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Sample records for blue native polyacrylamide

  1. Combining blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as an effective strategy for analyzing potential membrane protein complexes of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease in humans caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and infects one-third of the world's total population. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine has been widely used to prevent tuberculosis worldwide since 1921. Membrane proteins play important roles in various cellular processes, and the protein-protein interactions involved in these processes may provide further information about molecular organization and cellular pathways. However, membrane proteins are notoriously under-represented by traditional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE and little is known about mycobacterial membrane and membrane-associated protein complexes. Here we investigated M. bovis BCG by an alternative proteomic strategy coupling blue native PAGE to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to characterize potential protein-protein interactions in membrane fractions. Results Using this approach, we analyzed native molecular composition of protein complexes in BCG membrane fractions. As a result, 40 proteins (including 12 integral membrane proteins, which were organized in 9 different gel bands, were unambiguous identified. The proteins identified have been experimentally confirmed using 2-D SDS PAGE. We identified MmpL8 and four neighboring proteins that were involved in lipid transport complexes, and all subunits of ATP synthase complex in their monomeric states. Two phenolpthiocerol synthases and three arabinosyltransferases belonging to individual operons were obtained in different gel bands. Furthermore, two giant multifunctional enzymes, Pks7 and Pks8, and four mycobacterial Hsp family members were determined. Additionally, seven ribosomal proteins involved in polyribosome complex and two subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex were also found. Notablely, some proteins with high hydrophobicity or multiple transmembrane

  2. Combining blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as an effective strategy for analyzing potential membrane protein complexes of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianhua; Wei, Candong; Zhao, Lina; Liu, Liguo; Leng, Wenchuan; Li, Weijun; Jin, Qi

    2011-01-18

    Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease in humans caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and infects one-third of the world's total population. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been widely used to prevent tuberculosis worldwide since 1921. Membrane proteins play important roles in various cellular processes, and the protein-protein interactions involved in these processes may provide further information about molecular organization and cellular pathways. However, membrane proteins are notoriously under-represented by traditional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and little is known about mycobacterial membrane and membrane-associated protein complexes. Here we investigated M. bovis BCG by an alternative proteomic strategy coupling blue native PAGE to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to characterize potential protein-protein interactions in membrane fractions. Using this approach, we analyzed native molecular composition of protein complexes in BCG membrane fractions. As a result, 40 proteins (including 12 integral membrane proteins), which were organized in 9 different gel bands, were unambiguous identified. The proteins identified have been experimentally confirmed using 2-D SDS PAGE. We identified MmpL8 and four neighboring proteins that were involved in lipid transport complexes, and all subunits of ATP synthase complex in their monomeric states. Two phenolpthiocerol synthases and three arabinosyltransferases belonging to individual operons were obtained in different gel bands. Furthermore, two giant multifunctional enzymes, Pks7 and Pks8, and four mycobacterial Hsp family members were determined. Additionally, seven ribosomal proteins involved in polyribosome complex and two subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex were also found. Notablely, some proteins with high hydrophobicity or multiple transmembrane helixes were identified well in our work. In this

  3. Effects of turbidity, sediment, and polyacrylamide on native freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Sean B.; Cope, W. Gregory; McLaughlin, Richard A.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2018-01-01

    Turbidity is a ubiquitous pollutant adversely affecting water quality and aquatic life in waterways globally. Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is widely used as an effective chemical flocculent to reduce suspended sediment (SS) and turbidity. However, no information exists on the toxicity of PAM‐flocculated sediments to imperiled, but ecologically important, freshwater mussels (Unionidae). Thus, we conducted acute (96 h) and chronic (24 day) laboratory tests with juvenile fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and three exposure conditions (nonflocculated settled sediment, SS, and PAM‐flocculated settled sediment) over a range of turbidity levels (50, 250, 1,250, and 3,500 nephelometric turbidity units). Survival and sublethal endpoints of protein oxidation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, and protein concentration were used as measures of toxicity. We found no effect of turbidity levels or exposure condition on mussel survival in acute or chronic tests. However, we found significant reductions in protein concentration, ATP production, and oxidized proteins in mussels acutely exposed to the SS condition, which required water movement to maintain sediment in suspension, indicating responses that are symptoms of physiological stress. Our results suggest anionic PAM applied to reduce SS may minimize adverse effects of short‐term turbidity exposure on juvenile freshwater mussels without eliciting additional lethal or sublethal toxicity.

  4. Purification of Escherichia coli L-asparaginase mutants by a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yujun; Chen, Jianhua; Jia, Ruibo; Wang, Min; Wu, Wutong

    2008-07-01

    The antigenicity of L-asaparaginase (L-ASP) has been problematic for the treatment of leukemia for many years. In order to establish a relationship between the antigenic epitope of L-asparaginase and its antigenicity, several L-asparaginase mutants (mL-ASPs) are constructed and expressed. To effectively purify these enzyme mutants for further investigation, a native preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is developed. The simplicity and reproducibility of this approach permits the purification of different mutants from the crude enzyme extracts, with a sufficient activity to perform immunological and biological studies. Furthermore, the newly developed method is efficient and cost-effective compared with other methods, such as column chromatography and affinity chromatography. As a result, the enzyme mutants with specific activity of 300 approximately 400 U/mg are obtained by the single-step purification with a high degree of purity.

  5. Identification of unknown protein complex members by radiolocalization and analysis of low-abundance complexes resolved using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Mahuya; Adams, Brian P; Whittal, Randy M; Bose, Himangshu S

    2008-02-01

    Identification of unknown binding partners of a protein of interest can be a difficult process. Current strategies to determine protein binding partners result in a high amount of false-positives, requiring use of several different methods to confirm the accuracy of the apparent association. We have developed and utilized a method that is reliable and easily substantiated. Complexes are isolated from cell extract after exposure to the radiolabeled protein of interest, followed by resolution on a native polyacrylamide gel. Native conformations are preserved, allowing the complex members to maintain associations. By radiolabeling the protein of interest, the complex can be easily identified at detection levels below the threshold of Serva Blue, Coomassie, and silver stains. The visualized radioactive band is analyzed by MS to identify binding partners, which can be subsequently verified by antibody shift and immunoprecipitation of the complex. By using this method we have successfully identified binding partners of two proteins that reside in different locations of a cellular organelle.

  6. Species identification of smoked and gravad fish products by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, urea isoelectric focusing and native isoelectric focusing : a collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, I.; Craig, A.; Etienne, M.

    2000-01-01

    A collaborative study on the use of sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), urea-isoelectric focusing (urea-IEF) and native isoelectric focusing for the identification of species of smoked salmonids, gravad salmonids and smoked eels was carried out by eight laborator......A collaborative study on the use of sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), urea-isoelectric focusing (urea-IEF) and native isoelectric focusing for the identification of species of smoked salmonids, gravad salmonids and smoked eels was carried out by eight...... laboratories. With SDS-PAGE, minor changes took place in the profiles of the processed salmonid species making it impossible or Very difficult to identify closely related species. With urea-IEF, there were fewer changes in the profiles due to processing and the system generally had greater species......-discriminating power for the processed salmonids than SDS-PAGE. The profiles of the eel species as obtained on SDS-PAGE or urea-IEF were not affected by smoking. Urea-IEF had greater species- discriminating power than SDS-PAGE for the eel species. Native IEF was useful in providing supplementary identification...

  7. Separation of Native Allophycocyanin and R-Phycocyanin from Marine Red Macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Performed in Novel Buffer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gong, Xueqin; Wang, Shumei; Chen, Lixue; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Three buffer systems of Imidazole−Acetic acid, HEPES−Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris−HEPES−MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP) and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES−Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris−HEPES−MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems. PMID:25166028

  8. LC-MS/MS as an alternative for SDS-PAGE in blue native analysis of protein complexes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, H.C.T.; Vogel, R.O.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Farhoud, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE is widely applied to investigate native protein-protein interactions, particularly those within membrane multi-protein complexes. MS has enabled the application of this approach at the proteome scale, typically by analysis of picked protein spots. Here, we

  9. Analyzing import intermediates of mitochondrial proteins by blue native gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waizenegger, Thomas; Rapaport, Doron

    2007-01-01

    Blue native gel electrophoresis (BNGE) is a powerful tool for analyzing native protein complexes from biological membranes as well as water-soluble proteins. It can be used for determining relative molecular masses of protein complexes and their subunit composition and for the detection of subcomplexes. We describe the analysis by BNGE of in vitro import reactions composed of radiolabeled precursor proteins and isolated mitochondria. Such an analysis is a powerful tool to follow import intermediates and to study assembly of protein complexes. Analysis of import reactions by BNGE provides information on the molecular mass of the complex with which the imported precursor is associated. In addition, components of such a complex can be identified by incubating the mitochondrial lysate with either soluble antibodies or antibodies coupled to protein A matrix. The binding of soluble antibodies to specific complexes results in an observed shift in their apparent molecular mass (antibody shift). Alternatively, addition of matrix-bound antibodies followed by removal of the matrix from the mixture will result in depletion of the specific complex from the mitochondrial lysate (antibody depletion). The experimental details of these techniques are described.

  10. Investigating temporal patterns of a native bee community in a remnant North American bunchgrass prairie using blue vane traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Chiho; Debano, Sandra J; Thorp, Robbin W; Rao, Sujaya; Stephen, William P

    2012-01-01

    Native bees are important ecologically and economically because their role as pollinators fulfills a vital ecosystem service. Pollinators are declining due to various factors, including habitat degradation and destruction. Grasslands, an important habitat for native bees, are particularly vulnerable. One highly imperiled and understudied grassland type in the United States is the Pacific Northwest Bunchgrass Prairie. No studies have examined native bee communities in this prairie type. To fill this gap, the bee fauna of the Zumwalt Prairie, a large, relatively intact remnant of the Pacific Northwest Bunchgrass Prairie, was examined. Native bees were sampled during the summers of 2007 and 2008 in sixteen 40-ha study pastures on a plateau in northeastern Oregon, using a sampling method not previously used in grassland studies-blue vane traps. This grassland habitat contained an abundant and diverse community of native bees that experienced marked seasonal and inter-annual variation, which appears to be related to weather and plant phenology. Temporal variability evident over the entire study area was also reflected at the individual trap level, indicating a consistent response across the spatial scale of the study. These results demonstrate that temporal variability in bee communities can have important implications for long-term monitoring protocols. In addition, the blue vane trap method appears to be well-suited for studies of native bees in large expanses of grasslands or other open habitats, and may be a useful tool for monitoring native bee communities in these systems.

  11. The role of habitat-selection in restricting invasive blue mussel advancement to protect native populations in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, N.; Saarman, N. P.; Pogson, G.

    2013-12-01

    Introduced species contribute to decline of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Introduced species threaten native species by increasing competition for space and resources, changing their habitat, and disrupting species interactions. Protecting native species is crucial to preserving ecosystem services (i.e. medicinal, agricultural, ecological, and cultural benefits) for future generations. In marine communities, the number of invasive species is dramatically increasing every year, further magnifying the negative impact on native species. This research determines if habitat-specific selection can protect native species from their invasive relatives, and could allow targeted habitat restoration for native species to maintain high levels of biodiversity. Blue mussels provide an ideal system for studying the impact of an invasive species (Mytilus galloprovincialis) on native mussels (M. trossulus), because M. galloprovincialis is marked as one of the world's 100 worst invasive species. Hybridization between M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus occurs wherever their distributions overlap (i.e. Japan, Puget Sound, and central California). In central California, hybrids form in a broad variety of habitats ever since M. galloprovincialis was introduced about 100 years ago. The current level of threat posed to native mussels in central California is unknown. When population growth rate of an invasive species is higher than the native within a hybrid zone, the invader's genes become more prominent in the hybrids than the native species' genes. This uneven mix of genes and decrease of pure native mussels threatens to drive M. trossulus to extinction. Therefore, it is important to research which environment fosters highest success of pure native species. We conducted a field experiment in San Francisco Bay where mussels were reared in different habitats. We then collected samples and extracted DNA from each treatment, and genotyped them by a next-generation sequencing

  12. Electroblotting from Polyacrylamide Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Aaron; Ursitti, Jeanine A; Mozdzanowski, Jacek; Speicher, David W

    2015-11-02

    Transferring proteins from polyacrylamide gels onto retentive membranes is now primarily used for immunoblotting. A second application that was quite common up to about a decade ago was electroblotting of proteins for N-terminal and internal sequencing using Edman chemistry. This unit contains procedures for electroblotting proteins from polyacrylamide gels onto a variety of membranes, including polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and nitrocellulose. In addition to the commonly used tank or wet transfer system, protocols are provided for electroblotting using semidry and dry systems. This unit also describes procedures for eluting proteins from membranes using detergents or acidic extraction with organic solvents for specialized applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Enhanced native acceptor-related blue emission of ZnO thin films annealed in an oxygen ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Eunhee; Lee, Choeun; Jung, Eiwhan; Lee, Jinyong; Kim, Doosoo; Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Deukyoung; Lee, Sejoon

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamic behaviors of charged point defects in unintentionally-doped ZnO thin films were investigated. The as-grown sample displayed two different types of blue-emission bands: one at ∼2.95 eV from native-donor zinc interstitial (Zn i ) and the other at ∼3.17 eV from native acceptor zinc vacancies (V Zn ). In the samples annealed at oxygen ambience, V Zn -related emission was dramatically enhanced, and Zn i -related emission was drastically reduced. The behavior was observed to become more apparent when the annealing temperature was increased. The results can be explained by both the increased generation probability and the lowered formation enthalpy of V Zn in an oxygen-rich environment, particularly at higher temperatures.

  14. Enhanced native acceptor-related blue emission of ZnO thin films annealed in an oxygen ambient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Eunhee; Lee, Choeun; Jung, Eiwhan; Lee, Jinyong; Kim, Doosoo; Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Deukyoung; Lee, Sejoon [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The thermodynamic behaviors of charged point defects in unintentionally-doped ZnO thin films were investigated. The as-grown sample displayed two different types of blue-emission bands: one at ∼2.95 eV from native-donor zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}) and the other at ∼3.17 eV from native acceptor zinc vacancies (V{sub Zn}). In the samples annealed at oxygen ambience, V{sub Zn}-related emission was dramatically enhanced, and Zn{sub i}-related emission was drastically reduced. The behavior was observed to become more apparent when the annealing temperature was increased. The results can be explained by both the increased generation probability and the lowered formation enthalpy of V{sub Zn} in an oxygen-rich environment, particularly at higher temperatures.

  15. Deeply hidden inside introduced biogenic structures - Pacific oyster reefs reduce detrimental barnacle overgrowth on native blue mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschbaum, Christian; Cornelius, Annika; Goedknegt, M. Anouk

    2016-11-01

    In sedimentary coastal ecosystems shells of epibenthic organisms such as blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) provide the only major attachment surface for barnacle epibionts, which may cause detrimental effects on their mussel basibionts by e.g. reducing growth rate. In the European Wadden Sea, beds of native blue mussels have been invaded by Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas, which transformed these beds into mixed reefs of oysters with mussels. In this study, we determined the spatial distribution of M. edulis and their barnacle epibionts (Semibalanus balanoides) within the reef matrix. Mean mussel density near the bottom was about twice as high compared to the mussel density near the top of an oyster reef, whereas barnacles on mussels showed a reversed pattern. Barnacle dry weight per mussel was on average 14 times higher near the top than at the bottom. This pattern was confirmed by experimentally placing clean M. edulis at the top and on the bottom of oyster reefs at two sites in the Wadden Sea (island of Texel, The Netherlands; island of Sylt, Germany). After an experimental period of five weeks (April and May 2015, the main settlement period of S. balanoides), the number of barnacles per mussel was at both sites significantly higher on mussels near the top compared to near the bottom. We conclude that the oyster reef matrix offers a refuge for M. edulis: inside reefs they are not only better protected against predators but also against detrimental barnacle overgrowth. This study shows that alien species can cause beneficial effects for native organisms and should not be generally considered as a risk for the recipient marine ecosystems.

  16. Proteomic screen for multiprotein complexes in synaptic plasma membrane from rat hippocampus by blue native gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanwen; Xie, Chunliang; Jin, Qihui; Liu, Mingjun; He, Quanyuan; Cao, Rui; Lin, Yong; Li, Jianglin; Li, Yan; Chen, Ping; Liang, Songping

    2009-07-01

    Neuronal synapses are specialized sites for information exchange between neurons. Many diseases, such as addiction and mood disorders, likely result from altered expression of synaptic proteins, or altered formation of synaptic complexes involved in neurotransmission or neuroplasticity. A detailed description of native multiprotein complexes in synaptic plasma membranes (PM) is therefore essential for understanding biological mechanisms and disease processes. For the first time in this study, two-dimensional Blue Native/SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, combined with tandem mass spectrometry, was used to screen multiprotein complexes in synaptic plasma membranes from rat hippocampus. As a result, 514 unique proteins were identified, of which 36% were integral membrane proteins. In addition, 19 potentially novel and known heterooligomeric multiprotein complexes were found, such as the SNARE and ATPase complexes. A potentially novel protein complex, involving syntaxin, synapsin I and Na+/K+ ATPase alpha-1, was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining. As demonstrated here, Blue Native-PAGE is a powerful tool for the separation of hydrophobic membrane proteins. The combination of Blue Native-PAGE and mass spectrometry could systematically identify multiprotein complexes.

  17. Acute toxicity of polyacrylamide flocculants to early life stages of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Sean B.; Cope, W. Gregory; McLaughlin, Richard A.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Polyacrylamide has become an effective tool for reducing construction-related suspended sediment and turbidity, which are considered to have significant adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems and are a leading cause of the degradation of North American streams and rivers. However, little is known about the effects of polyacrylamide on many freshwater organisms, and prior to the present study, no information existed on the toxicity of polyacrylamide compounds to native freshwater mussels (family Unionidae), one of the most imperiled faunal groups globally. Following standard test guidelines, we exposed juvenile mussels (test duration 96 h) and glochidia larvae (test duration 24 h) to 5 different anionic polyacrylamide compounds and 1 non-ionic compound. Species tested included the yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa), an Atlantic Slope species that is listed as endangered in North Carolina; the Appalachian elktoe (Alasmidonta raveneliana), a federally endangered Interior Basin species; and the washboard (Megalonaias nervosa), a common Interior Basin species. We found that median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of polyacrylamide ranged from 411.7 to >1000 mg/L for glochidia and from 126.8 to >1000 mg/L for juveniles. All LC50s were orders of magnitude greater (2–3) than concentrations typically recommended for turbidity control (1–5 mg/L), regardless of their molecular weight or charge density. The results demonstrate that the polyacrylamide compounds tested were not acutely toxic to the mussel species and life stages tested, indicating minimal risk of short-term exposure from polyacrylamide applications in the environment. However, other potential uses of polyacrylamide in the environment (e.g., wastewater treatment, paper processing, mining, algae removal) and their chronic or sublethal effects remain uncertain and warrant additional investigation.

  18. Two distinct mtDNA lineages of the blue crab reveal large-scale population structure in its native Atlantic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz Rodrigues, Marcos; Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; dos Santos, Cléverson Rannieri Meira; D'Incao, Fernando; Weiss, Steven; Froufe, Elsa

    2017-10-01

    For the first time, a molecular approach was used to evaluate the phylogenetic structure of the disjunct native American distribution of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Population structure was investigated by sequencing 648bp of the Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI), in a total of 138 sequences stemming from individual samples from both the northern and southern hemispheres of the Western Atlantic distribution of the species. A Bayesian approach was used to construct a phylogenetic tree for all samples, and a 95% confidence parsimony network was created to depict the relationship among haplotypes. Results revealed two highly distinct lineages, one containing all samples from the United States and some from Brazil (lineage 1) and the second restricted to Brazil (lineage 2). In addition, gene flow (at least for females) was detected among estuaries at local scales and there is evidence for shared haplotypes in the south. Furthermore, the findings of this investigation support the contemporary introduction of haplotypes that have apparently spread from the south to the north Atlantic.

  19. Overexpression of the Synthetic Chimeric Native-T-phylloplanin-GFP Genes Optimized for Monocot and Dicot Plants Renders Enhanced Resistance to Blue Mold Disease in Tobacco (N. tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the natural plant resistance and to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of phylloplanin against blue mold, we have expressed a synthetic chimeric native-phylloplanin-GFP protein fusion in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. KY14, a cultivar that is highly susceptible to infection by Peronospora tabacina. The coding sequence of the tobacco phylloplanin gene along with its native signal peptide was fused with GFP at the carboxy terminus. The synthetic chimeric gene (native-phylloplanin-GFP was placed between the modified Mirabilis mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter with duplicated enhancer domains and the terminator sequence from the rbcSE9 gene. The chimeric gene, expressed in transgenic tobacco, was stably inherited in successive plant generations as shown by molecular characterization, GFP quantification, and confocal fluorescent microscopy. Transgenic plants were morphologically similar to wild-type plants and showed no deleterious effects due to transgene expression. Blue mold-sensitivity assays of tobacco lines were performed by applying P. tabacina sporangia to the upper leaf surface. Transgenic lines expressing the fused synthetic native-phyllopanin-GFP gene in the leaf apoplast showed resistance to infection. Our results demonstrate that in vivo expression of a synthetic fused native-phylloplanin-GFP gene in plants can potentially achieve natural protection against microbial plant pathogens, including P. tabacina in tobacco.

  20. The Goat (Capra hircus) Mammary Gland Mitochondrial Proteome: A Study on the Effect of Weight Loss Using Blue-Native PAGE and Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugno, Graziano; Parreira, José R; Ferlizza, Enea; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Carneiro, Mariana; Renaut, Jenny; Castro, Noemí; Arguello, Anastasio; Capote, Juan; Campos, Alexandre M O; Almeida, André M

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is the most important limitation to animal production in the Tropical and Mediterranean regions, conditioning producer's incomes and the nutritional status of rural communities. It is of importance to produce strategies to oppose adverse effects of SWL. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Most of the factors determining such ability are related to changes in biochemical pathways as affected by SWL. In this study, a gel based proteomics strategy (BN: Blue-Native Page and 2DE: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) was used to characterize the mitochondrial proteome of the secretory tissue of the goat mammary gland. In addition, we have conducted an investigation of the effects of weight loss in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptation to nutritional stress: Majorera (tolerant) and Palmera (susceptible). The study used Majorera and Palmera dairy goats, divided in 4 sets, 2 for each breed: underfed group fed on wheat straw (restricted diet, so their body weight would be 15-20% reduced by the end of experiment), and a control group fed with an energy-balanced diet. At the end of the experimental period (22 days), mammary gland biopsies were obtained for all experimental groups. The proteomic analysis of the mitochondria enabled the resolution of a total of 277 proteins, and 148 (53%) were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins were identified as subunits of the glutamate dehydrogenase complex and the respiratory complexes I, II, IV, V from mitochondria, as well as numerous other proteins with functions in: metabolism, development, localization, cellular organization and biogenesis, biological regulation, response to stimulus, among others, that were mapped in both BN and 2DE gels. The comparative proteomics analysis enabled the identification of several proteins: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit and lamin B1 mitochondrial (up

  1. The Goat (Capra hircus Mammary Gland Mitochondrial Proteome: A Study on the Effect of Weight Loss Using Blue-Native PAGE and Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziano Cugno

    Full Text Available Seasonal weight loss (SWL is the most important limitation to animal production in the Tropical and Mediterranean regions, conditioning producer's incomes and the nutritional status of rural communities. It is of importance to produce strategies to oppose adverse effects of SWL. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Most of the factors determining such ability are related to changes in biochemical pathways as affected by SWL. In this study, a gel based proteomics strategy (BN: Blue-Native Page and 2DE: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to characterize the mitochondrial proteome of the secretory tissue of the goat mammary gland. In addition, we have conducted an investigation of the effects of weight loss in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptation to nutritional stress: Majorera (tolerant and Palmera (susceptible. The study used Majorera and Palmera dairy goats, divided in 4 sets, 2 for each breed: underfed group fed on wheat straw (restricted diet, so their body weight would be 15-20% reduced by the end of experiment, and a control group fed with an energy-balanced diet. At the end of the experimental period (22 days, mammary gland biopsies were obtained for all experimental groups. The proteomic analysis of the mitochondria enabled the resolution of a total of 277 proteins, and 148 (53% were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins were identified as subunits of the glutamate dehydrogenase complex and the respiratory complexes I, II, IV, V from mitochondria, as well as numerous other proteins with functions in: metabolism, development, localization, cellular organization and biogenesis, biological regulation, response to stimulus, among others, that were mapped in both BN and 2DE gels. The comparative proteomics analysis enabled the identification of several proteins: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit and lamin B1 mitochondrial

  2. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four strains of eri, Samia cynthia ricini Lepidoptera: Saturniidae that can be identified morphologically and maintained at North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat were characterized based on their protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and DNA by random ...

  3. Polyacrylamide gel polymerization with adjustable gelation rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiesner, Ivo; Wiesnerová, Dana

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2002), s. 740-742 ISSN 0736-6205 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5052113; GA ČR GA521/00/0075 Keywords : polyacrylamide gel Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.173, year: 2002

  4. Structural investigation on gamma-irradiated polyacrylamide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultraviolet (UV)–visible spectroscopictechniques are used to investigate the microstructural changes in polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels on gamma irradiation. SANS measurements have revealed the presence of inhomogeneities in nanometre scale and reduction of their size ...

  5. Structural investigation on gamma-irradiated polyacrylamide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels; small-angle neutron scattering; UV–visible spectra; gamma ... dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy techniques and also by equilibrium swelling theory [10,11]. Here, for the first time, we report the effect of γ-irradiation on inhomogeneities and cor- ... The solid lines are guides to the eye.

  6. Enhanced oil recovery using novel polyacrylamides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Antonius Augustinus; Picchionni, Francesco; Zacarias, Diego Armando

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a polymer comprising a central structure to which n branches are covalently attached, wherein n is an integer from 1 to 50, wherein the branches comprise polyacrylamide moieties, wherein the theoretical number average molecular weight of the polymer is at least 100,000g/mol.

  7. Polyacrylamide polymers derived from acrylonitrile without intermediate isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1977-04-05

    Hydrolyzed and neutralized acrylonitrile is polymerized in solution without isolation to produce a high molecular weight polyacrylamide useful for mobility control in secondary recovery of petroleum. The polyacrylamide optionally may be hydrolyzed, methylolated, and sulfomethylated to further enhance its water-thickening properties. This procedure reduces the cost of making polyacrylamide. (5 claims)

  8. Ultrasonic flotational separation of syrup with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng SiXian; Qiu TaiQiu; Xie XiongFei; Hu SongQing

    1998-01-01

    A 60 degrees Bx solution of Australian raw sugar was treated at 80 degrees C with 300 ppm phosphoric acid and neutralized to pH 7 with Ca(OH)2. The resulting syrup (as model cane syrup rather than phosphatated liquor?) was subjected to flotational separation with and without ultrasonic vibration (16.5-33 kHz, 20-300 W) and/or addition of polyacrylamide (PAM; dose not stated)

  9. Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1996-01-01

    Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide gels, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained gels, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the gels is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated gels is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared gels, in contrast to blotting from wet stained gels, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the gel pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from complex mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.

  10. Disc electrophoresis and related techniques of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maurer, H. R

    1971-01-01

    ..., enzymes, antingens and radioactively labelled materials, and detailed treatments of micro disc electrophoresis, preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and many other techniques for special problems...

  11. Quantitative aspects of the cytochemical demonstration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with tetranitro BT studied in a model system of polyacrylamide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Tas, J.

    1980-01-01

    The cytochemical determination of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) with tetranitro blue tetrazolium (TNBT) was studied with model films of polyacrylamide gel incorporating purified enzyme. This model system enabled a quantitative study to be made of different parameters

  12. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic preparation of labelled and non-labelled peptides for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besch, W.; Woltanski, K.P.; Keilacker, H.; Kohnert, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    Radioiodinated polypeptide hormones, such as insulin, glucagon, human growth hormone, and human C-peptide are employed for radioimmunoassays for investigation of hormonal alterations in states of disturbed carbohydrate metabolism. Iodination was performed using chloramine T. Iodination products of these polypeptide hormones and, for preparation of standard material, native human C-peptide from cadaver pancreases were fractionated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.9. Disc electrophoresis in 24 cm long gel rods resulted in stable tracers with high specific activity as well as homogeneous standard material being highly suitable for radioimmunoassays. (author)

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of polyacrylamides in potassium montmorillonite clay hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Junfang [CSIRO Petroleum Resources, Ian Wark Laboratory, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Rivero, Mayela [CSIRO Petroleum, PO Box 1130, Bentley, Western Australia, 6102 (Australia); Choi, S K [CSIRO Petroleum Resources, Ian Wark Laboratory, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2007-02-14

    We present molecular dynamics simulation results for polyacrylamide in potassium montmorillonite clay-aqueous systems. Interlayer molecular structure and dynamics properties are investigated. The number density profile, radial distribution function, root-mean-square deviation (RMSD), mean-square displacement (MSD) and diffusion coefficient are reported. The calculations are conducted in constant NVT ensembles, at T = 300 K and with layer spacing of 40 A. Our simulation results showed that polyacrylamides had little impact on the structure of interlayer water. Density profiles and radial distribution function indicated that hydration shells were formed. In the presence of polyacrylamides more potassium counterions move close to the clay surface while water molecules move away, indicating that potassium counterions are hydrated to a lesser extent than the system in which no polyacrylamides were added. The diffusion coefficients for potassium and water decreased when polyacrylamides were added.

  14. Surface Friction of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Nicholas; Burton, Justin

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel particles have recently become a popular system for modeling low-friction, granular materials near the jamming transition. Because a gel consists of a polymer network filled with solvent, its frictional behavior is often explained using a combination of hydrodynamic lubrication and polymer-surface interactions. As a result, the frictional coefficient can vary between 0.001 and 0.03 depending on several factors such as contact area, sliding velocity, normal force, and the gel surface chemistry. Most tribological measurements of hydrogels utilize two flat surfaces, where the contact area is not well-defined. We have built a custom, low-force tribometer to measure the single-contact frictional properties of spherical hydrogel particles on flat hydrogel surfaces under a variety of measurement conditions. At high velocities (> 1 cm/s), the friction coefficient depends linearly on velocity, but does not tend to zero at zero velocity. We also compare our measurements to solid particles (steel, glass, etc.) on hydrogel surfaces, which exhibit larger frictional forces, and show less dependence on velocity. A physical model for the friction which includes the lubrication layer between the deformed surfaces will be discussed. National Science Foundation Grant No. 1506446.

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of substrate-borne polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianhang; Wu, Laosheng

    2002-08-28

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) have wide application in many industries and in agriculture. Scientific research and industrial applications manifested a need for a method that can quantify substrate-borne PAM. The N-bromination method (a PAM analytical technique based on N-bromination of amide groups and spectrophotometric determination of the formed starch-triiodide complex), which was originally developed for determining PAM in aqueous solutions, was modified to quantify substrate-borne PAM. In the modified method, the quantity of substrate-borne PAM was converted to a concentration of starch-triiodide complex in aqueous solution that was then measured by spectrophotometry. The method sensitivity varied with substrates due to sorption of reagents and reaction intermediates on the substrates. Therefore, separate calibration for each substrate was required. Results from PAM samples in sand, cellulose, organic matter burnt soils, and clay minerals showed that this method had good accuracy and reproducibility. The PAM recoveries ranged from 95.8% to 103.7%, and the relative standard deviations (n = 4) were application and facilitating PAM-related research.

  16. The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) application to soils is an effective soil conservation practice for reducing runoff and soil losses caused by erosion. It also increases the infiltration rate of soils. The objective of this study was conducted to ...

  17. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Farmer, C.D.; Hyder, L.K.; Supaokit, P.

    1987-01-01

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs

  18. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Farmer, C.D.; Hyder, L.K.; Supaokit, P.

    1987-01-01

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Petroleum recovery process utilizing formaldehyde-sulfite-reacted polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-09-25

    Micellar slugs followed by thickened water floods were injected into Berea cores (20.4 percent porosity, 398.4 md permeability, see Patent 3,692,113 for pretreatment) for enhanced oil recovery. About 61.1 percent residual oil was produced when the polymer in the thickened water was sulfomethylated hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. However, use of the conventional unhydrolyzed polyacrylamide recovered only 27.7 percent residual oil.

  20. Structural characterization of Poly aniline blended with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayek, S.A.; El-Sayed, S.M.; Sayed, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Poly aniline / polyacrylamide blends in presence of different catalysts were prepared. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the samples produced are crystalline. Optical gap of the blend in the presence of NaCIO 4 used as a catalyst is greater than that in the presence of (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 as a catalyst. The structure of polyacrylamide (PAM) blended with poly aniline (PANI) were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, Grain size was identified using scanning electron microscopy [SEM

  1. Proteomic analysis of human bladder epithelial cells by 2D blue native SDS-PAGE reveals TCDD-induced alterations of calcium and iron homeostasis possibly mediated by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nisha; Pink, Mario; Petrat, Frank; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schmitz-Spanke, Simone

    2015-01-02

    A proteomic analysis of the interaction among multiprotein complexes involved in 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated toxicity in urinary bladder epithelial RT4 cells was performed using two-dimensional blue native SDS-PAGE (2D BN/SDS-PAGE). To enrich the protein complexes, unexposed and TCDD-exposed cells were fractionated. BN/SDS-PAGE of the resulting fractions led to an effective separation of proteins and protein complexes of various origins, including cell membrane, mitochondria, and other intracellular compartments. Major differences between the proteome of control and exposed cells involved the alteration of many calcium-regulated proteins (calmodulin, protein S100-A2, annexin A5, annexin A10, gelsolin isoform b) and iron-regulated proteins (ferritin, heme-binding protein 2, transferrin). On the basis of these findings, the intracellular calcium concentration was determined, revealing a significant increase after 24 h of exposure to TCDD. Moreover, the concentration of the labile iron pool (LIP) was also significantly elevated in TCDD-exposed cells. This increase was strongly inhibited by the calmodulin (CaM) antagonist W-7, which pointed toward a possible interaction between iron and calcium signaling. Because nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly enhanced in TCDD-exposed cells and was also inhibited by W-7, we hypothesize that alterations in calcium and iron homeostasis upon exposure to TCDD may be linked through NO generated by CaM-activated nitric oxide synthase. In our model, we propose that NO produced upon TCDD exposure interacts with the iron centers of iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) that modulate the alteration of ferritin and transferrin, resulting in an augmented cellular LIP and, hence, increased toxicity.

  2. Cuprolinic Blue: a specific dye for single-stranded RNA in the presence of magnesium chloride. I. Fundamental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, J.; MENDELSON, D.; NOORDEN, C. J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the cationic dye Cuprolinic Blue were investigated with model films of polyacrylamide gel in which RNA, DNA and other biological polyanionic compounds had been incorporated. In the presence of 1 M MgCl2, Curpolinic Blue was found to bind specifically to

  3. Comblike Polyacrylamides as Flooding Agent in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Diego A. Z.; Picchioni, Francesco; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2013-01-01

    The oil recovery from core material and a specifically designed flow cell using novel branched (comblike) polyacrylamides (PAM) has been investigated. The injectivity characteristics of the different branched PAMs were evaluated by filtration tests and core-flow experiments. The number of arms of

  4. Complications 15 years after breast augmentation with polyacrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Ghasemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG has been used as an injectable, permanent filler for soft-tissue augmentation for more than two decades. Several complications have been reported worldwide. In this case report, we present a woman with long-term complications 15 years after bilateral breast augmentation with PAAG injections.

  5. Complications 15 years after breast augmentation with polyacrylamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Habib; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg; Stolle, Lars Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) has been used as an injectable, permanent filler for soft-tissue augmentation for more than two decades. Several complications have been reported worldwide. In this case report, we present a woman with long-term complications 15 years after bilateral breast augmenta...

  6. Study of electrical properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyacrylamide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/boms/037/02/0273-0279. Keywords. PVP; PAM; conductivity; activation energy; relaxation time; electric modulus. Abstract. Electrical properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyacrylamide and their blend thin films have been investigated as a function of temperature and frequency. The films ...

  7. Evaluation of wheat by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis | Shuaib ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Electrophorogram for each variety were scored and presence or absence of each band noted and was entered in a binary data matrix. Based on the data of SDS-PAGE gels cluster analysis was performed to check the variations among varieties. The overall result shows ...

  8. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today.

  9. A smart pH responsive graphene/polyacrylamide complex via noncovalent interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Lulu; Liu Tianxi; Guo Juan; Guo Shuzhong; Wang Xiaoyan; Wang Weizhi

    2010-01-01

    We report that the graphene sheets can be stably dispersed in water by hydrophobic interaction with polyacrylamide. Most interestingly, the resultant graphene-polyacrylamide complexes show a reversible pH responsive property although polyacrylamide itself does not possess such characteristics. This method opens up novel opportunities for the potential applications of graphene in intelligent sensors, biology, medicine, nanoelectronics and other relevant areas.

  10. Intra-Articular Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Injections Are Not Innocent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tonbul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a chronic disorder characterized by joint cartilage degeneration with concomitant changes in the synovium and subchondral bone metabolism. Many conservative treatment modalities, one of which is intra-articular injections, have been described for the treatment of this disorder. Traditionally, hyaluranic acid and corticosteroids are the agents that have been used for this purpose. Recently, polyacrylamide hydrogels are being used widely. Biocompatibility, nonbioabsorbability, and anti-infectious effect obtained by silver addition made polyacrylamide hydrogels more popular. In this paper, we present a case and the method of our management, in whom host tissue reaction (foreign body granuloma, edema, inflammation, and redness induration has been observed, as the first and unique adverse effect reported in the literature.

  11. Improved detection of calcium-binding proteins in polyacrylamide gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, F.A.; Babitch, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors refined the method of Schibeci and Martonosi (1980) to enhance detection of calcium-binding proteins in polyacrylamide gels using 45 Ca 2+ . Their efforts have produced a method which is shorter, has 40-fold greater sensitivity over the previous method, and will detect 'EF hand'-containing calcium-binding proteins in polyacrylamide gels below the 0.5 μg level. In addition this method will detect at least one example from every described class of calcium-binding protein, including lectins and γ-carboxyglutamic acid containing calcium-binding proteins. The method should be useful for detecting calcium-binding proteins which may trigger neurotransmitter release. (Auth.)

  12. Porous polyacrylamide monoliths in hydrophilic interaction capillary electrochromatography of oligosaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guryča, Vilém; Mechref, Y.; Palm, A. K.; Michálek, Jiří; Pacáková, V.; Novotny, M. V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 1 (2007), s. 3-13 ISSN 0165-022X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538 Grant - others:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services(US) GM24349 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyacrylamide monoliths * analytical glycobiology * capillary electrochromatography Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2007

  13. Native excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, T.

    1992-01-01

    Syncrude Canada Ltd., operator of the oil sands mine and processing plant near Fort McMurray, Alberta, produces 11% of Canada's crude oil and is the country's largest private-sector employer of native Canadians. Syncrude has the goal of employing about 10% native Canadians, which is about the percentage of natives in the regional population. Examples are presented of successful native employment and entrepreneurship at Syncrude. Doreen Janvier, once employed at Syncrude's mine wash bays, was challenged to form her own company to contract out labor services. Her company, DJM Enterprises, now has a 2-year contract to operate three highly sophisticated wash bays used to clean mining equipment, and is looking to bid on other labor contracts. Mabel Laviolette serves as liaison between the oil containment and recovery team, who recover oil skimmed off Syncrude's tailings basin, and the area manager. The team approach and the seasonal nature of the employment fit in well with native cultural patterns. The excellence of native teamwork is also illustrated in the mine rescue team, one unit of which is entirely native Canadian. Part of Syncrude's aboriginal policy is to encourage development of aboriginal enterprises, such as native-owned Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., which has held welding and fabricating contracts with most major companies in the region and is a major supplier of skilled tradesmen to Syncrude. Syncrude also provides employment and training, encourages natives to continue their education, and promotes local community development. 4 figs

  14. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  15. Polyacrylamide+Al2(SO4)3 and polyacrylamide+CaO remove coliform bacteria and nutrients from swine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Phillips, Ian; Stratton, Helen; Sojka, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Polyacrylamide mixture may be able to reduce run-off of enteric bacteria from animal wastes. - Animal wastes are a major contributor of nutrients and enteric microorganisms to surface water and ground water. Polyacrylamide (PAM) mixtures are an effective flocculent, and we hypothesized that they would reduce transport of microorganisms in flowing water. After waste water running at 60.0 l min -1 flowed over PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , or PAM+CaO in furrows, total coliform bacteria (TC) and fecal coliform bacteria (FC) were reduced by 30-50% at 1 and 50 m downstream of the treatments compared to the control. In a column study, PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam, loam, and clay soils reduced NH 4 + and ortho-P concentrations in leachate compared to the source waste water and the control. PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam and loam soils reduced both total and ortho-P, concentrations in leachate compared to the source wastewater and control treatment. In a field study, PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , or PAM+CaO treatments did not consistently reduce NH 4 + , NO 3 - , ortho-P, and total P concentrations in wastewater flowing over any soil compared to inflow wastewater or the control treatment. With proper application PAM+ Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and PAM+CaO may be able to reduce the numbers of enteric bacteria in slowly flowing wastewater running off animal confinement areas, reducing the amount of pollutants entering surface water and groundwater

  16. Native listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Becoming a native listener is the necessary precursor to becoming a native speaker. Babies in the first year of life undertake a remarkable amount of work; by the time they begin to speak, they have perceptually mastered the phonological repertoire and phoneme co-occurrence probabilities of the

  17. Photopatterned free-standing polyacrylamide gels for microfluidic protein electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Todd A; Herr, Amy E

    2013-06-07

    Designed for compatibility with slab-gel polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) reagents and instruments, we detail development of free-standing polyacrylamide gel (fsPAG) microstructures supporting electrophoretic performance rivalling that of microfluidic platforms. For the protein electrophoresis study described here, fsPAGE lanes are comprised of a sample reservoir and contiguous separation gel. No enclosed microfluidic channels are employed. The fsPAG devices (120 μm tall) are directly photopatterned atop of and covalently attached to planar polymer or glass surfaces. Leveraging the fast prototype-test cycle - significantly faster than mold based fabrication techniques - we optimize the fsPAG architecture to minimize injection dispersion for rapid (prototyping of the fsPAGE provides researchers a powerful tool for developing custom analytical assays. We highlight the utility of assay customization by fabricating a polyacrylamide gel with a spatial pore-size distribution and demonstrate the resulting enhancement in separation performance over a uniform gel. Further, we up-scale from a unit separation to an array of 96 concurrent fsPAGE assays in 10 min run time driven by one electrode pair. The fsPAG array layout matches that of a 96-well plate to facilitate integration of the planar free standing gel array with multi-channel pipettes while remaining compatible with conventional slab-gel PAGE reagents, such as staining for label-free protein detection. Notably, the entire fsPAGE workflow from fabrication, to operation, and readout uses readily available materials and instruments - making this technique highly accessible.

  18. Polyacrylamide hydrogel pulmonary embolism--A fatal consequence of an illegal cosmetic vaginal tightening procedure: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yijie; Zhang, Lin; Li, Shangxun; Yang, Yi; Xing, Jingjun; Li, Wenhe; Wang, Xinmei; Zhou, Yiwu

    2014-05-01

    Vaginal tightening is a kind of esthetic surgery aimed at enhancing sexual satisfaction during intercourse. Although the injective vaginal tightening procedure is informal, there are already some reports of its application. But pulmonary embolism is a really rare therapeutic complication of this procedure. We report a case of death due to the non-thrombotic pulmonary embolism as a consequence of illegal cosmetic vaginal-tightening procedure using polyacrylamide hydrogel. A 34-year-old woman was hospitalized with paroxysmal abdominal cramps and diarrhea as initial symptoms, while she concealed the genital cosmetic surgery history. Respiratory distress presented only 1.5h before she died. The result of autopsy revealed the cause of death as pulmonary embolism due to the hydrogel which was injected into her vaginal wall. The emboli were confirmed as polyacrylamide hydrogel by Alcian-blue stain and the Fourier transform infrared scanning. It is suggested that pulmonary embolism should not be discarded in the expertise of deaths following cosmetic implant surgeries. It broadens our understanding about death associated with esthetic genital procedures and informs clinicians and medical examiners of the potential death of this type. And detailed investigations of previous medical and surgical history will always play a critical role in the certification of cause of death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accounting for adjuvant-induced artifacts in the characterization of vaccine formulations by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Virginie; Brunner, Livia; Barnier-Quer, Christophe; Blust, Molly; Collin, Nicolas; Carter, Lauren; Carter, Darrick; Rausch, Kelly M; Fox, Christopher B

    2017-04-01

    Several vaccine adjuvants comprise complex nano- or micro-particle formulations, such as oil-in-water emulsions. In order to characterize interactions and compatibility of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants with protein antigens in vaccines, effective protein characterization methods that can accommodate potential interference from high concentrations of lipid-based particles are needed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is a standard protein characterization technique which is affected by the presence of adjuvants such as oil-in-water emulsions. In this article, we investigate variations in SDS-PAGE methods that result in a reduction of adjuvant-induced staining artifacts. We have investigated whether the SDS method or the adjuvant composition were the reason for these artifacts and succeeded in reducing the artifacts with a modified sample preparation and different staining procedures. The best results were obtained by using gold staining or silver staining instead of a Coomassie Blue staining procedure. Moreover, the replacement of the dilution buffer (20% SDS to disrupt emulsion) by alternative detergents such as Tween® 80 and Triton® X-100 removed adjuvant-induced streaking artifacts at the top of the gel. These methods may be useful for improving characterization approaches of antigen-adjuvant mixtures by SDS-PAGE.

  20. Fluorography--limitations on its use for the quantitative detection of 3H- and 14-C-labeled proteins in polyacrylamide gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, C.R.; Scott, I.R.

    1983-01-01

    The suitability of fluorography for the detection of 3 H- and 14 C-labeled proteins on polyacrylamide gradient gels has been investigated. If was found that the absorbance of the fluorographic film image produced by a given level of radioactivity decreased as the acrylamide concentration in the gel increased. The use of Coomassie brilliant blue protein dyes to stain the gel prior to fluorography reduced the absorbance of the fluorographic image. It is concluded that quantitative fluorography can only be applied to unstained gels of a uniform acrylamide concentration

  1. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of polyacrylamide gels for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.; Murry, P.; Pope, J.; Rintoul, L.; George, G.

    1998-01-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAG) gels are used in magnetic resonance imaging radiation dosimetry. The PAG dosimeter is based on the radiation-induced co-polymerisation and cross-linking of acrylic monomers infused in a gel matrix. PAG was manufactured with a composition of 5% gelatine, 3% acrylamide and 3% N,N'methylene-bis-acrylamide by mass, with distilled water as the remaining constituent [Baldock, 1998]. FT-Raman spectroscopy studies were undertaken to investigate cross-linking changes during the co-polymerisation of PAG in the spectral range of 200 - 3500 cm -1 . Vibrational bands of 1285 cm -1 and 1256 cm -1 were assigned to the acrylamide and bis-acrylamide single CH 2 δ CH2 binding modes. These bands were found to decrease in amplitude with increasing absorbed radiation dose, as a result of co-polymerisation. Principal Component Regression was performed on FT-Raman spectra of PAG samples irradiated to 50 Gy and two components were found to be sufficient to account for 98.7% of variance in the data. Cross validation was used to establish the absorbed radiation dose of an unknown PAG sample from the FT-Raman spectra. The calculated correlation coefficient between measured and predictive samples was 0.997 with a standard error of estimate of 0.976 and a standard error of prediction of 1.140. These results demonstrate the potential of FT-Raman spectroscopy for ionising radiation dosimetry using polyacrylamide gels

  2. Heating of polyacrylamide ferrogel by alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronov, A.P., E-mail: Safronov@iep.uran.ru [Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Elecrophysics, UB RAS, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Samatov, O.M. [Institute of Elecrophysics, UB RAS, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Tyukova, I.S.; Mikhnevich, E.A. [Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Beketov, I.V. [Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Elecrophysics, UB RAS, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-01

    Ferrogel based on polacryamide network with embedded maghemite nanoparticles with mean number average particle diameter 12 nm was synthesized by radical polymerization in water-based ferrofluid. The network structure of ferrogel was characterized by Flory–Rehner theory and it was shown that the embedded particles were substantially larger than the mesh size. It prevented the translational movement of particles in the ferrogel. The immobilization of particles was confirmed by dynamic light scattering. The adhesion of macromolecular chains to the particles was determined by calorimetry using thermochemical cycle. The enthalpy of interfacial adhesion was found several orders of magnitude higher than the energy of dipoles in typically applied magnetic fields. Despite the differenve in the mobility of particles in ferrofluid and ferrogel the comparative study of their heating in alternating magnetic field, however, revealed their close similarity. In both cases it was goverened by superposing of Neel and Brownian relaxation mechanisms. - Highlights: • We synthesized polyacrylamide ferrogel with maghemite nanoparticles. • Nanoparticles are entrapped into gel network. • Polyacrylamide chains are strongly linked to the particles. • Brownian relaxation contributes to heating of ferrogel in alternating field.

  3. Migration of fresh and cryopreserved human spermatozoa in polyacrylamide gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M C; Wix, L S; Foote, R H; Feldschuh, R; Feldschuh, J

    1982-05-01

    The ability of freshly collected and frozen human spermatozoa to migrate in round capillary tubes containing specially formulated polyacrylamide gel was investigated, using 33 ejaculates from 27 donors. Each semen sample was divided; one portion was left undiluted, and the other portion was diluted to 50 x 10(6) sperm/ml. Glycerol was used as the cryoprotectant. The percentage of motile sperm cells was determined before and after freezing. Fresh semen contained a higher percentage of motile cells, which migrated farther than those of cryopreserved-thawed semen. Various correlations between the percentage of motile sperm and migration distance ranged from 0.57 to 0.62. There was a low positive correlation of migration distance with sperm cell concentration per milliliter, r = 0.25 to 0.34; and thus adjusting semen samples to a standard sperm concentration improved the accuracy of the test only slightly. The regression coefficient of migration distance on the percentage of motile sperm in fresh semen was 0.65, indicating that for each 10% increase in sperm motility, migration distance is predicted to increase 6.5 mm. Five batches of polyacrylamide gel gave uniform results, and the application of this stable gel to fertility investigations is discussed.

  4. Silver and Cyanine Staining of Oligonucleotides in Polyacrylamide Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weizhong; Zhou, Huafu; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To explore why some oligonucleotides in denaturing polyacrylamide gel could not be silver-stained, 134 different oligonucleotides were analyzed using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis stained with silver and asymmetric cyanine. As a result, we found that the sensitivity of oligos (dA), (dC), (dG) and (dT) to silver staining could be ranged as (dA) > (dG) > (dC) > (dT) from high to low. It was unexpected that oligo (dT) was hard to be silver-stained. Moreover, the silver staining of an oligonucleotide containing base T could be partially or completely inhibited by base T. The inhibition of silver staining by base T was a competitive inhibition which could be affected by the amounts of the argyrophil nucleobase and base T, the cis-distance between the argyrophil nucleobase and base T, and the gel concentration. The changes of the intensity of an oligonucleotide band caused by the changes of DNA base composition were diverse and interesting. The intensity of some oligonucleotide bands would significantly change when the changes of DNA base composition accumulated to a certain extent (usually ≥ 4 nt). The sensitivity of cyanine staining of ≤ 11-nt long oligonucleotides could be enhanced about 250-fold by fixing the gels with methanol fixing solution.

  5. Biomimetic alginate/polyacrylamide porous scaffold supports human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Peng [Department of ENT-Head and Neck Surgery, EENT Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 210029 (China); Yuan, Yasheng, E-mail: yuanyasheng@163.com [Department of ENT-Head and Neck Surgery, EENT Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 210029 (China); Eaton-Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Chi, Fanglu [Department of ENT-Head and Neck Surgery, EENT Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 210029 (China)

    2014-09-01

    We describe the development of alginate/polyacrylamide (ALG/PAAm) porous hydrogels based on interpenetrating polymer network structure for human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenesis. Three ALG/PAAm hydrogels at molar ratios of 10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 were prepared and characterized with enhanced elastic and rubbery mechanical properties, which are similar to native human cartilage tissues. Their elasticity and swelling properties were also studied under different physiological pH conditions. Finally, in vitro tests demonstrated that human mesenchymal stem cells could proliferate on the as-synthesized hydrogels with improved alkaline phosphatase activities. These results suggest that ALG/PAAm hydrogels may be a promising biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • ALG/PAAm hydrogels were prepared at different molar ratios for cartilage tissue engineering. • ALG/PAAm hydrogels feature an interpenetrating polymer network structure. • ALG/PAAm hydrogels demonstrate strengthened elastic and rubbery mechanical properties. • hMSCs could be cultured on the ALG/PAAm hydrogels for proliferation and chondrogenesis.

  6. Biomimetic alginate/polyacrylamide porous scaffold supports human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Peng; Yuan, Yasheng; Chi, Fanglu

    2014-01-01

    We describe the development of alginate/polyacrylamide (ALG/PAAm) porous hydrogels based on interpenetrating polymer network structure for human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenesis. Three ALG/PAAm hydrogels at molar ratios of 10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 were prepared and characterized with enhanced elastic and rubbery mechanical properties, which are similar to native human cartilage tissues. Their elasticity and swelling properties were also studied under different physiological pH conditions. Finally, in vitro tests demonstrated that human mesenchymal stem cells could proliferate on the as-synthesized hydrogels with improved alkaline phosphatase activities. These results suggest that ALG/PAAm hydrogels may be a promising biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • ALG/PAAm hydrogels were prepared at different molar ratios for cartilage tissue engineering. • ALG/PAAm hydrogels feature an interpenetrating polymer network structure. • ALG/PAAm hydrogels demonstrate strengthened elastic and rubbery mechanical properties. • hMSCs could be cultured on the ALG/PAAm hydrogels for proliferation and chondrogenesis

  7. Sulfomethylated graft copolymers of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, I.W.; Empey, R.A.; Racciato, J.S.

    1978-08-08

    A water-soluble anionic graft copolymer of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide is described in which at least part of the amide function of the acrylamide portion of the copolymer is sulfomethylated and the xanthan gum portion of the copolymer is unreacted with formaldehyde. The copolymer is sulfomethylated by reaction with formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite. The formaldehyde does not cause any appreciable cross-linking between hydroxyl groups of the xanthan moieties. The sulfomethylation of the acrylamido group takes place at temperatures from 35 to 70 C. The pH is 10 or higher, typically from 12 to 13. The degree of anionic character may be varied by adjusting the molar ratio of formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite with respect to the copolymer. 10 claims.

  8. A study on the adsorption of methylene blue onto gum ghatti/TiO2nanoparticles-based hydrogel nanocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, Hemant

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the isotherm and kinetic models for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto a TiO(sub2) nanoparticle (TiO(sub2)NP)-containing hydrogel nanocomposite (HNC) of polyacrylamide-grafted gum ghatti (PAAm...

  9. Improved recovery of DNA from polyacrylamide gels after in situ DNA footprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keulen, G; Meijer, WG

    Methods used to date for the isolation of DNA from polyacrylamide gels are elution based, time-consuming and with low yield in DNA. This paper describes an improved system employing polyacrylamide gels made of a meltable matrix. The new system was successfully applied to in situ DNA footprinting

  10. Immunochemical characterization of Mycobacterium leprae antigens by the SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoperoxidase technique (SGIP) using patients' sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatser, P. R.; van Rens, M. M.; Eggelte, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    In this study the SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoperoxidase (SGIP) assay was used for characterizing the antigenic components of Mycobacterium leprae using patients' sera. This technique involved the separation of mycobacterial sonicates on SDS-polyacrylamide gels, longitudinal

  11. Molecular interactions in a surfactant-water-polyacrylamide system, according to densimetry, viscometry, conductometry, and spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, R. S.

    2013-08-01

    Molecular interactions in a surfactant-polyacrylamide-water system are investigated. It is established that the interactions affect such physicochemical parameters of the system as viscosity, density, surface tension, conductivity, and critical micelle concentration. It is shown that in a polyacrylamide-water system, raising the polyacrylamide concentration to 0.02% causes conformational changes in its macromolecule.

  12. Electrophoresis of DNA in agarose gels, polyacrylamide gels and in free solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellwagen, Nancy C.

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the electrophoresis of curved and normal DNA molecules in agarose gels, polyacrylamide gels and in free solution. These studies were undertaken to clarify why curved DNA molecules migrate anomalously slowly in polyacrylamide gels but not in agarose gels. Two milestone papers are cited, in which Ferguson plots were used to estimate the effective pore size of agarose and polyacrylamide gels. Subsequent studies on the effect of the electric field on agarose and polyacrylamide gel matrices, DNA interactions with the two gel matrices, and the effect of curvature on the free solution mobility of DNA are also described. The combined results suggest that the anomalously slow mobilities observed for curved DNA molecules in polyacrylamide gels are due primarily to preferential interactions of curved DNAs with the polyacrylamide gel matrix; the restrictive pore size of the matrix is of lesser importance. In free solution, DNA mobilities increase with increasing molecular mass until leveling off at a plateau value of (3.17 ± 0.01) × 10-4 cm2/Vs in 40 mM Tris-acetate-EDTA buffer at 20°C. Curved DNA molecules migrate anomalously slowly in free solution as well as in polyacrylamide gels, explaining why the Ferguson plots of curved and normal DNAs containing the same number of base pairs extrapolate to different mobilities at zero gel concentration. PMID:19517510

  13. Micromechanical analysis of polyacrylamide-modified concrete for improving strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Zengzhi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710064 (China)], E-mail: zz-sun@126.com; Xu Qinwu [Pavement research, Transtec Group Inc., Austin 78731 (United States)], E-mail: qinwu_xu@yahoo.com

    2008-08-25

    This paper studies how polyacrylamide (PAM) alters the physicochemical and mechanical properties of concrete. The microstructure of PAM-modified concrete and the physicochemical reaction between PAM and concrete were studied through scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and infrared spectrum analysis. Meanwhile, the workability and strengths of cement paste and concrete were tested. PAM's modification mechanism was also discussed. Results indicate that PAM reacts with the Ca{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} cations produced by concrete hydration to form the ionic compounds and reduce the crystallization of Ca(OH){sub 2}, acting as a flexible filler and reinforcement in the porosity of concrete and, therefore, improving concrete's engineering properties. PAM also significantly alters the microstructure at the aggregate-cement interfacial transition zone. Mechanical testing results indicate that the fluidity of cement paste decreases initially, then increases, and decreases again with increasing PAM content. PAM can effectively improve the flexural strength, bonding strength, dynamic impact resistance, and fatigue life of concrete, though it reduces the compressive strength to some extent.

  14. Micromechanical analysis of polyacrylamide-modified concrete for improving strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zengzhi; Xu Qinwu

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies how polyacrylamide (PAM) alters the physicochemical and mechanical properties of concrete. The microstructure of PAM-modified concrete and the physicochemical reaction between PAM and concrete were studied through scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and infrared spectrum analysis. Meanwhile, the workability and strengths of cement paste and concrete were tested. PAM's modification mechanism was also discussed. Results indicate that PAM reacts with the Ca 2+ and Al 3+ cations produced by concrete hydration to form the ionic compounds and reduce the crystallization of Ca(OH) 2 , acting as a flexible filler and reinforcement in the porosity of concrete and, therefore, improving concrete's engineering properties. PAM also significantly alters the microstructure at the aggregate-cement interfacial transition zone. Mechanical testing results indicate that the fluidity of cement paste decreases initially, then increases, and decreases again with increasing PAM content. PAM can effectively improve the flexural strength, bonding strength, dynamic impact resistance, and fatigue life of concrete, though it reduces the compressive strength to some extent

  15. Performance and biocompatibility of extremely tough alginate/polyacrylamide hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Max C; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Mehta, Manav; Johnson, Christopher; Arany, Praveen R; Suo, Zhigang; Mooney, David J

    2013-11-01

    Although hydrogels now see widespread use in a host of applications, low fracture toughness and brittleness have limited their more broad use. As a recently described interpenetrating network (IPN) of alginate and polyacrylamide demonstrated a fracture toughness of ≈ 9000 J/m(2), we sought to explore the biocompatibility and maintenance of mechanical properties of these hydrogels in cell culture and in vivo conditions. These hydrogels can sustain a compressive strain of over 90% with minimal loss of Young's Modulus as well as minimal swelling for up to 50 days of soaking in culture conditions. Mouse mesenchymal stem cells exposed to the IPN gel-conditioned media maintain high viability, and although cells exposed to conditioned media demonstrate slight reductions in proliferation and metabolic activity (WST assay), these effects are abrogated in a dose-dependent manner. Implantation of these IPN hydrogels into subcutaneous tissue of rats for 8 weeks led to mild fibrotic encapsulation and minimal inflammatory response. These results suggest the further exploration of extremely tough alginate/PAAM IPN hydrogels as biomaterials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multidomain iron nanoparticles for the preparation of polyacrylamide ferrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, Ajay, E-mail: ashankar@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, Alexander P. [Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Electrophysics UB RAS, 106 Amundsen Str., 620016 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Mikhnevich, Ekaterina A. [Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Beketov, Igor V. [Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Electrophysics UB RAS, 106 Amundsen Str., 620016 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    Ferrogels (FG) based on poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) with embedded multidomain iron magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by radical polymerization in water. Iron MNPs prepared by the electrical explosion of wire were spherical in shape and have an average diameter around 100 nm. MNPs were modified by a surfactant – oleic acid to improve their dispersion in water. DLVO theoretical consideration was done to understand the stability of dispersions. By microcalorimetry it was shown that the oleic layer on the surface of MNPs prevents their interaction with PAAm network of FG. Mechanical testing of the compression modulus and the deformation of FGs in magnetic field show up their prospectiveness as a material for magnetically sensitive MEMS and actuators. - Highlights: • Ferrogels were synthesized by radical polymerization in water. • DLVO theoretical consideration was done to understand the stability of dispersions. • Surfactant blocks the interfacial interaction of PAAm chains with particles. • Ferrogels show magnetodeformation when placed in magnetic field. • Grinding approach can also be used for other nanoparticles viz., Ni, Al, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} etc.

  17. Polyacrylamide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madabhushi, Ramakrishna S.; Gammon, Stuart A.

    2003-11-11

    A polyacryalmide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The polyacryalmide medium comprises high molecular weight polyacrylamides (PAAm) having a viscosity average molecular weight (M.sub.v) of about 675-725 kDa were synthesized by conventional red-ox polymerization technique. Using this separation medium, capillary electrophoresis of BigDye DNA sequencing standard was performed. A single base resolution of .about.725 bases was achieved in .about.60 minute in a non-covalently coated capillary of 50 .mu.m i.d., 40 cm effective length, and a filed of 160 V/cm at 40.degree. C. The resolution achieved with this formulation to separate DNA under identical conditions is much superior (725 bases vs. 625 bases) and faster (60 min. vs. 75 min.) to the commercially available PAAm, such as supplied by Amersham. The formulation method employed here to synthesize PAAm is straight-forward, simple and does not require cumbersome methods such as emulsion polymerizaiton in order to achieve very high molecular weights. Also, the formulation here does not require separation of PAAm from the reaction mixture prior to reconstituting the polymer to a final concentration. Furthermore, the formulation here is prepared from a single average mol. wt. PAAm as opposed to the mixture of two different average mo. wt. PAAm previously required to achieve high resolution.

  18. [Research progress on wind erosion control with polyacrylamide (PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan Yuan; Wang, Zhan Li

    2016-03-01

    Soil wind erosion is one of the main reasons for soil degradation in the northwest region of China. Polyacrylamide (PAM), as an efficient soil amendment, has gained extensive attention in recent years since it is effective in improving the structure of surface soil due to its special physical and chemical properties. This paper introduced the physical and chemical properties of PAM, reviewed the effects of PAM on soil wind erosion amount and threshold wind velocity, as well as the effect differences of PAM in soil wind erosion control under conditions of various methods and doses. Its effect was proved by comparing with other materials in detail. Furthermore, we analyzed the mecha-nism of wind erosion control with PAM according to its influence on soil physical characteristics. Comprehensive analysis showed that, although some problems existed in wind erosion control with (PAM), PAM as a sand fixation agent, can not only enhance the capacity of the soil resis-tance to wind erosion, but also improve soil physical properties to form better soil conditions. Besides, we proposed that combination of PAM and plant growth would increase the survival rate of plants greatly, control soil wind erosion in wind-erosive areas, and improve the quality of the ecological environment construction. Thus, PAM has practically important significance and wide application prospect in controlling soil wind erosion.

  19. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  20. Swelling/deswelling of polyacrylamide gels in aqueous NaCl solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swelling kinetics of water-swollen polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels (WSG) was investigated in various ... parameter, χ, were calculated and found to decrease with increase in [NaCl]. Collective ..... in other words, increase in hydrophilicity.

  1. Probing structure-antifouling activity relationships of polyacrylamides and polyacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Li, Xiaosi; Wu, Jiang; Chen, Shenfu; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Qiuming; Gong, Xiong; Li, Lingyan; Zheng, Jie

    2013-07-01

    We have synthesized two different polyacrylamide polymers with amide groups (polySBAA and polyHEAA) and two corresponding polyacrylate polymers without amide groups (polySBMA and polyHEA), with particular attention to the evaluation of the effect of amide group on the hydration and antifouling ability of these systems using both computational and experimental approaches. The influence of polymer architectures of brushes, hydrogels, and nanogels, prepared by different polymerization methods, on antifouling performance is also studied. SPR and ELISA data reveal that all polymers exhibit excellent antifouling ability to repel proteins from undiluted human blood serum/plasma, and such antifouling ability can be further enhanced by presenting amide groups in polySBAA and polyHEAA as compared to polySBMA and polyHEA. The antifouling performance is positively correlated with the hydration properties. Simulations confirm that four polymers indeed have different hydration characteristics, while all presenting a strong hydration overall. Integration of amide group with pendant hydroxyl or sulfobetaine group in polymer backbones is found to increase their surface hydration of polymer chains and thus to improve their antifouling ability. Importantly, we present a proof-of-concept experiment to synthesize polySBAA nanogels, which show a switchable property between antifouling and pH-responsive functions driven by acid-base conditions, while still maintaining high stability in undiluted fetal bovine serum and minimal toxicity to cultured cells. This work provides important structural insights into how very subtle structural changes in polymers can yield great improvement in biological activity, specifically the inclusion of amide group in polymer backbone/sidechain enables to obtain antifouling materials with better performance for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of polyacrylamide on soil physical and hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar; Gharaibeh, Mamoun; Hamdan, Enas

    2017-04-01

    The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM), as a soil conditioner, on selected soil physical and hydraulic properties (infiltration rate (f(t)), hydraulic conductivity (HC), soil moisture content, aggregate stability (AS), and soil aggregation) was studied. Two types of anionic PAM were used: Low molecular weight (LPAM) (1×105 g/mol) with medium charge density (33-43) and high molecular weight (HPAM) (1-6×106 g/mol) with medium charge density (33-43). Sandy loam soil was packed into plastic columns; PAM solutions at different concentrations (100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg L-1) were used every two weeks in four wetting and drying cycles. The highest infiltration rate value was 0.16 mm s-1 at 1000 mg/L low molecular weight PAM while the highest value of infiltration rate in high PAM molecular weight was 0.11 mm s-1 compared to the control (0.01 mm s-1). Soil HC was about 3.00 cm h-1 for LPAM at 1000 mg L-1 PAM, while the highest value for HPAM was about 2 cm h-1 for the same concentration, compared to the control. The amount of water that can be held by soil increased with the addition of PAM compared to the control. Differences in water content were more pronounced in LPAM compared to HPAM. The addition of LPAM increased aggregate stability proportional to PAM concentration. Moreover, 1000 mg L-1 produced the highest aggregate stability (19{%}) compared to HPAM and control (7{%} and 5{%}), respectively. As PAM concentration increased, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) increased for both PAM molecular weights compared to control (0.4 mm). At 1000 mg L-1 the GMD values were 0.88 mm and 0.79 mm for LPAM and HPAM, respectively. The addition of PAM improved soil physical and hydraulic properties, with an advantage to LPAM owing that to its ability to penetrate soil aggregates and therefore stabilizing them.

  3. Blue Emission in Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sohini; Sengupta, Abhigyan; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band struc...

  4. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of intracellular proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Yamashita, M.

    1996-01-01

    Since two-dimensional electrophoresis was established by O'Farrell for analysis of intracellular proteins of Escherichia coli, it has been applied to separation of proteins of animal cells and tissues, and especially to identification of stress proteins. Using this technique, proteins are separated by isoelectric focusing containing 8 m urea in the first dimension and by SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. The gels are stained with Coomassie Blue R-250 dye, followed by silver staining. In the case of radio-labeled proteins, the gels are dried and then autoradiographed. In order to identify a specific protein separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, a technique determining the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein has been developed recently. After the proteins in the gel were electrotransferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane, the membrane was stained for protein with Commassie Blue and a stained membrane fragment was applied to a protein sequencer. Our recent studies demonstrated that fish cells newly synthesized various proteins in response to heat shock, cold nd osmotic stresses. For example, when cellular proteins extracted from cold-treated rainbow trout cells were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the 70 kDa protein was found to be synthesized during the cold-treatment. N-Terminal sequence analysis showed that the cold-inducible protein was a homolog of mammalian valosin-containing protein and yeast cell division cycle gene product CDC48p. Furthermore, the sequence data were useful for preparing PCR primers and a rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide to analyze a role for the protein in the function of trout cells and mechanisms for regulation

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Hybrid Nanocomposite of Polyacrylamide/Silica-Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rabiee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamides are water soluble macromolecules. These polymers are widely used for flocculation, separation and treatment of solid-liquid phase materials. In this research, organic-inorganic hybrid of polyacrylamide/silica nanoparticle is prepared via radical polymerization. First, the silica nanoparticle surfaces were modified by 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane as coupling agent using a sol-gel technique in aqueous media in acidic condition. Afterwards, the modified nanoparticles are copolymerized by acrylamide monomer in presence of a peroxide initiator during a free radical polymerization. The chemical structure of the prepared modified nano-silica as well as polyacrylamide nanocomposite was studied and confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy technique. The morphology of nanocomposite was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The SEM micrograph showed that the surface of the composite did not display any phase separation. Nanoparticles distribution was investigated by SEM-EDX technique. The results showed a uniform distribution of particles throughout the polymer bulk. TEM analysis showed the presence of silica nanoparticles in bulk of polymer which is an indicative of suitable dispersion of nanoparticles. The thermal stability of hybrid nanocomosite with that of polyacrylamide was compared by TGA technique. The higher thermal stability of hybrid nanocomposite with respect to homopolymer is indicative of a reaction between the modified nanoparticles and polyacrylamide chain. The presence of silica particles in copolymer was also confirmed with EDX analysis in ash content of hybrid nanocomposite.

  6. A Novel Method for Detection of Glycoproteins on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Using Radio-Iodinated Tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Draz, Hossam M.; Dole, Anita

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel method for detection of glycoproteins on polyacrylamide gel. In this method, radio-iodinated-tyrosine (125I-tyrosine) was conjugated to glycoprotein by schiff's base mechanism on the sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel. Ovalbumin and Concanavalin...... of glycoproteins using 125I-tyrosine selectively detected ovalbumin. Present results showed that MPD enhanced glycoprotein detection method can be used as a sensitive tool for the detection of glycoproteins on polyacrylamide gel...

  7. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  8. [Discrimination of types of polyacrylamide based on near infrared spectroscopy coupled with least square support vector machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Guang; Yang, Qin-Min; Lu, Jian-Gang

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a novel discriminant methodology based on near infrared spectroscopic analysis technique and least square support vector machine was proposed for rapid and nondestructive discrimination of different types of Polyacrylamide. The diffuse reflectance spectra of samples of Non-ionic Polyacrylamide, Anionic Polyacrylamide and Cationic Polyacrylamide were measured. Then principal component analysis method was applied to reduce the dimension of the spectral data and extract of the principal compnents. The first three principal components were used for cluster analysis of the three different types of Polyacrylamide. Then those principal components were also used as inputs of least square support vector machine model. The optimization of the parameters and the number of principal components used as inputs of least square support vector machine model was performed through cross validation based on grid search. 60 samples of each type of Polyacrylamide were collected. Thus a total of 180 samples were obtained. 135 samples, 45 samples for each type of Polyacrylamide, were randomly split into a training set to build calibration model and the rest 45 samples were used as test set to evaluate the performance of the developed model. In addition, 5 Cationic Polyacrylamide samples and 5 Anionic Polyacrylamide samples adulterated with different proportion of Non-ionic Polyacrylamide were also prepared to show the feasibilty of the proposed method to discriminate the adulterated Polyacrylamide samples. The prediction error threshold for each type of Polyacrylamide was determined by F statistical significance test method based on the prediction error of the training set of corresponding type of Polyacrylamide in cross validation. The discrimination accuracy of the built model was 100% for prediction of the test set. The prediction of the model for the 10 mixing samples was also presented, and all mixing samples were accurately discriminated as adulterated samples. The

  9. Separation and identification of DNA-carcinogen adduct conformers by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, G.A.; Jankowiak, R.; Farhat, J.H.; Small, G.J. (Ames Lab., IA (United States) Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The authors have developed a separation protocol utilizing high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to isolate stable anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide adducts of oligodeoxynucleotides. Both enantiomers produced multiple adduct species. The distribution of adduct types could be quantitated by densitometry of autoradiograms or Cerenkov counting of eluted oligomers modified by anti-BPDE isomers. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of eluted adducts at 4.2 K (fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy) and 77 K revealed that bands corresponded to pure conformers of pyrene chromophore. Carcinogen-modified oligodeoxynucleotides were single-stranded, but there were often considerable stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the oligonucleotide bases, indicating that electrophoresed oligomers were single-stranded but in a native, versus random-coil conformation. The ability to identify and quantitate adducts by PAGE-LIF, coupled with the high resolution and sensitivity of both techniques, makes PAGE and LIF in tandem a potentially powerful tool in the study of chemical carcinogenesis or other ligand-DNA interactions. 43 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Phosphate sensing by fluorecent reporter proteins embedded in poly-acrylamide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Honghao; Scharff-Poulsen, Anne Marie; Gu, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Phosphate sensors were developed by embedding fluorescent reporter proteins (FLIPPi) in polyacrylamide nanoparticles; with diameters from 40 to 120 nm. The sensor activity and protein loading efficiency varied according to nanoparticle composition, that is, the total monomer content (% T) and the......, in nanoparticles for, for example, sensing, biological catalysis, and gene delivery.......Phosphate sensors were developed by embedding fluorescent reporter proteins (FLIPPi) in polyacrylamide nanoparticles; with diameters from 40 to 120 nm. The sensor activity and protein loading efficiency varied according to nanoparticle composition, that is, the total monomer content (% T......) and the cross-linker content (% C). Nanoparticles with 28% T and 20% C were considered optimal as a result of relatively high loading efficiency (50.6%) as well as high protein activity (50%). The experimental results prove that the cross-linked polyacrylamide matrix could protect FLIPPi from degradation...

  11. Long-term follow-up after urethral injection with polyacrylamide hydrogel for female stress incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Lone; Lose, Gunnar; Møller-Bek, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Urethral injection therapy for treatment of stress urinary incontinence has been in use for years, but only a few long-term follow-up studies have been published. Twenty-five women, injected with polyacrylamide hydrogel 8 years earlier, were invited for follow-up. Twenty-four could be contacted; 15...... had had no further treatment, seven had been re-operated with placement of mid-urethral slings, and two had been re-injected with polyacrylamide hydrogel. Eleven women attended for objective examination; all non-attenders were interviewed by telephone. Subjectively, in 44% the stress incontinence...... was cured or much improved, with a positive outcome according to the King's Health Questionnaire. Objectively, all patients had visible polyacrylamide hydrogel deposits on vaginal ultrasonography. No local adverse reactions were seen in the vaginal mucosa. The results of a later mid-urethral sling were...

  12. Dermatoscopy of blue vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, L

    2009-07-01

    Blue vitiligo is a distinct variant of vitiligo characterized by a blue-grey appearance of the skin, which corresponds histologically with absence of epidermal melanocytes and presence of numerous dermal melanophages. A 23-year-old woman of Indian origin with Fitzpatrick skin type V presented with a 1-month history of normoaesthetic depigmented macules over the right forearm, dorsa of the hands and right areola. The macule over the right forearm had a bluish tinge. A clinical diagnosis of vitiligo vulgaris with blue vitiligo was made. Dermatoscopy of the interface between the blue macule and the hypopigmented macule revealed a linear depigmented macule in the centre with multiple blue dots and absence of epidermal melanin on the side of the blue macule, and reticular pigmentation with a few depigmented macules and scattered blue dots over the side of the hypopigmented macule. Blue vitiligo was described previously in a patient seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus, and believed to represent postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in areas bordering the vitiliginous patches as a result of psoralen ultraviolet A treatment. This case is unusual because of its rarity and the description of the associated dermatoscopical findings.

  13. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  14. Bacterial infection as a likely cause of adverse reactions to polyacrylamide hydrogel fillers in cosmetic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise; Breiting, Vibeke; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    patients and 24 controls were systematically examined for the presence of bacteria by culture, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Gram stain, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results. Bacteria, mostly normal skin bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes, were identified...... in the presence of polyacrylamide filler in cosmetic surgery, possibly due to a biofilm mode of growth. Adequate skin preparation and use of sterile technique in these procedures are mandatory, but antibiotic prophylaxis prior to injection of nondegradable gels like polyacrylamide should be explored as well....

  15. Study on Magnetic Responsibility of Rare Earth Ferrite/Polyacrylamide Magnetic Microsphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ming; Wang Zhifeng; Zhang Hong; Dai Shaojun; Qiu Guanming; Okamoto Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    In inverse microemulsion, rare earth ferrite/polyacrylamide magnetic microsphere were prepared and their magnetic responsibility were studied by magnetic balance. Results indicate that the magnetic responsibility of microsphere relates to magnetic moment of rare earth ion, and it can be improved by the addition of dysprosium ion of high magnetic moment. Dysprosium content has an effect on magnetic responsibility of dysprosium ferrite/polyacrylamide magnetic microsphere. The microsphere displays strong magnetic responsibility when the molar ratio of Dy3+/iron is 0.20.

  16. Evaluation of a polyacrylamide hydrogel in the treatment of induced osteoarthritis in a goat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tnibar, Aziz; Persson, Ann; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) is an inert, non-degradable, non-immunogenic polymer gel with high viscoelasticity consisting of 97.5% sterile water and 2.5% cross-linked polyacrylamide. Its biocompatibility in soft tissues has been demonstrated. PAAG has recently been tested for the treatment of ...... of osteoarthritis (OA) in horses with highly encouraging results; however no standardized experimental studies have been done to explore its efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PAAG in the treatment of induced OA in a goat model...

  17. Penis invalidating cicatricial outcomes in an enlargement phalloplasty case with polyacrylamide gel (Formacryl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, P C; Dominici, M; Moro, U

    2006-01-01

    The present article reports the case of a patient subjected to polyacrylamide polymers-composed gel cutaneous infiltration in the penis for cosmetic purposes, resulting in severe invalidating outcomes. A significant tissue reaction to the subcutaneous injection of polyacrylamide gel for the penis enlargement purpose resulted in permanent and invalidating scars both on the esthetic and functional levels. Such a result must be simply taken into account both singly and in the light of the international literature to exclude this method as standard uro-andrologic activity.

  18. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  19. Molecular Understanding and Structural-Based Design of Polyacrylamides and Polyacrylates as Antifouling Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Mingzhen; Chen, Qiang; Ma, Jie; Zheng, Jie

    2016-04-12

    Design and synthesis of highly bioinert and biocompatible antifouling materials are crucial for a broad range of biomedical and engineering applications. Among antifouling materials, polyacrylamides and polyacrylates have proved so promising because of cheap raw materials, ease of synthesis and applicability, and abundant functional groups. The strong surface hydration and the high surface packing density of polyacrylamides and polyacrylates are considered to be the key contributors to their antifouling property. In this article, we review our studies on the design and synthesis of a series of polyacrylamides and polyacrylates with different molecular structures. These polymers can be fabricated into different architectural forms (brushes, nanoparticles, nanogels, and hydrogels), all of which are highly resistant to the attachment of proteins, cells, and bacteria. We find that small structural changes in the polymers can lead to large enhancement in surface hydration and antifouling performance, both showing a positive correlation. This reveals a general design rule for effective antifouling materials. Furthermore, polyacrylamides and polyacrylates are readily functionalized with other bioactive compounds to achieve different new multifunctionalities.

  20. Polyacrylamide molecular weight and phosphogypsum effects on infiltration and erosion in semi-arid soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal formation at the surface of semi-arid soils during rainstorms reduces soil infiltration rate (IR) and causes runoff and erosion. Surface application of dry anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) with high molecular weight (MW) has been found to be effective in stabilizing soil aggregates, and decreasing ...

  1. Progress in two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and application in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhidong; Chen Xiaohua

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is the key separation technique in proteomics research, which is designed by protein character: molecular weight and PI. Some progress has been made in disease mechanism detection, tumor indicator research and drug development. This technique also has some potential application in radiation research

  2. Electrokinetics of diffuse soft interfaces. III. Interpretation of data on the polyacrylamide/water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yezek, L.P.; Duval, J.F.L.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Streaming potential measurements were carried out on a family of polyacrylamide-co-sodium acrylate gels cross-linked with N,N¿- methylenebisacrylamide in a homemade electrokinetic cell. Measurements of the ionic conductivity within thin films of these gels allowed the equilibrium Donnan potential

  3. An electrokinetic characterization of low charge density cross-linked polyacrylamide gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yezek, L.P.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogels of polyacrylamide have found wide application in separation science and, more recently, in speciation techniques. These applications ideally require an uncharged, inert polymer matrix to act as a conduit for either diffusion or electrically driven migration. However, the electrical effects

  4. Branched polyacrylamides : Synthesis and effect of molecular architecture on solution rheology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, D. A. Z.; Picchioni, F.; Broekhuis, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Linear, star and comb-like polyacrylamides (PAM) have been prepared by atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in aqueous media at room temperature. The influence of the molecular architecture of PAM on the rheological properties in aqueous solution has been investigated. The well-known theory

  5. Effect of carbon fiber addition on the electromagnetic shielding properties of carbon fiber/polyacrylamide/wood based fiberboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Baokang; Chen, Yipeng; Yang, Ning; Chen, Bo; Sun, Qingfeng

    2018-05-01

    Carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyacrylamide/wood fiber composite boards are fabricated by mechanical grind-assisted hot-pressing, and are used for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. CF with an average diameter of 150 nm is distributed on wood fiber, which is then encased by polyacrylamide. The CF/polyacrylamide/wood fiber (CPW) composite exhibits an optimal EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) of 41.03 dB compared to that of polyacrylamide/wood fiber composite (0.41 dB), which meets the requirements of commercial merchandise. Meanwhile, the CPW composite also shows high mechanical strength. The maximum modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of CPW composites are 39.52 MPa and 5823.15 MPa, respectively. The MOR and MOE of CPW composites increased by 38% and 96%, respectively, compared to that of polyacrylamide/wood fiber composite (28.64 and 2967.35 MPa).

  6. Non-Native & Native English Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Tosuncuoglu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the primary (mother tongue language is not English but there is a great demand for English language teachers all over the world. The demand in this field is try to be filled largely by non-native English speaking teachers who have learned English in the country or abroad, or from another non native English peaking teachers. In some countries, particularly those where English speaking is a a sign of status, the students prefer to learn English from a native English speaker. The perception is that a non-native English speaking teacher is a less authentic teacher than a native English speaker and their instruction is not satifactory in some ways. This paper will try to examine the literature to explore whether there is a difference in instructional effectiveness between NNESTs and native English teachers.

  7. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  8. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  9. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  10. Native Shellfish in Nearshore Ecosystems of Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    California Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). California Fish and Game 63:43-51. Griffin, K. 1997. Commercial oyster cultivation and eelgrass...A.M. 2007. Great Blue Herons in Puget Sound. Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership Report No. 2007-06. Published by Seattle District, U.S. Army Corps of...non-native Pacific oyster, but more than $40 million is from native crabs , clams, and mussels. Recreationally, personal harvest of shellfish is a

  11. Antigenic profile of heat-killed versus thimerosal-treated Leishmania major using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania is a parasitic protozoan of trypanosomatidae family which causes a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral forms. In endemic areas, field trials of different preparations of Leishmania total antigen were tested as leishmaniasis vaccine. Two preparations of killed Leishmania major were produced In Iran, which were heat-killed vaccine called autoclaved L. major (ALM and thimerosal-treated freeze-thawed vaccine called killed L. major (KLM. In this study, the protein content of both ALM and KLM were compared with that of freshly harvested intact L. major promastigotes using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Materials and Methods: L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER from pre-infected Balb/c mice was isolated with modified Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN medium and then subcultured in liquid RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS 20% for mass production. Two preparations of KLM and ALM were produced by Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Iran, under WHO/TDR supervision. Electrophoresis was performed by SDS-PAGE method and the gel was stained by Coomassie brilliant blue dye. The resultant unit bands were compared using standard molecular proteins. Results: Electrophoresis of the two preparations produced many bands from 10 kDa to 100 kDa. KLM bands were much like those of freshly harvested intact L. major. Conclusion: It is concluded that although there are similar bands in the three forms of Leishmania antigens, there are some variations which might be considered for identification and purification of protective immunogens in a total crude antigen, and detection of their stability is essential for the production and marketing of a putative vaccine.

  12. Native Health Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Indian Health Board) Welcome to the Native Health Database. Please enter your search terms. Basic Search Advanced ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Tutorial Video The NHD has made ...

  13. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to avoid the use of artificial colorants and additives in food products, especially after some studies linked their consumption with behavioural changes in children. However, the incorporation of colorants from natural origin remains a challenge...... for food technologists, as these are typically less vivid and less stable than their synthetic alternatives. Regarding blue colorants, phycocyanins from cyanobacteria are currently in the spotlight as promising new natural blue colorants. Phycocyanins are proteins which blue colour results from...... the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...

  14. Background-free, high sensitivity staining of proteins in one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels using a luminescent ruthenium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, K; Chernokalskaya, E; Steinberg, T H; Kemper, C; Lopez, M F; Diwu, Z; Haugland, R P; Patton, W F

    2000-07-01

    SYPRO Ruby dye is a permanent stain comprised of ruthenium as part of an organic complex that interacts noncovalently with proteins. SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel Stain provides a sensitive, gentle, fluorescence-based method for detecting proteins in one-dimensional and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins are fixed, stained from 3h to overnight and then rinsed in deionized water or dilute methanol/acetic acid solution for 30 min. The stain can be visualized using a wide range of excitation sources commonly used in image analysis systems including a 302 nm UV-B transilluminator, 473 nm second harmonic generation (SHG) laser, 488 nm argon-ion laser, 532 nm yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser, xenon arc lamp, blue fluorescent light bulb or blue light-emitting diode (LED). The sensitivity of SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel Stain is superior to colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) stain or monobromobimane labeling and comparable with the highest sensitivity silver or zinc-imidazole staining procedures available. The linear dynamic range of SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel stain extends over three orders of magnitude, which is vastly superior to silver, zinc-imidazole, monobromobimane and CBB stain. The fluorescent stain does not contain superfluous chemicals (formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, Tween-20) that frequently interfere with peptide identification in mass spectrometry. While peptide mass profiles are severely altered in protein samples prelabeled with monobromobimane, successful identification of proteins by peptide mass profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry was easily performed after protein detection with SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel stain.

  15. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  16. Characterization of polyacrylamide-stabilized Pf1 phage liquid crystals for protein NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trempe, Jean-Francois; Morin, Frederick G.; Xia Zhicheng; Marchessault, Robert H.; Gehring, Kalle [McGill University, Department of Biochemistry and Department of Chemistry (Canada)], E-mail: kalle@bri.nrc.ca

    2002-01-15

    A new polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystal has been characterized for the measurement of biomolecular residual dipolar couplings. Filamentous Pf1 phage were embedded in a polyacrylamide matrix that fixes the orientation of the particles. The alignment was characterized by the quadrupolar splitting of the {sup 2}H NMR water signal and by the measurement of {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N residual dipolar couplings (RDC) in the archeal translation elongation factor 1{beta}. Protein dissolved in the polymer-stabilized medium orients quantitatively as in media without polyacrylamide. We show that the quadrupolar splitting and RDCs are zero in media in which the Pf1 phage particles are aligned at the magic angle. This allows measurement of J and dipolar couplings in a single sample.

  17. Characterization of polyacrylamide-stabilized Pf1 phage liquid crystals for protein NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trempe, Jean-Francois; Morin, Frederick G.; Xia Zhicheng; Marchessault, Robert H.; Gehring, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    A new polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystal has been characterized for the measurement of biomolecular residual dipolar couplings. Filamentous Pf1 phage were embedded in a polyacrylamide matrix that fixes the orientation of the particles. The alignment was characterized by the quadrupolar splitting of the 2 H NMR water signal and by the measurement of 1 H- 15 N residual dipolar couplings (RDC) in the archeal translation elongation factor 1β. Protein dissolved in the polymer-stabilized medium orients quantitatively as in media without polyacrylamide. We show that the quadrupolar splitting and RDCs are zero in media in which the Pf1 phage particles are aligned at the magic angle. This allows measurement of J and dipolar couplings in a single sample

  18. Horseradish peroxidase embedded in polyacrylamide nanoparticles enables optical detection of reactive oxygen species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, A.K.; Scharff-Poulsen, Anne Marie; Olsen, L.F.

    2007-01-01

    We have synthesized and characterized new nanometer-sized polyacrylamide particles containing horseradish peroxidase and fluorescent dyes. Proteins and dyes are encapsulated by radical polymerization in inverse microemulsion. The activity of the encapsulated enzyme has been examined and it mainta......We have synthesized and characterized new nanometer-sized polyacrylamide particles containing horseradish peroxidase and fluorescent dyes. Proteins and dyes are encapsulated by radical polymerization in inverse microemulsion. The activity of the encapsulated enzyme has been examined...... for quantification of hydrogen peroxide and other reactive oxygen species in microenvironments, and we propose that the particles may find use as nanosensors for use in, e.g., living cells. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  19. An improved silver staining procedure for schizodeme analysis in polyacrylamide gradient gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Gonçalves

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple protocol is described for the silver staining of polyacrylamide gradient gels used for the separation of restriction fragments of kinetoplast DNA [schizodeme analysis of trypanosomatids (Morel et al., 1980]. The method overcomes the problems of non-uniform staining and strong background color which are frequently encountered when conventional protocols for silver staining of linear gels. The method described has proven to be of general applicability for DNA, RNA and protein separations in gradient gels.

  20. EFFECT OF DEXTRAN-graft-POLYACRYLAMIDE INTERNAL STRUCTURE ON FLOCCULATION PROCESS PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezugla, T.; Kutsevol, N.; Shyichuk, A.; Ziolkowska, D.

    2008-01-01

    Dextran-graft-Polyacrylamide copolymers (D-g-PAA) of brush-like architecture were tested as flocculation aids in the model kaolin suspensions. Due to expanded conformation the D-g-PAA copolymers are more effective flocculants than individual PAA with close molecular mass. The internal structure of D-g-PAA copolymers which is determined by number and length of grafted PAA chains, the distance between grafts, etc., has the significant influence on flocculation behavior of such polymers

  1. Zwitterionic polyacrylamides: synthesis, study of their properties in aqueous solution, study of their adsorption on clay particles; Derives zwitterioniques du polyacrylamide. Synthese et etude des proprietes en solution aqueuse et de l'adsorption sur argile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrette, P.L.

    1998-12-10

    Some zwitterionic polyacrylamides have been prepared and studied in aqueous solution. They are neutral polymers, whose charges are on the same lateral group: the positive charge is a quaternary ammonium and the negative charge is a phosphonate or a sulfonate group. Such poly-betaines have a zero net charge on a wide range of pH. They are prepared in salt-free aqueous solution by radical copolymerization of acrylamide with 3-[3-acrylamide-(propyl)dimethyl-ammonio] propane ethyl phosphate or 3-[3-acrylamide-(propyl)dimethyl-ammonio] propane sulfonate. The study has been restricted to copolymers with 1 to 10 % zwitterionic units and weight average molar masses between 1 and 2.10{sup 6} g/mol. The reactivity ratios have been determined. Their properties in solution and their adsorption on clay particles have been compared to the properties of polyacrylamide and partly hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. The use of the later polymers in petroleum industry is limited by the decrease of viscosity in presence of electrolytes, the precipitation with multi-valent cations and an important sensibility to the hydrolysis at basic pH and/or at high temperature. The rheological properties of zwitterionic polymers are controlled by electrostatic attractive forces between charges of opposite signs. Their viscosity increases as a function of ionic strength: the salts screen these attractive forces, increasing in this way the hydrodynamic volume (anti-polyelectrolyte behaviour). At high shear rates, their viscosity decreases less than in the case of usual polyacrylamide. Moreover, their resistance to hydrolysis is better and the precipitation by calcium salts is avoided unlike others charged polymers such as partly hydrolyzed polyacrylamides. Finally, their adsorption on clay particles (montmorillonite) is always twice higher than polyacrylamide adsorption whatever the salinity and the nature of salt (NaCl or KCl). In conclusion, even with small rates the incorporation of zwitterionic units in

  2. The Influence of Conditioning Agent on Phosphate Diffusion Coefficient through Polyacrylamide and Agarose Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layta Dinira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Excess phosphate in natural water can cause algae grow rapidly, to the extent causing many fish deaths that led to the extinction of certain species. Therefore, an analysis or periodic observations of phosphate levels in the water is needed. The commonly used method is diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT technique. The DGT technique is based on the ability of analyte to diffuse through a gel, which have a value named diffusion coefficient. This research was conducted in order to study the effect of different storage solution to the phosphate diffusion coefficient through polyacrylamide and agarose gels. Initial research performed with making the polyacrylamide and agarose gels. To observe the effect of different storage solutions, the gels partly stored in distilled water gel while the others are stored in a NaCl solution of 0.01 M. Phosphate diffusion coefficient was determined using Fick's Law after analyze the phosphate concentration using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that phosphate diffusion coefficient was highest when polyacrylamide and agarose gels stored in NaCl solution of 0.01 M.

  3. A Novel Polyacrylamide Magnetic Nanoparticle Contrast Agent for Molecular Imaging using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford A. Moffat

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel Polyacrylamide superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle platform is described which has been synthetically prepared such that multiple crystals of iron oxide are encapsulated within a single Polyacrylamide matrix (PolyAcrylamide Magnetic [PAM] nanoparticles. This formulation provides for an extremely large T2 and T2* relaxivity of between 620 and 1140 sec−1 mM−1. Administration of PAM nanoparticles into rats bearing orthotopic 9L gliomas allowed quantitative pharmacokinetic analysis of the uptake of nanoparticles in the vasculature, brain, and glioma. Addition of polyethylene glycol of varying sizes (0.6, 2, and 10 kDa to the surface of the PAM nanoparticles resulted in an increase in plasma half-life and affected tumor uptake and retention of the nanoparticles as quantified by changes in tissue contrast using MRI. The flexible formulation of these nanoparticles suggests that future modifications could be accomplished allowing for their use as a targeted molecular imaging contrast agent and/or therapeutic platform for multiple indications.

  4. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analysis of Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.L.; Consigli, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The structural polypeptides of purified Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus were analyzed by three different two-dimensional gel systems. Isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis allowed resolution of 53 acidic polypeptides in the enveloped nucleocapsid of the virus ranging in molecular weight from 97,300 to 8000. Nine of these polypeptides were shown to be glycoproteins by the technique of radiolabeled lectin blotting. Separation of the granulin in this system allowed resolution of five species, all of which have identical tryptic peptide maps. This matrix protein was demonstrated to be a phosphoglycoprotein by radiolabeled lectin blotting and acid phosphatase dephosphorylation. Nonequilibrium pH gel electrophoresis followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis allowed resolution of the major basic protein of the virus, VP12, from a more acidic protein of the same molecular weight. Tryptic peptide analysis demonstrated that these two proteins were indeed different and acid urea gels followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis allowed localization of the acidic protein to the envelope and the basic protein to the nucleocapsid of the virus. Finally, probing of the separated envelope nucleocapsid proteins in both the isoelectric focusing and nonequilibrium pH gel electrophoresis two-dimensional systems after transfer to nitrocellulose with iodinated, purified viral proteins allowed further insight into reactions which may be important in the maintenance of the virion structure

  5. Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Baits Against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Michael K; Soeprono, Andrew; Wright, Sarajean; Greenberg, Les; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Boser, Christina L; Cory, Coleen; Hanna, Cause

    2015-06-01

    The development of effective baits to control the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has been problematic because foragers prefer sweet liquids, while many toxicants are insoluble in water and liquid baits are generally difficult to deliver. The incorporation of thiamethoxam and sucrose solutions into a water-absorbing polyacrylamide hydrogel provides a unique and novel carrier and method of application for liquid baits. Formulations of thiamethoxam affected the size of the hydrogels, and sucrose solutions containing 0.0003% technical thiamethoxam provided hydrogels as large as those made with 25% sucrose solution or deionized water. Concentrations of thiamethoxam as low as 0.000075% in the hydrogels provided 50% kill of workers within 3 d in a laboratory setting. In small colony studies, baiting with 0.00015 and 0.000075% thiamethoxam hydrogels provided 100% mortality of workers and queens within 8 d. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that thiamethoxam was absorbed into the interior of the polyacrylamide matrix. The water loss rates of the hydrogels were dependent upon the relative humidity. Polyacrylamide hydrogels with >50% water loss were less attractive to ants. Field studies in highly infested areas indicated that concentrations of 0.0006 or 0.0018% thiamethoxam were more effective than 0.00015%. Hydrogels may provide a cost-effective alternative to providing aqueous baits to control Argentine ants. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Investigation of Removal Possibilities of Colloidal Alumina from Aqueous Solution by the Use of Anionic Polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisniewska, M.; Chibowski, S.; Urban, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purification of drinking and industrial water required usage of high molecular weight polymer to cause flocculation process of dispersed suspension of contaminants. Poly electrolytes, including ionic polyacrylamide are especially appropriate for these purposes, because in this case the suspension stability can be controlled by both steric and electrostatic forces. Thus the influence of solution p H and hydrolysis degree (carboxyl groups content) of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) on the alumina (Al_2O_3) suspension stability were studied. The turbidimetry was applied for determination of the examined systems stability. The mechanism of suspension stabilization or destabilization in the polymer presence was proposed on the basis of determined parameters: adsorbed amount of PAM, its adsorption layer thickness, linear dimensions of macromolecules in the solution and zeta potential of alumina particles covered with the polyacrylamide layer. The greatest decrease of the alumina suspension stability in the polymer presence in comparison to that without the polymer was obtained at p H 6 after the addition of PAMs with higher molecular weight (i.e. 14 000 0000) and hydrolysis degrees 20 and 30% (efficient neutralization of solid surface charge). In turn, the most unstable alumina system proved to be that prepared at p H 9 containing PAM with the highest molecular weight and the greatest hydrolysis degree (causing the most effective bridging flocculation).

  7. NATIVE VS NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.

  8. Native American nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  9. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put

  10. Pore-Scale Investigation of Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs) Transport and Retention in Saturated Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin; Lei, Guanglun; Cathles, Lawrence M.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of micrometer-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) transport and retention mechanisms in porous media is essential for the application of MPEMs as a smart sweep improvement and profile modification agent in improving oil recovery

  11. Polymer Molecular Architecture As a Tool for Controlling the Rheological Properties of Aqueous Polyacrylamide Solutions for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Diego A. Z.; Polgar, Lorenzo M.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Picchioni, Francesco; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2013-01-01

    The controlled synthesis of high molecular weight branched polyacrylamide (PAM) has been accomplished by using atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of acrylamide (AM) in water at room temperature. Halogen-functionalized aliphatic polyketones acted as macroinitiators in the polymerization.

  12. An open multicenter study of polyacrylamide hydrogel (Bulkamid®) for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, Gunnar; Sørensen, Helle Christina; Axelsen, Susanne Maigaard

    2010-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG, Bulkamid®) is a promising urethral bulking agent. This multicenter study was carried out to evaluate safety and efficacy of Bulkamid® for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence.......Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG, Bulkamid®) is a promising urethral bulking agent. This multicenter study was carried out to evaluate safety and efficacy of Bulkamid® for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence....

  13. Polyacrylamide+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and polyacrylamide+CaO remove coliform bacteria and nutrients from swine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entry, J.A.; Phillips, Ian; Stratton, Helen; Sojka, R.E

    2003-03-01

    Polyacrylamide mixture may be able to reduce run-off of enteric bacteria from animal wastes. - Animal wastes are a major contributor of nutrients and enteric microorganisms to surface water and ground water. Polyacrylamide (PAM) mixtures are an effective flocculent, and we hypothesized that they would reduce transport of microorganisms in flowing water. After waste water running at 60.0 l min{sup -1} flowed over PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, or PAM+CaO in furrows, total coliform bacteria (TC) and fecal coliform bacteria (FC) were reduced by 30-50% at 1 and 50 m downstream of the treatments compared to the control. In a column study, PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam, loam, and clay soils reduced NH{sub 4}{sup +} and ortho-P concentrations in leachate compared to the source waste water and the control. PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam and loam soils reduced both total and ortho-P, concentrations in leachate compared to the source wastewater and control treatment. In a field study, PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, or PAM+CaO treatments did not consistently reduce NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ortho-P, and total P concentrations in wastewater flowing over any soil compared to inflow wastewater or the control treatment. With proper application PAM+ Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and PAM+CaO may be able to reduce the numbers of enteric bacteria in slowly flowing wastewater running off animal confinement areas, reducing the amount of pollutants entering surface water and groundwater.

  14. Analysis of Proteins, Protein Complexes, and Organellar Proteomes Using Sheathless Capillary Zone Electrophoresis - Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Arseniy M.; Viner, Rosa; Santos, Marcia R.; Horn, David M.; Bern, Marshall; Karger, Barry L.; Ivanov, Alexander R.

    2017-12-01

    Native mass spectrometry (MS) is a rapidly advancing field in the analysis of proteins, protein complexes, and macromolecular species of various types. The majority of native MS experiments reported to-date has been conducted using direct infusion of purified analytes into a mass spectrometer. In this study, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was coupled online to Orbitrap mass spectrometers using a commercial sheathless interface to enable high-performance separation, identification, and structural characterization of limited amounts of purified proteins and protein complexes, the latter with preserved non-covalent associations under native conditions. The performance of both bare-fused silica and polyacrylamide-coated capillaries was assessed using mixtures of protein standards known to form non-covalent protein-protein and protein-ligand complexes. High-efficiency separation of native complexes is demonstrated using both capillary types, while the polyacrylamide neutral-coated capillary showed better reproducibility and higher efficiency for more complex samples. The platform was then evaluated for the determination of monoclonal antibody aggregation and for analysis of proteomes of limited complexity using a ribosomal isolate from E. coli. Native CZE-MS, using accurate single stage and tandem-MS measurements, enabled identification of proteoforms and non-covalent complexes at femtomole levels. This study demonstrates that native CZE-MS can serve as an orthogonal and complementary technique to conventional native MS methodologies with the advantages of low sample consumption, minimal sample processing and losses, and high throughput and sensitivity. This study presents a novel platform for analysis of ribosomes and other macromolecular complexes and organelles, with the potential for discovery of novel structural features defining cellular phenotypes (e.g., specialized ribosomes). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. THE TRANSATLANTIC BLUE DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The international diplomatic environment has reached to an unprecedented development, involving one of the newly specialized diplomatic types, namely the economic diplomacy. At the core of the fast movements in the diplomatic spheres across the Globe are the international agreements like the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP that determined diplomacy to dissolve into new subtypes, evolving from ground to the ocean and implementing new ways of achieving economic and climate sustainability. One of the newly created diplomatic spheres, is the blue ocean diplomacy that acts mainly in accordance with the rules and regulations that are being applied to the transatlantic economy. Even though TTIP encourages the increase of trade flows across the Atlantic, it will also ease the foreign investment procedures that, under the approach of keeping a sustainable environment, will represent one of the most important initiatives in implementing the blue economy concept within the framework of the transatlantic diplomacy.

  16. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  17. Decolorization of the anthraquinone dye Cibacron Blue 3G-A with immobilized Coprinus cinereus in fluidized bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutaouakkil, A; Blaghen, M

    2011-01-01

    Coprinus cinereus, which was able to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Cibacron Blue 3G-A (CB) enzymatically, was used as a biocatalyst for the decolorization of synthetic solutions containing this reactive dye. Coprinus cinereus was immobilized in both calcium alginate and polyacrylamide gels, and was used for the decolorization of CB from synthetic water by using a fluidized bed bioreactor. The highest specific decolorization rate was obtained when Coprinus cinereus was entrapped in calcium alginate beads, and was of about 3.84 mg g(-1) h(-1) with a 50% conversion time (t1/2) of about 2.60 h. Moreover, immobilized fungal biomass in calcium alginate continuously decolorized CB even after 7 repeated experiments without significant loss of activity, while polyacrylamide-immobilized fungal biomass retained only 67% of its original activity. The effects of some physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH and dye concentration on decolorization performance of isolated fungal strain were also investigated.

  18. A direct method to visualise the aryl acylamidase activity on cholinesterases in polyacrylamide gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boopathy Rathanam

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vertebrates, two types of cholinesterases exist, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. The function of acetylcholinesterase is to hydrolyse acetylcholine, thereby terminating the neurotransmission at cholinergic synapse, while the precise physiological function of butyrylcholinesterase has not been identified. The presence of cholinesterases in tissues that are not cholinergically innervated indicate that cholinesterases may have functions unrelated to neurotransmission. Furthermore, cholinesterases display a genuine aryl acylamidase activity apart from their predominant acylcholine hydrolase activity. The physiological significance of this aryl acylamidase activity is also not known. The study on the aryl acylamidase has been, in part hampered by the lack of a specific method to visualise this activity. We have developed a method to visualise the aryl acylamidase activity on cholinesterase in polyacrylamide gels. Results The o-nitroaniline liberated from o-nitroacetanilide by the action of aryl acylamidase activity on cholinesterases, in the presence of nitrous acid formed a diazonium compound. This compound gave an azo dye complex with N-(1-napthyl-ethylenediamine, which appeared as purple bands in polyacrylamide gels. Treating the stained gels with trichloroacetic acid followed by Tris-HCl buffer helped in fixation of the stain in the gels. By using specific inhibitors for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, respectively, differential staining for the aryl acylamidase activities on butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase in a sample containing both these enzymes has been demonstrated. A linear relationship between the intensity of colour developed and activity of the enzyme was obtained. Conclusions A novel method to visualise the aryl acylamidase activity on cholinesterases in polyacrylamide gels has been developed.

  19. Physico-chemistry characterization of sulfonated polyacrylamide polymers for use in polymer flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, Masoud

    2010-07-01

    Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer (HPAM) as a feasible and effective viscosifier has been fully studied and used for polymer flooding processes in several oil field, e.g. Daqing oil field. It has been shown that Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymers (HPAM) may be a good choice for high temperature condition with no oxygen and no divalent ions presence. At high temperature and high salinity conditions, polymer may precipitates and loss their viscosyfing properties. Also adsorption and retention of polymer in porous medium may change rheological properties of polymers. Thus, the viscosyfing property of polymers is influenced by several important parameters, e.g. salinity, hardness, temperature, adsorption, retention, polymer structure, and etc. By replacing some of carboxylate group of HPAM with another monomer, e.g. sodium salt of acrylic acid and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), effect of high salinity/hardness and temperature seems to be reduced specially for the samples with higher percentage of AMPS co-monomer. The ultimate aim of this work is to develop an understanding of the sulfonated polyacrylamide copolymers with a range of different sulfonation and molecular weight at high salinity and high temperature conditions. Most of the work in this thesis deals with viscosity and adsorption/retention measurements of the sulfonated copolymers and HPAM. The factors which may affect the viscosity of the polymers and have been identified in this work as most likely influencing also adsorption and retention of the polymers are shear rate, polymer concentration, sulfonation degree, molecular weight, NaCl concentration, divalent ion concentration, and temperature. (Author)

  20. Field demonstration of in situ grouting of radioactive solid waste burial trenches with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrations of in situ grouting with polyacrylamide were carried out on two undisturbed burial trenches and one dynamically compacted burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The injection of polyacrylamide was achieved quite facilely for the two undisturbed burial trenches which were filled with grout, at typical pumping rates of 95 L/min, in several batches injected over several days. The compacted burial trench, however, failed to accept grout at more than 1.9 L/min even when pressure was applied. Thus, it appears that burial trenches, stabilized by dynamic compaction, have a permeability too low to be considered groutable. The water table beneath the burial trenches did not respond to grout injections indicating a lack of hydrologic connection between fluid grout and the water table which would have been observed if the grout failed to set. Because grout set times were adjusted to less than 60 min, the lack of hydrologic connection was not surprising. Postgrouting penetration testing revealed that the stability of the burial trenches was increased from 26% to 79% that measured in the undisturbed soil surrounding the trenches. In situ permeation tests on the grouted trenches indicated a significant reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the trench contents from a mean of 2.1 x 10 -3 to 1.85 x 10 -5 cm/s. Preliminary observations indicated that grouting with polyacrylamide is an excellent method for both improved stability and hydrologic isolation of radioactive waste and its incidental hazardous constituents

  1. Polyacrylamide-hydroxyapatite composite: Preparation, characterization and adsorptive features for uranium and thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baybas, Demet, E-mail: dbaybas@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kayseri, Sivas 58140 (Turkey); Ulusoy, Ulvi, E-mail: ulusoy@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kayseri, Sivas 58140 (Turkey)

    2012-10-15

    The composite of synthetically produced hydroxyapatite (HAP) and polyacrylamide was prepared (PAAm-HAP) and characterized by BET, FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and PZC analysis. The adsorptive features of HAP and PAAm-HAP were compared for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+}. The entrapment of HAP into PAAm-HAP did not change the structure of HAP. Both structures had high affinity to the studied ions. The adsorption capacity of PAAm-HAP was than that of HAP. The adsorption dependence on pH and ionic intensity provided supportive evidences for the effect of complex formation on adsorption process. The adsorption kinetics was well compatible to pseudo second order model. The values of enthalpy and entropy changes were positive. Th{sup 4+} adsorption from the leachate obtained from a regional fluorite rock confirmed the selectivity of PAAm-HAP for this ion. In consequence, PAAm-HAP should be considered amongst favorite adsorbents for especially deposition of nuclear waste containing U and Th, and radionuclide at secular equilibrium with these elements. - Graphical abstract: SEM images of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and polyacrylamide-hydroxyapatite (PAAm-HAP), and the adsorption isotherms for Uranium and Thorium. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite of PAAm-HAP was synthesized from hydroxyapatite and polyacrylamide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The materials were characterized by BET, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TGA and PZC analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAP and PAAm-HAP had high sorption capacity and very rapid uptake for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Super porous PAAm was obtained from PAAm-HAP after its removal of HAP content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite is potential for deposition of U, Th and its associate radionuclides.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and flocculation activity of novel Fe(OH){sub 3}-polyacrylamide hybrid polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huilong; Cui Jinyan [Department of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Jiang Wenfeng, E-mail: dlutjiangwf@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: {yields} The preparation of a novel Fe(OH){sub 3}-PAM hybrid polymer flocculant is achieved via free radical solution polymerization. {yields} Flocculation of kaolin suspensions using this novel Fe(OH){sub 3}-PAM hybrid polymer flocculant is revealed in this study. {yields} The statistical model was first applied for calculating the thermodynamic parameters for the kaolin flocculating process. - Abstract: A novel Fe(OH){sub 3}-polyacrylamide inorganic-organic hybrid polymer (FHPAM) was synthesized via free radical solution polymerization initiated by a redox initiation system ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}-NaHSO{sub 3}) in an aqueous medium. Reaction parameters influencing the intrinsic viscosity and the yield of the hybrid polymer, such as initiator concentration, monomer mass fraction, temperature and reaction time were investigated and optimized. The results show that the maximum intrinsic viscosity and up to 94% yields of the hybrid polymer can be achieved using initiator concentration of 0.3% with acrylamide monomer mass fraction of 20% under solution polymerization at 40 deg. C for 7 h. The physicochemical properties of this hybrid flocculant were characterized with TEM, FTIR spectra, TGA, and conductivity. It was found that a chemical bond exists between Fe(OH){sub 3} colloid and polyacrylamide chains in the FHPAM. The application of the hybrid polymer for the treatment of 2.5 g L{sup -1} kaolin suspension indicates that it had an excellent flocculation capacity and its flocculation efficiency was much better than that of commercial available polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS). The optimal conditions for the flocculation treatment of kaolin suspension were the FHPAM dosage of 40 mg L{sup -1} at pH 7.0. The thermodynamic parameters for the flocculation process were calculated based on a statistical model. Interpretation of the results was given.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and flocculation activity of novel Fe(OH)3-polyacrylamide hybrid polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huilong; Cui Jinyan; Jiang Wenfeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The preparation of a novel Fe(OH) 3 -PAM hybrid polymer flocculant is achieved via free radical solution polymerization. → Flocculation of kaolin suspensions using this novel Fe(OH) 3 -PAM hybrid polymer flocculant is revealed in this study. → The statistical model was first applied for calculating the thermodynamic parameters for the kaolin flocculating process. - Abstract: A novel Fe(OH) 3 -polyacrylamide inorganic-organic hybrid polymer (FHPAM) was synthesized via free radical solution polymerization initiated by a redox initiation system ((NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 -NaHSO 3 ) in an aqueous medium. Reaction parameters influencing the intrinsic viscosity and the yield of the hybrid polymer, such as initiator concentration, monomer mass fraction, temperature and reaction time were investigated and optimized. The results show that the maximum intrinsic viscosity and up to 94% yields of the hybrid polymer can be achieved using initiator concentration of 0.3% with acrylamide monomer mass fraction of 20% under solution polymerization at 40 deg. C for 7 h. The physicochemical properties of this hybrid flocculant were characterized with TEM, FTIR spectra, TGA, and conductivity. It was found that a chemical bond exists between Fe(OH) 3 colloid and polyacrylamide chains in the FHPAM. The application of the hybrid polymer for the treatment of 2.5 g L -1 kaolin suspension indicates that it had an excellent flocculation capacity and its flocculation efficiency was much better than that of commercial available polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS). The optimal conditions for the flocculation treatment of kaolin suspension were the FHPAM dosage of 40 mg L -1 at pH 7.0. The thermodynamic parameters for the flocculation process were calculated based on a statistical model. Interpretation of the results was given.

  4. Thermal lens and all optical switching of new organometallic compound doped polyacrylamide gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Hussain Ali

    In this work thermal lens spectrometry (TLS) is applied to investigate the thermo-optical properties of new organometallic compound containing azomethine group, Dichloro bis [2-(2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)-5-methylphenyl] telluride platinum(II), doped polyacrylamide gel using transistor-transistor logic (TTL) modulated cw 532 nm laser beam as an excitation beam modulated at 10 Hz frequency and probe beam wavelength 635 nm at 14 mW. The technique is applied to determine the thermal diffusivities, ds/dT and the linear thermal expansion coefficient of the sample. All-optical switching effects with low background and high stability are demonstrated.

  5. Analysis of the surface membrane of iodinated leukemic cells by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitani, Kunihiko; Ikeda, Akira; Tamura, Minoru; Takeuchi, Hidekazu; Ihara, Koji

    1980-01-01

    Surface proteins of human leukemic cells were labeled selectively by lactoperoxydase catalysed-iodination and examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The electrophoretic pattern of the surface membranes of cells from a patients with chronic mylogeneous leukemia in blast crisis was of B cell type and showed Ia like antigen. Leukemic cells from a patient with hairly cell leukemia also expressed the pattern of B cell type when tested by this method the technique of iodinating cell surface with lactoperoxidase is useful in characterization of leukemia cells for diagnosis and monitoring of clinical course. (author)

  6. Polyacrylamide Gel Treatment of Antiretroviral Therapy-induced Facial Lipoatrophy in HIV Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansor, Samreen; Breiting, Vibeke Bro; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Today, highly active antiretroviral therapy is lifesaving for most HIV-infected patients, but the treatment can result in facial lipoatrophy, which changes the face so radically that patients may develop severe psychological and social problems. Since 2001 polyacrylamide gel (PAAG) has......) with a 14-day interval. Patient satisfaction, injector's evaluation, evaluation by an external specialist in plastic surgery, and long-term aesthetic effect and complications were registered with follow-up until 2 years. RESULTS: All patients were very satisfied or satisfied with the result. The injector...

  7. Conducting Polymeric Hydrogel Electrolyte Based on Carboxymethylcellulose and Polyacrylamide/Polyaniline for Supercapacitor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, N.; Jaisankar, V.; Sivakumar, E. K. T.

    Conducting polymer hydrogels represent a unique class of materials that possess enormous application in flexible electronic devices. In the present work, conducting carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)-co-polyacrylamide (PAAm)/polyaniline was synthesized by a two-step interpenetrating network solution polymerization technique. The synthesized CMC-co-PAAm/polyaniline with interpenetrating network structure was prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline to enhance conductivity. The molecular structure and morphology of the copolymer hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The novel conducting polymer hydrogels show good electrical and electrochemical behavior, which makes them potentially useful in electronic devices such as supercapacitors, biosensors, bioelectronics, solar cells and memory devices.

  8. Comprehensive protein profiling by multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis using cross-linked polyacrylamide coated capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaorong; Gao, Lin; Pu, Qiaosheng; Lu, Joann J; Wang, Xingjia

    2006-02-01

    We have recently developed a new process to create cross-linked polyacrylamide (CPA) coatings on capillary walls to suppress protein-wall interactions. Here, we demonstrate CPA-coated capillaries for high-efficiency (>2 x 10(6) plates per meter) protein separations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Because CPA virtually eliminates electroosmotic flow, positive and negative proteins cannot be analyzed in a single run. A "one-sample-two-separation" approach is developed to achieve a comprehensive protein analysis. High throughput is achieved through a multiplexed CZE system.

  9. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-SDS as a tool to study myofibrillar proteins. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Chabela, M. Lourdes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Miofibrillar proteins are part of land and sea animals’ muscle. Nonetheless, even when muscle proteins are the same type of proteins, their structure, rigor mortis time, and biochemical process associated to muscle to meat conversion, are different among animal species. This review has the aim to describe the advantages of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE in the study of myofibrillar proteins structure, besides the influence of many parameters on this technique to obtain an electrophoretic profile. Applications of this technique as a diagnostic tool in the food science, ecology and health are described as well.

  10. Direct detection of rutin-degrading isozymes with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuping; Deng, Dandan; Zhang, Xuebin; Zhang, Haina; Wang, Cong; Chen, Peng

    2013-12-15

    Rutin-degrading enzymes (RDEs) specifically hydrolyze the glycosidic linkages of rutin, producing quercetin and rutinose. Here we report a reliable and sensitive polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and staining method for the detection of RDE isozymes, which is based on the aqueous solubility difference between rutin and quercetin, as well as the ultraviolet absorbance of quercetin. With this novel method, we achieved a detection limit of 12 ng with 107 U of RDE activity, enabling us to detect at least five RDE isozymes in tartary buckwheat seeds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... by aqueous 50% propan-2-ol containing a Tris-borate buffer, pH 8.6. The presence of the buffer facilitates the consecutive complete reduction of the extracted protein in the alcohol. Reduction and alkylation in the buffer containing propan-2-ol give sharper bands in the electrophoresis than reduction...

  12. Instabilities with polyacrylamide solution in small and large aspect ratios Taylor-Couette systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smieszek, M; Egbers, C; Crumeyrolle, O; Mutabazi, I

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the stability of viscoelastic polyacrylamide solution in Taylor-Couette system with different aspect ratios. The first instability modes observed in a Taylor-Couette system with Γ = 10 were TVF and WVF, as for Newtonian fluid. At higher Taylor numbers moving vortices occur, a wavy mode with non-stationary vortex size. In the Taylor-Couette system with Γ = 45.9 we note a coexistence of various instability modes. In addition to TVF, counterpropagating waves developed at the transition from the base state flow. At higher Taylor number values Taylor vortices of different sizes occurred. Reduced amplitude Wavy vortex flow has also been observed.

  13. Accommodating brightness and exposure levels in densitometry of stained polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Han Yen; Ng, Tuck Wah; Liew, Oi Wah

    2010-01-01

    Flatbed scanner densitometers can be operated under various illumination and recording exposure levels. In this work, we show that optical density measurement accuracy, sensitivity, and stability of stained polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel densitometry are crucially dependent on these two factors (brightness and exposure level), notwithstanding that the source is monochromatic, spatially uniform, and the measurements are made using an accurately calibrated step wedge in tandem. We further outline a method to accommodate the intensity deviations over a range of illumination and exposure levels in order to maintain sensitivity and repeatability in the computed optical densities. Comparisons were also made with results from a commercial densitometer.

  14. Amended final report on the safety assessment of polyacrylamide and acrylamide residues in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Polyacrylamide is a polymer of controllable molecular weight formed by the polymerization of acrylamide monomers available in one of three forms: solid (powder or micro beads), aqueous solution, or inverse emulsions (in water droplets coated with surfactant and suspended in mineral oil). Residual acrylamide monomer is likely an impurity in most Polyacrylamide preparations, ranging from cosmetic formulations, at concentrations ranging from 0.05% to 2.8%. Residual levels of acrylamide in Polyacrylamide can range from dogs treated with Polyacrylamide at doses up to 464 mg/kg body weight showed no signs of toxicity. Several 2-year chronic oral toxicity studies in rats and dogs fed diets containing up to 5% Polyacrylamide had no significant adverse effects. Polyacrylamide was not an ocular irritant in animal tests. No compound-related lesions were noted in a three-generation reproductive study in which rats were fed 500 or 2000 ppm Polyacrylamide in their diet. Polyacrylamide was not carcinogenic in several chronic animal studies. Human cutaneous tolerance tests performed to evaluate the irritation of 5% (w/w) Polyacrylamide indicated that the compound was well tolerated. Acrylamide monomer residues do penetrate the skin. Acrylamide tested in a two-generation reproductive study at concentrations up to 5 mg/kg day(- 1) in drinking water, was associated with prenatal lethality at the highest dose, with evidence of parental toxicity. The no adverse effects level was close to the 0.5 mg/kg day(- 1) dose. Acrylamide tested in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) reproductive and neurotoxicity study at 3, 10, and 30 ppm produced no developmental or female reproductive toxicity. However, impaired fertility in males was observed, as well as minimal neurotoxic effects. Acrylamide neurotoxicity occurs in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, likely through microtubule disruption, which has been suggested as a possible mechanism for genotoxic effects of acrylamide in

  15. The ancient blue oak woodlands of California: longevity and hydroclimatic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, D.W.; Griffin, R.D.; Meko, D.M.; Therrell, M.D.; Edmondson, J.R.; Cleaveland, M.K.; Burnette, D.J.; Abatzoglou, J.T.; Redmond, K.T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient blue oak trees are still widespread across the foothills of the Coast Ranges, Cascades, and Sierra Nevada in California. The most extensive tracts of intact old-growth blue oak woodland appear to survive on rugged and remote terrain in the south Coast Ranges and on the foothills west and southwest of Mt. Lassen. In our sampling of old-growth stands, most blue oak appear to have recruited to the canopy in the mid- to late-19th century. The oldest living blue oak tree sampled was over 459-years old and several dead blue oak logs had over 500 annual rings. Precipitation sensitive tree-ring chronologies up to 700-years long have been developed from old blue oak trees and logs. Annual ring-width chronologies of blue oak are strongly correlated with cool season precipitation totals, streamflow in the major rivers of California, and the estuarine water quality of San Francisco Bay. A new network of 36 blue oak chronologies records spatial anomalies in growth that arise from latitudinal changes in the mean storm track and location of landfalling atmospheric rivers. These long, climate-sensitive blue oak chronologies have been used to reconstruct hydroclimatic history in California and will help to better understand and manage water resources. The environmental history embedded in blue oak growth chronologies may help justify efforts to conserve these authentic old-growth native woodlands.

  16. Listen to the Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2006-01-01

    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  17. Native SAD is maturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, John P; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S

    2015-07-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow 'highly accurate data' to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a 'first-choice' method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development.

  18. Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) predation on fishes in the Muddy River system, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Salgado, J.A.; Nielsen, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus), native to North Africa and the Middle East (Courtenay and Robins 1973, Fuller et al. 1999), has been introduced around the world as a human food source, for vegetation control, and as a game fish (Costa-Pierce and Riedel 2000). Blue tilapia has been particularly successful in establishing and spreading in North American waters where it has been reported to change fish community structure and cause native fish decline (Courtenay and Robins 1973, Fuller et al. 1999). Because of these detrimental effects, it is now generally considered an unwelcome introduction into North American waters (Dill and Cordone 1997, Fuller et al. 1999).

  19. The Blue Marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  20. Study of biodegradation of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide in an oil reservoir after polymer flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, M.; Chen, Q.; Li, Y.; Jiang, G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the amide group of polyacrylamides can provide a nitrogen source for microorganisms. However, the carbon backbone of the polymers cannot be cleaved by microbial activity. This study examined the biodegradability of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in an aerobic environment both before and after bacterial biodegradation. Results of the infrared spectrum study indicated that the amide group of HPAM in the products was converted to a carboxyl group. High performance liquid chromatography analyses did not demonstrate the presence of acrylamide monomers. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study showed that the surfaces of HPAM particles had been altered by the biodegradation process. Results of the study indicated that the HPAM carbon backbone was metabolized by the bacteria during the course of its growth. It was hypothesized that the HPAM was initially utilized by the bacteria as a nitrogen source by the hydrolysis of the HPAM amide groups using an amidase enzyme. Oxidation of the carbon backbone chain then occurred by monooxygenase catalysis. It was concluded that the HPAM carbon backbone then served as a source for further bacterial growth and metabolism. 13 refs., 5 figs

  1. Drag reduction behavior of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide/xanthan gum mixed polymer solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Habibpour; Peter E.Clark

    2017-01-01

    Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) as the main component of slickwater fracturing fluid is a shear-sensitive polymer,which suffers from mechanical degradation at turbulent flow rates.Five different concentrations of HPAM as well as mixtures of polyacrylamide/xanthan gum were prepared to investigate the possibility of improving shear stability of HPAM.Drag reduction (DR)measurements were performed in a closed flow loop.For HPAM solutions,the extent of DR increased from 30% to 67% with increasing HPAM concentration from 100 to 1000 wppm.All the HPAM solutions suffered from mechanical degradation and loss of DR efficiency over the shearing period.Results indicated that the resistance to shear degradation increased with increasing polymer concentration.DR efficiency of 600 wppm xanthan gum (XG)was 38%,indicating that XG was not as good a drag reducer as HPAM.But with only 6% DR decline,XG solution exhibited a better shear stability compared to HPAM solutions.Mixed HPAM/XG solutions initially exhibited greater DR (40% and 55%) compared to XG,but due to shear degradation,DR% dropped for HPAM/XG solutions.Compared to 200 wppm HPAM solution,addition of XG did not improve the drag reduction efficiency of HPAM/XG mixed solutions though XG slightly improved the resistance against mechanical degradation in HPAM/XG mixed polymer solutions.

  2. Potential Use of Polyacrylamide Encapsulation for Treatment of Petroleum Drilling Cuttings and Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy H. Adams

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineral soil of alluvial origin, contaminated with diesel+lubricating oil (1:2, was treated with a commercial polyacrylamide product at 100 % of the distributer recommended dosage, producing a reduction in hydrocarbon concentration (EPA 9074 of 76 % that remained stable during the study period (38 days and even after thermal treatment (60 ºC, 18 hrs.. Increasing the dosage to 150 % did not improve the treatment results, but repeating the treatment (at 100 % resulted in a slight additional reduction (4 %. Similar results were obtained with oil-based drilling cuttings (~60 % reduction at both 100 % and 150 %. Pre-drying of the drilling cuttings prior to treatment did not improve the hydrocarbon reduction, but it did produce smaller, potentially more stable aggregates (0.5 – 1-0 mm in diameter. The treatment of organic soil resulted in a similar reduction in hydrocarbon concentration (65 % and a reduction of acute toxicity (Microtox to below background levels, however this effect was not stable. An additional application (including mixing of the polyacrylamide product resulted in partial disintegration of the organic fibres and release of the stabilized hydrocarbons, measuring an overall increase in hydrocarbon concentration of 19 %.

  3. Polyacrylamide-based inorganic hybrid flocculants with self-degradable property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xinfang [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Tao, Junshi; Li, Mingzhi; Zhu, Bishan; Li, Xuan; Ma, Zhiyu; Zhao, Tingjie; Wang, Bingzhu; Suo, Biao [Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, Haiwang, E-mail: whwdbdx@126.com [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, Jun, E-mail: jyang@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ye, Li, E-mail: yeli@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qi, Xiwei, E-mail: qxw@mail.neuq.edu.cn [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM)-based inorganic hybrid materials are of great potential as flocculants in soil-liquid separation. Herein, we reported the design of inorganic soil-TiO{sub 2}-PAM hybrid materials using a unique process, which involved coating of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles on the surface of inorganic soils and subsequent polymerization of acrylamide (AM) on these nanoparticles under visible light. Inorganic soils including kaolin, bentonite, montmorillonite and diatomaceous earth were used to control the volume and to reduce the cost, and the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles accelerated PAM degradation. The nanoparticles initiated AM polymerization directly under visible light, thus providing a facile strategy for the synthesis of new organic-inorganic hybrid flocculants. The obtained hybrid materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The degradation of PAM initiated by UV irradiation exceeded 24% in 2 h, depending on its initial concentration. - Highlights: • A new polyacrylamide (PAM)-based inorganic hybrid flocculants with self-degradable property was developed. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles show a unique surface-initiated property under the condition of visible light. • We designed a facile strategy for the synthesis of inorganic soil@TiO{sub 2}@PAM hybrid materials.

  4. Detection of protein kinase activity by renaturation in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anostario, M. Jr.; Harrison, M.L.; Geahlen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a procedure for identifying protein kinase activity in protein samples following electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins are allowed to renature directly in the gel by removal of detergent. The gel is then incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP to allow renatured protein kinases to autophosphorylate or to phosphorylate various substrates which can be incorporated into the gel. The positions of the radiolabeled proteins can then be detected by autoradiography. With this technique, using purified catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, enzyme concentrations as low as 0.01 μg can be detected on gels containing 1.0 mg/ml casein. The procedure is also applicable for the determination of active subunits of multisubunit protein kinases. For example, when the two subunits of casein kinase II are separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and allowed to renature, only the larger α subunit shows activity. This procedure can also be used to detect and distinguish kinases present in heterogeneous mixtures. Starting with a particulate fraction from LSTRA, a murine T cell lymphoma, several distinct enzymes were detected, including a 30,000 Dalton protein with protein-tyrosine kinase activity. This same enzyme has also been detected in T lymphocytes and other T lymphoid cell lines

  5. Adhesion of and to soil in runoff as influenced by polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Tina B; Sbodio, Adrian; Jacobsen, Carsten S; Suslow, Trevor

    2014-11-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) is used in agriculture to reduce soil erosion and has been reported to reduce turbidity, nutrients, and pollutants in surface runoff water. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of PAM on the concentration of enteric bacteria in surface runoff by comparing four enteric bacteria representing phenotypically different motility and hydrophobicity from three soils. Results demonstrated that bacterial surface runoff was differentially influenced by the PAM treatment. Polyacrylamide treatment increased surface runoff for adhered and planktonic cells from a clay soil; significantly decreased surface runoff of adhered bacteria, while no difference was observed for planktonic bacteria from the sandy loam; and significantly decreased the surface runoff of planktonic cells, while no difference was observed for adhered bacteria from the clay loam. Comparing strains from a final water sample collected after 48 h showed a greater loss of while serovar Poona was almost not detected. Thus, (i) the PAM efficiency in reducing the concentration of enteric bacteria in surface runoff was influenced by soil type and (ii) variation in the loss of enteric bacteria highlights the importance of strain-specific properties that may not be captured with general fecal indicator bacteria. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Determination of size distribution of small DNA fragments by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau How Mooi

    1998-01-01

    Size distribution determination of DNA fragments can be normally determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis, including the normal DNA banding pattern analysis. However this method is only good for large DNA, such as the DNA of the size of kilo base pairs to mega base pairs range. DNA of size less than kilo base pairs is difficult to be quantified by the agarose gel method. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis however can be used to measure the quantity of DNA fragments of size less than kilo base pairs in length, down to less than ten base pairs. This method is good for determining the quantity of the smaller size DNA, single stranded polymers or even some proteins, if the known standards are available. In this report detail description of the method of preparing the polyacrylamide gel, and the experimental set up is discussed. Possible uses of this method, and the comparison with the standard sizes of DNA is also shown. This method is used to determine the distribution of the amount of the fragmented DNA after the Calf-thymus DNA has been exposed to various types of radiation and of different doses. The standards were used to determine the sizes of the fragmented Calf-thymus DNA. The higher the dose the higher is the amount of the smaller size DNA measured

  7. Improved Characterization of Groundwater Flow in Heterogeneous Aquifers Using Granular Polyacrylamide (PAM) Gel as Temporary Grout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikova, Maria V.; Roques, Clement; Loew, Simon; Selker, John

    2018-02-01

    The range of options for investigation of hydraulic behavior of aquifers from boreholes has been limited to rigid, cumbersome packers, and inflatable sleeves. Here we show how a new temporary borehole sealing technique using soft grains of polyacrylamide (PAM) gel as a sealing material can be used to investigate natural groundwater flow dynamics and discuss other possible applications of the technology. If no compressive stress is applied, the gel packing, with a permeability similar to open gravel, suppresses free convection, allowing for local temperature measurements and chemical sampling through free-flowing gel packing. Active heating laboratory and field experiments combined with temperature measurements along fiber optic cables were conducted in water-filled boreholes and boreholes filled with soft grains of polyacrylamide gel. The gel packing is shown to minimize the effect of free convection within the well column and enable detection of thin zones of relatively high or low velocity in a highly transmissive alluvial aquifer, thus providing a significant improvement compared to temperature measurements in open boreholes. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that under modest compressive stress to the gel media the permeability transitions from highly permeable to nearly impermeable grouting. Under this configuration the gel packing could potentially allow for monitoring local response pressure from the formation with all other locations in the borehole hydraulically isolated.

  8. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  9. New photo-convertible reactions of blue-fluorescent calf α-crystallin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, E.

    1979-01-01

    Both native blue fluorescent α-crystalline from calf lenses and UV (300 nm)-irradiated blue-fluorescent α-crystalline, when further irradiated with 365 nm-UV light, produce photo-products capable of emitting a new fluorescence at 455 nm. Illumination of the photo-products with 420 nm visible light regenerates the original fluorescence at 420-425 nm. In addition, another fluorescence at 400 nm has also been found in UV (300 nm)-irradiated blue-fluorescent α-crystallin, when exposed to 365 nm-UV light. (author)

  10. Characterization of nanocellulose reinforced semi-interpenetrating polymer network of poly(vinyl alcohol) & polyacrylamide composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Arup; Chakrabarty, Debabrata

    2015-12-10

    Semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) of poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyacrylamide was reinforced with various doses of nanocellulose. The different composite films thus prepared were characterized with respect to their mechanical, thermal, morphological and barrier properties. The composite film containing 5 wt.% of nanocellulose showed the highest tensile strength. The semi-interpenetrating polymer network of poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyacrylamide; and its various composites with nanocellulose were almost identical in their thermal stability. Each of the composites however exhibited much superior stability with respect to the linear poly(vinyl alcohol) and crosslinked polyacrylamide. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies exhibited phase separated morphology where agglomerates of nanocellulose were found to be dispersed in the matrix of the semi-IPN. The moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR) was the lowest for the film containing 5 wt.% of nanocellulose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  12. Quality of life after periurethral injection with polyacrylamide hydrogel for stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trutnovsky, Gerda; Tamussino, Karl; Greimel, Elfriede; Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to examine the effect of periurethral injections with polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG) on quality of life (QoL) in selected patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Fifty-four women with comorbidities or other reasons precluding other surgery received PAHG for SUI. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed with the "Incontinence Outcome Questionnaire" (IOQ) 9 months postoperatively. The IOQ is a 27-item, condition-specific instrument that assesses patient-reported outcomes after incontinence surgery. Forty-two women (78%) completed the questionnaire. Responses ranged from considerable (40%) and slight improvement (21%) to no change (29%) and worsening of symptoms (10%). Periurethral injections with PAHG are likely to provide relief of symptoms and improvement in QoL.

  13. The use of positron annihilation to study polyacrylamide and polymethylmethacrylate-Alcohols and diols mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, N.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of addition of both alcohols and diols to polyacrylamide (PAA) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) forming polymer mixtures was studied using positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) and Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (DBAR) techniques. It was found that, by increasing chain length of alcohols, PAA-alcohols contain free volume with small size V and low fraction f, while PMMA-alcohols contain free volume with large size and high fraction. On the other hand, S-parameter increases and W-parameter decreases in PAA-diols according to the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in the chain. In addition, the electrical conductivity measurements are performed on the above two polymer mixtures. The results showed that both PAA and PMMA exhibit semiconducting properties by the addition of alcohols and diols. Correlation between the macroscopic conductivity properties and the microstructures such as free volume and microdefects are established

  14. Rheological Properties in Aqueous Solution for Hydrophobically Modified Polyacrylamides Prepared in Inverse Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Carro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse emulsion polymerization technique was employed to synthesize hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide polymers with hydrophobe contents near to feed composition. Three different structures were obtained: multisticker, telechelic, and combined. N-Dimethyl-acrylamide (DMAM, n-dodecylacrylamide (DAM, and n-hexadecylacrylamide (HDAM were used as hydrophobic comonomers. The effect of the hydrophobe length of comonomer, the initial monomer, and surfactant concentrations on shear viscosity was studied. Results show that the molecular weight of copolymer increases with initial monomer concentration and by increasing emulsifier concentration it remained almost constant. Shear viscosity measurements results show that the length of the hydrophobic comonomer augments the hydrophobic interactions causing an increase in viscosity and that the polymer thickening ability is higher for combined polymers.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Crosslinked Hydrogel Polyacrylamide (PAAM)-Co-Alginate Prepared by Gama Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erizal; Tita P; Dewi SP

    2008-01-01

    Crosslinked poly(acrylamide) (PAAM)-co-alginate hydrogels were prepared by gamma irradiation (γ-irradiation) and their conditions such as irradiation dose and alginate concentration were studied. PAAM-co-alginate was crosslinked to yield water sorption materials with various ability to absorb water (swelling) depending on the preparation conditions (e.g. γ-irradiation dosage>20 kGy) and alginate concentration (0.5 - 1 wt %). With an increase of γ-irradiation dosage and alginate concentration, the gels content and water absorption were increasing markedly. The swelling properties of hydrogel in urea and NaCl solution and the effect of temperature were also investigated. Intensity decreasing of functional goups of OH and NH 2 in the IR spectrum indicated that IPN (Interpenetreting Network) structure occured in the network of hydrogels. The ability of hydrogel to absorp and retain a large amount of water suggested their possible uses in health care and agriculture. (author)

  16. Polyacrylamide grafting of modified graphene oxides by in situ free radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Mingyi; Xu, Xiaoyang; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Sai; Li, Xianxian; Li, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) was modified by chemical reactions to functionalized GO (FGO). • The FGOs and the GO were then subjected to in situ free radical polymerization. • Hydroxyl groups of GO were the most reactive grafting sites. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) was modified using chemical reactions to obtain three types of functionalized GO sheets (FGO). The FGO sheets and the GO were then subjected to in situ free radical polymerization in order to study the grafting polymerization. The FGO and grafted-.FGO were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The grafting percentages in the materials were calculated using the TGA and XPS results. The FGO sheets with different functional groups exhibited different grafting abilities, and hydroxyl groups were proven to be the most reactive grafting sites for the in situ free radical grafting polymerization of polyacrylamide

  17. Effect of crosslinker length on the elastic and compression modulus of poly(acrylamide) nanocomposite hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaragoza, J; Chang, A; Asuri, P

    2017-01-01

    Polymer hydrogelshave shown to exhibit improved properties upon the addition of nanoparticles; however, the mechanical underpinnings behind these enhancements have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, fewer studies have focused on developing an understanding of how polymer parameters affect the nanoparticle-mediated enhancements. In this study, we investigated the elastic properties of silica nanoparticle-reinforced poly(acrylamide) hydrogels synthesized using crosslinkers of various lengths. Crosslinker length positively affected the mechanical properties of hydrogels that were synthesized with or without nanoparticles. However the degree of nanoparticle enhancement was negatively correlated to crosslinker length. Our findings enable the understanding of the respective roles of nanoparticle and polymer properties on nanoparticle-mediated enhancement of hydrogels and thereby the development of next-generation nanocomposite materials. (paper)

  18. Quantitative film detection of 3H and 14C in polyacrylamide gels by fluorography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskey, R.A.; Mills, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Methods which use the scintillator PPO to record film images of 3 H in chromatograms and polyacrylamide gels (fluorography) have been described elsewhere. This paper demonstrates that pre-exposure of the film to a brief flash of light greatly increases the sensitivity of fluorography. Pre-exposure also permits quantitative interpretation of the film image, because it corrects the non-linear relationship between redioactivity of the sample and absorbance of the film image. Therefore the distribution of radioactivity in the sample is accurately represented by micro-densitometry of the image obtained on pre-exposed film. Using pre-exposed film 300 dis. 3 H/min or 30 dis. 14 C/min can be detected in a band in a gel in a 24-h exposure. The appendix describes revisions and extensions of existing fluorographic procedures, including application to agarose gels and a rapid procedure for recovering PPO for re-use. (orig.) [de

  19. Unusual presentation of a late complication in a polyacrylamide gel-injected breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ling Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant migration is a known complication of hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel (PAAG mammoplasty. We report the case of a female patient with an undisclosed history of bilateral breast augmentation with PAAG injections 10 years ago. The patient presented with abdominal pain and rapid gel migration into the abdominal and pelvic walls after sneezing. Computed tomography and sonography were performed, but the results were inconclusive. The diagnosis of PAAG migration was not made until the patient complained of progressive shrinkage of her right breast and disclosed the history of PAAG mammoplasty. A subsequent magnetic resonance imaging study confirmed the diagnosis. Gel migration was successfully treated using endoscopic lavage and breast debridement. Familiarity with the radiological features of PAAG migration and a thorough examination of the patient's history are mandatory for the accurate diagnosis of this complication.

  20. Polyacrylamide grafting of modified graphene oxides by in situ free radical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Mingyi [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Xu, Xiaoyang, E-mail: xiaoyangxu2012@163.com [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Wu, Tao [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Zhang, Sai; Li, Xianxian [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Li, Yi, E-mail: liyi@tju.edu.cn [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) was modified by chemical reactions to functionalized GO (FGO). • The FGOs and the GO were then subjected to in situ free radical polymerization. • Hydroxyl groups of GO were the most reactive grafting sites. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) was modified using chemical reactions to obtain three types of functionalized GO sheets (FGO). The FGO sheets and the GO were then subjected to in situ free radical polymerization in order to study the grafting polymerization. The FGO and grafted-.FGO were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The grafting percentages in the materials were calculated using the TGA and XPS results. The FGO sheets with different functional groups exhibited different grafting abilities, and hydroxyl groups were proven to be the most reactive grafting sites for the in situ free radical grafting polymerization of polyacrylamide.

  1. Effects of added polyacrylamide on changes in water states during the composting of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Qiang; Chen, Zhuo-Xian; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-02-01

    The effects of adding polyacrylamide (PAM), to attempt to delay the loss of capillary water and achieve a better level of organic matter humification, in the composting of kitchen waste were evaluated. Four treatments, with initial moisture content of 60 % were used: 0.1 % PAM added before the start of composting (R1), 0.1 % PAM added when the thermophilic phase of composting became stable (at >50 °C) (R2), 0.1 % PAM added when the moisture content significantly decreased (R3), and no PAM added (R4). The introduction of PAM in R1 and R2 significantly increased the capillary force and delayed the loss of moisture content and capillary water. The introduction of PAM in R2 and R3 improved the composting process, in terms of the degradation of biochemical fractions and the humification degree. These results show that the optimal time for adding PAM was the initial stage of the thermophilic phase.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Konjac Glucomannan-Graft-Polyacrylamide via γ-Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of konjac glucomannan-graft-polyacrylamide (KGM-g-PAM wascarried out at 25°C by γ-irradiation under a N2 atmosphere. The effects of absorbedradiation dosage and monomer concentration on grafting yield and water absorbency werestudied. The grafted copolymers were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared(FTIR spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, x-ray diffraction (XRD,thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. Thegrafting yield was observed to increase with increasing absorbed dosage and monomerconcentration. Compared with the original KGM, the grafted copolymers exhibited betterthermal stability and water absorbency. The results suggest that γ-irradiation is convenientand efficient for inducing graft copolymerization of KGM and acrylamide (AM.

  3. Hybrid polyacrylamide/carbon coating on sulfur cathode for advanced lithium sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tao; Yuan, Yan; Hong, Bo; Cao, Huawei; Zhang, Kai; Lai, Yanqing; Liu, Yexiang; Huang, Zixin

    2017-01-01

    Commercialized conductive slurry consisting of polyacrylamide (PAM) and two kinds of carbon black was coated on the surface of sulfur cathode. The hybrid PAM/C coating not only physically blocks but also chemically anchors polysulfides within the cathode, confining their out-diffusion and shuttle. Besides, the flexible and highly-conductive coating layer buffers volume change of the cathode during discharge-charge process and reduces charge transfer resistance. A specific capacity of as high as ∼900 mAh g −1 after 300 cycles is demonstrated for the PAM/C coated cathode, which is a significant improvement of reversible capacity and cycle capability compared to uncoated or conventional PVDF/C coated cathode.

  4. A study on synthesis and properties of Ag nanoparticles immobilized polyacrylamide hydrogel composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanan, P.; Padmanabha Raju, M.; Alam, Sarfaraz

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis of Ag nanoparticles containing polyacrylamide (PAm) hydrogel composites was performed by free-radical cross-linking polymerization of acrylamide monomer in an aqueous medium containing Ag + ions. The Ag nanoparticle/PAm composites exhibit faint yellow colour and are found to stable under ambient conditions, without undergoing oxidation. TEM micrographs reveal the presence of nearly spherical and well-separated Ag nanoparticles with diameters in the range of 4-7 nm. UV-vis studies apparently show the characteristic surface plasmon band at ∼415 nm, for the existence of Ag nanoparticles within the hydrogel matrix. The effect of varying Ag + ion concentration within the PAm hydrogels on the amount of formation of Ag nanoparticles, as well as on the bulk properties of hydrogel nanocomposites such as equilibrium swelling, optical and electrical properties are studied. The Ag/PAm hydrogel nanocomposites have higher swelling ratio and lower electron transfer resistance than its corresponding conventional hydrogel

  5. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate- Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE) of Irradiated Wheat Flour Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souzan, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) flour have revealed 23 polypeptides of molecular weights between 170 and 11.57 KDa, High molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) were distinguished. Densitometric analysis of the gel showed the effect of radiation on polypeptide constitution at radiation energy up to 7.5 kGy. Irradiation of wheat flour with 2.5 kGy have resulted in a slight increase in the molecular weight of wheat flour protein subunits. The increase of irradiation dose to 5.0 kGy has also induced an additional increase of molecular weight of protein subunits. The continuity in application of more radiation energy to a level of 7.5 kGy have resulted in the prevalence of degradation processes of all protein subunits more than the aggregation

  6. Calibration of low molecular weight polypeptides by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyn, M.C.P.; Bull, J.; Wright, R.

    1982-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is a technique commonly used in determining molecular weights of large proteins and peptides. This technique is used to analyse viral peptides, available in amounts too small to be monitored by an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. An experiment is described (with the limiting factor to use the SDS-PAGE technique), to determine the molecular weight peptides and the results are given to fit the linear relationship log M=4.286 - 0.42 V(e)/V(o). The results given by the SDS-PAGE system, described in the article, show that the experimental values describe a linear relationship with good resolution of low molecular weight peptides in the range 3 000 to 14 000 and that a partial cyanogen bromide digest of cytochrome c is suitable for calibration standards

  7. Native Knowledge in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1985-01-01

    Native American science is defined as activities of native peoples of the New World in observing physical phenomena and attempting to explain and control them. Problems in studying native science, ethnoscience and native science, archaeostronomy and ethnoastronomy, ethnobotany, agriculture, technology, and future directions are discussed. (JN)

  8. Silk sericin/polyacrylamide in situ forming hydrogels for dermal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Banani; Kundu, Subhas C

    2012-10-01

    In situ forming tissue sealants are advantageous due to ease in application, complete coverage of defect site and assured comfort levels to patients. The interconnected three-dimensional hydrophilic networks perfectly manage typical dermal wounds by suitably scaffolding skin fibroblast, diffusing the nutrients, therapeutics and exudates while still maintaining an adequately moist environment. We evaluate the cell homing ability of semi-interpenetrating non-mulberry tropical tasar silk sericin/polyacrylamide hydrophilic network with a keen understanding of its network characteristics and correlation of protein concentration with the performance as cell scaffold. Interconnectivity of porous networks observed through scanning electron micrograph revealed pore sizes ranging from 23 to 52 μm. The enhanced β-sheet content with the increasing sericin concentration in far red spectroscopy study supported their corresponding improved compressive strength. These semi-interpenetrating networks were found to possess a maximum fluid uptake of 112% of its weight, hence preventing the accumulation of exudates at the wound area. The present systems appear to possess characteristics like rapid gelation (~5min) at 37 °C, 98% porosity enabling the migration of fibroblasts during healing (observed through confocal and scanning electron micrographs), cell adhesion together with the absence of any cyto-toxic effect suggesting its potential as in situ tissue sealants. The compressive strength up to 61 kPa ensured ease in handling even when wet. The results prove the suitability to use non-mulberry tasar cocoon silk sericin/polyacrylamide semi-interpenetrating network as a reconstructive dermal sealant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyacrylamide preparations for protection of water quality threatened by agricultural runoff contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Sojka, R.E.; Watwood, Maribeth; Ross, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Polyacrylamide preparations show promise in reducing flow of sediments, nutrients and microorganisms from animal production facilities. - Waste streams associated with a variety of agricultural runoff sources are major contributors of nutrients, pesticides and enteric microorganisms to surface and ground waters. Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) was found to be a highly effective erosion-preventing and infiltration-enhancing polymer, when applied at rates of 1-10 g m -3 in furrow irrigation water. Water flowing from PAM treated irrigation furrows show large reductions in sediment, nutrients and pesticides. Recently PAM and PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO 4 ) 3 mixtures have been shown to filter bacteria, fungi and nutrients from animal wastewater. Low concentrations of PAM [175-350 g PAM ha -1 as PAM or as PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO 4 ) mixture] applied to the soil surface, resulted in dramatic decreases (10 fold) of total, coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria in cattle, fish and swine wastewater leachate and surface runoff. PAM treatment also filtered significant amounts of NH 4 , PO 4 and total P in cattle and swine wastewater. This points to the potential of developing PAM as a water quality protection measure in combination with large-scale animal feeding operations. Potential benefits of PAM treatment of animal facility waste streams include: (1) low cost, (2) easy and quick application, (3) suitability for use with other pollution reduction techniques. Research on the efficacy of PAM for removal of protozoan parasites and viruses and more thorough assessment of PAM degradation in different soils is still needed to completely evaluate PAM treatment as an effective waste water treatment. We will present analysis and feasibility of using PAM, PAM+Al(SO 4 ) 3 , and PAM+CaO application for specific applications. Our results demonstrate their potential efficacy in reducing sediment, nutrients and microorganisms from animal production facility effluents

  10. Polyacrylamide preparations for protection of water quality threatened by agricultural runoff contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entry, J.A.; Sojka, R.E.; Watwood, Maribeth; Ross, Craig

    2002-12-01

    Polyacrylamide preparations show promise in reducing flow of sediments, nutrients and microorganisms from animal production facilities. - Waste streams associated with a variety of agricultural runoff sources are major contributors of nutrients, pesticides and enteric microorganisms to surface and ground waters. Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) was found to be a highly effective erosion-preventing and infiltration-enhancing polymer, when applied at rates of 1-10 g m{sup -3} in furrow irrigation water. Water flowing from PAM treated irrigation furrows show large reductions in sediment, nutrients and pesticides. Recently PAM and PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} mixtures have been shown to filter bacteria, fungi and nutrients from animal wastewater. Low concentrations of PAM [175-350 g PAM ha{sup -1} as PAM or as PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}) mixture] applied to the soil surface, resulted in dramatic decreases (10 fold) of total, coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria in cattle, fish and swine wastewater leachate and surface runoff. PAM treatment also filtered significant amounts of NH{sub 4}, PO{sub 4} and total P in cattle and swine wastewater. This points to the potential of developing PAM as a water quality protection measure in combination with large-scale animal feeding operations. Potential benefits of PAM treatment of animal facility waste streams include: (1) low cost, (2) easy and quick application, (3) suitability for use with other pollution reduction techniques. Research on the efficacy of PAM for removal of protozoan parasites and viruses and more thorough assessment of PAM degradation in different soils is still needed to completely evaluate PAM treatment as an effective waste water treatment. We will present analysis and feasibility of using PAM, PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and PAM+CaO application for specific applications. Our results demonstrate their potential efficacy in reducing sediment, nutrients and microorganisms from animal

  11. An NMR relaxometry and gravimetric study of gelatin-free aqueous polyacrylamide dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, Steven; Schreiner, L John

    2006-01-01

    In conformal radiation therapy, a high dose of radiation is given to a target volume to increase the probability of cure, and care is taken to minimize the dose to surrounding healthy tissue. The techniques used to achieve this are very complicated and the precise verification of the resulting three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution is required. Polyacrylamide gelatin (PAG) dosimeters with magnetic resonance imaging and optical computed tomography scanning provide the required 3D dosimetry with high spatial resolution. Many basic studies have characterized these chemical dosimeters that polymerize under irradiation. However, the investigation of the fundamental properties of the radiation-induced polymerization in PAG dosimeters is complicated by the presence of the background gelatin matrix. In this work, a gelatin-free model system for the study of the basic radiation-induced polymerization in PAG dosimeters has been developed. Experiments were performed on gelatin-free dosimeters, named aqueous polyacrylamide (APA) dosimeters, containing equal amounts of acrylamide and N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide. The APA dosimeters were prepared with four different total monomer concentrations (2, 4, 6 and 8% by weight). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-spin and spin-lattice proton relaxation measurements at 20 MHz, and gravimetric analyses performed on all four dosimeters, show a continuous degree of polymerization over the dose range of 0-25 Gy. The developed NMR model explains the relationship observed between the relaxation data and the amount of crosslinked polymer formed at each dose. This model can be extended with gelatin relaxation data to provide a fundamental understanding of radiation-induced polymerization in the conventional PAG dosimeters

  12. Turbidimetric determination of polyacrylamide in aqueous solutions with the use of oxidizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpyuk, A.D.; Kolyada, N.S.; Pshenichnikova, E.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Polyacrylamide is widely used in industry. For example, one of the methods for obtaining microspheres of metal oxides, particularly a mixed nuclear fuel, is based on a process involving the ammoniacal precipitation of hydroxides from aqueous solutions of metal nitrates in the presence of polyacrylamide (PAA), which promotes the formation of spheres in the initial stages of the process. Monitoring the industrial process, the course of the treatment of the production waste products, and the composition of the waste water calls for determination of the content of PAA in industrial solutions. The existing methods for determining PAA are based on its chemical properties, which are specified by the presence of amide groupings in its molecule. The use of the classical methods of analysis, which are based on the reactions of PAA with formaldehyde, sulfuric acid, etc. and the hydrolysis of PAA, do not provide reliable results, since PAA is partially or completely hydrolyzed in industrial solutions. In addition, industrial solutions contain various modifiers, including urea and urotropin, and the method of determining PAA from the amount of ammonia evolved is consequently unacceptable. Turbidimetric methods of analysis, in which the content of PAA is evaluated from the turbidity caused by the formation of suspension during hydrolysis or upon the introduction of NaClO 4 or diisotubylphenoxyethoxyethyldimethylbenzyl chloride, are known. The purpose of the present work was to develop a simple quick method for determining polymers in solutions, including solutions from the production and treatment of nuclear fuel. The following reagents were proposed for the turbidimetric determination of PAA: cerium(IV) sulfate, potassium dichromate, and potassium permanganate. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. EPG waveforms of blue green sharpshooter: impedance and voltage level effects on stylet probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue-green sharpshooter (BGSS), Graphocephala atropunctata, is a native California vector of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) a foregut-borne bacterium that is the causal agent of Pierce’s disease in grapevines. A 3rd-generation, AC-DC electropenetrograph (EPG) was used to record probing behaviors of adult B...

  14. Surviving the War by Singing the Blues: The Contemporary Ethos of American Indian Political Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsosie, Rebecca

    1986-01-01

    Explores major themes in contemporary American Indian poetry that comprise the Native ethos of cultural resistance and survival. Correlates certain themes of Indian poetry with those of Black spiritual and blues. Discusses Western and Indian world views, political and social conflict, and art as the agent of criticism and change. Contains 28…

  15. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Aslan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit

  16. Comparison of polyacrylamide and agarose gel thin-layer isoelectric focusing for the characterization of beta-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecoli, C; Prevost, F E; Ververis, J J; Medeiros, A A; O'Leary, G P

    1983-08-01

    Plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases from strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were separated by isoelectric focusing on a 0.8-mm thin-layer agarose gel with a pH gradient of 3.5 to 9.5. Their banding patterns and isoelectric points were compared with those obtained with a 2.0-mm polyacrylamide gel as the support medium. The agarose method produced banding patterns and isoelectric points which corresponded to the polyacrylamide gel data for most samples. Differences were observed for HMS-1 and PSE-1 beta-lactamases. The HMS-1 sample produced two highly resolvable enzyme bands in agarose gels rather than the single faint enzyme band observed on polyacrylamide gels. The PSE-1 sample showed an isoelectric point shift of 0.2 pH unit between polyacrylamide and agarose gel (pI 5.7 and 5.5, respectively). The short focusing time, lack of toxic hazard, and ease of formulation make agarose a practical medium for the characterization of beta-lactamases.

  17. Poly(acrylamide) films at the solvent-induced glass transition: Adhesion, tribology, and the influence of crosslinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, A.; Ramakrishna, S.N.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Espinos-Marzal, R.M.; Spencer, N.D.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive and nanotribological properties of end-grafted poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) films with various degrees of crosslinking, and in the presence of solvents over a broad spectrum of quality, were investigated by means of colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy. The solvent consisted of a mixture of

  18. Mechanisms of Action of an Intraarticular 2.5% Polyacrylamide Hydrogel (Arthramid Vet) in a Goat Model of osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tnibar, Aziz; Persson, Ann Britt; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2017-01-01

    A 2.5% Polyacrylamide Hydrogel (PAAG)a was tested for treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) in a goat model (transection of medial collateral ligament, bisection of medial meniscus and partial-thickness cartilage incisions of medial tibial plateau) with highly encouraging results. The objective...

  19. Analysis of aqueous humour in uveitis by high performance liquid chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, P. I.; Hoekzema, R.; Luyendijk, L.; Kijlstra, A.

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous humour from patients with Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis (FHC) and other types of uveitis was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Using HPLC, the number of peaks and their respective elution times

  20. An international multi-centre prospective study on the efficacy of an intraarticular polyacrylamide hydrogel in horses with osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tnibar, Aziz; Schougaard, Hans; Camitz, Linus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) was evaluated recently to treat osteoarthritis (OA) in horses with highly encouraging results; however no long term field-study was done to explore its clinical efficacy and lasting effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PAAG...

  1. Native American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  2. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  3. Photometry of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Hill, P.W.; Brown, A.

    1977-01-01

    Photometry on the uvby system is given for 61 faint blue stars. The stars are classified by means of the Stromgren indices, using criteria described in a previous paper (Kilkenny and Hill (1975)). (author)

  4. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  5. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  6. The Native American Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  7. [Acute blue urticaria following subcutaneous injection of patent blue dye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, A; Vial-Dupuy, A; Lebrun-Vignes, B; Francès, C; Soria, A; Barete, S

    2015-11-01

    Patent blue (PB) is a lymphatic vessel dye commonly used in France for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer, and less frequently in melanoma, and which may induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of acute blue urticaria occurring within minutes of PB injection. Ten minutes after PB injection for sentinel lymph node detection during breast cancer surgery, a 49-year-old woman developed generalised acute blue urticaria and eyelid angioedema without bronchospasm or haemodynamic disturbance, but requiring discontinuation of surgery. Skin testing using PB and the anaesthetics given were run 6 weeks after the episode and confirmed PB allergy. PB was formally contra-indicated. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to PB have been reported for between 0.24 and 2.2% of procedures. Such reactions are on occasion severe, chiefly involving anaphylactic shock. Two mechanisms are probably associated: non-specific histamine release and/or an IgE-mediated mechanism. Skin tests are helpful in confirming the diagnosis of PB allergy. Blue acute urticaria is one of the clinical manifestations of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to patent blue dye. Skin tests must be performed 6 weeks after the reaction in order to confirm the diagnosis and formally contra-indicate this substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of polyacrylamide on morphology and electromagnetic properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Feng, Yan; Zhi-Yong, Zhang; Tian-Gui, You; Wu, Zhao; Jiang-Ni, Yun; Fu-Chun, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Through hydrothermal process, the chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles are prepared with zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH 3 COO) 2 ·2H 2 O) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) used as main resources under the different concentrations of surfactant polyacrylamide (PAM). The microstructure, morphology and the electromagnetic properties of the as-prepared products are characterized by high-resolution transmissïon electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM) and microwave vector network analyzer, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the as-prepared products are ZnO single crystalline with hexagona wurtzite structure, that the values of slenderness ratio L d are different in different PAM concentrations, and that the good magnetic loss property is found in the ZnO products, and the average magnetic loss tangent tan δ u increases with PAM concentration increasing, while the dielectric loss tangent tan δ e decreases. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  9. Facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by polyacrylamide-reduction approach to antibacterial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaheldin, Hosam I; Almalki, Meshal H K; Hezma, Abd Elhameed M; Osman, Gamal E H

    2017-06-01

    The current time increase in the prevalence of antibiotic resistant 'super-bugs' and the risks associated with food safety have become global issues. Therefore, further research is warranted to identify new and effective antimicrobial substances. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized by autoclaving technique using, different concentrations of Ag salt (AgNO 3 ) solution (1, 5, 10, and 25 mM). Their presence was confirmed by a surface plasmon resonance band at ∼435 nm using UV-Vis absorption spectra. The morphology of the synthesized Ag-NPs stabilized by polyacrylamide (PAM) was examined by TEM, SAED, and EDS. TEM images revealed that the synthesized Ag-NPs had an average diameter of 2.98±0.08 nm and SAED and EDS results confirmed the formation of Ag-NPs. In addition, FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that a PAM polymer matrix stabilized the Ag-NPs. The well diffusion method, was used to test, Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were examined. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were studied against Ag-NPs. The Ag-NPs exhibited strong inhibitory activity, MIC and MBC against the tested clinical bacterial isolates. These results suggest that Ag-NPs stabilized in PAM are highly effective against clinical bacterial isolates can be applied in medical fields.

  10. Proton spectroscopic imaging of polyacrylamide gel dosimeters for absolute radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.S.; Schwarz, A.J.; Leach, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    Proton spectroscopy has been evaluated as a method for quantifying radiation induced changes in polyacrylamide gel dosimeters. A calibration was first performed using BANG-type gel samples receiving uniform doses of 6 MV photons from 0 to 9 Gy in 1 Gy intervals. The peak integral of the acrylic protons belonging to acrylamide and methylenebisacrylamide normalized to the water signal was plotted against absorbed dose. Response was approximately linear within the range 0-7 Gy. A large gel phantom irradiated with three, coplanar 3x3cm square fields to 5.74 Gy at isocentre was then imaged with an echo-filter technique to map the distribution of monomers directly. The image, normalized to the water signal, was converted into an absolute dose map. At the isocentre the measured dose was 5.69 Gy (SD = 0.09) which was in good agreement with the planned dose. The measured dose distribution elsewhere in the sample shows greater errors. A T 2 derived dose map demonstrated a better relative distribution but gave an overestimate of the dose at isocentre of 18%. The data indicate that MR measurements of monomer concentration can complement T 2 -based measurements and can be used to verify absolute dose. Compared with the more usual T 2 measurements for assessing gel polymerization, monomer concentration analysis is less sensitive to parameters such as gel pH and temperature, which can cause ambiguous relaxation time measurements and erroneous absolute dose calculations. (author)

  11. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs): Underlying Mechanisms and Displacement Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin; Lei, Guanglun; Hou, Jian; Xu, Xiaohong; Wang, Dan; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2015-01-01

    Micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoirs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of MPEMs in brine water. A transparent sandpack micromodel was used to observe the microscopic flow and displacement mechanisms, and parallel-sandpack models were used to investigate the profile control and oil displacement performance using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs. The results indicate that MPEMs almost do not increase the viscosity of injection water and can be conveniently injected using the original water injection pipelines. The microscopic profile control and oil displacement mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media mainly behave as selective-plugging in large pores, fluid diversion after MPEMs plugging, oil drainage caused by MPEMs breakthrough, and the mechanism of oil droplets converging into oil flow. MPEMs have a high plugging strength, which can tolerate a long-term water flushing. MPEMs can selectively enter and plug the large pores and pore-throats in high permeability sandpack, but almost do not damage the low permeability sandpack. MPEMs can effectively divert the water flow from the high permeability sandpack to the low permeability sandpack and improve the sweep efficiency of low permeability sandpack and low permeability area in the high permeability sandpack. The results also confirm the dynamic process of profile control and oil displacement using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs.

  12. Biodegradable flocculants based on polyacrylamide and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) grafted amylopectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolya, Haradhan; Tripathy, Tridib

    2014-09-01

    Synthesis of amylopectin grafted polyacrylamide (AP-g-PAM) and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (AP-g-PDMA) was carried out by Ce4+ in water medium. The reaction conditions for maximum grafting was optimized by varying the reaction variables, including the concentration of monomers, ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN), amylopectin, reaction time and temperature. The graft copolymers were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, NMR (both 1H and 13C) spectroscopy, molecular weight determination and molecular weight distribution by using size exclusion chromatography (SEC), thermal analysis (TGA), SEM studies. Biodegradation of the graft copolymers was carried out by enzyme hydrolysis. Flocculation performances of the graft copolymers were evaluated in 1.0 wt% coal and 1.0 wt% silica suspensions. A comparative study of the flocculation performances of AP-g-PDMA and AP-g-PAM was also made. It shows that the flocculation performance of AP-g-PDMA was better than that of AP-g-PAM. AP-g-PDMA performed best when compared with other commercial flocculants in the same suspensions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Deposition of Ibuprofen Crystals on Hydroxypropyl Cellulose/Polyacrylamide Gel: Experimental and Mathematic Modeling Releasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alicia Castillo-Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug [2-(4-isobutyl-phenyl propionic acid] ibuprofen (IBP on a hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC and polyacrylamide (PAAm gel was studied as well as the release kinetics of the drug. The IBP was crystallized on the gel surface of HPC/PAAm. It had a prismatic shape and the growth was made in an aqueous medium; the crystallinity grade of the gels HPC/PAAm and HPC/PAAm-IBU increased to 68% and to 58%, respectively. The release of IBP is performed by two means: by a non-Fickian diffusion process and by relaxation of the chains of the gel; without regard to temperature and the diffusion media, this correlates with the lower critical solution temperature (LCST of the proposed gel. This polymer matrix provides an option for releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in a temperature range of 35–39°C. Korsmeyer and Peppas mathematical model was simulated for data releases, statistically significant at 95% confidence level.

  14. Performance of Partially-Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide in Water Based Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Nasiri*

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluid properties with constant improvement in efficiency have been noticeable as important criteria in drilling operation. The main drilling fluid properties highly depend on utilization of new polymers with high efficiency in drilling fluid composition. In this paper, the performance of a new polymer, called partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer (PHPA, is studied which has recently entered the drilling fluids industry in Iran. Hence viscosity property, fluid loss control and shale inhibition of this polymer have been evaluated based on an international standard method of API-13-I by considering the drilling and operational priorities of thecountry. Then the thermal effect, salt contaminants such as sodium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride and pH tolerance effect as major pollution indicators are also investigated in relation to polymeric fluid properties. The results obtained by the tests show that furthermore polymer PHPA increases rheological properties (apparent viscosity, plastic fluidity and yield point and it plays important role in increases in fluid loss. This polymer has also demonstrated acceptable resistance toward sodium chloride contaminants, but its efficiency decreases toward calcium and magnesium ion contaminants. The thermal tests show that polymer PHPA has high thermal stability up to 150°C. This polymer improves shale inhibition property and by encapsulation mechanism prevents dispersion of shale cuttings into the drilling fluid system as it stops any changes in fluid properties which will finally results inwellbore stability.

  15. Arsenic remediation from drinking water by synthesized nano-alumina dispersed in chitosan-grafted polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suparna; Sarkar, Priyabrata

    2012-08-15

    An arsenic adsorbent comprising alumina nanoparticles dispersed in polymer matrix was developed and its removal potential studied. Alumina nanoparticles were prepared by reverse microemulsion technique and these were immobilized on chitosan grafted polyacrylamide matrix by in situ dispersion. The loading capacity of this new synthesized adsorbent was found to be high (6.56 mg/g). Batch adsorption studies were performed as a function of contact time, initial arsenic concentration, pH and presence of competing anions. The removal was found to be pH dependent, and maximum removal was obtained at pH 7.2 while the equilibrium time was 6h. The equilibrium adsorption data fitted very well with Freundlich isotherm. However, the D-R isotherm studies indicated that chemisorptions might play an important role. This was also confirmed by the FTIR study of the arsenic loaded adsorbent. A mechanism of arsenic sorption by the new polymeric adsorbent has been proposed. The regeneration study of the adsorbent resulted in retention of 94% capacity in the fifth cycle. An optimum pH of 7.2, operation at normal temperature, high adsorption capacity and good recycle potential of this new adsorbent would make it an ideal material for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Highly increased detection of silver stained protein bands in polyacrylamide gels with thermo-optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Giulia; Posnicek, Thomas; Brandl, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a well-known technique to separate proteins by their molecular weight. After electrophoresis, the gels are commonly stained for protein band analysis with silver stain; this allows the detection of protein loads to about 1 ng. To increase the detection sensitivity of the protein bands down in the subnanogram level, a sensor has been developed based on the thermal lens effect to scan and quantify protein loads which would remain undetected using the standard imaging systems. The thermal lens sensor is equipped with a 450 nm diode pump laser modulated at 1 Hz and a HeNe probe laser mounted in collinear geometry. The sensor could detect protein bands of 0.05 ng when the gel was soaked in methanol/water and 0.1 ng in water. The limit of detection ranged from 8 to 20 pg, depending on the soaking medium and the staining efficiency. Thus, the detection of silver stain by thermal lens effect results 10 to 20 times more sensitive than the standard colorimetric method.

  17. Nonthrombotic Pulmonary Embolism: A Potential Complication of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Cosmetic Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Inayat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG has gained importance as a synthetic soft tissue filling agent. It has been commonly employed by physicians in Europe for facial contouring and soft tissue augmentation. Previously, PAAG is considered nontoxic and well tolerated with a few mild procedural complications. Case Presentation. A 26-year-old female was hospitalized for dry cough, worsening dyspnea, and chest discomfort after 3 hours of multiple PAAG injections in buttocks. The patient’s condition deteriorated and rapidly advanced to acute respiratory failure. Therein, the diagnosis of nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism (NTPE was established on standard set of investigations. She was intubated; corticosteroid and empiric antibiotic therapy was initiated resulting in improvement of her condition. Subsequently, extubation was done, and she was discharged from the hospital after an uneventful recovery. On 1-month follow-up, the patient had no previous symptoms. Conclusion. This report implicates clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for NTPE in patients presenting with respiratory symptoms following PAAG usage.

  18. Effect of residual monomer from polyacrylamide on head lettuce grown in peat substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Ewelina; Kleiber, Tomasz; Konieczny, Piotr; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the migration of the acrylamide monomer (AMD) to lettuce chosen as a test plant growing in an organic medium (peat substrate). Polyacrylamide (PAM)-based flocculant added to the growing medium contained no more than 1000 mg kg(-1) of AMD. Plants were grown with varied doses of PAM preparation (0.5-3.0 mg dm(-3) of peat substrate) to compare the results with the control sample. The determination of AMD content, chlorophyll content, weight of the lettuce head, and also analysis of macro- and micro-elements in lyophilised test material was made under the same analytical conditions. The results showed that lettuce plants absorb AMD to the leaves from the peat substrate. The AMD uptake has a negative impact on the growth of lettuce. It reduces the average fresh weight of heads and destabilises the mineral composition of the plant. Therefore, concern related to the transfer risk of the residual AMD from sludge used for organic fertilisation of edible plants still remains a crucial question from a food and consumer safety point of view. To ensure consumer safety, the fate of the AMD following the application of PAM to cropland should be carefully monitored in the whole food chain.

  19. Study of crosslinking induced by gamma radiation in mixtures of polyacrylamide anionic and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, M.T.S.; Brant, A.J.C.; Naime, N.; Guadagnin, H.C.; Ponce, P.; Lugao, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels are composed of three-dimensional polymeric networks that can absorb and retain body of water hundreds of times the weight of its dry weight. The hydrogels can be crosslinked by chemical or physical. In general, chemical crosslinking is performed in the presence of reactive substances of high toxicity at elevated temperatures, may cause harmful secondary reactions to final product quality. However, ionizing radiation provides the crosslinking in the absence of chemical initiators or crosslinkers, therefore without contamination or toxicity. It also allows the realization of the reaction at low temperatures. These materials find use in several application fields, such as sanitary pads, diapers, controlled release of nutrients to the soil, separation processes, water purification systems and controlled release of drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of gamma radiation in doses of 15 and 25 kGy, in reticulation system of polyacrylamide (PAAm) and water, which were characterized by swelling and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the importance of the amount of water in the reticulation. It was concluded that gamma radiation has excellent potential for the synthesis of hiperabsorbent hydrogels. (author)

  20. Cationic polyacrylamide enhancing cellulase treatment efficiency of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-05-01

    Cellulase treatment for decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity of dissolving pulp is a promising approach to reduce the use of toxic chemicals, such as hypochlorite in the dissolving pulp manufacturing process in the industry. Improving the cellulase treatment efficiency during the process is of practical interest. In the present study, the concept of using cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) to enhance the cellulase treatment efficiency was demonstrated. This was mainly attributed to the increased cellulase adsorption onto cellulose fibers based on the patching/bridging mechanism. Results showed that the cellulase adsorption was increased by about 20% with the addition of 250 ppm of CPAM under the same conditions as those of the control. It was found that the viscosity decrease and Fock reactivity increase for the cellulase treatment was enhanced from using CPAM. The CPAM-assisted cellulase treatment concept may provide a practical alternative to the present hypochlorite-based technology for viscosity control in the industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of heparin calcium different concentrations on some physical properties and structure in polyacrylamide matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrazek, E.M.; Ibrahim, Hosam S.

    2010-01-01

    Films of polyacrylamide (PAAm) doped with different concentrations of heparin calcium, from 0.0 to 8 wt%, have been prepared by casting method. Studies were carried out utilizing X-ray, FT-IR, UV/VIS, DSC and DC electrical conduction to characterize the structural, optical and thermal properties of the films. Results revealed that the structural and chemical characterizations of PAAm films are affected by the addition of heparin calcium content. XRD spectra revealed that the amorphous phases increase with increase in filling levels of heparin (FLs). FT-IR analysis revealed that incorporation of heparin calcium leads to a small modification in the spectra of films. The optical absorption spectra in the UV/VIS region revealed structural variation increases with increase in concentration, which is reflected in the form of decrease in the energy band gap E g . Significant changes of DSC curves of the films suggest that strong interaction established between heparin calcium and PAAm molecules. The DC electric conduction data were interpreted on the basis of an intrachain one-dimensional interpolaron hopping model of Kuivalainen.

  2. Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, Maneesh; Koul, Veena; Dinda, Amit K; Gupta, Asheesh

    2010-01-01

    A biodegradable semi-interpenetrating hydrogel network (semi-IPN) of polyacrylamide and gelatin was prepared using polycaprolactone diacrylate (mol. wt ∼ 640) as a crosslinker. The drug-polymer interaction and IPN formation were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron micrographs of lyophilized matrices revealed porous internal structure with varying pore sizes under equilibrium hydrated conditions, depending upon formulation composition. pH-dependent swelling and degradation was enhanced with increasing gelatin content and decreasing crosslinker concentration (Cs). Compression modulus (CM) (at 20% strain) increased significantly from 23 ± 1.4 to 75 ± 2.7 kPa (p 0 C). Fitting of drug release data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested sustained release behavior up to 10 days with a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism (0.5 t /M ∞ ≤ 0.6). The newly developed porous, biodegradable and elastic semi-IPNs may serve as an ideal matrix for controlled drug release and wound healing applications. The possibilities can be explored for pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications.

  3. Polyacrylamide-hydroxyapatite composite: Preparation, characterization and adsorptive features for uranium and thorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baybaş, Demet; Ulusoy, Ulvi

    2012-10-01

    The composite of synthetically produced hydroxyapatite (HAP) and polyacrylamide was prepared (PAAm-HAP) and characterized by BET, FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and PZC analysis. The adsorptive features of HAP and PAAm-HAP were compared for UO22+ and Th4+. The entrapment of HAP into PAAm-HAP did not change the structure of HAP. Both structures had high affinity to the studied ions. The adsorption capacity of PAAm-HAP was than that of HAP. The adsorption dependence on pH and ionic intensity provided supportive evidences for the effect of complex formation on adsorption process. The adsorption kinetics was well compatible to pseudo second order model. The values of enthalpy and entropy changes were positive. Th4+ adsorption from the leachate obtained from a regional fluorite rock confirmed the selectivity of PAAm-HAP for this ion. In consequence, PAAm-HAP should be considered amongst favorite adsorbents for especially deposition of nuclear waste containing U and Th, and radionuclide at secular equilibrium with these elements.

  4. Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Martins, Martinho António Dos Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Ben-Hur, Meni; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-01-15

    For several years now, forest fires have been known to increase overland flow and soil erosion. However, mitigation of these effects has been little studied, especially outside the USA. This study aimed to quantify the effectiveness of two so-called emergency treatments to reduce post-fire runoff and soil losses at the microplot scale in a eucalyptus plantation in north-central Portugal. The treatments involved the application of chopped eucalyptus bark mulch at a rate of 10-12 Mg ha(-1), and surface application of a dry, granular, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) at a rate of 50 kg ha(-1). During the first year after a wildfire in 2010, 1419 mm of rainfall produced, on average, 785 mm of overland flow in the untreated plots and 8.4 Mg ha(-1) of soil losses. Mulching reduced these two figures significantly, by an average 52 and 93%, respectively. In contrast, the PAM-treated plots did not differ from the control plots, despite slightly lower runoff but higher soil erosion figures. When compared to the control plots, mean key factors for runoff and soil erosion were different in the case of the mulched but not the PAM plots. Notably, the plots on the lower half of the slope registered bigger runoff and erosion figures than those on the upper half of the slope. This could be explained by differences in fire intensity and, ultimately, in pre-fire standing biomass. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanosensitivity of astrocytes on optimized polyacrylamide gels analyzed by quantitative morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshayedi, Pouria; Christ, Andreas; Guck, Jochen; Franze, Kristian; Da F Costa, Luciano; Lacour, Stephanie P; Fawcett, James

    2010-01-01

    Cells are able to detect and respond to mechanical cues from their environment. Previous studies have investigated this mechanosensitivity on various cell types, including neural cells such as astrocytes. In this study, we have carefully optimized polyacrylamide gels, commonly used as compliant growth substrates, considering their homogeneity in surface topography, mechanical properties, and coating density, and identified several potential pitfalls for the purpose of mechanosensitivity studies. The resulting astrocyte response to growth on substrates with shear storage moduli of G' 100 Pa and G' = 10 kPa was then evaluated as a function of coating density of poly-D-lysine using quantitative morphometric analysis. Astrocytes cultured on stiff substrates showed significantly increased perimeter, area, diameter, elongation, number of extremities and overall complexity if compared to those cultured on compliant substrates. A statistically significant difference in the overall morphological score was confirmed with an artificial intelligence-based shape analysis. The dependence of the cells' morphology on PDL coating density seemed to be weak compared to the effect of the substrate stiffness and was slightly biphasic, with a maximum at 10-100 μg ml -1 PDL concentration. Our finding suggests that the compliance of the surrounding tissue in vivo may influence astrocyte morphology and behavior.

  6. Effects of bagasse microfibrillated cellulose and cationic polyacrylamide on key properties of bagasse paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djafari Petroudy, Seyed Rahman; Syverud, Kristin; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Ghasemain, Ali; Resalati, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the benefits of using bagasse microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in bagasse paper. Two different types of MFC were produced from DED bleached soda bagasse pulp. The MFC was added to soda bagasse pulp furnishes in different amounts. Cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) was selected as retention aid. The results show that addition of MFC increased the strength of paper as expected. Interestingly, 1% MFC in combination with 0.1% C-PAM yielded similar drainage time as the reference pulp, which did not contain MFC. In addition, the samples containing 1% MFC and 0.1% C-PAM yielded (i) a significant increment of the tensile index, (ii) a minor decrease of opacity and (iii) preserved Gurley porosity. Hence, this study proves that small fractions of MFC in combination with adequate retention aids can have positive effects with respect to paper properties, which is most interesting from an industrial point of view. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Amperometric biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide using catalase modified electrodes in polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Shailly; Mattiasson, Bo

    2005-09-23

    A simple biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide in organic solvents has been developed and coupled to a flow injection analysis (FIA) system. Catalase was entrapped in polyacrylamide gel and placed on the surface of platinum (working electrode) fixed in a Teflon holder with Ag-wire (auxiliary electrode), followed by addition of filter paper soaked in KCl. The entrapped catalase gel was held on the electrode using membranes. The effects of cellulose and polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) membranes on the electrode response towards hydrogen peroxide have been studied. The modified electrode has been used to study the detection of hydrogen peroxide in solvents like water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and 1,4-dioxane using amperometric techniques like cyclic voltammetry (CV) and FIA. The CV of modified catalase electrode showed a broad oxidation peak at -150 mV and a clear reduction peak at -212 mV in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Comparison of CV with hydrogen peroxide in various solvents has been carried out. The electrode showed an irreversible kinetics with DMSO as the solvent. A flow cell has been designed in order to carry on FIA studies to obtain calibration plots for hydrogen peroxide with the modified electrode. The calibration plots in several solvents such as water, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,4-dioxane have been obtained. The throughput of the enzyme electrode was 10 injections per hour. Due to the presence of membrane the response time of the electrode is concentration dependent.

  8. Imaging findings of breast augmentation with injected hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel: Patient reports and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khedher, Najoua Ben, E-mail: nbenkhedher@gmail.com [Centre d' Investigation et de Recherche Diagnostique des maladies du sein (CRID), Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Hotel-Dieu, 3840 rue Saint-Urbain, Montreal (Quebec), H2W 1T8 (Canada); David, Julie, E-mail: jdavid@vl.videotron.ca [Centre d' Investigation et de Recherche Diagnostique des maladies du sein (CRID), Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Hotel-Dieu, 3840 rue Saint-Urbain, Montreal (Quebec), H2W 1T8 (Canada); Trop, Isabelle, E-mail: itrop@yahoo.com [Centre d' Investigation et de Recherche Diagnostique des maladies du sein (CRID), Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Hotel-Dieu, 3840 rue Saint-Urbain, Montreal (Quebec), H2W 1T8 (Canada); Drouin, Suzanne, E-mail: suedrouin@sympatico.ca [Clinique Radiologique Leger et associees, 1851 rue Sherbrooke Est, Bureau 201, Montreal (Quebec), H2K 4L5 (Canada); Peloquin, Laurence, E-mail: laurence.peloquin@gmail.com [Centre d' Investigation et de Recherche Diagnostique des maladies du sein (CRID), Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Hotel-Dieu, 3840 rue Saint-Urbain, Montreal (Quebec), H2W 1T8 (Canada); Lalonde, Lucie, E-mail: lalucie@sympatico.ca [Centre d' Investigation et de Recherche Diagnostique des maladies du sein (CRID), Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Hotel-Dieu, 3840 rue Saint-Urbain, Montreal (Quebec), H2W 1T8 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel (PAAG) is a nonresorbable soft tissue filler that has been used as implant material for breast augmentation in some countries, particularly from the Asian continent. Many complications associated with hydrogel use have been reported in the clinical literature including inflammation, persistent mastodynia, formation of multiple lumps, poor cosmetic results, glandular atrophy, and significant spread of hydrogel into the surrounding tissue. Data on long-term toxicity is currently unavailable. The radiologic features of PAAG injection mammoplasty frequently constitute a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Indeed, the imaging appearances of uncomplicated PAAG implants may mimic conventional implants on mammography, sonography and MRI, with some distinguishing features. The location and local spread of the injected PAAG, and the eventual detection of local inflammation, are best evaluated by ultrasonography and especially MRI, considered the most sensitive technique for assessment of PAAG mammoplasty. MRI clearly depicts the volume and the distribution of gel within the breast; contrast medium enhancement allows delineation of areas of inflammation and infection. It is important to be familiar with the spectrum of imaging findings in order to make an accurate diagnosis and offer proper management. This paper aims to review the normal and abnormal mammographic, sonographic, and MR imaging characteristics of PAAG augmentation mammoplasty through presented patient reviews of three women having undergone direct PAAG injection.

  9. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs): Underlying Mechanisms and Displacement Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin

    2015-10-12

    Micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoirs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of MPEMs in brine water. A transparent sandpack micromodel was used to observe the microscopic flow and displacement mechanisms, and parallel-sandpack models were used to investigate the profile control and oil displacement performance using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs. The results indicate that MPEMs almost do not increase the viscosity of injection water and can be conveniently injected using the original water injection pipelines. The microscopic profile control and oil displacement mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media mainly behave as selective-plugging in large pores, fluid diversion after MPEMs plugging, oil drainage caused by MPEMs breakthrough, and the mechanism of oil droplets converging into oil flow. MPEMs have a high plugging strength, which can tolerate a long-term water flushing. MPEMs can selectively enter and plug the large pores and pore-throats in high permeability sandpack, but almost do not damage the low permeability sandpack. MPEMs can effectively divert the water flow from the high permeability sandpack to the low permeability sandpack and improve the sweep efficiency of low permeability sandpack and low permeability area in the high permeability sandpack. The results also confirm the dynamic process of profile control and oil displacement using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs.

  10. Imaging findings of breast augmentation with injected hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel: Patient reports and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedher, Najoua Ben; David, Julie; Trop, Isabelle; Drouin, Suzanne; Peloquin, Laurence; Lalonde, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel (PAAG) is a nonresorbable soft tissue filler that has been used as implant material for breast augmentation in some countries, particularly from the Asian continent. Many complications associated with hydrogel use have been reported in the clinical literature including inflammation, persistent mastodynia, formation of multiple lumps, poor cosmetic results, glandular atrophy, and significant spread of hydrogel into the surrounding tissue. Data on long-term toxicity is currently unavailable. The radiologic features of PAAG injection mammoplasty frequently constitute a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Indeed, the imaging appearances of uncomplicated PAAG implants may mimic conventional implants on mammography, sonography and MRI, with some distinguishing features. The location and local spread of the injected PAAG, and the eventual detection of local inflammation, are best evaluated by ultrasonography and especially MRI, considered the most sensitive technique for assessment of PAAG mammoplasty. MRI clearly depicts the volume and the distribution of gel within the breast; contrast medium enhancement allows delineation of areas of inflammation and infection. It is important to be familiar with the spectrum of imaging findings in order to make an accurate diagnosis and offer proper management. This paper aims to review the normal and abnormal mammographic, sonographic, and MR imaging characteristics of PAAG augmentation mammoplasty through presented patient reviews of three women having undergone direct PAAG injection.

  11. QbD based synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide grafted corn fibre gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akashdeep; Mangla, Bhumika; Sethi, Sheshank; Kamboj, Sunil; Sharma, Radhika; Rana, Vikas

    2017-01-20

    The aim of present investigation was to utilize quality by design approach for the synthesis of polyacrylamide corn fibre gum (PAAm-g-CFG) from corn fibre gum (CFG) by varying concentration of acrylamide and initiator. The spectral analysis (ATR-FTIR, 1 H NMR, DSC, X-ray and Mass spectroscopy) was conducted to assure grafting copolymerization of CFG with acrylamide. The powder flow properties confirm the porous nature of PAAm-g-CFG. The grafted copolymer dispersion showed shear thinning behaviour that follows Herschel Bulkley model. The viscoelastic analysis suggested viscous liquid like nature of PAAm-g-CFG and its viscosity increases with increase in concentration of PAAm-g-CFG. The mucoadhesive strength of synthesized PAAm-g-CFG was found to be higher than moringa oleifera gum, karaya gum, guar gum, xanthan gum, chitosan and gelatin. Further, the results pointed toward enhanced thermal stability of PAAm-g-CFG. Thus, PAAm-g-CFG has a great potential to be used in food and pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling of protein electrophoresis in silica colloidal crystals having brush layers of polyacrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Robert E.; Koshel, Brooke M.; Hua, Yimin; Ratnayaka, Saliya N.; Wirth, Mary J.

    2013-01-01

    Sieving of proteins in silica colloidal crystals of mm dimensions is characterized for particle diameters of nominally 350 and 500 nm, where the colloidal crystals are chemically modified with a brush layer of polyacrylamide. A model is developed that relates the reduced electrophoretic mobility to the experimentally measurable porosity. The model fits the data with no adjustable parameters for the case of silica colloidal crystals packed in capillaries, for which independent measurements of the pore radii were made from flow data. The model also fits the data for electrophoresis in a highly ordered colloidal crystal formed in a channel, where the unknown pore radius was used as a fitting parameter. Plate heights as small as 0.4 μm point to the potential for miniaturized separations. Band broadening increases as the pore radius approaches the protein radius, indicating that the main contribution to broadening is the spatial heterogeneity of the pore radius. The results quantitatively support the notion that sieving occurs for proteins in silica colloidal crystals, and facilitate design of new separations that would benefit from miniaturization. PMID:23229163

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Polyacrylamide-Degrading Bacteria from Dewatered Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide (PAM is a water-soluble polymer that is widely used as a flocculant in sewage treatment. The accumulation of PAM affects the formation of dewatered sludge and potentially produces hazardous monomers. In the present study, the bacterial strain HI47 was isolated from dewatered sludge. This strain could metabolize PAM as its sole nutrient source and was subsequently identified as Pseudomonas putida. The efficiency of PAM degradation was 31.1% in 7 days and exceeded 45% under optimum culture condition (pH 7.2, 39 °C and 100 rpm. The addition of yeast extract and glucose improved the bacterial growth and PAM degradation. The degraded PAM samples were analyzed by gel-filtration chromatography, Fourier transform infrared and high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that high-molecular-weight PAM was partly cleaved to small molecular oligomer derivatives and part of the amide groups of PAM had been converted to carboxyl groups. The biodegradation did not accumulate acrylamide monomers. Based on the SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing results, the PAM amide groups were converted into carboxyl groups by a PAM-induced extracellular enzyme from the aliphatic amidase family.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of high molecular weight hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide nanolatexes using novel nonionic polymerizable surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, nine hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides (HM-PAM nanolatexes, were synthesized by copolymerizing the acrylamide monomer and novel polymerizable surfactants (surfmers. The reaction was carried out by inverse microemulsion copolymerization technique. The copolymerization was initiated by redox initiators composed of potassium peroxodisulphate and sodium bisulfite. The emulsion was stabilized using mixed tween 85 and span 80 as nonionic emulsifiers. The prepared HM-PAMs were classified into three groups according to the surfmers used in the copolymerization. The chemical structures of the prepared HM-PAMs were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The thermal properties were estimated with the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The size and morphology of the prepared latexes were investigated by the dynamic light scattering (DLS and the High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM. Finally, the molecular weights of the prepared copolymers were determined by the GPC and the viscosity average molecular weight method. They were situated between 1.58 × 106 and 0.89 × 106.

  15. Adsorption of Hg2+ from aqueous solution onto polyacrylamide/attapulgite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yijiang; Chen Yan; Li Meisheng; Zhou Shouyong; Xue Ailian; Xing Weihong

    2009-01-01

    Polyacrylamide/attapulgite (PAM/ATP) was prepared by the solution polymerization of acrylamide (AM) onto γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH-570)-modified attapulgite (ATP). PAM/ATP was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH of the initial solution on the adsorption capacities for Hg 2+ were investigated. The adsorption process was rapid; 88% of adsorption occurred within 5 min and equilibrium was achieved at around 40 min. The equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir sorption isotherms well, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Hg 2+ onto PAM/ATP was found to be 192.5 mg g -1 . The adsorption kinetics of PAM/ATP fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Our results suggest that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting steps in the process of Hg 2+ adsorption. Hg 2+ adsorbed onto PAM/ATP could be effectively desorbed in hot acetic acid solution, and the adsorption capacity of the regenerated adsorbents could still be maintained at 95% by the sixth cycle.

  16. Agarose gel electrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for visualization of simple sequence repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James; Wright, Drew; Meksem, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    In the modern age of genetic research there is a constant search for ways to improve the efficiency of plant selection. The most recent technology that can result in a highly efficient means of selection and still be done at a low cost is through plant selection directed by simple sequence repeats (SSRs or microsatellites). The molecular markers are used to select for certain desirable plant traits without relying on ambiguous phenotypic data. The best way to detect these is the use of gel electrophoresis. Gel electrophoresis is a common technique in laboratory settings which is used to separate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) by size. Loading DNA and RNA onto gels allows for visualization of the size of fragments through the separation of DNA and RNA fragments. This is achieved through the use of the charge in the particles. As the fragments separate, they form into distinct bands at set sizes. We describe the ability to visualize SSRs on slab gels of agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  17. Polyacrylamide sorption opportunity on interlayer and external pore surfaces of contaminant barrier clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Hilary I; Bae, Sunyoung

    2005-01-01

    Physico-chemical interactions among polymer molecules in aqueous solution and clay mineralogical/textural characteristics influence the sorption of polymer molecules on clay barrier minerals. Amendment of potentially unstable barrier clays with aqueous polymers can improve barrier material resistance to environmental stresses during service. In this research, the ability of molecular coils of polyacrylamide (PAM) to overlap in solution and to enter interlayer space in Na-montmorillonite (specific surface=31.82+/-0.22 m2 g(-1)) and kaolinite (specific surface=18+/-2 m2 g(-1)) were analyzed theoretically and experimentally, using solution viscosity measurements, and X-ray diffractometry. Experimental data on two theoretical indices: relative size ratio (RSR); and molecular availability (Ma) that are formulated to scale polymer molecular sorption on clay interlayer, indicate that the sorption of PAM A (Mw=4000000) and PAM B (Mw=7000000) does not produce any significant change in the d-spacing of both clay minerals. Although the negative Ma values of -3.51 g l(-1) for PAM A and -3.88 g l(-1) for PAM B indicate high levels of entanglement of polymer molecular coils in solution, sorption data confirm that the entangled coils are still able to sorb onto Na-montmorillonite highly and kaolinite to a lesser extent.

  18. A new inorganic-organic composite coagulant, consisting of polyferric sulphate (PFS) and polyacrylamide (PAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, P A; Zouboulis, A I

    2009-08-01

    Currently, research is focused on the synthesis of new composite coagulants, which are constituted of both inorganic and organic materials. In this paper, the development of relevant reagents was investigated, by combining the inorganic pre-polymerised iron-based coagulant Polyferric Sulphate (PFS) with an organic, non-ionic polymer (Polyacrylamide, PAA) under different PAA/Fe (mg/l) and OH/Fe molar ratios. Moreover, the new reagents were characterised in terms of typical properties, stability and morphological analysis (XRD, FTIR, SEM). Their coagulation performance, when treating low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions, was also investigated, whereas the applied coagulation mechanisms were discussed by using the Photometric Dispersion Analysis (PDA) analysis. The results show that the new coagulation reagents present improved properties, including increased effective polymer species concentration, and they exhibit very good stability. The respective tests using PDA confirmed that the predominant coagulation mechanism of PFS-PAA is the bridge formation mechanism. Coagulation experiments in low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions reveal that the novel composite reagent PFS-PAA exhibits better coagulation performance, when compared with simple PFS, in terms of zeta-potential reduction, turbidity and organic matter removal and residual iron concentration.

  19. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  20. Fiber based optical tweezers for simultaneous in situ force exertion and measurements in a 3D polyacrylamide gel compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M; Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-07-01

    Optical tweezers play an important role in biological applications. However, it is difficult for traditional optical tweezers based on objective lenses to work in a three-dimensional (3D) solid far away from the substrate. In this work, we develop a fiber based optical trapping system, namely inclined dual fiber optical tweezers, that can simultaneously apply and measure forces both in water and in a 3D polyacrylamide gel matrix. In addition, we demonstrate in situ, non-invasive characterization of local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide gel by measurements on an embedded bead. The fiber optical tweezers measurements agree well with those of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The inclined dual fiber optical tweezers provide a promising and versatile tool for cell mechanics study in 3D environments.

  1. Performing Isoelectric Focusing and Simultaneous Fractionation of Proteins on A Rotary Valve Followed by Sodium Dodecyl – Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lu, Joann J.; Gu, Congying; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Shaorong

    2013-01-01

    In this technical note, we design and fabricate a novel rotary valve and demonstrate its feasibility for performing isoelectric focusing and simultaneous fractionation of proteins, followed by sodium dodecyl – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The valve has two positions. In one position, the valve routes a series of capillary loops together into a single capillary tube where capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) is performed. By switching the valve to another position, the CIEF-resolved proteins in all capillary loops are isolated simultaneously, and samples in the loops are removed and collected in vials. After the collected samples are briefly processed, they are separated via sodium dodecyl – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, the 2nd-D separation) on either a capillary gel electrophoresis instrument or a slab-gel system. The detailed valve configuration is illustrated, and the experimental conditions and operation protocols are discussed. PMID:23819755

  2. Carbon nanotubes-assisted polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for enhanced separation of human serum proteins and application in liverish diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fubin; Wang, Yanan; Hu, Xinfang; Shao, Na; Na, Na; Delanghe, Joris R; Ouyang, Jin

    2010-11-01

    The application of pore-gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PG-PAGE) incorporated with carbon nanotube modified by Triton X-100 and carboxylation so as to improve the separation of human serum proteins is reported. The novel PG-PAGE was made by adding water-soluble single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) when preparing the polyacrylamide gel. Significant improvements in separation of complement C3 protein and haptoglobin (Hp) in human serum were achieved. It was estimated that the interactions between the hydrophilic groups on the proteins and the surface of the CNTs result in different adsorption kinetics of complement C3 and Hp subtype on the nanoparticles incorporated in the gel, thus enhancing the separation of the two proteins in serum. This new CNT matrix-assisted PG-PAGE method for enhanced separation of complement C3 and Hp in human serum was successfully applied to distinguish the samples from liverish patients and healthy people.

  3. Preparation and characterization of polyacrylamide-modified kaolinite containing poly [acrylic acid-co-methylene bisacrylamide] nanocomposite hydrogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharia, Anamaria; Sarbu, Andrei; Radu, Anita-Laura

    2015-01-01

    Novel nanocomposite hydrogel structures based on cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and kaolinite (Kaol), modified with different loadings of polyacrylamide (PAAm), were prepared by inverse dispersion polymerization. Ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator in the presence of nitric acid was used...... of Kaol particles in the polyacrylic acid matrix, thereby leading to enhanced interactions and furthermore to improved mechanical properties of the final hydrogels....

  4. CORROSION INHIBITION OF ALUMINUM ALLOY 3SR IN HCl BY POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE AND POLYACRYLAMIDE: EFFECT OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURE ON INHIBITION EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. UMOREN

    2009-01-01

    The inhibitive performance of two water soluble polymers–polyacrylamide (PA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy 3SR in HCl solution was investigated using weight loss, hydrogen evolution, and thermometric methods at 30–60°C. Results obtained indicate that both polymers inhibited acid-induced corrosion of aluminum at the temperatures studied. PVP was found to be a better corrosion inhibitor than PA. All measurements from the three techniques show that in...

  5. Method for the typing of Clostridium difficile based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of [35S]methionine-labeled proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabaqchali, S.; O'Farrell, S.; Holland, D.; Silman, R.

    1986-01-01

    A typing method for Clostridium difficile based on the incorporation of [ 35 S]methionine into cellular proteins, their separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their visualization by autoradiography is described. On analysis of the radiolabeled-protein profiles, nine distinct groups were observed (A to E and W to Z). The method, which is simple, reproducible, and readily expandable, has been applied in epidemiological studies to demonstrate cross-infection and hospital acquisition of C. difficile

  6. Method for the typing of Clostridium difficile based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabaqchali, S.; O' Farrell, S.; Holland, D.; Silman, R.

    1986-01-01

    A typing method for Clostridium difficile based on the incorporation of (/sup 35/S)methionine into cellular proteins, their separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their visualization by autoradiography is described. On analysis of the radiolabeled-protein profiles, nine distinct groups were observed (A to E and W to Z). The method, which is simple, reproducible, and readily expandable, has been applied in epidemiological studies to demonstrate cross-infection and hospital acquisition of C. difficile.

  7. Crystalline liquids: the blue phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David C.; Mermin, N. David

    1989-04-01

    The blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals are liquids that exhibit orientational order characterized by crystallographic space-group symmetries. We present here a pedagogical introduction to the current understanding of the equilibrium structure of these phases accompanied by a general overview of major experimental results. Using the Ginzburg-Landau free energy appropriate to the system, we first discuss in detail the character and stability of the usual helical phase of cholesterics, showing that for certain parameter ranges the helical phase is unstable to the appearance of one or more blue phases. The two principal models for the blue phases are two limiting cases of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. We explore each limit and conclude with some general considerations of defects in both models and an exact minimization of the free energy in a curved three-dimensional space.

  8. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  9. 3,4-Dihydroxy-L-Phenylalanine as a Novel Covalent Linker of Extracellular Matrix Proteins to Polyacrylamide Hydrogels with a Tunable Stiffness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Olaf Y.; Ploeger, Diana T. A.; van Putten, Sander M.; Bank, Ruud A.

    Cells acquire mechanical information from their surrounding and convert this into biochemical activity. The concept and mechanism behind this cellular mechanosensing and mechanotransduction are often studied by means of two-dimensional hydrogels. Polyacrylamide hydrogels (PAAMs) offer chemical,

  10. Two-year follow-up of an open-label multicenter study of polyacrylamide hydrogel (Bulkamid®) for female stress and stress-predominant mixed incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Al-Singary, Waleed; Fynes, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG, Bulkamid®) is a promising urethral bulking agent. This article presents the 2-year follow-up results of a multicenter study of PAHG injections for treating stress and stress-predominant mixed urinary incontinence....

  11. Origin of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.; Iungelson, L.

    1987-01-01

    The origin of field faint blue stars that are placed in the HR diagram to the left of the main sequence is discussed. These include degenerate dwarfs and O and B subdwarfs. Degenerate dwarfs belong to two main populations with helium and carbon-oxygen cores. The majority of the hot subdwarfs most possibly are helium nondegenerate stars that are produced by mass exchange close binaries of moderate mass cores (3-15 solar masses). The theoretical estimates of the numbers of faint blue stars of different types brighter than certain stellar magnitudes agree with star counts based on the Palomar Green Survey. 28 references

  12. Understanding the impact of cationic polyacrylamide on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Liu, Xuran; Zeng, Guangming; Zhao, Jianwei; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Chen, Fei; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi

    2018-03-01

    Previous investigations showed that cationic polyacrylamide (cPAM), a flocculant widely used in wastewater pretreatment and waste activated sludge dewatering, deteriorated methane production during anaerobic digestion of sludge. However, details of how cPAM affects methane production are poorly understood, hindering deep control of sludge anaerobic digestion systems. In this study, the mechanisms of cPAM affecting sludge anaerobic digestion were investigated in batch and long-term tests using either real sludge or synthetic wastewaters as the digestion substrates. Experimental results showed that the presence of cPAM not only slowed the process of anaerobic digestion but also decreased methane yield. The maximal methane yield decreased from 139.1 to 86.7 mL/g of volatile suspended solids (i.e., 1861.5 to 1187.0 mL/L) with the cPAM level increasing from 0 to 12 g/kg of total suspended solids (i.e., 0-236.7 mg/L), whereas the corresponding digestion time increased from 22 to 26 d. Mechanism explorations revealed that the addition of cPAM significantly restrained the sludge solubilization, hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis processes. It was found that ∼46% of cAPM was degraded in the anaerobic digestion, and the degradation products significantly affected methane production. Although the theoretically biochemical methane potential of cPAM is higher than that of protein and carbohydrate, only 6.7% of the degraded cPAM was transformed to the final product, methane. Acrylamide, acrylic acid, and polyacrylic acid were found to be the main degradation metabolites, and their amount accounted for ∼50% of the degraded cPAM. Further investigations showed that polyacrylic acid inhibited all the solubilization, hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis processes while acrylamide and acrylic acid inhibited the methanogenesis significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Polyacrylamide gel injections for breast augmentation: management of complications in 106 patients, a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unukovych, Dmytro; Khrapach, Vasyl; Wickman, Marie; Liljegren, Annelie; Mishalov, Volodymyr; Patlazhan, Gennadiy; Sandelin, Kerstin

    2012-04-01

    Polyacrylamide gel (PAAG) was first manufactured in Ukraine in the late 1980s and introduced as a biomaterial for "breast augmentation without surgery." Since it is prohibited in most countries, PAAG injections are rare nowadays, but their consequences and long-term complications can be crucial. We identified 106 patients consecutively operated on for PAAG complications at three teaching Ukrainian hospitals between 1998 and 2009. All relevant sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics were collected. Forty-five (42%) patients were available for clinical follow-up. The majority (88%) had had bilateral PAAG injections. The mean volume of injected PAAG was 230 ml/breast (range = 50-400). Mean age at injection was 29 years (range = 17-49) and the mean time from the injection to complications was 6.1 years (SD = 4.1). Symptoms preceding debridement were pain in 85 patients (80%), breast hardening in 79 (74%), breast deformity in 77 (73%), lumps in 57 (54%), gel migration in 39 (37%), fistulas in 17 (16%), and gel leakage in 12 (11%). The surgical interventions in 199 breasts included gel evacuation alone in 107 (54%) or in combination with partial mastectomy in 65 (33%), partial mastectomy and partial pectoralis muscle resection in 12 (6%), or subcutaneous mastectomy in 15 (7%). Of the 199 operated breasts, 86 (43%) immediate and 58 (29%) delayed implant-based breast reconstructions were performed. Injections of PAAG can cause irreversible damage to the breast necessitating complex debridement procedures, even mastectomy and breast reconstruction. Despite numerous surgical interventions, gel remnants are still found on subsequent breast imaging. Although PAAG is prohibited in many countries, different types of injections with unknown long-term effects are currently being used. Making the public aware of the problems of injectables for breast augmentation is warranted.

  14. Armored Urease: Enzyme-Bioconjugated Poly(acrylamide) Hydrogel as a Storage and Sensing Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduru, Konda R; Kutcherlapati, S N Raju; Arunbabu, Dhamodaran; Jana, Tushar

    2017-01-01

    Jack bean urease is an important enzyme not only because of its numerous uses in medical and other fields but also because of its historical significance-the first enzyme to be crystallized and also the first nickel metalloenzyme. This enzyme hydrolyzes urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide; however, the stability of this enzyme at ambient temperature is a bottleneck for its applicability. To improve urease stability, it was immobilized on different substrates, particularly on polymeric hydrogels. In this study, the enzyme was coupled covalently with poly(acrylamide) hydrogel with an yield of 18μmol/cm 3 . The hydrogel served as the nanoarmor and protected the enzyme against denaturation. The enzyme immobilized on the polymer hydrogel showed no loss in activity for more than 30 days at ambient temperature, whereas free enzyme lost its activity within a couple of hours. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K m ) for free and immobilized urease were 0.0256 and 0.2589mM, respectively, on the first day of the study. The K m of the immobilized enzyme was approximately 10 times higher than that of the free enzyme. The hydrogel technique was also used to prepare light diffracting polymerized colloidal crystal array in which urease enzyme was covalently immobilized. This system was applied for the detection of mercury (Hg 2+ ) with the lower limit as 1ppb, which is below the maximum contaminant limit (2ppb) for mercury ions in water. The experimental details of these studies are presented in this chapter. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Maneesh; Koul, Veena [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Dinda, Amit K [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Gupta, Asheesh, E-mail: veenak_iitd@yahoo.co [Department of Biochemical Pharmacology, Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Ministry of Defense, New Delhi 110059 (India)

    2010-12-15

    A biodegradable semi-interpenetrating hydrogel network (semi-IPN) of polyacrylamide and gelatin was prepared using polycaprolactone diacrylate (mol. wt {approx} 640) as a crosslinker. The drug-polymer interaction and IPN formation were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron micrographs of lyophilized matrices revealed porous internal structure with varying pore sizes under equilibrium hydrated conditions, depending upon formulation composition. pH-dependent swelling and degradation was enhanced with increasing gelatin content and decreasing crosslinker concentration (Cs). Compression modulus (CM) (at 20% strain) increased significantly from 23 {+-} 1.4 to 75 {+-} 2.7 kPa (p < 0.02) with increasing Cs (from 0.5 to 2.0 mol%), while it decreased from 162 {+-} 6.4 to 23 {+-} 1.4 kPa (p < 0.05) with decreasing PAm/G ratio. Cell viability studies by MTT assay showed excellent cytocompatibility of matrices with fibroblast L929 cells. Curcumin, a hydrophobic phytochemical, was loaded by a diffusion method and its release profile was investigated in 4% w/v aqueous BSA solution at 75 rpm (at 37 {+-} 0.2 {sup 0}C). Fitting of drug release data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested sustained release behavior up to 10 days with a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism (0.5 < n < 1.0; M{sub t}/M{sub {infinity} {<=}} 0.6). The newly developed porous, biodegradable and elastic semi-IPNs may serve as an ideal matrix for controlled drug release and wound healing applications. The possibilities can be explored for pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications.

  16. Molecular mechanisms in compatibility and mechanical properties of Polyacrylamide/Polyvinyl alcohol blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qinghua; Wang, Yanen; Che, Yu; Yang, Mingming; Li, Xinpei; Zhang, Yingfeng

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a computational model based on molecular dynamics technique to investigate the compatibility and mechanical properties of Polyacrylamide (PAM)/Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blends. Five simulation models of PAM/PVA with different composition ratios (4/0, 3/1, 2/2, 1/3, 0/4) were constructed and simulated by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The interaction mechanisms of molecular chains in PAM/PVA blend system were elaborated from the aspects of the compatibility, mechanical properties, binding energy and pair correlation function, respectively. The computed values of solubility parameters for PAM and PVA indicate PAM has a good miscibility with PVA. The results of the static mechanical analysis, based on the equilibrium structures of blends with differing component ratios, shows us that the elastic coefficient, engineering modulus, and ductility are increased with the addition of PVA content, which is 4/0 PAM/PVAPVAPVAPVAPVA. Moreover, binding energy results indicate that a stronger interaction exists among PVA molecular chains comparing with PAM molecular chains, which is why the mechanical properties of blend system increasing with the addition of PVA content. Finally, the results of pair correlation functions (PCFs) between polar functional groups and its surrounding hydrogen atoms, indicated they interact with each other mainly by hydrogen bonds, and the strength of three types of polar functional groups has the order of O(-OH)>O(-C=O)>N(-NH 2 ). This further elaborates the root reason why the mechanical properties of blend system increase with the addition of PVA content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural quality of polyacrylamide-treated cohesive soils in the coastal tablelands of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Vandeval Maranhão de Melo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble polymers are characterized as effective flocculating agents due to their molecular features. Their application to soils with horizons with structural problems, e.g, a cohesive character, contributes to improvements in the physical quality and thus to the agricultural suitability of such soils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the structural quality of soils with cohesive horizons of coastal tablelands in the State of Pernambuco treated with polyacrylamide (PAM as chemical soil conditioner. To this end, three horizons (one cohesive and two non-cohesive of a Yellow Argisol (Ultisol were evaluated and to compare cohesive horizons, the horizon of a Yellow Latosol (Oxisol was selected. The treatments consisted of aqueous PAM solutions (12.5; 50.0; 100.0 mg kg-1 and distilled water (control. The structural aspects of the horizons were evaluated by the stability (soil mass retained in five diameter classes, aggregate distribution per size class (mean weight diameter- MWD, geometric mean diameter - GMD and the magnitude of the changes introduced by PAM by measuring the sensitivity index (Si. Aqueous PAM solutions increased aggregate stability in the largest evaluated diameter class of the cohesive and non-cohesive horizons, resulting in higher MWD and GMD, with highest efficiency of the 100 mg kg-1 solution. The cohesive horizon Bt1 in the Ultisol was most sensitive to the action of PAM, where highest Si values were found, but the structural quality of the BA horizon of the Oxisol was better in terms of stability and aggregate size distribution.

  18. One step synthesis of polyacrylamide functionalized graphene and its application in Pb(II) removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yaoyao; Qian, Xiaoming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Lei; Li, Baodong; Niu, Jiarong; Liu, Liangsen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PAM-g-graphene is synthesized by the co-irradiation between GO and AM monomers. • PAM graft on GO has led to the exfoliation of GO into individual sheets. • The γ-ray induced reduction of GO. • PAM-g-graphene exhibits high adsorption capacities toward Pb(II) ions. • PAM-g-graphene provides a new idea for heavy metal pollutants’ removal in water. - Abstract: Polyacrylamide grafted graphene (PAM-g-graphene) from graphite oxide (GO) was successfully prepared by γ-ray irradiation with acrylamide monomers in aqueous at room temperature in this paper. Our strategy involves the PAM chains graft on the surface and between the layers of GO by in situ radical polymerization which led to the exfoliation of GO into individual sheets. Results show that the degree of grafting of PAM-g-graphene samples is 24.2%, and the thickness is measured to be 2.59 nm. Moreover, the as-prepared PAM-g-graphene with some amino from PAM and little oxygen functional groups exhibit superior adsorption of Pb(II) ions. The adsorption processes reach equilibrium in just 30 min and the adsorption isotherms are described well by Langmuir and Freundlich classical isotherms models. The determined adsorption capacity of PAM-g-graphene is 819.67 mg g −1 (pH 6) for Pb(II), which is 20 times and 8 times capacities of that for graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes according to reports, respectively. This chemically modified graphene synthesized by this fast one-step approach, featuring a good versatility and adaptability, excellent adsorption capacity and rapid extraction, may provide a new idea for the global problem of heavy metal pollutants’ removal in water

  19. Synthesis of a Cationic Polyacrylamide under UV Initiation and Its Flocculation in Estrone Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoxia Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A ternary cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM with the hydrophobic characteristic was prepared through ultraviolet- (UV- initiated polymerization technique for the estrone (E1 environmental estrogen separation and removal. The monomers of acrylamide (AM, acryloyloxyethyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC, and acryloyloxyethyl dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (AODBAC were used to synthesize the ternary copolymer (PADA. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR, thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were employed to characterize the structure, thermal decomposition property, and morphology of the polymers, respectively. FT-IR and 1H NMR results indicated the successful formation of the polymers. Besides, with the introduction of hydrophobic groups (phenyl group, an irregular and porous surface morphology and a favorable thermal stability of the PADA were observed by SEM and TG/DSC analyses, respectively. At the optimal condition (pH = 7, flocculant dosage = 4.0 mg/L and E1 concentration = 0.75 mg/L, an excellent E1 flocculation performance (E1 removal rate: 90.1%, floc size: 18.3 μm, and flocculation kinetics: 22.69×10-4 s−1 was acquired by using the efficient flocculant PADA-3 (cationic degree = 40%, and intrinsic viscosity = 6.30 dL·g−1. The zeta potential and floc size analyses were used to analyze the possible flocculation mechanism for the E1 removal. Results indicated that the charge neutralization, adsorption, and birding effects were dominant in the E1 removal progress.

  20. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  1. Analysis of oligomeric transition of silkworm small heat shock protein sHSP20.8 using high hydrostatic pressure native PAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Tetsuro; Ueda, Toshifumi; Kameyama, Keiichi; Aso, Yoichi; Ishiguro, Ryo

    2013-06-01

    The small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) solubilize thermo-denatured proteins without adenosine triphosphate energy consumption to facilitate protein refolding. sHSP20.8 is one of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) sHSPs having only one cystein in the N-terminal domain: Cys43. We report a simple measurement of oligomeric transition of sHSP20.8 using high hydrostatic pressure native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (high hydrostatic pressure (HP) native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE)). At ambient pressure under oxydative condition, the native PAGE of thermal transition of sHSP20.8 oligomer displayed a cooperative association. In contrast, HP native PAGE clearly demonstrated that sHSP20.8 dissociated at 80 MPa and 25°C, and the resultant molecular species gradually reassociated with time under that condition. In addition, the reassociation process was suppressed in the presence of the reductant. These results are consistent with the idea that sHSP20.8 oligomer temporally dissociates at the first thermo-sensing step and reassociates with the oxidation of Cys43.

  2. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  3. Pollination ecology and floral function of Brown's peony (Paeonia brownii) in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Bernhardt; Retha Meier; Nan. Vance

    2013-01-01

    Brown’s peony, Paeonia brownie (Paeoniaceae), is one of only two peony species native to the Western Hemisphere, yet its pollination ecology and breeding system have never been documented. Using flowering individuals of an endemic colony in the Blue Mountains of Oregon, U.S., we investigated the peony’s pollination system and floral function. We...

  4. De etiske journalister: Native Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Asger Bach; Jeppesen, Annika; Turunen, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the opinions about Native Advertising, among RUC-students who study journalism. In qualitative interviews a number of students point out advantages and disadvantages of Native Advertising as they see them, as well as they reflect upon if they eventually can see themselves work with Native Advertising.A selection of their responds are analysed with the use of a pragmatic argument analysis. The outcome of the analysis is the base of a discussion, which also include the...

  5. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  6. Application of chitosan/polyacrylamide nanofibres for removal of chromate and phosphate in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nthumbi, Richard M.; Catherine Ngila, J.; Moodley, Brenda; Kindness, Andrew; Petrik, Leslie

    Water pollution is an intractable environmental problem in South Africa. Management of the water resource is vital in order to address the water scarcity issues. Research on remediation of contaminated water has focused mainly on the removal of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn, Hg and Cu and neglected other inorganic pollutants. In this work we focus on the removal of anions, namely chromate and phosphate. Chromium is extensively used in the textile, leather and metallurgy industries and contaminates surface water and groundwater when inadequately treated industrial effluents are discharged. Chromium has been associated with irregular sugar metabolism, nosebleeds and ulcers, and it is also carcinogenic. The phosphate ion is an essential micronutrient responsible for healthy plant growth. However, excess phosphate intake stimulates rapid growth of photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria, resulting in eutrophication. This phenomenon (algal bloom) causes other organisms to die due to reduced oxygen in the water. In order to offer remediation measures, this study reports the use of electrospun nanofibres for the removal of chromate and phosphate anions. Adsorption experiments were carried out using nanofibres electrospun from chitosan and polyacrylamide polymer blends, cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Quantification of chromium was done using ICP-OES while UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used for the determination of phosphates. Batch adsorption experiments were done to determine optimum adsorption parameters such as pH, contact time, temperature and initial analyte concentration. Removal of the ions using a flow-adsorption technique through a micro-column was performed. The experimental data obtained were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich models to study the adsorption mechanisms. The nanofibres had an adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) and PO43- of 0.26 mg g-1 and 392 mg g-1, respectively, and removal efficiencies of 93% and 97.4%, in the same order, in synthetic water

  7. Polyacrylamide hydrogels: an effective tool for delivering liquid baits to pest ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Roper, Elray; Chin, Darren

    2014-04-01

    Ant management in urban and natural areas often relies on toxic baits. Liquid baits are highly attractive to pest ants because they mimic natural food sources such as honeydew and nectar, the principal dietary components of many ants. However, liquid bait use has been limited owing to the lack of bait dispensers that are effective, inexpensive, and easy to service. The current study evaluated the potential of water-storing crystals (polyacrylamide spheres) to effectively deliver liquid thiamethoxam baits to laboratory colonies of Argentine ants, Linepithema humile Mayr. Results of laboratory trials show that bait crystals saturated in 25% sucrose solution containing 0.007% thiamethoxam are highly attractive to Argentine ants and highly effective against all castes and life stages, including workers, queens, and brood. Fresh bait crystals were highly effective and required approximately 2 d to kill all workers and approximately 6 d to achieve complete mortality in queens and brood. Results of bait aging tests show that the crystals lose approximately 70% of moisture in 8 h and the duration of outdoor exposure has a significant effect on moisture loss and subsequently bait acceptance and bait efficacy. A gradual decrease in mortality was observed for all castes and life stages as bait age increased. In general, fresh baits and those aged for ants that obtain thiamethoxam by feeding on bait crystals effectively transfer it to untreated recipient ants. The level of secondary mortality depended on the donor:recipient ratio, with approximately 40% recipient worker mortality with the 1:5 ratio and 15% recipient worker mortality with 1:10 or 1:20 ratios. However, no queens died in any transfer tests, suggesting that multiple feedings from multiple donors may be necessary to produce queen mortality. The results of the transfer tests demonstrate the role of trophallaxis in the distribution of thiamethoxam and confirm that thiamethoxam is effectively transferred in Argentine

  8. Assessment of linear anionic polyacrylamide application to irrigation canals for seepage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamil Uribe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available South- central area of Chile area has a Mediterranean climate and high crop water requirements. Irrigation water is distributed through long channels which have low water conveyance efficiency (Ec, difficult to improve by conventional techniques. The objective of this study was to quantify Ec and to evaluate the use of Linear Anionic Polyacrylamide (LA-PAM to reduce seepage losses. The study was carried out in south-central area of Chile, (UTM Coordinate N 5745000; E 725000 m, datum is WGS-84, zone 18S in 250 km of channels whose flow varied between 0.12 and 24.6 m3 s–1. Water users indicated channel reaches with potential low Ec, which were selected for LA-PAM application. In 11 reaches between 0.51 and 3 km in length, 1 to 3 LAPAM applications were performed at rates of 10 kg ha–1, considering the wet perimeter area as basis of calculation. Thirty-one LA-PAM applications were performed over a 30.5 km length. Most of the channels were large enough to allow motorboat moving against the current to carry-out LA-PAM application. Water flow was measured (StreamPro ADCP at both ends of selected reaches before and after granular LAPAM application. Weekly measurements were made to quantify treatment effect duration. Water turbidity and temperature were measured. Channels showed variable Ec from 87% to 94%. Two reaches showed 6% water gains. In more than 80% cases LA-PAM effect was positive, achieving loss reductions of 15 to 760 L s–1. In other cases LA-PAM had a negative effect since it mainly affected water entry into the channel. It was determined that field conditions referred by users as indicators of Ec are not always correct and vary in time according to climatic conditions. Ec was estimated and it was possible to reduce seepage through LA-PAM applications. This allow increasing irrigation security in critical periods, especially under drought conditions.

  9. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  10. Exploring Native and Non-Native Intuitions of Word Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Dunham, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Asked native and nonnative speakers to give judgments of frequency for near synonyms in second-language lexical sets and compared those responses to modern corpus word counts. Native speakers were able to discern the core word in lexical sets either 77% or 85%, and nonnative speakers at 71% or 79%. (Author/VWL)

  11. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice... former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division...

  12. The Physics of the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  13. A Novel Ultraviolet Irradiation Technique for Fabrication of Polyacrylamide-metal (M = Au, Pd) Nanocomposites at Room Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hao, L.Y.; Zhu, Y.R.; Hu, Y.; Chen, Z.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM)-metal (M = gold, palladium) nanocomposites with metal nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix have been prepared via a novel ultraviolet irradiation technique at room temperature, which is based on the simultaneous occurrence of photo-reduction formation of the colloidal metal particles and photo-polymerization of the acrylamide (AM) monomer. The UV-vis absorption spectra and TEM were employed to characterize the M-PAM nanocomposites by different irradiation times. The average sizes of the colloidal gold and palladium particles dispersed in the nanocomposites were calculated by XRD patterns and TEM images. The present method may be extended to prepare other metal-polymer hybrid nanocomposite materials

  14. Fluorescence of soil humic acids and their fractions obtained by tandem size exclusion chromatography-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubetskaya, O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Region (Russian Federation). Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Inst. of Bioorganic Chemistry; Trubetskoj, O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Region (Russian Federation). Inst. of Basic Biological Problems; Guyot, G.; Richard, C. [UMR CNRS 6505, Aubiere (France). Lab. de Photochimie Moleculaire et Macromoleculaire; Andreux, F. [Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Dijon (France)

    2002-07-01

    Humic acids (HAs) extracted from soils of different origin (chernozem, ferralsol and ranker) and their fractions (A, B and C+D) obtained by tandem size exclusion chromatography-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were investigated by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy in the emission mode. Independently of HA source, high molecular size fractions A and B are shown to be weakly fluorescent. The main fluorophores, especially those emitting at long wavelength (around 500-510 nm), are contained in the polar and low molecular size fractions C+D. As indicated by the observed pH effect, aromatic structures bearing carboxylate and OH substituents may be involved in these longer wavelength emissions. [author].

  15. Oil field and freshwater isolates of Shewanella putrefaciens have lipopolysaccharide polyacrylamide gel profiles characteristic of marine bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, C.; Foght, J.M.; Pickard, M.A.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1993-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide structure of oil field and freshwater isolates of bacteria that reduce ferric iron, recently classified as strains of Shewanella putrefaciens, was analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a lipopolysaccharide-specific silver-staining procedure. The results demonstrate that all the oil field and freshwater isolates examined exhibited the more hydrophobic R-type lipopolysaccharide, which has been found to be characteristic of Gram-negative marine bacteria. This hydrophobic lipopolysaccharide would confer an advantage on bacteria involved in hydrocarbon degradation by assisting their association with the surface of oil droplets. 15 refs., 1 fig

  16. Effects of polyacrylamide on soil erosion and nutrient losses from substrate material in steep rocky slope stabilization projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang; Chen, Wenlu; Li, Chengjun; Pu, Yanpin; Sun, Haifeng

    2016-06-01

    Erosion of denuded steep rocky slopes causes increasing losses of nitrogen and phosphorus, which is a severe problem in rocky slope protection. Thus, it is important to determine the appropriate materials that can reduce the erodibility and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus of the soil. In this paper, twenty-seven simulated rainfall events were carried out in a greenhouse, in which the substrate material was artificial soil; nine types of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) were studied, which consisted of three molecular weight (6, 12, and 18 Mg mol(-1)) and three charge density (10, 20, and 30%) formulations in a 3 by 3 factorial design. The results showed that: (1) Polyacrylamide application reduced total nitrogen losses by 35.3% to 50.0% and total phosphorus losses by 34.9% to 48.0% relative to the control group. (2) The losses of total nitrogen and total phosphorus had significant correlation with the molecular weight. Besides, the losses of total phosphorus, particulate-bound phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen (NH4-N) were significantly correlated with their molecular weight and charge density. However, the losses of dissolved organic nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen (NO3-N), dissolved organic phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus (PO4-P) were non-significantly correlated with molecular weight and charge density. (3) Particulate-bound nitrogen and phosphorus were responsible for the losses of nitrogen and phosphorus during runoff events, where particulate-bound nitrogen made up 71.7% to 73.2% of total nitrogen losses, and particulate-bound phosphorus made up 82.3% to 85.2% of total phosphorus losses. (4) Polyacrylamide treatments increased water-stable aggregates content by 32.3% to 59.1%, total porosity by 11.3% to 49.0%, final infiltrative rate by 41.3% to 72.5%, and reduced soil erosion by 18.9% to 39.8% compared with the control group. Overall, the results of this study indicated that polyacrylamide application in the steep rocky slope stabilization projects could

  17. Nanopore density effect of polyacrylamide gel plug on electrokinetic ion enrichment in a micro-nanofluidic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-yao; Xu, Zheng; Li, Yong-kui; Liu, Chong; Liu, Jun-shan; Chen, Li; Du, Li-qun; Wang, Li-ding

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the nanopore density effect on ion enrichment is quantitatively described with the ratio between electrophoresis flux and electroosmotic flow flux based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. A polyacrylamide gel plug is integrated into a microchannel to form a micro-nanofluidic chip. With the chip, electrokinetic ion enrichment is relatively stable and enrichment ratio of fluorescein isothiocyanate can increase to 600-fold within 120 s at the electric voltage of 300 V. Both theoretical research and experiments show that enrichment ratio can be improved through increasing nanopore density. The result will be beneficial to the design of micro-nanofluidic chips.

  18. Preparation of Composite Hydrogel Based on Polyacrylamide and the Effect of Kaolinite on Its Properties in the Reservoir Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Salimi; Mohsen Vafaie; Mehdi Razzaghi Kashani; Majid Rafipoor

    2013-01-01

    A gel composite (based on polyacrylamide and crosslinker Cr(III) acetate) was prepared by solvent method (distillate and water formation) and nanoclay particle (kaolinite). Using XRD tests, d001 was evaluated for kaolinite nanoparticles in gel composite. Kaolinite modification using dimethyl-sulfoxide led to increase interlamellar spacing from 7.21 to 10.82 o A. Based on the results obtained for samples prepared from unmodified clay besides the pure clay, there is a wide peak at 2θ = 8o; whic...

  19. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  20. Native Music in College Curricula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Loran

    1986-01-01

    Culminating a 10-year effort to include the study of Native Americans and their music as it reflects cultural realities, life, thought, religion, and history as a choice in requirements for graduation, the elective course, "Native Music of North America," is now recognized at Washington State University as meeting both…

  1. Listening Natively across Perceptual Domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langus, Alan; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Uysal, Ertugrul; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Marino, Caterina; Asaadi, Sina; Eren, Ömer; Toro, Juan M.; Peña, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Nespor, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Our native tongue influences the way we perceive other languages. But does it also determine the way we perceive nonlinguistic sounds? The authors investigated how speakers of Italian, Turkish, and Persian group sequences of syllables, tones, or visual shapes alternating in either frequency or duration. We found strong native listening effects…

  2. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  3. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  4. Vulnerability of freshwater native biodiversity to non-native ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Non-native species pose one of the greatest threats to native biodiversity. The literature provides plentiful empirical and anecdotal evidence of this phenomenon; however, such evidence is limited to local or regional scales. Employing geospatial analyses, we investigate the potential threat of non-native species to threatened and endangered aquatic animal taxa inhabiting unprotected areas across the continental US. We compiled distribution information from existing publicly available databases at the watershed scale (12-digit hydrologic unit code). We mapped non-native aquatic plant and animal species richness, and an index of cumulative invasion pressure, which weights non-native richness by the time since invasion of each species. These distributions were compared to the distributions of native aquatic taxa (fish, amphibians, mollusks, and decapods) from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) database. We mapped the proportion of species listed by IUCN as threatened and endangered, and a species rarity index per watershed. An overlay analysis identified watersheds experiencing high pressure from non-native species and also containing high proportions of threatened and endangered species or exhibiting high species rarity. Conservation priorities were identified by generating priority indices from these overlays and mapping them relative to the distribution of protected areas across the US. Results/Conclusion

  5. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  6. Experimental 3D dosimetry around a high-dose-rate clinical 192Ir source using a polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McJury, M.; Tapper, P.D.; Griffin, S.; Cosgrove, V.P.; Webb, S.; Murphy, P.S.; Leach, M.O.; Oldham, M.

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that the experimental dosimetry of brachytherapy sources presents a challenge. Depending on the particular dosimeter used, measurements can suffer from poor spatial resolution (ion chambers), lack of 3D information (film) or errors due to the presence of the dosimeter itself distorting the radiation flux. To avoid these problems, we have investigated the dosimetry of a clinical 192 Ir source using a polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeter. Experimental measurements of dose versus radial distance from the centre of the source (cross-line plots) were compared with calculations produced with a Nucletron NPS planning system. Good agreement was found between the planning system and gel measurements in planes selected for analysis. Gel dosimeter measurements in a coronal plane through the phantom showed a mean difference between measured absorbed dose and calculated dose of 0.17 Gy with SD=0.13Gy. Spatially, the errors at the reference point remain within one image pixel (1.0 mm). The use of polymer gel dosimetry shows promise for brachytherapy applications, offering complete, three-dimensional dose information, good spatial resolution and small measurement errors. Measurements close to the source, however, are difficult, due to some of the limiting properties of the polyacrylamide gel. (author)

  7. Controlled Aloin Release from Crosslinked Polyacrylamide Hydrogels: Effects of Mesh Size, Electric Field Strength and a Conductive Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuvat Sirivat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of hydrogel mesh size, a conductive polymer, and electric field strength on controlled drug delivery phenomena using drug-loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels prepared at various crosslinking ratios both with and without a conductive polymer system. Poly(p-phenylene vinylene, PPV, as the model conductive polymer, was used to study its ability to control aloin released from aloin-doped poly(p-phenylene vinylene/polyacrylamide hydrogel (aloin-doped PPV/PAAM. In the passive release, the diffusion of aloin from five aloin-doped PPV/PAAM hydrogel systems each was delayed ranging from during the first three hours to during the first 14 h due to the ionic interaction between the anionic drug and PPV. After the delayed periods, aloin could diffuse continuously into the buffer solution through the PAAM matrix. The amount of aloin released from the aloin-doped PPV/PAAM rose with increasing electric field strength as a result of the three mechanisms: the expansion of PPV chains inside the hydrogel, iontophoresis, and the electroporation of the matrix pore size, combined. Furthermore, the conductive polymer and the electric field could be used in combination to regulate the amount of release drug to a desired level, to control the release rate, and to switch the drug delivery on/off.

  8. Probing adsorption of polyacrylamide-based polymers on anisotropic Basal planes of kaolinite using quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagha, Lana; Wang, Shengqun; Yan, Lujie; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob

    2013-03-26

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was applied to investigate the adsorption characteristics of polyacrylamide-based polymers (PAMs) on anisotropic basal planes of kaolinite. Kaolinite basal planes were differentiated by depositing kaolinite nanoparticles (KNPs) on silica and alumina sensors in solutions of controlled pH values. Adsorption of an in-house synthesized organic-inorganic Al(OH)3-PAM (Al-PAM) as an example of cationic hybrid PAM and a commercially available partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (MF1011) as an example of anionic PAM was studied. Cationic Al-PAM was found to adsorb irreversibly and preferentially on tetrahedral silica basal planes of kaolinite. In contrast, anionic MF1011 adsorbed strongly on aluminum-hydroxy basal planes, while its adsorption on tetrahedral silica basal planes was weak and reversible. Adsorption study revealed that both electrostatic attraction and hydrogen-bonding mechanisms contribute to adsorption of PAMs on kaolinite. The adsorbed Al-PAM layer was able to release trapped water overtime and became more compact, while MF1011 film became more dissipative as backbones stretched out from kaolinite surface with minimal overlapping. Experimental results obtained from this study provide clear insights into the phenomenon that governs flocculation-based solid-liquid separation processes using multicomponent flocculants of anionic and cationic nature.

  9. Investigations into the oxygen effect during the radiolysis of serum albumin with the help of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, K.B.G.

    1984-01-01

    In this work the radiation induced structural changes of serum albumin were researched with the help of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cow serum albumin (bSA) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml was dissolved in a solution of 10 -2 M sodium phosphate buffer and in an air saturated solution with and without formiate (10 -1 M) and irradiated with 200 kV X-rays up to doses of 1500 Gy in a nitrogen atmosphere. The irradiation products were separated, with and without reduction, to 7.5 and 10% polyacrylamide gel, their molecular weights measured and the quantitative decrease of the monomeric serum albumin with increasing dose estimated using staining methods. With increasing dose in an air atmosphere the amount of bSA decreases, after reduction even more so, and at least 14 different protein fragments whose molecular weights were determined result from this. In the formiate-containing solution a bSA decrease of up to 20% was observed, but only in the reduced solutions. The nitrogen atmosphere during the irradiation resulted in protein aggregate formation (2, 3 and 4 times the molecular weight of the monomeric bSA). Changes in the protein size, structure, and net charge as reasons for the electrophoretic behavior are discussed as well as the importance of the primary radicals during the radiation chemical reactions. (orig./RB) [de

  10. A Fast Silver Staining Protocol Enabling Simple and Efficient Detection of SSR Markers using a Non-denaturing Polyacrylamide Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Deng, Xiaohui; Li, Ronghua; Xia, Yanshi; Bai, Guihua; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Guo, Peiguo

    2018-04-20

    Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) is one of the most effective markers used in plant and animal genetic research and molecular breeding programs. Silver staining is a widely used method for the detection of SSR markers in a polyacrylamide gel. However, conventional protocols for silver staining are technically demanding and time-consuming. Like many other biological laboratory techniques, silver staining protocols have been steadily optimized to improve detection efficiency. Here, we report a simplified silver staining method that significantly reduces reagent costs and enhances the detection resolution and picture clarity. The new method requires two major steps (impregnation and development) and three reagents (silver nitrate, sodium hydroxide, and formaldehyde), and only 7 min of processing for a non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Compared to previously reported protocols, this new method is easier, quicker and uses fewer chemical reagents for SSR detection. Therefore, this simple, low-cost, and effective silver staining protocol will benefit genetic mapping and marker-assisted breeding by a quick generation of SSR marker data.

  11. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  13. Evaluation of Code Blue Implementation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Özütürk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to emphasize the importance of Code Blue implementation and to determine deficiencies in this regard. Methods: After obtaining the ethics committee approval, 225 patient’s code blue call data between 2012 and 2014 January were retrospectively analyzed. Age and gender of the patients, date and time of the call and the clinics giving Code Blue, the time needed for the Code Blue team to arrive, the rates of false Code Blue calls, reasons for Code Blue calls and patient outcomes were investigated. Results: A total of 225 patients (149 male, 76 female were evaluated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 54.1 years. 142 (67.2% Code Blue calls occurred after hours and by emergency unit. The mean time for the Code Blue team to arrive was 1.10 minutes. Spontaneous circulation was provided in 137 patients (60.8%; 88 (39.1% died. The most commonly identified possible causes were of cardiac origin. Conclusion: This study showed that Code Blue implementation with a professional team within an efficient and targeted time increase the survival rate. Therefore, we conclude that the application of Code Blue carried out by a trained team is an essential standard in hospitals. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:204-8

  14. The Rise of native advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.

  15. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...... medium, light as energy source and they capture CO2 for the synthesis of new organic material, thus can grow on non-agricultural land, without increasing food prices, or using fresh water. Due to all these advantages in addition to very high biomass yield with high carbohydrate content, macroalgaes can...

  16. Markkinointisuunnitelma Case: Ringetteseura Blue Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Seppälä, Minna

    2012-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on markkinointisuunnitelman laatiminen ringetteseura Blue Ringsin edustusjoukkueelle. Lähtökohtana on pidetty suunnitelman toteutuskelpoisuutta käytännössä sekä suunnitelman reaalisuutta. Opinnäytetyö on toteutettu projektityönä, jossa on käytetty benchmarkkauksen lisäksi sekä kvalitatiivisia että empiirisiä tutkimusmenetelmiä. Opinnäytetyö koostuu kahdesta osiosta; teoreettinen viitekehys sekä empiirinen osio. Teoriana opinnäytetyössä on käytetty markkinoinn...

  17. Electronic properties of blue phosphorene/graphene and blue phosphorene/graphene-like gallium nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Minglei; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Yu, Jin; Tang, Wencheng

    2017-07-05

    Blue phosphorene (BlueP) is a graphene-like phosphorus nanosheet which was synthesized very recently for the first time [Nano Lett., 2016, 16, 4903-4908]. The combination of electronic properties of two different two-dimensional materials in an ultrathin van der Waals (vdW) vertical heterostructure has been proved to be an effective approach to the design of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. Therefore, we used density functional theory to investigate the structural and electronic properties of two BlueP-based heterostructures - BlueP/graphene (BlueP/G) and BlueP/graphene-like gallium nitride (BlueP/g-GaN). Our results showed that the semiconducting nature of BlueP and the Dirac cone of G are well preserved in the BlueP/G vdW heterostructure. Moreover, by applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to tune the position of the Dirac cone of G with respect to the band edge of BlueP, resulting in the ability to control the Schottky barrier height. For the BlueP/g-GaN vdW heterostructure, BlueP forms an interface with g-GaN with a type-II band alignment, which is a promising feature for unipolar electronic device applications. Furthermore, we discovered that both G and g-GaN can be used as an active layer for BlueP to facilitate charge injection and enhance the device performance.

  18. A Native American Theatre Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kent R.

    1973-01-01

    The ceremonial rituals American Indians have practiced for centuries are uncontestable testimony to how strongly they respond to theatre. These rituals, a pure and functional form of dramatic art, are practiced today by a Native American theater group. (FF)

  19. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  20. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are...

  1. Starbursts in Blue compact dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuan, T.X.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize all the arguments for a bursting mode of star formation in blue compact dwarf galaxies. We show in particular how spectral synthesis of far ultraviolet spectra of Blue compact dwarf galaxy constitutes a powerful way for studying the star formation history in these galaxies. Blue compact dwarf galaxy luminosity functions show jumps and discontinuities. These jumps act like fossil records of the star-forming bursts, helping us to count and date the bursts

  2. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  3. Native Geoscience: Pathways to Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Seielstad, G.

    2006-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all tribal societies. This inherent accumulated knowledge has become the foundation on which to build a "blended" contemporary understanding of western science. The Dakota's and Northern California have embraced the critical need of understanding successful tribal strategies to engage educational systems (K-12 and higher education), to bring to prominence the professional development opportunities forged through working with tribal peoples and ensure the continued growth of Native earth and environmental scientists The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on building and maintaining Native/Tribal students in earth and environmental sciences; 2) successful educational programs/activities in PreK-Ph.D. systems; 3) current Native leadership development in earth and environmental sciences; and 4) forward thinking for creating proaction collaborations addressing sustainable environmental, educational and social infrastructures for all people. Humboldt State University (HSU) and the University of North Dakota's Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment and the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) have been recognized nationally for their partnerships with Native communities. Unique collaborations are emerging "bridging" Native people across geographic areas in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive earth/environmental knowledge of tribal people. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native earth system students and scientists.

  4. The Rise of native advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Marius MANIC

    2015-01-01

    Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear ob...

  5. Mesoporous silica/polyacrylamide composite: Preparation by UV-graft photopolymerization, characterization and use as Hg(II) adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Ali, E-mail: ali.saad8803@gmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Molecules and Applications, IPEST, University of Carthage, Sidi Bou Said road, B.P. 51, 2070 La Marsa (Tunisia); Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université El Manar, PO Box 248, El Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS, F-75013 Paris (France); Bakas, Idriss [Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS, F-75013 Paris (France); Laboratoire AQUAMAR, Equipe Matériaux Photocatalyse et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Zohr, B.P. 8106, Cité Dakhla, Agadir (Morocco); Piquemal, Jean-Yves; Nowak, Sophie [Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS, F-75013 Paris (France); Abderrabba, Manef, E-mail: abderrabbamanef@gmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Molecules and Applications, IPEST, University of Carthage, Sidi Bou Said road, B.P. 51, 2070 La Marsa (Tunisia); Chehimi, Mohamed M., E-mail: chehimi@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS, F-75013 Paris (France); Université Paris Est, ICMPE (UMR7182), CNRS, UPEC, F-94320 Thiais (France)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous silica/polyacrylamide nanocomposite adsorbent was prepared by UV-graft polymerization. • Polyacrylamide was successfully grafted onto the silanized mesoporous silica. • The Hg(II) adsorption capacity of the nanocomposite was as high as 177 mg g{sup −1} after 1 h at RT. • Adsorption process was found to fit pseudo second order kinetics and exothermic. - Abstract: MCM-41 ordered mesoporous silica was prepared, aminosilanized and grafted with polyacrylamide (PAAM) through in situ radical photopolymerization process. The resulting composite, denoted PAAM-NH{sub 2}-MCM-41, the calcined and silanized reference MCM-41s were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N{sub 2} physisorption at 77 K. These complementary techniques brought strong supporting evidence for the silanization process followed by PAAM grafting. The surface composition was found to be PAAM-rich as judged by XPS. The composite was then employed for the uptake of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption was monitored versus pH, time, and temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity at 25 °C and pH 5.2 was 177 mg g{sup −1}. Kinetically, the equilibrium was reached within 60 min for a 100 mg L{sup −1} mercury solution. The adsorption of Hg(II) on PAAM-NH{sub 2}-MCM-41 composites followed second order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the favorable adsorption process is exothermic in nature and the adsorption is ascribed to a decrease in the degree of freedom of adsorbed ions which results in the entropy change. This work conclusively shows that mesoporous silica–polymer hybrid metal ion adsorbents (with robust silica–polymer interface) can be prepared in a simple way by in situ radical photopolymerization in the presence of

  6. Seasonal food habits of introduced blue catfish in Lake Oconee, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Cecil A.; Mitchell, Geoffrey E.; Nelson, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are native to the Coosa River drainage in northwest Georgia but have been widely introduced outside of this range including Lake Oconee, a 7677-ha impoundment on the Oconee River in central Georgia. Blue catfish abundance and growth rates have increased dramatically since their introduction in Lake Oconee, but their food habits are unknown. Therefore, food habits of blue catfish in this impoundment were determined by examining the stomachs of 808 specimens in the reservoir’s upper and lower regions across all seasons from summer 2012 to summer 2013. Diet was summarized using the Relative Importance of specific prey by weight. In the upper region of the reservoir, Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) were the dominant prey item during the summer (75.7%), fall (66.4%), and winter (37.6%); whereas crappie (Pomoxis spp.) was the dominant prey item in the spring (38.7%). Asian clams also were the dominant prey items in the lower region during the fall (68.4%), winter (33.9%), and spring (36.4%). Blue catfish seemed to feed opportunistically on seasonally abundant prey items in both the upper riverine and lower lacustrine portions of the reservoir. Of the many sportfishes in the reservoir, only crappie was an important prey item, and then only in the upper region during the spring. Our results do not support concerns that blue catfish are an apex predator that would decimate the sportfish assemblage in this recently colonized reservoir.

  7. Variable blue straggler stars in NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, H.C.; Mateo, M.; Olszewski, E.W.; Nemec, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Nine variable blue stragglers have been found in the globular cluster NGC 5466. The six dwarf Cepheids in this cluster coexist in the instability strip with other nonvariable stars. The three eclipsing binaries are among the hottest of the blue stragglers. The hypothesis is discussed that all blue stragglers in this cluster have undergone mass transfer in close binaries. Under this hypothesis, rotation and spin-down play important roles in controlling the evolution of blue stragglers in old clusters and in affecting some of their observational properties. 14 refs

  8. Why Blue-Collar Blacks Help Less

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Sandra Susan; Young, Kara Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Why are blue-collar blacks less likely to help jobseekers than jobholders from other ethnoracial groups or even than more affluent blacks? Drawing from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 97 black and Latino workers at one large, public sector employer, we find that blue-collar black workers both helped less proactively and rejected more requests for assistance than did blue-collar Latino and white-collar black workers. We attribute blue-collar blacks’ more passive engagement to their...

  9. The Fictional Black Blues Figure: Blues Music and the Art of Narrative Self-Invention

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    The Fictional Black Blues Figure: Blues Music and the Art of Narrative Self-Invention, Kimberly MackMy dissertation examines representations of black American blues musicians in contemporary American fiction, drama, and popular music, and it argues that blues music can be examined as a narrative art rooted in the tradition of fictionalized autobiographical self-fashioning. I contend that the contemporary, multi-racial, literary and musical characters in my project who participate in so-called...

  10. A Case of Special Complication following a Large Amount of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Injected into the Epicranial Aponeurosis: Leukocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Rong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG has been used as an injectable filler for soft tissue augmentation of different body parts, such as the face, breasts, and penis. However, this is the first report of leukocytopenia after injection of a large amount of PAAG in the epicranial aponeurosis. After receiving PAAG injection for craniofacial contouring, the female patient described herein experienced recurrent swelling, temporal pain (particularly with changes in ambient temperature and facial expression, and ultimately leukocytopenia due to widespread migration of the injected PAAG. We removed most of the PAAG from the affected tissues and the leukocytopenia disappeared 1 year after the operation. Based on this case, we hypothesize that injection of a large amount of PAAG into tissues that have ample blood supply, such as the epicranial aponeurosis, may induce leukocytopenia.

  11. A single-step simultaneous protein staining procedure for polyacrylamide gels and nitrocellulose membranes by Alta during western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Jayanta K; Berwal, Sunil K; Soni, Rupali N

    2012-01-01

    A simple method for staining of proteins simultaneously on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels and nitrocellulose membranes by Alta during western blot analysis is described. A 5% solution of Alta, a commercially available cosmetic preparation, is added in the upper tank buffer during electrophoresis. On completion of electrophoresis, the gel is washed in distilled water and viewed on a white light plate and a transilluminator to photograph the protein profiles. The gel is processed for western blot transfer of proteins onto a nitrocellulose membrane, and upon completion, the protein profiles on the membrane are viewed and photographed as stated above. The membrane can then be processed for immunostaining as per the standard procedure. Thus, the staining procedure using Alta is simple, rapid (without any need of destaining), and cost-effective.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Silica Nanoparticle-Reinforced Poly(acrylamide) Nanocomposite Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Josergio; Babhadiashar, Nasim; O'Brien, Victor; Chang, Andrew; Blanco, Matthew; Zabalegui, Aitor; Lee, Hohyun; Asuri, Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    Current studies investigating properties of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers have shown that nanocomposites often exhibit improved properties compared to neat polymers. However, over two decades of research, using both experimental studies and modeling analyses, has not fully elucidated the mechanistic underpinnings behind these enhancements. Moreover, few studies have focused on developing an understanding among two or more polymer properties affected by incorporation of nanomaterials. In our study, we investigated the elastic and thermal properties of poly(acrylamide) hydrogels containing silica nanoparticles. Both nanoparticle concentration and size affected hydrogel properties, with similar trends in enhancements observed for elastic modulus and thermal diffusivity. We also observed significantly lower swellability for hydrogel nanocomposites relative to neat hydrogels, consistent with previous work suggesting that nanoparticles can mediate pseudo crosslinking within polymer networks. Collectively, these results indicate the ability to develop next-generation composite materials with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties by increasing the average crosslinking density using nanoparticles.

  13. Tissue integration of polyacrylamide hydrogel: an experimental study of periurethral, perivesical, and mammary gland tissue in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise H; Nielsen, John B; Mouritsen, Lone

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) is a nondegradable water-based polymer with high viscoelasticity. The gel is used as a tissue filler, the only risk being prolonged infection with anaerobic, contaminating microorganisms if not treated early with broad-spectrum antibiotics. OBJECTIVE...... With silicone gel as reference, PAAG tissue integration and migration was studied in a longitudinal study of the pig. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty-one pigs were used. PAAG and silicone gel were injected into mammary tissue, and PAAG was injected into urethral or bladder wall or the anal canal. Tissues...... and regional lymph nodes were examined at 1, 1 1/2, 3, 3 1/2, 6, 12, and 14 months, and other lymph nodes and organs were examined at 1, 6, 12, and 14 months. RESULTS PAAG was invaded by macrophages and giant cells that were gradually replaced by a network of fibrous tissue. Silicone gel was seen inside...

  14. 'Gate effect' in templated polyacrylamide membranes influences the electrotransport of proteins and finds applications in proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Alessandra; Andreoli, Matteo; Bonini, Francesca; Piletsky, Sergey

    2007-09-01

    Templating is an effective way for the structural modifications of a material and hence for altering its functional properties. Here protein imprinting was exploited to alter polymeric polyacrylamide (PAA) membranes. The sieving properties and selection abilities of the material formed were evaluated by studying the electrically driven transport of various proteins across templated PAA membranes. The sieving properties correlated with the templating process and depended on the quantity of template used during the polymerisation. For 1 mg/mL protein-templated membranes a 'gate effect' was shown, which induced a preferential migration of the template and of similar-size proteins. Such template preferential electrotransport was exploited for the selective removal of certain proteins in biological fluids prior to proteome analysis (depletion of albumin from human serum); the efficiency of the removal was demonstrated by analysing the serum proteome by two-dimensional electrophoresis experiments.

  15. Rare earth oxide-doped titania nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinhuan; Yang Xia; Yu Xiaodan; Xu, Leilei; Kang Wanli; Yan Wenhua; Gao Hongfeng; Liu Zhonghe; Guo Yihang

    2009-01-01

    Rare-earth oxide-doped titania nanocomposites (RE 3+ /TiO 2 , where RE = Eu 3+ , Pr 3+ , Gd 3+ , Nd 3+ , and Y 3+ ) were prepared by a one-step sol-gel-solvothermal method. The products exhibited anatase phase structure, mesoporosity, and interesting surface compositions with three oxygen species and two titanium species. The products were used as the photocatalysts to degrade a partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide (HPAM) under UV-light irradiation, a very useful polymer in oil recovery. For comparison, Degussa P25 and as-prepared pure TiO 2 were also tested under the same conditions. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was obtained on as-prepared Eu 3+ (Gd 3+ , Pr 3+ )/TiO 2 composites, and the reasons were explained. Finally, the degradation pathway of HPAM over the RE 3+ /TiO 2 composite was put forward based on the intermediates produced during the photocatalysis procedure.

  16. Radioiodination of surface proteins of bull spermatozoa and their characterization by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierula, M.

    1980-01-01

    Surface proteins of ejaculated bull spermatozoa were radioiodinated using Ma 125 I, solubilized and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The electron microscopic autoradiographs showed that the labelling was equally distributed to all parts of the spermatozoon and restricted to the sperm surface. The electrophoresis of solubilized radioactivity revealed 6 radioactive fractions with approximate molecular weights of 67 000-69 000, 47 000-50 000, 34 000-37 000, 25 000-28 000 and 14 000-16 000. The 6th fraction probably represented labelled lipids. The electrophoresis of radioiodinated seminal plasma proteins revealed only 2 radioactive protein peaks which coincided with the sperm surface protein fractions IV and V. (author)

  17. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Flow of Hydrolysed Polyacrylamide Mother Liquor through Filter Bag: Detecting the Effects of Formulation and Process Properties on Pressure Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Ming Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysed polyacrylamide (HPAM mother liquor is mainly used to extract oil. The HPAM solution is needed to filter the impurity using a bag filter before it is injected into the oil well. Therefore, the pressure drop of HPAM mother liquor must be less than 0.02 MPa in the processing of impurity filtration. The influence factors on pressure drop need to be researched. In this work, the computational fluid dynamics program (CFD was used to research some key influence factors on pressure drop, such as porosity, outlet pressure of filter, inlet flow rate and viscosity of mother liquor. The simulation results indicated that with increasing porosity, outlet pressure, inlet flow rate and mother liquor viscosity, the pressure drop had increased after flowing through the filter bag.

  19. Synthesis of porous poly(acrylamide hydrogels using calcium carbonate and its application for slow release of potassium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous poly(acrylamide was synthesized using calcium carbonate microparticles and subsequent acid treatment to remove the calcium carbonate. Methylenebisacrylamide and ammonium persulfate/sodium metabisulfite were used as crosslinking agent and redox initiator, respectively. The porous structure of resulted hydrogels was confirmed using SEM micrographs. The effect of methylenebisacrylamide concentration and calcium carbonate amount on the swelling of the hydrogels was investigated. The results showed that the effect of methylenebisacrylamide and calcium carbonate variables on the swelling is reverse. The hydrogels were subsequently utilized for the loading of potassium nitrate. Potassium nitrate as active agent was loaded into hydrogels and subsequently the release of this active agent was investigated. In these series of investigation, the effect of content of loading, methylenebisacrylamide and calcium carbonate amount on the release of potassium nitrate from hydrogels was investigated.

  20. Predation on exotic zebra mussels by native fishes: Effects on predator and prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoulick, D.D.; Lewis, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. Exotic zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, occur in southern U.S. waterways in high densities, but little is known about the interaction between native fish predators and zebra mussels. Previous studies have suggested that exotic zebra mussels are low profitability prey items and native vertebrate predators are unlikely to reduce zebra mussel densities. We tested these hypotheses by observing prey use of fishes, determining energy content of primary prey species of fishes, and conducting predator exclusion experiments in Lake Dardanelle, Arkansas. 2. Zebra mussels were the primary prey eaten by 52.9% of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus; 48.2% of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens; and 100% of adult redear sunfish, Lepomis microlophus. Blue catfish showed distinct seasonal prey shifts, feeding on zebra mussels in summer and shad, Dorosoma spp., during winter. Energy content (joules g-1) of blue catfish prey (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; gizzard shad, D. cepedianum; zebra mussels; and asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea) showed a significant species by season interaction, but shad were always significantly greater in energy content than bivalves examined as either ash-free dry mass or whole organism dry mass. Fish predators significantly reduced densities of large zebra mussels (>5 mm length) colonising clay tiles in the summers of 1997 and 1998, but predation effects on small zebra mussels (???5 mm length) were less clear. 3. Freshwater drum and redear sunfish process bivalve prey by crushing shells and obtain low amounts of higher-energy food (only the flesh), whereas blue catfish lack a shell-crushing apparatus and ingest large amounts of low-energy food per unit time (bivalves with their shells). Blue catfish appeared to select the abundant zebra mussel over the more energetically rich shad during summer, then shifted to shad during winter when shad experienced temperature-dependent stress and mortality. Native fish predators can suppress adult zebra

  1. Controlled in situ formation of polyacrylamide hydrogel on PET surface via SI-ARGET-ATRP for wound dressings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari Pour, Sedigheh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Ghugare, Shivkumar V. [Department of Textile Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Wiens, Richard; Gough, Kathleen [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Liu, Song, E-mail: Song.Liu@umanitoba.ca [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Textile Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We grow poly(acrylamide) (PAM) hydrgol from a polymer surface in a controlled way. • Divinyl crosslinker doesn't compromise the control chain growth feature of ARGET-ATRP. • ATR-FTIR-FPA images (spatial resolution 220 nm) reveal a uniform grafting of PAM. • PAM grafted wound dressing can be dual functional: low-adherent and antibacterial. - Abstract: Well-defined polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel was synthesized on the surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film via surface-initiated activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ARGET-ATRP). Following the deposition of an ATRP initiator (2-bromoisobutyrylbromide) on PET film, PAM hydrogel was grafted from the functionalized PET surface via ARGET-ATRP. XPS and FTIR-ATR confirmed that PAM hydrogel was successfully grafted on the PET surface. Results from AFM, SEM, and FTIR-FPA microscopic investigations showed that PAM hydrogel uniformly covers the surface of PET film. The grafting yield increases linearly with increasing reaction time, indicating that the growth of PAM hydrogel on the surface of PET is well controlled. In a cell adhesion assay, PAM hydrogel grafted PET films (PAM hydrogel-g-PET) showed low adhesion to keratinocyte cells. To impart PAM hydrogel-g-PET with antibacterial function, AgNPs were self-assembled along the amide side chains of PAM hydrogel. AgNPs loaded-PAM hydrogel-g-PET shows 99% reduction in the number of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 3 h contact.

  2. Controlled in situ formation of polyacrylamide hydrogel on PET surface via SI-ARGET-ATRP for wound dressings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari Pour, Sedigheh; Ghugare, Shivkumar V.; Wiens, Richard; Gough, Kathleen; Liu, Song

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We grow poly(acrylamide) (PAM) hydrgol from a polymer surface in a controlled way. • Divinyl crosslinker doesn't compromise the control chain growth feature of ARGET-ATRP. • ATR-FTIR-FPA images (spatial resolution 220 nm) reveal a uniform grafting of PAM. • PAM grafted wound dressing can be dual functional: low-adherent and antibacterial. - Abstract: Well-defined polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel was synthesized on the surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film via surface-initiated activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ARGET-ATRP). Following the deposition of an ATRP initiator (2-bromoisobutyrylbromide) on PET film, PAM hydrogel was grafted from the functionalized PET surface via ARGET-ATRP. XPS and FTIR-ATR confirmed that PAM hydrogel was successfully grafted on the PET surface. Results from AFM, SEM, and FTIR-FPA microscopic investigations showed that PAM hydrogel uniformly covers the surface of PET film. The grafting yield increases linearly with increasing reaction time, indicating that the growth of PAM hydrogel on the surface of PET is well controlled. In a cell adhesion assay, PAM hydrogel grafted PET films (PAM hydrogel-g-PET) showed low adhesion to keratinocyte cells. To impart PAM hydrogel-g-PET with antibacterial function, AgNPs were self-assembled along the amide side chains of PAM hydrogel. AgNPs loaded-PAM hydrogel-g-PET shows 99% reduction in the number of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 3 h contact

  3. Assessment of Polyacrylamide Based Co-Polymers Enhanced by Functional Group Modifications with Regards to Salinity and Hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Akbari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to test four new polymers for their stability under high salinity/high hardness conditions for their possible use in polymer flooding to improve oil recovery from hydrocarbon reservoirs. The four sulfonated based polyacrylamide co-polymers were FLOCOMB C7035; SUPERPUSHER SAV55; THERMOASSOCIATIF; and AN132 VHM which are basically sulfonated polyacrylamide copolymers of AM (acrylamide with AMPS (2-Acrylamido-2-Methylpropane Sulfonate. AN132 VHM has a molecular weight of 9–11 million Daltons with 32 mol % degree of sulfonation. SUPERPUSHER SAV55 mainly has about 35 mol % sulfonation degree and a molecular weight of 9–11 million Daltons. FLOCOMB C7035, in addition, has undergone post-hydrolysis step to increase polydispersity and molecular weight above 18 million Daltons but it has a sulfonation degree much lower than 32 mol %. THERMOASSOCIATIF has a molecular weight lower than 12 million Daltons and a medium sulfonation degree of around 32 mol %, and also contains LCST (lower critical solution temperature type block, which is responsible for its thermoassociative characteristics. This paper discusses the rheological behavior of these polymers in aqueous solutions (100–4500 ppm with NaCl (0.1–10 wt % measured at 25 °C. The effect of hardness was investigated by preparing a CaCl2-NaCl solution of same ionic strength as the 5 wt % of NaCl. In summary, it can be concluded that the rheological behavior of the newly modified co-polymers was in general agreement to the existing polymers, except that THERMOASSOCIATIF polymers showed unique behavior, which could possibly make them a better candidate for enhanced oil recovery (EOR application in high salinity conditions. The other three polymers, on the other hand, are better candidates for EOR applications in reservoirs containing high divalent ions. These results are expected to be helpful in selecting and screening the polymers for an EOR application.

  4. Nativization Processes in L1 Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Benjamin K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the Native Esperanto of eight speakers, ranging from age 6 to 14 years. Found bilingualism and nativization effects, differentiating native from non-native Esperanto speech. Among these effects are loss or modification of the accusative case, phonological reduction, attrition of tense/aspect system, and pronominal…

  5. Reduction of blue tungsten oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilken, T.; Wert, C.; Woodhouse, J.; Morcom, W.

    1975-01-01

    A significant portion of commercial tungsten is produced by hydrogen reduction of oxides. Although several modes of reduction are possible, hydrogen reduction is used where high purity tungsten is required and where the addition of other elements or compounds is desired for modification of the metal, as is done for filaments in the lamp industry. Although several investigations of the reduction of oxides have been reported (1 to 5), few principles have been developed which can aid in assessment of current commercial practice. The reduction process was examined under conditions approximating commercial practice. The specific objectives were to determine the effects of dopants, of water vapor in the reducing atmosphere, and of reduction temperature upon: (1) the rate of the reaction by which blue tungsten oxide is reduced to tungsten metal, (2) the intermediate oxides associated with reduction, and (3) the morphology of the resulting tungsten powder

  6. Application of polyacrylamide (PAM) through lay-flat polyethylene 1 tubing: effects on infiltration, erosion, N and P transport, and corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs), when applied as a soil amendment, purportedly improve soil infiltration, decrease erosion, and reduce off-site agrochemical transport. The effect of PAM on infiltration, erosion, agrochemical transport, and crop yield when applied in-furrow to Mid-South production systems has...

  7. Green Synthesis of Cationic Polyacrylamide Composite Catalyzed by An Ecologically Catalyst Clay Called Maghnite-H+ (Algerian MMT Under Microwave Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmouni Abdelkader

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel green cationic hydrogel of cationic polyacrylamide composite have been prepared and investigated. The synthesis of green cationic polyacrylamide composite was evaluated for its solubility in water. The reactions were performed using acrylamide monomer, solvent, catalyst (clay fin called maghnite and solution of  H2SO4 (0.25 M, with the system under microwave irradiation (160 ºC for 4 min. Major factors affecting the polymerization reaction were studied with a view to discover appropriate conditions for preparation of the composite. The cationic polyacrylamide obtained is the subject of future studies of modification and transformation. The resulting polymer has been characterized by a variety of characterization techniques, such as: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra and 1H NMR spectra.  Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th June 2015; Revised: 2nd September 2015; Accepted: 5th January 2016 How to Cite: Abdelkader, R., Mohammed, B. (2016. Green Synthesis of Cationic Polyacrylamide Composite Catalyzed by An Ecologically  Catalyst Clay Called Maghnite-H+ (Algerian MMT Under Microwave Irradiation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 170-175 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.543.170-175 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.543.170-175

  8. Mapping of Chlamydia trachomatis proteins by immobiline-polyacrylamide two-dimensional electrophoresis: spot identification by N-terminal sequencing and immunoblotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bini, L; Sanchez-Campillo, M; Santucci, A

    1996-01-01

    Proteins from purified elementary bodies of Chlamydia trachomatis were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis on nonlinear wide-range immobilized pH gradients in the first dimension and polyacrylamide gradient gels in the second dimension. The maps obtained with this system are highly...

  9. Quantitative aspects of the cytochemical demonstration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with tetrazolium salts studied in a model system of polyacrylamide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Tas, J.; Sanders, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The enzyme cytochemical demonstration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) with several tetrazolium salts has been studied with an artificial model of polyacrylamide films in corporated with the enzyme, which enabled teh correlation of cytochemical and biochemical data. In the model films no

  10. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name.

  11. Blue jay attacks and consumes cedar waxwing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Joshua B. Pierce

    2009-01-01

    Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) are known to be common predators on bird nests (Wilcove 1985, Picman and Schriml 1994). In addition to predation on eggs and nestlings, Blue Jays occasionally prey on fledgling and adult birds (Johnson and Johnson 1976, Dubowy 1985). A majority of reports involve predation on House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) and other small birds (...

  12. The secret of the blue fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Oliver; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Why certain liquids turn blue when cooled was a mystery that stumped scientists for more than a century. As Oliver Henrich and Davide Marenduzzo explain, solving the secret of the “blue fog” proved to be an intellectual tour de force - and one that could lead to new types of display devices

  13. Establishment of Native Grasses with Biosolids on Abandoned Croplands in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jurado-Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate establishment and forage production of native grasses with application of biosolids, a byproduct of waste-water treatment, at an abandoned field, in Ejido Nuevo Delicias, Chihuahua, Mexico. Four biosolids rates from 0 (control to 30 dry Mg ha−1 and two methods of application, surface applied (BioSur and soil incorporated (BioInc, were evaluated. Seedbed preparation included plowing and harrowing before rainfall. Field plots of 5 × 5 m were manually sown with a mix of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis (50% and green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia (50% in early August 2005. Experimental design was a randomized block with a split plot arrangement. Grass density, height, and forage production were estimated for three years. Data were analyzed with mixed linear models and repeated measures. Green sprangletop density increased under all biosolids rates regardless of method of application, while blue grama density slightly decreased. Biosolids were more beneficial for green sprangletop height than for blue grama height. Blue grama forage production slightly increased, while green sprangletop forage production increased the most at 10 Mg ha−1 biosolids rate under BioSur method. It was concluded that BioSur application at 10 and 20 Mg ha−1 rates had positive effects on the establishment and forage production of native grasses, especially green sprangletop.

  14. Natives in Blue: The Employment of Armed Auxiliaries in the Philippines, 1899-1913

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    responsibility of administering its accidental empire without any civil official on hand, without a plan to govern its new colonial possessions, and...moved well past normal lawlessness and approached open rebellion. Proper understanding of why operations were planned and executed as they were, and...lieutenants, Brigadier General Urbano Lacuna. On 23 March 1901, Aguinaldo, the self-proclaimed President of the Philippine Revolutionary Government

  15. Novel High-Viscosity Polyacrylamidated Chitosan for Neural Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of Anisotropic Neurodurable Scaffold via Molecular Disposition of Persulfate-Mediated Polymer Slicing and Complexation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viness Pillay

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan scaffolds for neural tissue engineering were fabricated with varied synthetic and viscosity profiles. A novel approach and mechanism was utilized for polyacrylamide grafting onto chitosan using potassium persulfate (KPS mediated degradation of both polymers under a thermally controlled environment. Commercially available high molecular mass polyacrylamide was used instead of the acrylamide monomer for graft copolymerization. This grafting strategy yielded an enhanced grafting efficiency (GE = 92%, grafting ratio (GR = 263%, intrinsic viscosity (IV = 5.231 dL/g and viscometric average molecular mass (MW = 1.63 × 106 Da compared with known acrylamide that has a GE = 83%, GR = 178%, IV = 3.901 dL/g and MW = 1.22 × 106 Da. Image processing analysis of SEM images of the newly grafted neurodurable scaffold was undertaken based on the polymer-pore threshold. Attenuated Total Reflectance-FTIR spectral analyses in conjugation with DSC were used for the characterization and comparison of the newly grafted copolymers. Static Lattice Atomistic Simulations were employed to investigate and elucidate the copolymeric assembly and reaction mechanism by exploring the spatial disposition of chitosan and polyacrylamide with respect to the reactional profile of potassium persulfate. Interestingly, potassium persulfate, a peroxide, was found to play a dual role initially degrading the polymers—“polymer slicing”—thereby initiating the formation of free radicals and subsequently leading to synthesis of the high molecular mass polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan (PAAm-g-CHT—“polymer complexation”. Furthermore, the applicability of the uniquely grafted scaffold for neural tissue engineering was evaluated via PC12 neuronal cell seeding. The novel PAAm-g-CHT exhibited superior neurocompatibility in terms of cell infiltration owing to the anisotropic porous architecture, high molecular mass mediated robustness

  16. Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....

  17. Native grass hydroseed development : establishment protocols for three native Hawaiian plants on roadside areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The biggest mistake with using native plants on Hawaiis roadways is to assume that native plants do not require : nutrient enhancement or supplemental water to establish on these sites. The establishment of native plants will : require a detailed ...

  18. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S

    2017-05-01

    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  19. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Monteiro, D A; De Pretto, O J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat. The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported. Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus. The following markers were used in the immunohistochemical evaluation: CD34, CD56, HMB-45, anti-S100, A-103, Melan A and MIB-1. The biopsy specimens showed a biphasic pattern affecting the lower dermis, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, bone, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus, but there was no histological evidence of malignancy. The tumour cells were CD34-, CD56-, HMB45+, anti-S100+ and A-103+. Melan A was focally expressed. No positive MIB-1 cells were identified. The present case shows that GCBN may infiltrate deeply, with no evidence of malignancy.

  20. Corneal edema and permanent blue discoloration of a silicone intraocular lens by methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Scott; Werner, Liliana; Mamalis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    To report a silicone intraocular lens (IOL) stained blue by inadvertent intraoperative use of methylene blue instead of trypan blue and the results of experimental staining of various lens materials with different concentrations of the same dye. A "blue dye" was used to enhance visualization during capsulorhexis in a patient undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of a three-piece silicone lens. Postoperatively, the patient presented with corneal edema and a discolored IOL. Various IOL materials were experimentally stained using methylene blue. Sixteen lenses (4 silicone, 4 hydrophobic acrylic, 4 hydrophilic acrylic, and 4 polymethylmethacrylate) were immersed in 0.5 mL of methylene blue at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001%. These lenses were grossly and microscopically evaluated for discoloration 6 and 24 hours after immersion. The corneal edema resolved within 1 month after the initial surgical procedure. After explantation, gross and microscopic analyses of the explanted silicone lens revealed that its surface and internal substance had been permanently stained blue. In the experimental study, all of the lenses except the polymethylmethacrylate lenses were permanently stained by methylene blue. The hydrophilic acrylic lenses showed the most intense blue staining in all dye concentrations. This is the first clinicopathological report of IOL discoloration due to intraocular use of methylene blue. This and other tissue dyes may be commonly found among surgical supplies in the operating room and due diligence is necessary to avoid mistaking these dyes for those commonly used during ocular surgery.

  1. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P...

  2. Direct Evidence of Intrinsic Blue Fluorescence from Oligomeric Interfaces of Human Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Arpan; Bhowmik, Soumitra; Singh, Amit K; Kodgire, Prashant; Das, Apurba K; Mukherjee, Tushar Kanti

    2017-10-10

    The molecular origin behind the concentration-dependent intrinsic blue fluorescence of human serum albumin (HSA) is not known yet. This unusual blue fluorescence is believed to be a characteristic feature of amyloid-like fibrils of protein/peptide and originates due to the delocalization of peptide bond electrons through the extended hydrogen bond networks of cross-β-sheet structure. Herein, by combining the results of spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, native gel electrophoresis, and confocal microscopy, we have shown that the intrinsic blue fluorescence of HSA exclusively originates from oligomeric interfaces devoid of any amyloid-like fibrillar structure. Our study suggests that this low energy fluorescence band is not due to any particular residue/sequence, but rather it is a common feature of self-assembled peptide bonds. The present findings of intrinsic blue fluorescence from oligomeric interfaces pave the way for future applications of this unique visual phenomenon for early stage detection of various protein aggregation related human diseases.

  3. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  4. High-luminosity blue and blue-green gallium nitride light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkoç, H; Mohammad, S N

    1995-01-06

    Compact and efficient sources of blue light for full color display applications and lighting eluded and tantalized researchers for many years. Semiconductor light sources are attractive owing to their reliability and amenability to mass manufacture. However, large band gaps are required to achieve blue color. A class of compound semiconductors formed by metal nitrides, GaN and its allied compounds AIGaN and InGaN, exhibits properties well suited for not only blue and blue-green emitters, but also for ultraviolet emitters and detectors. What thwarted engineers and scientists from fabricating useful devices from these materials in the past was the poor quality of material and lack of p-type doping. Both of these obstacles have recently been overcome to the point where highluminosity blue and blue-green light-emitting diodes are now available in the marketplace.

  5. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... Their important environmental roles, their part in nitrogen fixation and the biochemistry of phototrophic metabolism are some of the attractions of blue-geen algae to an increasing number of biologists...

  6. BLUES function method in computational physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indekeu, Joseph O.; Müller-Nedebock, Kristian K.

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a computational method in physics that goes ‘beyond linear use of equation superposition’ (BLUES). A BLUES function is defined as a solution of a nonlinear differential equation (DE) with a delta source that is at the same time a Green’s function for a related linear DE. For an arbitrary source, the BLUES function can be used to construct an exact solution to the nonlinear DE with a different, but related source. Alternatively, the BLUES function can be used to construct an approximate piecewise analytical solution to the nonlinear DE with an arbitrary source. For this alternative use the related linear DE need not be known. The method is illustrated in a few examples using analytical calculations and numerical computations. Areas for further applications are suggested.

  7. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñ oz, Enrique; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube

  8. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  9. Biodegradation of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide by bacteria isolated from production water after polymer flooding in an oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Mutai; Chen Qingguo; Li Yiming; Jiang Guancheng

    2010-01-01

    Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in production water after polymer flooding in oil filed causes environmental problems, such as increases the difficulty in oil-water separation, degrades naturally to produce toxic acrylamide and endanger local ecosystem. Biodegradation of HPAM may be an efficient way to solve these problems. The biodegradability of HPAM in an aerobic environment was studied. Two HPAM-degrading bacterial strains, named PM-2 and PM-3, were isolated from the produced water of polymer flooding. They were subsequently identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sp., respectively. The utilization of HPAM by the two strains was explored. The amide group of HPAM could serve as a nitrogen source for the two microorganisms, the carbon backbone of these polymers could be partly utilized by microorganisms. The HPAM samples before and after bacterial biodegradation were analyzed by the infrared spectrum, high performance liquid chromatography and scanning electronic microscope. The results indicated that the amide group of HPAM in the biodegradation products had been converted to a carboxyl group, and no acrylamide monomer was found. The HPAM carbon backbone was metabolized by the bacteria during the course of its growth. Further more, the hypothesis about the biodegradation of HPAM in aerobic bacterial culture is proposed.

  10. Electrochemical characterizations on MnO2 supercapacitors with potassium polyacrylate and potassium polyacrylate-co-polyacrylamide gel polymer electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kuang-Tsin

    2009-11-01

    MnO2·nH2O supercapacitors with potassium polyacrylate (PAAK) and potassium polyacrylate-co-polyacrylamide (PAAK-co-PAAM) gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) having the weight compositions of polymer:KCl:H2O = 9%:6.7%:84.3% have been characterized for their electrochemical performance. Compared with the liquid electrolyte (LE) counterpart, the GPE cells exhibit remarkable (∼50-130%) enhancement in specific capacitance of the oxide electrode, and the extent of the enhancement increases with increasing amount of the carboxylate groups in the polymers as well as with increasing oxide/electrolyte interfacial area. In situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis indicates that the oxide electrodes of the GPE cells possess higher Mn-ion valences and are subjected to greater extent of valence variation than that of the LE cell upon charging/discharging over the same potential range. Copolymerization of PAAK with PAAM greatly improves the cycling stability of the MnO2·nH2O electrode, and the improvement is attributable to the alkaline nature of the amino groups. Both GPEs exhibit ionic conductivities greater than 1.0 × 10-1 S cm-1 and are promising for high-rate applications. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultraflexible and tailorable all-solid-state supercapacitors using polyacrylamide-based hydrogel electrolyte with high ionic conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huili; Lv, Tian; Li, Ning; Yao, Yao; Liu, Kai; Chen, Tao

    2017-11-30

    Hydrogels with high ionic conductivity consisting of a cross-linked polymer network swollen in water are very promising to be used as an electrolyte for all-solid-state supercapacitors. However, there are rather few flexible supercapacitors using ionic conducting hydrogel electrolytes reported to date. In this work, highly flexible and ionic conducting polyacrylamide hydrogels were synthesized through a simple approach. On using the ionic hydrogels as the electrolyte, the resulting supercapacitors not only exhibited a high specific capacitance but also showed a long self-discharge time (over 10 hours to the half of original open-circuit voltage) and a low leakage current. These newly-developed all-solid-state supercapacitors can be bent, knot, and kneaded for 5000 cycles without performance decay, suggesting excellent flexibility and mechanical stability. These all-solid-state supercapacitors can also be easily tailored into strip-like supercapacitors without a short circuit, which provides an efficient approach to fabricate wearable energy storage devices.

  12. Polyacrylamide grafted cellulose as an eco-friendly flocculant: Key factors optimization of flocculation to surfactant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hangcheng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Xiaogang; Shao, Lan; Zhang, Xiumei; Yao, Juming

    2016-01-01

    The discharge of effluents from surfactant manufacturers is giving rise to increasingly serious environmental problems. In order to develop the eco-friendly flocculation materials to achieve effective removal of pollutants from the surfactant effluents, the bamboo pulp cellulose from Phyllostachys heterocycla is employed as the skeleton material to synthesize an eco-friendly bamboo pulp cellulose-g-polyacrylamide (BPC-g-PAM) for flocculation. The BPC-g-PAM is used with the metal ions as the coagulant to treat the effluent from a surfactant manufacturer. The response surface methodology coupled with Box-behnken design is employed to optimize the key factors of coagulation-flocculation. The results show that the combination of Fe(3+) with BPC-g-PAM achieves the best coagulation-flocculation performance like, the fast treatment time, minimum coagulant and BPC-g-PAM dosages compared with the other two combinations of Al(3+) with BPC-g-PAM and Ca(2+) with BPC-g-PAM. Therefore, the combination of Fe(3+) with BPC-g-PAM is expected to promote its application for the pollution control in the surfactant manufacturers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adsorption of crude oil from aqueous solution by hydrogel of chitosan based polyacrylamide prepared by radiation induced graft polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokker, H.H., E-mail: hesham_sokkre@yahoo.com [Jazan University, Faculty of Science (Saudi Arabia); National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Polymer Chemistry Department, P.O. Box 29, Cairo (Egypt); El-Sawy, Naeem M. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Polymer Chemistry Department, P.O. Box 29, Cairo (Egypt); Hassan, M.A. [Scib Company of Paints, Cairo (Egypt); El-Anadouli, Bahgat E. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2011-06-15

    The adsorption of crude oil (initial concentration 0.5-30 g/L) from aqueous solution using hydrogel of chitosan based polyacrylamide (PAM) prepared by radiation induced graft polymerization has been investigated. The prepared hydrogel was characterized by FTIR and SEM micrographs. The experiments were carried out as a function of different initial concentrations of oil residue, acrylamide concentration, contact time and pH to determine the optimum condition for the adsorption of residue oil from aqueous solution and sea water. The results obtained showed that the hydrogel prepared at concentration of 40% acrylamide (AAm) and at a radiation dose of 5 kGy has high removal efficiency of crude oil 2.3 g/g at pH 3. Equilibrium studies have been carried out to determine the capacity of the hydrogel for adsorption of crude oil, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the experimental isotherms and isotherms constants. Equilibrium data were found to fit very well with both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Also the adsorption of oil onto the hydrogel behaves as a pseudo-second-order kinetic models rather than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model.

  14. Polyacrylamide gel 10 years experience: with particular reference to complications from filling of the body of the lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rish, Adam

    2014-12-01

    A review of 242 facial treatments, in 86 different patients, with polyacrylamide gel (PAAG) was carried out by the author between 2003 and 2013. To evaluate by retrospective study the long-term outcomes of PAAG filling for facial contouring. To quantify adverse events and patient comfort in prior mixing 0.3 mL of 2% lidocaine/1 mL PAAG and decanting into a smaller volume syringe. Review of clinical records combined with a patient survey. 11 of 166 (6.6%) lip body infections; 1 of 202 (0.5%) in other sites. Addition of 2% lidocaine (55 treatments/28 patients) reduced lip body infections (8.7% to 5.7%, P Facial usage of PAAG with lidocaine results in high levels of patient satisfaction and low incidence of side effects (0.5%) except in the lip body (6.6%). Potential users, fearful of complications, may more readily use this cost-effective and long-lasting dermal filler if they avoid injection of the lip body. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Capacitance properties and structure of electroconducting hydrogels based on copoly(aniline - p-phenylenediamine) and polyacrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Michael A.; Sokolova, Maria P.; Bobrova, Natalya V.; Kasatkin, Igor A.; Lahderanta, Erkki; Elyashevich, Galina K.

    2016-02-01

    Electroconducting hydrogels (EH) based on copoly(aniline - p-phenylenediamine) grafted to the polyacrylamide for the application as pseudo-supercapacitor's electrodes have been prepared. The influence of preparation conditions on the structure and capacitance properties of the systems were investigated: we determined the optimal amount of p-phenylenediamine to obtain the network of swollen interconnected nanofibrils inside the hydrogel which provides the formation of continuous conducting phase. Structure and morphology of the prepared samples were investigated with UV-VIS spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The maximal value of capacitance was 364 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1. It was shown that the EH samples demonstrate the retention of 50% of their capacity at high current density 16 A g-1. Cycle-life measurements show evidence that capacitance of EH electrodes after 1000 cycles is higher than its initial value for all prepared samples. Changes of the copolymer structure during swelling in water have been studied with WAXD.

  16. Comparative catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol by polyacrylamide-gold nanocomposite synthesized by hydrothermal autoclaving and conventional heating routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaheldin, Hosam I.

    2017-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in polymeric polyacrylamide (PAAm) matrix were synthesized using conventional heating and autoclaving thermal techniques. The synthesized Au/PAAm nanocomposite was characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of the synthesized particles was approximately 6.37 nm and 8.19 nm with the conventional heating and autoclaving thermal techniques, respectively. Electron diffraction x-ray spectroscopy and the Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy were used for the composition and elemental studies, which confirmed that the Au metallic atoms were synthesized and embedded within a PAAm matrix via a coordination bond between the carbonyl (-CONH2) group and the metallic NPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystalline nature of the fabricated AuNPs with face centered cubic of nanocrystals. The catalytic activity of the as-prepared Au/PAAm nanocomposite for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol was studied in the presence of sodium borohydrate. The synthesized AuNPs had an effective catalytic activity; the smaller NPs synthesized NPs with the conventional heating technique had a higher reaction kinetic rate in comparation with those synthesized with the autoclaving technique. Therefore, the Au/PAAm nanocomposite can be widely used as an eco-friendly, non-toxic, a fast and cost-effective product to remove versatile organic pollutants such as aromatic nitro compounds.

  17. Electrochemical characterizations on MnO2 supercapacitors with potassium polyacrylate and potassium polyacrylate-co-polyacrylamide gel polymer electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kuang-Tsin; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Wu, Nae-Lih

    2009-01-01

    MnO2·nH2O supercapacitors with potassium polyacrylate (PAAK) and potassium polyacrylate-co-polyacrylamide (PAAK-co-PAAM) gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) having the weight compositions of polymer:KCl:H2O = 9%:6.7%:84.3% have been characterized for their electrochemical performance. Compared with the liquid electrolyte (LE) counterpart, the GPE cells exhibit remarkable (∼50-130%) enhancement in specific capacitance of the oxide electrode, and the extent of the enhancement increases with increasing amount of the carboxylate groups in the polymers as well as with increasing oxide/electrolyte interfacial area. In situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis indicates that the oxide electrodes of the GPE cells possess higher Mn-ion valences and are subjected to greater extent of valence variation than that of the LE cell upon charging/discharging over the same potential range. Copolymerization of PAAK with PAAM greatly improves the cycling stability of the MnO2·nH2O electrode, and the improvement is attributable to the alkaline nature of the amino groups. Both GPEs exhibit ionic conductivities greater than 1.0 × 10-1 S cm-1 and are promising for high-rate applications. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ISOLATION OF EGG DROP SYNDROME VIRUS AND ITS MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION USING SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rasool, S. U. Rahman and M. K. Mansoor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Six isolates of egg drop syndrome (EDS virus were recovered from five different outbreaks of EDS in commercial laying hens in and around Faisalabad. The aberrant eggs were fed to the susceptible laying hens for experimental induction of infection. The samples from infected birds (egg washing, cloacal swabs, oviducts and spleens were collected, processed and inoculated into 11-day old duck embryos. The presence of virus in harvested allanto-amniotic fluid was monitored by spot and microhaemagglutination tests and confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition and agar gel precipitation tests. The EDS virus grew well in duck embryos and agglutinated only avian but not mammalian red blood cells. These isolates were purified through velocity density gradient centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined through Lowry method and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was conducted by loading 300 µg protein concentration on 12.5% gel using discontinuous buffer system. All the six isolates showed 13 polypeptides, which were identical to those described in the referral EDS-76 virus (strain-127. The molecular weights of the polypeptides ranged from 6.5 KDa to 126 KDa.

  19. Treatment of acetone waste gases using slurry-phase airlift embedded with polyacrylamide-entrapped cell beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sz-Chwun John; Lin, Yun-Huin; Huang, Ku Shu; Lyuu, Jyuhn-Yih; Hou, Cheng-Ting; Chen, Hsin-Hua; He, Sin-Yi

    2009-10-01

    Acetone is the most common chemical used in the Hsin-chu Science Park in Taiwan. The three-phase airlift bioreactor was designed to absorb acetone into the 39 L of medium solution and then degraded by 2-L polyacrylamide (PAA)-entrapped Thiosphaera pantotropha cell beads. The airlift medium was successfully regenerated and circulated for more than 5 months. The elimination capacity of 350-part per million (ppm) acetone at 10 L x min(-1) was 258.4 g x m(-3) hr(-1) (160.4 g-C x m(-3) hr(-1)) with 100% removal efficiency in Stage II, higher than previously reported biofiltration results. The maximum chemical oxygen demand:nitrogen ratio of 100:2.9 is achieved, and a balanced nutrient state was indicated by the change in redox potential. The pH of the system was maintained at neutral because of the strong buffer agent added to the medium (final buffer intensity, beta = 1.18 x 10(-2) M). The PAA-entrapped cell beads could also provide a good barrier for high salinity gradient environment and the inoculum source to maintain steady operation of the system.

  20. Pore-Scale Investigation of Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs) Transport and Retention in Saturated Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin

    2014-05-06

    Knowledge of micrometer-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) transport and retention mechanisms in porous media is essential for the application of MPEMs as a smart sweep improvement and profile modification agent in improving oil recovery. A transparent micromodel packed with translucent quartz sand was constructed and used to investigate the pore-scale transport, surface deposition-release, and plugging deposition-remigration mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media. The results indicate that the combination of colloidal and hydrodynamic forces controls the deposition and release of MPEMs on pore-surfaces; the reduction of fluid salinity and the increase of Darcy velocity are beneficial to the MPEM release from pore-surfaces; the hydrodynamic forces also influence the remigration of MPEMs in pore-throats. MPEMs can plug pore-throats through the mechanisms of capture-plugging, superposition-plugging, and bridge-plugging, which produces resistance to water flow; the interception with MPEM particulate filters occurring in the interior of porous media can enhance the plugging effect of MPEMs; while the interception with MPEM particulate filters occurring at the surface of low-permeability layer can prevent the low-permeability layer from being damaged by MPEMs. MPEMs can remigrate in pore-throats depending on their elasticity through four steps of capture-plugging, elastic deformation, steady migration, and deformation recovery. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  1. Coupling Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate–Capillary Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis with MALDI-TOF-MS via a PTFE Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Joann J.; Zhu, Zaifang; Wang, Wei; Liu, Shaorong

    2011-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is a fundamental analytical technique for proteomic research, and SDS–capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) is its miniaturized version. Compared to conventional slab-gel electrophoresis, SDS-CGE has many advantages such as increased separation efficiency, reduced separation time and automated operation. SDS-CGE is not widely accepted in proteomic research primarily due to the difficulties in identifying the well-resolved proteins. MALDI–TOF–MS is an outstanding platform for protein identifications. Coupling the two would solve the problem but is extremely challenging because the MS detector has no access to the SDS-CGE resolved proteins and the SDS interferes with MS detection. In this work we introduce an approach to address these issues. We discover that poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membranes are excellent materials for collecting SDS-CGE separated proteins. We demonstrate that we can wash off the SDS bound to the collected proteins and identify these proteins on-membrane with MALDI-TOF-MS. We also show that we can immunoblot and Coomassie-stain the proteins collected on these membranes. PMID:21309548

  2. Evaluation of solution and rheological properties for hydrophobically associated polyacrylamide copolymer as a promised enhanced oil recovery candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. El-hoshoudy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is the most critical energy source in the world, especially for transportation, provision of heat and light as there has not been a sufficient energy source to replace crude oil has broadly integrated, so there is an urgent need to maximize the extraction of the original oil in-place for every reservoir, and accelerating the development of enhanced oil recovery (EOR technologies. Polymer flooding by hydrophobically associated polyacrylamides (HAPAM is a widely used technique through EOR technology. For successful application of these polymers, one should evaluate rheological and solution properties at simulated reservoir conditions as a function of polymer concentration, salinity, temperature and shear rate. The results showed that these copolymers exhibit favorable salt tolerance, temperature resistance, and recoverable viscosity after shearing, reasonable thickening behavior and improved viscosity enhancement properties due to presence of hydrophobic association in the copolymer main chains. Moreover, its capacity for oil production improvement was evaluated during flooding experiments through one dimensional sandstone model at simulated reservoir conditions.

  3. The effects of treatment on lipoprotein subfractions evaluated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarikova, Zuzana; Gaspar, Ludovit; Kruzliak, Peter; Celecová, Zuzana; Oravec, Stanislav

    2014-10-10

    Atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia is one of the most important risk factor for atherosclerotic changes development. Hypothyroidism is one of the most common causes of secondary dyslipidemias which results from reduced LDL clearance and therefore raised levels of LDL and apoB. Association between small dense LDL (sdLDL) presentation and thyroid status has been examinated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for lipoprotein subfractions evaluation. 40 patients with diagnosed autoimmune hypothyroidism and 30 patients with autoimmune hyperthyroidism were treated with thyroxine replacement or thyreo-suppressive treatment. In both groups lipid profiles, LDL subractions, apolipoproteins (apoA1, apoB), apoA1/apoB ratio and atherogenic index of plazma (AIP) were examined before treatment and in state of euthyreosis. Thyroxine replacement therapy significantly reduced levels of total cholesterol (TC), LDL, triglycerides (TG) and also decreased levels of sdLDL (8,55±11,671 vs 0,83±1,693mg/dl; phyperthyroid patients. Atherogenic lipoprotein profile was present in 52.5% of hypothyroid subjects, which is higher prevalence than in normal, age-related population. Substitution treatment leads to an improvement of the lipid levels, TG, apoB, AIP and LDL subclasses. It significantly changed the presentation of sdLDL - we noticed shift to large, less atherogenic LDL particles. Significantly positive correlation between sdLDL and TAG; sdLDL and VLDL alerts to hypertriglyceridemia as a major cardiovascular risk factor.

  4. Preparation of Composite Hydrogel Based on Polyacrylamide and the Effect of Kaolinite on Its Properties in the Reservoir Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A gel composite (based on polyacrylamide and crosslinker Cr(III acetate was prepared by solvent method (distillate and water formation and nanoclay particle (kaolinite. Using XRD tests, d001 was evaluated for kaolinite nanoparticles in gel composite. Kaolinite modification using dimethyl-sulfoxide led to increase interlamellar spacing from 7.21 to 10.82 o A. Based on the results obtained for samples prepared from unmodified clay besides the pure clay, there is a wide peak at 2θ = 8o; which is a representative of polymer diffusion between the clay layers. For the sample prepared from modified clay, no increase in interlamellar space was observed. Addition of 15% clay (modified and unmodified caused the syneresis to reduce by 20%. The gelation time for composites prepared from both types of clays increased due to increases in clay concentration, which this increase for the sample prepared from unmodified clay was greater. The viscosity of gel for samples prepared from modified clay increased due to increased clay concentration, which reached its maximum for 15% clay concentration. However for unmodified clay the maximum value of viscosity was observed for 30% clay concentration.

  5. Study of polyacrylamide-surfactant system on the water–oil interface properties and rheological properties for EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Mahdavi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the remarkable oil reduction in oil fields, enhanced oil recovery (EOR techniques have been considered by a large number of scientists and company. Situ oil extraction is normally done by these techniques with high efficiency. In this particular study, five different surface active agents (surfactant, two kinds of oil with various API, two kinds of sulfonated polyacrylamide, two different electrolyte solutions with various TDS and two distinctive alcohols were tested and evaluated. An optimal formulation in terms of the properties and quantity of materials has to be used in order to enhance oil recovery, achieved by investigation of surface tension and the phase behavior of mentioned substances. Rheological behavior of polymer flooding and surfactant was studied. Employing this formulation, the maximum micro emulsion of oil in water occurred. Due to the synergy between surfactant and alcohol (as a co-surfactant, relatively lower amounts of surfactants were used which led to the dip in the cost of operation, and ultimately the efficiency of operation improved.

  6. H3PO4 imbibed polyacrylamide-graft-chitosan frameworks for high-temperature proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuangshuang; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Qinghua; Ma, Chunqing; Jin, Suyue; Liu, Zhichao

    2014-03-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM), transferring protons from anode to cathode, is a key component in a PEM fuel cell. In the current work, a new class of PEMs are synthesized benefiting from the imbibition behavior of three-dimensional (3D) polyacrylamide-graft-chitosan (PAAm-graft-chitosan) frameworks to H3PO4 aqueous solution. Interconnected 3D framework of PAAm-graft-chitosan provides tremendous space for holding proton-conducting H3PO4. The highest anhydrous proton conductivity of 0.13 S cm-1 at 165 °C is obtained. A fuel cell using a thick membrane as a PEM showed a peak power density of 405 mW cm-2 with O2 and H2 as the oxidant and fuel, respectively. Results indicate that the interconnected 3D framework provides superhighway for proton conduction. The valued merits on anhydrous proton conductivity, huge H3PO4 loading, and easy synthesis promise the new membranes to be good alternatives as high-temperature PEMs.

  7. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Blue-gray Tanager (Thraupis episcopus in the state of Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epifanio Blancas-Calva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We recorded the Blue-gray Tanager (Thraupis episcopus on the southeastern coastal plain of the state of Guerrero, Mexico, in urban areas with cover of scattered trees of native and introduced species. The current range known for this taxon comprises lowlands of eastern Mexico, from south-central Nuevo Leon to the Yucatan peninsula, including eastern Oaxaca and the Pacific slope on the coastal plain of Chiapas. However, there are no published previous records of the species in Guerrero. Possibly T. episcopus is a species that has expanded its range in episodes of active dispersal.

  9. Real-time UV-visible spectroscopy analysis of purple membrane-polyacrylamide film formation taking into account Fano line shapes and scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomariz, María; Blaya, Salvador; Acebal, Pablo; Carretero, Luis

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally analyze the formation of thick Purple Membrane (PM) polyacrylamide (PA) films by means of optical spectroscopy by considering the absorption of bacteriorhodopsin and scattering. We have applied semiclassical quantum mechanical techniques for the calculation of absorption spectra by taking into account the Fano effects on the ground state of bacteriorhodopsin. A model of the formation of PM-polyacrylamide films has been proposed based on the growth of polymeric chains around purple membrane. Experimentally, the temporal evolution of the polymerization process of acrylamide has been studied as function of the pH solution, obtaining a good correspondence to the proposed model. Thus, due to the formation of intermediate bacteriorhodopsin-doped nanogel, by controlling the polymerization process, an alternative methodology for the synthesis of bacteriorhodopsin-doped nanogels can be provided.

  10. Native American Women: Living with Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of Native American women in the spiritual and cultural life of American Indians. Native American spirituality is deeply connected to the land through daily use, ritual, and respect for sacred space. Often Native American women act as conduits and keepers of this knowledge. (MJP)

  11. Encountering Complexity: Native Musics in the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Describes Native American musics, focusing on issues such as music and the experience of time, metaphor and metaphorical aspects, and spirituality and sounds from nature. Discusses Native American metaphysics and its reflection in the musics. States that an effective curriculum would provide a new receptivity to Native American musics. (CMK)

  12. North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…

  13. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The language...

  14. Recruiting Native Journalists: The New Storytellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Candy

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to increase the number of Native American journalists, summer programs at the University of North Dakota and the University of Wisconsin give Native American high school students hands-on, culturally relevant journalism experience. The Native American Journalists Association offers college scholarships in journalism for American…

  15. South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project was a resounding success in that the primary goal of : developing commercial sources of native seed has been substantially met. By the conclusion of the project : on August 31, 2011, 20 native seed sou...

  16. Surrounded by Beauty: Arts of Native America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Native American languages have no equivalent for the word "art." Yet the objects Native Americans have used and still use suggest that they are a highly spiritual people who create objects of extraordinary beauty. In Native American thought, there is no distinction between what is beautiful or functional, and what is sacred or secular.…

  17. Tamarisk coalition - native riparian plant materials program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy Kolegas

    2012-01-01

    The Tamarisk Coalition (TC), a nonprofit organization dedicated to riparian restoration in the western United States, has created a Native Plant Materials Program to address the identified need for native riparian plant species for use in revegetation efforts on the Colorado Plateau. The specific components of the Native Plant Materials Program include: 1) provide seed...

  18. Credibility of native and non-native speakers of English revisited: Do non-native listeners feel the same?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzlíková, Dagmar; Skarnitzl, Radek

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on research stimulated by Lev-Ari and Keysar (2010) who showed that native listeners find statements delivered by foreign-accented speakers to be less true than those read by native speakers. Our objective was to replicate the study with non-native listeners to see whether this effect is also relevant in international communication contexts. The same set of statements from the original study was recorded by 6 native and 6 nonnative speakers of English. 121 non-native listen...

  19. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English le...... the economic and geopolitical agenda behind this English teaching business, there is clear evidence of linguistic imperialism in the functions of this global professional service. These activities serve to strengthen Western interests.......An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  20. Ecological impacts of non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  1. digital natives and digital immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Cardina, Bruno; Francisco, Jerónimo; Reis, Pedro; trad. Silva, Fátima

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the generational gaps in school learning. Initially, we have tried to provide the framework in relation to the term digital native in order to understand the key aspects of the generation born after the advent and the global use of the Internet. They were found to be “multitasking” people, linked to technology and connectivity, as opposed to digital immigrants, born in an earlier period and seeking to adapt to the technological world. We also present some r...

  2. Determinants of Success in Native and Non-Native Listening Comprehension: An Individual Differences Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…

  3. Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: an individual differences approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, S.; Olsthoorn, N.; van Beuningen, C.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation

  4. Growth strategy, phylogeny and stoichiometry determine the allelopathic potential of native and non-native plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, Bart M.C.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Gross, Elisabeth M.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; van Donk, Ellen; Bakker, Elisabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary compounds can contribute to the success of non-native plant species if they reduce damage by native herbivores or inhibit the growth of native plant competitors. However, there is opposing evidence on whether the secondary com- pounds of non-native plant species are stronger than those of

  5. Chinese College Students' Views on Native English and Non-Native English in EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yang; Jingxia, Liu

    2016-01-01

    With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars' attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research…

  6. Optimal control of native predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; O'Connell, Allan F.; Kendall, William L.; Runge, Michael C.; Simons, Theodore R.; Waldstein, Arielle H.; Schulte, Shiloh A.; Converse, Sarah J.; Smith, Graham W.; Pinion, Timothy; Rikard, Michael; Zipkin, Elise F.

    2010-01-01

    We apply decision theory in a structured decision-making framework to evaluate how control of raccoons (Procyon lotor), a native predator, can promote the conservation of a declining population of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Our management objective was to maintain Oystercatcher productivity above a level deemed necessary for population recovery while minimizing raccoon removal. We evaluated several scenarios including no raccoon removal, and applied an adaptive optimization algorithm to account for parameter uncertainty. We show how adaptive optimization can be used to account for uncertainties about how raccoon control may affect Oystercatcher productivity. Adaptive management can reduce this type of uncertainty and is particularly well suited for addressing controversial management issues such as native predator control. The case study also offers several insights that may be relevant to the optimal control of other native predators. First, we found that stage-specific removal policies (e.g., yearling versus adult raccoon removals) were most efficient if the reproductive values among stage classes were very different. Second, we found that the optimal control of raccoons would result in higher Oystercatcher productivity than the minimum levels recommended for this species. Third, we found that removing more raccoons initially minimized the total number of removals necessary to meet long term management objectives. Finally, if for logistical reasons managers cannot sustain a removal program by removing a minimum number of raccoons annually, managers may run the risk of creating an ecological trap for Oystercatchers.

  7. The use of blood protein polymorphism to estimate genetic distance among populations of Indonesian native sheep, St. Croix and Merino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Suparyanto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic distance among populations of Indonesia native sheep (Ciamis, Garut, Sumatera and Garahan, St. Croix and Merino were estimated to investigate the genetic relationship among those breeds. Blood protein polymorphism of transferin (Tf, post-transferin (PTf, albumin (Alb, post-albumin (PAlb were detected from blood plasma, while haemoglobine (Hb was detected from erythrocyte using Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE. Results of PAGE showed that Tf was controlled by 6 alleles, while Alb by 4 alleles, PTf by 3 Alleles and PAlb and Hb by 2 alleles. Value of breeding coefficient within individual subpopulations (FIS for Tf (-0,0014, Alb (-0,0046 and Hb (0,0256 were not significantly different by noel. These results show that data of gene frequency are still following Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and inbreeding inside the sub population did not occur. The closest distance among the native breeds is the subpopulations of Ciamis and Garut due to neighboring area and similar traits of Thin Tail Sheep. The genetic distance of both population to Sumatera Thin Tail Sheep and Garahan Fat Tail are quite far. In addition to that results all Indonesian native breed were distinctly different from St. Croix and Merino.

  8. Purification of Peptide Components including Melittin from Bee Venom using gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Chon Choi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was conducted to carry out Purification of Melittin and other peptide components from Bee Venom using gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis Methods : Melittin and other peptide components were separated from bee venom by using gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50 column in 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer. Results : Melittin and other peptide components were separated from bee venom by using gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50 column in 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer. The fractions obtained from gel filtration chromatography was analyzed by using SDS-PAGE and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The melittin obtained from the gel filtration contained residual amount of phospholipase A2 and a protein with molecular weight of 6,000. The contaminating proteins were removed by the second gel filtration chromatography. Conclusion : Gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are useful to separate peptide components including melittin from bee venom.

  9. Conformational studies of the (+)-trans, (-)-trans, (+)-cis, and (-)-cis adducts of anti-benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide to N2-dG in duplex oligonucleotides using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suh, Myungkoo; Ariese, Freek; Small, Gerald J.; Jankowiak, Ryszard; Liu, Tong Ming; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    1995-01-01

    Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and low-temperature, laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) and non-line narrowing (NLN) spectroscopic methods, the conformational characteristics of stereochemically defined and site-specific adducts derived from the binding of

  10. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  11. The Structure of the Blue Whirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Sriram Bharath; Hu, Yu; Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael; Oran, Elaine

    2017-11-01

    Recent experiments have led to the discovery of the blue whirl, a small, stable regime of the fire whirl that burns typically sooty liquid hydrocarbons without producing soot. The physical structure consists of three regions - the blue cone, the vortex rim and the purple haze. The physical nature of the flame was further investigated through digital imaging techniques, which suggest that the transition (from the fire whirl to the blue whirl) and shape of the flame may be influenced by vortex breakdown. The flame was found to develop over a variety of surfaces, which indicates that the formation of the blue whirl is strongly influenced by the flow structure over the incoming boundary layer. The thermal structure was investigated using micro-thermocouples, thin-filament pyrometry and OH* spectroscopy. These revealed a peak temperature around 2000 K, and that most of the combustion occurs in the relatively small, visibly bright vortex rim. The results of these investigations provide a platform to develop a theory on the structure of the blue whirl, a deeper understanding of which may affirm potential for applications in the energy industry. This work was supported by an NSF EAGER award and Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

  12. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardon S, C. C.; Olguin G, M. T.; Diaz N, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  13. Removal of some heavy metals from industrial waste water using polyacrylamide ferric antimonate as new ion exchange material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Aryan, Y.F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Composite ion exchangers consist of one or more ion exchangers combined with another material, which can be inorganic or organic and may it be an ion exchanger. The reason for manufacturing a composite material is to produce a granular material, with sufficient strength for column use, from ion exchangers that do not form, or only form weak, granules themselves. Attempts in this study are focused to prepare composite ion exchangers for treatment of wastewater. Heavy metals when present in water in concentrations exceeding the permitted limits are injurious to the health. Hence, it is very important to treat such waters to remove the metal ions present before it is supplied for any useful purpose. Therefore, many investigations have studied to develop more effective process to treat such waste stream. Ion-exchange has been widely adopted in heavy metal containing wastewater and most of the ion-exchangers (i.e. ion-exchange media) currently being used are commercially mass-produced organic resins.Therefore, the main aim of this work is directed to find the optimum conditions for removal of some heavy metals from industrial waste water.1-Preparation of polyacrylamide ferric antimonate composite.2-Characterization of the prepared exchanger using IR spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern, DTA and TG analyses.3-Chemical stability, capacity and equilibrium measurements will be determined on the materials using at different conditions (ph heating temperature and reaction temperature).4-Kinetic studies of some heavy metals.5-Ion exchange isotherm.6-Breakthrough curves for removal of the investigated metal ions on the prepared exchanger under certain condition.

  14. Investigating the properties and interaction mechanism of nano-silica in polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylamide blends at an atomic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qinghua; Wang, Yanen; Wang, Shuzhi; Zhang, Yingfeng; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2017-11-01

    The nano-silica can be incorporated into polymers for improved mechanical properties. Notably, the interaction between nano-silica and polymer is of a microscopic phenomenon and thus, hard to observe and study by using experimental methods. Based on molecular dynamics, this paper presents a study on the properties and the interaction mechanism of nano-silica in the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyacrylamide (PAM) blends at an atomic level. Specifically, six blends of PVA/PAM with varying concentrations of nano-silica (0-13wt%) and two interfacial interaction models of polymers on the silica surface were designed and analyzed at an atomic level in terms of concentration profile, mechanical properties, fractional free volume (FFV), dynamic properties of polymers and X-ray diffraction patterns. The concentration profile results and micromorphologies of equilibrium models suggest PAM molecular chains are easier to be adsorbed on the silica surface than PVA molecular chains in blends. The incorporation of nano-silica into the PVA/PAM blends can increase the blend mechanical properties, densities, and semicrystalline character. Meanwhile, the FFV and the mobility of polymer chain decrease with the silica concentration, which agrees with the results of mechanical properties, densities, and semicrystalline character. Our results also illustrate that an analysis of binding energies and pair correlation functions (PCF) allows for the discovery of the interaction mechanism of nano-silica in PVA/PAM blends; and that hydrogen bond interactions between polar functional groups of polymer molecular chains and the hydroxyl groups of the silica surface are involved in adsorption of the polymers on the silica surface, thus affecting the interaction mechanism of nano-silica in PVA/PAM blend systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Origin of colour stability in blue/orange/blue stacked phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2009-01-01

    The origin of colour stability in phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (PHWOLEDs) with a blue/orange/blue stacked emitting structure was studied by monitoring the change in a recombination zone. A balanced recombination zone shift between the blue and the orange light-emitting layers was found to be responsible for the colour stability in the blue/orange/blue stacked PHWOLEDs.

  16. Intraoral blue (Jadassohn-Tieche) nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, C D; Zoutendam, G L; Gombas, O F

    1978-05-01

    Blue nevus of the oral mucosa is a distinctly uncommon clincial entity. Careful review of the literature yielded thirty-one previously reported cases. The present article reports the occurrence of a blue nevus of the hard palate in a 58-year-old man. It is of interest since it is the smallest (1 by 1 mm.) intraoral blue nevus to be reported. A clinicopathologic study of the previous thirty-one cases and of our case suggests that this lesion has no age or sex predilection. The most common site of occurrence was the hard palate. There appears to be no tendency toward recurrence. A brief review of the historical background, clinical features, theories of possible origin, and differential diagnosis is presented. Excisional biopsy of localized areas of oral pibmentation, together with histopathologic study, is indicated to rule out melanoma.

  17. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  18. The spectrum of dermatoscopic patterns in blue nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Antonella; Sera, Francesco; Gulia, Andrea; Coletti, Gino; Micantonio, Tamara; Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2012-08-01

    Blue nevi are congenital or acquired, dermal dendritic melanocytic proliferations that can simulate melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions including melanoma, cutaneous metastasis of melanoma, Spitz/Reed nevi, and basal cell carcinoma. We sought to investigate global and local dermatoscopic patterns of blue nevi compared with melanomas and basal cell carcinomas. We retrospectively analyzed global and local features in 95 dermatoscopic images of blue nevi and in 190 melanomas and basal cell carcinomas that were selected as control lesions on the basis of similar pigmentation. Lesion pigmentation was classified as monochromatic, dichromatic, or multichromatic. A global pattern characterized by homogeneous pigmentation was observed in all of 95 (100%) blue nevi. Eighty of 95 (84.2%) blue nevi presented a homogeneous pattern consisting of one color (blue, black, or brown) or two colors (blue-brown, blue-gray, or blue-black). Fifteen of 95 (15.8%) blue nevi had a multichromatic (blue, gray, black, brown, and/or red) pigmentation. In all, 47 of 95 (49.5%) blue nevi were characterized by pigmentation in the absence of pigment network or any other local dermatoscopic features. And 48 of 95 (50.5%) blue nevi showed local dermatoscopic patterns including whitish scarlike depigmentation, dots/globules, vascular pattern, streaks, and networklike pattern. The study was retrospective and involved only Caucasian people of Italian origin. The characteristic feature of blue nevi is a homogeneous pigmentation that is blue, blue-gray, blue-brown, or blue-black. We showed that a wide spectrum of local dermatoscopic features (whitish scarlike depigmentation, dots/globules, peripheral streaks or vessels) may also be present. In such cases, clinical and dermatoscopic distinction from melanoma or nonmelanocytic lesions may be difficult or impossible, and surgical excision is necessary. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Whole Protein Native Fitness Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Protein structure prediction can be separated into two tasks: sample the configuration space of the protein chain, and assign a fitness between these hypothetical models and the native structure of the protein. One of the more promising developments in this area is that of knowledge based energy functions. However, standard approaches using pair-wise interactions have shown shortcomings demonstrated by the superiority of multi-body-potentials. These shortcomings are due to residue pair-wise interaction being dependent on other residues along the chain. We developed a method that uses whole protein information filtered through machine learners to score protein models based on their likeness to native structures. For all models we calculated parameters associated with the distance to the solvent and with distances between residues. These parameters, in addition to energy estimates obtained by using a four-body-potential, DFIRE, and RWPlus were used as training for machine learners to predict the fitness of the models. Testing on CASP 9 targets showed that our method is superior to DFIRE, RWPlus, and the four-body potential, which are considered standards in the field.

  20. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattling Leaf, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the spirit of collaboration and reciprocity, James Rattling Leaf of Sinte Gleska University on the Rosebud Reservation of South Dakota will present recent developments, experiences, insights and a vision for education in Indian Country. As a thirty-year young institution, Sinte Gleska University is founded by a strong vision of ancestral leadership and the values of the Lakota Way of Life. Sinte Gleska University (SGU) has initiated the development of a Geospatial Education Curriculum project. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building is a two-year project that entails a disciplined approach towards the development of a relevant Geospatial academic curriculum. This project is designed to meet the educational and land management needs of the Rosebud Lakota Tribe through the utilization of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). In conjunction with the strategy and progress of this academic project, a formal presentation and demonstration of the SGU based Geospatial software RezMapper software will exemplify an innovative example of state of the art information technology. RezMapper is an interactive CD software package focused toward the 21 Lakota communities on the Rosebud Reservation that utilizes an ingenious concept of multimedia mapping and state of the art data compression and presentation. This ongoing development utilizes geographic data, imagery from space, historical aerial photography and cultural features such as historic Lakota documents, language, song, video and historical photographs in a multimedia fashion. As a tangible product, RezMapper will be a project deliverable tool for use in the classroom and to a broad range of learners.

  1. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G is a more potent antagonist of P2 purinergic responses than Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) in rat parotid acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltoff, S.P.; McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of Brilliant Blue G (Coomassie Brilliant Blue G) and Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to block the effects of extracellular ATP on rat parotid acinar cells was examined by evaluating their effects on ATP-stimulated 45Ca 2+ entry and the elevation of [Ca 2+ ]i (Fura 2 fluorescence). ATP (300 microM) increased the rate of Ca 2+ entry to more than 25-times the basal rate and elevated [Ca 2+ ]i to levels more than three times the basal value. Brilliant Blue G and Reactive Blue 2 greatly reduced the entry of 45 Ca 2+ into parotid cells, but the potency of Brilliant Blue G (IC50 approximately 0.4 microM) was about 100-times that of Reactive Blue 2. Fura 2 studies demonstrated that inhibitory concentrations of these compounds did not block the cholinergic response of these cells, thus demonstrating the selectivity of the dye compounds for purinergic receptors. Unlike Reactive Blue 2, effective concentrations of Brilliant Blue G did not substantially quench Fura 2 fluorescence. The greater potency of Brilliant Blue G suggests that it may be very useful in identifying P2-type purinergic receptors, especially in studies which utilize fluorescent probes

  2. Spectra and ages of blue stragglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanism similar to Wheeler's quasi-homogeneous evolution and Finzi and Wolf's proposal for blue stragglers is proposed as the origin of the blue stragglers in intermediate-age clusters. Blue stragglers are stars whose positions in color-magnitude diagrams of open and globular clusters are significantly above the turn-off points and in the region of the (former) main sequence; they seem to represent a conflict with the general conclusion that all stars in a cluster originated at about the same time. It is concluded that there are at least two kinds of blue stragglers: (1) those stars of types about B3-A2 are primarily Ap stars and slow rotators, occur in the intermediate age clusters and remain in the main sequence region probably through magnetic mixing; and (2) the stars of type O6-B2 frequently have emission lines, are rapid rotators, occur in the young cluster, and remain in the main sequence region probably by rotational mixing. 30 references

  3. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While

  4. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  5. African Retentions in Blues and Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Eddie S.

    1979-01-01

    The perseverance of African musical characteristics among American Blacks is an historic reality. African retentions have been recorded in Black music of the antebellum period. Various African scales and rhythms permeate Black American music today as evidenced in the retentions found in blues and jazz. (RLV)

  6. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  7. Statistical thermodynamics of supercapacitors and blue engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roij, R.H.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of electrode-electrolyte systems, for instance supercapacitors filled with an ionic liquid or blue-energy devices filled with river- or sea water. By a suitable mapping of thermodynamic variables, we identify a strong analogy with classical heat engines. We introduce

  8. Improper, Blue-Shifting Hydrogen Bond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, Pavel; Havlas, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 108, - (2002), s. 325-334 ISSN 1432-881X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : improper, blue-shifting hydrogen bond * properties * nature Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.421, year: 2002

  9. Blue laser phase change recording system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Holger; Dambach, S.Soeren; Richter, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    The migration paths from DVD phase change recording with red laser to the next generation optical disk formats with blue laser and high NA optics are discussed with respect to optical aberration margins and disc capacities. A test system for the evaluation of phase change disks with more than 20 GB capacity is presented and first results of the recording performance are shown

  10. The Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy IZw18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Contreras, R.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results obtained for the Blue compact galaxy IZw18 on the basis of ACS HST data obtained from our group. In particular, we discuss the stellar population and the variable stars content of this galaxy to get information about its star formation history and distance.

  11. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important ... Few chemically different dyes such as Reactive Black (75%), Reactive Yellow (70%),. Reactive Red (33%) and ..... Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin degrading ...

  12. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency…

  13. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Blue LED irradiation to hydration of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Requena, Michelle B.; Lizarelli, Rosane F., Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    Blue LED system irradiation shows many important properties on skin as: bacterial decontamination, degradation of endogenous skin chromophores and biostimulation. In this clinical study we prove that the blue light improves the skin hydration. In the literature none authors reports this biological property on skin. Then this study aims to discuss the role of blue light in the skin hydration. Twenty patients were selected to this study with age between 25-35 years old and phototype I, II and III. A defined area from forearm was pre determined (A = 4.0 cm2). The study was randomized in two treatment groups using one blue light device (power of 5.3mW and irradiance of 10.8mW/cm2). The first treatment group was irradiated with 3J/cm2 (277seconds) and the second with 6J/cm2 (555 seconds). The skin hydration evaluations were done using a corneometer. The measurements were collected in 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, during the treatment. Statistical test of ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student were applied considering 5% of significance. In conclusion, both doses were able to improve the skin hydration; however, 6J/cm2 has kept this hydration for 30 days.

  15. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important parameter, while glucose (99%), sucrose (97%) and mannitol (98%) were the best carbon sources for the decolorization. Decolorization was effective in an acidic environment (pH 3).

  16. Application of polyacrylamide to reduce phosphorus losses from a Chinese purple soil: a laboratory and field investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Teng, Lingling; Wei, Shiqiang; Deng, Lili; Luo, Zaibo; Chen, Yupeng; Flanagan, Dennis C

    2010-07-01

    Use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to control phosphorus (P) losses from a Chinese purple soil was studied in both a laboratory soil column experiment and a field plot experiment on a steep slope (27%). Treatments in the column study were a control, and PAM mixed uniformly into the soil at rates of 0.02, 0.05, 0.08, 0.10, and 0.20%. We found that PAM had an important inhibitory effect on vertical P transport in the soil columns, with the 0.20% PAM treatment having the greatest significant reduction in leachate soluble P concentrations and losses resulting from nine leaching periods. Field experiments were conducted on 5m wide by 21m long natural rainfall plots, that allowed collection of both surface runoff and subsurface drainage water. Wheat was planted and grown on all plots with typical fertilizer applied. Treatments included a control, dry PAM at 3.9 kg ha(-1), dry PAM at 3.9 kg ha(-1) applied together with lime (CaCO(3) at 4.9 t ha(-1)), and dry PAM at 3.9 kg ha(-1) applied together with gypsum (CaSO(4).2H(2)O at 4 t ha(-1)). Results from the field plot experiment in which 5 rainfall events resulted in measurable runoff and leachate showed that all PAM treatments significantly reduced runoff volume and total P losses in surface runoff compared to the control. The PAM treatments also all significantly reduced water volume leached to the tile drain. However, total P losses in the leachate water were not significantly different due to the treatments, perhaps due to the low PAM soil surface application rate and/or high experimental variability. The PAM alone treatment resulted in the greatest wheat growth as indicated by the plant growth indexes of wheat plant height, leaf length, leaf width, grain number per head, and dried grain mass. Growth indexes of the PAM with Calcium treatments were significantly lesser. These results indicate that the selection and use of soil amendments need to be carefully determined based upon the most important management goal at a

  17. Intensified depolymerization of aqueous polyacrylamide solution using combined processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation, ozone, ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapat, Amrutlal L; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-07-01

    The present work deals with intensification of depolymerization of polyacrylamide (PAM) solution using hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactors based on a combination with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ozone (O3) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Effect of inlet pressure in hydrodynamic cavitation reactor and power dissipation in the case of UV irradiation on the extent of viscosity reduction has been investigated. The combined approaches such as HC+UV, HC+O3, HC+H2O2, UV+H2O2 and UV+O3 have been subsequently investigated and found to be more efficient as compared to individual approaches. For the approach based on HC+UV+H2O2, the extent of viscosity reduction under the optimized conditions of HC (3 bar inlet pressure)+UV (8 W power)+H2O2 (0.2% loading) was 97.27% in 180 min whereas individual operations of HC (3 bar inlet pressure) and UV (8 W power) resulted in about 35.38% and 40.83% intrinsic viscosity reduction in 180 min respectively. In the case of HC (3 bar inlet pressure)+UV (8 W power)+ozone (400 mg/h flow rate) approach, the extent of viscosity reduction was 89.06% whereas individual processes of only ozone (400 mg/h flow rate), ozone (400 mg/h flow rate)+HC (3 bar inlet pressure) and ozone (400 mg/h flow rate)+UV (8 W power) resulted in lower extent of viscosity reduction as 50.34%, 60.65% and 75.31% respectively. The chemical structure of the treated PAM by all approaches was also characterized using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectra and it was established that no significant chemical structure changes were obtained during the treatment. Overall, it can be said that the combination of HC+UV+H2O2 is an efficient approach for the depolymerization of PAM solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Polyacrylamide Ferrogels with Magnetite or Strontium Hexaferrite: Next Step in the Development of Soft Biomimetic Matter for Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Safronov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic biosensors are an important part of biomedical applications of magnetic materials. As the living tissue is basically a “soft matter.” this study addresses the development of ferrogels (FG with micron sized magnetic particles of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite mimicking the living tissue. The basic composition of the FG comprised the polymeric network of polyacrylamide, synthesized by free radical polymerization of monomeric acrylamide (AAm in water solution at three levels of concentration (1.1 M, 0.85 M and 0.58 M to provide the FG with varying elasticity. To improve FG biocompatibility and to prevent the precipitation of the particles, polysaccharide thickeners—guar gum or xanthan gum were used. The content of magnetic particles in FG varied up to 5.2 wt % depending on the FG composition. The mechanical properties of FG and their deformation in a uniform magnetic field were comparatively analyzed. FG filled with strontium hexaferrite particles have larger Young’s modulus value than FG filled with magnetite particles, most likely due to the specific features of the adhesion of the network’s polymeric subchains on the surface of the particles. FG networks with xanthan are stronger and have higher modulus than the FG with guar. FG based on magnetite, contract in a magnetic field 0.42 T, whereas some FG based on strontium hexaferrite swell. Weak FG with the lowest concentration of AAm shows a much stronger response to a field, as the concentration of AAm governs the Young’s modulus of ferrogel. A small magnetic field magnetoimpedance sensor prototype with Co68.6Fe3.9Mo3.0Si12.0B12.5 rapidly quenched amorphous ribbon based element was designed aiming to develop a sensor working with a disposable stripe sensitive element. The proposed protocol allowed measurements of the concentration dependence of magnetic particles in gels using magnetoimpedance responses in the presence of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite ferrogels

  19. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  20. Native proteomic analysis of protein complexes in murine intestinal brush border membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babušiak, M.; Man, Petr; Petrák, J.; Vyoral, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2007), s. 121-129 ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/03/H066; GA AV ČR KJB500200612; GA MŠk LC545 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA303/04/0003; GA MZd(CZ) NR8930; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06044; CZ(CZ) 023736; GA MZd(CZ) NR8317 Program:NR Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : blue native electrophoresis * brush border membranes * protein complexes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.479, year: 2007

  1. Selective predation by feral cats on a native skink on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Björn; Reed, Robert N.; Adams, Amy A. Yackel; Mazurek, M.J.; Hinkle, Thomas J.; Levasseur, Patricia M.; Palmer, Meredith S.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Two species of skinks (Fig. 1) occur in a 5-ha plot on Guam where we have been conducting intensive research on Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) population biology for nearly a decade (Rodda et al. 2007). The Pacific Blue-tailed Skink (Emoia caeruleocauda [de Vis 1892]) is native to Guam, whereas the Curious Skink (Carlia ailanpalai Zug 2004) is invasive. On the evening of 27 November 2012, PML and MSP discovered a pile of vomited skinks (Fig. 2) inside the plot (UTM 55P: 269125 m E, 1508930 m N).

  2. Contrasting xylem vessel constraints on hydraulic conductivity between native and non-native woody understory species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the hydraulic properties of 82 native and non-native woody species common to forests of Eastern North America, including several congeneric groups, representing a range of anatomical wood types. We observed smaller conduit diameters with greater frequency in non-native species, corresponding to lower calculated potential vulnerability to cavitation index. Non-native species exhibited higher vessel-grouping in metaxylem compared with native species, however, solitary vessels were more prevalent in secondary xylem. Higher frequency of solitary vessels in secondary xylem was related to a lower potential vulnerability index. We found no relationship between anatomical characteristics of xylem, origin of species and hydraulic conductivity, indicating that non-native species did not exhibit advantageous hydraulic efficiency over native species. Our results confer anatomical advantages for non-native species under the potential for cavitation due to freezing, perhaps permitting extended growing seasons.

  3. The lithium abundance of M67 blue stragglers - A constraint on the blue straggler phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchet, C.J.; Glaspey, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Upper limits have been placed on the line strength of the 6707 A Li I resonance doublet in seven blue stragglers in M67. The corresponding upper limits on abundances range from log N(Li) less than about 1.3 to less than about 2.3. This result is significantly below the level of log N(Li) about 3.1 + or - 0.1 found in field main-sequence stars of comparable temperature. It is concluded that some form of mixing has affected the outer envelopes of blue stragglers. (Such mixing has been proposed as the mechanism needed to prolong the lifetimes of blue stragglers relative to normal main-sequence stars at the same luminosity). Virtually all mechanisms for the production of blue stragglers other than mixing, binary mass transfer, or binary coalescence appear to be ruled out by the present observations. 45 refs

  4. Hubble's View of Little Blue Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of tiny, star-forming galaxy is the latest in a zoo of detections shedding light on our early universe. What can we learn from the unique little blue dots found in archival Hubble data?Peas, Berries, and DotsGreen pea galaxies identified by citizen scientists with Galaxy Zoo. [Richard Nowell Carolin Cardamone]As telescope capabilities improve and we develop increasingly deeper large-scale surveys of our universe, we continue to learn more about small, faraway galaxies. In recent years, increasing sensitivity first enabled the detection of green peas luminous, compact, low-mass (10 billion solar masses; compare this to the Milky Ways 1 trillion solar masses!) galaxies with high rates of star formation.Not long thereafter, we discovered galaxies that form stars similarly rapidly, but are even smaller only 330 million solar masses, spanning less than 3,000 light-years in size. These tiny powerhouses were termed blueberries for their distinctive color.Now, scientists Debra and Bruce Elmegreen (of Vassar College and IBM Research Division, respectively) report the discovery of galaxies that have even higher star formation rates and even lower masses: little blue dots.Exploring Tiny Star FactoriesThe Elmegreens discovered these unique galaxies by exploring archival Hubble data. The Hubble Frontier Fields data consist of deep images of six distant galaxy clusters and the parallel fields next to them. It was in the archival data for two Frontier Field Parallels, those for clusters Abell 2744 and MAS J0416.1-2403, that the authors noticed several galaxies that stand out as tiny, bright, blue objects that are nearly point sources.Top: a few examples of the little blue dots recently identified in two Hubble Frontier Field Parallels. Bottom: stacked images for three different groups of little blue dots. [Elmegreen Elmegreen 2017]The authors performed a search through the two Frontier Field Parallels, discovering a total of 55 little blue dots

  5. Soil water repellency of the artificial soil and natural soil in rocky slopes as affected by the drought stress and polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang; Wang, Ruixin; Han, Pengyuan; Sun, Hailong; Sun, Haifeng; Li, Chengjun; Yang, Lixia

    2018-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) causes reduced soil water storage, enhanced runoff and reduced ecosystem productivity. Therefore, characterization of SWR is a prerequisite for effective environmental management. SWR has been reported under different soils, land uses and regions of the world, particularly in forest land and after wildfires; however, the understanding of this variable in the artificial soil of rocky slope eco-engineering is still rather limited. This study presented the characterization of SWR in the artificial soil affected by the polyacrylamide (PAM) and drought stress. There were two molecular weights of PAM, and the CK was without PAM application. Three types of soil were studied: natural soil and two types of artificial soil which have been sprayed for 1y and 5y, respectively. The drought stress experiments had three drought gradients, lasted for three weeks. Water repellency index (WRI) and soil-water contact angle (β) were determined using intrinsic sorptivity method by measuring the water sorptivity (S W ) and ethanol sorptivity (S E ) in all soil samples. The results showed that (1) Polyacrylamide treatments significantly increased S W by 3% to 38%, and reduced S E by 1% to 15%, WRI by 6% to 38%, β by 3% to 23% compared to the control group. Polyacrylamide treatments also increased water-stable aggregates content and total porosity by 22% to 33%, 11% to 20% relative to the control, while PAM with a higher molecular weight performed best. (2) The interaction between PAM and drought stress had a significant effect on WRI and β for all soil types (Pnatural soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aerococcus viridans Native Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerococcus viridans is an infrequent human pathogen and few cases of infective endocarditis have been reported. A case involving a 69-year-old man with colon cancer and hemicolectomy 14 years previously, without recurrence, is reported. A diagnosis of native mitral valve endocarditis was established on the basis of clinical presentation, characteristic echocardiographic findings and pathological specimen examination after urgent valve replacement. A viridans endocarditis appears to be particularly virulent, requiring a surgical approach in four of 10 cases reported and death in one of nine. Given the aggressive nature of A viridans endocarditis and the variable time to diagnosis (a few days to seven months, prompt recognition of symptoms and echocardiography, in addition to blood cultures, should be performed when symptoms persist.

  7. Invasive non-native species' provision of refugia for endangered native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    The influence of non-native species on native ecosystems is not predicted easily when interspecific interactions are complex. Species removal can result in unexpected and undesired changes to other ecosystem components. I examined whether invasive non-native species may both harm and provide refugia for endangered native species. The invasive non-native plant Casuarina stricta has damaged the native flora and caused decline of the snail fauna on the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. On Anijima in 2006 and 2009, I examined endemic land snails in the genus Ogasawarana. I compared the density of live specimens and frequency of predation scars (from black rats [Rattus rattus]) on empty shells in native vegetation and Casuarina forests. The density of land snails was greater in native vegetation than in Casuarina forests in 2006. Nevertheless, radical declines in the density of land snails occurred in native vegetation since 2006 in association with increasing predation by black rats. In contrast, abundance of Ogasawarana did not decline in the Casuarina forest, where shells with predation scars from rats were rare. As a result, the density of snails was greater in the Casuarina forest than in native vegetation. Removal of Casuarina was associated with an increased proportion of shells with predation scars from rats and a decrease in the density of Ogasawarana. The thick and dense litter of Casuarina appears to provide refugia for native land snails by protecting them from predation by rats; thus, eradication of rats should precede eradication of Casuarina. Adaptive strategies, particularly those that consider the removal order of non-native species, are crucial to minimizing the unintended effects of eradication on native species. In addition, my results suggested that in some cases a given non-native species can be used to mitigate the impacts of other non-native species on native species.

  8. Experiences to substitute polyacrylamide in Carambolo DWTP (Seville, Spain); Experiencias para la sustitucion de las pliacrilamidas en la ETAP Carambolo de Sevilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Garcia, J. M.; Gonzalez Quesada, R.

    2010-07-01

    The legal limitation of Spanish normative OM SCO/3719/2005 about polyacrylamide flocculants dosification produced the need to reduce this dosing or the substitution of flocculants by other alternative products. this work, realized in laboratory and in a decanter too, determines the performance obtained for final turbidity, wash and frequency of filters, economic costs and application technical problems. the study of these alternatives has been realized to apply in carambolo DWTP. This plant supplies drinking water to Seville city and great part of its metropolitan area. (Author) 10 refs.

  9. Enhanced removal of detergent and recovery of enzymatic activity following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: UUse of casein in gel wash buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrew, B.R.; Green, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    The inclusion of 1% casein or bovine serum albumin in buffer used to reactivate enzymes subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide electrophoresis resulted in accelerated removal of SDS and restoration of nuclease and beta-galactosidase enzyme activities. Nuclease and beta-galactosidase activities which are absent from gels after longer wash procedures are detectable with this technique. Enzyme activity in gels prepared with SDS which contained inhibitory contaminants was partially restored by the casein wash procedure. The threshold of detection of two-dimensionally separated deoxyribonuclease I using the casein wash procedure was 1 picogram

  10. Blue-light emitting triazolopyridinium and triazoloquinolinium salts

    KAUST Repository

    Carboni, Valentina; Su, Xin; Qian, Hai; Aprahamian, Ivan; Credi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Compounds that emit blue light are of interest for applications that include optoelectronic devices and chemo/biosensing and imaging. The design and synthesis of small organic molecules that can act as high-efficiency deep-blue-light emitters

  11. Unraveling the Mystery of the Blue Fog: Structure, Properties, and Applications of Amorphous Blue Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2017-12-01

    The amorphous blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals, also known as the "blue fog," are among the rising stars in materials science that can potentially be used to develop next-generation displays with the ability to compete toe-to-toe with disruptive technologies like organic light-emitting diodes. The structure and properties of the practically unobservable blue phase III have eluded scientists for more than a century since it was discovered. This progress report reviews the developments in this field from both fundamental and applied research perspectives. The first part of this progress report gives an overview of the 130-years-long scientific tour-de-force that very recently resulted in the revelation of the mysterious structure of blue phase III. The second part reviews progress made in the past decade in developing electrooptical, optical, and photonic devices based on blue phase III. The strong and weak aspects of the development of these devices are underlined and criticized, respectively. The third- and-final part proposes ideas for further improvement in blue phase III technology to make it feasible for commercialization and widespread use. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Periphyton density is similar on native and non-native plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, B.M.C.; Gross, Elisabeth M.; van Donk, E.; Bakker, E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Non-native plants increasingly dominate the vegetation in aquatic ecosystems and thrive in eutrophic conditions. In eutrophic conditions, submerged plants risk being overgrown by epiphytic algae; however, if non-native plants are less susceptible to periphyton than natives, this would contribute to

  14. Within-category variance and lexical tone discrimination in native and non-native speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, C.W.G.; Sadakata, M.; Chen, A.; Desain, P.W.M.; McQueen, J.M.; Gussenhove, C.; Chen, Y.; Dediu, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show how acoustic variance within lexical tones in disyllabic Mandarin Chinese pseudowords affects discrimination abilities in both native and non-native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Within-category acoustic variance did not hinder native speakers in discriminating between lexical

  15. Germination responses of an invasive species in native and non-native ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose L. Hierro; Ozkan Eren; Liana Khetsuriani; Alecu Diaconu; Katalin Torok; Daniel Montesinos; Krikor Andonian; David Kikodze; Levan Janoian; Diego Villarreal; Maria Estanga-Mollica; Ragan M. Callaway

    2009-01-01

    Studying germination in the native and non-native range of a species can provide unique insights into processes of range expansion and adaptation; however, traits related to germination have rarely been compared between native and nonnative populations. In a series of common garden experiments, we explored whether differences in the seasonality of precipitation,...

  16. Differences in the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies among Native and Non-Native Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorey, R.; Mokhtari, K.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the differences in the reported use of reading strategies of native and non-native English speakers when reading academic materials. Participants were native English speaking and English-as-a-Second-Language college students who completed a survey of reading strategies aimed at discerning the strategies readers report using when coping…

  17. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  18. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...

  19. Blue whales Balaenoptera musculus off Angola: recent sightings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further survey work is required to better clarify the status of blue whales in Angolan waters, particularly with regard to population structure and potential calving grounds. Keywords: Antarctic blue whale, calving, catch data, pygmy blue whale, South-East Atlantic, stomach contents. African Journal of Marine Science 2014, ...

  20. Blue light phototherapy for Psoriasis from a systems biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Félix Garza, Z.C.; Liebmann, J.; Hilbers, P.A.J.; Riel, van N.A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This work analyses the effect of UV-free blue light (BL) irradiation of the skin using mathematical modelling. Prior research has shown that blue light reduces the proliferation of keratinocytes by inducing their differentiation, and causes apoptosis of lymphocytes. The effects of blue light on

  1. FIXED-BED COLUMN ADSORPTION OF METHYL BLUE USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Axle Wood Carbon (AWC) was used to study the removal of Methyl Blue (MB) from ... height, initial methyl blue (MB) concentration, .... colour from blue to dark purple- .... Environ. Earth Sci. 13; 1–13. Yagub, M. T., Sen, T. K., Afroze, S., and Ang,.

  2. Exploring Aesthetics: Focus on Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Natalie

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that effectively presenting another culture in the classroom is one of the most fundamental problems facing teachers using a multicultural curriculum. Discusses the role of music and the arts in Native American culture. Provides suggestions for presenting traditional Native American music in Western classrooms. (CFR)

  3. Stylistic Change in Classroom Native Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of native music in classes for Native Americans. Highlights the ways in which changes in musical style evolve and the disparities between the teaching process and the music itself. Suggests methods for successfully uniting process and product. (MK)

  4. Rapid City Native American Population Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Abdollah

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 301 Native American households in Rapid City, South Dakota, examined demographic variables and attitudes and needs in the areas of education, housing, transportation, health care, recreation, and employment. The ultimate goals for Native American people are achieving empowerment and group determination through greater cultural…

  5. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  6. The Native Language in Teaching Kindergarten Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, Janet P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of the native language as a medium of instruction is believed to be the fastest and most natural route towards developing a strong foundation in mathematics literacy (Mimaropa, In D.O.No. 74, s.2009). This study examined the effect of using the native language in the teaching of kindergarten mathematics. A total of 34 five to six year old…

  7. Native American Biographies. Multicultural Biographies Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Virginia, Ed.; And Others

    This book, appropriate for secondary students, includes brief biographies of 21 Native Americans of the 20th century. The biographies focus on childhood experiences, cultural heritage, and career goals. The book is divided into four units that feature Native Americans with successful careers in the fields of literature and drama; fine arts and…

  8. Hybridisation between native Oreochromis species and introduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus has been introduced throughout Africa outside its native range for aquaculture purposes. Hybridisation between escaped O. niloticus and native Oreochromis species is of concern due to potential negative effects on wild genetic resources for conservation, aquaculture and capture ...

  9. Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students…

  10. Theoretical Perspectives of How Digital Natives Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Marck Prensky, an authority on teaching and learning especially with the aid of Information and Communication Technologies, has referred to 21st century children born after 1980 as "Digital Natives". This paper reviews literature of leaders in the field to shed some light on theoretical perspectives of how Digital Natives learn and how…

  11. How Digital Native Learners Describe Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Eight university students from the "digital native" generation were interviewed about the connections they saw between technology use and learning, and also their reactions to the popular press claims about their generation. Themes that emerged from the interviews were coded to show patterns in how digital natives describe themselves.…

  12. Poporodní blues – česká adaptace dotazníku „Maternity blues questionnaire“

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Takács, L.; Smolík, Filip; Mlíková Seidlerová, J.; Čepický, P.; Hoskovcová, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 5 (2016), s. 355-368 ISSN 1210-7832 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : EPDS postpartum mood * Maternity Blues Questionnaire * postnatal depression * postpartum blues * postpartum depression Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  13. Studying mixing in Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions using color analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-Newtonian fluids occur in many relevant flow and mixing scenarios at the lab and industrial scale. The addition of acid or basic solutions to a non-Newtonian fluid is not an infrequent operation, particularly in Biotechnology applications where the pH of Non-Newtonian culture broths is usually regulated using this strategy. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We conducted mixing experiments in agitated vessels using Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions. Acid or basic pulses were injected to reveal mixing patterns and flow structures and to follow their time evolution. No foreign pH indicator was used as blue maize flours naturally contain anthocyanins that act as a native, wide spectrum, pH indicator. We describe a novel method to quantitate mixedness and mixing evolution through Dynamic Color Analysis (DCA in this system. Color readings corresponding to different times and locations within the mixing vessel were taken with a digital camera (or a colorimeter and translated to the CIELab scale of colors. We use distances in the Lab space, a 3D color space, between a particular mixing state and the final mixing point to characterize segregation/mixing in the system. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Blue maize suspensions represent an adequate and flexible model to study mixing (and fluid mechanics in general in Non-Newtonian suspensions using acid/base tracer injections. Simple strategies based on the evaluation of color distances in the CIELab space (or other scales such as HSB can be adapted to characterize mixedness and mixing evolution in experiments using blue maize suspensions.

  14. Native and Non-native English Teachers' Perceptions of their Professional Identity: Convergent or Divergent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Tajeddin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disadvantages of being a native or nonnative teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. A total of 200 native and nonnative teachers of English from the UK and the US, i.e. the inner circle, and Turkey and Iran, the expanding circle, participated in this study. A significant majority of nonnative teachers believed that native speaker teachers have better speaking proficiency, better pronunciation, and greater self-confidence. The findings also showed nonnative teachers’ lack of self-confidence and awareness of their role and status compared with native-speaker teachers, which could be the result of existing inequities between native and nonnative English-speaking teachers in ELT. The findings also revealed that native teachers disagreed more strongly with the concept of native teachers’ superiority over nonnative teachers. Native teachers argued that nonnative teachers have a good understanding of teaching methodology whereas native teachers are more competent in correct language. It can be concluded that teacher education programs in the expanding-circle countries should include materials for teachers to raise their awareness of their own professional status and role and to remove their misconception about native speaker fallacy.

  15. Native plants fare better against an introduced competitor with native microbes and lower nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya Shivega, W; Aldrich-Wolfe, Laura

    2017-01-24

    While the soil environment is generally acknowledged as playing a role in plant competition, the relative importance of soil resources and soil microbes in determining outcomes of competition between native and exotic plants has rarely been tested. Resilience of plant communities to invasion by exotic species may depend on the extent to which native and exotic plant performance are mediated by abiotic and biotic components of the soil. We used a greenhouse experiment to compare performance of two native prairie plant species and one exotic species, when grown in intraspecific competition and when each native was grown in interspecific competition with the exotic species, in the presence and absence of a native prairie soil community, and when nitrogen availability was elevated or was maintained at native prairie levels. We found that elevated nitrogen availability was beneficial to the exotic species and had no effect on or was detrimental to the native plant species, that the native microbial community was beneficial to the native plant species and either had no effect or was detrimental to the exotic species, and that intraspecific competition was stronger than interspecific competition for the exotic plant species and vice-versa for the natives. Our results demonstrate that soil nitrogen availability and the soil microbial community can mediate the strength of competition between native and exotic plant species. We found no evidence for native microbes enhancing the performance of the exotic plant species. Instead, loss of the native soil microbial community appears to reinforce the negative effects of elevated N on native plant communities and its benefits to exotic invasive species. Resilience of plant communities to invasion by exotic plant species is facilitated by the presence of an intact native soil microbial community and weakened by anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  16. The new digital natives cutting the chord

    CERN Document Server

    Dingli, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    The first generation of Digital Natives (DNs) is now growing up.  However, these digital natives were rather late starters since; their exposure to computers started when they could master the mouse and the penetration of computers in educational institutions was still very low. Today, a new breed of digital natives is emerging.  This new breed includes those individuals who are being introduced from their first instances to the world of wireless devices. One year olds manage to master the intuitive touch interfaces of their tablets whilst sitting comfortably in their baby bouncers. The controller-less interfaces allow these children to interact with a machine in a way which was unconceivable below. Thus, our research investigated the paradigm shift between the different generations of digital natives. We analysed the way in which these two generations differ from each other and we explored how the world needs to change in order to harness the potential of these new digital natives.

  17. Native American Music and Curriculum: Controversies and Cultural Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Native American music and curricula, the differences in Western and Native American perspectives of music, the role of music in Native American life, and music as art. Considers how Native Americans live in two worlds (the preserved and lived cultures) and how Native American music should be taught. (CMK)

  18. Resistance of structure and antigenic determinations of native hexon of type 1 adenovirus to protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiseleva, E.K.; Khil'ko, S.N.; Grigor'ev, V.G.; Dyachenko, N.S.; Vantsak, N.P.; Tikhonenko, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    Native hexon capsomers (trimers) of human type 1 adenovirus (Ad hl) were labeled with 125 I and subjected to cleavage by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and papain. The hydrolysis of the hexon of Ad 1 by these enzymes is limited and in each case a set of relatively large fragments, which are not cleaved during prolonged hydrolysis, is formed. The degree of hydrolysis of the Ad hl hexon increases in the order trypsin < chymotrypsin < papain, the molecular weight of the largest fragments constituting 80,000, 40,000, and 32,000, respectively. At a decreased temperature all the large fragments of the hydrolysates obtained are confined in aggregates (the cores of the hexon), similar in structure to the original hexon trimers, the papain core of the Ad hl hexon being the most stable during electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel and the chymotrypsin core being the least. A radioimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that denatured fragments of the tryptic, chymotryptic, and papain hydrolysates do not possess antigenic activity

  19. Native Teen Voices: adolescent pregnancy prevention recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwick, Ann W; Rhodes, Kristine L; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Hellerstedt, Wendy L

    2008-01-01

    American Indian adolescent pregnancy rates are high, yet little is known about how Native youth view primary pregnancy prevention. The aim was to identify pregnancy prevention strategies from the perspectives of both male and female urban Native youth to inform program development. Native Teen Voices (NTV) was a community-based participatory action research study in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Twenty focus groups were held with 148 Native youth who had never been involved in a pregnancy. Groups were stratified by age (13-15 and 16-18 years) and sex. Participants were asked what they would do to prevent adolescent pregnancy if they were in charge of programs for Native youth. Content analyses were used to identify and categorize the range and types of participants' recommendations within and across the age and sex cohorts. Participants in all cohorts emphasized the following themes: show the consequences of adolescent pregnancy; enhance and develop more pregnancy prevention programs for Native youth in schools and community-based organizations; improve access to contraceptives; discuss teen pregnancy with Native youth; and use key messages and media to reach Native youth. Native youth perceived limited access to comprehensive pregnancy prevention education, community-based programs and contraceptives. They suggested a variety of venues and mechanisms to address gaps in sexual health services and emphasized enhancing school-based resources and involving knowledgeable Native peers and elders in school and community-based adolescent pregnancy prevention initiatives. A few recommendations varied by age and sex, consistent with differences in cognitive and emotional development.

  20. Blue green component and integrated urban design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Srđan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate the hidden potential of blue green components, in a synergetic network, not as separate systems, like used in past. The innovative methodology of the project Blue Green Dream is presented through examples of good practice. A new approach in the project initiate thoughtful planning and remodeling of the settlement for the modern man. Professional and scientific public is looking for way to create more healthy and stimulating place for living. However, offered integrative solutions still remain out of urban and architectural practice. Tested technologies in current projects confirmed measurability of innovative approaches and lessons learned. Scientific and professional contributions are summarized in master's and doctoral theses that have been completed or are in process of writing.

  1. BD+43° 3654 - a blue straggler?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Bomans, D. J.

    2008-07-01

    The astrometric data on the runaway star BD+43° 3654 are consistent with the origin of this O4If star in the center of the Cyg OB2 association, while BD+43° 3654 is younger than the association. To reconcile this discrepancy, we suggest that BD+43° 3654 is a blue straggler formed via a close encounter between two tight massive binaries in the core of Cyg OB2. A possible implication of this suggestion is that the very massive (and therefore apparently very young) stars in Cyg OB2 could be blue stragglers as well. We also suggest that the binary-binary encounter producing BD+43° 3654 might be responsible for ejection of two high-velocity stars (the stripped helium cores of massive stars) - the progenitors of the pulsars B2020+28 and B2021+51.

  2. Measuring Blue Space Visibility and 'Blue Recreation' in the Everyday Lives of Children in a Capital City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Bottomley, Ross; Chambers, Tim; Thornton, Lukar; Stanley, James; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Signal, Louise

    2017-05-26

    Blue spaces (water bodies) may promote positive mental and physical health through opportunities for relaxation, recreation, and social connections. However, we know little about the nature and extent of everyday exposure to blue spaces, particularly in settings outside the home or among children, nor whether exposure varies by individual or household characteristics. Wearable cameras offer a novel, reliable method for blue space exposure measurement. In this study, we used images from cameras worn over two days by 166 children in Wellington, New Zealand, and conducted content and blue space quantification analysis on each image ( n = 749,389). Blue space was identified in 24,721 images (3.6%), with a total of 23 blue recreation events. Visual exposure and participation in blue recreation did not differ by ethnicity, weight status, household deprivation, or residential proximity to the coastline. Significant differences in both visual exposure to blue space and participation in blue recreation were observed, whereby children from the most deprived schools had significantly higher rates of blue space exposure than children from low deprivation schools. Schools may be important settings to promote equitable blue space exposures. Childhood exposures to blue space may not follow the expected income inequality trends observed among adults.

  3. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    .../B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site... & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly... Of Kentucky, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, Louisville, Kentucky TA-W-74,895B Wellpoint...

  4. Statistical thermodynamics of supercapacitors and blue engines

    OpenAIRE

    van Roij, René

    2012-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of electrode-electrolyte systems, for instance supercapacitors filled with an ionic liquid or blue-energy devices filled with river- or sea water. By a suitable mapping of thermodynamic variables, we identify a strong analogy with classical heat engines. We introduce several Legendre transformations and Maxwell relations. We argue that one should distinguish between the differential capacity at constant ion number and at constant ion chemical potential, and derive ...

  5. Radiolysis of methylene blue studied by ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contineau, M.; Iliescu, C.; Ciureanu, M.

    1983-01-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra have been used to gain information on the mechanism of radiolysis of aqueous solutions of methylene blue. The identity and behaviour of the semiquinone radicals formed as intermediate reduction products were discussed for strongly acid and for alcaline solutions. In order to obtain information on the radiolytic mechanism in strongly acidic media, irradiation was performed in the presence of various types of scavengers: sodium formate, glucose, succinic acid, hydroquinone and D,L-α alanine. (author)

  6. Hydrolysis of polyacrylamide containing associative hydrophobic groups: effect of the degree of hydrolysis and ionic strength on the viscosity in aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Bruna V. de; Vidal, Rosangela R.L.; Reis, Jeanne H.C. dos; Balaban, Rosangela de C.

    2009-01-01

    The HAPAM-10N polymer (hydrophobically modified and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) was obtained by partial hydrolysis of HAPAM (hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide) precursor containing very low amount of hydrophobic groups (0.75%) in 0.1 M NaCl and 0.25 M NaOH aqueous solutions, at 40 deg C for 10 min. Hydrolysis degree of 44.64 % was obtained by 13 C NMR. The viscosity of polymers solutions was evaluated as a function of polymer concentration, ionic strength and temperature, at constant shear rate. The viscosity of HAPAM solutions increased with polymer concentration, however, it did not change significantly with the increase of ionic strength, and decreased with the temperature enhancement. The viscosity of HAPAM-10N solutions increased significantly in distilled water, due to electrostatic repulsions among carboxylate groups. However, with the increase of polymer concentration, ionic strength and temperature, it was not observed a significant increase of viscosity, probably due to the low amount of hydrophobic groups and high hydrolysis degree. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the efficiency of injection of polyacrylamide in different reservoir-rock samples; Avaliacao da eficiencia de injecao de poliacrilamida em diferentes amostras de rocha-reservatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelino, Cleuton P.; Valentim, Adriano C.M.; Medeiros, Ana Catarina R. de; Girao, Joaquim H.S.; Barcia, Rosangela B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Water soluble polymers have been used extensively in the petroleum recovery, due to their ability in increasing the viscosity of the injection water and to reduce water/oil mobility ratio and the water relative permeability in the reservoir. This reduction acts favorably as a secondary effect, and it reestablishes part of the pressure in the reservoir after the flow of the polymer, causing a correction of the injection profile in the wells through the restructuring of the resident fluids in the porous media. Nevertheless, some parameters influence the improve of this mechanism, such as petrophysics properties, chemical composition of the rock, adsorption, resistance factor and the residual resistance factor. Many paper in the area of polymers applied to the enhanced petroleum recovery indicate a high efficiency in the injection of different partially hydrolysed polyacrylamides, in different concentrations, or even in different injection conditions, as: temperature, flow, among others. In this work it was evaluated the behavior and efficiency of partially hydrolysed polyacrylamide flooding on outcrop cores from Botucatu, Rio Bonito, Clashach and Assu, using core flow tests and computer simulations. (author)

  8. Study of total seed proteins pattern of sesame (sesamum indicum l.) landraces via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, F.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2012-01-01

    The sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) germplasm, comprising of 105 accessions was characterized for total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The germplasm was collected from diverse agro-ecological regions of Pakistan. To our information, no studies have yet been carried out in Pakistan on the genetic evaluation of sesame genotypes based on total seed protein. Total seed proteins were electrophoretically separated on 12% polyacrylamide gels by standard protocols. A total of 20 polypeptide bands were observed, of which 14 (70%) were polymorphic and 6 (30%) were monomorphic, with molecular weight ranging from 13.5 to 100 kDa. Six bands i.e., 7, 11, 12, 15, 16 and 18 were common in all genotypes. Similarity coefficients varied fro m 0.50 to 1.00. The dendrogram based on dissimilarity matrix using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) separated all sesame accessions into three main groups i.e., A, B, C, comprising 89, 14 and 2 genotypes, respectively. Overall a low to medium level of genetic variability was observed for SDS-PAGE (single dimension). As SDS-PAGE alone did not reveal high level of genetic variability, hence 2-D gel electrophoresis along with other advanced type DNA markers and more number of sesame accessions from all over the country are recommended for the future genetic evaluation. Our investigation will significantly support the classification, development, genetic evaluation and conservation of sesame germplasm in Pakistan. (author)

  9. Study of total seed proteins pattern of sesame (sesamum indicum l.) landraces via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbar, F; Shinwari, Z K [Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Biotechnology; Yousif, N; Masood, M S [Institute of Agri-Biotechnology and Genetic Resources, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-11-15

    The sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) germplasm, comprising of 105 accessions was characterized for total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The germplasm was collected from diverse agro-ecological regions of Pakistan. To our information, no studies have yet been carried out in Pakistan on the genetic evaluation of sesame genotypes based on total seed protein. Total seed proteins were electrophoretically separated on 12% polyacrylamide gels by standard protocols. A total of 20 polypeptide bands were observed, of which 14 (70%) were polymorphic and 6 (30%) were monomorphic, with molecular weight ranging from 13.5 to 100 kDa. Six bands i.e., 7, 11, 12, 15, 16 and 18 were common in all genotypes. Similarity coefficients varied fro m 0.50 to 1.00. The dendrogram based on dissimilarity matrix using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) separated all sesame accessions into three main groups i.e., A, B, C, comprising 89, 14 and 2 genotypes, respectively. Overall a low to medium level of genetic variability was observed for SDS-PAGE (single dimension). As SDS-PAGE alone did not reveal high level of genetic variability, hence 2-D gel electrophoresis along with other advanced type DNA markers and more number of sesame accessions from all over the country are recommended for the future genetic evaluation. Our investigation will significantly support the classification, development, genetic evaluation and conservation of sesame germplasm in Pakistan. (author)

  10. Synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide zirconium (IV iodate ion-exchanger: Its application for selective removal of lead (II from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisur Rahman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide zirconium (IV iodate was synthesized using the sol–gel technique. The synthesis conditions such as reactant concentrations and temperature were changed to optimize the ion exchange properties of the hybrid organic–inorganic ion exchange material. Zirconium oxychloride (0.1 M was added to 0.1 M potassium iodate in the presence of 0.4 M acrylamide and heated at 70 °C for 6 h to yield the polyacrylamide zirconium (IV iodate with maximum capacity. The ion exchange capacity was found to be 3.27 meq/g for Pb(II. The hybrid material has been characterized on the basis of chemical composition FTIR, XRD, TGA-DTA, SEM and EDX studies. Sorption studies showed that the hybrid cation exchanger has a high selectivity to Pb(II in comparison to other metal ions. Its selectivity was evaluated by performing some important binary separations like Hg(II–Pb(II, Cu(II–Pb(II, Ni(II–Pb(II, Fe(III–Pb(II and Cd(II–Pb(II. In addition, the selective separation of Pb(II was also achieved from a synthetic mixture containing a large number of metal ions with a recovery of ∼98.5%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the selective removal of Pb(II from wastewater samples.

  11. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  12. 'Blue Whale Challenge': A Game or Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhra, Richa; Baryah, Neha; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2017-11-11

    A bewildering range of games are emerging every other day with newer elements of fun and entertainment to woo youngsters. Games are meant to reduce stress and enhance the cognitive development of children as well as adults. Teenagers are always curious to indulge in newer games; and e-gaming is one such platform providing an easy access and quicker means of entertainment. The particular game challenge which has taken the world by storm is the dangerous "Blue Whale Challenge" often involving vulnerable teenagers. The Blue Whale Challenge is neither an application nor internet based game but the users get a link through social media chat groups to enter this "deadly" challenge game. This probably is the only game where the participant has to end his/her life to complete the game. The innocent teenagers are being targeted based on their depressed psychology and are coercively isolated from their social milieux on the pretext of keeping the challenges confidential. To add to the woes, no option is offered to quit the challenge even if the contender is unable to complete the challenge. Blue Whale Challenge in its sheer form could be seen as an illegal, unethical and inhumane endeavor in our present society. The present communication discusses the severe effects of the game on teenagers, the ethical concerns involved and the preventive measures necessary to curb it.

  13. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  14. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  15. Nature's palette: the search for natural blue colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Andrew G; Culver, Catherine A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-07-16

    The food and beverage industry is seeking to broaden the palette of naturally derived colorants. Although considerable effort has been devoted to the search for new blue colorants in fruits and vegetables, less attention has been directed toward blue compounds from other sources such as bacteria and fungi. The current work reviews known organic blue compounds from natural plant, animal, fungal, and microbial sources. The scarcity of blue-colored metabolites in the natural world relative to metabolites of other colors is discussed, and structural trends common among natural blue compounds are identified. These compounds are grouped into seven structural classes and evaluated for their potential as new color additives.

  16. Jagua blue derived from Genipa americana L. fruit: A natural alternative to commonly used blue food colorants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, J E; Zapata-Porras, S P; Buchweitz, M; Aschoff, J K; Carle, R

    2016-11-01

    Due to consumers' increasing health awareness, food industry aims at replacing synthetic dyes by natural counterparts. The substitution of blue synthetic dyes is particularly challenging since current natural alternatives such as phycocyanin (Spirulina) suffer from poor stability. Jagua blue (produced from Genipa americana L. fruit) might represent a potential novel blue pigment source. However, only little is known about its color properties, and application in food systems. Therefore, the blue color and the stability of Jagua blue were assessed for the first time and compared to commonly used colorants, namely, Spirulina, brilliant blue FCF (Blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (Blue no. 2). The reaction rate of Jagua blue was independent of its concentration, confirming thermal degradation to follow first-order kinetics. Between pH 3.6 and 5.0, the color hue of Jagua blue solutions was similar to that of Blue no. 2. However, Jagua blue revealed markedly higher storage stabilities (t 1/2 =86-105days) than Blue no. 2 (t 1 /2 ≤9days) and was less susceptible to acidic pH of 3.6 (t 1 /2 =86days) than Spirulina (t 1 /2 =70days). High negative b* values (blueness) of colored gelatin gels were only obtained for Jagua blue and Spirulina, and the former exhibited higher light stabilities (t 1 /2 =15days) than Spirulina gels (t 1 /2 =4days). Our findings indicate Jagua blue to be a most promising alternative to synthetic dyes, providing relevant information regarding potential food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Blue-Green Solutions in Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    With the ongoing urbanisation and increasing pressure for new housing and infrastructure, the nexus of developing compact, energy-efficient and yet liveable and sustainable cities is urgent to address. In this context, blue-green spaces and related ecosystem services (ES) are critical resources that need to be integrated in policy and planning of urban. Among the ES provided by blue-green spaces, regulating ES such as water retention and purification are particularly important in urban areas, affecting water supply and quality, related cultural ES and biodiversity, as well as cities potential to adapt to climate change. Blue-green infrastructure management is considered a sustainable way to reducing negative effects of urbanisation, such as decreasing flood risks, as well as adapting to climate change for example by controlling increasing flood and drought risks. Blue-green infrastructure management can for example create multifunctional surfaces with valuable environmental and social functions and generally handle greenways and ecological networks as important ecosystem service components, for example for stormwater regulation in a sustainable urban drainage system. The Norrström drainage basin (22,000 km2) is a large demonstrator for Blue-green infrastructure management. Both urbanisation and agriculture are extensive within this basin, which includes the Swedish capital Stockholm and is part of the fertile Swedish belt. Together, the relatively high population density combined with agricultural and industrial activities in this region imply large eutrophication and pollution pressures, not least transferred through storm runoff to both inland surface waters and the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The ecosystems of this basin provide highly valued but also threatened services. For example, Lake Mälaren is the single main freshwater supply for the Swedish capital Stockholm, as well as a key nutrient retention system that strongly mitigates waterborne nutrient

  18. Engaging Digital Natives through Social Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sarkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital natives account for a substantial portion of the total enrollment in higher education. This calls for significant educational reforms because traditional education systems do not cater to the needs and interests of digital natives. The most effective way that both students and instructors can benefit from this paradigm shift is to integrate technology that is appropriate to the cognitive learning patterns of the digital natives into the curriculum. This paper builds upon previous research in technology/personality theory and specifically attempts to provide examples of technology that will address the instructional needs of digital natives. Further this paper provides empirical evidence of the impact of technology integration on the learning outcomes of digital natives. In this study, the authors explored the impact of targeted technology on academic performance in three businesses courses. Three functional technologies were used by the authors to build engaging course content, efficiently manage course content, and to interact with digital native students. This study found that these technologies can assist digital natives in the learning process and lead to better academic performance.

  19. First report of the exotic blue land planarian, Caenoplana coerulea (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae, on Menorca (Balearic Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Breugelmans

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In April 2009 two specimens of a terrestrial flatworm were collected from under a rock in an orchard at Ciutadella de Menorca on the easternmost Balearic island of Menorca (Spain. Their external morphology suggested that both specimens belonged to the invasive blue planarian Caenoplana coerulea, a species which is native to eastern Australia. Sequence data of a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and of the entire 18S ribosomal RNA confirm its identification. This is one of the first records of the species in Europe where it has only been found in one locality in the United Kingdom, France and NE Spain.

  20. The role of exogenous electron carriers in NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenase cytochemistry studied in vitro and with a model system of polyacrylamide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Tas, J.

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of phenazine methosulfate, 1-methoxyphenazine methosulfate, menadione, and meldola blue as exogenous electron carriers for the cytochemical staining of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P))-dependent dehydrogenases has been studied quantitatively with tetranitro BT

  1. Raman analysis of cobalt blue pigment in blue and white porcelain: A reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaochenyang; Ma, Yanying; Chen, Yue; Li, Yuanqiu; Ma, Qinglin; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Changsui; Yang, Yimin

    2018-02-01

    Cobalt blue is a famous pigment in human history. In the past decade it is widely reported that the cobalt aluminate has been detected in ancient ceramics as blue colorant in glaze, yet the acquired Raman spectra are incredibly different from that of synthesised references, necessitating a reassessment of such contradictory scenario with more accurate analytic strategies. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in association with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were performed on under-glaze cobalt pigments from one submerged blue and white porcelain shard dated from Wanli reign (1573-1620 CE) of Ming dynasty (1365-1644 CE) excavated at Nan'ao I shipwreck off the southern coast of China. The micro-structural inspection reveals that the pigment particles have characteristics of small account, tiny size, heterogeneously distribution, and more importantly, been completely enwrapped by well-developed anorthite crystals in the glaze, indicating that the signals recorded in previous publications are probably not from cobalt pigments themselves but from outside thickset anorthite shell. The further spectromicroscopic analyses confirm this presumption when the accurate spectra of cobalt aluminate pigment and surrounding anorthite were obtained separately with precise optical positioning. Accordingly, we reassess and clarify the previous Raman studies dedicated to cobalt blue pigment in ancient ceramics, e.g. cobalt blue in celadon glaze, and in turn demonstrate the superiority and necessity of coupling spectroscopic analysis with corresponding structure observation, especially in the characterization of pigments from complicated physico-chemical environment like antiquities. Thus, this study promotes a better understanding of Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt blue pigments in art and archaeology field.

  2. Native Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for...

  3. Polymorphy in native cellulose: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    In a number of earlier studies, the authors developed a model of cellulose structure based on the existence of two stable, linearly ordered conformations of the cellulose chain that are dominant in celluloses I and II, respectively. The model rests on extensive Raman spectral observations together with conformational considerations and solid-state 13 C-NMR studies. More recently, they have proposed, on the basis of high resolution solid-state 13 C-NMR observations, that native celluloses are composites of two distinct crystalline forms that coexist in different proportions in all native celluloses. In the present work, they examine the Raman spectra of the native celluloses, and reconcile their view of conformational differences with the new level of crystalline polymorphy of native celluloses revealed in the solid-state 13 C-NMR investigations

  4. Estimation of the potential fertility based upon non-return rates of bulls: using polyacrylamide gel instead of cervical mucus in the sperm penetration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş, M; Bacinoglu, S; Cirit, U; Ozgümüş, S; Kaşgöz, H; Pabuccuoğlu, S

    2007-10-15

    In the present study, we aimed to develop a polyacrylamide gel that could be used instead of bovine cervical mucus in the cervical mucus penetration test (CMPT) to obtain coherent and replicable results in bulls. The frozen semen samples of six Holstein bulls, which were divided into two fertility groups as low and high according to their non-return rate (NRR), were used. In this study, the modified CMPT (mCMPT) was carried out within 0.25 mL transparent plastic straws with an inner diameter 1.7 mm. The penetration ability of spermatozoa to bovine cervical mucus and to polyacrylamide gels swollen with two different solutions [NaCl (G1) and PBS (G2)] was compared. For the penetration test, the straws filled with cervical mucus and both gels were dipped into thawed semen samples and incubated at 37 degrees C for 15 min. After the incubation, straws were frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour and stored at -20 degrees C. On the evaluation day, the frozen straws were cut at 1.5-1.75 cm (penetration distance range=PDR1), 3.25-3.5 cm (PDR2) and 5.0-5.25 cm (PDR3), beginning from open-end of the straws. The separated frozen parts were then immediately transferred onto special counting slides by pushing with a mandrel and left to thaw. Thawed samples were covered with cover glass and penetrated spermatozoa in these parts were counted. The relation between the results and fertility of bulls was determined. In the tests performed using mucus, the number of spermatozoa determined in the high fertility group was found to be higher at PDR3 (p<0.0001) compared to the low fertility group, while in G1 spermatozoa number was significantly higher at PDR1 and PDR3 (p<0.0001). However, in G2 medium, no significant difference was observed between either of the fertility groups with respect to spermatozoa number determined at all distance ranges. In the study, we have determined that the gel swollen with NaCl produces better results and this gel can be used instead of bovine cervical mucus

  5. MOCK OBSERVATIONS OF BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, Alison; Glebbeek, Evert; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2013-01-01

    We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will select approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates their lifetimes. We show that our model blue stragglers follow similar trends with cluster properties (core mass, binary fraction, total mass, collision rate) as the true Milky Way blue stragglers as long as we restrict ourselves to model clusters with an initial binary fraction higher than 5%. We also show that, in contrast to earlier work, the number of blue stragglers in the cluster core does have a weak dependence on the collisional parameter Γ in both our models and in Milky Way globular clusters

  6. Innate colour preferences of the Australian native stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria Sm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Adrian G; Boyd-Gerny, Skye; Shrestha, Mani; Lunau, Klaus; Garcia, Jair E; Koethe, Sebastian; Wong, Bob B M

    2016-10-01

    Innate preferences promote the capacity of pollinators to find flowers. Honeybees and bumblebees have strong preferences for 'blue' stimuli, and flowers of this colour typically present higher nectar rewards. Interestingly, flowers from multiple different locations around the world independently have the same distribution in bee colour space. Currently, however, there is a paucity of data on the innate colour preferences of stingless bees that are often implicated as being key pollinators in many parts of the world. In Australia, the endemic stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria is widely distributed and known to be an efficient pollinator of both native plants and agricultural crops. In controlled laboratory conditions, we tested the innate colour responses of naïve bees using standard broadband reflectance stimuli representative of common flower colours. Colorimetric analyses considering hymenopteran vision and a hexagon colour space revealed a difference between test colonies, and a significant effect of green contrast and an interaction effect of green contrast with spectral purity on bee choices. We also observed colour preferences for stimuli from the blue and blue-green categorical regions of colour space. Our results are discussed in relation to the similar distribution of flower colours observed from bee pollination around the world.

  7. Epistemologies in the Text of Children's Books: Native- and non-Native-authored books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Morteza; Bang, Megan; Medin, Douglas; Marin, Ananda; Leddon, Erin; Waxman, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    An examination of artifacts provides insights into the goals, practices, and orientations of the persons and cultures who created them. Here, we analyze storybook texts, artifacts that are a part of many children's lives. We examine the stories in books targeted for 4-8-year-old children, contrasting the texts generated by Native American authors versus popular non-Native authors. We focus specifically on the implicit and explicit 'epistemological orientations' associated with relations between human beings and the rest of nature. Native authors were significantly more likely than non-Native authors to describe humans and the rest of nature as psychologically close and embedded in relationships. This pattern converges well with evidence from a behavioral task in which we probed Native (from urban inter-tribal and rural communities) and non-Native children's and adults' attention to ecological relations. We discuss the implications of these differences for environmental cognition and science learning.

  8. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  9. Music and Culture Areas of Native California

    OpenAIRE

    Keeling, Richard

    1992-01-01

    This paper sketches the principal music and culture areas of native California and identifies general characteristics that distinguish the region in the overall sphere of Native American music. Rather than provide notations or detailed analyses I describe the music according to a set of general parameters that I have found useful in previous comparative research. The following elements are considered: (1) vocal quality or timbre; (2) presence of words or vocables, text-setting, and repetition...

  10. Mutations in COA3 cause isolated complex IV deficiency associated with neuropathy, exercise intolerance, obesity, and short stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Elsebet; Weraarpachai, Woranontee; Ravn, Kirstine Johanne Theresia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated a subject with an isolated cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency presenting with an unusual phenotype characterised by neuropathy, exercise intolerance, obesity, and short stature. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) analysis s...

  11. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

  12. Anomalous Cepheids and population II blue stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, James M.

    Recent studies of anomalous Cepheids (ACs) and population II blue stragglers (BSs), including photometrically variable BSs (VBSs), are reviewed. The VBSs represent about 25 percent of the BSs, the majority of which are SX Phe short-period variables in the Cepheid instability strip. Mass estimates derived using various techniques suggest that both ACs and BSs are relatively massive (about 1.0-1.6 solar mass). The recent discovery that two BSs in the globular cluster NGC 5466 are contact binaries, and the earlier discovery that one of the BSs in Omega Cen is an eclipsing binary, provide direct evidence that at least some BSs are binary systems.

  13. NativeProtector: Protecting Android Applications by Isolating and Intercepting Third-Party Native Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Hong , Yu-Yang; Wang , Yu-Ping; Yin , Jie

    2016-01-01

    Part 9: Software Security; International audience; An increasing number of Android developers are incorporating third-party native libraries in their applications for code reuse, CPU-intensive tasks and other purposes. However current Android security mechanism can not regulate the native code in applications well. Many approaches have been proposed to enforce security of Android applications, but few of them involve security of the native libraries in Android applications.In this paper, we p...

  14. Characterization of lipase in reversed micelles formulated by Cibacron Blue F-3GA modified Span 85

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Dong Hao; Guo, Zheng; Sun, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Sorbitan trioleate (Span 85) modified by Cibacron Blue F-3GA (CB) was prepared and used as an affinity surfactant to formulate a reversed micellar system for Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) solubilization. The system was characterized and evaluated by employing CRL-catalyzed hydrolysis of olive oil...... of the encapsulated lipase remained unchanged, but the apparent activity was significantly higher than that of the native enzyme in bulk solution. Kinetic studies indicated that the encapsulated lipase in the reversed micelles of CB-formulated Span 85 followed the Michaelis-Menten equation. The Michaelis constant...... was found to decrease with increasing surfactant concentration, suggesting an increase of the enzyme affinity for the substrate. Stability of the lipase in the reversed micelles was negatively correlated to W0. Introduction Reversed micelles are nanometer-scale transparent aggregates of water and surfactant...

  15. Apology Strategy in English By Native Speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezia Kemala Sari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research discussed apology strategies in English by native speaker. This descriptive study was presented within the framework of Pragmatics based on the forms of strategies due to the coding manual as found in CCSARP (Cross-Cultural Speech Acts Realization Project.The goals of this study were to describe the apology strategies in English by native speaker and identify the influencing factors of it. Data were collected through the use of the questionnaire in the form of Discourse Completion Test, which was distributed to 30 native speakers. Data were classified based on the degree of familiarity and the social distance between speaker and hearer and then the data of native will be separated and classified by the type of strategies in coding manual. The results of this study are the pattern of apology strategies of native speaker brief with the pattern that potentially occurs IFID plus Offer of repair plus Taking on responsibility. While Alerters, Explanation and Downgrading appear with less number of percentage. Then, the factors that influence the apology utterance by native speakers are the social situation, the degree of familiarity and degree of the offence which more complicated the mistake tend to produce the most complex utterances by the speaker.

  16. The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare ePatterson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalise to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called 'short-distance pronouns', the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.

  17. The Native Comic Book Project: native youth making comics and healthy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Michelle; Manuelito, Brenda; Nass, Carrie; Chock, Tami; Buchwald, Dedra

    2012-04-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives have traditionally used stories and drawings to positively influence the well-being of their communities. The objective of this study was to describe the development of a curriculum that trains Native youth leaders to plan, write, and design original comic books to enhance healthy decision making. Project staff developed the Native Comic Book Project by adapting Dr. Michael Bitz's Comic Book Project to incorporate Native comic book art, Native storytelling, and decision-making skills. After conducting five train-the-trainer sessions for Native youth, staff were invited by youth participants to implement the full curriculum as a pilot test at one tribal community site in the Pacific Northwest. Implementation was accompanied by surveys and weekly participant observations and was followed by an interactive meeting to assess youth engagement, determine project acceptability, and solicit suggestions for curriculum changes. Six youths aged 12 to 15 (average age = 14) participated in the Native Comic Book Project. Youth participants stated that they liked the project and gained knowledge of the harmful effects of commercial tobacco use but wanted better integration of comic book creation, decision making, and Native storytelling themes. Previous health-related comic book projects did not recruit youth as active producers of content. This curriculum shows promise as a culturally appropriate intervention to help Native youth adopt healthy decision-making skills and healthy behaviors by creating their own comic books.

  18. Identifying Genetic Differences Between Dongxiang Blue-Shelled and White Leghorn Chickens Using Sequencing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-bo Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken is one of the most valuable Chinese indigenous poultry breeds. However, compared to the Italian native White Leghorn, although this Chinese breed possesses numerous favorable characteristics, it also exhibits lower growth performance and fertility. Here, we utilized genotyping sequencing data obtained via genome reduction on a sequencing platform to detect 100,114 single nucleotide polymorphisms and perform further biological analysis and functional annotation. We employed cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity, eigenvector decomposition combined with genome-wide association studies (EigenGWAS, and efficient mixed-model association expedited methods to detect areas of the genome that are potential selected regions (PSR in both chicken breeds, and performed gene ontology (GO enrichment and quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses annotating using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. The results of this study revealed a total of 2424 outlier loci (p-value <0.01, of which 2144 occur in the White Leghorn breed and 280 occur in the Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken. These correspond to 327 and 94 PSRs containing 297 and 54 genes, respectively. The most significantly selected genes in Blue-shelled chicken are TMEM141 and CLIC3, while the SLCO1B3 gene, related to eggshell color, was identified via EigenGWAS. We show that the White Leghorn genes JARID2, RBMS3, GPC3, TRIB2, ROBO1, SAMSN1, OSBP2, and IGFALS are involved in immunity, reproduction, and growth, and thus might represent footprints of the selection process. In contrast, we identified six significantly enriched pathways in the Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken that are related to amino acid and lipid metabolism as well as signal transduction. Our results also reveal the presence of a GO term associated with cell metabolism that occurs mainly in the White Leghorn breed, while the most significant QTL regions mapped to the Chicken QTL Database (GG_4

  19. Processing of influenza HA protein in MDCK cells: components with different mobilities in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and their precursor-product relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklyanskaya, E.I.; Rudneva, I.A.; Vovk, T.S.; Kaverin, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    In influenza virus-infected MDCK cells labelled with 14 C-chlorella hydrolysate or 35 S-methionine a virus-specific protein component is revealed migrating slightly faster than HA protein in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Under chase conditions the component disappears either completely or partially, with a concomitant intensification of the HA band. The rate and extent of this transition are strain-dependent. Both the HA band and the faster moving component are not revealed if the cells are labelled in the presence of 20 mM of D-glucosamine. In primary cell cultures of chick embryos a single HA band with a mobility similar to that of the faster moving component in MDCK cells has been observed. It is suggested that the transition of the label from the faster moving component to the HA band reflects the final step of HA processing specific for MDCK cells. (author)

  20. Characterization of Sm14 related components in different helminths by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Thaumaturgo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm14 was the first fatty acid-binding protein homologue identified in helminths. Thereafter, members of the same family were identified in several helminth species, with high aminoacid sequence homology between them. In addition, immune crossprotection was also reported against Fasciola hepatica infection, in animals previously immunized with the Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidate, r-Sm14. In the present study, data on preliminary sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of nine different helminth extracts focusing the identification of Sm14 related proteins, is reported. Out of these, three extracts - Ascaris suum (males and females, Echinostoma paraensei, and Taenia saginata - presented components that comigrated with Sm14 in SDS-PAGE, and that were recognized by anti-rSm14 policlonal serum, in Western blotting tests.