamma = 1.359 +/- 0.005 and delta = 4.7 +/- 0.1 for FCSNB-Ag, and beta = 0.376 +/- 0.002, gamma = 1.315 +/- 0.006 and delta = 4.5 +/- 0.1 for FCSNB-Cu. Compared with the values from theoretical models, these values are close to those expected for the 3D...

  16. Geometrical structure of Neural Networks: Geodesics, Jeffrey's Prior and Hyper-ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Lorien; Alemi, Alex; Sethna, James

    2014-03-01

    Neural networks are learning algorithms which are employed in a host of Machine Learning problems including speech recognition, object classification and data mining. In practice, neural networks learn a low dimensional representation of high dimensional data and define a model manifold which is an embedding of this low dimensional structure in the higher dimensional space. In this work, we explore the geometrical structure of a neural network model manifold. A Stacked Denoising Autoencoder and a Deep Belief Network are trained on handwritten digits from the MNIST database. Construction of geodesics along the surface and of slices taken from the high dimensional manifolds reveal a hierarchy of widths corresponding to a hyper-ribbon structure. This property indicates that neural networks fall into the class of sloppy models, in which certain parameter combinations dominate the behavior. Employing this information could prove valuable in designing both neural network architectures and training algorithms. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No . DGE-1144153.

  17. Lead-matrix ribbon superconductors with high values of critical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a base of an assumption about an increase in the number of pinning centers, caused by occurrence of a fine crystalline structure, an increase in the bulk amount of intergranular borders and, thus, an increase in the critical current, the doping of the first-kind superconductor - lead - by aluminium and beryllium (elements which don't interacting with lead) is carried out by means of ion plasma deposition. The samples of ribbon superconductor on the copper back moving with respect to the plasma flow are manufactured. The samples of the films superconductor doped by beryllium (5.45 mass %) 280 nm thick and by aluminium (12.8 mass %) 1200 nm thick are subjected to cryogenic trails. In both systems the critical current has increased by many times, the highest increased being observed for the case of lead doping by aluminium. Thus, for Pb-Be conductor the critical current comprises 3.1·104 to 3.6·104 A·cm-2, whereas for Rb-Al system it equals 2.3·105 to 2.5·105 A·cm-2, being comparable with similar characteristics for the industrial superconductors NbTi (3·104 to 8·104 A·cm-2) and Nb3Sn (1·104 to 8·104 A·cm-2). The critical temperature of transition to a superconduction state for both systems is the same, concluding with that for lead. (author)

  18. A possible generation mechanism for the IBEX ribbon from outside the heliosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Grzedzielski, S; Czechowski, A; Funsten, H O; McComas, D J; Schwadron, N A

    2010-01-01

    The brightest and most surprising feature in the first all-sky maps of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) emissions (0.2-6 keV) produced by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is an almost circular ribbon of a ~140{\\deg} opening angle, centered at (l,b) = (33{\\deg}, 55{\\deg}), covering the part of the celestial sphere with the lowest column densities of the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC). We propose a novel interpretation of the IBEX results based on the idea of ENA produced by charge-exchange between the neutral H atoms at the nearby edge of the LIC and the hot protons of the Local Bubble (LB). These ENAs can reach the Sun's vicinity because of very low column density of the intervening LIC material. We show that a plane-parallel or slightly curved interface layer of contact between the LIC H atoms (n_H = 0.2 cm^-3, T = 6000-7000 K) and the LB protons (n_p = 0.005 cm^-3, T ~ 10^6 K), together with indirect contribution coming from multiply-scattered ENAs from the LB, may be able to explain both the shape of...

  19. Self-assembly of graphene ribbons by spontaneous self-tearing and peeling from a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, James; Cross, Graham L W

    2016-07-14

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials have shown unusual and exceptional mechanical properties, with similarities to origami-like paper folding and kirigami-like cutting demonstrated. For paper analogues, a critical difference between macroscopic sheets and a two-dimensional solid is the molecular scale of the thin dimension of the latter, allowing the thermal activation of considerable out-of-plane motion. So far thermal activity has been shown to produce local wrinkles in a free graphene sheet that help in theoretically understanding its stability, for example, and give rise to unexpected long-range bending stiffness. Here we show that thermal activation can have a more marked effect on the behaviour of two-dimensional solids, leading to spontaneous and self-driven sliding, tearing and peeling from a substrate on scales approaching the macroscopic. We demonstrate that scalable nanoimprint-style contact techniques can nucleate and direct the parallel self-assembly of graphene ribbons of controlled shape in ambient conditions. We interpret our observations through a simple fracture-mechanics model that shows how thermodynamic forces drive the formation of the graphene-graphene interface in lieu of substrate contact with sufficient strength to peel and tear multilayer graphene sheets. Our results show how weak physical surface forces can be harnessed and focused by simple folded configurations of graphene to tear the strongest covalent bond. This effect may hold promise for the patterning and mechanical actuating of devices based on two-dimensional materials. PMID:27411633

  20. Exciton-polariton in graphene nano-ribbon embedded In semiconductor microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, S.; Imannezhad, S.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we investigated coupling of confined photons in the semiconductor microcavity consists of Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBR) (Si3N4/SiO2 and AlAs/Al0.1Ga0.9As) with excitons of gapped Armchair Graphene NanoRibbon (A-GNR) that placed at the maximum of electric field amplitude inside the semiconductor microcavity. Our calculations show that the coupling between GNR's exciton and confined photon modes and appearance of vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS), is possible. By the means of Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) we obtain angle dependent reflectance spectrum and Upper, Lower Polariton Branches (UPB&LPB) for the structure. Clear anticrossing between the neutral exciton and the cavity modes with a splitting of about 3 meV obtained that can be enhanced in double-GNR. While, our calculations certify the formation of graphene based exciton-polariton, propose the enhancement of VRS by optimization of relevant parameters to implement the graphene based cavity polaritons in optoelectronic devices.

  1. Self-assembly of graphene ribbons by spontaneous self-tearing and peeling from a substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, James; Cross, Graham L. W.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials have shown unusual and exceptional mechanical properties, with similarities to origami-like paper folding and kirigami-like cutting demonstrated. For paper analogues, a critical difference between macroscopic sheets and a two-dimensional solid is the molecular scale of the thin dimension of the latter, allowing the thermal activation of considerable out-of-plane motion. So far thermal activity has been shown to produce local wrinkles in a free graphene sheet that help in theoretically understanding its stability, for example, and give rise to unexpected long-range bending stiffness. Here we show that thermal activation can have a more marked effect on the behaviour of two-dimensional solids, leading to spontaneous and self-driven sliding, tearing and peeling from a substrate on scales approaching the macroscopic. We demonstrate that scalable nanoimprint-style contact techniques can nucleate and direct the parallel self-assembly of graphene ribbons of controlled shape in ambient conditions. We interpret our observations through a simple fracture-mechanics model that shows how thermodynamic forces drive the formation of the graphene-graphene interface in lieu of substrate contact with sufficient strength to peel and tear multilayer graphene sheets. Our results show how weak physical surface forces can be harnessed and focused by simple folded configurations of graphene to tear the strongest covalent bond. This effect may hold promise for the patterning and mechanical actuating of devices based on two-dimensional materials.

  2. Crystallisation of Fe72B20Si4Nb4 metallic glasses ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents a crystallization process of Fe-based amorphous materials. The aim of work is presentation of the influence of annealing temperature on structural changes and magnetic properties of Fe72B20Si4Nb4 metallic glasses.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on metallic glasses as ribbons. Crystallization behaviour of the studied alloy was examined by differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy methods. The soft magnetic properties examination of tested material contained magnetic permeability, coercive field, saturation induction and magnetic after-effects measurements.Findings: The XRD, TEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy investigations revealed that the studied alloy in as-cast state was amorphous. A two stage crystallization process was observed for studied material. The first stage of crystallization corresponding to the partial crystallization of α-Fe phase was followed by the formation of iron borides. It has shown that appropriate increasing of annealing temperature, significantly improved soft magnetic properties of examined alloy. The maximum of initial magnetic permeability is correlated with a minimum of coercive field.Practical implications: The soft magnetic properties of metallic glasses can be optimized by applying the appropriate conditions of heat treatment.Originality/value: The applied investigation methods are suitable to determine the changes of structure and the improvement of soft magnetic properties of examined Fe-based alloy in comparison with as-cast state.

  3. Assessment of a postdeployment Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program for National Guard members and supporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Widner, Greg; Shroff, Manan; Matthieu, Monica; Balan, Sundari; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; Price, Rumi K

    2014-11-01

    The Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program (YRRP) was created to meet the needs of National Guard members and their families throughout the deployment cycle. This study examined the perceived utility of the YRRP's delivery of information and assistance during the postdeployment reintegration period by National Guard members and accompanying supporters who were mostly spouses. Over 22 months, from 10 YRRP events, 683 service members and 411 supporters completed questionnaires immediately after the YRRP. We analyzed questions on information and avenues for help, timeliness and concerns related to education, employment, legal, family, and health. Service members and supporters most often endorsed information delivery on education being met (76.8% and 78.2%, respectively) and were least likely to endorse legal information delivery (63.5% and 60%, respectively). Significantly more supporters than service members (p < 0.0001) reported that the YRRP was the first time they learned of available services across all domains. Service members were significantly more likely than supporters to report concerns about education, employment, and health, while supporters were significantly more likely to report concerns about family. Results suggest the YRRP fills gaps in supporter knowledge and provides needed information and resources to most National Guard families 2 to 4 months after a deployment.

  4. Large group intervention for military reintegration: peer support & Yellow Ribbon enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Cherie; Everly, George S

    2010-01-01

    University Behavioral HealthCare, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in partnership with the New Jersey Department of Military & Veterans Affairs established a program entitled the "New Jersey Veterans Helpline," modeled after the "Cop 2 Cop Helpline," in 2005 to assist veterans and their families within the state. The events of September 11, 2001, demanded an unprecedented response to address the behavioral health care needs of first responders in New Jersey and highlighted the similarities amongst the military population in their response. Although the New Jersey Veterans Helpline program was initiated as a peer based helpline, the need for support in pre- and post-deployment quickly emerged. This paper describes the application of the Cop 2 Cop interventions with the Port Authority Police Department (PAPD) entitled "Acute Stress Management Reentry Program." This program was adapted and combined with Yellow Ribbon Guideline enhancements to create a "60 Day Resiliency & Reintegration Program" led by the New Jersey Veterans program to over 2,400 soldiers returning from war.

  5. Room temperature table-like magnetocaloric effect in amorphous Gd50Co45Fe5 ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G. L.; Zhao, D. Q.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.; Pan, M. X.

    2016-02-01

    Gd50Co45Fe5 amorphous alloy ribbon with a table-like magnetocaloric effect (MCE) suitable for the ideal Ericsson cycle at room temperature has been developed. In addition to a high magnetic transition temperature of 289 K very close to that of Gd (294 K), a relatively large value of refrigerant capacity (~521 J kg-1) has been achieved under a field change of 5 T. This value of refrigerant capacity (RC) is about 27% and 70% larger than those of Gd (~410 J kg-1) and Gd5Si2Ge2 (~306 J kg-1). More importantly, the peak value of magnetic entropy change (-Δ S\\text{M}\\max ) approaches a nearly constant value of ~3.8 J  ṡ  kg-1  ṡ  K-1 under an applied field change of 0~5 T in a wide temperature span over 40 K around room temperature, which could be used as the candidate working material in the Ericsson-cycle magnetic regenerative refrigerator around room temperature.

  6. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  7. Task 1 quarternary tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Activities on the task of quarternary tectonics for the Yucca Mountain Site investigations are described. Technical topics include: A preliminary reveiw of Bare Mountain Trench; A preliminary detailed lineament map of the Southwestern part of the proposed repository; A discussion on the 1994 Double Spring Flat, Nevada earthquake; and evidence for temporal clustering.

  8. A Daunting Task Still

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2010-01-01

    @@ Despite steady economic growth for three decades, China is still a developing country facing daunting poverty alleviation tasks. According to the poverty line of 1,196 yuan ($176) per capita net income in a year set in March 2009, the country still has a poverty population of more than 40 million, mainly living in rural areas.

  9. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Un Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS, floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  10. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall. PMID:26379749

  11. THE 2-3 kHz HELIOSPHERIC RADIATION, THE IBEX RIBBON, AND THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPE OF THE HELIOPAUSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observations indicate that the total dynamic pressure in the interstellar medium is closely partitioned between the plasma and the magnetic field, with an Alfvén Mach number MA ∼ 1 and a sonic Mach number ∼2. Observations of the IBEX Ribbon provide a unique determination of the orientation of the undraped interstellar magnetic field along the heliopause. There is also a striking correspondence between the Ribbon location and the source locations of 2-3 kHz radiation determined from Voyager observations: the radiation sources north of the ecliptic form a line parallel to but offset by about 30° from the Ribbon. A general Rankine-Hugoniot analysis is used to argue that the heliopause should not be symmetric about the velocity vector VISM of the interstellar medium relative to the Sun (the nominal nose direction). Furthermore, the closest point on the heliopause to the Sun should be on the Ribbon for MA = 0 and at least 9° from the nominal nose direction toward the Ribbon for MA = 1. These new results are combined into a conceptual model of the heliopause that includes (1) a plasma depletion layer formed as the interstellar magnetic field drapes against the heliopause, (2) a minimum inner heliosheath thickness and closest point between the Sun and heliopause along (or close to) the Ribbon rather than in the nominal nose direction (along VISM), and (3) inference of an asymmetric heliopause shape from the angular offset of the radio sources and Ribbon and from the Rankine-Hugoniot analysis.

  12. Quantitative analysis of the ribbon synapse number of cochlear inner hair cells in C57BL/6J mice using the three-dimensional modeling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In mammals,the ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells are a synaptic structure of the first sensory nerve in the pathway of acoustical signal transmission to the acoustic center,and it is directly involved in voice coding and neurotransmitter release. It is difficult to quantitatively analyze the ribbon synaptic number only using an electron microscope,because the ribbon synaptic number is relatively limited and their location is deep. In this study,the specific presynaptic structure-RIBEYE,and non-specific postsynaptic structure-GluR 2 & 3 in C57BL/6J mouse basilar membrane samples were treated by immunofluorescent labeling. Serial section was performed on the samples using a laser scanning confocal microscope,and then the serial sections were used to build three-dimensional models using 3DS MAX software. Each fluorescein color pair indicates one synapse,so the number of ribbon synapses of inner hair cells is obtained. The spatial distribution and the number of ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells were clearly shown in this experiment,and the mean number of ribbon synapses per inner hair cell was 16.10±1.03. Our results have demonstrated the number of ribbon synapses is accurately calculated by double immunofluorescent labeling to presynaptic and postsynaptic structures,serial sections obtained using a laser scanning confocal microscope,and three-dimensional modeling obtained using 3DS MAX software. The method above is feasible and has important significance for further exploring the mechanism of sensorineural deafness.

  13. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  14. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin (the subject firm... Employment and Training Administration Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice of Negative Determination...

  15. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  16. Task analysis and support for problem solving tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with Task Analysis as the basis for ergonomic design to reduce human error rates, rather than for predicting human error rates. Task Analysis techniques usually provide a set of categories for describing sub tasks, and a framework describing the relations between sub-tasks. Both the task type categories and their organisation have implications for optimum interface and training design. In this paper, the framework needed for considering the most complex tasks faced by operators in process industries is discussed such as fault management in unexpected situations, and what is likely to minimise human error in these circumstances. (author)

  17. Ribbon regulates morphogenesis of the Drosophila embryonic salivary gland through transcriptional activation and repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Rajprasad; Lee, Joslynn S; Wells, Michael B; Grevengoed, Elizabeth; Slattery, Matthew; Andrew, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors affect spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression often regulating multiple aspects of tissue morphogenesis, including cell-type specification, cell proliferation, cell death, cell polarity, cell shape, cell arrangement and cell migration. In this work, we describe a distinct role for Ribbon (Rib) in controlling cell shape/volume increases during elongation of the Drosophila salivary gland (SG). Notably, the morphogenetic changes in rib mutants occurred without effects on general SG cell attributes such as specification, proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, the changes in cell shape/volume in rib mutants occurred without compromising epithelial-specific morphological attributes such as apicobasal polarity and junctional integrity. To identify the genes regulated by Rib, we performed ChIP-seq analysis in embryos driving expression of GFP-tagged Rib specifically in the SGs. To learn if the Rib binding sites identified in the ChIP-seq analysis were linked to changes in gene expression, we performed microarray analysis comparing RNA samples from age-matched wild-type and rib null embryos. From the superposed ChIP-seq and microarray gene expression data, we identified 60 genomic sites bound by Rib likely to regulate SG-specific gene expression. We confirmed several of the identified Rib targets by qRT-pCR and/or in situ hybridization. Our results indicate that Rib regulates cell growth and tissue shape in the Drosophila salivary gland via a diverse array of targets through both transcriptional activation and repression. Furthermore, our results suggest that autoregulation of rib expression may be a key component of the SG morphogenetic gene network.

  18. Magnetoimpedance studies on urine treated Co{sub 66}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 7}B{sub 20} ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotagiri, Ganesh [Advanced Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Markandeyulu, G., E-mail: mark@iitm.ac.in [Advanced Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Doble, Mukesh; Nandakumar, V. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Magnetoimpedance (MI) response of Co{sub 66}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 7}B{sub 20} ribbons treated with artificial urine with protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), artificial urine without protein BSA and healthy male urine was studied as a function of time of incubation. The maximum MI [(MI){sub m}] values of the ribbons treated with artificial urine without protein (RTAU) after 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h of incubation are 30% (at 4 MHz), 15% (at 5 MHz), 14% (at 10 MHz) and 8% (at 13 MHz) respectively. On the other hand, the respective (MI){sub m} values of the ribbons treated with artificial urine with protein (RTAUP) are 33% (at 4 MHz), 25% (at 5 MHz), 20% (at 8 MHz) and 15% (12 MHz). However (MI){sub m} values of the ribbons treated with healthy male urine (RTHMU) after 4 h, 5 h, 10 h and 15 h of incubation are 71% (at 3 MHz), 57% (at 3 MHz), 25% (at 6 MHz) and 25% (at 5 MHz), respectively. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) values of RTAU after 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h of incubation are 71 emu/g, 65 emu/g, 63 emu/g and 60 emu/g respectively whereas, the respective M{sub s} values of RTAUP are 73 emu/g, 69 emu/g, 67 emu/g and 64 emu/g. The M{sub s} values of RTHMU after 4 h, 5 h, 10 h and 15 h of incubation are 96 emu/g, 90 emu/g, 75 emu/g and 75 emu/g respectively. The decrease in M{sub s} and (MI){sub m} values in RTAU and RTAUP compared to as-quenched ribbon is related to the amounts of various elements etched out from the ribbons and increased surface roughness. The M{sub s} and (MI){sub m} values of RTHMU are seen to have increased after 4 h and 5 h of incubation, due to strain relaxation through removal of strain developed during rapid quenching of the ribbons. On the other hand, the M{sub s} and (MI){sub m} values of RTHMU after 10 h and 15 h have decreased due to deterioration of the surface of the ribbons and thus, increase in magnetic (surface) anisotropy. The decrease in (MI){sub m} and M{sub S} of RTAU with the time of incubation are more rapid compared to that

  19. BluePyOpt: Leveraging Open Source Software and Cloud Infrastructure to Optimise Model Parameters in Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Geit, Werner; Gevaert, Michael; Chindemi, Giuseppe; Rössert, Christian; Courcol, Jean-Denis; Muller, Eilif B.; Schürmann, Felix; Segev, Idan; Markram, Henry

    2016-01-01

    At many scales in neuroscience, appropriate mathematical models take the form of complex dynamical systems. Parameterizing such models to conform to the multitude of available experimental constraints is a global non-linear optimisation problem with a complex fitness landscape, requiring numerical techniques to find suitable approximate solutions. Stochastic optimisation approaches, such as evolutionary algorithms, have been shown to be effective, but often the setting up of such optimisations and the choice of a specific search algorithm and its parameters is non-trivial, requiring domain-specific expertise. Here we describe BluePyOpt, a Python package targeted at the broad neuroscience community to simplify this task. BluePyOpt is an extensible framework for data-driven model parameter optimisation that wraps and standardizes several existing open-source tools. It simplifies the task of creating and sharing these optimisations, and the associated techniques and knowledge. This is achieved by abstracting the optimisation and evaluation tasks into various reusable and flexible discrete elements according to established best-practices. Further, BluePyOpt provides methods for setting up both small- and large-scale optimisations on a variety of platforms, ranging from laptops to Linux clusters and cloud-based compute infrastructures. The versatility of the BluePyOpt framework is demonstrated by working through three representative neuroscience specific use cases. PMID:27375471

  20. BluePyOpt: Leveraging Open Source Software and Cloud Infrastructure to Optimise Model Parameters in Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Geit, Werner; Gevaert, Michael; Chindemi, Giuseppe; Rössert, Christian; Courcol, Jean-Denis; Muller, Eilif B; Schürmann, Felix; Segev, Idan; Markram, Henry

    2016-01-01

    At many scales in neuroscience, appropriate mathematical models take the form of complex dynamical systems. Parameterizing such models to conform to the multitude of available experimental constraints is a global non-linear optimisation problem with a complex fitness landscape, requiring numerical techniques to find suitable approximate solutions. Stochastic optimisation approaches, such as evolutionary algorithms, have been shown to be effective, but often the setting up of such optimisations and the choice of a specific search algorithm and its parameters is non-trivial, requiring domain-specific expertise. Here we describe BluePyOpt, a Python package targeted at the broad neuroscience community to simplify this task. BluePyOpt is an extensible framework for data-driven model parameter optimisation that wraps and standardizes several existing open-source tools. It simplifies the task of creating and sharing these optimisations, and the associated techniques and knowledge. This is achieved by abstracting the optimisation and evaluation tasks into various reusable and flexible discrete elements according to established best-practices. Further, BluePyOpt provides methods for setting up both small- and large-scale optimisations on a variety of platforms, ranging from laptops to Linux clusters and cloud-based compute infrastructures. The versatility of the BluePyOpt framework is demonstrated by working through three representative neuroscience specific use cases. PMID:27375471

  1. Effects of noise and task loading on a communication task loading on a communication task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, Dean H., II

    Previous research had shown the effect of noise on a single communication task. This research has been criticized as not being representative of a real world situation since subjects allocated all of their attention to only one task. In the present study, the effect of adding a loading task to a standard noise-communication paradigm was investigated. Subjects performed both a communication task (Modified Rhyme Test; House et al. 1965) and a short term memory task (Sternberg, 1969) in simulated levels of aircraft noise (95, 105 and 115 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL)). Task loading was varied with Sternberg's task by requiring subjects to memorize one, four, or six alphanumeric characters. Simulated aircraft noise was varied between levels of 95, 105 and 115 dB OASPL using a pink noise source. Results show that the addition of Sternberg's task and little effect on the intelligibility of the communication task while response time for the communication task increased.

  2. Mobile Thread Task Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  3. Rostering and Task Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders Høeg

    In a modern society, manpower can be both a scarce and an expensive resource. Skilled personnel is usually in high demand and accounts for a significant part of total expenses in many companies. When the work is divided in shifts, a roster is compiled to allocate these to the employees. The roste......In a modern society, manpower can be both a scarce and an expensive resource. Skilled personnel is usually in high demand and accounts for a significant part of total expenses in many companies. When the work is divided in shifts, a roster is compiled to allocate these to the employees...... as possible to the available staff, while respecting various requirements and rules and while including possible transportation time between tasks. This thesis presents a number of industrial applications in rostering and task scheduling. The applications exist within various contexts in health care...... to scheduling problems with temporal dependencies between tasks. However, these problems appear in various contexts and with different properties. A group of the problems considered are related to vehicle routing problems, where transportation and time windows are important factors that must be accounted for...

  4. Urban task force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubović Ljiljana V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Task Force Report has brought to our attention, that English towns and cities today require a new renaissance. The comprehensive planning has retarded urban living (Urban Renaissance, Sharing the Vision 01.99, 1999. Forty percent of inner-urban housing stock is subsidized 'social' housing. A review of the demographic and development trends have lead to the UK Government’s new urban policy that prioritizes the regeneration of towns and cities by building on recycled urban land and protecting the countryside. As result, Urban Task Force (UTF was founded the with the following aims To identify causes of urban decline in England; To recommend practical solutions how to bring people back into cities; To establish a new vision for urban regeneration based on the principles of design excellence, social well being and environmental responsibility within a viable economic and legislative framework (Urban Task Force, 1999:1. This paper represents the analysis of the economic and political effects of the program and its viability.

  5. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  6. Influence of Mn incorporation for Ni on the magnetocaloric properties of rapidly solidified off-stoichiometric NiMnGa ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sushmita; Singh, Satnam; Roy, R. K.; Ghosh, M.; Mitra, A.; Panda, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation addresses the magnetocaloric behaviour in a series of Ni77-xMnxGa23 (x=23, 24, 25, 27 and 29) rapidly solidified alloys prepared in the form of ribbons by melt spinning technique. The approach of the study is to identify the off-stoichiometric composition wherein room temperature magneto-structural transformation is achieved. The alloy chemistry was tailored through Mn incorporation for Ni such that the magnetic and structural transitions were at close proximity to achieve highest entropy value of ΔS equal to 8.51 J Kg-1 K-1 for #Mn24 ribbon measured at an applied field of 3 T. When such transitions are more staggered as in #Mn29 the entropy value of ribbon reduced to as low as 1.61 J Kg-1 K-1. Near room temperature transformations in #Mn24 ribbon have been observed through calorimetric and thermomagnetic evaluation. Reverse martensitic transformation (martensite→autstenite) temperature indicates not only distinct change in the saturation flux density but also an inter-martensitic phase. Microstructural analysis of #Mn24 alloy ribbon revealed structural ordering with the existence of plate morphology evidenced for martensitic phase.

  7. A Smart Polymer Composite Based on a NiTi Ribbon and a Magnetic Hybrid Material for Actuators with Multiphysic Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz López-Walle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A smart composite material constituted of a magnetic hybrid film and a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA ribbon was obtained and characterized. The magnetic hybrid film was joined to the NiTi ribbon in order to combine the properties of both materials. This new composite material combines magnetic properties of the hybrid film, (Fe2O3-CMC/(polyvinyl butyral, and the shape memory properties of the NiTi ribbon, which has a chemical composition of Ti-50.13 at. % Ni. This smart composite material has a mass of 18.3% NiTi ribbon and 81.7% magnetic hybrid film. Results obtained by DSC show that the smart composite material presents a small delay of transformation during warming and cooling because the magnetic hybrid film acts like a thermal insulator. Thermomechanical results indicate that the hybrid material also acts as a mechanical reinforcement, since it is observed that the Stress-Assisted Two-Way Memory Effect (SATWME of the smart composite is lower than the SATWME of the SMA ribbon. The density current values of phase transformations were clearly identified with a thermomechanical apparatus developed in our laboratory. Finally, displacements of the smart composite material in cantilever configuration are obtained by applying an external magnetic field. All these results demonstrate that the smart composite material can be activated by temperature, electrical current, stress, and/or magnetic field, offering good expectations for actuating applications with multiphysic transduction.

  8. Controlling magnetic domain wall positions with an external magnetic field and a low spin-polarized current in chamfered L-shaped ferromagnetic thin ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Syuta; Yamamoto, Daiki; Ohsawa, Tomokatsu; Gushi, Toshiki; Ito, Keita; Suemasu, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    Current-induced magnetic domain wall (DW) motion in ferromagnetic ribbons is utilized in spintronic devices. The direction of the motion changes in response to the sign of the spin-polarizability of the current through the ribbon. The DW motion is expected to measure the sign. In this study, we investigate the magnetic structures of chamfered L-shaped nano-ribbons using micro-magnetic simulations, and show that the position at which the DW is produced can be controlled by applying an external magnetic field with a low spin-polarized current (SPC). In particular, we use the material parameters of Fe4N and permalloy to simulate the magnetic structure of the ribbon. The DW can be produced at either of two locations in a chamfered corner of the ribbon, and disappears upon applying an external magnetic field. From this point, after the field is removed, a new DW is produced at either of two locations, and its position can be controlled by adjusting the low SPC.

  9. A Stable Blue Organic Electroluminescent Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新友; 吴有智; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to compare two kinds of blue electroluminescent materials,we have investigated two kinds of blue OLEDs with the similar structure ITO/CuPc/NPB/JBEM:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(J)] and ITO/CuPc/NPB/DPVBi:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(D)].The difference of luminance and efficiency was not obvious for the two devices,However,there was remarkable difference for their lifetime.The device(J) achieved longer half lifetime of 1035h at initial luminance of 100 cd/m2,and that of device(D) was only255h,According to their energy level diagrams,the differentce of their stability may originate from different host materials in the two devices.It may be attributed to the better thermal stability of JBEM molecues than that of DPVBi.It is shown that JBEM may be a promising blue organic electroluminescent material with great stability.

  10. Chinese Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Juan; LI; Jiazhi; DENG; Zequn; WANG; Changsui

    2004-01-01

    Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain specimens from the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties have been systematically analyzed using a nondestructive test method--?energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF). The derived data of major and trace element compositions have been treated by correspondence analysis. The variation laws of the composition patterns for Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain in different historical periods owing to the change in raw materials, recipe and technology have been discussed, and a time model related to variation of element composition has been preliminarily established, It would be helpful for scientific dating of Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain, and even for the studies on the whole field of identification of ancient ceramics.

  11. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  12. Fe基合金薄带的ALDGMI效应%LDGMI effect on amorphous Fe-based alloy ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建强; 卢振华

    2012-01-01

    采用单辊快淬法制备的Fe648Co7.2Nb4Si4.8B19.2非晶合金薄带(Fe基合金薄带),在潮湿的大气环境中进行直流焦耳热退火,利用阻抗仪检测了Fe基合金薄带的纵向驱动巨磁阻抗(LDGMI)效应,研究了驱动频率f与LDGMI效应之间的关系,发现存在临界频率fc =80MHz,且当f<fc时LDGMI曲线呈对称性;当f>fc时出现非对称纵向驱动巨磁阻抗效应(ALDGMI).分析认为,出现ALDGMI效应的原因可能是由于薄带表面氧化层与中心非晶软磁层之间的磁交换耦合作用所致.%Amorphous Fe64.8Co7.2Nb4Si4,8Big.2 alloy ribbons(Fe-based alloy ribbons) are prepared by single roller melt-spinning technique. The longitudinal driven gaint magneto-impedance (LDGMI) effect of the Fe-based alloy ribbons which annealed by Joule-heating in the atmosphere of humid air have been investigated by impedance-analyzer. The relationship between ac driven frequencies / and LDGMI effect is discussed and it is proved that has a critical frequency (fc = 80 MHz), the symmetric GMI behavior appears in frequency region(f- fc). The analysis shows that the AGMI effect may be responsible for the magnetic exchange coupling between surface oxide layer and inner amorphous layer.

  13. Current status of self-organized epitaxial graphene ribbons on the C face of 6H-SiC substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Nicolas; Caboni, Alessandra; Godignon, Philippe [IMB-CNM-CSIC, Campus UAB 08193-Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Tiberj, Antoine; Jouault, Benoit; Jabakhanji, Bilal; Camassel, Jean [GES, UMR-CNRS 5650, Universite Montpellier 2, 34095-Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Mestres, Narcis [ICMAB-CSIC, Campus UAB 08193- Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-22

    The current status of long, self-organized, epitaxial graphene ribbons grown on the (0 0 0 -1) face of 6H-SiC substrates is reviewed. First, starting from the early stage of growth it is shown that on the C face of 6H-SiC substrates the sublimation process is not homogeneous. Most of the time it starts from defective sites, dislocations or point defects, that define nearly circular flakes surrounded by bare SiC. These flakes have a volcano-like shape with a graphite chimney at the centre, where the original defect was located. At higher temperatures a complete conversion occurs, which is not yet homogeneous on the whole sample. This growth process can be modified by covering the sample with a graphite cap. It changes the physics of the surface reconstruction during the Si-sublimation process and, on the C face, makes more efficient the reconstruction of few selected terraces with respect to the others. The net result is the formation of strongly step-bunched areas with, in between, long and large reconstructed terraces covered by graphitic material. Despite the low intrinsic optical absorption of a few graphene layers on SiC, micro-transmission experiments, complemented by micro-Raman spectroscopy, demonstrate that most of this graphitic coverage is made of one or two homogeneous graphene layers. We show also that most of the thermal stress between the graphene layer and the 6H-SiC substrate is relaxed by pleats or wrinkles which are clearly visible on the AFM images. Finally, the results of transport experiments performed on the graphitic ribbons reveal the p-type character of the ribbons.

  14. Continuous, Automated Manufacturing of String Ribbon Si PV Modules: Final Report, 21 May 1998 - 20 May 2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the work done under a three-year PVMaT Phase 5A2 program. The overall goal was to attain a continuous, highly automated, fully integrated PV production line. In crystal growth, advances were made that resulted in lower substrate costs, higher yields, and lower capital and labor costs. A new string material was developed and implemented. Following this development, better control of the edge meniscus was achieved. A completely new furnace design was accomplished, and this became the standard platform in our new factory. Automation included ribbon thickness control and laser cutting of String Ribbon strips. Characterization of Evergreen's String Ribbon silicon was done with extensive help from the NREL laboratories, and this work provided a foundation for higher efficiency cells in the future. Advances in cell manufacturing included the development of high-speed printing and drying methods for Evergreen's unique cell making method and the design and building of a completely automated cell line from the beginning of front-contact application to the final tabbing of the cells. A so-called no-etch process whereby substrates from crystal growth go directly into p-n junction formation and emerge from this sequence without needing to go in and out of plastic carriers for any wet-chemical processing was developed. Process development as well as automation were brought to bear on improvements in soldering technology and cell interconnection in general. Using state-of-the-art manufacturing science, the Fraunhofer USA Center for Manufacturing Innovation at Boston University facilitated layout and process flow for the operation of our new factory. Evergreen Solar's new factory began operations in the second quarter of 2001. A good measure of the significant impact of this PVMaT subcontract is that virtually all of the manufacturing developments stemming from this project have been incorporated in this new factory

  15. Frequency dependence of the magnetostrictive phenomenon in Metglas® 2605SA1 ribbon: A minor-loop case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. U. Jen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Frequency dependence of magnetostrictive phenomenon of as-cast 2605SA1 ribbon was studied. We applied a sinusoidal sweeping field (H, with a fixed frequency (f, along length (L of the ribbon, and simultaneously recorded the longitudinal magnetostriction (λ∥ and the transverse magnetostriction (λ⊥ as a function of time (t, respectively. f was varied from 0.07 to 122 Hz. In the low-f case (f =0.07 Hz, we observed the frequency-doubling (FD feature in λ∥(t and λ⊥(t curves; i.e., only even harmonic magnetostrictive signals showed up. In the high-f case (f = 122 Hz, we observed the no-frequency-doubling (NFD feature; i.e., both odd and even harmonic magnetostrictive signals showed up. A theory, based on the balance among various torques acting on magnetization, is developed to explain the f dependence of the magnetostriction phenomenon observed. From this theory, we conclude that only when the reflection symmetry of the system is reserved, i.e., when the equivalent easy axis (EEA is perpendicular to L, will λ∥(t and λ⊥(t have the true-frequency-doubling (TFD feature. However, for the as-cast 2605SA1 ribbon, EEA is not perpendicular to L. Thus, strictly speaking, we should observe the NFD feature only. Nevertheless, in the low-f limit, we can show that the FD feature is somewhat allowed under the condition, b/α being close to 1, where b and α are the two parameters used in the theory. From experimental data, this condition is met for as-cast 2605SA1. To make a distinction from TFD, this low-f feature is called close-frequency-doubling (CFD in this paper. In general, the theory explains all the experimental results fairly well.

  16. Frequency dependence of the magnetostrictive phenomenon in Metglas 2605SA1 ribbon: A minor-loop case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, S. U.; Liu, C. C.; Lin, H. R.; Chou, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Frequency dependence of magnetostrictive phenomenon of as-cast 2605SA1 ribbon was studied. We applied a sinusoidal sweeping field (H), with a fixed frequency (f), along length (L) of the ribbon, and simultaneously recorded the longitudinal magnetostriction (λ∥) and the transverse magnetostriction (λ⊥) as a function of time (t), respectively. f was varied from 0.07 to 122 Hz. In the low-f case (f =0.07 Hz), we observed the frequency-doubling (FD) feature in λ∥(t) and λ⊥(t) curves; i.e., only even harmonic magnetostrictive signals showed up. In the high-f case (f = 122 Hz), we observed the no-frequency-doubling (NFD) feature; i.e., both odd and even harmonic magnetostrictive signals showed up. A theory, based on the balance among various torques acting on magnetization, is developed to explain the f dependence of the magnetostriction phenomenon observed. From this theory, we conclude that only when the reflection symmetry of the system is reserved, i.e., when the equivalent easy axis (EEA) is perpendicular to L, will λ∥(t) and λ⊥(t) have the true-frequency-doubling (TFD) feature. However, for the as-cast 2605SA1 ribbon, EEA is not perpendicular to L. Thus, strictly speaking, we should observe the NFD feature only. Nevertheless, in the low-f limit, we can show that the FD feature is somewhat allowed under the condition, b/α being close to 1, where b and α are the two parameters used in the theory. From experimental data, this condition is met for as-cast 2605SA1. To make a distinction from TFD, this low-f feature is called close-frequency-doubling (CFD) in this paper. In general, the theory explains all the experimental results fairly well.

  17. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  18. Bonding of a silver sheath on textured-powder ribbons of green-state Bi-2212 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Klaus; McIntyre, Peter; Damborsky, Kyle; Lu, Feng; Pogue, Nathaniel

    2011-10-01

    A novel method is being developed for fabrication of textured-powder jelly-roll (TPJR) Bi-2212/Ag superconducting wire for applications in high-field magnets. In this process two silver foils must be fused together to enclose a ribbon of compacted, textured Bi-2212 fine powder. Fusing the silver foils must be accomplished with minimum heating of the superconducting powder filling. We are investigating methods using cold-welding, ultrasonic welding, and laser welding. Results of those investigations will be reported.

  19. Terahertz resonances due to edge magnetoplasmons in a wide armchair graphene ribbon with a weak superlattice potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Balev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A strong modulation of the resonance frequencies and the gaps of edge magnetoplamons (EMPs, in the ribbon at the ν = 2 quantum Hall effect regime with a superlattice and a smooth steplike electrostatic lateral potential, due to a modulation of the interedge distance is shown. We obtain that, in a wide range of the interedge distances, within THz region the EMPs show wide frequency gaps and at peculiar frequencies the response of the system should manifest resonances. For the latter frequencies the group velocities are nullified.

  20. DeepBlue epigenomic data server: programmatic data retrieval and analysis of epigenome region sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Felipe; List, Markus; Bock, Christoph; Lengauer, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Large amounts of epigenomic data are generated under the umbrella of the International Human Epigenome Consortium, which aims to establish 1000 reference epigenomes within the next few years. These data have the potential to unravel the complexity of epigenomic regulation. However, their effective use is hindered by the lack of flexible and easy-to-use methods for data retrieval. Extracting region sets of interest is a cumbersome task that involves several manual steps: identifying the relevant experiments, downloading the corresponding data files and filtering the region sets of interest. Here we present the DeepBlue Epigenomic Data Server, which streamlines epigenomic data analysis as well as software development. DeepBlue provides a comprehensive programmatic interface for finding, selecting, filtering, summarizing and downloading region sets. It contains data from four major epigenome projects, namely ENCODE, ROADMAP, BLUEPRINT and DEEP. DeepBlue comes with a user manual, examples and a well-documented application programming interface (API). The latter is accessed via the XML-RPC protocol supported by many programming languages. To demonstrate usage of the API and to enable convenient data retrieval for non-programmers, we offer an optional web interface. DeepBlue can be openly accessed at http://deepblue.mpi-inf.mpg.de. PMID:27084938

  1. DeepBlue epigenomic data server: programmatic data retrieval and analysis of epigenome region sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Felipe; List, Markus; Bock, Christoph; Lengauer, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Large amounts of epigenomic data are generated under the umbrella of the International Human Epigenome Consortium, which aims to establish 1000 reference epigenomes within the next few years. These data have the potential to unravel the complexity of epigenomic regulation. However, their effective use is hindered by the lack of flexible and easy-to-use methods for data retrieval. Extracting region sets of interest is a cumbersome task that involves several manual steps: identifying the relevant experiments, downloading the corresponding data files and filtering the region sets of interest. Here we present the DeepBlue Epigenomic Data Server, which streamlines epigenomic data analysis as well as software development. DeepBlue provides a comprehensive programmatic interface for finding, selecting, filtering, summarizing and downloading region sets. It contains data from four major epigenome projects, namely ENCODE, ROADMAP, BLUEPRINT and DEEP. DeepBlue comes with a user manual, examples and a well-documented application programming interface (API). The latter is accessed via the XML-RPC protocol supported by many programming languages. To demonstrate usage of the API and to enable convenient data retrieval for non-programmers, we offer an optional web interface. DeepBlue can be openly accessed at http://deepblue.mpi-inf.mpg.de.

  2. Calorimetry Task Force Report

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Banerjee, Sunanda; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bhatti, Anwar; Chlebana, Frank; Cossutti, Fabio; Hirschauer, James; Ivanchenko, V; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Kunori, Shuichi; Kroeger, Rob; Liu, Yanwen; Moeller, Anthony; Paulini, Manfred; Piperov, Stefan; Rahmat, Rahmat; Rovelli, Chiara; Safronov, Grigory; Sharma, Seema; Spiropulu, Maria; Yetkin, Taylan

    2010-01-01

    In this note we summarize the progress made by the calorimeter simulation task force (CaloTF) over the past year. The CaloTF was established in February 2008 in order to understand and reconcile the discrepancies observed between the CMS calorimetry simulation and test beam data recorded during 2004 and 2006. The simulation has been significantly improved by using a newer version of Geant4 and an improved physics list for the full CMS detector simulation. Simulation times have been reduced by introducing flexible parameterizations to describe showering in the calorimeter (using a Gflash-like approach) which have been tuned to the test beam data.

  3. Quarternary tectonics, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.W.

    1993-09-30

    Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.

  4. High critical current silver-Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-x superconducting multilayer ribbons produced by rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilayer ribbons have been fabricated from 0.004 in. thick silver strips, coated with Bi-2212 powder. After stacking and sealing in an evacuated silver box and cold-rolling to a 0.023 in. thick sandwich, very encouraging superconductive behavior has been observed. At 4.2 K such a ribbon carried critical currents of 200 A and 100 A, respectively, in fields of 0 T and 2.8 T, correspond to current density values of 4.2 x 104 A/cm2 and 2.1 x 104A/cm2; at 77 K the current decreased to 2.5 A in zero field. Considerable grain alignment in the superconductor was noted close to the silver sheath in ribbons with these results

  5. Development of variable-width ribbon heating elements for liquid-metal and gas-cooled fast breeder reactor fuel-pin simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variable-width ribbon heating elements that provide a chopped-cosine variable heat flux profile have been fabricated for fuel pin simulators used in test loops by the Breeder Reactor Program Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety test facility and the Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor-Core Flow Test Loop. Thermal, mechanical, and electrical design considerations are used to derive an analytical expression that precisely describes ribbon contour in terms of the major fabrication parameters. These parameters are used to generate numerical control tapes that control ribbon cutting and winding machines. Infrared scanning techniques are developed to determine the optimum transient thermal profile of the coils and relate this profile to that generated by the coils in completed fuel pin simulators

  6. Magnetization and demagnetization behaviours of melt-spun Pr12Fe82B6 and Pr8Fe87B5 ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Xiao-Bo; Zhang Hong-Wei; Rong Chuan-Bing; Zhang Jian; Zhang Shao-Ying; Shen Bao-Gen; Yan Yu; Jin Han-Min

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Prl2Fe82B6 and nanocomposite Pr8Fe87B5 ribbons have been prepared using a melt spinning technique. Recoil loops have been measured at 20, 200 and 300K. Demagnetization curves are analysed by dividing it into reversible and irreversible portions. High recoil loop susceptibility at low applied field and large reversible change in the demagnetization curve have been found in Pr8Fe87B5 ribbons, showing that the reversible behaviours in nanocomposite permanent magnets originate primarily from the magnetically soft phase. The hysteresis in recoil loops found in Pr8Fe87B5 ribbons originates from the soft phase α-Fe that suffers a stress.

  7. Social Pressures and Task Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the impact of the actions of others on task performance – citing that both social acceptance and ostracism can increase task performance (Lustenberger & Jagacinski, 2010; Jamieson et. al., 2010). In this study, the relationship between social inclusion/ostracism and performance on a verbal comprehension task is investigated in an attempt to discover which is more potent in influencing task performance. Two forms of social conditioning are used; face-to-face ...

  8. Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2013-08-01

    Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example -- named Mallard Blue -- has now been shown to have excellent sensing properties under biologically relevant conditions.

  9. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency Medicine," and "FDA Consumer"…

  10. Kinematics of luminous blue compact galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östlin, Göran; Amram, Philippe; Boulesteix, Jaques; Bergvall, Nils; Masegosa, Josefa; Márquez, Isabel

    We present results from a Fabry-Perot study of the Hα velocity fields and morphologies of a sample of luminous blue compact galaxies. We estimate masses from photometry and kinematics and show that many of these BCGs are not rotationally supported. Mergers or strong interactions appear to be the triggering mechanism of the extreme starbursts seen in these galaxies.

  11. Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Bob

    1978-01-01

    Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)

  12. Modeling of spectral characteristics of blue LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders

    2010-01-01

    are expected to vary with current and junction temperature. Commercial high power blue LEDs were measured with respect to spectral distribution and chromaticity and the result was compared with the model predictions. We have found that the models predict significantly different results with respect...

  13. Blue nano titania made in diffusion flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleki, Alexandra; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2009-05-21

    Blue titanium suboxide nanoparticles (including Magneli phases) were formed directly without any post-processing or addition of dopants by combustion of titanium-tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) vapor at atmospheric pressure. Particle size, phase composition, rutile and anatase crystal sizes as well as the blue coloration were controlled by rapid quenching of the flame with a critical flow nozzle placed at various heights above the burner. The particles showed a broad absorption in the near-infrared region and retained their blue color upon storage in ambient atmosphere. A high concentration of paramagnetic Ti3+ centres was found in the substoichiometric particles by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Furthermore particles with controlled band gap energy from 3.2 to 3.6 eV were made by controlling the burner-nozzle-distance from 10 to 1 cm, respectively. The color robustness and extent of suboxidation could be further enhanced by co-oxidation of TTIP with hexamethyldisiloxane in the flame resulting in SiO2-coated titanium suboxide particles. The process is cost-effective and green while the particles produced can replace traditional blue colored, cobalt-containing pigments. PMID:19421486

  14. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  15. Key Words in China Economic Blue Book

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Fei

    2009-01-01

    @@ With a fluctuating 2008 comes to an end,nOW new 2009 has approaehed to us.Recently、Analvsis and Forecast of China Economy in 2009(Blue Book of Ckina Economy),by the Economics Department or Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

  16. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. PMID:27039979

  17. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, E.

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  18. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  19. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While mol

  20. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... undesirable microorganisms. Antimycotics may be applied to the surface of the whole cheese. One or more of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and...