Sample records for blue native gel

  1. Deciphering metabolic networks by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: A functional proteomic exploration

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    Christopher Auger


    Full Text Available Metabolism is the consortium of reactions within a cell which directs a variety of processes including energy synthesis, signalling and the behaviour of a biological system. Metabolic networks, and more specifically the activity of enzymes within them, provide an accurate status of how cellular information is being executed. The performance of these networks and their ability to siphon metabolites in a number of directions may be the difference between a healthy and diseased state. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE, owing to its simplicity and wide-ranging applications, permits the inspection of these nodules. The separation of proteins and enzyme complexes in their native format enables the exploration of enzymatic activity in metabolic networks via in-gel assays. These are quick, specific, and amenable to further studies. This electrophoretic technology not only enables the visualization of enzymatic efficacy but reveals the crosstalk among enzymes and their interactions with other organellar partners.

  2. DEAE-Affi-Gel Blue chromatography of human serum: use for purification of native transferrin. (United States)

    Werner, P A; Galbraith, R M; Arnaud, P


    Human serum was subjected to chromatography on DEAE-Affi-Gel Blue which combines ion-exchange and pseudo-ligand-affinity chromatography in a 0.02 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. All serum proteins were bound with the exception of transferrin, IgG (immunoglobulin G) and trace amounts of IgA. After a second step of Sephadex G-100 gel chromatography, or affinity chromatography against goat anti-human IgG F(ab')2 coupled to AH-Sepharose 4B, IgG and IgA were removed. The transferrin obtained was homogeneous and of high yield (greater than 80%), and was unaltered as judged by analyses of molecular weight, isoelectric point, iron-binding capacity, antigenicity, and ability to bind to high-affinity specific cellular receptors. Thus, DEAE-Affi-Gel Blue chromatography may be used as the basis for a simple, rapid, two-step method for the purification of large amounts of native transferrin from serum.

  3. Combining blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as an effective strategy for analyzing potential membrane protein complexes of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin

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    Li Weijun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease in humans caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and infects one-third of the world's total population. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine has been widely used to prevent tuberculosis worldwide since 1921. Membrane proteins play important roles in various cellular processes, and the protein-protein interactions involved in these processes may provide further information about molecular organization and cellular pathways. However, membrane proteins are notoriously under-represented by traditional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE and little is known about mycobacterial membrane and membrane-associated protein complexes. Here we investigated M. bovis BCG by an alternative proteomic strategy coupling blue native PAGE to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to characterize potential protein-protein interactions in membrane fractions. Results Using this approach, we analyzed native molecular composition of protein complexes in BCG membrane fractions. As a result, 40 proteins (including 12 integral membrane proteins, which were organized in 9 different gel bands, were unambiguous identified. The proteins identified have been experimentally confirmed using 2-D SDS PAGE. We identified MmpL8 and four neighboring proteins that were involved in lipid transport complexes, and all subunits of ATP synthase complex in their monomeric states. Two phenolpthiocerol synthases and three arabinosyltransferases belonging to individual operons were obtained in different gel bands. Furthermore, two giant multifunctional enzymes, Pks7 and Pks8, and four mycobacterial Hsp family members were determined. Additionally, seven ribosomal proteins involved in polyribosome complex and two subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex were also found. Notablely, some proteins with high hydrophobicity or multiple transmembrane

  4. Characteristics of polyacrylamide gel with THPC and Turnbull Blue gel dosimeters evaluated using optical tomography (United States)

    Pilařová (Vávrů), Kateřina; Kozubíková, Petra; Šolc, Jaroslav; Spěváček, Václav


    The purpose of this study was to compare characteristics of radiochromic gel - Turnbull Blue gel (TB gel) with polymer gel - polyacrylamide gel and tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (PAGAT) using optical tomography. Both types of gels were examined in terms of dose sensitivity, dose response linearity and background value of spectrophotometric absorbance. The calibration curve was obtained for 60Co irradiation performed on Gammacell 220 at predefined gamma dose levels between 0 and 140 Gy for TBG and 0-15 Gy for PAGAT. To measure relative dose distributions from stereotactic irradiation, dosimeters were irradiated on Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion. The cylindrical glass housings filled with gel were attached to the stereotactic frame. They were exposed with single shot and 16 mm collimator by 65 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for TB gel and 4 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for PAGAT. Evaluations of dosimeters were performed on an UV-vis Spectrophotometer Helios β and an optical cone beam homemade tomography scanner with a 16-bit astronomy CCD camera with a set of color filters. The advantages and potential disadvantages for both types of gel dosimeters were summarized. Dose distribution in central slice and measured profiles of 16 mm shot shows excellent correspondence with treatment planning system Leksell GammaPlan® for both PAGAT and Turnbull Blue gels. Gel dosimeters are suitable for steep dose gradient verification. An optical tomography evaluation method is successful. Dose response characteristics of TB gel and PAGAT gel are presented.

  5. Blotting protein complexes from native gels to electron microscopy grids. (United States)

    Knispel, Roland Wilhelm; Kofler, Christine; Boicu, Marius; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Nickell, Stephan


    We report a simple and generic method for the direct transfer of protein complexes separated by native gel electrophoresis to electron microscopy grids. After transfer, sufficient material remains in the gel for identification and characterization by mass spectrometry. The method should facilitate higher-throughput single-particle analysis by substantially reducing the time needed for protein purification, as demonstrated for three complexes from Thermoplasma acidophilum.

  6. Enhanced sensitivity RNA gel loading buffer that enables efficient RNA separation on native gels. (United States)

    Gregg, Keqin; Zhou, Wenli; Ji, Wan; Davis, Sara


    RNA gel analysis is essential for quality assessment of RNA preparations for subsequent analysis such as microarrays and real-time PCRs. The routinely used standard electrophoresis of RNA through formaldehyde-containing agarose gels is not only labor-intensive and time-consuming, but also involves sizeable quantities of hazardous materials. Above all, it is not sensitive, requiring more than 1 microgram of RNA for the assay. Current gene expression profiling with microarrays and real-time PCR often involves limiting amounts of RNA. It is therefore important to have a more sensitive way to analyze RNA. Here we report an improved ethidium bromide-based RNA gel analysis system with our Superload buffer that increases sensitivity to 12.5 ng of total RNA and allows RNA analysis on a regular native Tris-acetate EDTA (TAE) agarose gel.

  7. Affi-gel blue treatment simplifies the protein composition of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. (United States)

    Papp, S; Dux, L; Martonosi, A


    Sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated by conventional techniques usually contain, in addition to the recognized sarcoplasmic reticulum components, several other proteins (phosphorylase, myosin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, etc.) in variable amounts; these proteins complicate the interpretation of chemical modification data. Incubation of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles with Affi-Gel blue particles for 1-4 h at 2 degrees C, followed by sedimentation of the Affi-Gel in a clinical centrifuge, simplifies the protein composition by selective adsorption of the accessory proteins, and improves the consistency of the preparations. The Affi-Gel blue treatment is recommended as part of the standard procedure for the isolation of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles.

  8. Purification of transferrins and lactoferrin using DEAE affi-gel blue. (United States)

    Chung, M C; Chan, S L; Shimizu, S


    1. A simple method for purifying transferrins and lactoferrin is described. 2. The method consists of a preliminary step of dye-ligand chromatography using DEAE Affi-Gel Blue as the gel matrix at pH 7.5. In this chromatographic step, the transferrins and lactoferrin were readily separated from the bulk of the other proteins by start buffer elution. 3. Differences in the chromatographic behaviour of the various serum transferrins (monkey, human, rabbit, pig, chicken and duck) and ovotransferrin upon DEAE Affi-Gel Blue chromatography can be attributed to differences in the anionic charge of the transferrins in 0.02 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.5, thus resulting in the differential retardation of these protein molecules by the gel matrix. 4. The result of DEAE Affi-Gel Blue chromatography of human lactoferrin is different from that for the transferrins. This may possibly reflect the differences in the strength of interaction between lactoferrin and transferrin with this gel matrix.

  9. Affi-Gel Blue for nucleic acid removal and early enrichment of nucleotide binding proteins. (United States)

    Deutscher, Murray P


    Passage of an extract or supernatant fraction through a column of Affi-Gel Blue and batchwise elution can be a rapid and effective early procedure for removal of nucleic acid, concentration of the sample and purification of nucleotide binding proteins.

  10. Affinity separation of human plasma gelsolin on Affi-Gel Blue. (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Terabayashi, M; Egawa, T; Hayashi, E; Nakamura, H; Kishimoto, S


    Human plasma gelsolin was specifically eluted with 1 mM adenosine 5'-triphosphate from an Affi-Gel Blue column. Since the ionic strength of sodium chloride required to elute the protein from the dye column was much higher than that of 1 mM adenosine 5'-triphosphate, the binding of plasma gelsolin with the dye-ligand appeared to be biospecific. Taking advantage of this affinity interaction, we have developed a revised purification method of human plasma gelsolin. The purification included ammonium sulfate precipitation, diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose chromatography, Affi-Gel Blue chromatography, and Phenyl-Sepharose chromatography. The method allowed a reproducible purification of the protein to apparent homogeneity, producing a 331-fold purification with a yield of 6%.

  11. One-step purification of mouse monoclonal antibodies from ascitic fluid by DEAE Affi-Gel blue chromatography. (United States)

    Bruck, C; Portetelle, D; Glineur, C; Bollen, A


    Monoclonal antibodies can be purified directly from ascitic fluids by chromatography on a DEAE Affi-gel blue column. Optimal conditions were determined for the recovery of immunoglobulins free of contaminating protease and nuclease activities.

  12. A simple method for purification of rat alpha-fetoprotein by affi-gel blue chromatography and disc electrophoresis

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    Full Text Available Alpha-getoprotein (AFP was purified from fetal rat serum by a combined technique of affinity chromatography with Affi-Gel Blue and disc electrophoresis followed by extraction of AFP from the gel. The purified AFP was immunologically identical with the original AFP in fetal rat serum.

  13. A simple method for purification of rat alpha-fetoprotein by affi-gel blue chromatography and disc electrophoresis


    Miyazaki, Masahiro; Matsuura,Kazuhiko; Wahid, Syarifuddin; Izumi, Masaki; Taketa, Kazuhisa; Sato,Jiro


    Alpha-getoprotein (AFP) was purified from fetal rat serum by a combined technique of affinity chromatography with Affi-Gel Blue and disc electrophoresis followed by extraction of AFP from the gel. The purified AFP was immunologically identical with the original AFP in fetal rat serum.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation for methylene blue using zinc oxide prepared by codeposition and sol-gel methods. (United States)

    Shen, Wenzhong; Li, Zhijie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yihong; Guo, Qingjie; Zhang, Yuanli


    Zinc oxide nanoparticle was obtained by zinc hydrate deposited on the silica nanoparticle surface and zinc hydrate was dispersed in starch gel. The structure of zinc oxide particle was characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption and XRD, the morphology was observed by TEM. The result showed that the zinc oxide nanoparticle deposited on the silica nanoparticle surface was well-dispersed and less than 50nm, displayed higher photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation. However, the zinc oxide nanoparticle in a size of 60nm was derived from starch gel and showed poorer photocatalytic activity. It provided a simple and effective route to prepare zinc oxide nanoparticle with higher photocatalytic activity through depositing zinc oxide on the silica particle surface, moreover, the catalyst is easier to recover due to its higher density.

  15. Non-decoloured In-gel Digestion of Coomassie Blue-stained Proteins

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    ZHANG Guo-an; BAO Hui-min; FAN Hui-zhi; YANG Peng-yuan


    A simplified method is presented for tryptic digestion of Coomassie brilliant blue(CBB)-stained proteins in polyacrylamide gels. Compared with conventional methods, the proposed method does not require a removal of the dye before digestion, and is thus faster and saves a lot of labor. The resulted digest can be analyzed by either RPLC/ESIMS or MALDI MS for identification of the protein in a conventional way. Model studies with bovine serum albumin(BSA) showed that 50 ng of the protein could be routinely identified. The simplified procedure displays a tendency to produce more incompletely cleaved peptides, which is favorable for improving the sequence coverage.

  16. A Blue Native-PAGE analysis of membrane protein complexes in Clostridium thermocellum

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    Fan Keqiang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium thermocellum is a Gram-positive thermophilic anaerobic bacterium with the unusual capacity to convert cellulosic biomass into ethanol and hydrogen. Identification and characterization of protein complexes in C. thermocellum are important toward understanding its metabolism and physiology. Results A two dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE procedure was developed to separate membrane protein complexes of C. thermocellum. Proteins spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass spectrometry. 24 proteins were identified representing 13 distinct protein complexes, including several putative intact complexes. Interestingly, subunits of both the F1-F0-ATP synthase and the V1-V0-ATP synthase were detected in the membrane sample, indicating C. thermocellum may use alternative mechanisms for ATP generation. Conclusion Two dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE was used to detect membrane protein complexes in C. thermocellum. More than a dozen putative protein complexes were identified, revealing the simultaneous expression of two sets of ATP synthase. The protocol developed in this work paves the way for further functional characterization of these protein complexes.

  17. Goat immunoglobulin purification on phosphocellulose and DEAE Affi-Gel blue. (United States)

    Ninfali, P; Baronciani, L; Rapa, S; Marzioni, D; Mannello, F


    We describe a method for the efficient purification of immunoglobulins G (IgG) to near homogeneity from goat serum. This was achieved by performing first an AS-40 fractionation on goat serum, followed by chromatography on phosphocellulose (P11) equilibrated in citrate buffer at pH 5.7. Peak I, eluted at V0 from P11, contained all IgG and the other serum proteins, except beta-globulins and most of the alpha-2-globulins, which are eluted in a second peak with 0.24 M K-phosphate in citrate buffer at pH 6.0. Peak I, concentrated and dialyzed in 20 mM K-phosphate buffer pH 8.0, was then applied onto a DEAE Affi-Gel Blue column equilibrated in the same buffer. Two peaks were obtained from this column: peak I, eluted at V0 contained a pure IgG fraction, while the other serum proteins were in peak II. We conclude that the P11 step, performed under the conditions we report here, is very useful to retain the alpha-2 and beta-globulins, which contaminate the IgG when only the DEAE Affi-Gel Blue purification step is used.

  18. Papain gel containing methylene blue for simultaneous caries removal and antimicrobial photoinactivation against Streptococcus mutans biofilms (United States)

    Silva Jr., Zenildo Santos; Huang, Ying-Ying; de Freitas, Lucas Freitas; França, Cristiane Miranda; Botta, Sergio Brossi; Ana, Patrícia Aparecida; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Santos Fernandes, Kristianne Porta; Deana, Alessandro; Lima Leal, Cintia Raquel; Prates, Renato Araujo; Hamblin, Michael R.; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil


    This study intended to evaluate the effects of a papain-gel with a red-light absorbing pigment (methylene blue – MB) to mediate photodynamic therapy (PDT) against Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The PapaMBlue was compared with free MB to generate reactive oxygen species using fluorescence probes (SOSG and HPF). PDT (660-nm light) was carried out against S. mutans biofilms grown on either plastic dishes or on collagen membrane and assayed by CFU, live-dead staining using confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and H&E staining for collagen films. Cytotoxicity and subcellular localization was studied in human fibroblasts. Sponges of bioabsorbable type I collagen membrane were exposed to papain based gel, irradiated with laser and analyzed about their integrity by ATR-FTIR. The PapaMBlue produced higher amounts of singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals than free MB, possibly due to better disaggregation of the dye in solution. The PapaMBlue antimicrobial effects on biofilms proved to be capable of reducing the S. mutans. Both MTT and PrestoBlue assays showed higher cell viability and metabolism scores in fibroblasts treated with PapaMBlue and MB, possibly due to stimulation of mitochondrial activity and that collagen triple helix is unaffected. The PapaMBlue is equally effective as MB in destroying S. mutans biofilms growing on plastic or collagen without affecting fibroblasts. PMID:27641507

  19. Facile fabrication of magnetic carboxymethyl starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite gel for methylene blue removal. (United States)

    Gong, Guisheng; Zhang, Faai; Cheng, Zehong; Zhou, Li


    This study presents a simple method to fabricate magnetic carboxymethyl starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) (mCMS/PVA) composite gel. The obtained mCMS/PVA was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The application of mCMS/PVA as an adsorbent for removal of cationic methylene blue (MB) dye from water was investigated. Benefiting from the combined merits of carboxymethyl starch and magnetic gel, the mCMS/PVA simultaneously exhibited excellent adsorption property toward MB and convenient magnetic separation capability. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, pH and ionic strength on the adsorption performance of mCMS/PVA adsorbent were investigated systematically. The adsorption process of mCMS/PVA for MB fitted pseudo-second-order model and Freundlich isotherm. Moreover, desorption experiments revealed that the mCMS/PVA adsorbent could be well regenerated in ethanol solution without obvious compromise of removal efficiency even after eight cycles of desorption/adsorption. Considering the facile fabrication process and robust adsorption performance, the mCMS/PVA composite gel has great potential as a low cost adsorbent for environmental decontamination.

  20. Binding of tRNA nucleotidyltransferase to Affi-Gel Blue: rapid purification of the enzyme and binding studies. (United States)

    Deutscher, M P; Masiakowski, P


    Rabbit liver tRNA nucleotidyldransferase bound to columns of Affi-Gel Blue and could be specifically eluted with tRNA. This observation led to development of a rapid purification procedure for the enzyme. The adsorbent was also used to assess interaction of tRNA nucleotidyltransferase with various polynucleotides and substrates. The enzyme could be efficiently desorbed from Affi-Gel Blue by low concentrations of tRNA-C-C, less well by tRNA-C-C-A, and not at all by poly(A), poly(C), ATP or CTP.

  1. Multiple forms of phosphatase from human brain: isolation and partial characterization of affi-gel blue nonbinding phosphatase activities. (United States)

    Cheng, L Y; Wang, J Z; Gong, C X; Pei, J J; Zaidi, T; Grundke-Iqbal, I; Iqbal, K


    Phosphatases extracted from a human brain were resolved into two main groups, namely affi-gel blue-binding phosphatases and affi-gel blue-nonbinding phosphatases. Affi-gel blue binding phosphatases were further separated into four different phosphatase activities, designated P1-P4, and described previously. In the present study we describe the affi-gel blue-nonbinding phosphatases which were separated into seven different phosphatase activities, designated P5-P11 by poly-(L-lysine)-agarose and aminohexyl Sepharose 4B chromatographies. These seven phosphatase activities were active toward nonprotein phosphoester. P7-P11 and to some extent P5 could also dephosphorylate a phosphoprotein. They displayed different enzyme kinetics. On the basis of activity peak, the apparent molecular mass as estimated by Sephadex G-200 column chromatography for P5 was 49 kDa; P6, 32 kDa; P7, 150 kDa; P8, 250 kDa; P9, 165 kDa; P10, 90 kDa and P11, 165 kDa. Immunoblot analysis indicated that P8-P11 may belong to PP2B family, whereas P7 may associate with PP2A. The phosphatases P7-P11 were found to be effective in the dephosphorylation of Alzheimer's disease abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau. The resulting dephosphorylated tau regained its activity in promoting the microtubule assembly, suggesting that P7-P11 might regulate the phosphorylation of tau protein in the brain.

  2. Combined alcian blue and silver staining of subnanogram quantities of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Heinegård, D; Poulsen, J H


    Proteoglycans stain weakly in polyacrylamide gels by traditional protein stains such as coomassie brilliant blue or silver. In the present work preparations of large aggregating proteoglycan from human articular cartilage were used to evaluate a convenient staining method based on successive stai...

  3. Multiple forms of phosphatase from human brain: isolation and partial characterization of affi-gel blue binding phosphatases. (United States)

    Cheng, L Y; Wang, J Z; Gong, C X; Pei, J J; Zaidi, T; Grundke-Iqbal, I; Iqbal, K


    Implication of protein phosphatases in Alzheimer disease led us to a systemic investigation of the identification of these enzyme activities in human brain. Human brain phosphatases eluted from DEAE-Sephacel with 0.22 M NaCl were resolved into two main groups by affi-gel blue chromatography, namely affi-gel blue-binding phosphatases and affi-gel blue-nonbinding phosphatases. Affi-gel blue-binding phosphatases were further separated into four different phosphatases, designated P1, P2, P3, and P4 by calmodulin-Sepharose 4B and poly-(L-lysine)-agarose chromatographies. These four phosphatases exhibited activities towards nonprotein phosphoester and two of them, P1 and P4, could dephosphorylate phosphoproteins. The activities of the four phosphatases differed in pH optimum, divalent metal ion requirements, sensitivities to various inhibitors and substrate affinities. The apparent molecular masses as estimated by gel-filtration for P1, P2, P3, and P4 were 97, 45, 42, and 125 kDa, respectively. P1 is markedly similar to PP2B from bovine brain and rabbit skeletal muscle. P4 was labeled with anti-PP2A antibody and may represent a new subtype of PP2A. P1 and P4 were also effective in dephosphorylating Alzheimer disease abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau (AD P-tau). The resulting dephosphorylated AD P-tau had its activity restored in promoting assembly of microtubules in vitro. These results suggest that P1 and P4 might be involved in the regulation of phosphorylation of tau in human brain, especially in neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's disease which are characterized by the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of this protein.

  4. Probe mobility in native phosphocaseinate suspensions and in a concentrated rennet gel: effect of probe flexibility and size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salami, S.; Rondeau-Mouro, C.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Mariette, F.


    Pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry were used to study the self-diffusion coefficients and molecular dynamics of linear (PEGs) and spherical probes (dendrimers) in native phosphocaseinate suspensions and in a concentrated rennet gel. It

  5. Identification of protein complexes of microsomes in rat adipocytes by native gel coupled with LC-ESI-QTOF. (United States)

    Ke, Ming; Zhang, Yongqian; Xiong, Yan; Saeed, Yasmeen; Deng, Yulin


    The study of the composition of microsome proteins/complexes/interactions in adipocytes provides useful information for researchers related to energy metabolism disorders. The native gel coupled with LC-ESI-QTOF approach was employed here for separating protein complexes. We found a series of proteins functionally clustered in biological processes of protein metabolism, cellular carbohydrate catabolism, response to stimulus and wounding, macromolecular complex subunit organization, positive regulation of molecular function, regulation of programmed cell death and biomolecule transport. According to clustering of proteins' electrophoresis profiles across native gel fractions and bioinformatics data retrieval, protein complexes/interactions involved in protein metabolism, cellular carbohydrate catabolism, macromolecular complex subunit organization and biomolecule transport were identified. Besides, the results also revealed some functional linkages, which may provide useful information for discovering previously unknown interactions. The interaction between SSAO and ALDH2 was verified by co-immunoprecipitation. The native gel combining mass spectrometry approach appeared to be a useful tool for investigating microsome proteins and complexes to complement the traditional electrophoresis approaches. The native gel strategy together with our findings should facilitate future studies of the composition of rat adipocyte microsome protein complexes under different conditions.

  6. Rapid purification of mitochondrial hexokinase from rat brain by a single affinity chromatography step on Affi-Gel blue. (United States)

    Wilson, J E


    The mitochondrial hexokinase from rat brain, selectively released from mitochondria by the action of glucose 6-phosphate, can be purified to greater than 90% homogeneity by a single affinity chromatography step on Affi-Gel Blue; the Cibacron Blue F3GA ligand bound to this matrix serves as an analog of ATP, the normal substrate for the enzyme, and selective elution is accomplished using glucose 6-phosphate which is a competitive ligand vs. ATP. With this and other modifications to the previously described procedure highly purified enzyme is readily obtained in good yield and with retention of the ability to rebind to mitochondria.

  7. NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. IV. Purification by chromatography on Affi-Gel Blue. (United States)

    Vasquez, B; Reeves, H C


    Affinity chromatography on Affi-Gel Blue has been used to purify the NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC from Escherichia coli. The protocol permits rapid purification of the enzyme in milligram quantities with a yield of 50% and is carried out almost entirely at room temperature. The preparation was judged to be homogeneous by non-denaturing electrophoresis at pH 7.5 and denaturing electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The subunit molecular weight of 53 000, determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, is in reasonable agreement with the value of 46 900 estimated from the amino acid composition data.





    Renewable biofuels produced by the hydrothermal liquefaction of rice husks have received much attention because of rapid increases in fuel consumption and corresponding declines in fossil fuel resources. To increase biofuel yields, template-free syntheses of Zeolite Socony Mobil (ZSM) catalysts based on blue silica gel and rice husk ash as silica sources were studied. After ZSM synthesis in a closed reactor at 170°C, the crystallinity and crystalline diameters of the products were determined ...

  9. The role of habitat-selection in restricting invasive blue mussel advancement to protect native populations in San Francisco Bay (United States)

    Mittal, N.; Saarman, N. P.; Pogson, G.


    Introduced species contribute to decline of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Introduced species threaten native species by increasing competition for space and resources, changing their habitat, and disrupting species interactions. Protecting native species is crucial to preserving ecosystem services (i.e. medicinal, agricultural, ecological, and cultural benefits) for future generations. In marine communities, the number of invasive species is dramatically increasing every year, further magnifying the negative impact on native species. This research determines if habitat-specific selection can protect native species from their invasive relatives, and could allow targeted habitat restoration for native species to maintain high levels of biodiversity. Blue mussels provide an ideal system for studying the impact of an invasive species (Mytilus galloprovincialis) on native mussels (M. trossulus), because M. galloprovincialis is marked as one of the world's 100 worst invasive species. Hybridization between M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus occurs wherever their distributions overlap (i.e. Japan, Puget Sound, and central California). In central California, hybrids form in a broad variety of habitats ever since M. galloprovincialis was introduced about 100 years ago. The current level of threat posed to native mussels in central California is unknown. When population growth rate of an invasive species is higher than the native within a hybrid zone, the invader's genes become more prominent in the hybrids than the native species' genes. This uneven mix of genes and decrease of pure native mussels threatens to drive M. trossulus to extinction. Therefore, it is important to research which environment fosters highest success of pure native species. We conducted a field experiment in San Francisco Bay where mussels were reared in different habitats. We then collected samples and extracted DNA from each treatment, and genotyped them by a next-generation sequencing

  10. Methylene blue degradation by NaTaO3 sol-gel doped with Sm and La. (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Leticia M; Cruz-López, Arquímedes; Juárez-Ramírez, Isaías; Meza-de la Rosa, Ma Elena


    In this work, NaTaO(3) compounds doped with 1M% of La and Sm, were prepared by the sol-gel (SG) method and solid state (SS) reaction; and tested as photocatalysts on the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light. The structural characterization by X-ray powder diffraction revealed that the crystallization of the NaTaO(3) phase prepared by the sol-gel method started at 600 degrees C, reaching maximum crystallization at 800 degrees C. It was determined that the presence of Sm and La retard the crystallization of the NaTaO(3) phase. On the other hand, the compounds synthesized in this work showed particle sizes in the nanometric scale, as it was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specific surface area of the compounds synthesized by the sol-gel method, showed values 4 times higher than those obtained by the solid state reaction, favoring their functional and photocatalytic performance in the methylene blue degradation. In addition, the best photocatalytic performance was shown by the NaTaO(3) doped with Sm and heated at 600 degrees C, having a half-life time of 65 min.

  11. Methylene blue degradation by NaTaO{sub 3} sol-gel doped with Sm and La

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Martinez, Leticia M., E-mail: [Departmento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, S/N San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Cruz-Lopez, Arquimedes; Juarez-Ramirez, Isaias; Meza-de la Rosa, Ma. Elena [Departmento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, S/N San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico)


    In this work, NaTaO{sub 3} compounds doped with 1 M% of La and Sm, were prepared by the sol-gel (SG) method and solid state (SS) reaction; and tested as photocatalysts on the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light. The structural characterization by X-ray powder diffraction revealed that the crystallization of the NaTaO{sub 3} phase prepared by the sol-gel method started at 600 deg. C, reaching maximum crystallization at 800 deg. C. It was determined that the presence of Sm and La retard the crystallization of the NaTaO{sub 3} phase. On the other hand, the compounds synthesized in this work showed particle sizes in the nanometric scale, as it was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specific surface area of the compounds synthesized by the sol-gel method, showed values 4 times higher than those obtained by the solid state reaction, favoring their functional and photocatalytic performance in the methylene blue degradation. In addition, the best photocatalytic performance was shown by the NaTaO{sub 3} doped with Sm and heated at 600 deg. C, having a half-life time of 65 min.

  12. Serine transhydroxymethylase: a simplified radioactive assay; purification and stabilization of enzyme activity employing Affi-Gel Blue. (United States)

    Braman, J C; Black, M J; Mangum, J H


    An improved radioactive assay has been developed for serine transhydroxymethylase. This assay involves the direct measurement of the [14C]HCHO which is generated when [3- 14C]-serine is employed as the substrate. The new assay eliminates the need for a solvent extraction of a [14C]HCHO-dimedon adduct which is the basis of the assay devised by Taylor and Weissbach. The enzyme has been purified employing Affi-Gel Blue. The purified enzyme retains full activity when bound to this affinity chromatography matrix and can be stored in this state at 4 degrees indefinitely.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye by zinc oxide nanoparticles obtained from precipitation and sol-gel methods. (United States)

    Balcha, Abebe; Yadav, Om Prakash; Dey, Tania


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods. The aim of this study was to understand how different synthetic methods can affect the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles. As-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques. XRD patterns of ZnO powders synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods revealed their hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite sizes of 30 and 28 nm, respectively. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue, a common water pollutant, under UV radiation. The effects of operational parameters such as photocatalyst load and initial concentration of the dye on photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue were investigated. While the degradation of dye decreased over the studied dye concentration range of 20 to 100 mg/L, an optimum photocatalyst load of 250 mg/L was needed to achieve dye degradation as high as 81 and 92.5 % for ZnO prepared by precipitation and sol-gel methods, respectively. Assuming pseudo first-order reaction kinetics, this corresponded to rate constants of 8.4 × 10(-3) and 12.4 × 10(-3) min(-1), respectively. Hence, sol-gel method is preferred over precipitation method in order to achieve higher photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures. Photocatalytic activity is further augmented by better choice of capping ligand for colloidal stabilization, starch being more effective than polyethylene glycol (PEG).

  14. High resolution clear native electrophoresis is a good alternative to blue native electrophoresis for the characterization of the Escherichia coli membrane complexes. (United States)

    Diéguez-Casal, Ernesto; Freixeiro, Paula; Costoya, Liliana; Criado, M Teresa; Ferreirós, Carlos; Sánchez, Sandra


    Blue native electrophoresis (BNE) has become the most popular method for the global analysis of membrane protein complexes. Although it has been shown to be very useful for that purpose, it can produce the dissociation of complexes with weak interactions and, due to the use of Coomassie Brilliant Blue, does not allow the subsequent application of fluorimetric and/or enzymatic techniques. Recently, we have successfully used the high resolution clear native electrophoresis (hrCNE) for the analysis of Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane porin complexes. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of the complexome of the Escherichia coli envelope by using hrCNE and to compare our results with those previously obtained using BNE. The bidimensional electrophoresis approaches used, hrCN/hrCNE and hrCN/SDS-PAGE, coupled to mass spectrometry allowed a detailed analysis of the complexome of E. coli membranes. For the first time, the three subunits of the formate dehydrogenase FDH-O were identified forming a single complex and hrCNE also allowed the identification of both the HflK and HflC proteins as components of the HflA complex. This technique also allowed us to suggest a relationship between OmpF and DLDH and, although OmpA is considered to be monomeric in vivo, we found this protein structured as homodimers. Thus hrCNE provides a good tool for future analyses of bacterial membrane proteins and complexes and is an important alternative to the commonly used BNE.

  15. Sol-gel-cum-hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous Co-Fe@Al₂O₃−MCM-41 for methylene blue remediation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    A combined sol-gel-cum-hydrothermalmethod has been employed to synthesize novelmonometallic (Mn, Fe, Co) and bimetallic (Co-Fe, Mn-Co, Fe-Mn) nanoparticles loaded onto Al₂O₃−MCM-41. Powder XRD, N2 sorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurements show that the materials possess mesoporosity, high surface area and nanosize. Monometallic Fe, Co and Mn @Al₂O₃−MCM-41 and bimetallic Co-Fe, Fe-Mn and Mn-Co @Al₂O₃−MCM-41 materials were tested for methylene blue remediation from aqueous media. In the present study, Co-Fe@Al₂O₃−MCM-41 was found to be an excellent adsorbent. The adsorption efficiency of Co- Fe@Al₂O₃−MCM-41 has been studied as a function of adsorbent dose and pH of the solution. Maximum adsorption of methylene blue was obtained at high pH values of the solution. Framework mesoporosity, high surface area, and narrow pore distribution are the key factors for an efficient adsorption of methylene blue onCo-Fe@Al₂O₃−MCM-41.

  16. Deeply hidden inside introduced biogenic structures - Pacific oyster reefs reduce detrimental barnacle overgrowth on native blue mussels (United States)

    Buschbaum, Christian; Cornelius, Annika; Goedknegt, M. Anouk


    In sedimentary coastal ecosystems shells of epibenthic organisms such as blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) provide the only major attachment surface for barnacle epibionts, which may cause detrimental effects on their mussel basibionts by e.g. reducing growth rate. In the European Wadden Sea, beds of native blue mussels have been invaded by Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas, which transformed these beds into mixed reefs of oysters with mussels. In this study, we determined the spatial distribution of M. edulis and their barnacle epibionts (Semibalanus balanoides) within the reef matrix. Mean mussel density near the bottom was about twice as high compared to the mussel density near the top of an oyster reef, whereas barnacles on mussels showed a reversed pattern. Barnacle dry weight per mussel was on average 14 times higher near the top than at the bottom. This pattern was confirmed by experimentally placing clean M. edulis at the top and on the bottom of oyster reefs at two sites in the Wadden Sea (island of Texel, The Netherlands; island of Sylt, Germany). After an experimental period of five weeks (April and May 2015, the main settlement period of S. balanoides), the number of barnacles per mussel was at both sites significantly higher on mussels near the top compared to near the bottom. We conclude that the oyster reef matrix offers a refuge for M. edulis: inside reefs they are not only better protected against predators but also against detrimental barnacle overgrowth. This study shows that alien species can cause beneficial effects for native organisms and should not be generally considered as a risk for the recipient marine ecosystems.

  17. On-chip native gel electrophoresis-based immunoassays for tetanus antibody and toxin. (United States)

    Herr, Amy E; Throckmorton, Daniel J; Davenport, Andrew A; Singh, Anup K


    By integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device, we have developed a microanalytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantitation of bound and unbound antibody or antigen. To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis conditions were investigated. Both direct (noncompetitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips. A direct immunoassay was developed for detection of tetanus antibodies in buffer as well as diluted serum samples. After an off-chip incubation step, the immunoassay was completed in less than 3 min and the sigmoidal dose-response curve spanned an antibody concentration range from 0.17 to 260 nM. The minimum detectable antibody concentration was 0.68 nM. A competitive immunoassay was also developed for tetanus toxin C-fragment by allowing unlabeled and fluorescently labeled tetanus toxin C-fragment compete to bind to a limited fixed concentration of tetanus antibody. The immunoassay technique described in this work shows promise as a component of an integrated microfluidic device amenable to automation and relevant to development of clinical diagnostic devices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Renewable biofuels produced by the hydrothermal liquefaction of rice husks have received much attention because of rapid increases in fuel consumption and corresponding declines in fossil fuel resources. To increase biofuel yields, template-free syntheses of Zeolite Socony Mobil (ZSM catalysts based on blue silica gel and rice husk ash as silica sources were studied. After ZSM synthesis in a closed reactor at 170°C, the crystallinity and crystalline diameters of the products were determined by X-ray diffraction, affording values of 56.33%– 65.81% and 64.3–68.5 nm, respectively. The hydrothermal liquefaction of rice husks with or without a catalyst was conducted in a closed reactor (1200 mm length × 100 mm diameter at 275°C for 45 min. The light biofuel was separated from the ethanol solvent and heavy biofuel via vacuum evaporation. The ZSM catalysts increased the biofuel yields by 2.9%–6.0%. The light biofuels exhibited heating values, flash points, and viscosities of approximately 4.2–4.3 kcal·g−1, 19°C, and 1.48–1.52 cSt, respectively. However, further studies are required to enhance the activity of the ZSMs and increase the quality of the biofuels.

  19. Separation and quantitation of hepatoma-associated gamma-glutamyltransferase by affinity chromatography with Affi-Gel blue and Con A-Sepharose. (United States)

    Izumi, M; Taketa, K


    Isozymes of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other liver diseases were separated into two groups by double-affinity column chromatography with Affi-Gel blue and Con A-Sepharose, one recovered in the unbound fraction and the other in the bound fraction. Upon electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gradient gel slabs, the unbound fraction gave a GGTI1 band and a faint II1 band and the bound fraction gave a GGT I band and faint bands of GGT I", II' and X, when the original serum contained hepatoma-associated GGT (I1, I" and II') and high-molecular-weight lipid-protein complex, GGT(X). GGT I was present in all cases as a common isozyme. Other lipoprotein-associated GGT isozymes, III-IX, were removed by passing through Affi-Gel blue. GGT activities of unbound fraction in patients with HCC were generally higher than those in patients with non-HCC liver diseases, although the difference was not significant. When the percent of GGT activity of unbound (unbound + bound) was taken, 54% of patients with HCC had a ratio greater than 22%, whereas none of the healthy subjects or patients with other liver diseases gave values greater than this. The present technique may prove to be a useful clinical test for the diagnosis of HCC.

  20. Bright blue photoluminescence from a mixed tin and manganese oxide xerogel prepared via sol-hydrothermal-gel process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Xia; Cheng Xiao-Feng; He Shao-Bo; Yuan Xiao-Dong; Zheng Wan-Guo; Li Zhi-Jie; Liu Chun-Ming; Zhou Wei-Lie; Zu Xiao-Tao


    A new blue photoluminescent material,a mixed tin and manganese oxide xerogel,is prepared via sol-hydrothermalgel process assisted by citric acid.The composition xerogel exhibits strong blue emission at room temperature,with an emission maximum at 434 nm under short (234 nm) or long-wavelength (343 nm) ultraviolet excitation.The photoluminescent excitation spectrum of the mixed tin and manganese oxide xerogel,monitored at an intensity maximum wavelength of 434 nm of the emission,consists of two excitation peaks at 234 nm and 343 nm.With heat treatment temperature increasing from 110 ℃ to 200 ℃,the blue emission intensity increases remarkably,whereas it is almost completely quenched after being treated at 300 ℃.The carbon impurities in the mixed tin and manganese oxide xerogel,confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,should be responsible for the bright blue photoluminescence.

  1. Separation of Native Allophycocyanin and R-Phycocyanin from Marine Red Macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Performed in Novel Buffer Systems


    Yu Wang; Xueqin Gong; Shumei Wang; Lixue Chen; Li Sun


    Three buffer systems of Imidazole-Acetic acid, HEPES-Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris-HEPES-MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP) and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obta...

  2. Analysis of branched DNA replication and recombination intermediates from prokaryotic cells by two-dimensional (2D) native-native agarose gel electrophoresis. (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas P


    Branched DNA molecules are generated by the essential processes of replication and recombination. Owing to their distinctive extended shapes, these intermediates migrate differently from linear double-stranded DNA under certain electrophoretic conditions. However, these branched species exist in the cell at much low abundance than the bulk linear DNA. Consequently, branched molecules cannot be visualized by conventional electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. Two-dimensional native-native agarose electrophoresis has therefore been developed as a method to facilitate the separation and visualization of branched replication and recombination intermediates. A wide variety of studies have employed this technique to examine branched molecules in eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial cells, providing valuable insights into how DNA is duplicated and repaired in all three domains of life.

  3. Blue-emitting photoluminescence of rod-like and needle-like ZnO nanostructures formed by hot-water treatment of sol–gel derived coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Wai Kian, E-mail: [Center for International Education, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia [School of Materials and Mineral Resources, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang 14300 Malaysia (Malaysia); Matsuda, Atsunori, E-mail: [Center for International Education, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)


    The morphological evolution of the zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures generated by hot-water treatment (HWT) of sol–gel derived coatings as a function of temperature from 30 to 90 °C was investigated. With increasing HWT temperature, the ZnO crystals evolved from nanoparticles to rod-like and needle-like nanostructures. High-resolution transmission electron microscope observations of rod-like and needle-like nanostructures generated at 60 and 90 °C indicated single crystal ZnO wurtzite structure was obtained. All the hot-water treated samples exhibited blue emission at approximately 440 nm in room temperature. The intensity of blue emission increased with higher HWT temperatures. The unique photoluminescence emission characteristic remained even after heat-treatment at 400 °C for 1 h. As the emission peak obtained in our work is approximately 440 nm (2.82 eV), the emission peak is corresponding to the electron transition from the interstitial Zn to the top of valence band. This facile formation of blue-emitting ZnO nanostructures at low-temperature can be utilized on substrate with low thermal stability for optoelectronic applications such as light emitting devices and biological fluorescence labeling. - Highlights: • Facile and novel formation of ZnO nanostructures by low temperature hot-water treatment. • No catalyst or inhibitor is used. • Evolution of ZnO nanostructures formation as a function of temperature is reported. • Dominant blue emissions are observed from the as-formed and annealed ZnO films. • Ultraviolet and visible emissions are observed for hot-water treated films.

  4. Titanium dioxide-gold nanocomposite materials embedded in silicate sol-gel film catalyst for simultaneous photodegradation of hexavalent chromium and methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandikumar, Alagarsamy [Centre for Photoelectrochemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India); Ramaraj, Ramasamy, E-mail: [Centre for Photoelectrochemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India)


    Graphical abstract: Aminosilicate sol-gel supported TiO{sub 2}-Au nanocomposite material photocatalyst was prepared by deposition-precipitation method and used for the simultaneous oxidation and reduction of methyelene blue dye and Cr(VI) ions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EDAS/(TiO{sub 2}-Au){sub nps} is used to design the solid-phase thin film photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au promotes the interfacial electron transfer from TiO{sub 2} to Cr(VI) to form Cr(III). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The holes produced at the TiO{sub 2} oxidize the MB dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EDAS/(TiO{sub 2}-Au){sub nps} film was used for the simultaneous oxidation and reduction of toxic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photoinduced simultaneous redox process provides dual benefit for the environment remediation. - Abstract: Aminosilicate sol-gel supported titanium dioxide-gold (EDAS/(TiO{sub 2}-Au){sub nps}) nanocomposite materials were synthesized by simple deposition-precipitation method and characterized. The photocatalytic oxidation and reduction activity of the EDAS/(TiO{sub 2}-Au){sub nps} film was evaluated using hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and methylene blue (MB) dye under irradiation. The photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) was studied in the presence of hole scavengers such as oxalic acid (OA) and methylene blue (MB). The photocatalytic degradation of MB was investigated in the presence and absence of Cr(VI). Presence of Au{sub nps} on the (TiO{sub 2}){sub nps} surface and its dispersion in the silicate sol-gel film (EDAS/(TiO{sub 2}-Au){sub nps}) improved the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of MB due to the effective interfacial electron transfer from the conduction band of the TiO{sub 2} to Au{sub nps} by minimizing the charge recombination process when compared to the TiO{sub 2} and (TiO{sub 2}-Au){sub nps} in the absence of EDAS. The EDAS/(TiO{sub 2}-Au){sub nps} nanocomposite materials provided

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles prepared by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.A., E-mail: [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain-Shams University (Egypt); El-Katori, Emad E.; Gharni, Zarha H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Khaled University (Saudi Arabia)


    Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye was successfully carried over Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanorods embedded various proportion of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0–20) wt.%. Highlights: ► Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano mixed oxide samples were successfully synthesized by sol–gel method. ► Manipulation of particle size and structure were achieved by micelle template approach. ► Both adsorption and photocatalytic reactivity are the main reasons for exceptional decolorization of methylene blue dye. ► A new mechanism for electronic transition between TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was proposed. -- Abstract: The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye was successfully carried under UV irradiation over Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded various composition of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0–20) wt.% synthesized by sol–gel process. Structural and textural features of the mixed oxide samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction [XRD], Fourier transformer infra-red [FTIR], Energy dispersive X-ray [EDX], Field emission electron microscope [FESEM] and transmission electron microscope [TEM]. However, the optical features were estimated using UV–Vis spectrophotometer. The results reveal that the incorporation of various Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 7% is associated by remarkable increase in surface area, reduction of particle size, stabilization of anatase phase, shifting the photoexcitation response of the sample to visible region and exceptional degradation of methylene blue dye. On the other hand, increasing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents up to 20 wt.% is associated by anatase–rutile transformation, increasing in particle size and remarkable decrease in surface area which are prime factors in reducing the degradation process. The experimental results indicate that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles having both the advantages of photodegradation–adsorption process which considered a promising new

  6. Photodegradation of indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution by SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared by sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Solis, Christian [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi Av. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78290 (Mexico); Juarez-Ramirez, Isaias, E-mail: [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Moctezuma, Edgar [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi Av. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78290 (Mexico); Torres-Martinez, Leticia M. [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photodegradation of organic dyes is possible using sol-gel SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} makes a synergy effect that enhances its catalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel allows good dispersion and attachment of TiO{sub 2} particles on SiC surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} exhibits better activity than TiO{sub 2} (P25) on organic dyes degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts are settled down and easily separated after photocatalysis. - Abstract: Indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution were photodegraded using SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared by sol-gel method. After thermal treatment at 450 Degree-Sign C, SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared in this work showed the presence of SiC and TiO{sub 2} anatase phase. Those compounds showed specific surface area values around 22-25 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and energy band gap values close to 3.05 eV. In comparison with TiO{sub 2} (P25), SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts showed the highest activity for indigo carmine and methylene blue degradation, but this activity cannot be attributed to the properties above mentioned. Therefore, photocatalytic performance is due to the synergy effect between SiC and TiO{sub 2} particles caused by the sol-gel method used to prepare the SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are well dispersed onto SiC surface allowing the transfer of electronic charges between SiC and TiO{sub 2} semiconductors, which avoid the fast recombination of the electron-hole pair during the photocatalytic process.

  7. A Urea Biosensor from Stacked Sol-Gel Films with Immobilized Nile Blue Chromoionophore and Urease Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ahmad


    Full Text Available An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gelfilms. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Bluechromoionophore (ETH 5294 and urease enzyme separately without the need of anychemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitoredat 550 nm, i.e. the deprotonation of the chromoionophore. This multi-layer sol-gel filmformat enabled higher enzyme loading in the biosensor to be achieved. The urea opticalbiosensor constructed from three layers of sol-gel films that contained urease demonstrateda much wider linear response range of up to 100 mM urea when compared with biosensorsthat constructed from 1-2 layers of films. Analysis of urea in urine samples with thisoptical urea biosensor yielded results similar to that determined by a spectrophotometricmethod using the reagent p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (R2 = 0.982, n = 6. The averagerecovery of urea from urine samples using this urea biosensor is approximately 103%.

  8. Synthesis of micrometer SrAl2Si2O8 :Eu, Dy blue phosphor powders via sol- gel process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文; 宁桂玲; LIN Yuan; WANG Jing


    In this paper, we report on long- persistence white phosphor SrAl2Si2O8 :Eu2+ , Dy3+ synthe-sized by the sol - gel method. The luminescent materials prepared by the sol - gel method have many ad-vantages, such as uniform composition, high purity, fine grains and low synthesis temperature. We foundthat SrAl2Si2O8 :Eu2+ ,Dy3+ phosphor prepared by the sol -gel method can provide more luminescent in-tensity and better afterglow characteristic compared with the same phosphor prepared by solid -statemethod. Namely, the particle size and shape of phosphors should be optimized to obtain the maximumquantum efficiency through energy absorption. The mierostrueture of the phosphor consisted of regularfine grains with an average size of about 0.5. - 1 μm. Under 356 nm light excitation, the broadband emis-sion of the phosphor continues from 350 to 650 ntn and the emission peak is at about 414 nm, which canbe viewed as the typical emission of Eu2+ ascribed to the 4f→5d transitions.

  9. Influence of acid chain length on the properties of TiO2 prepared by sol-gel method and LC-MS studies of methylene blue photodegradation. (United States)

    Bakre, Pratibha V; Volvoikar, Prajesh S; Vernekar, Amit A; Tilve, S G


    Nano-sized titanium dioxide photocatalysts were synthesized by hybrid hydrolytic nonhydrolytic sol-gel method using aliphatic organic acid templates to study the effect of chain length on their properties. X-ray diffraction pattern indicated crystalline anatase phase. The Barrett-Joyner-Halenda surface area measurement gave surface area ranging from 98.4 to 205.5m(2)/g and was found to be dependent on the chain length of the aliphatic acid. The longer chain acids rendered the material with high surface area. The organic acids acted as bidentate ligand and a surfactant in controlling the size and the mesoporosity. The size of the TiO2 nanoparticulate was found to be in the range of 10-18nm. The catalyst prepared by employing long chain acids octanoic acid and palmitic acid had smaller size, narrow pore radius, higher surface area and showed better photocatalytic activity than the commercially available Degussa P25 catalyst for the degradation of methylene blue dye. A new intermediate was identified by tandem liquid chromatography mass spectrometry studies during the degradation of methylene blue solution.

  10. CM Affi-Gel Blue chromatography of human urine: a simple one-step procedure for obtaining erythropoietin suitable for in vitro erythropoietic progenitor assays. (United States)

    Krystal, G; Eaves, C J; Eaves, A C


    A method for both concentrating and purifying human urinary erythropoietin (Ep) using CM Affi-Gel Blue is described. We have found that up to 40 litres of urine can be processed on a 1 litre gel bed of this material. This gives a 25-50-fold purification of Ep with an apparent Ep recovery in excess of 100%. The high recovery of Ep is probably due, in part, to the removal of inhibitors present in the initial urine. By selecting urine that contains high levels of Ep (greater than 0.5 units/ml), it is possible with this method routinely to obtain preparations with specific activities of 100-300 units of Ep per mg protein. Such preparations are noninhibitory when assayed in either short-term suspension cultures or in longer-term methylcellulose cultures at concentrations up to 5-10 units/ml. Similar tests with these same bioassay systems have shown that other non-Ep stimulating factors (i.e. erythroblast enhancing factor (EEF), granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and burst promoting activity (BPA) ) are also not present at detectable levels. In this study we also show that the loss of biological activity which often occurs when partially purified Ep preparations are stored in solution is markedly reduced in the presence of either 1% bovine serum albumin or 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulphate.

  11. The Properties of Native Silk Fibroin (SF) Solution/Gel from Bombyx mori Silkworms during the Full Fifth Instar Larval Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong; MAO Ningtao; HU Xuechao; SHAO Huili; JIN Xiangyu


    The properties of native silk fibroin (SF) solution in the gland of silkworms during the full fifth instar larval stage were examined in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of natural silk spinning in the silkworm. The flow and gelation behavior, birefiingence phenomenon, rheological properties, specific viscosity and conformation of SF solutions from the gland of silkworms were measured by polarized light microscope, HAKKE rheometer, Ubbelohde viscometer and Solid-state 13C NMR, respectively. After comparing their properties with regenerated SF solutions from natural silk fibers, it is believed that there exists a progressive maturation process favorable to spin silk fibers with excellent properties from native SF solution and a weak bonded and highly oriented SF gel network with SF molecules partly extended in α-helix conformation is formed in the middle section of the gland of silkworms. This suggests that a biomimetic maturation process for making spinnable solution might be necessary for artificial silk fiber spinning in order to obtain improved fiber properties.

  12. Antibacterial and Blue shift investigations in sol–gel synthesized Cr{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A.H., E-mail: [Department of Physics, B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai 600048 (India); Manikandan, E.; Basheer Ahamed, M. [Department of Physics, B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai 600048 (India); Ahmad Mir, Dilawar [Department of Biotechnology, Alagappa University, Karikudi 630003 (India); Ahmad Mir, Sajad [Department of Physics, NIT Srinagar, Hazratbal, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190 006 (India)


    In this paper, a systematic study of structural, morphological, phononic, vibrational and optical properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O nanostructures has been reported. These particles are synthesized through simple sol–gel chemical technique at low temperature using simply available laboratory chemicals i,e zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide. The detailed structural studies carried out by X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the as-synthesized nanoparticles are well-crystalline and possessing hexagonal wurtzite structure in 54–57 nm range. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows the synthesized nanostrucures were grown in high density with less agglomeration and their different morphologies observed after doping. The presences of functional groups were characterized by employing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Compared with the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the undoped ZnO, the peak position of ultraviolet (UV) emission of the Cr-doped ZnO nanostructures exhibits remarkable blue shift, also confirmed by Raman studies, and the deep level emission band was sharply suppressed. Band gap of synthesized samples has been evaluated using DRS (UV–Vis mode). It is found that the band gap increases as Cr doping took place which is attributed to the combined effect of size reduction and doping. The synthesized Cr{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O nanostructures showed potential applications in destruction of bacteria. -- Highlights: • Highly Cr–doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized using aqueous solutions. • We examine the control over the growth of synthesized nanostructures. • Blue shift was observed due doping in ZnO nanostructures. • Enhancement of antibacterial activities in doped ZnO nanostructures.

  13. Overexpression of the Synthetic Chimeric Native-T-phylloplanin-GFP Genes Optimized for Monocot and Dicot Plants Renders Enhanced Resistance to Blue Mold Disease in Tobacco (N. tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo


    Full Text Available To enhance the natural plant resistance and to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of phylloplanin against blue mold, we have expressed a synthetic chimeric native-phylloplanin-GFP protein fusion in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. KY14, a cultivar that is highly susceptible to infection by Peronospora tabacina. The coding sequence of the tobacco phylloplanin gene along with its native signal peptide was fused with GFP at the carboxy terminus. The synthetic chimeric gene (native-phylloplanin-GFP was placed between the modified Mirabilis mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter with duplicated enhancer domains and the terminator sequence from the rbcSE9 gene. The chimeric gene, expressed in transgenic tobacco, was stably inherited in successive plant generations as shown by molecular characterization, GFP quantification, and confocal fluorescent microscopy. Transgenic plants were morphologically similar to wild-type plants and showed no deleterious effects due to transgene expression. Blue mold-sensitivity assays of tobacco lines were performed by applying P. tabacina sporangia to the upper leaf surface. Transgenic lines expressing the fused synthetic native-phyllopanin-GFP gene in the leaf apoplast showed resistance to infection. Our results demonstrate that in vivo expression of a synthetic fused native-phylloplanin-GFP gene in plants can potentially achieve natural protection against microbial plant pathogens, including P. tabacina in tobacco.

  14. Novel Pd/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite prepared by modified sol–gel method for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaal, M.Y., E-mail: [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, ET-35516 Mansoura (Egypt); Mohamed, R.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Advanced Materials Department, Central Metallurgical R and D Institute, Cairo 11421 (Egypt)


    Highlights: •Chitosan (CS) has no obvious effect on the crystallizing process of the main form, anatase. •Crystallite size of TiO{sub 2}/CS (18 nm) was smaller than that of pure TiO{sub 2} (116 nm). •CS prevents the agglomeration of both TiO{sub 2} and Pd/TiO{sub 2} with dispersion of Pd over TiO{sub 2}. •CS and Pd significantly improved the visible light photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}. -- Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared using the modified sol–gel method. TiO{sub 2} impregnated with Pd and/or chitosan (CS) was prepared using the impregnation method. The Pd/TiO{sub 2} composite photocatalyst was characterized by XRD, TEM, UV–Vis, Pl, and BET. A methylene blue dye (MB) was used as a model pollutant to study the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} under visible light irradiation. The influence of the type and amount of catalyst as well as the initial concentration of MB was investigated. The results indicate that CS can effectively prevent the agglomeration of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. UV–Vis spectra demonstrated that the composite’s ability to absorb visible light is greatly improved. The photocatalytic degradation of MB was found to follow first-order kinetics. Recycling experiments confirmed the relative stability of the catalyst.

  15. Separation of native allophycocyanin and R-phycocyanin from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis performed in novel buffer systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Three buffer systems of Imidazole-Acetic acid, HEPES-Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris-HEPES-MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP and R-phycocyanin (R-PC from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES-Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris-HEPES-MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems.

  16. Separation of native allophycocyanin and R-phycocyanin from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis performed in novel buffer systems. (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gong, Xueqin; Wang, Shumei; Chen, Lixue; Sun, Li


    Three buffer systems of Imidazole-Acetic acid, HEPES-Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris-HEPES-MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP) and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES-Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris-HEPES-MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems.

  17. Tailoring red-green-blue emission from Er3+, Eu3+ and Tb3+ doped Y2O3 nanocrystals produced via PVA-assisted sol-gel route (United States)

    Sobral, G. A.; Gomes, M. A.; Avila, J. F. M.; Rodrigues, J. J.; Macedo, Z. S.; Hickmann, J. M.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.


    Y2O3 luminescent nanoparticles were synthesized via PVA-assisted sol-gel method and their structural and optical properties were investigated. Effects of rare earth (Er3+, Eu3+ and Tb3+) doping on luminescence properties of the produced nanophosphors have been investigated under NIR (800 nm) and UV (240-300 nm) excitation. Intense infrared to red and green emissions were observed and a weak blue upconverted luminescence was also detected. Moreover, it was observed that changing the doping ions, the color emitted by the samples could be modified and different combinations of UV excitation and doping produced effective white light emissions. The obtained results demonstrate that PVA-assisted sol-gel is an effective methodology for the synthesis of rare-earth doped Y2O3 nanophosphors.

  18. 红蓝光联合阿达帕林凝胶治疗轻、中度痤疮的有效性和安全性分析%The Effectiveness and Safety Analysis of Treating Mild-to-moderate Acne by Red and Blue Light Combining Adapalene Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:Analyze the effectiveness and safety of treating mild‐to‐moderate acne by red and blue light com‐bining Adapalene Gel .Methods:Select 210 patients with mild‐to‐moderate acne that has been hospitalized in our hospital and group them into three groups ,that is ,red and blue light group (70 cases) ,Adapalene Gel group (70 cases) and red and blue light combining Adapalene Gel group (70 cases) .Treat the red and blue light group with red and blue light exposure ,treat the Adapalene Gel group with external use of Adapalene Gel ,and treat the red and blue light combi‐ning Adapalene Gel group with red and blue light and external use of Adapalene .Compare the clinical effects of each group .Results:After treatment ,the skin lesion degree of red and blue light combining Adapalene Gel is evidently better than red and blue light group Adapalene Gel group and the difference has statistical significance (P<0 .05);the gener‐al effective rate of red and blue light combining Adapalene Gel is 94 .29% ,evidently higher than the red and blue light group and Adapalene Gel group ,and the difference has statistical significance (P< 0 .05) .Conclusion:The curative effect of treating mild‐to‐moderate acne by red and blue light combining Adapalene Gel is evidently better than red and blue light group and Adapalene Gel group ,and this kind of treatment is safe ,which is worthy of promoting on clinical treatment .%目的:分析红蓝光联合阿达帕林凝胶治疗轻、中度痤疮的有效性和安全性。方法:选取我院收治的210例轻、中度痤疮患者,将其随机分为三组,即红蓝光组(70例),阿达帕林凝胶组(70例),红蓝光联合阿达帕林凝胶组(70例)。红蓝光组给予红蓝光照射治疗,阿达帕林凝胶组给予外用的阿达帕林凝胶,红蓝光联合阿达帕林凝胶组给予红蓝光照射和外用的阿达帕林凝胶,比较各组临床疗效。结果:治疗后红蓝光联合阿达

  19. The influence of the language proficiency of English teachers who are not native speakers of English on the language skills of their learners / Rhelda Krügel


    Krügel, Rhelda


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the language proficiency of English teachers who are not native speakers of English on the language skills of their learners. The words: English teachers in this study refer to teachers teaching English as subject learning area but who are not native speakers of English. The word learners refer to English second language learners. Although the literature review highlights the specific features of each of the language skills namely l...

  20. Species identification of smoked and gravad fish products by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, urea isoelectric focusing and native isoelectric focusing : a collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, I.; Craig, A.; Etienne, M.;


    -discriminating power for the processed salmonids than SDS-PAGE. The profiles of the eel species as obtained on SDS-PAGE or urea-IEF were not affected by smoking. Urea-IEF had greater species- discriminating power than SDS-PAGE for the eel species. Native IEF was useful in providing supplementary identification...

  1. Tungsten oxide buffer layers fabricated in an inert sol-gel process at room-temperature for blue organic light-emitting diodes. (United States)

    Höfle, Stefan; Bruns, Michael; Strässle, Stefan; Feldmann, Claus; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander


    WO3 deposition from tungsten ethoxide precursor solutions at room temperature is demonstrated. The W(OEt)6 precursor can be converted under inert conditions and hence avoids sample contamination with oxygen, opening a pathway to more stable devices. The stoichiometry of all WO3 layers and the optoelectronic performance of the respective SMOLEDs well match thermally evaporated WO3 and its corresponding SMOLEDs. The solution processed WO3 hole injection layers enable the fabrication of blue phosphorescent OLEDs with low onset voltage and current efficiencies of up to 14 cd A(-1) .

  2. Sol-gel synthesized Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+/Dy3+ blue-green phosphorous as oxygen sensing materials (United States)

    Aydin, Ilkyaz; Ertekin, Kadriye; Demirci, Selim; Gultekin, Serdar; Celik, Erdal


    In this study, we utilized newly synthesized Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+/Dy3+ blue-green phosphors along with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for fabrication of oxygen sensitive materials. To the best of our knowledge oxygen sensing mechanism of the offered design is totally different from the previously published works. One-component silicone: poly (1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne), two component phenyl bearing silicone, plasticized polymethylmethacrylate, and ethylcellulose (EC) were tested as matrix materials. Electrospun fibers, porous and smooth thin films were produced by electrospinning or knife coating technique. Oxygen induced luminescence of the phosphors at 544 nm was followed as the analytical signal. Utilization of silver nanoparticles in silicone along with phosphors resulted with a 7.14 fold enhancement in the signal intensity and significant spectral response towards oxygen competing with the signals of the oxygen sensors utilizing metalloporphyrins or ruthenium complexes. We observed high sensitivity and stability, increased surface area and an enhancement in all sensor dynamics. Linearity of the calibration plots was superior for the pO2 range of 0.0-20.0% with respect to the previously reported ones. When stored at the ambient air of the laboratory there was no significant drift in signal intensity after 12 months. Our sensitivity and stability tests are still in progress.

  3. Intense pulsed light versus photodynamic therapy using liposomal methylene blue gel for the treatment of truncal acne vulgaris: a comparative randomized split body study. (United States)

    Moftah, Nayera Hassan; Ibrahim, Shady Mahmoud; Wahba, Nadine Hassan


    Acne vulgaris is an extremely common skin condition. It often leads to negative psychological consequences. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using intense pulsed light has been introduced for effective treatment of acne. The objective was to study the effect of PDT in truncal acne vulgaris using liposomal methylene blue (LMB) versus IPL alone. Thirty-five patients with varying degrees of acne were treated with topical 0.1 % LMB hydrogel applied on the randomly selected one side of the back, and after 60 min the entire back was exposed to IPL. The procedure was done once weekly for three sessions and patients were re-evaluated 1 month after the third session by two independent dermatologists. Acne severity was graded using the Burton scale. Patient satisfaction using Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) was recorded before and after treatment. On LMB-pretreated side, inflammatory acne lesion counts were significantly decreased by 56.40 % compared with 34.06 % on IPL alone. Marked improvement was seen on LMB-pretreated side in 11.5 % of patients compared with 2.8 % on IPL alone. There was a correlation between CADI score and overall improvement. Our study concluded that LMB-IPL is more effective than IPL alone, safe with tolerable pain in the treatment of acne vulgaris on the back. LMB-IPL is more effective than IPL alone, safe with tolerable pain in the treatment of acne vulgaris on the back.

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using undoped and Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by a sol-gel process: Effect of the ageing time of the starting solution and the film thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen-Santiago, A.; Mayen, S.A.; Torres-Delgado, G.; Castanedo-Perez, R. [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Materiales, CINVESTAV-IPN, U. Queretaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, Queretaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Maldonado, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria. Electrica-SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Olvera, M. de la L, E-mail: [Departamento de Ingenieria, Electrica-SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico)


    Undoped and Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the sol-gel method. A novel propose to prepare the solution is the use of titanium monohydrate oxyacetyl acetonate as the starting reagent. The effect of the ageing time of the starting solution as well as the number of coatings on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was studied. The variation of the absorption spectra shows the degradation of MB dissolved in water, as a result of the reaction produced on the surface of the films, and promoted by ultraviolet irradiation during 5 h. The results show an optimum photocatalytic activity, in the order of 35%, presented in the 5-immersion Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films, deposited from 7- and 14-day aged solutions. On the other hand, the Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} films deposited at different coatings show small changes in the photocatalytic activity. Morphological studies show the presence of silver particles on the film surface, due to the different number of coatings, affecting the photocatalytic performance.

  5. Proteomic analysis of human bladder epithelial cells by 2D blue native SDS-PAGE reveals TCDD-induced alterations of calcium and iron homeostasis possibly mediated by nitric oxide. (United States)

    Verma, Nisha; Pink, Mario; Petrat, Frank; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schmitz-Spanke, Simone


    A proteomic analysis of the interaction among multiprotein complexes involved in 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated toxicity in urinary bladder epithelial RT4 cells was performed using two-dimensional blue native SDS-PAGE (2D BN/SDS-PAGE). To enrich the protein complexes, unexposed and TCDD-exposed cells were fractionated. BN/SDS-PAGE of the resulting fractions led to an effective separation of proteins and protein complexes of various origins, including cell membrane, mitochondria, and other intracellular compartments. Major differences between the proteome of control and exposed cells involved the alteration of many calcium-regulated proteins (calmodulin, protein S100-A2, annexin A5, annexin A10, gelsolin isoform b) and iron-regulated proteins (ferritin, heme-binding protein 2, transferrin). On the basis of these findings, the intracellular calcium concentration was determined, revealing a significant increase after 24 h of exposure to TCDD. Moreover, the concentration of the labile iron pool (LIP) was also significantly elevated in TCDD-exposed cells. This increase was strongly inhibited by the calmodulin (CaM) antagonist W-7, which pointed toward a possible interaction between iron and calcium signaling. Because nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly enhanced in TCDD-exposed cells and was also inhibited by W-7, we hypothesize that alterations in calcium and iron homeostasis upon exposure to TCDD may be linked through NO generated by CaM-activated nitric oxide synthase. In our model, we propose that NO produced upon TCDD exposure interacts with the iron centers of iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) that modulate the alteration of ferritin and transferrin, resulting in an augmented cellular LIP and, hence, increased toxicity.

  6. Kind of Blue - Europa Blues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tore; Kirkegaard, Peter


    Bidraget reflekterer over sammenhænge mellem to værker fra det musikalske og litterære område. Det drejer sig om Miles Davis' Kind of Blue fra 1959 og Arne Dahls krimi, Europa Blues fra 2001. Den grundlæggende indfaldsvinkel er det performative, den frie, men samtidigt disciplinerede musikalske...

  7. Blue Laser. (United States)


    HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION 13 4. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BLUE LASER 18 4.1 Operational and Processing Experience 18 4.2 Performance Testing 20 5...34 -. - . •. SECTION 3 BLUE HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION This section presents an overview of the steps taken in creating a HCL. There the laser assembly. These steps can actually be considered as the final steps in laser fabrication because some of them involve adding various

  8. Metal imaging in non-denaturating 2D electrophoresis gels by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for the detection of metalloproteins. (United States)

    Becker, J Susanne; Lobinski, Ryszard; Becker, J Sabine


    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was developed as a powerful analytical technique for metal imaging of 2D gels for the detection of metalloproteins in rat kidney after electrophoretic separation. Protein complexes, extracted with water, were separated in their native state in the first and second dimension by blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Essential and toxic metals, such as zinc, copper, iron, manganese and lead, were monitored by LA-ICP-MS after gel ablation by a focused laser beam in a way that the total surface of a selected fragment of the gel was totally ablated. The metal distribution of this part of the gel was then constructed by plotting the metal (isotope) signal intensity as a function of the x,y (isoelectric point, molecular mass) coordinates of the gel. The proteins at locations rich in metals were cut out, digested with trypsin and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS).

  9. Native SDS-PAGE: High Resolution Electrophoretic Separation of Proteins With Retention of Native Properties Including Bound Metal Ions (United States)

    Nowakowski, Andrew B.; Wobig, William J.; Petering, David H.


    Sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is commonly used to obtain high resolution separation of complex mixtures of proteins. The method initially denatures the proteins that will undergo electrophoresis. Although covalent structural features of resolved proteins can be determined with SDS-PAGE, functional properties are destroyed, including the presence of non-covalently bound metal ions. To address this shortcoming, blue-native (BN)-PAGE has been introduced. This method retains functional properties but at the cost of protein resolving power. To address the need for a high resolution PAGE method that results in the separation of native proteins, experiments tested the impact of changing the conditions of SDS-PAGE on the quality of protein separation and retention of functional properties. Removal of SDS and EDTA from the sample buffer together with omission of a heating step had no effect on the results of PAGE. Reduction of SDS in the running buffer from 0.1% to 0.0375% together with deletion of EDTA also made little impact on the quality of the electrophoretograms of fractions of pig kidney (LLC-PK1) cell proteome in comparison with that achieved with the SDS-PAGE method. The modified conditions were called native (N)SDS-PAGE. Retention of Zn2+ bound in proteomic samples increased from 26 to 98% upon shifting from standard to modified conditions. Moreover, seven of nine model enzymes, including four Zn2+ proteins that were subjected to NSDS-PAGE retained activity. All nine were active in BN-PAGE, whereas all underwent denaturation during SDS-PAGE. Metal retention after electrophoresis was additionally confirmed using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and in-gel Zn-protein staining using the fluorophore TSQ. PMID:24686569

  10. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac


    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  11. Effect of endophytic Bacillus cereus ERBP inoculation into non-native host: Potentials and challenges for airborne formaldehyde removal. (United States)

    Khaksar, Gholamreza; Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Thiravetyan, Paitip


    Phytoremediation could be a cost-effective, environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of indoor air. However, some drawbacks still dispute the expediency of phytotechnology. Our objectives were to investigate the competency of plant growth-promoting (PGP) endophytic Bacillus cereus ERBP (endophyte root blue pea), isolated from the root of Clitoria ternatea, to colonize and stabilize within Zamioculcas zamiifolia and Euphorbia milii as non-native hosts without causing any disease or stress symptoms. Moreover, the impact of B. cereus ERBP on the natural shoot endophytic community and for the airborne formaldehyde removal capability of non-native hosts was assessed. Non-native Z. zamiifolia was effectively inoculated with B. cereus ERBP through soil as the most efficient method of endophyte inoculation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of the shoot endophytic community verified the colonization and stability of B. cereus ERBP within its non-native host during a 20-d fumigation period without interfering with the natural shoot endophytic diversity of Z. zamiifolia. B. cereus ERBP conferred full protection to its non-native host against formaldehyde phytotoxicity and enhanced airborne formaldehyde removal of Z. zamiifolia whereas non-inoculated plants suffered from formaldehyde phytotoxicity because their natural shoot endophytic community was detrimentally affected by formaldehyde. In contrast, B. cereus ERBP inoculation into non-native E. milii deteriorated airborne formaldehyde removal of the non-native host (compared to a non-inoculated one) as B. cereus ERBP interfered with natural shoot endophytic community of E. milii, which caused stress symptoms and stimulated ethylene biosynthesis. Non-native host inoculation with PGP B. cereus ERBP could bear potentials and challenges for airborne formaldehyde removal.

  12. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) (United States)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  13. The Blue Pony Lacrosse Program: Embracing the Spirit of Diversity. (United States)

    Sorensen, Barbara


    An offshoot of a Denver, Colorado, alcohol and drug abuse prevention program, Blue Pony reclaims lacrosse as a Native American sport, and uses it to bridge tribal differences and promote cultural awareness, self-empowerment, and healthy lifestyles among urban Native American children. Discusses the game's history, a literacy program utilizing…

  14. Color vision: retinal blues. (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon


    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  15. Decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R by a purified laccase of Polyporus brumalis. (United States)

    Kim, Hyewon; Lee, Sungsuk; Ryu, Sunhwa; Choi, Hyoung T


    A white rot basidiomycete Polyporus brumalis has been reported to induce two laccase genes under degradation conditions of dibutylphthalate. When this fungus was grown in a minimal medium, one laccase enzyme was detected by the native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A laccase was purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography, and the estimated molecular weight was 70 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of the purified laccase was pH 4.0 and 20 °C, respectively. The K (m) value of the enzyme was 685.0 μM, and the V (max) was 0.147 ODmin(-1) unit(-1) for o-tolidine. Purified laccase showed effective decolorization of a dye, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), without any laccase mediator. However, this effect was reduced by a laccase inhibitor, kojic acid, which confirmed that the laccase was directly involved in the decolorization of RBBR.

  16. pH值对聚甲苯胺蓝功能化有序介孔碳/离子液体凝胶修饰电极电化学性质的影响%Effect of pH on the Electrochemistry Behaviors of Electropolymerized Toluidine Blue O Functionalized ordered Mesoporous Carbon-ionic Liquid Gel-modified Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The composite of toluidine blue O (TBO) functionalized ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) is prepared by aπ-πstacking interaction. Then the gel is developed based on the polymerization of TBO-OMC and ionic liquid (IL). The polymerization of the TBO (PTBO)-OMC/IL gel is used to modify glass carbon (GC) electrode. The PTBO-OMC/IL gel composite film distributes almost homogeneously with unique structure on the surface of substrate characterized with the scanning electron microscopy. At last, the effect of pH is investigated at the PTBO-OMC/IL gel/GC electrode in the pH range from 4.0 to 9.0. The study shows that anodic and cathodic peak potential for the redox couple of PTBO are pH dependent and they shift toward a negative direction with increasing solution pH. The slope is 76 mV per pH unit when pH7.0. The electrode reaction of PTBO companies with a two-proton transfer with variable values of pH in acidic solution, while one-proton in the alkaline.%制备了甲苯胺蓝(TBO)功能化的有序介孔碳(OMC)/离子液体(IL)凝胶(gel)纳米复合物.将TBO-OMC/ILgel修饰玻碳(GC)电极,然后进行电聚合,制备聚TBO(PTBO)-OMC/ILgel/GC电极.扫描电镜表征显示PTBO-OMC/ILgel复合物表面形貌均一、规则.最后探讨了pH值在4.0-9.0范围内,对PTBO-OMC/ILgel/GC电极电化学性质的影响.实验结果表明,随着溶液pH值的增大,PTBO的氧化峰和还原峰的峰电位均向负的方向移动.当pH7.0时,每改变1个pH值,E1/2改变39mV.这是由于PTBO在酸性溶液中的电化学反应为有两个质子参与的过程,而在碱性溶液中为只有一个质子参与的过程.

  17. A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator exhibiting dual-channel responsive sensing behaviours towards fluoride ion via gel-gel states. (United States)

    Mehdi, Hassan; Pang, Hongchang; Gong, Weitao; Dhinakaran, Manivannan Kalavathi; Wajahat, Ali; Kuang, Xiaojun; Ning, Guiling


    A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator G-16 containing anion and metal-coordination ability has been designed and synthesized. It shows excellent and robust gelation capability as a strong blue fluorescent supramolecular organic gel OG in DMF. Addition of Zn(2+) produced Zn(2+)-coordinated supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn. Organic gel OG and organometallic gel OG-Zn exhibited efficient and different sensing behaviors towards fluoride ion due to the variation in self-assembling nature. Supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn displayed specific selectivity for fluoride ion and formed OG-Zn-F with dramatic color change from blue to blue green in solution and gel to gel states. Furthermore after directly addition of fluoride into OG produced fluoride containing organic gel OG-F with drastically modulation in color from blue to greenish yellow fluorescence via strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property. A number of experiments were conducted such as FTIR, (1)H NMR, and UV/Vis spectroscopies, XRD, SEM and rheology. These results revealed that the driving forces involved in self-assembly of OG, OG-Zn, OG-Zn-F and OG-F were hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, π-π interactions, and van der Waal forces. In contrast to the most anion responsive gels, particularly fluoride ion responsive gels showed gel-sol state transition on stimulation by anions, the gel state of OG and OG-Zn did not show any gel-to-sol transition during the whole F(-) response process.

  18. Thermoresponsive Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Joan Taylor


    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive gelling materials constructed from natural and synthetic polymers can be used to provide triggered action and therefore customised products such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine types as well as for other industries. Some materials give Arrhenius-type viscosity changes based on coil to globule transitions. Others produce more counterintuitive responses to temperature change because of agglomeration induced by enthalpic or entropic drivers. Extensive covalent crosslinking superimposes complexity of response and the upper and lower critical solution temperatures can translate to critical volume temperatures for these swellable but insoluble gels. Their structure and volume response confer advantages for actuation though they lack robustness. Dynamic covalent bonding has created an intermediate category where shape moulding and self-healing variants are useful for several platforms. Developing synthesis methodology—for example, Reversible Addition Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT and Atomic Transfer Radical Polymerisation (ATRP—provides an almost infinite range of materials that can be used for many of these gelling systems. For those that self-assemble into micelle systems that can gel, the upper and lower critical solution temperatures (UCST and LCST are analogous to those for simpler dispersible polymers. However, the tuned hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance plus the introduction of additional pH-sensitivity and, for instance, thermochromic response, open the potential for coupled mechanisms to create complex drug targeting effects at the cellular level.

  19. Native Americans with Diabetes (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  20. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka


    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  1. Blue and White Pot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Many recent archaeological studies have proven that the earliest blue and white porcelain was produced from the kiln in Gongxian County, Henan Province in the Tang Dynasty (618-907). It was an important variety of porcelain available for export then. The early blue and white porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty appeared dark and gray. During the reign of Zhizheng, clear blue and white porcelain was produced, indicating

  2. Cellular blue naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R


    Full Text Available A 31-year-old man had asymptomatic, stationary, 1.5X2 cm, shiny, smooth, dark blue nodule on dorsum of right hand since 12-14 years. In addition he had developed extensive eruption of yellow to orange papulonodular lesions on extensors of limbs and buttocks since one and half months. Investigations confirmed that yellow papules were xanthomatosis and he had associated diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. Biopsy of blue nodule confirmed the clinical diagnosis of cellular blue naevus. Cellular blue naevus is rare and its association with xanthomatosis and diabetes mellitus were interesting features of above patients which is being reported for its rarity.

  3. Agarose gel shift assay reveals that calreticulin favors substrates with a quaternary structure in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Sanne Grundvad; Houen, Gunnar; Højrup, Peter


    Here we present an agarose gel shift assay that, in contrast to other electrophoresis approaches, is loaded in the center of the gel. This allows proteins to migrate in either direction according to their isoelectric points. Therefore, the presented assay enables a direct visualization, separation...... structure. It is also demonstrated that the agarose gel shift assay is useful in the study of other protein interactions and can be used as an alternative method to native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis....

  4. Feeling blue? Blue phosphors for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hungshin Fu


    Full Text Available Research on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs has been revitalized, partly due to the debut of the OLED TV by SONY in 2008. While there is still plenty of room for improvement in efficiency, cost-effectiveness and longevity, it is timely to report on the advances of light emitting materials, the core of OLEDs, and their future perspectives. The focus of this account is primarily to chronicle the blue phosphors developed in our laboratory. Special attention is paid to the design strategy, synthetic novelty, and their OLED performance. The report also underscores the importance of the interplay between chemistry and photophysics en route to true-blue phosphors.

  5. Blue Ocean Thinking (United States)

    Orem, Donna


    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  6. Blue Willow Story Plates (United States)

    Fontes, Kris


    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  7. From blue jeans to blue genes. (United States)

    Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka


    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes.

  8. Analysis of metal-binding proteins separated by non-denaturating gel electrophoresis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). (United States)

    Becker, J Susanne; Mounicou, Sandra; Zoriy, Miroslav V; Becker, J Sabine; Lobinski, Ryszard


    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) have become established as very efficient and sensitive biopolymer and elemental mass spectrometric techniques for studying metal-binding proteins (metalloproteins) in life sciences. Protein complexes present in rat tissues (liver and kidney) were separated in their native state in the first dimension by blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Essential and toxic metals, such as zinc, copper, iron, nickel, chromium, cadmium and lead, were detected by scanning the gel bands using quadrupole LA-ICP-MS with and without collision cell as a microanalytical technique. Several proteins were identified by using MALDI-TOF-MS together with a database search. For example, on one protein band cut from the BN-PAGE gel and digested with the enzyme trypsin, two different proteins - protein FAM44B and cathepsin B precursor - were identified. By combining biomolecular and elemental mass spectrometry, it was possible to characterize and identify selected metal-binding rat liver and kidney tissue proteins.

  9. Cyanocobalamin Nasal Gel (United States)

    Cyanocobalamin nasal gel is used to prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any of the following: ... blood cells have returned to normal, cyanocobalamin nasal gel can be used to stop anemia and other ...

  10. Blue ocean strategy. (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée


    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  11. Le blue-jean


    Miller, Daniel


    Le Blue-jean: pourquoi la technologie vient en dernier. La plupart des personnes pensent que la technique (ou la technologie) correspond à ce qui vient en amont du produit. Dans cet article, Daniel Miller s’intéresse plutôt à des cas dans lesquels l’ordre de la séquence est renversé et où le produit précède, ou initie, en quelque sorte, la technique. L’auteur commence par décrire les techniques d’usure artificielle des blue jeans  : une technique qui vise à copier les effets du port des blue ...

  12. Diced electrophoresis gel assay for screening enzymes with specified activities. (United States)

    Komatsu, Toru; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Adibekian, Alexander; Yoshioka, Kentaro; Terai, Takuya; Ueno, Tasuku; Kawaguchi, Mitsuyasu; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Nagano, Tetsuo


    We have established the diced electrophoresis gel (DEG) assay as a proteome-wide screening tool to identify enzymes with activities of interest using turnover-based fluorescent substrates. The method utilizes the combination of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with a multiwell-plate-based fluorometric assay to find protein spots with the specified activity. By developing fluorescent substrates that mimic the structure of neutrophil chemoattractants, we could identify enzymes involved in metabolic inactivation of the chemoattractants.

  13. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION.... Large Cetaceans (Whales): Blue whale—Balaenoptera musculus. Fin whale—Balaenoptera physalus....



    Boon, Laurence M.; Vikkula, Miikka


    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue in color and vary in size, number and location, and account for the majority of consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important as they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel t...

  15. Blue Ribbon Panel Report (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  16. New York Blue (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  17. Methylene blue test (United States)

    Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... No special preparation is required for this test. ... which are genetic (problem with your genes). This test is used to tell the difference between methemoglobinemia ...

  18. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita


    Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.

  19. MBS Native Plant Communities (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  20. Sol-Gel Glasses (United States)

    Mukherjee, S. P.


    Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline gels/gel derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous gel precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of gel derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of gels in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of gel chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica gel matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline gels/gel-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate gel-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.

  1. Atypical cellular blue nevus or malignant blue nevus?* (United States)

    Daltro, Luise Ribeiro; Yaegashi, Lygia Bertalha; Freitas, Rodrigo Abdalah; Fantini, Bruno de Carvalho; Souza, Cacilda da Silva


    Blue nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion whose most frequent variants are dendritic (common) blue nevus and cellular blue nevus. Atypical cellular blue nevus presents an intermediate histopathology between the typical and a rare variant of malignant blue nevus/melanoma arising in a cellular blue nevus. An 8-year-old child presented a pigmented lesion in the buttock since birth, but with progressive growth in the last two years. After surgical excision, histopathological examination revealed atypical cellular blue nevus. Presence of mitoses, ulceration, infiltration, cytological atypia or necrosis may occur in atypical cellular blue nevus, making it difficult to differentiate it from melanoma. The growth of blue nevus is unusual and considered of high-risk for malignancy, being an indicator for complete resection and periodic follow-up of these patients. PMID:28225968

  2. Listen to the Natives (United States)

    Prensky, Marc


    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  3. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden


    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  4. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen


    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  5. After Stroke, 'Blue' Light May Help Beat the Blues (United States)

    ... After Stroke, 'Blue' Light May Help Beat the Blues Akin ... a danger for people recovering from a debilitating stroke. But new research suggests that tweaking a rehabilitation ...

  6. Plaque Type Blue Naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentamilselvi G


    Full Text Available A case of plaque type blue naevus was encountered in a Dermatology Clinic in Madras. The various clinical differential diagnoses are discussed, the hitopathological features described and the benign nature of the tumour stressed. The case is reported for its rarity and to create an awareness of this entity.

  7. Blue rubber bleb naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R


    Full Text Available A 35 year old female had multiple progressive painful, tender, soft, bluish compressible nodules with the feel of rubber nipples. There was no evidence of gastrointestinal haemangiomas or other systemic abnormalities. Histopathologically, cavernous haemangioma with prominent smooth muscle outline proved the clinical diagnosis of blue rubber bleb naevus. Only cutaneous lesions were seen in the patient.

  8. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.


    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  9. The Blue Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    This paper makes an important contribution to the discussion about knowledge based localised externalities in the context of shipping and the maritime sector in Denmark. In the paper we ask if there is a national, knowledge‐based maritime cluster configured around the shipowners in Denmark. This ...... talk about The Blue Denmark....

  10. Blue spectral inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Schunck, Franz E


    We reconsider the nonlinear second order Abel equation of Stewart and Lyth, which follows from a nonlinear second order slow-roll approximation. We find a new eigenvalue spectrum in the blue regime. Some of the discrete values of the spectral index n_s have consistent fits to the cumulative COBE data as well as to recent ground-base CMB experiments.

  11. Dark Blue II



    Dark Blue II, high fired porcelain, decorated with cobalt chloride, woodfired with salt. 10,5 x 10,5 x 19 cm. Ferdigstilt: 2012. Innkjøpt til Collection of The American Museum of Ceramic Art, Pomona, California, USA.

  12. GelTouch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miruchna, Viktor; Walter, Robert; Lindlbauer, David;


    We present GelTouch, a gel-based layer that can selectively transition between soft and stiff to provide tactile multi-touch feedback. It is flexible, transparent when not activated, and contains no mechanical, electromagnetic, or hydraulic components, resulting in a compact form factor (a 2mm thin...... touchscreen layer for our prototype). The activated areas can be morphed freely and continuously, without being limited to fixed, predefined shapes. GelTouch consists of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel layer which alters its viscoelasticity when activated by applying heat (>32 C). We present three different...... a tablet with 6x4 tactile areas, enabling a tactile numpad, slider, and thumbstick. We show that the gel is up to 25 times stiffer when activated and that users detect tactile features reliably (94.8%)....

  13. Native Health Research Database (United States)

    ... Rancheria Boise Forte Caddo Cahuilla Band of Indians Campo Band of Mission Indians Canadian Indian Canadian Native ... Type Annual Report Comment Community Engagement Project Congresses Editorial Evaluation Study Guideline Historical Article Journal Article Letter ...

  14. Native grasslands fertilize themselves (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — News article about Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge and how the native soils and plants function to stimulate the system, creating a more productive grassland.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU


    Full Text Available The international diplomatic environment has reached to an unprecedented development, involving one of the newly specialized diplomatic types, namely the economic diplomacy. At the core of the fast movements in the diplomatic spheres across the Globe are the international agreements like the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP that determined diplomacy to dissolve into new subtypes, evolving from ground to the ocean and implementing new ways of achieving economic and climate sustainability. One of the newly created diplomatic spheres, is the blue ocean diplomacy that acts mainly in accordance with the rules and regulations that are being applied to the transatlantic economy. Even though TTIP encourages the increase of trade flows across the Atlantic, it will also ease the foreign investment procedures that, under the approach of keeping a sustainable environment, will represent one of the most important initiatives in implementing the blue economy concept within the framework of the transatlantic diplomacy.

  16. Faint Blue Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S


    The physical properties of the faint blue galaxy population are reviewed in the context of observational progress made via deep spectroscopic surveys and Hubble Space Telescope imaging of field galaxies at various limits, and theoretical models for the integrated star formation history of the Universe. Notwithstanding uncertainties in the properties of the local population of galaxies, convincing evidence has emerged from several independent studies for a rapid decline in the volume-averaged star formation rate of field galaxies since a redshift z~1. Together with the small angular sizes and modest mean redshift of the faintest detectable sources, these results can be understood in hierarchical models where the bulk of the star formation occurred at redshifts between z~1-2. The physical processes responsible for the subsequent demise of the faint blue galaxy population remains unclear. Considerable progress will be possible when the evolutionary trends can be monitored in the context of independent physical p...

  17. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru. (United States)

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C; Dillehay, Tom D; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana


    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans).

  18. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru (United States)

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C.; Dillehay, Tom D.; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana


    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans). PMID:27652337

  19. Responsive Gel-Gel Phase Transitions in Artificially Engineered Protein Hydrogels (United States)

    Olsen, B. D.


    Artificially engineered protein hydrogels provide an attractive platform for biomedical materials due to their similarity to components of the native extracellular matrix. Engineering responsive transitions between shear-thinning and tough gel phases in these materials could potentially enable gels that are both shear-thinning and tough to be produced as novel injectable biomaterials. To engineer a gel with such transitions, a triblock copolymer with thermoresponsive polymer endblocks and an artificially engineered protein gel midblock is designed. Temperature is used to trigger a transition from a single network protein hydrogel phase to a double network phase with both protein and block copolymer networks present at different length scales. The thermodynamics of network formation and resulting structural changes are established using small-angle scattering, birefringence, and dynamic scanning calorimetry. The formation of the second network is shown to produce a large, nonlinear increase in the elastic modulus as well as enhancements in creep compliance and toughness. Although the gels show yielding behavior in both the single and double network regimes, a qualitative change in the deformation mechanism is observed due to the structural changes.

  20. Native listening: The flexibility dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.


    The way we listen to spoken language is tailored to the specific benefit of native-language speech input. Listening to speech in non-native languages can be significantly hindered by this native bias. Is it possible to determine the degree to which a listener is listening in a native-like manner? Pr

  1. Proteome analysis of barley seeds: Identification of major proteins from two-dimensional gels (pl 4-7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, O.; Finnie, Christine; Laugesen, S.;


    -soluble proteins in extracts of mature barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds and to follow their fate during germination. About 1200 and 600 spots of p/ 4-7 were detected on 2-D gels by silver staining and colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining, respectively. About 300 spots were selected for in-gel digestion...

  2. The characterisation of a genipin-gelatin gel dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J B; Bosi, S; Baldock, C, E-mail:


    Genipin cross links gelatin to slowly form a blue colour that bleaches upon irradiation. Spectrophotometric measurements of the absorbance change following irradiation to doses up to 100 Gy gives a linear dose response for certain concentrations of the gel ingredients; genipin, gelatin and sulphuric acid. Dose sensitivity increases with increasing concentrations of sulphuric acid and genipin and is also strongly dependent on the time allowed for the genipin-gelatin cross linking reaction (referred to here as blending) to take place. The optimum formulation of this gel was found for genipin concentration between 0.3 - 0.5 mM and blending time of at least 4 h.

  3. Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) predation on fishes in the Muddy River system, Clark County, Nevada (United States)

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Salgado, J.A.; Nielsen, M.B.


    Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus), native to North Africa and the Middle East (Courtenay and Robins 1973, Fuller et al. 1999), has been introduced around the world as a human food source, for vegetation control, and as a game fish (Costa-Pierce and Riedel 2000). Blue tilapia has been particularly successful in establishing and spreading in North American waters where it has been reported to change fish community structure and cause native fish decline (Courtenay and Robins 1973, Fuller et al. 1999). Because of these detrimental effects, it is now generally considered an unwelcome introduction into North American waters (Dill and Cordone 1997, Fuller et al. 1999).

  4. The ancient blue oak woodlands of California: longevity and hydroclimatic history (United States)

    Stahle, D.W.; Griffin, R.D.; Meko, D.M.; Therrell, M.D.; Edmondson, J.R.; Cleaveland, M.K.; Burnette, D.J.; Abatzoglou, J.T.; Redmond, K.T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.


    Ancient blue oak trees are still widespread across the foothills of the Coast Ranges, Cascades, and Sierra Nevada in California. The most extensive tracts of intact old-growth blue oak woodland appear to survive on rugged and remote terrain in the south Coast Ranges and on the foothills west and southwest of Mt. Lassen. In our sampling of old-growth stands, most blue oak appear to have recruited to the canopy in the mid- to late-19th century. The oldest living blue oak tree sampled was over 459-years old and several dead blue oak logs had over 500 annual rings. Precipitation sensitive tree-ring chronologies up to 700-years long have been developed from old blue oak trees and logs. Annual ring-width chronologies of blue oak are strongly correlated with cool season precipitation totals, streamflow in the major rivers of California, and the estuarine water quality of San Francisco Bay. A new network of 36 blue oak chronologies records spatial anomalies in growth that arise from latitudinal changes in the mean storm track and location of landfalling atmospheric rivers. These long, climate-sensitive blue oak chronologies have been used to reconstruct hydroclimatic history in California and will help to better understand and manage water resources. The environmental history embedded in blue oak growth chronologies may help justify efforts to conserve these authentic old-growth native woodlands.

  5. Mechanically induced gel formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpt, Jochem T.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.


    Mechanical triggering of gelation of an organic solution by a carbazole-based bisurea organogelator is described. Both the duration of the mechanical stimulation and the gelator concentration control the gelation process and the characteristics of the gel obtained.

  6. Conformance Improvement Using Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, Randall S.; Schrader, Richard; II Hagstrom, John; Wang, Ying; Al-Dahfeeri, Abdullah; Gary, Raven; Marin; Amaury; Lindquist, Brent


    This research project had two objectives. The first objective was to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective was to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil.

  7. Preparation of chitosan gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerge S.


    Full Text Available Aerogel conditioning of the chitosan makes it possible to prepare porous solids of significant specific surface. The increase in the chitosan concentration or the degree of acetylation decreases the specific surface of the synthesized chitosan gel. Whereas drying with supercritical CO2 more effectively makes it possible to preserve the volume of the spheres of gel and to have a more significant specific surface in comparison with evaporative drying.

  8. Crystallization from Gels (United States)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  9. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall S. Seright


    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate

  11. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization on collagen gels: Effect of densification and bioglass incorporation. (United States)

    Liu, Gengbo; Pastakia, Meet; Fenn, Michael B; Kishore, Vipuil


    Plastic compression is a collagen densification process that has been widely used for the development of mechanically robust collagen-based materials. Incorporation of bioglass within plastically compressed collagen gels has been shown to mimic the microstructural properties of native bone and enhance in vitro cell-mediated mineralization. The current study seeks to decouple the effects of collagen densification and bioglass incorporation to understand the interplay between collagen packing density and presence of bioglass on cell-mediated mineralization. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization was assessed as a measure of the osteoconductivity of four different collagen gels: (1) uncompressed collagen gel (UC), (2) bioglass incorporated uncompressed collagen gel (UC + BG), (3) plastically compressed collagen gel (PC), and (4) bioglass incorporated plastically compressed collagen gel (PC + BG). The results indicated that collagen densification enhanced mineralization as shown by SEM, increased alkaline phosphatase activity and produced significantly higher amounts of mineralized nodules on PC gels compared to UC gels. Further, the amount of nodule formation on PC gels was significantly higher compared to UC + BG gels indicating that increase in matrix stiffness due to collagen densification had a greater effect on cell-mediated mineralization compared to bioglass incorporation into loosely packed UC gels. Incorporation of bioglass into PC gels further enhanced mineralization as evidenced by significantly larger nodule size and higher amount of mineralization on PC + BG gels compared to PC gels. In conclusion, collagen densification via plastic compression improves the osteoconductivity of collagen gels. Further, incorporation of bioglass within PC gels has an additive effect and further enhances the osteoconductivity of collagen gels.

  12. Tunable Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticle Sol-Gel Composites (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Snow, Lanee A.; Sibille, Laurent; Ignont, Erica


    We demonstrate that the linear and non-linear optical properties of sol-gels containing metal nanoparticles are highly tunable with porosity. Moreover, we extend the technique of immersion spectroscopy to inhomogeneous hosts, such as aerogels, and determine rigorous bounds for the average fractional composition of each component, i.e., the porosity of the aerogel, or equivalently, for these materials, the catalytic dispersion. Sol-gels containing noble metal nanoparticles were fabricated and a significant blue-shift in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was observed upon formation of an aerogel, as a result of the decrease in the dielectric constant of the matrix upon supercritical extraction of the solvent. However, as a result of chemical interface damping and aggregation this blue-shift does not strictly obey standard effective medium theories. Mitigation of these complications is achieved by avoiding the use of alcohol and by annealing the samples in a reducing atmosphere.

  13. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta


    the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...... decreased. PCB was also found to be more sensitive to pH than phycocyanin. Regarding the stability with time, PCB showed a similar stability at pH 3, and worse at pH 5 and pH 7. The change from blue to green colour in acid conditions was attributed to protonation of the chromophore. However, the effect...

  14. Is Nativism Sufficient? (United States)

    Braine, Martin D. S.


    Provides a brief history of the empiricism-nativism issue, considering present-day intellectual roots of nativist and empiricist inclinations. A schema is proposed for explaining the ontogenetic origin of an innate attribute or principle relevant to language. An attempt is made to explain the origin of primitives as derived by learning. (Contains…

  15. Non-native seagrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tussenbroek, B.I.; van Katwijk, M.M.; Bouma, T.J.; van der Heide, T.; Govers, L.L.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.


    Seagrasses comprise 78 species and are rarely invasive. But the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, firstly recorded in the Caribbean in the year 2002, has spread quickly throughout the region. Previous works have described this species as invasive in the Caribbean, forming dense mats that exclude native

  16. Blue ocean leadership. (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée


    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  17. [Preparation, characterization and surface-enhanced Raman properties of agarose gel/gold nanoparticles hybrid]. (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-yuan; Liu, Ying; Wang, Zhou-ping


    Agarose gel/gold nanoparticles hybrid was prepared by adding gold nanoparticles to preformed agarose gel. Naniocomposite structures and properties were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. Experimental data indicated a uniform distribution of gold nanoparticles adsorbed on agarose gel network And the excellent optical absorption properties were shown. Based on the swelling-contraction characteristics of agarose gel and the adjustable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the gold nanoparticles, the nano-composites were used as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to detect the Raman signal molecules Nile blue A. Results revealed that the porous structure of the agarose gel provided a good carrier for the enrichment of the gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles dynamic hot-spot effect arising from the agarose gel contraction loss of water in the air greatly enhanced the Raman signal.

  18. Postpartum Blues and Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Ö et al.


    Full Text Available Postpartum blues which is seen during the postpartum period is a transient psychological state. Most of the mothers experience maternity blues in postpartum period. It remains usually unrecognized by the others. Some sensitive families can misattribute these feelings as depression. In this article, we tried to review the characteristics of maternity blues and its differences from depression. We defined depression and presented the incidence and diagnostic criteria, of major depression as well as the risk factors and clinic findings of postpartum depression. Thus, especially at primary care we aimed to prevent misdiagnosis of both maternity blues and depression

  19. Active Polymer Gel Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Hashimoto


    Full Text Available Many kinds of stimuli-responsive polymer and gels have been developed and applied to biomimetic actuators or artificial muscles. Electroactive polymers that change shape when stimulated electrically seem to be particularly promising. In all cases, however, the mechanical motion is driven by external stimuli, for example, reversing the direction of electric field. On the other hand, many living organisms can generate an autonomous motion without external driving stimuli like self-beating of heart muscles. Here we show a novel biomimetic gel actuator that can walk spontaneously with a wormlike motion without switching of external stimuli. The self-oscillating motion is produced by dissipating chemical energy of oscillating reaction. Although the gel is completely composed of synthetic polymer, it shows autonomous motion as if it were alive.

  20. Intelligibility of native and non-native Dutch Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van


    The intelligibility of speech is known to be lower if the speaker is non-native instead of native for the given language. This study is aimed at quantifying the overall degradation due to limitations of non-native speakers of Dutch, specifically of Dutch-speaking Americans who have lived in the Neth

  1. Speech intelligibility of native and non-native speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van


    The intelligibility of speech is known to be lower if the talker is non-native instead of native for the given language. This study is aimed at quantifying the overall degradation due to acoustic-phonetic limitations of non-native talkers of Dutch, specifically of Dutch-speaking Americans who have l

  2. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture. (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry


    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  3. Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — NPAM is a framework for guiding annual decisions about the management of Service‐owned native prairie parcels that are prone to invasions by non‐native grasses,...

  4. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  5. Who Stole Native American Studies? (United States)

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth


    Native American Studies has failed to develop into an academic discipline because of the continued influence of postcolonial theories, attempts to discredit Native American scholars, politically determined research agendas, and the ideology of the "New Historicism." Native American Studies must seek autonomy from other opportunistic…

  6. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes? (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert


    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  7. Production and Purification of Remazol Brilliant Blue R Decolorizing Peroxidase from the Culture Filtrate of Pleurotus ostreatus (United States)

    Shin, K.; Oh, I.; Kim, C.


    An extracellular H(inf2)O(inf2)-requiring Remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) decolorizing enzymatic activity was found in the culture medium of Pleurotus ostreatus. The enzymatic activity was maximally obtained in idiophase, and the optimum C/N ratio was 24. High C/N ratios repressed the enzymatic activity, and addition of veratryl alcohol had no effect on the production of enzyme. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephacryl S-200 HR chromatography, DEAE Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, and Mono Q chromatography. The purification of RBBR decolorizing peroxidase, as judged by the final specific activity of 6.00 U/mg, was 54.5-fold, with a yield of 9.9%. The molecular mass of the native enzyme determined by gel permeation chromatography was found to be about 73 kDa. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 71 kDa. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 3.0 to 3.5 and at 25(deg)C. Under standard assay conditions, the apparent K(infm) values of the enzyme toward RBBR and H(inf2)O(inf2) were 10.99 and 32.97 (mu)M, respectively. The enzyme had affinity toward various phenolic compounds and artificial dyes, and it was inhibited by Na(inf2)S(inf2)O(inf5), potassium cyanide, NaN(inf3), and cysteine. The absorption spectrum of the enzyme exhibited maxima at 407, 510, and 640 nm. The addition of H(inf2)O(inf2) to the enzyme resulted in an absorbance decrease at 407 and 510 nm. PMID:16535590

  8. Improving paper strength by gelation of native starch and borax in the presence of fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen


    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a novel non-ionic augmentation system, namely, gelation of native starch in the presence of borax and papermaking fibers. Native starch was blended with high concentration pulp and auxiliary agents. After pasting, the starch gel adhered onto fiber surfaces. However, an excess dosage of agents led to a rigid structure and poor gel strength. Starch became gelatinized and then cross-linked by borax and cured as an adhesive layer through the process of pressing and drying under a high temperature. This provided close and uniform contact between starch and fibers. As a result, the strength of the paper was increased after forming.

  9. A Colorful Mixing Experiment in a Stirred Tank Using Non-Newtonian Blue Maize Flour Suspensions (United States)

    Trujilo-de Santiago, Grissel; Rojas-de Gante, Cecillia; García-Lara, Silverio; Ballesca´-Estrada, Adriana; Alvarez, Marion Moise´s


    A simple experiment designed to study mixing of a material of complex rheology in a stirred tank is described. Non-Newtonian suspensions of blue maize flour that naturally contain anthocyanins have been chosen as a model fluid. These anthocyanins act as a native, wide spectrum pH indicator exhibiting greenish colors in alkaline environments, blue…

  10. Conjuring the Colonizer: Alternative Readings of Magic Realism in Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues" (United States)

    Belcher, Wendy


    Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues" has inspired both admiration and castigation. Critics such as Stephen Evans, Adrian C. Louis, Joseph Coulombe, and James Cox have praised Alexie's satiric upending of stereotypes about Native Americans, claiming that Alexie's work "uses stereotypes...of the...Indian, in new and entirely moral and ethical ways."…

  11. gonarthrosis; therapy; Karmolis gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Zavodovsky


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficacy, tolerance, and safety of Carmolis topical gel in patients with gonarthrosis. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 60 patients with knee osteoarthrosis (OA who were divided into two groups: 1 40 patients received Carmolis topical gel in addition to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; 2 20 patients took NSAIDS only (a control group. The treatment duration was 2 weeks. In both groups, therapeutic effectiveness was evaluated from changes in the WOMAC index, pain intensity at rest and during movement by the visual analog scale (VAS. The disease activity was also assessed by a physician and a patient (a Likert scale, local swelling and hyperthermia of the affected joint, the efficiency of treatment, and daily needs for NSAIDs were deter- mined. Results. The performed treatment in both patent groups showed positive clinical changes. Combination therapy involving Carmolis gel displayed greater reductions in WOMAC pain and resting and movement pain than in the con- trol group (as assessed by VAS. On completion of the investigation, considerable improvement was, in the physicians' opinion, noted in 38 (95% patients using Carmolis, which coincided with self-evaluations of the patients. During Carmolis application, the starting dose of NSAIDs could be reduced in 18 (45% patients. Adverse reactions occurred infrequently and required no therapy discontinuation. Conclusion. Carmolis topical gel is effective in relieving clinical symptoms in patients with gonarthrosis, well tolerated, and safe, which can recommend its use in the combination treatment of knee OA.

  12. Testosterone Nasal Gel (United States)

    ... or any of the ingredients in testosterone nasal gel. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking. Be sure to mention ...

  13. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  14. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  15. Blue moons and Martian sunsets. (United States)

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans


    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation.

  16. Blue Man袭东京

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naomi Saeki; 李宝怡


    <正>20年前在美国曼克顿风靡一时的Blue Man Group,最近在东京出现,马上成为城中话题。在东京,每年有不少舞台剧演出,但是像Blue Man Group这样备受注目的,近年罕见。Blue Man Group in Tokyo于上年12月开始公演·1个月的门票早在9月中旬

  17. Active Polymer Gel Actuators


    Shuji Hashimoto; Ryo Yoshida; Yusuke Hara; Shingo Maeda


    Many kinds of stimuli-responsive polymer and gels have been developed and applied to biomimetic actuators or artificial muscles. Electroactive polymers that change shape when stimulated electrically seem to be particularly promising. In all cases, however, the mechanical motion is driven by external stimuli, for example, reversing the direction of electric field. On the other hand, many living organisms can generate an autonomous motion without external driving stimuli like self-beating of he...

  18. Ionic and acid gel formation of epimerised alginates; the effect of AlgE4. (United States)

    Draget, K I; Strand, B; Hartmann, M; Valla, S; Smidsrød, O; Skjåk-Braek, G


    AlgE4 is a mannuronan C5 epimerase converting homopolymeric sequences of mannuronate residues in alginates into mannuronate/guluronate alternating sequences. Treating alginates of different biological origin with AlgE4 resulted in different amounts of alternating sequences. Both ionically cross-linked alginate gels as well as alginic acid gels were prepared from the epimerised alginates. Gelling kinetics and gel equilibrium properties were recorded and compared to results obtained with the original non-epimerised alginates. An observed reduced elasticity of the alginic acid gels following epimerisation by AlgE4 seems to be explained by the generally increased acid solubility of the alternating sequences. Ionically (Ca(2+)) cross-linked gels made from epimerised alginates expressed a higher degree of syneresis compared to the native samples. An increase in the modulus of elasticity was observed in calcium saturated (diffusion set) gels whereas calcium limited, internally set alginate gels showed no change in elasticity. An increase in the sol-gel transitional rate of gels made from epimerised alginates was also observed. These results suggest an increased possibility of creating new junction zones in the epimerised alginate gel due to the increased mobility in the alginate chain segments caused by the less extended alternating sequences.

  19. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N. R.


    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  20. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  1. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  2. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo


    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  3. Traditional West Coast Native Medicine


    Deagle, George


    An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” pla...

  4. Separation of metalloproteins using a novel metal ion contaminant sweeping technique and detection of protein-bound copper by a metal ion probe in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: distribution of copper in human serum. (United States)

    Saito, Shingo; Kawashima, Mitsuyoshi; Ohshima, Hiroki; Enomoto, Kazuki; Sato, Makoto; Yoshimura, Hajime; Yoshimoto, Keitaro; Maeda, Mizuo; Shibukawa, Masami


    A polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE)-based method has been developed, consisting of two types of gel electrophoresis, to obtain an accurate distribution of protein-bound metal ions in biological samples. First, proteins are separated by PAGE without the uptake of contaminant metal ions in the separation field and dissociation of metal ions from the proteins. This is followed by another PAGE for the separation and detection of protein-bound metal ions in small volume samples with high sensitivity in the ppt range using a fluorescent metal probe. The former is a new technique using blue-native (BN) PAGE to electrophoretically sweep all metal contaminants by employing two kinds of chelating agents. These agents form complexes with contaminants in the gel and the separation buffer solution, which migrate towards opposite pole directions, thus lowering the contaminants to below the ppt level during separation. This is termed "Metal Ion Contaminant Sweeping BN-PAGE (MICS-BN-PAGE)". After the separation of proteins under these first metal-free conditions, the metal ions in the gel fractions are eluted, followed by derivatization of copper ions into the metal probe complexes to be separated and determined by fluorescence detection in the second PAGE. In this PAGE-based method, the copper ions bound to ceruloplasmin and superoxide dismutase were quantitatively determined, in addition to the exchangeable albumin-bound copper ions. This system successfully provided distribution maps of protein-copper in human serum. The precise distribution of copper in human serum was investigated, and found to be different from that which is widely accepted.

  5. A technique for detecting antifungal activity of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (United States)

    De Bolle, M F; Goderis, I J; Terras, F R; Cammue, B P; Broekaert, W F


    A technique was developed for the detection of antifungal activity of proteins after discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under native conditions. The antifungal activity is detected as growth inhibition zones in a homogeneous fungal lawn, grown in an agar layer spread on top of the polyacrylamide gel. The position of proteins with antifungal activity can be determined on a diffusion blot prepared from the same gel. The technique is illustrated for three antifungal plant proteins, i.e. alpha-purothionin, Urtica dioica agglutinin, and tobacco chitinase.

  6. Primer registro del Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae como huésped nativo primario de Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae First record of Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae as primary native host of Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Cimicidae: Hemiptera: Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L Carpintero


    Full Text Available Se presenta como huésped primario nativo de la chinche Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae al Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Su presencia en la provincia del Chaco constituye además un nuevo registro distribucional de esta chinche en la República Argentina. Se agrega una breve discusión acerca de la taxonomía de la misma y se comparan algunos parámetros poblacionales con los de otras especies de cimícidos. Finalmente, se discuten las vías de infestación posibles en el estado actual de conocimiento, incluyendo otras aves (Furnariidae y murciélagos (Chiroptera.The primary natural host of cimicid bug Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae is presented as Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Its presence in the Chaco province is also a new distributional record of this bug in Argentina. A brief discussion about the taxonomy is also given and some population parameters are compared with those of other bug species. Finally, we discuss possible infestation ways in the current state of knowledge, including other birds (Furnariidae and bats (Chiroptera.

  7. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.


    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  8. Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility. (United States)

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, Stéphanie; Langlois, Geneviève; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine


    Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

  9. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues. (United States)

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari


    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  10. Coyote's Eyes: Native Cognition Styles. (United States)

    Tafoya, Terry


    Using a Native American parable, compares the Standard Average European (SAE) world view with the Standard Native American (SNA) world view and the effects they have on education. Points out possible areas of interethnic confusion as a result of these two world views in communication dealing with cognitive schemes. (LC)

  11. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French


    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  12. Native American Foods and Cookery. (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V., Chernyaev S.V.


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the functional properties of carrageenan, depending on the concentration of sodium chloride and xanthan in gels. It is established that the main factors in the syneresis of carrageenan gels are its concentration, the presence of ions and gums in solution. If using sodium chloride there is a change in the structure of mesh of the resulting gel, which leads to an increase in syneresis.

  14. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William


    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at C.

  15. Why Do Proteins Glow Blue?

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Sohini; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj


    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band structure of proteins with the optical band-gap in the visible region is possibly the origin of this phenomenon. We show here that the band structure of proteins is primarily the result of electron delocalization through the peptide chain, rather than through the hydrogen bond network in secondary structure.

  16. Agminated blue nevus - Case report* (United States)

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna


    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus. PMID:27828645

  17. A New Kind of Blue Hybrid Electroluminescent Device. (United States)

    Wang, Junling; Li, Zhuan; Liu, Chunmei


    Bright blue Electroluminescence come from a ITO/BBOT doped silica (6 x 10(-3) M) made by a sol-gel method/Al driven by AC with 500 Hz at different voltages and Gaussian analysis under 55 V showed that blue emission coincidenced with typical triple emission from BBOT. This kind of device take advantage of organics (BBOT) and inorganics (silica). Electroluminescence from a single-layered sandwiched device consisting of blue fluorescent dye 2,5-bis (5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl) thiophene (BBOT) doped silica made by sol-gel method was investigated. A number of concentrations of hybrid devices were prepared and the maxium concentration was 6 x 10(-3) M. Blue electroluminescent (EL) always occurred above a threshold field 8.57 x 10(5) V/cm (30 V) at alternating voltage at 500 HZ. The luminance of the devices increased with the concentration of doped BBOT, but electroluminescence characteristics were different from a single molecule's photoluminescence properties of triple peaks. When analyzing in detail direct-current electroluminescence devices of pure BBOT, a single peak centered at 2.82 eV appeared with the driven voltage increase, which is similar to the hybrid devices. Comparing Gaussian decomposition date between two kinds of devices, the triple peak characteristic of BBOT was consistent. It is inferred that BBOT contributed EL of the hybrid devices mainly and silica may account for a very small part. Meanwhile the thermal stability of matrix silica was measured by Thermal Gravity-Mass Spectroscopy (TG-MS). There is 12 percent weight loss from room temperature to 1000 °C and silica has about 95% transmittance. So the matric silica played an important role in thermal stability and optical stability for BBOT. In addition, this kind of blue electroluminescence device can take advantages of organic materials BBOT and inorganic materials silica. This is a promising way to enrich EL devices, especially enriching inorganic EL color at a low cost.

  18. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans (United States)

    ... ISORDERS A MONG N ATIVE A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native ... among American Indians: The mythical and real properties. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 18(2):121-143. www. ...

  20. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  1. Molybdate Reduction to Molybdenum Blue by an Antarctic Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ahmad


    Full Text Available A molybdenum-reducing bacterium from Antarctica has been isolated. The bacterium converts sodium molybdate or Mo6+ to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue. Electron donors such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose supported molybdate reduction. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source for molybdate reduction. Optimal conditions for molybdate reduction were between 30 and 50 mM molybdate, between 15 and 20°C, and initial pH between 6.5 and 7.5. The Mo-blue produced had a unique absorption spectrum with a peak maximum at 865 nm and a shoulder at 710 nm. Respiratory inhibitors such as antimycin A, sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and rotenone failed to inhibit the reducing activity. The Mo-reducing enzyme was partially purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The partially purified enzyme showed optimal pH and temperature for activity at 6.0 and 20°C, respectively. Metal ions such as cadmium, chromium, copper, silver, lead, and mercury caused more than 95% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity at 0.1 mM. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY1 based on partial 16s rDNA molecular phylogenetic assessment and the Biolog microbial identification system. The characteristics of this strain would make it very useful in bioremediation works in the polar and temperate countries.

  2. Molybdate reduction to molybdenum blue by an Antarctic bacterium. (United States)

    Ahmad, S A; Shukor, M Y; Shamaan, N A; Mac Cormack, W P; Syed, M A


    A molybdenum-reducing bacterium from Antarctica has been isolated. The bacterium converts sodium molybdate or Mo⁶⁺ to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue). Electron donors such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose supported molybdate reduction. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source for molybdate reduction. Optimal conditions for molybdate reduction were between 30 and 50 mM molybdate, between 15 and 20°C, and initial pH between 6.5 and 7.5. The Mo-blue produced had a unique absorption spectrum with a peak maximum at 865 nm and a shoulder at 710 nm. Respiratory inhibitors such as antimycin A, sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and rotenone failed to inhibit the reducing activity. The Mo-reducing enzyme was partially purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The partially purified enzyme showed optimal pH and temperature for activity at 6.0 and 20°C, respectively. Metal ions such as cadmium, chromium, copper, silver, lead, and mercury caused more than 95% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity at 0.1 mM. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY1 based on partial 16s rDNA molecular phylogenetic assessment and the Biolog microbial identification system. The characteristics of this strain would make it very useful in bioremediation works in the polar and temperate countries.

  3. Structure and kinetics of chemically cross-linked protein gels from small-angle X-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kaieda, Shuji; Halle, Bertil


    Glutaraldehyde (GA) reacts with amino groups in proteins, forming intermolecular cross-links that, at sufficiently high protein concentration, can transform a protein solution into a gel. Although GA has been used as a cross-linking reagent for decades, neither the cross-linking chemistry nor the microstructure of the resulting protein gel have been clearly established. Here we use small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to characterise the microstructure and structural kinetics of gels formed by cross-linking of pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, myoglobin or intestinal fatty acid-binding protein. By comparing the scattering from gels and dilute solutions, we extract the structure factor and the pair correlation function of the gel. The protein gels are spatially heterogeneous, with dense clusters linked by sparse networks. Within the clusters, adjacent protein molecules are almost in contact, but the protein concentration in the cluster is much lower than in a crystal. At the $\\sim$ 1 nm SAXS resolution, the native ...

  4. Rheology and structure of milk protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Visschers, R.W.


    Recent studies on gel formation and rheology of milk gels are reviewed. A distinction is made between gels formed by aggregated casein, gels of `pure` whey proteins and gels in which both casein and whey proteins contribute to their properties. For casein' whey protein mixtures, it has been shown th

  5. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites (United States)

    Petruska, Melissa A.; Klimov, Victor L.


    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  6. The Rise of native advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC


    Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.

  7. Electrochemical Light-Emitting Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Itoh


    Full Text Available Light-emitting gel, a gel state electroluminescence material, is reported. It is composed of a ruthenium complex as the emitter, an ionic liquid as the electrolyte, and oxide nanoparticles as the gelation filler. Emitted light was produced via electrogenerated chemiluminescence. The light-emitting gel operated at low voltage when an alternating current was passed through it, regardless of its structure, which is quite thick. The luminescence property of the gel is strongly affected by nanoparticle materials. TiO2 nanoparticles were a better gelation filler than silica or ZnO was, with respect to luminescence stability, thus indicating a catalytic effect. It is demonstrated that the light-emitting gel device, with quite a simple fabrication process, flashes with the application of voltage.

  8. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels. (United States)

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng


    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed.

  9. Deep 16sRNA sequencing of anterior foregut microbiota from the blue-green sharpshooter (Graphocephala atropunctata) (United States)

    Graphocephala atropunctata (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) or the blue-green sharpshooter (BGSS) has been long recognized as the principal native vector of Xylella fastidiosa in coastal, wine-grape growing areas of California. X. fastidiosa is the causative agent of Pierce’s disease of grapevin...

  10. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increa

  11. Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybecker, Martin Bell; Stawowy, Marek; Clausen, Niels


    Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare vascular disorder with malformed veins, or blebs, appearing in the skin or internal organs. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is the most common feature and often subject to bleeding, potentially resulting in chronic occult blood loss and iron...

  12. The blue revolution in asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid


    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  13. Plutonium Decontamination Using CBI Decon Gel 1101 in Highly Contaminated and Unique Areas at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M; Fischer, R P; Thoet, M M; O' Neill, M; Edgington, G


    A highly contaminated glove-box at LLNL containing plutonium was decontaminated using a strippable decontamination gel. 6 x 12 inch quadrants were mapped out on each of the surfaces. The gel was applied to various surfaces inside the glove-box and was allowed to cure. The radioactivity in each quadrant was measured using a LLNL Blue Alpha meter with a 1.5 inch standoff distance. The results showed decontamination factors of 130 and 210 on cast steel and Lexan{reg_sign} surfaces respectively after several applications. The gel also absorbed more than 91% of the radiation emitted from the surfaces during gel curing. The removed strippable film was analyzed by neutron multiplicity counting and gamma spectroscopy, yielding relative mass information and radioisotopic composition respectively.

  14. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are...

  15. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang


    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  16. Native grassland inventory and monitoring (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Benton Lake refuge has nearly 6,000 acres of native western wheatgrass-green needlegrass prairie uplands. This pilot study was designed to assess the condition of...

  17. Enantioselective esterification of racemic ibuprofen in isooctane by immobilized lipase on cellulose acetate-titanium iso-propoxide gel fiber. (United States)

    Ikeda, Yuko; Kurokawa, Youichi


    Lipase (Candida rugosa) was entrap-immobilized on cellulose acetate-titanium iso-propoxide gel fiber by the sol-gel method. The immobilized lipase was used for the direct synthesis of (S)-ibuprofen ester from racemic ibuprofen using propyl alcohol as an acyl acceptor in isooctane. The activity of the immobilized lipase was decreased to about 10-20% that of native lipase. However, the reaction was more enantioselective compared to that with native lipase. The stability for repeated use was improved by immobilization.



    Ameta, Aarti; Bhati, Indu; Ameta, Rakshit; SURESH C. AMETA


    The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light has been investigated using chromium modified titanium dioxide supported on zeolite (Cr-TiO2/zeolite). The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM. The rate of photodegradation of dye was monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of pH, dye concentration, amount of photocatalyst and intensity of light on the rate of photocatalytic reaction was observed. The results s...

  19. sol-gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto A. Monreal


    Full Text Available En este trabajo sintetizamos nanocilindros de dióxido de titanio de 30 a 400 nm por medio de ADN del plásmido pBR322 de 4,362 pares de bases y el uso de isopropóxido de titanio como precursor por medio del proceso sol-gel. Los geles resultantes fueron calcinados y los polvos caracterizados por medio de Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB, Espectroscopía de Energía Dispersiva, Microscopio Electrónico de Transmisión (MET y Difracción de Rayos X. Los resultados muestran que la síntesis in vitro de nanorods en presencia de ADN, puede ser activada. Muchas otras moléculas sintéticas pueden producirse por medio del uso de sistemas orgánicos, es así como reportamos la síntesis de híbridos hechos de ácidos nucleicos en materiales inorgánicos que pueden tener diversas aplicaciones en sistemas catalíticos, biomateriales y materiales nanoestructurados.

  20. QCD-inspired spectra from Blue`s functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, M.A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik]|[Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Papp, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Zahed, I. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics


    We use the law of addition in random matrix theory to analyze the spectral distributions of a variety of chiral random matrix models as inspired from QCD whether by symmetries or models. In terms of the Blue`s functions recently discussed by Zee, we show that most of the spectral distributions in the macroscopic limit and the quenched approximation, follow algebraically from the discontinuity of a pertinent solution to a cubic (Cardano) or a quartic (Ferrari) equation. We use the end-point equation of the energy spectra in chiral random matrix models to argue for novel phase structures, in which the Dirac density of states plays the role of an order parameter. (orig.)

  1. Primary constituents of blue cohosh: quantification in dietary supplements and potential for toxicity. (United States)

    Rader, Jeanne I; Pawar, Rahul S


    Dietary supplements containing dried roots or extracts of the roots and/or rhizomes of blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) are widely available. This botanical has a long history of use by Native Americans and its use continues to the present day. The primary constituents of blue cohosh are its alkaloids and saponins. The structures of the alkaloids magnoflorine, baptifoline, anagyrine, and N-methylcytisine have been known for many years. The last 10 years have seen a great increase in isolation and identification of the large number of saponins present in blue cohosh. Important developments in nuclear magnetic resonance techniques have contributed substantially to the increase in elucidation of the structures of the complex saponins. Several authors have described quantitative methods for both the alkaloids and saponins in blue cohosh. Such methods have made it possible to quantify these constituents in dietary supplements containing this botanical ingredient. Concentrations of both alkaloids and saponins vary substantially in dietary supplements of blue cohosh. The nicotinic alkaloid, N-methylcytisine, a potent toxicant, has been found in all dietary supplements of blue cohosh analyzed. The teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine has been found in some but not all dietary supplements.

  2. Mechanical Failure in Colloidal Gels (United States)

    Kodger, Thomas Edward

    When colloidal particles in a dispersion are made attractive, they aggregate into fractal clusters which grow to form a space-spanning network, or gel, even at low volume fractions. These gels are crucial to the rheological behavior of many personal care, food products and dispersion-based paints. The mechanical stability of these products relies on the stability of the colloidal gel network which acts as a scaffold to provide these products with desired mechanical properties and to prevent gravitational sedimentation of the dispersed components. Understanding the mechanical stability of such colloidal gels is thus of crucial importance to predict and control the properties of many soft solids. Once a colloidal gel forms, the heterogeneous structure bonded through weak physical interactions, is immediately subject to body forces, such as gravity, surface forces, such as adhesion to a container walls and shear forces; the interplay of these forces acting on the gel determines its stability. Even in the absence of external stresses, colloidal gels undergo internal rearrangements within the network that may cause the network structure to evolve gradually, in processes known as aging or coarsening or fail catastrophically, in a mechanical instability known as syneresis. Studying gel stability in the laboratory requires model colloidal system which may be tuned to eliminate these body or endogenous forces systematically. Using existing chemistry, I developed several systems to study delayed yielding by eliminating gravitational stresses through density matching and cyclic heating to induce attraction; and to study syneresis by eliminating adhesion to the container walls, altering the contact forces between colloids, and again, inducing gelation through heating. These results elucidate the varied yet concomitant mechanisms by which colloidal gels may locally or globally yield, but then reform due to the nature of the physical, or non-covalent, interactions which form

  3. Endogenous Retrovirus EAV-HP Linked to Blue Egg Phenotype in Mapuche Fowl


    David Wragg; Mwacharo, Joram M.; Alcalde, José A.; Chen Wang; Jian-Lin Han; Jaime Gongora; David Gourichon; Michèle Tixier-Boichard; Olivier Hanotte


    Oocyan or blue/green eggshell colour is an autosomal dominant trait found in native chickens (Mapuche fowl) of Chile and in some of their descendants in European and North American modern breeds. We report here the identification of an endogenous avian retroviral (EAV-HP) insertion in oocyan Mapuche fowl and European breeds. Sequencing data reveals 100% retroviral identity between the Mapuche and European insertions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of European oocyan chicken indicates ove...

  4. Congruence between starch gel and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in detecting allozyme variation in pulmonate land slugs. (United States)

    Geenen, Sofie; Jordaens, Kurt; Castilho, Rita; Backeljau, Thierry


    The predominantly selfing slug species Arion (Carinarion) fasciatus, A. (C.) silvaticus and A. (C.) circumscriptus are native in Europe and have been introduced into North America, where each species consists of a single, homozygous multilocus genotype (strain), as defined by starch gel electrophoresis (SGE) of allozymes. In Europe, the "one strain per species" hypothesis does not hold since polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of allozymes uncovered 46 strains divided over the three species. However, electrophoretic techniques may differ in their ability to detect allozyme variation. Therefore, several Carinarion populations from both continents were screened by applying the two techniques simultaneously on the same individual slugs and enzyme loci. SGE and PAGE yielded exactly the same results, so that the different degree of variation in North American and European populations cannot be attributed to differences in resolving power between SGE and PAGE. We found four A. (C.) silvaticus strains in North America indicating that in this region the "one strain per species" hypothesis also cannot be maintained. Hence, the discrepancies between previous electrophoretic studies on Carinarion are most likely due to sampling artefacts and possible founder effects.

  5. Decreased scattering coefficient of blue sclerae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, P J; Borsboom, P C; te Meerman, G J; ten Kate, L P


    The optical scattering properties of blue and normal sclerae were studied with a fiber optic scattering monitor. The scattering was clearly reduced in two osteogenesis imperfecta patients with blue sclerae, and low normal in one osteogenesis imperfecta patient without blue sclerae.

  6. Microstructural and optical properties of transparent conductive ZnO : Al : Mo films deposited by template-assisted sol–gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H-Y He; J-F Huang; Z He; J Lu; Q Shen


    Transparent conductive ZnO : Al : Mo films with a molar ratio of Zn : Al : Mo = 99 : 0.99 : 0.01 were deposited on quartz glass substrate by a template-assisted sol-gel process and characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and UV–Vis and luminescent spectrophotometries. The four types of organic template have induced nanowire morphology with varying aspect ratio. Dip coating in one constant positive and reverse direction causes the parallel array of ZnO : Al : Mo nanowires on the quartz glass substrate. Long and parallel arrayed nanowire films show obviously blue shifts and enhanced transmittances in the UV-Vis light range. The PEG-1000 and PEG-2000 have optimal effects among four templates as constant weight content is used. The films show strong ultraviolet, violet and bluish violet emissions. The templates also lead to overall thicker film and more native defect and thereby remarkably enhancing photoluminescence of the films. Long chain organic template can be used to optimize the optical properties of the doped ZnO film.

  7. Effect of preparation conditions in sol-gel method on yellow phosphor with wide spectrum (United States)

    Lin, Yenchen; Inoue, Shuhei; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Chen, Jyh-Chen


    Among several methods to obtain white light in light emitting diodes (LEDs), mixing blue light with yellow light excited by blue light is the most effective and economical method. However, the quality of white light achieved by this method is poor, making it essential to develop high-quality yellow phosphors. In this study, we synthesized yellow phosphors with broad spectral width by the sol-gel method and studied the effect of various synthetic conditions on their photoluminescence spectra. Consequently, we optimized synthesis conditions for a series of yellow phosphors and found that excess europium doping caused quenching and reduced the quantum yield.

  8. Controlling thermo-reversibility of gelatin gels through a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction under mild conditions for mammalian cells. (United States)

    Sakai, Shinji; Moriyama, Kousuke; Kawakami, Koei


    A variety of cross-linking methods is used for obtaining gelatin gels having a tolerance to thermo-reversible gel-sol transition at physiological temperature. In this paper, we investigated the applicability of horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed cross-linking of tyrosine residues originally contained in native gelatin molecules for preparing such gelatin gels. The gelatin gels obtained through exposure to the enzymatic reaction showed a higher resistance to thermo-reversibility at 37°C than gels obtained through a thermally-induced gelation alone. In addition, the resistance property to thermo-reversible gel-sol transition was tunable by controlling enzymatic reaction conditions: higher peroxidase concentration and thermally-induced pre-gelation accomplished by cooling the gelatin solution prior to the enzymatic reaction produced gels with higher resistance to thermo-reversibility. Fibroblast cells enclosed in the gelatin gels obtained through the enzymatic reaction with thermally-induced pre-gelation showed 93% viability. These results demonstrate the feasibility of peroxidase-catalyzed reaction for obtaining gelatin gels having a tolerance to thermo-reversible gel-to-sol transition at physiological temperature toward applications in biomedical and biopharmaceutical fields.

  9. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Amy E; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J


    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  10. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Amy; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J


    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  11. Cellular biomarkers for monitoring estuarine environments: transplanted versus native mussels. (United States)

    Nigro, M; Falleni, A; Barga, I Del; Scarcelli, V; Lucchesi, P; Regoli, F; Frenzilli, G


    In developed countries, estuarine environments are often subjected to chemical pollution, whose biological impact is profitably evaluated by the use of multi-biomarker approaches on sentinel species. In this paper, we investigate genotoxicity and lysosomal alterations in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), from the estuary of the River Cecina (Tuscany, Italy), selected as "pilot basin" within the Water Frame Directive (2000/60 European Community). Both native and 1 month transplanted mussels were used in order to compare these two approaches in terms of sensitiveness of specific biomarker responses. Genotoxic effects were evaluated as strand breaks, by single cell gel electrophoresis (or Comet assay), and as chromosomal alterations, by the micronucleus test in gill cells. Lysosomal alterations were assessed by the neutral red retention time (in haemocytes), lipofuscin accumulation and ultrastructure (in digestive cells). Heavy metal bioaccumulation was also analysed. Mussels from the River Cecina showed a general alteration of all the biomarkers investigated, accompanied by an elevation of tissue metal levels. However, some differences in specific responses occurred between transplanted and native mussels. Early biomarkers, such as those based on DNA and lysosomal membrane integrity, were induced at similar degree in native and transplanted mussels; while alterations resulting from cumulative events, as the increase of micronuclei frequency were much more elevated in native specimens (23.1+/-7.6) than in transplanted (9.3+/-4.7) and reference ones (5.8+/-5.2). Similarly, the comparison between lipofuscin accumulation and mean lysosomal diameter in impacted and control sites, gave significant differences exclusively with transplanted mussels. These results suggest that the parallel use of caged and native mussels in environmental biomonitoring can improve the characterization of the study area.

  12. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.


    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  14. The Physics of the Blues (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray


    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  15. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.


    The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order...... to evaluate the influence of the compatibility between gel and filler. Time-resolved SANS and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) shows that the presence of silica particles affects the ordering of the polystyrene domains during gelsetting. The scattering pattern of silica-reinforced gels reveals strong...... a viscoclastic rubber to a plastic fluid and from a plastic fluid to a viscoelastic liquid are shifted to more elevated temperatures when silica is added to the triblock copolymer gel. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K


    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after...... (6 on fluoride mouth rinse, 10 on fluoride gel and 3 on fluoride foam); 6 had a low risk of bias while 2 had a moderate risk. All fluoride measures appeared to be beneficial in preventing crown caries and reversing root caries, but the quality of evidence was graded as low for fluoride mouth rinse......, moderate for fluoride gel and very low for acidulated fluoride foam. No conclusions could be drawn on the cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: This review, covering the recent decade, has further substantiated the evidence for a caries-preventive effect of fluoride mouth rinse, fluoride gel and foam...

  17. Colloidal gels: Clay goes patchy (United States)

    Kegel, Willem K.; Lekkerkerker, Henk N. W.


    Empty liquids and equilibrium gels have so far been only theoretical possibilities, predicted for colloids with patchy interactions. But evidence of both has now been found in Laponite, a widely studied clay.

  18. Control of the properties of xanthan/glucomannan mixed gels by varying xanthan fine structure. (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, P; Meadows, J; Ratcliffe, I; Williams, Peter A


    The interaction of native xanthan gum, deacetylated xanthan gum and depyruvated xanthan gum with konjac glucomannan has been studied using DSC and controlled stress rheometry. In the absence of electrolyte the DSC cooling curves for native xanthan and deacetylated xanthan showed a single peak and there was a corresponding sharp increase in the storage modulus indicating gel formation. It is apparent that on cooling, association of the konjac glucomannan with the native xanthan molecules is triggered by the xanthan coil-helix transition. In the presence of electrolyte, there were two DSC peaks observed. The higher temperature DSC peak was attributed to the xanthan coil-helix transition while the lower temperature DSC peak was attributed to konjac glucomannan-xanthan association as noted by an increase in the storage modulus. The gels formed were much weaker than those in the absence of electrolyte. The DSC cooling curves for depyruvated xanthan in the absence of electrolyte showed two peaks. The higher temperature peak was attributed to the coil-helix transition while the lower temperature peak corresponded to gelation as noted by an increase in the storage modulus. The gels were very much weaker than for native xanthan gum and deacetylated xanthan gum.

  19. Effect on in vitro starch digestibility of Mexican blue maize anthocyanins. (United States)

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Sanchez-Rivera, Mirna M; Bello-Pérez, Luis A


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of blue maize extracts obtained by acid-methanol treatment on the nutritional in vitro starch fractions such as: rapidly digestive starch (RDS), slowly digestive starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) of native and gelatinized commercial maize starch. Chromatographic analysis (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) of blue maize extracts showed the presence of seven anthocyanins, where cyanidin-3-(6″-malonylglucoside) was the main. Blue maize extracts modified nutritional in vitro starch fractions (decrease of RDS) while RS content increased (1.17 and 2.02 times for native and gelatinized commercial maize starch, respectively) when anthocyanins extracts were added to starch up to 75% (starch weight). This preliminary observation provides the basis for further suitability evaluation of blue maize extract as natural starch-modifier by the possible anthocyanins-starch interaction. Anthocyanin extracts can be a suitable to produce functional foods with higher RS content with potential human health benefits.

  20. Suppression of Listeria monocytogenes by the Native Micro-Flora in Teewurst Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michline Brice


    Full Text Available Modern consumers are interested in the use of non-chemical methods to control pathogens when heat sterilization is not an option. Such is the case with teewurst sausage, a raw spreadable sausage and a popular German commodity. Although Listeria was not found in teewurst, the optimal microbial growing conditions of teewurst coupled with the ubiquity of L. monocytogenes in nature, makes the possibility of contamination of products very possible. This pilot study was conducted to examine teewurst’s native micro-flora’s ability to suppress the outgrowth of L. monocytogenes at 10 °C using standard plate counts and PCR-DGGE. Traditional plating methods showed L. monocytogenes growth significantly decreased when in competition with the teewurst’s native micro-flora (p < 0.05. The native micro-flora of the teewurst suppressed the overall growth of L. monocytogenes by an average of two logs, under these conditions. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE amplicons with unique banding patterns were extracted from DGGE gel for identification. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactobacillus curvatus were identified as a part of the teewurst’s native micro-flora. Although the native micro-flora did not decrease L. monocytogenes to below limits of detection, it was enough of a decrease to warrant further investigation.

  1. Literacy Skill Differences between Adult Native English and Native Spanish Speakers (United States)

    Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.


    The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…

  2. 78 FR 70956 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native... (United States)


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American... Title of Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian... American and Alaskan Native populations, most notably through the Indian Housing Block Grant. The level...

  3. 78 FR 75365 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native... (United States)


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American... Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs. OMB Approval... the United States. HUD provides funding though several programs to Native American and Alaskan...

  4. High-level expression of the native barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Pernille Ollendorff; Ostergaard, Peter Rahbek; Lange, Lene;


    An expression system for high-level expression of the native Hordeum vulgare alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) has been developed in Pichia pastoris, using the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. To optimize expression, two codon-optimized coding regions have been designed...... and characterized by Edman degradation, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and insoluble blue starch assay, and was shown to possess the same characteristics as wild-type protein purified from barley grains....

  5. Predation on exotic zebra mussels by native fishes: Effects on predator and prey (United States)

    Magoulick, D.D.; Lewis, L.C.


    1. Exotic zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, occur in southern U.S. waterways in high densities, but little is known about the interaction between native fish predators and zebra mussels. Previous studies have suggested that exotic zebra mussels are low profitability prey items and native vertebrate predators are unlikely to reduce zebra mussel densities. We tested these hypotheses by observing prey use of fishes, determining energy content of primary prey species of fishes, and conducting predator exclusion experiments in Lake Dardanelle, Arkansas. 2. Zebra mussels were the primary prey eaten by 52.9% of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus; 48.2% of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens; and 100% of adult redear sunfish, Lepomis microlophus. Blue catfish showed distinct seasonal prey shifts, feeding on zebra mussels in summer and shad, Dorosoma spp., during winter. Energy content (joules g-1) of blue catfish prey (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; gizzard shad, D. cepedianum; zebra mussels; and asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea) showed a significant species by season interaction, but shad were always significantly greater in energy content than bivalves examined as either ash-free dry mass or whole organism dry mass. Fish predators significantly reduced densities of large zebra mussels (>5 mm length) colonising clay tiles in the summers of 1997 and 1998, but predation effects on small zebra mussels (???5 mm length) were less clear. 3. Freshwater drum and redear sunfish process bivalve prey by crushing shells and obtain low amounts of higher-energy food (only the flesh), whereas blue catfish lack a shell-crushing apparatus and ingest large amounts of low-energy food per unit time (bivalves with their shells). Blue catfish appeared to select the abundant zebra mussel over the more energetically rich shad during summer, then shifted to shad during winter when shad experienced temperature-dependent stress and mortality. Native fish predators can suppress adult zebra

  6. Synergetic effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter and determination of optimal wavelength to choose light source for optical computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiya Raj


    Full Text Available Purpose: The ultimate aim of this study is to observe the effect of Green tea as a co-antioxidant in PAGAT gel dosimeter and evaluate the appropriate light source for scanning the PAGAT and NIPAM polymer gel.Methods: Both PAGAT (Poly Acrylamide Gelatin Tetrakis hydroxyl phosphonium chloride and NIPAM (N-Isopropyl acrylamide gel were prepared in normoxic condition. The green tea extract (GTE was prepared and tested only on PAGAT. Co-60 teletherapy machine has been used for irradiation purpose, and the gel samples were scanned using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Water equivalency of the gel has been tested in terms of their electron density, effective atomic number and Ratio of oxygen and hydrogen (O/H. We have used NIST XCOM database to test the water equivalency.Results: In this study we found that the GTE added to the gel do not respond to the given doses. By adding sugar we can enhance the sensitivity of the gel. Further investigations are required to use Green tea as a co antioxidant concentration of THPC (Tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride. The optimal wavelength with different region for scanning the PAGAT is 450 to 480 nm (Blue region, for NIPAM it is 540 nm and 570 nm (Green and yellow region. The PAGAT and NIPAM showed better sensitivity at 510 nm. Both gels have their effective atomic number closer to water (NIPAM-7.2, PAGAT-7.379.Conclusion: As per our results, we concluded that GTE alone is not an effective co-antioxidant for polymer gels. When the GTE is combined with sugar and THPC, it protects the gel from pre-polymerization. This study strongly suggests that the blue light is an optimal source for scanning the PAGAT and green to yellow light for NIPAM gel. Though both gels were considered as water equivalent, the PAGAT is equivalent to water and the temporal stability of this gel is higher than NIPAM.

  7. Relative performance of native prairie grasses and forbs for revegetation of a pipeline disturbance on native prairie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D. G. [Walker and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Results of an extensive revegetation testing program involving 59 species of native grasses and forbs, and three types of soil disturbed by pipeline operations -- clay loam, sandy loam and loam -- at three different locations, all within a 50 km area, are described. Plant responses varied widely with respect to plant survival, seedling emergence, first season seedling survival, spread, biomass productivity, cover, vigour and apparent competitive ability. In general, cultivars of native species were more successful and performed more uniformly. Three cultivars of slender wheatgrass, Highlander, Revenue and Hillcrest, had the best above average performance. Among the trial species that had above average performances were the blue grama and needle and thread grass. One source of junegrass that is widely used for revegetation in Alberta as well as in Saskatchewan did not survive the first winter at any of the three locations. Many other native forb lines also performed poorly and do not appear to be long-term survivors. The overall results point towards the need for cultivar development and/or a seed source identification system that provides more predictable results.

  8. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solairaj Dhananasekaran


    Full Text Available Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB, Bromophenol Blue (BPB and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798 shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  9. Synthesis, properties, and biomedical applications of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels. (United States)

    Yue, Kan; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Tamayol, Ali; Annabi, Nasim; Khademhosseini, Ali


    Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels have been widely used for various biomedical applications due to their suitable biological properties and tunable physical characteristics. GelMA hydrogels closely resemble some essential properties of native extracellular matrix (ECM) due to the presence of cell-attaching and matrix metalloproteinase responsive peptide motifs, which allow cells to proliferate and spread in GelMA-based scaffolds. GelMA is also versatile from a processing perspective. It crosslinks when exposed to light irradiation to form hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties. It can also be microfabricated using different methodologies including micromolding, photomasking, bioprinting, self-assembly, and microfluidic techniques to generate constructs with controlled architectures. Hybrid hydrogel systems can also be formed by mixing GelMA with nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide, and other polymers to form networks with desired combined properties and characteristics for specific biological applications. Recent research has demonstrated the proficiency of GelMA-based hydrogels in a wide range of tissue engineering applications including engineering of bone, cartilage, cardiac, and vascular tissues, among others. Other applications of GelMA hydrogels, besides tissue engineering, include fundamental cell research, cell signaling, drug and gene delivery, and bio-sensing.

  10. The effect of spirulina gel on fibroblast cell number after wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rahmitasari


    Full Text Available Background: Wound healing treatment after tooth extraction should be an important consideration due to mouth discomfort and pain. Spirulina (blue green algae consists of C-phycocyanin, b–carotenoids, vitamin E, zinc, some other trace elements and natural phytochemical which are believed to act as antioxidant and takes part in wound healing process. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of spirulina gel on fibroblast cell number after wound healing process. Methods: Twenty eight males guinea pig are devided into four group, 7 guinea pig each. They are control group and treatment group which is given 0%, 3%, 6%, and 12% spirulina gel. After tooth extraction, histopathological evaluation was done to count fibroblast cell. The data was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: The research has proven the relation between the increased growth of fibroblast cell and spirulina gel application. The higher the doses, the more cell growth. Hence, there has been significant different (p < 0.05 among groups. Conclusion: Spirulina gel increases the number of fibroblast in wound after tooth extraction and 12% spirulina gel has the most potential ability.Latar Belakang: Proses penyembuhan luka pasca pencabutan gigi merupakan salah satu hal yang penting karena akan menimbulkan rasa nyeri dan tidak nyaman dalam rongga mulut. Spirulina (Blue green Algae mengandung C-phycocyanin, b-carotenoids, vitamin E, seng, beberapa trace elemen lainnya, dan phytochemical alami yang terbukti dapat berperan sebagai antioksidan dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek pemberian gel spirulina terhadap jumlah sel fibroblas pada proses penyembuhan luka pasca pencabutan gigi. Metode: Dua puluh delapan ekor guinea pig jantan dibagi dalam 7 kelompok, masing-masing terdiri dari 4 ekor. Kelompok tersebut adalah kelompok kontrol dan kelompok perlakuan yang diberikan gel spirulina dengan konsentrasi 0

  11. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M.


    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After...... cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against...... detachment and decomposition. The chemical reaction between gluteraldehyde, the cross-linking agent, and chitosan was followed in situ using total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, which provided a molecular insight into the complex reaction mechanism, as well as the means to quantify the cross...

  12. Establishment of Native Grasses with Biosolids on Abandoned Croplands in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jurado-Guerra


    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate establishment and forage production of native grasses with application of biosolids, a byproduct of waste-water treatment, at an abandoned field, in Ejido Nuevo Delicias, Chihuahua, Mexico. Four biosolids rates from 0 (control to 30 dry Mg ha−1 and two methods of application, surface applied (BioSur and soil incorporated (BioInc, were evaluated. Seedbed preparation included plowing and harrowing before rainfall. Field plots of 5 × 5 m were manually sown with a mix of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis (50% and green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia (50% in early August 2005. Experimental design was a randomized block with a split plot arrangement. Grass density, height, and forage production were estimated for three years. Data were analyzed with mixed linear models and repeated measures. Green sprangletop density increased under all biosolids rates regardless of method of application, while blue grama density slightly decreased. Biosolids were more beneficial for green sprangletop height than for blue grama height. Blue grama forage production slightly increased, while green sprangletop forage production increased the most at 10 Mg ha−1 biosolids rate under BioSur method. It was concluded that BioSur application at 10 and 20 Mg ha−1 rates had positive effects on the establishment and forage production of native grasses, especially green sprangletop.

  13. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation (United States)

    Rhia, Brian D.


    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  14. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, Brian D.; Looney, Brian B.


    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  15. Fire Whirls, Vortex Breakdown(?), and Blue Whirls (United States)

    Oran, Elaine; Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael


    As we were investigating the efficiency of fire-whirl burning on water, we observed the usual transformation of a pool fire to a fire whirl, and then suddenly, we saw the fire undergo a third transition. A blue cup appeared around the base of the fire whirl, surrounding the yellow flame, the yellow flame receded into the cup and finally disappeared. What remained was a small, rapidly spinning blue flame that burned until the fuel on the water was consumed. The blue whirl was shaped like a spinning cup, closed at the bottom near the water surface, and spreading in radius moving upwards towards the rim. Above the blue cup lip, there was a purple cone-shaped mist. The fuel was usually n-heptane, but at one point it was crude oil, and still the blue whirl formed naturally. The height of the fire whirl on the laboratory pan was larger than a half meter, and this evolved into a blue whirl about 4-8 cm high. Occasionally the blue whirl would become "unstable" and revert to a transitional state of blue cup holding a yellow flame. When the blue whirl formed, turbulence seemed to disappear, and the flame became quiet. We will show videos of how this happened and discuss the evolution of the fire whirl to the blue whirl in vortex-breakdown concepts. This work was supported by and EAGER award from NSF and Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

  16. Native American College Student Persistence (United States)

    Mosholder, Richard; Goslin, Christopher


    Native American students are the most likely racial/ethnic group tracked in post-secondary American education to be affected by poverty and limited access to educational opportunities. In addition, they are the most likely to be required to take remedial course work and are the least likely to graduate from college. A review of the literature was…

  17. Various Shades of Blue's Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Janik, R A; Papp, G; Zahed, I; Janik, Romuald A.; Nowak, Maciej A.; Papp, Gabor; Zahed, Ismail


    We discuss random matrix models in terms of elementary operations on Blue's functions (functional inverse of Green's functions). We show that such operations embody the essence of a number of physical phenomena whether at/or away from the critical points. We illustrate these assertions by borrowing on a number of recent results in effective QCD in vacuum and matter. We provide simple physical arguments in favor of the universality of the continuum QCD spectral oscillations, whether at zero virtuality, in the bulk of the spectrum or at the chiral critical points. We also discuss effective quantum systems of disorder with strong or weak dissipation (Hatano-Nelson localization).

  18. Native and Non-Native Perceptions on a Non-Native Oral Discourse in an Academic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dikilitaş


    Full Text Available This qualitative study investigates discourse-level patterns typically employed by a Turkish lecturer based on the syntactic patterns found in the collected data. More specifically, the study aims to reveal how different native and non-native speakers of English perceive discourse patterns used by a non-native lecturer teaching in English. The data gathered from a Turkish lecturer teaching finance, and the interviews both with the lecturer and the students. The lecturer and the students were videotaped and the data was evaluated by content analysis. The results revealed a difference between the way non-native and native speakers evaluate an oral discourse of a non-native lecturer teaching in English. Native speakers of English found the oral performance moderately comprehensible, while non-native speakers found it relatively comprehensible.

  19. Diet and population metrics of the introduced blue catfish population in the Altamaha, River, GA (United States)

    Bonvechio, Timothy F.; Jennings, Cecil A.


    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) were first detected in the Altamaha River, Georgia, during an access creel survey in 2005 and subsequently in 2006 during annual ictalurid sampling. Introduction of this species in the Altamaha River is believed to have occurred via escape from normal upstream reservoir releases from Lake Sinclair and Lake Oconee. Relative abundance, as indexed by electrofishing catch rate (fish per hour), has increased from 2.9±1.0 SE in 2006 to 38.8±8.2 SE in 2011. The size of blue catfish captured ranged from 56 to 820 mm total length and 0.001 to 7.7 kg. Using otoliths obtained in 2010 (n=214), age of fish ranged from 0 to 6 yrs, which indicated a relatively young population. The catch-curve analysis resulted in an instantaneous mortality rate (Z) of 0.75. Despite concerns of blue catfish predation on native fishes and mussels, a diet analysis of blue catfish (n=257) obtained in 2010 revealed that diets of fish in all size groups were dominated by the introduced Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea). This study describes a recently introduced blue catfish population in an Atlantic coastal plain river and provides insight on possible ecological effects during the early phases of establishment. These results offer an early status assessment of the invasion dynamics before the system has had time to reach a new equilibrium state.

  20. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis (United States)

    Liu, Changsheng; Li, Qingbo


    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  1. Sol-gel derived sorbents (United States)

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.


    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  2. Natives in Blue: The Employment of Armed Auxiliaries in the Philippines, 1899-1913 (United States)


    elements to intercept fleeing enemy forces: seventy-five men at Talapapa, fifty at the intersection of the Talavera and Aliaga Roads, and the...inclined to advance no further than Talavera and Aliaga until he could concentrate his command and amass the supplies needed to continue, agreed to a...their occupation by the main body of the column.99 The Macabebes, marched through Talavera and arrived at San Jose on 8 November after both towns

  3. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here:

  4. Native Americans Make Progress Against Diabetes Complication (United States)

    ... fullstory_162979.html Native Americans Make Progress Against Diabetes Complication Kidney failure down by 54 percent over 2 ... Failure Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Complications Kidney Failure Native American Health About MedlinePlus Site ...

  5. Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism in Two Iranian Native Fowls (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari A


    Full Text Available Biochemical polymorphism study is a method of determination of genetic variation. This variability could be a basis for selection and subsequent genetic improvement in farm animals. The polymorphism in the intron 1 of chicken growth hormone (cGH gene was investigated in the Iranian native fowls by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method. The genomic DNA was extracted from 217 samples (129 samples from the native fowls of Isfahan province and 88 samples from the native fowls of Mazandaran province by using modified salting out technique. The DNA fragment of the growth hormone gene with 776 bp was amplified by PCR using specific primers. Then the PCR products were digested with MspI restriction enzyme and analyzed on 2.5% agarose gel. The allelic frequency of intron 1 locus for A1, A2 and A3 alleles in  Isfahan native fowls were 0.60, 0.21 and 0.19 and those in Mazandaran native  fowls were 0.28, 0.05 and 0.67, respectively. The results of current study indicated that the intron 1 of cGH is polymorphic in Iranian native fowls and could be exploited as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection for growth-related traits.

  6. Broad range pH sensor based on sol-gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Xiao-peng


    A broad-range fibre optic pH sensor based on evanescent wave absorption is presented in this paper. This sensor is prepared by immobilizing a mixture of three pH sensitive indicators (dyes):cresol red, bromophenol blue and chlorophenol red onto the unclad fibre surface using a sol–gel cladding technology. Triton is introduced into the sol–gel cladding to improve the cladding quality. Smooth and strong sol–gel cladding with entrapped indicators and triton has been fabricated and observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) and an atomic force microscopy (AFM). The pH sensor based the cladding has shown a linear, reversible and repeatable response over a broad range of pH values between 4.5 and 13.0.

  7. Blue-violet photoluminescence of 4-isopropyl-pyridine hydroxide crystals. (United States)

    Vaganova, Evgenia; Wachtel, Ellen; Leitus, Gregory; Danovich, David; Popov, Inna; Dubnikova, Faina; Yitzchaik, Shlomo


    There is continuing interest in determining essential structural features of polymer gels, which display photoelectric and/or thermoelectric behavior. One such gel is the blend, poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-butyl methacrylate)/poly(4-vinylpyridine), dissolved in liquid pyridine. Following extended aeration of a three-component mixture, which serves as a model for the gel side chain interactions, crystallization of a new molecule, 4-isopropylpyridine hydroxide (IPPOH), occurs. X-ray diffraction, DFT modeling, and spectroscopy were used to determine the structural, electronic, and luminescent properties of the crystal. The crystal structure reveals molecules forming head-to-tail, hydrogen-bonded chains without base stacking or marked interchain interaction. The molecular chains are characterized by moderately long-lived, blue-violet luminescence excited in the near-UV. Because these photoluminescent properties resemble those of the gel from which the crystals are derived, we may posit similar structural features in the gel for which direct structural analysis is not available.

  8. Calcium alginate gels as stem cell matrix-making paracrine stem cell activity available for enhanced healing after surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schmitt

    Full Text Available Regeneration after surgery can be improved by the administration of anabolic growth factors. However, to locally maintain these factors at the site of regeneration is problematic. The aim of this study was to develop a matrix system containing human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs which can be applied to the surgical site and allows the secretion of endogenous healing factors from the cells. Calcium alginate gels were prepared by a combination of internal and external gelation. The gelling behaviour, mechanical stability, surface adhesive properties and injectability of the gels were investigated. The permeability of the gels for growth factors was analysed using bovine serum albumin and lysozyme as model proteins. Human MSCs were isolated, cultivated and seeded into the alginate gels. Cell viability was determined by AlamarBlue assay and fluorescence microscopy. The release of human VEGF and bFGF from the cells was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Gels with sufficient mechanical properties were prepared which remained injectable through a syringe and solidified in a sufficient time frame after application. Surface adhesion was improved by the addition of polyethylene glycol 300,000 and hyaluronic acid. Humans MSCs remained viable for the duration of 6 weeks within the gels. Human VEGF and bFGF was found in quantifiable concentrations in cell culture supernatants of gels loaded with MSCs and incubated for a period of 6 weeks. This work shows that calcium alginate gels can function as immobilization matrices for human MSCs.

  9. Calcium alginate gels as stem cell matrix-making paracrine stem cell activity available for enhanced healing after surgery. (United States)

    Schmitt, Andreas; Rödel, Philipp; Anamur, Cihad; Seeliger, Claudine; Imhoff, Andreas B; Herbst, Elmar; Vogt, Stephan; van Griensven, Martijn; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia


    Regeneration after surgery can be improved by the administration of anabolic growth factors. However, to locally maintain these factors at the site of regeneration is problematic. The aim of this study was to develop a matrix system containing human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which can be applied to the surgical site and allows the secretion of endogenous healing factors from the cells. Calcium alginate gels were prepared by a combination of internal and external gelation. The gelling behaviour, mechanical stability, surface adhesive properties and injectability of the gels were investigated. The permeability of the gels for growth factors was analysed using bovine serum albumin and lysozyme as model proteins. Human MSCs were isolated, cultivated and seeded into the alginate gels. Cell viability was determined by AlamarBlue assay and fluorescence microscopy. The release of human VEGF and bFGF from the cells was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Gels with sufficient mechanical properties were prepared which remained injectable through a syringe and solidified in a sufficient time frame after application. Surface adhesion was improved by the addition of polyethylene glycol 300,000 and hyaluronic acid. Humans MSCs remained viable for the duration of 6 weeks within the gels. Human VEGF and bFGF was found in quantifiable concentrations in cell culture supernatants of gels loaded with MSCs and incubated for a period of 6 weeks. This work shows that calcium alginate gels can function as immobilization matrices for human MSCs.

  10. An improved Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB R-250) staining to proteins in gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An improved CBB staining with higher sensitivity than that of the typical CBB staining was reported. The main improvement was using a fixing step of 25% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) before CBB staining. For most proteins studied, the sensitivity of the improved CBB staining was about twice as high as that of the typical method. For basic and low molecular weight proteins such as ribosomal proteins, the sensitivity of this improved staining method was about 3.5-28 times that of the typical method. It was speculated that the improved procedure would be suitable for exact quantitative analysis of proteins fractionated by SDS-PAGE, especially for basic and low molecular weight proteins. On the other hand, this new modified method might be also applied to multidisciplinary studies, such as biological researches and nuclear sciences.

  11. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian


    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P....... as a realistic plant community with an attractive, low habit and beautiful colors. Phyteuma spicatum is an attractive, novel species for a shady garden site.......Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P....... maritima were found suitable for cultivation in wholesale-containers and applicable for dry, sunny conditions in gardens. On the other hand, Narthecium ossifragum, Pulsatilla palustris, Drosera rotundifolia, Vaccinium oxycoccos, Eriophorum angustifolium and Sphagnum sp. were cultivated and planted...

  12. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The...

  13. Native American Children in Michigan. [Executive Summary (United States)

    W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 2012


    "Native American Children in Michigan," provides a historical context for the tenuous relationship between Michigan's 12 federally recognized tribes and the state government, paying particular attention to the erosion of Native American education programs and the disproportionate number of Native children who find themselves in both the child…

  14. Nonlinear elasticity of alginate gels (United States)

    Hashemnejad, Seyed Meysam; Kundu, Santanu

    Alginate is a naturally occurring anionic polysaccharide extracted from brown algae. Because of biocompatibility, low toxicity, and simple gelation process, alginate gels are used in biomedical and food applications. Here, we report the rheological behavior of ionically crosslinked alginate gels, which are obtained by in situ gelation of alginates with calcium salts, in between two parallel plates of a rheometer. Strain stiffening behavior was captured using large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) experiments. In addition, negative normal stress was observed for these gels, which has not been reported earlier for any polysaccharide networks. The magnitude of negative normal stress increases with applied strain and can exceed that of the shear stress at large strain. Rheological results fitted with a constitutive model that considers both stretching and bending of chains indicate that nonlinearity is likely related to the stretching of the chains between the crosslink junctions. The results provide an improved understanding of the deformation mechanism of ionically crosslinked alginate gel and the results will be important in developing synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) from these materials.

  15. Physicochemical behaviour of chitin gels. (United States)

    Vachoud, L; Zydowicz, N; Domard, A


    Syneresis of chitin gels formed in the course of N-acetylation of chitosan in hydroalcoholic media has been studied. A critical cross-linking density related to a critical acetylation degree for which the gel undergoes weak syneresis and swells in water was shown (degree of acetylation (DA) 88%). Above this value, the weight loss during syneresis increases with DA. Conversely, syneresis decreases on increasing the polymer concentration, but disappears at a macroscopic level for a polymer concentration close to the critical concentration of entanglement in the initial solution. An increase in temperature favours the formation of hydrophobic interactions and new inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bondings. Due to the weak polyelectrolyte character of chitin, the weight of the gel depends on the pH and ionic strength of the media. Swelling-deswelling experiments show that the swelling of the gel is not fully reversible in relation with the formation of new cross-links during the depletion of the network. Our results reveals that the balance between segment-segment and segment-solvent interactions as well as the molecular mobility play the major role.

  16. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K


    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after an el...... brushing with fluoride toothpaste....

  17. Characterization of native 40 S particles from Krebs II mouse ascites tumor cells: resolution, nomenclature and molecular weights of the nonribosomal proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichert, G; Issinger, O G


    Native 40 S particles from Krebs II mouse ascites tumor cells were isolated on a large scale. A nonribosomal protein moiety of about 30 proteins could be removed from the ribosomal particles by treatment with 250 mM KCl. These proteins were analysed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electroph......Native 40 S particles from Krebs II mouse ascites tumor cells were isolated on a large scale. A nonribosomal protein moiety of about 30 proteins could be removed from the ribosomal particles by treatment with 250 mM KCl. These proteins were analysed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel...

  18. Ecological impacts of non-native species (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.


    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  19. Ecology of Blue Straggler Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, H M J; Beccari, G


    The existence of blue straggler stars (BSS), which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution, as such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. As such, BSS could just be some quirks but in fact their understanding requires a deep knowledge of many different areas in astronomy, from stellar evolution through cluster dynamics, from chemical abundances to stellar populations. In November 2012, a workshop on this important topic took place at the ESO Chilean headquarters in Santiago. The many topics covered at this workshop were introduced by very comprehensive invited reviews, providing a unique and insightful view on the field. These reviews have now become chapters of the first ever book on BSS.

  20. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik


    medium, light as energy source and they capture CO2 for the synthesis of new organic material, thus can grow on non-agricultural land, without increasing food prices, or using fresh water. Due to all these advantages in addition to very high biomass yield with high carbohydrate content, macroalgaes can......Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...... be the well suited candidates as feedstock for biofuel production in the future. The aim of our studies is to examine the possibility producing liquid biofuel (ethanol and butanol) from macroalgaes....

  1. Scanning protein analysis of electrofocusing gels using X-ray fluorescence. (United States)

    Matsuyama, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Iida, Yutaka; Suzuki, Yoshinari; Ishizaka, Yukihito; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Shimura, Mari


    Recently, "metallomics," in addition to genomics and proteomics, has become a focus as a novel approach to identify sensitive fluctuations in homeostasis that accompany metabolic processes, such as stress responses, differentiation, and proliferation. Cellular elements and associated protein behavior provide important clues for understanding cellular and disease mechanism(s). It is important to develop a system for measuring the native status of the protein. In this study, we developed an original freeze-dried electrofocusing native gel over polyimide film (native-gel film) for scanning protein analysis using synchrotron radiation excited X-ray fluorescence (SPAX). To our knowledge, this is the first report detailing the successful mapping of metal-associated proteins of electrofocusing gels using X-ray fluorescence. SPAX can provide detection sensitivity equivalent to that of LA-ICP-MS. In addition to this increased sensitivity, SPAX has the potential to be combined with other X-ray spectroscopies. Our system is useful for further applications in proteomics investigating cellular element-associated protein behaviors and disease mechanisms.

  2. Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: an individual differences approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Andringa; N. Olsthoorn; C. van Beuningen; R. Schoonen; J. Hulstijn


    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation mo

  3. Delayed Next Turn Repair Initiation in Native/Non-native Speaker English Conversation. (United States)

    Wong, Jean


    Examines a form of other-initiated conversational repair that is delayed within next turn position, a form that is produced by non-native speakers of English whose native language is Mandarin. Using the framework of conversational analysis, shows that in native/non-native conversation, other-initiated repair is not always done as early as possible…

  4. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering (United States)

    Liebl, Michael


    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  5. Free classification of American English dialects by native and non-native listeners. (United States)

    Clopper, Cynthia G; Bradlow, Ann R


    Most second language acquisition research focuses on linguistic structures, and less research has examined the acquisition of sociolinguistic patterns. The current study explored the perceptual classification of regional dialects of American English by native and non-native listeners using a free classification task. Results revealed similar classification strategies for the native and non-native listeners. However, the native listeners were more accurate overall than the non-native listeners. In addition, the non-native listeners were less able to make use of constellations of cues to accurately classify the talkers by dialect. However, the non-native listeners were able to attend to cues that were either phonologically or sociolinguistically relevant in their native language. These results suggest that non-native listeners can use information in the speech signal to classify talkers by regional dialect, but that their lack of signal-independent cultural knowledge about variation in the second language leads to less accurate classification performance.

  6. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting. (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo


    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (blue energy harvesting. In this Perspective, we describe some of the recent progress and also address concerns related to durable packaging of TENGs in consideration of harsh marine environments and power management for an efficient power transfer and distribution for commercial applications.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Liu; Min Yi; Shuang-ji Chen; Hong-fei Ha


    Poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (polyDMAEMA) hydrogels prepared by γ-irradiation showed obvious temperature-sensitivity in a temperature range of 38-40℃ and pH-sensitivity at pH = 2.5. They also showed electric response behavior although it was not typical. The hydrogels were used in controlled release at different pH, temperature, and electric voltage. The release rates of methylene blue (MB) from the gels at 52℃ and pH = 1.24 were faster than those at 20℃ and pH = 10.56, respectively. In addition, the release rate at a field voltage of 5.0 was also faster than that without electric field.

  8. Photochromic gratings in sol gel films containing diazo sulfonamide chromophore (United States)

    Kucharski, Stanisław; Janik, Ryszard


    The photochromic sol-gel hybrid materials were prepared by incorporation of an azo chromophore containing sulfonamide fragment into polysiloxane cross-linked network. The materials were used to form transparent films on glass by spin-coating and/or casting. The reversible change of refraction index of the films on illumination with white light was observed by ellipsometry. The experiments with two beam coupling (TBC) and four wave mixing (4 WM) arrangement with green or blue laser beams as writing beams showed formation of a diffraction grating. The diffraction efficiency of the first order was 0.025-0.038 which yielded refraction index modulation in the range of up to 0.0066.

  9. Yield stress determination of a physical gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren


    Pluronic F127 solutions form gels in water with high elastic moduli. Pluronic gels can, however, only withstand small deformations and stresses. Different steady shear and oscillatory methods traditionally used to determine yield stress values are compared. The results show that the yield stresses...... values of these gels depend on test type and measurement time, and no absolute yield stress value can be determined for these physical gels....

  10. Hybrid Materials of Polymer Gels with Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yan; Kaoru Tsujii


    @@ 1 Introduction Polymer gels have been extensively studied[1~17] since the discovery of volume phase-transition of a gel by Tanaka[1~5]. As a unique soft material, gels attract much attention and are tried to be applied for drug-delivery systgems[6], actuators or chemo-mechanical devices[7~9] and so on. In particular, controlled-release of small molecules from a gel is now a subject of special interest[10].

  11. Study of Fricke gel dosimeter response for different gel quality (United States)

    Cavinato, C. C.; Campos, L. L.


    The Fricke xylenol gel (FXG) dosimeter has been studied for application in radiotherapy because it is capable of to measure the spatial distribution of radiation doses. The dosimetry is based on the oxidation of ferrous (Fe2+) to ferric (Fe3+) ions radiation induced, related to the radiation dose. The gel material usually employed is the 300 Bloom gelatin, which is imported and very expensive in Brazil. Aiming to analyze the viability of to use a locally produced and low cost gel material, in this work the spectrophotometric responses of FXG solutions prepared using 270 Bloom gelatin commercially available and 300 Bloom gelatin imported were compared. The absorption spectra of solutions prepared with 5% by weight 270 and 300 Bloom gelatins non-irradiated and irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation in the dose range between 0.5 and 100 Gy were analysed, the dose-response curves were evaluated and the useful dose range was established. The obtained results indicate that the FXG solution prepared with 270 Bloom gelatin presents good performance, similar to that presented by the FXG solution prepared with 300 Bloom gelatin and its use can be recommended owing to the low cost and the availability in local market.

  12. 21 CFR 866.4900 - Support gel. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Support gel. 866.4900 Section 866.4900 Food and... IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4900 Support gel. (a) Identification. A support gel for clinical use is a device that consists of an agar or agarose preparation...

  13. Permeability of gels is set by the impulse applied on the gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbonaite, V.; Jongh, de H.H.J.; Linden, van der E.; Pouvreau, L.A.M.


    To better understand sensory perception of foods, water exudation studies on protein-based gels are of a high importance. It was aimed to study the interplay of gel coarseness and gel stiffness on water holding (WH) and water flow kinetics from the gel once force is applied onto the material. Ovalbu

  14. In-Situ Wet Chemical Composition of Multicomponent Precursors to Blue Emitting Sr2CeO4 Phosphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Bing; Xiao Xiuzhen


    Hybrid precursors were assembled with cerium coordination polymers, polyethyl glycohol (PEG), SrCO3 and other functional components using a modified in-situ chemical polymeric gel technology. The hybrid precursors were calcinated to achieve the Sr2CeO4 phosphors, whose particle sizes were in the range of micrometer by XRD and SEM. The photoluminescence spectra indicate that the phosphors present a strong blue emission.

  15. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K


    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after...... an electronic search for literature published in English between 2003 and 2014. The included papers were assessed for their risk of bias and the results were narratively synthesized due to study heterogeneity. The quality of evidence was expressed according to GRADE. RESULTS: A total of 19 papers were included...... (6 on fluoride mouth rinse, 10 on fluoride gel and 3 on fluoride foam); 6 had a low risk of bias while 2 had a moderate risk. All fluoride measures appeared to be beneficial in preventing crown caries and reversing root caries, but the quality of evidence was graded as low for fluoride mouth rinse...

  16. Predicting bulk mechanical properties of cellularized collagen gels using multiphoton microscopy. (United States)

    Raub, C B; Putnam, A J; Tromberg, B J; George, S C


    Cellularized collagen gels are a common model in tissue engineering, but the relationship between the microstructure and bulk mechanical properties is only partially understood. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is an ideal non-invasive tool for examining collagen microstructure, cellularity and crosslink content in these gels. In order to identify robust image parameters that characterize microstructural determinants of the bulk elastic modulus, we performed serial MPM and mechanical tests on acellular and cellularized (normal human lung fibroblasts) collagen hydrogels, before and after glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Following gel contraction over 16 days, cellularized collagen gel content approached that of native connective tissues (∼200 mg ml⁻¹). Young's modulus (E) measurements from acellular collagen gels (range 0.5-12 kPa) exhibited a power-law concentration dependence (range 3-9 mg ml⁻¹) with exponents from 2.1 to 2.2, similar to other semiflexible biopolymer networks such as fibrin and actin. In contrast, cellularized collagen gel stiffness (range 0.5-27 kPa) produced concentration-dependent exponents of 0.7 uncrosslinked and 1.1 crosslinked (range ∼5-200 mg ml⁻¹). The variation in E of cellularized collagen hydrogels can be explained by a power-law dependence on robust image parameters: either the second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) (matrix component) skewness (R²=0.75, exponents of -1.0 and -0.6, respectively); or alternatively the SHG and TPF (matrix component) speckle contrast (R²=0.83, exponents of -0.7 and -1.8, respectively). Image parameters based on the cellular component of TPF signal did not improve the fits. The concentration dependence of E suggests enhanced stress relaxation in cellularized vs. acellular gels. SHG and TPF image skewness and speckle contrast from cellularized collagen gels can predict E by capturing mechanically relevant information on collagen fiber, cell and crosslink density.

  17. The Sol-Gel Process


    Khalid Suliman Aboodh


    Abstract An increasingly important application of liquid jets is the disintegration of the jet to form droplets of liquid containing nuclear fuel. These droplets are then dried and sintered to form ceramic micro spheres for use in fuel elements in nuclear reactors. The total operations required to form the droplets convert them to solids and fire them to ceramic bodies comprise what are known as Sol-Gel processes Reference 13.

  18. Sol-gel derived ceramics



    The synthesis of ceramic raw materials has become an important factor in ceramic technologies. The increasing demands to the performance of ceramic compounds has caused increased activities for the preparation of tailor-made raw materials. Amongst a variety of new syntheses like flame pyrolysis, reactive spray drying, plasma or laser assisted techniques, the sol-gel process plays an important and increasing role. The process describes the building up of an inorganic (in general an oxide) netw...

  19. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye. (United States)

    Abou-Gamra, Z M; Ahmed, M A


    Herein, we demonstrate a facile route for synthesis a new photocatalyst based on TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method using chitosan as biodegradable polymer. The crystalline and the nanostructure were characteristic X-ray diffraction [XRD], adsorption-desorption isotherm and high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM]. However, the optical features of the samples were investigated by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. It is obvious to notice the removal of the majority of methylene blue dye on a pure titania surface via adsorption mechanism owing to the high surface area and to the organized mesoporous nature of the solid sample. Incorporation of curcumin on titania surface changes the removal direction from adsorption to the photocatalytic pathway. Various photocatalytic experiments were performed to investigate the influence of initial dye concentration, weight of catalyst, stirring and light intensity on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue as primary pollutant model. Chemical oxygen demand [COD] test confirms the complete degradation of methylene blue dye. The exceptional photocatalytic reactivity of titania-curcumin nanoparticles is referred to reduction in band gap energy and to the facility of electron transfer from II* curcumin energy level to titania conduction band which increases the concentration of reactive oxygen superoxide radicals which in turn prevents the electron-hole recombination. The effect of various scavengers on the methylene blue dye degradation was investigated using ethanol, ascorbic acid and methyl viologen. The results have pointed out that O2(-) and HO(.) are considered the main active species in the degradation process. A plausible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by titania-curcumin nanoparticles were illustrated.

  20. Strain Diversity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Group with Potential Blue Pigment Phenotype Isolated from Dairy Products. (United States)

    Chierici, Margherita; Picozzi, Claudia; La Spina, Marisa Grazia; Orsi, Carla; Vigentini, Ileana; Zambrini, Vittorio; Foschino, Roberto


    The blue discoloration in Mozzarella cheese comes from bacterial spoilage due to contamination with Pseudomonas. Fourteen Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from international collections and 55 new isolates of dominant bacterial populations from spoiled fresh cheese samples were examined to assess genotypic and phenotypic strain diversity. Isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and tested for the production of the blue pigment at various temperatures on Mascarpone agar and in Mozzarella preserving fluid (the salty water in which the cheese is conserved, which becomes enriched by cheese minerals and peptides during storage). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis after treatment with the endonuclease SpeI separated the isolates into 42 genotypes at a similarity level of 80%. Based on the pulsotype clustering, 12 representative strains producing the blue discoloration were chosen for the multilocus sequence typing targeting the gyrB, glnS, ileS, nuoD, recA, rpoB, and rpoD genes. Four new sequence typing profiles were discovered, and the concatenated sequences of the investigated loci grouped the tested strains into the so-called ''blue branch'' of the P. fluorescens phylogenetic tree, confirming the linkage between pigment production and a specific genomic cluster. Growth temperature affected pigment production; the blue discoloration appeared at 4 and 14°C but not at 30°C. Similarly, the carbon source influenced the phenomenon; the blue phenotype was generated in the presence of glucose but not in the presence of galactose, sodium succinate, sodium citrate, or sodium lactate.

  1. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert


    learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...... is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...

  2. Chinese Native Speakers Counterfactuals Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    1.IntroductionI have found,in my teaching experience,that English counterfactuals are among the most diffi-cult problems for Chinese native speaker EFL learners. A recent survey of EFL teachers in Guilin,China also supports these findings. In response to the question“What do you think is the most diffi-cult for your students to learn in English”,5 6out of 71 ,or 79% said the English subjunctive verbsare. To the question“Do you think the English subjunctives are difficultfor your students”,1 0 0 % ofthe EFL ...

  3. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by F-doped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Wei [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Liu, Xinjuan, E-mail: [Shanghai Nanotechnlogy Promotion Center, Shanghai 200237 (China); Center for Coordination Bond and Electronic Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Pan, Likun, E-mail: [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Li, Jinliang; Liu, Junying [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhang, Jing; Li, Ping; Chen, Chen [Shanghai Nanotechnlogy Promotion Center, Shanghai 200237 (China); Sun, Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)


    Graphical abstract: F-doped TiO2 is synthesized using a modified sol–gel method for visible photocatalytic degradation of MB with a high degradation rate of 91%. - Highlights: • F-doped TiO{sub 2} are synthesized using a modified sol–gel method. • The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by F-doped TiO{sub 2} is investigated. • A high methylene blue degradation rate of 91% is achieved under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: F-doped TiO{sub 2} (F-TiO{sub 2}) were successfully synthesized using a modified sol–gel method. The morphologies, structures, and photocatalytic performance in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectra, respectively. The results show that F-TiO{sub 2} exhibits an enhanced photocatalytic performance in the degradation of MB with a maximum degradation rate of 91% under visible light irradiation as compared with pure TiO{sub 2} (32%). The excellent photocatalytic activity is due to the contribution from the increased visible light absorption, promoted separation of photo-generated electrons and holes as well as enhanced photocatalytic oxidizing species with the doping of F in TiO{sub 2}.

  4. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon? (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S


    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  5. Decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye, reactive blue 59 by aerobic granules. (United States)

    Kolekar, Yogesh M; Nemade, Harshal N; Markad, Vijay L; Adav, Sunil S; Patole, Milind S; Kodam, Kisan M


    The present study deals with development of aerobic granules from textile wastewater sludge and challenged with different concentration of reactive blue 59 (RB59) to test their dye degradation potential. The granules efficiently degraded reactive blue 59 and also sustained higher dye loading of up to 5.0 g l(-1). The significant induction of enzymes azoreductase and cytochrome P-450 indicated their prominent role in the dye degradation while genotoxicity studies demonstrated that the biotransformed product of the dye as non-toxic. The microbial community of the textile dyes degrading aerobic sludge granules analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), revealed significantly diverse dye degrading microbial community belonging to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-proteobacteria.

  6. Bioorganically doped sol-gel materials containing amyloglucosidase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad-Oros Beatrice


    Full Text Available Amyloglucosidase (AMG from Aspergillus niger was encapsulated in various matrices derived from tetraethoxysilane, methyltriethoxysilane, phenyltriethoxysilane and vinyltriacetoxysilane by different methods of immobilization. The immobilized enzyme was prepared by entrapment in two steps, in one-step and entrapment/deposition, respectively. The activities of the immobilized AMG were assayed and compared with that of the native enzyme. The effects of the organosilaneprecursors and their molar ratios, the immobilization method, the inorganic support (white ceramic, red ceramic, purolite, alumina, TiO2, celite, zeolite and enzyme loading upon the immobilized enzyme activity were tested. The efficiency of the sol-gel biocomposites can be improved through combination of the fundamental immobilization techniques and selection of the precursors.

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light over Cr doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles. (United States)

    Qazi, Inamur Rahman; Lee, Woo-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Cheol; Hassan, Mallick Shamshi; Yang, O-Bong


    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) and chromium doped SrTiO3 (Cr/SrTiO3) were prepared by modified sol-gel method with the citric acid as a chelating agent in the ethylene glycol solution for the effective photodegradation of methylene blue dye under visible light irradiation. The synthesized doped and un-doped SrTiO3 nanoparticles were structurally characterized and their photoresponse performances for the efficient degradation of methylene blue dye have been demonstrated. After introducing the Cr on SrTiO3, UV-Vis absorption was appeared the red-shift at 566 nm from 392 nm as compare with bare SrTiO3. The photocatalytic degradation activity of Cr/SrTiO3 was significantly improved to 60% degradation of methylene blue in 3 h under visible light, which is approximately 5 times higher than that of the bare SrTiO3.

  8. Photocatalytic activity of tungsten-doped TiO2 with hydrothermal treatment under blue light irradiation. (United States)

    Putta, Thapanan; Lu, Ming-Chun; Anotai, Jin


    Tungsten doping and hydrothermal treatment were found to significantly improve the visible-light photoactivity of TiO(2) synthesized by the sol-gel method. It was observed that TiO(2) doped with a 0.5% W:Ti mole ratio and treated with 4 h of hydrothermal curing showed photoactivity under blue light irradiation equal to 74% of the commercial Degussa P-25 under UV irradiation, i.e., 0.01 mM 2-chlorophenol was completely removed in 120 and 90 min, respectively. Light absorptivity and photocatalytic activity under blue light irradiation were not dependent on the crystallite structure of the TiO(2). The oxidation kinetics under blue light irradiation can be effectively explained by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model with an apparent reaction rate constant and a Langmuir constant of 3.60 × 10(-4) mM min(-1) and 206.53 mM(-1), respectively.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, swelling and dye adsorption properties of starch incorporated acrylic gels. (United States)

    Mandal, Bidyadhar; Ray, Samit Kumar


    Several hydrogels were prepared by a free radical polymerization of acrylic acid (AA), sodium acrylate (SA) and AA/hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the presence of starch in water. These starch incorporated acrylic gels were prepared by varying the concentration of the initiator, monomer, crosslinker and the starch. The resulting gels were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD, DTA-TGA, pH at point zero charge (PZC), swelling and the diffusion in water. The gels showed high adsorption and removal% of Safranine T (ST) and Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) dyes from water. The swelling and the adsorption data were fitted to different kinetic models and isotherms. Amongst the three kinds of gels, the starch incorporated sodium polyacrylate gel showed the highest adsorption of 9.7-85.3mg/L (97-61% removal) of BCB dye and 9.1-83mg/L (91-60% removal) of ST dye for a feed dye concentration of 10-140mg/L.

  10. Blue outliers among intermediate redshift quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, P; Stirpe, G M; Dultzin, D; Del Olmo, A; Martínez-Carballo, M A


    [Oiii]{\\lambda}{\\lambda}4959,5007 "blue outliers" -- that are suggestive of outflows in the narrow line region of quasars -- appear to be much more common at intermediate z (high luminosity) than at low z. About 40% of quasars in a Hamburg ESO intermediate-z sample of 52 sources qualify as blue outliers (i.e., quasars with [OIII] {\\lambda}{\\lambda}4959,5007 lines showing large systematic blueshifts with respect to rest frame). We discuss major findings on what has become an intriguing field in active galactic nuclei research and stress the relevance of blue outliers to feedback and host galaxy evolution.

  11. Gel fire suppressants for controlling underground heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng-gen; XUE Sheng


    One of the major safety issues in coal mining is heatings and the resultant spontaneous combustion in underground coal mines.CSIRO researchers have developed a number of polymer gels suitable for controlling heatings in coal mines.These gels were developed to meet strict selection criteria including easy preparation,no or low toxicity,controllable gelation time,adaptable to mine water chemistry,adjustable viscosity,relatively long gel life,thermally and chemically stable and low cost.The HPAM-Aluminum Citrate gel system was identified to be the most favourable gel system for fire suppression in underground coal mines.These gels can be applied to the areas undergoing coal heating or gas leakage at a controllable gelation time and impermeable gel barriers can be formed in the areas to block ingress of air.

  12. Consolidation of Inorganic Precipitated Silica Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kind


    Full Text Available Colloidal gels are possible intermediates in the generation of highly porous particle systems. In the production process the gels are fragmented after their formation. These gel fragments compact to particles whose application-technological properties are determined by their size and porosity. In the case of precipitated silica gels, this consolidation process depends on temperature and pH, among other parameters. It is shown that these dependencies can be characterized by oedometer measurements. Originally, the oedometer test (one-dimensional compression test stemmed from soil mechanics. It has proven to be an interesting novel examination method for gels. Quantitative data of the time-dependent shrinkage of gel samples can be obtained. The consolidation of the gels shows a characteristic dependence on the above parameters.

  13. Reconstructing Native American Population History (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V.; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F.; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C.; Bravi, Claudio M.; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B.; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I.; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Rienzo, Anna Di; Freimer, Nelson B.; Price, Alkes L.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés


    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved1–5. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred via a single6–8 or multiple streams of migration from Siberia9–15. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call “First American”. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan-speakers on both sides of the Panama Isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America. PMID:22801491

  14. Reconstructing Native American population history. (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C; Bravi, Claudio M; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, Maria José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana A; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Di Rienzo, Anna; Freimer, Nelson B; Price, Alkes L; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés


    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred by means of a single migration or multiple streams of migration from Siberia. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at a higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Here we show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call 'First American'. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan speakers on both sides of the Panama isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America.

  15. Encrusted pyelitis of native kidneys. (United States)

    Hertig, A; Duvic, C; Chretien, Y; Jungers, P; Grünfeld, J P; Rieu, P


    This study reports the first four cases of encrusted pyelitis involving native kidneys. The clinical features, management, and outcome of these patients were analyzed. Predisposing factors were underlying urologic disease and/or urologic manipulations, debilitating diseases, hospitalization, and prolonged antibiotic therapies. Presenting symptoms were renal failure in three patients with ureteroileal urinary diversion and manifestations of cystitis in one patient. Computed tomography scan of the urinary tract was critical for diagnosis. Presence of struvite was demonstrated by crystalluria and infrared spectrophotometry analysis of the encrusted material. Corynebacterium urealyticum urinary infection was identified in one case. Surgery (one patient) and palliative ureteral diversion (one patient), respectively, led to death and end-stage renal failure. Successful dissolution of encrusted pyelitis was obtained in two patients treated with intravenous vancomycin and local acidification of the renal collecting system. Clinical observation shows that encrusted pyelitis is a threatening disorder that destroys the native kidneys and may lead to end-stage renal failure. Successful treatment of the disease by chemolysis and antibiotics depends on correct and early diagnosis. Diagnosis required recognition of the predisposing factors, computed tomography imaging of the urinary tract, crystalluria, and identification of urea-splitting bacteria with prolonged culture on selective medium.

  16. Study of a non-diffusing radiochromic gel dosimeter for 3D radiation dose imaging (United States)

    Marsden, Craig Michael


    This thesis investigates the potential of a new radiation gel dosimeter, based on nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBTZ) suspended in a gelatin mold. Unlike all Fricke based gel dosimeters this dosimeter does not suffer from diffusive loss of image stability. Images are obtained by an optical tomography method. Nitro blue tetrazolium is a common biological indicator that when irradiated in an aqueous medium undergoes reduction to a highly colored formazan, which has an absorbance maximum at 525nm. Tetrazolium is water soluble while the formazan product is insoluble. The formazan product sticks to the gelatin matrix and the dose image is maintained for three months. Methods to maximize the sensitivity of the system were evaluated. It was found that a chemical detergent, Triton X-100, in combination with sodium formate, increased the dosimeter sensitivity significantly. An initial G-value of formazan production for a dosimeter composed of 1mM NBTZ, gelatin, and water was on the order of 0.2. The addition of Triton and formate produced a G-value in excess of 5.0. The effects of NBTZ, triton, formate, and gel concentration were all investigated. All the gels provided linear dose vs. absorbance plots for doses from 0 to >100 Gy. It was determined that gel concentration had minimal if any effect on sensitivity. Sensitivity increased slightly with increasing NBTZ concentration. Triton and formate individually and together provided moderate to large increases in dosimeter sensitivity. The dosimeter described in this work can provide stable 3D radiation dose images for all modalities of radiation therapy equipment. Methods to increase sensitivity are developed and discussed.

  17. Carbon and TiO{sub 2} synergistic effect on methylene blue adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, Evelyn Alves Nunes, E-mail:; Simone Cividanes, Luciana de; Campos, Tiago Moreira Bastos; Rossi Canuto de Menezes, Beatriz; Brito, Felipe Sales; Thim, Gilmar Patrocínio


    Due to its high efficiency, low cost and a simple operation, the adsorption process is an important and widely used technique for industrial wastewater treatment. Recent studies on the removal of artificial dyes by adsorption include a large number of adsorbents, such as: activated carbon, silicates, carbon nanotube, graphene, fibers, titanates and doped titanates. The carbon insertion in the TiO{sub 2} structure promotes a synergistic effect on the adsorbent composite, improving the adsorption and the charge-transfer efficiency rates. However, there are few studies regarding the adsorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}/Carbon composites with the carbon concentration. This study evaluates the effect of carbon (resorcinol/formaldehyde) insertion on TiO{sub 2} structure through the adsorption process. Adsorbents were prepared by varying the carbon weight percentages using the sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts prepared, such as crystallinity, particle size, surface morphology, specific surface area and pore volume were investigated. The kinetic study, adsorption isotherm, pH effect and thermodynamic study were examined in batch experiments using methylene blue as organic molecule. In addition, the effect of carbon phase on the adsorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}-carbon composite was deeply investigated. SEM micrographs showed that TiO{sub 2} phase grows along the carbon phase and FT-IR results showed the presence of Ti−O−C chemical bonding. The experiments indicate that the carbon phase acted as a nucleation agent for the growth of TiO{sub 2} during the sol-gel step, with a TiO{sub 2} structure suitable for blue methylene adsorption, resulting in a material with large surface area and slit-like or wedge-shaped pores. Further experiments will show the best carbon concentration for methylene blue adsorption using a TiO{sub 2} based material. - Highlights: • This article deals with the adsorption of methylene blue onto TiO{sub 2}-Carbon

  18. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building (United States)

    Rattling Leaf, J.


    In the spirit of collaboration and reciprocity, James Rattling Leaf of Sinte Gleska University on the Rosebud Reservation of South Dakota will present recent developments, experiences, insights and a vision for education in Indian Country. As a thirty-year young institution, Sinte Gleska University is founded by a strong vision of ancestral leadership and the values of the Lakota Way of Life. Sinte Gleska University (SGU) has initiated the development of a Geospatial Education Curriculum project. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building is a two-year project that entails a disciplined approach towards the development of a relevant Geospatial academic curriculum. This project is designed to meet the educational and land management needs of the Rosebud Lakota Tribe through the utilization of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). In conjunction with the strategy and progress of this academic project, a formal presentation and demonstration of the SGU based Geospatial software RezMapper software will exemplify an innovative example of state of the art information technology. RezMapper is an interactive CD software package focused toward the 21 Lakota communities on the Rosebud Reservation that utilizes an ingenious concept of multimedia mapping and state of the art data compression and presentation. This ongoing development utilizes geographic data, imagery from space, historical aerial photography and cultural features such as historic Lakota documents, language, song, video and historical photographs in a multimedia fashion. As a tangible product, RezMapper will be a project deliverable tool for use in the classroom and to a broad range of learners.

  19. Walking in Balance: Native American Recovery Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Owen


    Full Text Available This article reviews Native American ritual practices, frameworks and key concepts employed by several substance abuse treatments centres in the U.S. and Canada. It also examines the way Alcoholics Anonymous’ Twelve Step programme has been modified to attract and serve the needs of Native Americans and First Nations and its potential impact on the ritual practices. Native concepts of wellbeing are highlighted and linked to the idea of living in “balance”.

  20. Immigration, education and native wage inequality


    Lumpe, Christian; Weigert, Benjamin


    In this paper we analyse the effect of immigration on the labour market prospects for different skill groups among natives. We develop a model of endogenous labour supply in which immigration affects educational decisions of natives. We argue that the distributional consequences of immigration with respect to native between-skill-group inequality are ambiguous in general and crucially depend on the host country's level of educational attainment. We show that this result is robust irrespective...

  1. Blue Ribbon Panel Report - BRP - Cancer Moonshot (United States)

    The Blue Ribbon Panel Report outlines 10 recommendations to accelerate progress against cancer. The panel was established to ensure that the Cancer Moonshot's approaches are grounded in the best science.

  2. Blue Ribbon Panel 2016 Video Playlist (United States)

    Blue Ribbon Panel members discuss recommendations from the panel report that was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7, 2016. The playlist includes an overview video and 10 videos on the specific recommendations.

  3. Elementary Theorems Regarding Blue Isocurvature Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Daniel J H


    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the work of 0904.3800, which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O(10) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  4. Properties of blue-stained wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Humar


    Full Text Available Discoloration of wood is frequently caused by blue-stain fungi. Among them Aureobasidium pullulans and Sclerophoma pithyophila are reported as the most important staining organism. In previous researches, it was generally considered that blue-stain fungi do not influence mechanical properties. However, there were some opposite results published as well. In order to elucidate this issue, specimens made of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris sapwood were exposed to two blue stain fungi A. pullulans and S. pithyophila for periods between two and eight weeks. FTIR, weight, colour and non-destructive modulus of elasticity measurements were performed before and after exposure. The results showed that blue stain fungi, besides considerable discoloration, do not cause any significant damage to wood. Surprisingly the non-destructive MoE analysis showed that modulus of elasticity even slightly increase after fungal exposure.

  5. Sol-Gel Preparation and Luminescence Properties of BaMgAl10O17∶Eu2+ Phosphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The synthesis of BaMgAl10O17∶ Eu2+ (BAM) phosphors using the sol-gel method and their luminescence properties were reported. The blue-light emitting BAM was synthesized using citric acid and ethylene glycol as chelating materials. Emission of blue-light was obtained from these phosphors. The luminescent intensity increases as the temperature of heat treatment is increased. This study investigated the effects of the molar ratio of ethylene glycol to citric acid (Φ value), with respect to the phase formation and luminescence properties of BAM. The variation of the Φ value resulted in the change of the sol-gel reaction mechanism and the microstructures of the resultant powders. An increase in Φ value leads to an increase in the rate of BAM phase formation. The photoluminescent intensity of the prepared phosphors increases with heating temperatures because of enhanced crystallization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Astuti Handayani


    Full Text Available Sekam padi merupakan salah satu sumber penghasil silika terbesar, berpotensi sebagai bahan pembuatan silika gel. Abu sekam padi mengandung silika sebanyak 87%-97% berat kering. Sintesis silika gel dari abu sekam padi dilakukan dengan mereaksikan abu sekam padi menggunakan larutan NaOH 1N pada suhu 800C selama 1 jam dan dilanjutkan dengan penambahan larutan asam hingga pH=7. Gel yang dihasilkan selanjutnya didiamkan selama 18 jam kemudian dikeringkan pada suhu dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 800C hingga beratnya konstan. Hasil percobaan diperoleh bahwa silika gel dengan penambahan CH3COOH menghasilkan yield yang lebih besar dibandingkan penambahan HCl. Berdasarkan analisis FT-IR silika gel yang diperoleh memiliki gugus Si-O-Si dan gugus Si-OH. Silika gel dengan penambahan HCl memiliki surface area sebesar 65,558 m2/g, total pore volume 0,1935 cc/g, dan average pore size sebesar 59,0196 Å. Sedangkan silika gel dengan penambahan CH3COOH memiliki surface area sebesar 9,685 m2/g, total pore volume 0,02118 cc/g, dan average pore size sebesar 43,7357Å. Silika gel dengan penambahanCH3COOH memiliki kemampuan menyerap kelembaban udara yang lebih baik dibanding silika gel dengan penambahan HCl. Rice hull ash (RHA is one of the biggest source of silica, potential for sintesis silica gel. RHA contains silica as many as 87 % -97 %. Synthesis of silica gel from rice hull ash was done by reaction using NaOH solution at temperature 800C for 1 hour and followed by the addition of an acid solution until pH=7. The gel were rested with time aging 18 hour, and then dried using oven at temperature 800C until constant weigh. The results obtained that the silica gel with the addition of CH3COOH produce higher yields than the addition of HCl. Based on FT-IR analysis, silica gel has a group of silanol (Si-`OH and siloxan (Si-O-Si group. Silica gel with the addition of HCl has a surface area 65,558 m2/g, a total pore volume 0,1935 cc/g, and average pore size 59

  7. Afghanistan: Green-on-Blue Attacks (United States)


    Afghanistan, December 2012, p 35 15 Yousafzai, Sami and Moreau , Ron, afghanistan-green-on-blue-killings...spike-insider-attacks- stress-ramadan-fasting, 24 August 2012 37 Yousafzai, Sami and Moreau , Ron, explained.html, Afghanistan: ‘Green on Blue’ Killings Explained, 27 August 2012 38 Yousafzai, Sami and Moreau , Ron

  8. Binding of circulating autoantibodies in breast cancer to native and peroxynitrite-modified RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheereen TARANNUM; Zarina ARIF; Khursheed ALAM


    Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is a powerful oxidant and nitrosative agent and has in vivo existence.The half life of ONOO-at physiological pH is less than 1 s.It can react with nucleic acids,proteins,lipoproteins,saccharides,cardiolipin,etc.,and can modify their native structures.Action of ONOO-,synthesized in the authors' laboratory by a rapid quenched flow process,on structural changes of commercially available RNA was studied by ultraviolet (UV),fluorescence,and agarose gel electrophoresis.Compared to native RNA,the ONOO--modified RNA showed hyperchromicity at 260 nm.Furthermore,the ethidium bromide (EtBr) assisted emission intensities of ONOO--modified RNA samples were found to be lower than the emission intensity of native RNA-EtBr complex.Agarose gel electrophoresis of ONOO--modified RNA showed a gradual decrease in band intensities compared to native RNA,an observation clearly due to the poor intercalation of EtBr with ONOO--modified RNA.Native and ONOO--modified RNA samples were used as an antigen to detect autoantibodies in sera of patients with clinically defined breast cancer.Both direct binding and inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the prevalence of native and 0.8 mmol/L ONOO--modified RNA specific autoantibodies in breast cancer patients.Moreover,the progressive retardation in the mobility of immune complexes formed with native or 0.8 mmol/L ONOO--modified RNA and affinity purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) from sera of breast cancer patients supports the findings of the direct binding and inhibition ELISAs.The peroxynitrite treatment to RNA at a higher concentration appears to have damaged or destroyed the typical epitopes on RNA and thus there was a sharp decrease in autoantibodies binding to 1.4 mmol/L ONOO--modified RNA.It may be interpreted that cellular nitrosative stress can modify and confer immunogenicity on RNA molecules.Higher concentrations of nitrogen reactive species can be detrimental to RNA.However,the emergence of

  9. Metal-silica sol-gel materials (United States)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  10. Detection of bacteriophage phi 6 minus-strand RNA and novel mRNA isoconformers synthesized in vivo and in vitro, by strand-separating agarose gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagratis, N.; Revel, H.R. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))


    Two urea-free agarose gel protocols that resolve the six individual strands of bacteriophage phi 6 dsRNA were developed and used to analyze phage RNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro. Citrate gels separate strands of the large and medium chromosomes while Tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) gels resolve the medium and small dsRNA segments. Minus strands migrate faster than plus strands on citrate gels but are retarded on TBE gels. A study of electrophoretic conditions showed that pH affects strand resolution on citrate gels, and that voltage gradient, agarose concentration, and ethidium bromide significantly alter strand migration on TBE gels. Analysis of native phi 6 RNA synthesized in vivo and in vitro showed that the large and medium message RNAs comigrate with the corresponding plus strands of denatured virion dsRNA. The small messenger RNA is exceptional. Native small mRNA was detected as three isoconformers in vivo and in vitro. The isoconformers were converted by heat denaturation to a single RNA species that comigrates with the virion s+ strand. Minus strands labeled in vivo were detected only after heat denaturation. Minus strand synthesis was detected also in heat-denatured samples from in vitro phi 6 nucleocapsid RNA polymerase reactions at pH values suboptimal for transcription.

  11. The Effect of Trimosan© Gel on Pessary-Associated Bacterial Vaginosis: A Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled Trial (United States)

    Meriwether, Kate V.; Rogers, Rebecca G.; Craig, Ellen; Peterson, Sean D.; Gutman, Robert E.; Iglesia, Cheryl B.


    Objectives Pessaries are important options for women with pelvic floor disorders, but many pessary users experience bacterial vaginosis (BV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of TrimoSan© gel on BV prevalence among pessary users. Study Design Women presenting for a pessary fitting completed questionnaires on vaginal symptoms and hormone therapy (HT) use and underwent a BV® BLUE test and slide collection for BV analysis by Nugent's criteria. Following pessary fitting, women were randomized to either standard pessary care with the use of TrimoSan© placed vaginally twice weekly or to standard pessary care without TrimoSan© gel. Women returned 2 weeks and 3 months later for repeat slide collection for Gram stain, BV® BLUE testing, and completion of questionnaires on vaginal symptoms and desire to continue the pessary. Results There were 184 women randomized after successful fitting (92 to the TrimoSan© group), and 147 (79%) presented for 3 month follow up. Mean age was 56 ± 16 years; patients were mostly Caucasian (57%) or Hispanic (23%) and 36% were using HT. The groups did not differ in the prevalence of BV by Nugent's criteria at 2 weeks (20% TrimoSan© vs 26% no gel, p=0.46) or 3 months (24% TrimoSan© vs 23% no gel, p=0.82), nor did they differ in BV by BV® BLUE testing at 2 weeks (0%TrimoSan©vs 4% no gel, p=0.12) or 3 months (3% TrimoSan© vs 0% no gel, p=0.15). The prevalence of at least one vaginal symptom did not differ between groups at 2 weeks (44% TrimoSan© vs 45% no gel, p=0.98) or 3 months (42% TrimoSan© vs 32% no gel, p=0.30). The TrimoSan© group was equally likely to want to continue their pessary use compared to the standard care group at 2 weeks (90% vs 86%, p=0.64) and 3 months (63% vs 60%, p=0.76). Conclusions TrimoSan© gel in the first 3 months of pessary use does not decrease the prevalence of BV or vaginal symptoms and does not alter the likelihood of a woman desiring to continue pessary use. PMID:25935783

  12. Motility initiation in active gels

    CERN Document Server

    Recho, Pierre; Truskinovsky, Lev


    Motility initiation in crawling cells requires a symmetry breaking mechanism which transforms a symmetric state into a polarized state. Experiments on keratocytes suggest that polarization is triggered by increased contractility of motor proteins. In this paper we argue that contraction can be responsible not only for the symmetry breaking transition but also for the incipient translocation of the segment of an active gel mimicking the crawling cell. Our model suggests that when the contractility increases sufficiently far beyond the motility initiation threshold, the cell can stop and re-symmetrizes. The proposed theory reproduces the motility initiation pattern in fish keratocytes and the behavior of keratocytes prior to cell division.

  13. Sol-gel electrochromic device



    All solid state electrochromic devices have potential applications in architectural and automotive fields to regulate the transmission and reflection of radiant energy. We present the optical and electrochemical characteristics of two solid state windows having the configuration glass/ITO/TiO2-CeO2/TiO2/TiO2-CeO2/ITO/glass and glass/ITO/WOa/TiO2/TiO2-CeO2/ITO/glass where the three internal layers have been prepared by sol gel methods. The preparation of the individual sols and some physical p...

  14. Sleep and native language interference affect non-native speech sound learning. (United States)

    Earle, F Sayako; Myers, Emily B


    Adults learning a new language are faced with a significant challenge: non-native speech sounds that are perceptually similar to sounds in one's native language can be very difficult to acquire. Sleep and native language interference, 2 factors that may help to explain this difficulty in acquisition, are addressed in 3 studies. Results of Experiment 1 showed that participants trained on a non-native contrast at night improved in discrimination 24 hr after training, while those trained in the morning showed no such improvement. Experiments 2 and 3 addressed the possibility that incidental exposure to perceptually similar native language speech sounds during the day interfered with maintenance in the morning group. Taken together, results show that the ultimate success of non-native speech sound learning depends not only on the similarity of learned sounds to the native language repertoire, but also to interference from native language sounds before sleep.

  15. Contrasting xylem vessel constraints on hydraulic conductivity between native and non-native woody understory species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith


    Full Text Available We examined the hydraulic properties of 82 native and non-native woody species common to forests of Eastern North America, including several congeneric groups, representing a range of anatomical wood types. We observed smaller conduit diameters with greater frequency in non-native species, corresponding to lower calculated potential vulnerability to cavitation index. Non-native species exhibited higher vessel-grouping in metaxylem compared with native species, however, solitary vessels were more prevalent in secondary xylem. Higher frequency of solitary vessels in secondary xylem was related to a lower potential vulnerability index. We found no relationship between anatomical characteristics of xylem, origin of species and hydraulic conductivity, indicating that non-native species did not exhibit advantageous hydraulic efficiency over native species. Our results confer anatomical advantages for non-native species under the potential for cavitation due to freezing, perhaps permitting extended growing seasons.

  16. Digestibility of transglutaminase cross-linked caseinate versus native caseinate in an in vitro multicompartmental model simulating young child and adult gastrointestinal conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, R.; Jong, A. de; Koenen, M.E.; Bilsen, J. van; Janssen, A.M.; Labij, E.; Westerbeek, H.J.M.


    Aim of this study was to investigate the digestion of transglutaminase cross-linked caseinate (XLC) versus native caseinate (NC) in solution and in cheese spread under digestive conditions for adults and children mimicked in a gastrointestinal model. Samples were collected for gel electrophoresis an

  17. Speaking C++ as a native (United States)

    Stroustrup, Bjarne


    C++ supports several styles ("multiple paradigms") of programming. This allows great flexibility, notational convenience, maintainability, and close-to-optimal performance. Programmers who don't know the basic native C++ styles and techniques "speak" C++ with a thick accent, limiting themselves to relatively restrictive pidgin dialects. Here, I present language features such as classes, class hierarchies, abstract classes, and templates, together with the fundamental programming styles they support. In particular, I show how to provide generic algorithms, function objects, access objects, and delayed evaluation as needed to build and use flexible and efficient libraries. The aim is to give an idea of what's possible to provide, and some understanding of the fundamental techniques of modern C++ libraries.

  18. Aerococcus viridans Native Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwan Zhou


    Full Text Available Aerococcus viridans is an infrequent human pathogen and few cases of infective endocarditis have been reported. A case involving a 69-year-old man with colon cancer and hemicolectomy 14 years previously, without recurrence, is reported. A diagnosis of native mitral valve endocarditis was established on the basis of clinical presentation, characteristic echocardiographic findings and pathological specimen examination after urgent valve replacement. A viridans endocarditis appears to be particularly virulent, requiring a surgical approach in four of 10 cases reported and death in one of nine. Given the aggressive nature of A viridans endocarditis and the variable time to diagnosis (a few days to seven months, prompt recognition of symptoms and echocardiography, in addition to blood cultures, should be performed when symptoms persist.

  19. Tailoring Wettability Through the Surface Modification of Electro-spun Polymers by Plasma and Sol-gel Treatments (United States)


    solution at the needle tip, causing it to deform into a conical shape referred to as a Taylor cone. When the repulsive forces on the surface exceed the...polymers, Figure 19 and 20 respectively. In the spectrum of polyurethane + TEOS the resonances from the polyurethane are still visible in the region, blue line in Figure 19. After the material was coated with the sol-gel, these resonances were not observed and the spectrum was

  20. Turkish Students' Perspectives on Speaking Anxiety in Native and Non-Native English Speaker Classes (United States)

    Bozavli, Ebubekir; Gulmez, Recep


    The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of FLA (foreign language anxiety) in native/non-native speaker of English classrooms. In this study, two groups of students (90 in total) of whom 38 were in NS (native speaker) class and 52 in NNS (non-native speaker) class taking English as a second language course for 22 hours a week at Erzincan…

  1. Native- and Non-Native Speaking English Teachers in Vietnam: Weighing the Benefits (United States)

    Walkinshaw, Ian; Duong, Oanh Thi Hoang


    This paper examines a common belief that learners of English as a foreign language prefer to learn English from native-speaker teachers rather than non-native speakers of English. 50 Vietnamese learners of English evaluated the importance of native-speakerness compared with seven qualities valued in an English language teacher: teaching…

  2. Vowel perception: Effects of non-native language versus non-native dialect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Cooper, N.


    Three groups of listeners identified the vowel in CV and VC syllables produced by an American English talker. The listeners were (a) native speakers of American English, (b) native speakers of Australian English (different dialect), and (c) native speakers of Dutch (different language). The syllable

  3. Native American History in a Box: A New Approach to Teaching Native American Cultures (United States)

    Helms, Emory C.; Hitt, Austin M.; Schipper, Jason A.; Jones, Adam M.


    This article describes the Native American History in a Box curriculum which is designed to introduce elementary and middle-level students to Native American cultures. The curriculum consists of a five day unit addressing the following concepts pertaining to Native American Nations: settlements, tools, sustenance, pottery, and contact with…

  4. Influence of native and non-native multitalker babble on speech recognition in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Jain


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess speech recognition in noise using multitalker babble of native and non-native language at two different signal to noise ratios. The speech recognition in noise was assessed on 60 participants (18 to 30 years with normal hearing sensitivity, having Malayalam and Kannada as their native language. For this purpose, 6 and 10 multitalker babble were generated in Kannada and Malayalam language. Speech recognition was assessed for native listeners of both the languages in the presence of native and nonnative multitalker babble. Results showed that the speech recognition in noise was significantly higher for 0 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR compared to -3 dB SNR for both the languages. Performance of Kannada Listeners was significantly higher in the presence of native (Kannada babble compared to non-native babble (Malayalam. However, this was not same with the Malayalam listeners wherein they performed equally well with native (Malayalam as well as non-native babble (Kannada. The results of the present study highlight the importance of using native multitalker babble for Kannada listeners in lieu of non-native babble and, considering the importance of each SNR for estimating speech recognition in noise scores. Further research is needed to assess speech recognition in Malayalam listeners in the presence of other non-native backgrounds of various types.

  5. Comparison of native and non-native phone imitation by English and Spanish speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie J Olmstead


    Full Text Available Experiments investigating phonetic convergence in conversation often focus on interlocutors with similar phonetic inventories. Extending these experiments to those with dissimilar inventories requires understanding the capacity of speakers to imitate native and non-native phones. In the present study, we tested native Spanish and native English speakers to determine whether imitation of non-native tokens differs qualitatively from imitation of native tokens. Participants imitated a [ba] -[pa] continuum that varied in VOT from -60 ms (prevoiced, Spanish [b] to +60 ms (long lag, English [p] such that the continuum consisted of some tokens that were native to Spanish speakers and some that were native to English speakers. Analysis of the imitations showed two critical results. First, both groups of speakers demonstrated sensitivity to VOT differences in tokens that fell within their native regions of the VOT continuum (prevoiced region for Spanish and long lag region for English. Secondly, neither group of speakers demonstrated such sensitivity to VOT differences among tokens that fell in their non-native regions of the continuum. These results show that, even in an intentional imitation task, speakers cannot accurately imitate non-native tokens, but are clearly flexible in producing native tokens. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the constraints on convergence in interlocutors from different linguistic backgrounds.

  6. Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Callan-Jones, A C


    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  7. Gel trapping of dense colloids. (United States)

    Laxton, Peter B; Berg, John C


    Phase density differences in sols, foams, or emulsions often lead to sedimentation or creaming, causing problems for materials where spatial uniformity over extended periods of time is essential. The problem may be addressed through the use of rheology modifiers in the continuous phase. Weak polymer gels have found use for this purpose in the food industry where they appear to be capable of trapping dispersoid particles in a three-dimensional matrix while displaying water-like viscosities at low shear. Attempts to predict sedimentation stability in terms of particle properties (size, shape, density difference) and gel yield stress have led to qualitative success for suspensions of large particles. The effect of particle size, however, in particular the case in which colloidal dimensions are approached, has not been investigated. The present work seeks to determine useful stability criteria for colloidal dispersions in terms of readily accessible viscoelastic descriptors. Results are reported for systems consisting of 12 microm poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) spheres dispersed in aqueous gellan gum. Monovalent salt concentration is varied to control rheological properties, and sedimentation/centrifugation experiments are performed to determine dispersion stability. Necessary conditions for stability consist of a minimum yield stress together with a value of tan delta less than unity.

  8. Self-Pumping Active Gel (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Ta; Hishamunda, Jean Bernard; Fraden, Seth; Dogic, Zvonimir

    Isotropic active gels are the network which is consist of cross-linked building blocks and the structure of which changes randomly and isotropically with time. Dogic et. al. show that pairs of anti-parallel microtubules form extensile bundles, which merge, extend, and buckle. In an unconfined system, the dynamics of these bundles causes spontaneous turbulent-like flow driven by motion of microscopic molecular motors. We found that confining these active gels in a millimeter sized toroids causes a transition into a new dynamical state characterized by circulation currents persisting for hours until ATP is depleted. We show how toroid dimensions impact the properties of self-organized circular currents, how directions of circulation can be designed by engineering ratchet-shaped boundaries, and how circulations of connected toroids can be either synchronized or antisynchronized. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the flow rate in the circulation is independent of curvature and length of flow path. The flow rate persists for centimeters without decay, disregarding conventional pipe flow resistance. Such findings pave the path to self-pumping pipe transport and performing physical work with biological system.

  9. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Un Kim


    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS, floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  10. Stabilized aqueous gels and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, B.L.


    New improved aqueous gels, and methods of using same in contacting subterranean formations, are provided. The gels are prepared by gelling an aqueous brine having incorporated therein a water-soluble cellulose ether such as a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and are rendered more stable to decomposition by incorporating a sulfoalkylated tannin stabilizing agent, such as a sulfomethylated quebracho (SMQ), in the gel during the preparation thereof.

  11. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  12. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerizationreaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reactionkinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time ofcalcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and anexample is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  13. Selective predation by feral cats on a native skink on Guam (United States)

    Lardner, Björn; Reed, Robert N.; Adams, Amy A. Yackel; Mazurek, M.J.; Hinkle, Thomas J.; Levasseur, Patricia M.; Palmer, Meredith S.; Savidge, Julie A.


    Two species of skinks (Fig. 1) occur in a 5-ha plot on Guam where we have been conducting intensive research on Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) population biology for nearly a decade (Rodda et al. 2007). The Pacific Blue-tailed Skink (Emoia caeruleocauda [de Vis 1892]) is native to Guam, whereas the Curious Skink (Carlia ailanpalai Zug 2004) is invasive. On the evening of 27 November 2012, PML and MSP discovered a pile of vomited skinks (Fig. 2) inside the plot (UTM 55P: 269125 m E, 1508930 m N).

  14. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture (United States)


    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  15. Support for Native Americans with Developmental Disabilities. (United States)

    Goodman, Wylie; Rife, Christine

    This report addresses the high incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE) among Native Americans and suggests that there is a lack of comprehensive effort to provide outreach services to the Native American population in Illinois. The report begins with an overview of American Indian history and the migration of…

  16. Native grasses for rehabilitating Hunter Valley minesites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxtable, C. [NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, NSW (Australia)


    Introduced plant species, particularly grasses, have long been used to rehabilitate mined land in Australia. Interest in using native species spawned a research project in the Hunter Valley which has demonstrated the suitability of certain native species for rehabilitation and put forward guidelines to enhance the chance of their successful establishment. 4 photos., 1 tab.

  17. How Digital Native Learners Describe Themselves (United States)

    Thompson, Penny


    Eight university students from the "digital native" generation were interviewed about the connections they saw between technology use and learning, and also their reactions to the popular press claims about their generation. Themes that emerged from the interviews were coded to show patterns in how digital natives describe themselves.…

  18. Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy? (United States)

    Ng, Wan


    In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students…

  19. Theoretical Perspectives of How Digital Natives Learn (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles


    Marck Prensky, an authority on teaching and learning especially with the aid of Information and Communication Technologies, has referred to 21st century children born after 1980 as "Digital Natives". This paper reviews literature of leaders in the field to shed some light on theoretical perspectives of how Digital Natives learn and how…

  20. Reading Native American Literature: A Teacher's Guide (United States)

    Goebel, Bruce A.


    High school and college teachers interested in offering units or courses on Native American literature have often had to carve out new teaching strategies because ready resources and guides are scarce. In "Reading Native American Literature: A Teacher's Guide," Bruce A. Goebel offers innovative and practical suggestions about how to introduce…

  1. Staphylococcus saprophyticus causing native valve endocarditis. (United States)

    Garduño, Eugenio; Márquez, Irene; Beteta, Alicia; Said, Ibrahim; Blanco, Javier; Pineda, Tomás


    Coagulase negative staphylococci are a rare cause of native valve endocarditis. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infrequently reported as a human pathogen, and most of the cases reported are urinary tract infections. We describe a case of native valve endocarditis attributed to this organism. The patient needed valve replacement due to heart failure.

  2. Conducting polymer electrodes for gel electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Bengtsson

    Full Text Available In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that π-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation.

  3. Food gels: gelling process and new applications. (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumya; Bhattacharya, Suvendu


    Food gels are viscoelastic substances and several gelled products are manufactured throughout the world. The gelling agents in foods are usually polysaccharides and proteins. In food gels, the polymer molecules are not cross-linked by covalent bonds with the exception of disulphide bonds in some protein gels. Instead, the molecules are held together by a combination of weak inter-molecular forces like hydrogen bonds, electrostatic forces, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic interactions. Polysaccharides including hydrocolloids are strongly hydrated in aqueous medium but they tend to have less ordered structures. The mechanism of gelation depends on the nature of the gelling agent(s) and on the conditions of gel formation like the temperature, the presence of ions, the pH, and the concentration of gelling agents, etc. Characterization of gels can be performed in several ways of which rheological measurements are frequently practiced. Multi-component or mixed gel system is an important area of interest in which two or more gelling components are simultaneously used to achieve certain specific structural and functional characteristics. We here discuss about the different gels and gelling agents, the characterization of gels, and the mechanism of gelation with an emphasis on mixed or multi-component gels that would have significant commercial applications.

  4. Tissue simulating gel for medical research (United States)

    Companion, John A. (Inventor)


    A tissue simulating gel and a method for preparing the tissue simulating gel are disclosed. The tissue simulating gel is prepared by a process using water, gelatin, ethylene glycol, and a cross-linking agent. In order to closely approximate the characteristics of the type of tissue being simulated, other material has been added to change the electrical, sound conducting, and wave scattering properties of the tissue simulating gel. The result of the entire process is a formulation that will not melt at the elevated temperatures involved in hyperthermia medical research. Furthermore, the tissue simulating gel will not support mold or bacterial growth, is of a sufficient mechanical strength to maintain a desired shape without a supporting shell, and is non-hardening and non-drying. Substances have been injected into the tissue simulating gel prior to the setting-up thereof just as they could be injected into actual tissue, and the tissue simulating gel is translucent so as to permit visual inspection of its interior. A polyurethane spray often used for coating circuit boards can be applied to the surface of the tissue simulating gel to give a texture similar to human skin, making the tissue simulating gel easier to handle and contributing to its longevity.

  5. An Analysis of Student Evaluations of Native and Non Native Korean Foreign Language Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Damron


    Full Text Available In an effort to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native teaching assistants and part-time teachers (both referred to as TAs in this article, students completed 632 evaluations of Ko-rean Language TAs from 2005 to 2008, and these evaluations were compiled for an analysis of variants (ANOVA. The evaluations were categorized into three groups of TAs: native Korean-speaking female, native Korean-speaking male, and non-native male; non-native females would have been included in the study, but there were not enough non-native female teachers to have a reliable sample. In an effort to encourage more self-examined teaching practices, this study addresses the greatest strengths and weaknesses of each group. Results revealed several significant differences between the ratings of the groups: native female TAs rated lowest overall, and non-native male TAs rated highest overall. The most prominent differences be-tween groups occurred in ratings of amount students learned, TAs’ preparedness, TAs’ active involvement in students’ learning, TAs’ enthusiasm, and TAs’ tardiness. This study reviews students’ written comments on the evaluations and proposes possible causes of these findings, concluding that differences in ratings are based on both teaching patterns associated with each group of TAs and student re-sponse bias that favors non-native male speakers. Teaching patterns include a tendency for native (Korean female TAs to teach using a lecture format and non-native male TAs to teach using a discussion format; for native TAs to have difficulty adapting to the language level of the students; and for a more visible enthusiasm for Korean culture held by non-native TAs. Causes for bias may include “other-ing” females and natives, TA selection procedures, and trends in evaluating TAs based on language level.

  6. Native and Non-native English Teachers' Perceptions of their Professional Identity: Convergent or Divergent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Tajeddin


    Full Text Available There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disadvantages of being a native or nonnative teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. A total of 200 native and nonnative teachers of English from the UK and the US, i.e. the inner circle, and Turkey and Iran, the expanding circle, participated in this study. A significant majority of nonnative teachers believed that native speaker teachers have better speaking proficiency, better pronunciation, and greater self-confidence. The findings also showed nonnative teachers’ lack of self-confidence and awareness of their role and status compared with native-speaker teachers, which could be the result of existing inequities between native and nonnative English-speaking teachers in ELT. The findings also revealed that native teachers disagreed more strongly with the concept of native teachers’ superiority over nonnative teachers. Native teachers argued that nonnative teachers have a good understanding of teaching methodology whereas native teachers are more competent in correct language. It can be concluded that teacher education programs in the expanding-circle countries should include materials for teachers to raise their awareness of their own professional status and role and to remove their misconception about native speaker fallacy.

  7. Spatial arrangement overrules environmental factors to structure native and non-native assemblages of synanthropic harvestmen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Muster

    Full Text Available Understanding how space affects the occurrence of native and non-native species is essential for inferring processes that shape communities. However, studies considering spatial and environmental variables for the entire community - as well as for the native and non-native assemblages in a single study - are scarce for animals. Harvestmen communities in central Europe have undergone drastic turnovers during the past decades, with several newly immigrated species, and thus provide a unique system to study such questions. We studied the wall-dwelling harvestmen communities from 52 human settlements in Luxembourg and found the assemblages to be largely dominated by non-native species (64% of specimens. Community structure was analysed using Moran's eigenvector maps as spatial variables, and landcover variables at different radii (500 m, 1000 m, 2000 m in combination with climatic parameters as environmental variables. A surprisingly high portion of pure spatial variation (15.7% of total variance exceeded the environmental (10.6% and shared (4% components of variation, but we found only minor differences between native and non-native assemblages. This could result from the ecological flexibility of both, native and non-native harvestmen that are not restricted to urban habitats but also inhabit surrounding semi-natural landscapes. Nevertheless, urban landcover variables explained more variation in the non-native community, whereas coverage of semi-natural habitats (forests, rivers at broader radii better explained the native assemblage. This indicates that some urban characteristics apparently facilitate the establishment of non-native species. We found no evidence for competitive replacement of native by invasive species, but a community with novel combination of native and non-native species.

  8. The new digital natives cutting the chord

    CERN Document Server

    Dingli, Alexei


    The first generation of Digital Natives (DNs) is now growing up.  However, these digital natives were rather late starters since; their exposure to computers started when they could master the mouse and the penetration of computers in educational institutions was still very low. Today, a new breed of digital natives is emerging.  This new breed includes those individuals who are being introduced from their first instances to the world of wireless devices. One year olds manage to master the intuitive touch interfaces of their tablets whilst sitting comfortably in their baby bouncers. The controller-less interfaces allow these children to interact with a machine in a way which was unconceivable below. Thus, our research investigated the paradigm shift between the different generations of digital natives. We analysed the way in which these two generations differ from each other and we explored how the world needs to change in order to harness the potential of these new digital natives.

  9. Nativization processes in L1 Esperanto. (United States)

    Bergen, B K


    The artificial language Esperanto is spoken not only as a second language, by its proponents, but also as a native language by children of some of those proponents. The present study is a preliminary description of some characteristics of the Native Esperanto (NE) of eight speakers, ranging in age from six to fourteen years. As such, it is the first of its kind--previous works on NE are either theoretical treatises or individual case studies. We find, at least for the eight subjects studied, both bilingualism and nativization effects, differentiating native from non-native Esperanto speech. Among these effects are loss or modification of the accusative case, phonological reduction, attrition of the tense/aspect system, and pronominal cliticization. The theoretical ramifications are discussed, particularly with regard to universals of language acquisition and the effects of expressive requirements of language.

  10. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1 (United States)

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.


    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  11. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  12. Further development of an electroosmotic medium pump system for preparative disk gel electrophoresis. (United States)

    Hayakawa, Mitsuo; Hosogi, Yumiko; Takiguchi, Hisashi; Shiroza, Teruaki; Shibata, Yasuko; Hiratsuka, Koichi; Kiyama-Kishikawa, Michiko; Hamajima, Susumu; Abiko, Yoshimitsu


    A simple and practical 6.8-cm-diameter (36.30-cm(2) cross-sectional-area) preparative disk gel electrophoresis device, based on the design of M. Hayakawa et al. (Anal. Biochem. 288 (2001) 168), in which the elution buffer is driven by an electroosmotic buffer flow through the membrane into the elution chamber from the anode chamber was constructed. We have found that the dialysis membranes employed provide suitable flow rates for the elution buffer, similar to those of an earlier 3.6-cm-diameter device, resulting in the prevention of excess eluate dilution. The efficiency of this device was demonstrated by the fractionation of a bovine serum albumin (BSA) Cohn V fraction into monomer, dimer, and oligomer components using nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE). The maximum protein concentration of the eluate achieved was 133 mg/ml of BSA monomer, which required a dilution of the eluate for subsequent analytical PAGE performance. As a practical example, the two-dimensional fractionation of soluble dipeptidyl peptidase IV (sDPP IV) from 50 ml fetal bovine serum (3.20 g protein) per gel is presented. The sDPP IV enzyme protein was recovered in a relatively short time, utilizing a 6.5% T native-PAGE and subsequential sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE system. This device enhances the possibility of continuous electrophoretic fractionation of complex protein mixtures on a preparative scale.

  13. Native Generations: A campaign addressing infant mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives in urban areas. (United States)

    Rutman, Shira; Loughran, Julie; Tanner, Leah; Randall, Leslie L


    This study describes the development and evaluation of Native Generations, a campaign addressing high rates of infant mortality (IM) among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in urban areas. Campaign development included reviews of literature and previous campaigns, an advisory council, and focus groups. Campaign messages are strength-based, encouraging AI/AN caregivers to utilize available Native-specific resources, including health care, support services, and programming as IM protective factors. The primary campaign material is an 11-minute video. Pilot survey data indicate the video may help increase awareness of IM and Native-specific resources, and increase connection to Native identity, culture, and community.

  14. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-


    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  15. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of... (United States)


    ... Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin (the subject firm... Employment and Training Administration Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice of Negative Determination...

  16. Growth of Larval Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and Fitness of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Blue Ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata) and Green Ash (F. pennsylvanica). (United States)

    Peterson, Donnie L; Duan, Jian J; Yaninek, J S; Ginzel, Matthew D; Sadof, Clifford S


    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive primary pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Blue ash (F. quadrangulata) is less susceptible to emerald ash borer infestations in the forest than other species of North American ash. Whereas other studies have examined adult host preferences, we compared the capacity of emerald ash borer larvae reared from emerald ash borer eggs in the field and in the laboratory to survive and grow in blue ash and the more susceptible green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Emerald ash borer larval survivorship was the same on both ash species. Mortality due to wound periderm formation was only observed in living field grown trees, but was low (<4%) in both green and blue ash. No difference in larval mortality in the absence of natural enemies suggests that both green and blue ash can support the development of emerald ash borer. Larvae reared from eggs on blue ash were smaller than on green ash growing in the field and also in bolts that were infested under laboratory conditions. In a laboratory study, parasitism rates of confined Tetrastichus planipennisi were similar on emerald ash borer larvae reared in blue and green ash bolts, as were fitness measures of the parasitoid including brood size, sex ratio, and adult female size. Thus, we postulate that emerald ash borer larvae infesting blue ash could support populations of T. planipennisi and serve as a potential reservoir for this introduced natural enemy after most of the other native ash trees have been killed.

  17. Stacking gels: A method for maximising output for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng See


    Full Text Available Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, the gold standard of molecular typing methods, has a major disadvantage of an unusually long electrophoretic time. From the original protocol of 6 days, it was modified to 3 days and subsequently to a single day. We describe the procedure of stacking five to six gels one on top of another in order to increase and maximize the output in a shorter time without compromising the resolution and reproducibility. All the variables that affect pulsed field gels during electrophoresis were taken into consideration. We firstly optimized the parameters to be used and secondly determined whether stacking of five to six gels had any effect on the molecular separation during electrophoresis in comparison with a single gel run. DNA preparation, restriction, electrophoresis, staining and gel documentation was carried out based on previously published methods. Gels were analysed using BioNumerics and dice coefficient and unweighted pair group methods were used to generate dendrograms based on 1.5% tolerance values. Identical band profiles and band resolution-separation were seen in the PFGE patterns with single gel and multiple stacking gels. Cluster analysis further strengthened the fact that results from stacking gels were reproducible and comparable with a single gel run. This method of stacking gels saves time and maximizes the output at the same time. The run time for a single gel was about 28 hours, but with six stacked gels the run time was 54 hours compared with 28 x 6 = 168 hours if they were run separately as single gels thus saving time of 67.86%. Beside the big factor of saving time, stacking gels save resources (electricity, reagents, water, chemicals and working time by increasing the sample throughput in a shorter time without compromising on quality of data. But optimization of working parameters is vital depending on the PFGE system used.

  18. Toward 3D graphene oxide gels based adsorbents for high-efficient water treatment via the promotion of biopolymers. (United States)

    Cheng, Chong Sage; Deng, Jie; Lei, Bei; He, Ai; Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Lang; Li, Shuang; Zhao, Changsheng


    Recent studies showed that graphene oxide (GO) presented high adsorption capacities to various water contaminants. However, the needed centrifugation after adsorption and the potential biological toxicity of GO restricted its applications in wastewater treatment. In this study, a facile method is provided by using biopolymers to mediate and synthesize 3D GO based gels. The obtained hybrid gels present well-defined and interconnected 3D porous network, which allows the adsorbate molecules to diffuse easily into the adsorbent. The adsorption experiments indicate that the obtained porous GO-biopolymer gels can efficiently remove cationic dyes and heavy metal ions from wastewater. Methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV), two cationic dyes, are chosen as model adsorbates to investigate the adsorption capability and desorption ratio; meanwhile, the influence of contacting time, initial concentration, and pH value on the adsorption capacity of the prepared GO-biopolymer gels are also studied. The GO-biopolymer gels displayed an adsorption capacity as high as 1100 mg/g for MB dye and 1350 mg/g for MV dye, respectively. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the MB were studied in details. The experimental data of MB adsorption fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm, and the results indicated that the adsorption process was controlled by the intraparticle diffusion. Moreover, the adsorption data revealed that the porous GO-biopolymer gels showed good selective adsorbability to cationic dyes and metal ions.

  19. Luminescence characteristics of blue emitting ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Ce nanophosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mithlesh, E-mail:; Mohapatra, M.; Natarajan, V.


    Photoluminescence (PL) and Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) properties of both virgin and Ce doped ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phosphors were investigated. The phosphors were synthesized via sol–gel route using the respective metal nitrates and citric acid. The nano particle nature of the phosphor was confirmed by X ray diffraction and dynamic light scattering techniques. Time resolved photoluminescence and photo-acoustic spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the emission and excitation properties of the system. TSL properties of the nanophosphor showed a single glow peak at 468 K. Various trap parameters and the kinetics for the glow peak were evaluated assuming the Arrhenius behavior for the system. Electron spin resonance (ESR) technique was used to identify the chemical nature of the traps/defects responsible for the glow peak. The emission spectrum of the nanophosphor was plotted on a standard CIE diagram which suggested a strong bluish violet emission from the phosphor system. Further, the intensity of the phosphor was compared with that of commercial blue phosphor to know the commercial utility of the prepared phosphors. - Highlights: • Synthesis of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce nano-phosphors by sol–gel route. • Speciation of Ce in the host matrix. • Evaluation of order of kinetics and trap parameters of the system. • ESR–TSL correlation of the observed glow peak. • Evaluation of CIE indices and commercial utility of the blue emitting phosphor.

  20. Spectroscopic studies of Cu2+ ions in sol–gel derived silica matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P I Paulose; Gin Jose; Vinoy Thomas; Gijo Jose; N V Unnikrishnan; M K R Warrier


    The Cu2+ ion doped silica gel matrices in monolithic shape were prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The absorption, transmittance and fluorescence spectra of the gel matrices heat treated at different temperatures were monitored. The loss of water and hydroxyl group from silica network changes the optical properties of the Cu2+ ions in the host, noted by the change in colour of monolith and spectral characteristics. The pronounced blue shift observed (700–900 nm to 600–850 nm) for the broad band of the absorption spectra of the samples heated up to 700°C is attributed to the ligand field splitting and partial removal of hydroxyl group from the silica matrices. The results indicate broadband filtering effects of the samples in the wavelength region 400–600 nm. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of the glass matrices heated to 1000°C confirms the conversion of Cu2+ ion to Cu+ ion.

  1. Preparation of selective surfaces of black cobalt by the sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, E.C.; Viveros, T.G.; Morales, U. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Iztapalapa (Mexico)


    Black cobalt, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, thin solid coatings on stainless steel and glass substrates have been prepared by the dip coating technique via the sol-gel route using a CoCl{sub 2} precursor. The coatings produced on substrates exhibit a blue to black colours as a function of the film thickness. Sols have been made from a cobalt acetate precursor 0.1 M, and for such conditions, the dip coating process gives 0.08-0.25 {mu}m thick uniform films per dipping, depending on the viscocity of the sol. (Author)

  2. Photoinduced properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 sol–gel derived thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akbar Eshaghi; Mahmoud Pakshir; Reza Mozaffarinia


    In this paper, nanostructure TiO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrates by sol–gel dip coating technique. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to determine film behaviour. The super-hydrophilicity was assessed by contact angle measurement. Photocatalytic properties of these films were evaluated by degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. The XRD pattern of TiO2 powder samples confirmed the presence of polycrystalline anatase phase with a crystal size of 17 nm. The results indicated that UV light irradiation had significant effect on super-hydrophilic and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 thin films.

  3. Categorization of rheological scaling models for particle gels applied to casein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, M.; Opheusden, van J.H.J.; Vliet, van T.


    Rennet-induced casein gels made from skim milk were studied rheologically. A scaling model or framework for describing the rheological behavior of gels is discussed and used for classification of the structure of casein gels. There are two main parameters in the model that describe the number of def

  4. High internal phase emulsion gels (HIPE-gels) created through assembly of natural oil bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikiforidis, C.V.; Scholten, E.


    A natural emulsion was used to create a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) gel with elastic properties, indicated by shear elastic moduli between 102 and 105 Pa. The elasticity of the gel network was provided from a 2D-gel network of proteins which were naturally adsorbed at the interface of an oil

  5. Viscoelastic Properties of Vitreous Gel (United States)

    Pirouz Kavehpour, H.; Sharif-Kashani, Pooria


    We studied the rheological properties of porcine vitreous humor using a stressed-control shear rheometer. All experiments were performed in a closed environment at body temperature to mimic in-vivo conditions. We modeled the creep deformation using a two-element retardation spectrum model. By associating each element of the model to an individual biopolymeric system in the vitreous gel, a separate response to the applied stress was obtained from each component. The short time scale was associated with the collagen structure, while the longer time scale was related to the microfibrilis and hyaluronan network. We were able to distinguish the role of each main component from the overall rheological properties. Knowledge of this correlation enables us to relate the physical properties of vitreous to its pathology, as well as optimize surgical procedures such as vitrectomy.

  6. Native bees and plant pollination (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.


    Bees are important pollinators, but evidence suggests that numbers of some species are declining. Decreases have been documented in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (which was introduced to North America), but there are no monitoring programs for the vast majority of native species, so we cannot be sure about the extent of this problem. Recent efforts to develop standardized protocols for bee sampling will help us collect the data needed to assess trends in bee populations. Unfortunately, diversity of bee life cycles and phenologies, and the large number of rare species, make it difficult to assess trends in bee faunas. Changes in bee populations can affect plant reproduction, which can influence plant population density and cover, thus potentially modifying horizontal and vertical structure of a community, microclimate near the ground, patterns of nitrogen deposition, etc. These potential effects of changes in pollination patterns have not been assessed in natural communities. Effects of management actions on bees and other pollinators should be considered in conservation planning.

  7. Comparison of Catalytic Activities for Sonocatalytic, Photocatalytic and Sonophotocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue in the Presence of Magnetic Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO Nanocomposites (United States)

    Taufik, Ardiansyah; Tju, Hendry; Saleh, Rosari


    Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO nanocomposites with different molar ratio were synthesized using sol-gel method. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, BET surface area analyszer, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). The sonocatalytic-photocatalytic-sonophotocatalytic activity of as-synthesized samples was investigated based on methylene blue degradation. Moreover, the role of active species was investigated using scavenger technique. The results showed that hole plays an important key role in sono-photo-sonophotocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

  8. Chinese Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Juan; LI; Jiazhi; DENG; Zequn; WANG; Changsui


    Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain specimens from the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties have been systematically analyzed using a nondestructive test method--?energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF). The derived data of major and trace element compositions have been treated by correspondence analysis. The variation laws of the composition patterns for Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain in different historical periods owing to the change in raw materials, recipe and technology have been discussed, and a time model related to variation of element composition has been preliminarily established, It would be helpful for scientific dating of Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain, and even for the studies on the whole field of identification of ancient ceramics.

  9. Bump in the blue axion isocurvature spectrum (United States)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Upadhye, Amol


    Blue axion isocurvature perturbations are both theoretically well motivated and interesting from a detectability perspective. These power spectra generically have a break from the blue region to a flat region. Previous investigations of the power spectra were analytic, which left a gap in the predicted spectrum in the break region due to the nonapplicability of the used analytic techniques. We therefore compute the isocurvature spectrum numerically for an explicit supersymmetric axion model. We find a bump that enhances the isocurvature signal for this class of scenarios. A fitting function of three parameters is constructed that fits the spectrum well for the particular axion model we study. This fitting function should be useful for blue isocurvature signal hunting in data and making experimental sensitivity forecasts.

  10. A Stable Blue Organic Electroluminescent Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新友; 吴有智; 等


    In order to compare two kinds of blue electroluminescent materials,we have investigated two kinds of blue OLEDs with the similar structure ITO/CuPc/NPB/JBEM:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(J)] and ITO/CuPc/NPB/DPVBi:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(D)].The difference of luminance and efficiency was not obvious for the two devices,However,there was remarkable difference for their lifetime.The device(J) achieved longer half lifetime of 1035h at initial luminance of 100 cd/m2,and that of device(D) was only255h,According to their energy level diagrams,the differentce of their stability may originate from different host materials in the two devices.It may be attributed to the better thermal stability of JBEM molecues than that of DPVBi.It is shown that JBEM may be a promising blue organic electroluminescent material with great stability.

  11. New visible and selective DNA staining method in gels with tetrazolium salts. (United States)

    Paredes, Aaron J; Naranjo-Palma, Tatiana; Alfaro-Valdés, Hilda M; Barriga, Andrés; Babul, Jorge; Wilson, Christian A M


    DNA staining in gels has historically been carried out using silver staining and fluorescent dyes like ethidium bromide and SYBR Green I (SGI). Using fluorescent dyes allows recovery of the analyte, but requires instruments such as a transilluminator or fluorimeter to visualize the DNA. Here we described a new and simple method that allows DNA visualization to the naked eye by generating a colored precipitate. It works by soaking the acrylamide or agarose DNA gel in SGI and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) solution that, when exposed to sunlight, produces a purple insoluble formazan precipitate that remains in the gel after exposure to light. A calibration curve made with a DNA standard established a detection limit of approximately 180 pg/band at 500 bp. Selectivity of this assay was determined using different biomolecules, demonstrating a high selectivity for DNA. Integrity and functionality of the DNA recovered from gels was determined by enzymatic cutting with a restriction enzyme and by transforming competent cells after the different staining methods, respectively. Our method showed the best performance among the dyes employed. Based on its specificity, low cost and its adequacy for field work, this new methodology has enormous potential benefits to research and industry.

  12. Multicolored, Low-Power, Flexible Electrochromic Devices Based on Ion Gels. (United States)

    Moon, Hong Chul; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Lodge, Timothy P; Frisbie, C Daniel


    Ion gels composed of a copolymer and a room temperature ionic liquid are versatile solid-state electrolytes with excellent features including high ionic conductivity, nonvolatility, easily tunable mechanical properties, good flexibility and solution processability. Ion gels can be functionalized by incorporating redox-active species such as electrochemiluminescent (ECL) luminophores or electrochromic (EC) dyes. Here, we enhance the functionality of EC gels for realizing multicolored EC devices (ECDs), either by controlling the chemical equilibrium between a monomer and dimer of a colored EC species, or by modifying the molecular structures of the EC species. All devices in this work are conveniently fabricated by a "cut-and-stick" strategy, and require very low power for maintaining the colored state [i.e., 90 μW/cm(2) (113 μA/cm(2) at -0.8 V) for blue, 4 μW/cm(2) (10 μA/cm(2) at -0.4 V) for green, and 32 μW/cm(2) (79 μA/cm(2) at -0.4 V) for red ECD]. We also successfully demonstrate a patterned, multicolored, flexible ECD on plastic. Overall, these results suggest that gel-based ECDs have significant potential as low power displays in printed electronics powered by thin-film batteries.

  13. A gel-based visual immunoassay for non-instrumental detection of chloramphenicol in food samples. (United States)

    Yuan, Meng; Sheng, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Junping; Yang, Yijin; Zhang, Shuguang; Goryacheva, Irina Yu; Wang, Shuo


    A gel-based non-instrumental immuno-affinity assay was developed for the rapid screening of chloramphenicol (CAP) in food samples with the limit of detection (LOD) of 1 μg L(-1). The immuno-affinity test column (IATC) consisted of a test layer containing anti-CAP antibody coupled gel, and a control layer with anti-HRP antibody coupled gel. Based on the direct competitive immuno-reaction and the horseradish peroxidase enzymatic reaction, the test results could be evaluated visually. Basically, blue color development represented the negative results, while the absence of color development represented the positive results. In this study, CAP spiked samples of raw milk, pasteurized milk, UHT milk, skimmed milk powder, acacia honey, date honey, fish and shrimp were tested. Little or none sample pretreatment was required for this assay. The whole procedure was completed within 10min. In conclusion, the gel-based immuno-affinity test is a simple, rapid, and promising on-site screening method for CAP residues in food samples, with no instrumental requirement.

  14. Responsive molecular gels. : Surface Chemistry and Colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jaap J. D.; Feringa, Bernard; van Esch, Jan


    A review discusses the chemo-responsive gels and physico-responsive gels. Phys. low mol. mass responsive gelators are interesting mols. with many potential applications in areas such as catalysis, sensor and sepn. technol., drug delivery, and biomedicine. In a relatively short period, a wide variety

  15. Flow of colloidal suspensions and gels (United States)

    Zia, Roseanna

    Our recent studies of yield of colloidal gels under shear show that yield in such gels occurs in distinct stages. Under fixed stress, yield follows a finite delay period of slow solid-like creep. Post yield, the gel fluidizes and may undergo long-time viscous flow or, in some cases, may re-solidify. Under imposed strain rate, the transition from equilibrium to long-time flow is characterized by one or more stress overshoots, signifying a yield process here as well. These rheological changes are accompanied by evolution in morphology and dynamics of the gel network. Similar regimes have been observed in gels subjected to gravitational forcing; the gel initially supports its own weight, or perhaps undergoes slow, weak compaction. This may be followed by a sudden transition to rapid compaction or sedimentation. Various models have been put forth to explain these behaviors based on structural evolution, but this detail is difficult to observe in experiment. Here we examine the detailed microstructural evolution and rheology of reversible colloidal gels as they deform under gravity, identifying the critical buoyant force at which yield occurs, the role played by ongoing gel coarsening, and similarities and differences compared to yield under shear. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF XSEDE Computational Resource, the NSF Early CAREER Program, and the Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Program.

  16. Cd(II) Speciation in alginate gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, T.A.; Kalis, E.J.J.; Pinheiro, J.P.; Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.


    Polysaccharides, such as those occurring in cell walls and biofilms, play an important role in metal speciation in natural aqueous systems. This work describes the speciation of Cd(II) in alginate gels chosen as a model system for biogels. The gels are formed by bridging calcium ions at junction zon

  17. Stiffening in gels containing whey protein isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purwanti, N.; Veen, van der E.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.


    Gels made only from whey protein isolate (WPI) stiffened over the first few days of storage, after which the textural properties remained nearly constant. However, protein gels containing WPI microparticles, at the same total protein content, stiffened over a longer period than those without micropa

  18. Recrystallization of amylopectin in concentrated starch gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keetels, CJAM; Oostergetel, GT; vanVliet, T


    The relation between the recrystallization of amylopectin and the increase in stiffness of starch gels during storage was studied by various techniques. From transmission electron microscopy it was concluded that the size of the crystalline domains in retrograded 30% w/w potato starch gels was about

  19. Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M; Hino, M;


    Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions...

  20. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells (United States)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit


    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  1. Rhizobacterial Community Structures Associated with Native Plants Grown in Chilean Extreme Environments. (United States)

    Jorquera, Milko A; Maruyama, Fumito; Ogram, Andrew V; Navarrete, Oscar U; Lagos, Lorena M; Inostroza, Nitza G; Acuña, Jacquelinne J; Rilling, Joaquín I; de La Luz Mora, María


    Chile is topographically and climatically diverse, with a wide array of diverse undisturbed ecosystems that include native plants that are highly adapted to local conditions. However, our understanding of the diversity, activity, and role of rhizobacteria associated with natural vegetation in undisturbed Chilean extreme ecosystems is very poor. In the present study, the combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454-pyrosequencing approaches was used to describe the rhizobacterial community structures of native plants grown in three representative Chilean extreme environments: Atacama Desert (ATA), Andes Mountains (AND), and Antarctic (ANT). Both molecular approaches revealed the presence of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria as the dominant phyla in the rhizospheres of native plants. Lower numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed in rhizosphere soils from ATA compared with AND and ANT. Both approaches also showed differences in rhizobacterial community structures between extreme environments and between plant species. The differences among plant species grown in the same environment were attributed to the higher relative abundance of classes Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. However, further studies are needed to determine which environmental factors regulate the structures of rhizobacterial communities, and how (or if) specific bacterial groups may contribute to the growth and survival of native plants in each Chilean extreme environments.

  2. On shear rheology of gel propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Shai; Peretz, Arie [RAFAEL, MANOR Propulsion and Explosive Systems Division, Haifa (Israel); Natan, Benveniste [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)


    Selected fuel, oxidizer and simulant gels were prepared and rheologically characterized using a rotational rheometer. For fuel gelation both organic and inorganic gellants were utilized, whereas oxidizers and simulants were gelled with addition of silica and polysaccharides, respectively. The generalized Herschel-Bulkley constitutive model was found to most adequately represent the gels studied. Hydrazine-based fuels, gelled with polysaccharides, were characterized as shear-thinning pseudoplastic fluids with low shear yield stress, whereas inhibited red-fuming nitric acid (IRFNA) and hydrogen peroxide oxidizers, gelled with silica, were characterized as yield thixotropic fluids with significant shear yield stress. Creep tests were conducted on two rheological types of gels with different gellant content and the results were fitted by Burgers-Kelvin viscoelastic constitutive model. The effect of temperature on the rheological properties of gel propellant simulants was also investigated. A general rheological classification of gel propellants and simulants is proposed. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Controlling the Morphology of Carbon Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Mukai


    Full Text Available Carbon gels are unique porous carbons, which aretypically obtained through the carbonization ofresorcinol-formaldehyde gels. This material ispractically an aggregate of nanometer-sized carbonparticles. Nanopores, mostly in the size range ofmesopores, exist between the particles. Smallerpores, micropores being the majority, also exist withinthe particles. Therefore, this material has ahierarchical pore system in which short microporesare directly connected to mesopores.The precursor of carbon gels can be obtained throughsol-gel transition. Therefore there is a high possibilitythat the morphology of the resulting carbon can beeasily controlled using various molding methods.We have actually challenged the controlling of themorphology of carbon gels, and have succeeded inobtaining them in the form of disks, microspheresand microhoneycombs. Details of such carbon gelswill be reported.

  4. Fluency in native and nonnative English speech

    CERN Document Server

    Götz, Sandra


    This book takes a new and holistic approach to fluency in English speech and differentiates between productive, perceptive, and nonverbal fluency. The in-depth corpus-based description of productive fluency points out major differences of how fluency is established in native and nonnative speech. It also reveals areas in which even highly advanced learners of English still deviate strongly from the native target norm and in which they have already approximated to it. Based on these findings, selected learners are subjected to native speakers' ratings of seven perceptive fluency variables in or

  5. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo


    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  6. Internal structure analysis of particle-double network gels used in a gel organ replica (United States)

    Abe, Mei; Arai, Masanori; Saito, Azusa; Sakai, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu


    In recent years, the fabrication of patient organ replicas using 3D printers has been attracting a great deal of attention in medical fields. However, the cost of these organ replicas is very high as it is necessary to employ very expensive 3D printers and printing materials. Here we present a new gel organ replica, of human kidney, fabricated with a conventional molding technique, using a particle-double network hydrogel (P-DN gel). The replica is transparent and has the feel of a real kidney. It is expected that gel organ replicas produced this way will be a useful tool for the education of trainee surgeons and clinical ultrasonography technologists. In addition to developing a gel organ replica, the internal structure of the P-DN gel used is also discussed. Because the P-DN gel has a complex structure comprised of two different types of network, it has not been possible to investigate them internally in detail. Gels have an inhomogeneous network structure. If it is able to get a more uniform structure, it is considered that this would lead to higher strength in the gel. In the present study we investigate the structure of P-DN gel, using the gel organ replica. We investigated the internal structure of P-DN gel using Scanning Microscopic Light Scattering (SMILS), a non-contacting and non-destructive.

  7. Sol-gel composite material characteristics caused by different dielectric constant sol-gel phases (United States)

    Kimoto, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Makoto; Kaneko, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Makiko


    Ultrasonic transducers prepared by a sol-gel composite method have been investigated in the field of nondestructive testing (NDT). Sol-gel composite materials could be ideal piezoelectric materials for ultrasonic transducer applications in the NDT field, and a new sol-gel composite with desirable characteristics has been developed. Three kinds of sol-gel composite materials composed of different dielectric constant sol-gel phases, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), Bi4Ti3O12 (BiT), and BaTiO3 (BT), and the same piezoelectric powder phase, PbTiO3 (PT), were fabricated and their properties were compared quantitatively. As a result, the PT/BT, sol-gel composite with the highest dielectric constant sol-gel phase showed the highest d 33 and signal strength. In addition, only PT/BT was successfully poled by room-temperature corona poling with reasonable signal strength.

  8. Collagen telopeptides (cross-linking sites) play a role in collagen gel lattice contraction (United States)

    Woodley, D. T.; Yamauchi, M.; Wynn, K. C.; Mechanic, G.; Briggaman, R. A.


    Solubilized interstitial collagens will form a fibrillar, gel-like lattice when brought to physiologic conditions. In the presence of human dermal fibroblasts the collagen lattice will contract. The rate of contraction can be determined by computer-assisted planemetry. The mechanisms involved in contraction are as yet unknown. Using this system it was found that the rate of contraction was markedly decreased when collagen lacking telopeptides was substituted for native collagen. Histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL) is a major stable trifunctional collagen cross-link in mature skin that involves a carboxyl terminal, telopeptide site 16c, the sixteenth amino acid residue from the carboxy terminal of the telopeptide region of alpha 1 (I) in type I collagen. Little, if any, HHL was present in native, purified, reconstituted, soluble collagen fibrils from 1% acetic acid-extracted 2-year-old bovine skin. In contrast, HHL cross-links were present (0.22 moles of cross-link per mole of collagen) in lattices of the same collagen contracted by fibroblasts. However, rat tail tendon does not contain HHL cross-links, and collagen lattices made of rat tail tendon collagen are capable of contraction. This suggests that telopeptide sites, and not mature HHL cross-links per se, are essential for fibroblasts to contract collagen lattices. Beta-aminopropionitrile fumarate (BAPN), a potent lathyrogen that perturbs collagen cross-linking by inhibition of lysyl oxidase, also inhibited the rate of lattice cell contraction in lattices composed of native collagen. However, the concentrations of BAPN that were necessary to inhibit the contraction of collagen lattices also inhibited fibroblast growth suggestive of cellular toxicity. In accordance with other studies, we found no inhibition of the rate of lattice contraction when fibronectin-depleted serum was used. Electron microscopy of contracted gels revealed typical collagen fibers with a characteristic axial periodicity. The data

  9. Increase in local protein concentration by field-inversion gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Aran


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins that migrate through cross-linked polyacrylamide gels (PAGs under the influence of a constant electric field experience negative factors, such as diffusion and non-specific trapping in the gel matrix. These negative factors reduce protein concentrations within a defined gel volume with increasing migration distance and, therefore, decrease protein separation efficiency. Enhancement of protein separation efficiency was investigated by implementing pulsed field-inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE. Results Separation of model protein species and large protein complexes was compared between FIGE and constant field electrophoresis (CFE in different percentages of PAGs. Band intensities of proteins in FIGE with appropriate ratios of forward and backward pulse times were superior to CFE despite longer running times. These results revealed an increase in band intensity per defined gel volume. A biphasic protein relative mobility shift was observed in percentages of PAGs up to 14%. However, the effect of FIGE on protein separation was stochastic at higher PAG percentage. Rat liver lysates subjected to FIGE in the second-dimension separation of two-dimensional polyarcylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE showed a 20% increase in the number of discernible spots compared with CFE. Nine common spots from both FIGE and CFE were selected for peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry (MS, which revealed higher final ion scores of all nine protein spots from FIGE. Native protein complexes ranging from 800 kDa to larger than 2000 kDa became apparent using FIGE compared with CFE. Conclusion The present investigation suggests that FIGE under appropriate conditions improves protein separation efficiency during PAGE as a result of increased local protein concentration. FIGE can be implemented with minimal additional instrumentation in any laboratory setting. Despite the tradeoff of longer running times, FIGE can be a powerful protein

  10. A CCD-based system for the detection of DNA in electrophoresis gels by UV absorption (United States)

    Mahon, Alex R.; MacDonald, John H.; Ott, Robert J.; Mainwood, Alison


    A method and apparatus for the detection and quantification of large fragments of unlabelled nucleic acids in agarose gels is presented. The technique is based on ultraviolet (UV) absorption by nucleotides. A deuterium source illuminates individual sample lanes of an electrophoresis gel via an array of optical fibres. As DNA bands pass through the illuminated region of the gel the amount of UV light transmitted is reduced because of absorption by the DNA. During electrophoresis the regions of DNA are detected on-line using a UV-sensitive charge coupled device (CCD). As the absorption coefficient is proportional to the mass of DNA the technique is inherently quantitative. The mass of DNA in a region of the gel is approximately proportional to the integrated signal in the corresponding section of the CCD image. This system currently has a detection limit of less than 1.25 ng compared with 2-10 ng for the most popular conventional technique, ethidium bromide (EtBr) staining. In addition the DNA sample remains in its native state. The removal of the carcinogenic dye from the detection procedure greatly reduces associated biological hazards.

  11. Native Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for...

  12. Management Recommendations: Native Adaptive Management Program (NPAM) (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management recommendations are a product of the decision support tool for the Native Adaptive Management Program (NPAM). The provides tall and mixed grass management...

  13. Nonverbal Communications in Native North America (United States)

    Taylor, Allan Ross


    This article describes several types of native American nonspeech communications systems, including the Plains sign language, distance signaling of various kinds, picture writing and whistle speech. See FL 508 188 for availability. (CLK)

  14. 75 FR 8105 - Alaska Native Claims Selection (United States)


    ... Native Claims Settlement Act will be issued to NANA Regional Corporation, Inc., Successor in Interest to... these lands will also be conveyed to NANA Regional Corporation, Inc. when the surface estate is...

  15. Advancing Efforts to Energize Native Alaska (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This brochure describes key programs and initiatives of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs to advance energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy infrastructure projects in Alaska Native villages.

  16. Decision Policy: Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A decision support for the Native Adaptive Management Program (NPAM). The documents provide tall and mixed grass decision policies in relation to the management...

  17. Modeling of spectral characteristics of blue LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders


    are expected to vary with current and junction temperature. Commercial high power blue LEDs were measured with respect to spectral distribution and chromaticity and the result was compared with the model predictions. We have found that the models predict significantly different results with respect...

  18. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  19. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique


    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  20. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise. (United States)

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A


    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  1. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service. (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency…

  2. Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball (United States)

    Maggard, Bob


    Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)

  3. Delta Blues Scholarship and Imperialist Nostalgia. (United States)

    Nye, William P.

    When Delta blues are considered to be "folk music," the genre is inextricably tied to the neocolonial, sharecropping system of cotton production characteristic of the Mississippi Delta region between the Civil War and World War II. "Imperialist nostalgia," then, arises in accounts which pay primary and positive tribute to blues…

  4. Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding (United States)

    Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram


    Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example -- named Mallard Blue -- has now been shown to have excellent sensing properties under biologically relevant conditions.

  5. Blue straggler stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.; Tolstoy, E.; Sigurdsson, S.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.


    Blue straggler star (BSS) candidates have been observed in all old dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), however whether or not they are authentic BSSs or young stars has been a point of debate. To both address this issue and obtain a better understanding of the formation of BSSs in different environme

  6. Geographical Study of American Blues Culture (United States)

    Strait, John B.


    Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

  7. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra


    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While mol

  8. Formation Channels for Blue Straggler Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Melvyn B


    In this chapter we consider two formation channels for blue straggler stars: 1) the merger of two single stars via a collision, and 2) those produced via mass transfer within a binary. We review how computer simulations show that stellar collisions are likely to lead to relatively little mass loss and are thus effective in producing a young population of more-massive stars. The number of blue straggler stars produced by collisions will tend to increase with cluster mass. We review how the current population of blue straggler stars produced from primordial binaries decreases with increasing cluster mass. This is because exchange encounters with third, single stars in the most massive clusters tend to reduce the fraction of binaries containing a primary close to the current turn-off mass. Rather, their primaries tend to be somewhat more massive and have evolved off the main sequence, filling their Roche lobes in the past, often converting their secondaries into blue straggler stars (but more than 1 Gyr or so ag...

  9. Key Words in China Economic Blue Book

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Fei


    @@ With a fluctuating 2008 comes to an end,nOW new 2009 has approaehed to us.Recently、Analvsis and Forecast of China Economy in 2009(Blue Book of Ckina Economy),by the Economics Department or Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

  10. Epistemologies in the Text of Children's Books: Native- and non-Native-authored books (United States)

    Dehghani, Morteza; Bang, Megan; Medin, Douglas; Marin, Ananda; Leddon, Erin; Waxman, Sandra


    An examination of artifacts provides insights into the goals, practices, and orientations of the persons and cultures who created them. Here, we analyze storybook texts, artifacts that are a part of many children's lives. We examine the stories in books targeted for 4-8-year-old children, contrasting the texts generated by Native American authors versus popular non-Native authors. We focus specifically on the implicit and explicit 'epistemological orientations' associated with relations between human beings and the rest of nature. Native authors were significantly more likely than non-Native authors to describe humans and the rest of nature as psychologically close and embedded in relationships. This pattern converges well with evidence from a behavioral task in which we probed Native (from urban inter-tribal and rural communities) and non-Native children's and adults' attention to ecological relations. We discuss the implications of these differences for environmental cognition and science learning.

  11. Should Australia Export its Native Birds?


    Kingwell, Ross S.


    Commercial export from Australia of native birds, wild or captive bred, is prohibited. This paper firstly describes the current legislation and regulations that restrict the export of native birds and discusses why governments have adopted such a regulatory approach to bird species preservation. Secondly, the paper reviews the debate concerning the export ban, pointing out strengths and weaknesses in arguments and indicating the important role of CITES. Lastly, the paper outlines a new case f...

  12. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Gardiner

    Full Text Available Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows

  13. Multiple conformations of proteins in native state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Examples of protein sequences that can adopt multiple native states are recently accumulated. Characterization of the protein multiple conformations will have important implications for our understanding of the relationship between structure and function, and their folding kinetics. In present review, the experimental evidence for the existence of multiple conformations in the native state of proteins, the molecular basis and the biological significance of multiple conformations of proteins are focused.

  14. Experimental infection of native north Carolina salamanders with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Cooper, David; Dombrowski, Daniel S; Poore, Matthew F; Levy, Michael G


    Chytridiomycosis is an often fatal fungal disease of amphibians caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This disease has been implicated in the worldwide decline of many anuran species, but studies of chytridiomycosis in wild salamanders are limited. Between August 2006 and December 2006, we tested wild amphibians in North Carolina, USA (n=212) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We identified three PCR-positive animals: one Rana clamitans and two Plethodontid salamanders. We experimentally infected two species of native North Carolina Plethodontid salamanders, the slimy salamander (Plethodon glutinosus) and the Blue Ridge Mountain dusky salamander (Desmognathus orestes) with 1,000,000 zoospores of B. dendrobatidis per animal. Susceptibility was species dependent; all slimy salamanders developed clinical signs of chytridiomycosis, and one died, whereas dusky salamanders remained unaffected. In a second experiment, we challenged naïve slimy salamanders with either 10,000 or 100,000 motile zoospores per animal. Clinical signs consistent with chytridiomycosis were not observed at either dose or in uninfected controls during the 45 days of this experiment. All animals inoculated with B. dendrobatidis in both experiments, regardless of dose, tested positive by PCR. Our study indicates that slimy salamanders are more susceptible to clinical chytridiomycosis than dusky salamanders, and in a laboratory setting, a dose greater than 100,000 zoospores per animal is required to induce clinical disease. This study also indicates that PCR is a very sensitive tool for detecting B. dendrobatidis infection, even in animals that are clinically unaffected, thus positive results should be interpreted with caution.

  15. Sol-Gel Manufactured Energetic Materials (United States)

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.


    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  16. Apology Strategy in English By Native Speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezia Kemala Sari


    Full Text Available This research discussed apology strategies in English by native speaker. This descriptive study was presented within the framework of Pragmatics based on the forms of strategies due to the coding manual as found in CCSARP (Cross-Cultural Speech Acts Realization Project.The goals of this study were to describe the apology strategies in English by native speaker and identify the influencing factors of it. Data were collected through the use of the questionnaire in the form of Discourse Completion Test, which was distributed to 30 native speakers. Data were classified based on the degree of familiarity and the social distance between speaker and hearer and then the data of native will be separated and classified by the type of strategies in coding manual. The results of this study are the pattern of apology strategies of native speaker brief with the pattern that potentially occurs IFID plus Offer of repair plus Taking on responsibility. While Alerters, Explanation and Downgrading appear with less number of percentage. Then, the factors that influence the apology utterance by native speakers are the social situation, the degree of familiarity and degree of the offence which more complicated the mistake tend to produce the most complex utterances by the speaker.

  17. Pianure Blues: From the Dialect of the Plains to the English of the Blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nadiani


    Full Text Available In this article the authors describe a joint performance project called Pianure Blues, in which poems in Romagnolo dialect are transposed into English and performed as blues songs, and in which songs from the Anglo-American blues/roots/folk tradition are transposed and performed as poems in Romagnolo dialect – a process they have called ‘trans-staging’. A process in which they are writers and performers and, especially, translators; translators of each other’s voices, stories, landscapes, rhythms and sounds as they look for the bond between places, languages and traditions that seem very distant from each other but which find a common mood and poetic language, a common aesthetic, in their performances. The authors reflect on the creative process involved and on the significance of establishing an intersemiotic dialogue between a ‘minority’ dialect such as Romagnolo and a ‘global’ language such as English, and the blues, have become.

  18. The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution. (United States)

    Patterson, Clare; Trompelt, Helena; Felser, Claudia


    Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalize to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called "short-distance pronouns"), the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.

  19. The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare ePatterson


    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalise to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called 'short-distance pronouns', the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.

  20. Some Thoughts on The Definition of a Gel (United States)

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi

    To avoid the confusion of the concept of a gel frequently encountered in daily markets of food, cosmetics, and other industrial products, the definition of a gel is revisited. Recent proposals of the definition of a gel are overviewed, and classifications of various gels from different points of view are described. Discussion is mainly focused on the gel-sol transition and the difference between the structured liquid and the gel, and the classification of gels by temperature dependence of elastic modulus. Finally, the definition of a gel is proposed as a working hypothesis from rheological and structural view points.

  1. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Birren, Bruce


    Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis: A Practical Guide is the first laboratory manual to describe the theory and practice of this technique. Based on the authors' experience developing pulsed field gel instruments and teaching procedures, this book provides everything a researcher or student needs to know in order to understand and carry out pulsed field gel experiments. Clear, well-tested protocols assume only that users have a basic familiarity with molecular biology. Thorough coverage of useful data, theory, and applications ensures that this book is also a lasting resource for more adv

  2. Applications of sol gel ceramic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, D. [Datec Coating Corp., Kingston, Ont. (Canada)


    The sol gel method is a chemical technique in which polycrystalline ceramic films are fabricated from a solution of organometallic precursors. The technique is attractive for many industrial applications because it is a simple (films are processed in air), flexible (can be used to coat complex geometries) and cost effective (does not require expensive equipment) process. In addition, dense, high quality coatings can be achieved at much lower temperatures than is generally required for sintering bulk ceramics. In this paper the conventional sol gel method and the new datec process are reviewed and potential applications of sol gel coatings in automotive, aerospace, petrochemical, nuclear and electronic industries are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Muscular Contraction Mimiced by Magnetic Gels (United States)

    Zrínyi, Miklós; Szabó, Dénes

    The ability of magnetic-field-sensitive gels to undergo a quick controllable change of shape can be used to create an artificially designed system possessing sensor- and actuator functions internally in the gel itself. The peculiar magneto-elastic properties may be used to create a wide range of motion and to control the shape change and movement, that are smooth and gentle similar to that observed in muscle. Magnetic field sensitive gels provide attractive means of actuation as artificial muscle for biomechanics and biomimetic applications.

  4. Chiral heteropoly blues and controllable switching of achiral polyoxometalate clusters. (United States)

    Wang, Yizhan; Li, Haolong; Wu, Che; Yang, Yang; Shi, Lei; Wu, Lixin


    Managing the blues: Chiral heteropoly blues of achiral polyoxometalate clusters were created through an intermolecular interaction with a chiral organic compound. Controllable chiroptical switching of the cluster complexes was possible through reversible photochromism of the polyoxometalates (see picture).

  5. Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany. (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas


    Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects.

  6. Heterogeneity of human alpha-fetoprotein (HAFP) as revealed by agarose gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing in urea-acrylamide gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, E. P.; Miller, J. B.; Yachnin, S.


    HAFP was purified from five patients with hepatoma, one with gastric cancer, and one with an embryonal cell tumor, as well as from fetal liver and a monkey tumor cell line grown in tissue culture. The pattern of microheterogeneity of purified HAFP was defined for each HAFP isolate, and was demonstrated to be present in native sera, using crossed immunoelectrophoresis in agarose gels and isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels containing 8 M urea. Three, and in one case four, species were seen in agarose, and were further resolved to reveal 6 major species with isoelectric focusing which could be correlated with the agarose gel variants. We have demonstrated a relationship between the immunosuppressive potency of certain HAFP preparations and the proportion of specific HAFP isomers which they contain as shown by these techniques. We have desialylated each of our preparations and demonstrated that this does not alter immunosuppressive potency but leaves residual complex microheterogeneity. Desialylated HAFP isolates contain six major HAFP isomers by isoelectric focusing, indicating that HAFP heterogeneity is based upon multiple charge differences in the HAFP molecule, apart from sialic acid content. The nature of these charge differences remain to be determined. We postulate that these charge differences modulate the immunosuppressive potency of HAFP.

  7. Methylene Blue Causing Serotonin Syndrome Following Cystocele Repair. (United States)

    Kapadia, Kailash; Cheung, Felix; Lee, Wai; Thalappillil, Richard; Florence, F Barry; Kim, Jason


    Methylene blue is an intravenously administered agent that may potentiate serotonin syndrome. The usage of methylene blue to evaluate ureters for injuries and patency during urological surgeries is recognized as common practice. However, there is no mention of serotonin syndrome caused by methylene blue in urological literature or for urological surgery. We report the first urological case in order to raise awareness of the risk for serotonin toxicity with utilizing methylene blue.

  8. Methylene Blue Causing Serotonin Syndrome Following Cystocele Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Kapadia


    Full Text Available Methylene blue is an intravenously administered agent that may potentiate serotonin syndrome. The usage of methylene blue to evaluate ureters for injuries and patency during urological surgeries is recognized as common practice. However, there is no mention of serotonin syndrome caused by methylene blue in urological literature or for urological surgery. We report the first urological case in order to raise awareness of the risk for serotonin toxicity with utilizing methylene blue.

  9. Inhibition of hsp70 by methylene blue affects signaling protein function and ubiquitination and modulates polyglutamine protein degradation. (United States)

    Wang, Adrienne M; Morishima, Yoshihiro; Clapp, Kelly M; Peng, Hwei-Ming; Pratt, William B; Gestwicki, Jason E; Osawa, Yoichi; Lieberman, Andrew P


    The Hsp90/Hsp70-based chaperone machinery regulates the activity and degradation of many signaling proteins. Cycling with Hsp90 stabilizes client proteins, whereas Hsp70 interacts with chaperone-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligases to promote protein degradation. To probe these actions, small molecule inhibitors of Hsp70 would be extremely useful; however, few have been identified. Here we test the effects of methylene blue, a recently described inhibitor of Hsp70 ATPase activity, in three well established systems of increasing complexity. First, we demonstrate that methylene blue inhibits the ability of the purified Hsp90/Hsp70-based chaperone machinery to enable ligand binding by the glucocorticoid receptor and show that this effect is due to specific inhibition of Hsp70. Next, we establish that ubiquitination of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by the native ubiquitinating system of reticulocyte lysate is dependent upon both Hsp70 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP and is blocked by methylene blue. Finally, we demonstrate that methylene blue impairs degradation of the polyglutamine expanded androgen receptor, an Hsp90 client mutated in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. In contrast, degradation of an amino-terminal fragment of the receptor, which lacks the ligand binding domain and, therefore, is not a client of the Hsp90/Hsp70-based chaperone machinery, is enhanced through homeostatic induction of autophagy that occurs when Hsp70-dependent proteasomal degradation is inhibited by methylene blue. Our data demonstrate the utility of methylene blue in defining Hsp70-dependent functions and reveal divergent effects on polyglutamine protein degradation depending on whether the substrate is an Hsp90 client.

  10. K-Basin gel formation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.


    A key part of the proposed waste treatment for K Basin sludge is the elimination of reactive uranium metal by dissolution in nitric acid (Fkirnent, 1998). It has been found (Delegard, 1998a) that upon nitric acid dissolution of the sludge, a gel sometimes forms. Gels are known to sometimes impair solid/liquid separation and/or material transfer. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine the cause(s) of the gel formation and to determine operating parameters for the sludge dissolution that avoid formation of gel. This work and related work were planned in (Fkunent, 1998), (Jewett, 1998) and (Beck, 1998a). This report describes the results of the tests in (Beck, 1998a) with non-radioactive surrogates.

  11. Formation of Anisotropic Block Copolymer Gels (United States)

    Liaw, Chya Yan; Shull, Kenneth; Henderson, Kevin; Joester, Derk


    Anisotropic, fibrillar gels are important in a variety of processes. Biomineralization is one example, where the mineralization process often occurs within a matrix of collagen or chitin fibers that trap the mineral precursors and direct the mineralization process. We wish to replicate this type of behavior within block copolymer gels. Particularly, we are interested in employing gels composed of cylindrical micelles, which are anisotropic and closely mimic biological fibers. Micelle geometry is controlled in our system by manipulating the ratio of molecular weights of the two blocks and by controlling the detailed thermal processing history of the copolymer solutions. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and Dynamic Light Scattering are used to determine the temperature dependence of the gel formation process. Initial experiments are based on a thermally-reversible alcohol-soluble system, that can be subsequently converted to a water soluble system by hydrolysis of a poly(t-butyl methacrylate) block to a poly (methacrylic acid) block. MRSEC.

  12. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis (United States)

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo


    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  13. Maize Arabinoxylan Gels as Protein Delivery Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Martínez-López


    Full Text Available The laccase induced gelation of maize bran arabinoxylans at 2.5% (w/v in the presence of insulin or β-lactoglobulin at 0.1% (w/v was investigated. Insulin and β-lacto-globulin did not modify either the gel elasticity (9 Pa or the cross-links content (0.03 and 0.015 mg di- and triferulic acids/mg arabinoxylan, respectively. The protein release capability of the gel was also investigated. The rate of protein release from gels was dependent on the protein molecular weight. The apparent diffusion coefficient was 0.99 × 10-7 and 0.79 × 10-7 cm2/s for insulin (5 kDa and β-lactoglobulin (18 kDa, respectively. The results suggest that maize bran arabinoxylan gels can be potential candidates for the controlled release of proteins.

  14. Sol-gel deposited electrochromic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, N.; Lampert, C.M.


    Electrochromic devices have increasing application in display devices, switchable mirrors and smart windows. A variety of vacuum deposition technologies have been used to make electrochromic devices. The sol- gel process offers an alternative approach to the synthesis of optical quality and low cost electrochromic device layers. This study summarizes the developments in sol-gel deposited electrochromic films. The sol-gel process involves the formation of oxide networks upon hydrolysis-condensation of alkoxide precursors. In this study we cover the sol-gel deposited oxides of WO[sub 3], V[sub 2]O[sub 5], TiO[sub 2], Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5], and NiO[sub x].

  15. Porosity Governs Normal Stresses in Polymer Gels. (United States)

    de Cagny, Henri C G; Vos, Bart E; Vahabi, Mahsa; Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Doi, Masao; Koenderink, Gijsje H; MacKintosh, F C; Bonn, Daniel


    When sheared, most elastic solids including metals, rubbers, and polymer gels dilate perpendicularly to the shear plane. This behavior, known as the Poynting effect, is characterized by a positive normal stress. Surprisingly, fibrous biopolymer gels exhibit a negative normal stress under shear. Here we show that this anomalous behavior originates from the open-network structure of biopolymer gels. Using fibrin networks with a controllable pore size as a model system, we show that the normal-stress response to an applied shear is positive at short times, but decreases to negative values with a characteristic time scale set by pore size. Using a two-fluid model, we develop a quantitative theory that unifies the opposite behaviors encountered in synthetic and biopolymer gels.

  16. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics (United States)

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.


    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  17. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten


    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...

  18. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  19. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  20. 45 CFR 670.20 - Designation of native birds. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native birds. 670.20 Section 670.20... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.20 Designation of native birds. The following are designated native birds: Albatross...

  1. 20 CFR 632.11 - Designation of Native American grantees. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation of Native American grantees. 632... INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Designation Procedures for Native American Grantees § 632.11 Designation of Native American grantees. (a) When designations are required and...

  2. Gifted Native American Students: Underperforming, Under-Identified, and Overlooked (United States)

    Gentry, Marcia; Fugate, C. Matthew


    There has been limited focus among researchers on the nature and needs of gifted Native American students in the past 30 years, and the work that has been done frequently generalizes findings across Native American cultures. This article reviews recent literature on Native American youth and on gifted Native American students; examines the current…

  3. Rheological Characterization of Ethanolamine Gel Propellants (United States)

    V. S Jyoti, Botchu; Baek, Seung Wook


    Ethanolamine is considered to be an environmentally friendly propellant system because it has low toxicity and is noncarcinogenic in nature. In this article, efforts are made to formulate and prepare ethanolamine gel systems, using pure agarose and hybrids of paired gelling agents (agarose + polyvinylpyrrolidine (PVP), agarose + SiO2, and PVP + SiO2), that exhibit a measurable yield stress, thixotropic behavior under shear rate ranges of 1-1,000 s-1 and a viscoelastic nature. To achieve these goals, multiple rheological experiments (including flow and dynamic studies) are performed. In this article, results are presented from experiments measuring the apparent viscosity, yield stress, thixotropy, dynamic strain, frequency sweep, and tan δ behaviors, as well as the effects of the test temperature, in the gel systems. The results show that the formulated ethanolamine gels are thixotropic in nature with yield stress between 30 and 60 Pa. The apparent viscosity of the gel decreases as the test temperature increases, and the apparent activation energy is the lowest for the ethanolamine-(PVP + SiO2) gel system. The dynamic rheology study shows that the type of gellant, choice of hybrid gelling materials and their concentration, applied frequencies, and strain all vitally affect the viscoelastic properties of the ethanolamine gel systems. In the frequency sweep experiment, the ethanolamine gels to which agarose, agarose + PVP, and agarose + SiO2 were added behave like linear frequency-dependent viscoelastic liquids, whereas the ethanolamine gel to which PVP + SiO2 was added behaves like a nearly frequency-independent viscoelastic solid. The variation in the tan δ of these gelled propellants as a function of frequency is also discussed.

  4. Using Greener Gels To Explore Rheology


    Matharu, Avtar Singh; Hurst, Glenn; Garrett, Brendan


    A laboratory experiment was developed to investigate the rheological properties of a green calcium-cross-linked alginate gel as an alternative to the traditional borax-cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) gel. As borax is suspected of damaging fertility and the unborn child, a safe, green alternative is necessary. The rheological properties of a sodium alginate solution were examined as a function of temperature using capillary viscometry. Gelation and degelation processes were followed using rot...

  5. Tissue-Simulating Gel For Medical Research (United States)

    Companion, John A.


    Nonhardening, translucent gel more nearly simulates soft human or animal tissue. Modified to be softer or harder by altering proportions of ingredients. Fillers added to change electrical, mechanical, heat-conducting, or sound-conducting/scattering properties. Molded to any desired shape and has sufficient mechanical strength to maintain shape without supporting shell. Because of its thermal stability, gel especially useful for investigation of hyperthermia as treatment for cancer.

  6. Study of nuclear glasses alteration gel and synthesis of some model gels; Etude du gel d`alteration des verres nucleaires et synthese de gels modeles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricol, S.


    This work deals with the general problem of alteration of the reference nuclear glass R7T7. Attention is paid particularly to the altered layer formed at the glass surface during alteration process. In opposition to previous works, related essentially to glass dissolution kinetics based on chemical analyses of lixiviated elements, this thesis deals with alteration problems through structural studies of the reference glass and derived gel. This approach allows the determination of mechanisms for the gel formation and a better understanding of the behaviour of glasses towards lixiviation. Both approaches appeared complementary. Based on several spectroscopic techniques, this work showed the particular role of cations such as calcium, zirconium and iron. Studies of silica-based synthetic gels showed the synergic effect of formers cation and of one highly coordinated cation. The variation of the wavenumber related to Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching vibration can be correlated to O/Si ratio for ternary systems Si/Na/Zr. On the contrary, the Si losses of the materials depend on the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms. In the perspective of long-term behaviour, the alteration gel presents better characteristics than initial glass. It is therefore a highly stable material in static conditions. In the same way, synthetic gels are materials with very low solubilities (much lower than the alteration gel) and could be used as confining matrices. (authors). refs., 71 figs., 37 tabs.

  7. Treatment of osteochondral injuries with platelet gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Danieli


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Treatments for injured articular cartilage have not advanced to the point that efficient regeneration is possible. However, there has been an increase in the use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of several orthopedic disorders, including chondral injuries. Our hypothesis is that the treatment of chondral injuries with platelet gel results in higher-quality repair tissue after 180 days compared with chondral injuries not treated with gel. METHODS: A controlled experimental laboratory study was performed on 30 male rabbits to evaluate osteochondral injury repair after treatment with or without platelet gel. Osteochondral injuries were surgically induced in both knees of each rabbit at the medial femoral condyle. The left knee injury was filled with the platelet gel, and the right knee was not treated. Microscopic analysis of both knee samples was performed after 180 days using a histological grading scale. RESULTS: The only histological evaluation criterion that was not significantly different between treatments was metachromasia. The group that was treated with platelet gel exhibited superior results in all other criteria (cell morphology, surface regularity, chondral thickness and repair tissue integration and in the total score. CONCLUSION: The repair tissue was histologically superior after 180 days in the study group treated with platelet gel compared with the group of untreated injuries.

  8. Cavitation of a Physically Associating Gel (United States)

    Mishra, Satish; Kundu, Santanu

    Self-assembly of block copolymers in selective solvents form ordered structures such as micelles, vesicles, and physically crosslinked gels due to difference in their interaction with solvents. These gels have wide range of applications in tissue engineering, food science and biomedical field due to their tunable properties and responsiveness with changing environmental conditions. Pressurization of a defect inside a physically associating gel can lead to elastic instability (cavitation) leading to failure of the gel. The failure behavior involves dissociation of physical networks. A thermoreversible, physically associating gel with different volume fractions of a triblock copolymer, poly (methyl methacrylate)-poly (n-butyl acrylate)-poly (methyl methacrylate) [PMMA-PnBA-PMMA] in 2-ethyl 1-hexanol, a midblock selective solvent, is considered here. Mechanical properties were investigated using shear rheology and cavitation experiments. The experimental data is fitted with a constitutive model that captures the stiffening behavior followed by softening behavior of a physical gel. Finite element analysis has been performed on cavitation rheology geometry to capture the failure behavior and to calculate energy release rate during cavitation experiments.

  9. Actuation and ion transportation of polyelectrolyte gels (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Xiao


    Consisting of charged network swollen with ionic solution, polyelectrolyte gels are known for their salient characters including ion exchange and stimuli responsiveness. The active properties of polyelectrolyte gels are mostly due to the migration of solvent molecules and solute ions, and their interactions with the fixed charges on the network. In this paper, we extend the recently developed nonlinear field theory of polyelectrolyte gels by assuming that the kinetic process is limited by the rate of the transportation of mobile species. To study the coupled mechanical deformation, ion migration, and electric field, we further specialize the model to the case of a laterally constrained gel sheet. By solving the field equations in two limiting cases: the equilibrium state and the steady state, we calculate the mechanical responses of the gel to the applied electric field, and study the dependency on various parameters. The results recover the behavior observed in experiments in which polyelectrolyte gels are used as actuators, such as the ionic polymer metal composite. In addition, the model reveals the mechanism of the selectivity in ion transportation. Although by assuming specific material laws, the reduced system resembles those in most existing models in the literature, the theory can be easily generalized by using more realistic free-energy functions and kinetic laws. The adaptability of the theory makes it suitable for studying many similar material systems and phenomena.

  10. Patterns of English phoneme confusions by native and non-native listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Weber, A.C.; Smits, R.; Cooper, N.


    Native American English and non-native (Dutch) listeners identified either the consonant or the vowel in all possible American English CV and VC syllables. The syllables were embedded in multispeaker babble at three signal-to-noise ratios (0, 8, and 16 dB). The phoneme identification performance of

  11. Preparation of continuous alumina gel fibres by aqueous sol–gel process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hongbin Tan; Xiaoling Ma; Mingxing Fu


    Continuous alumina gel fibres were prepared by sol–gel method. The spinning sol was prepared by mixing aluminum nitrate, lactic acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone with a mass ratio of 10:3:1.5. Thermogravimetry–differential scanning calorimetry (TG–DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the properties of the gel and ceramic fibres. The Al2O3 fibres with a uniform diameter can be obtained by sintering gel fibres at 1200 °C.

  12. No More Mad-Dog Concept Nativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Japola DesVergnes


    Full Text Available According to Jerry Fodor, there are two possibilities with respect to the origin of concepts: a concept is either innate, or it is acquired from experience by means of the process of ‘concept learning.’ Fodor’s view in his 1975 and 1980 is that the empiricist method of concept acquisition, forming and testing hypotheses about objects that fall under a concept, can only work for complex concepts. He claims that we must possess some concepts in order to form hypotheses, so none of our simple (or primitive concepts can be learned. If we have them—then they must be innate. In his 2008 Fodor contends furthermore that no new concepts at all, neither primitive, nor complex, can be learned, and so that all concepts must be innate. I argue that Fodor’s famous mad-dog concept nativism should be rejected because it could only work together with what I call neural nativism, and the latter turns out to be scientifically untenable. In addition, I suggest that one’s position in the empiricism/nativism debate should be a function of one’s account of the architecture of the mind, which, in Fodor’s case, only implies architectural nativism, and so, the existence of innate mechanisms. It neither obviously requires, nor precludes, representational—or concept—nativism.

  13. Combination of measurements and the BLUE method

    CERN Document Server

    Lista, Luca


    The most accurate method to combine measurement from different experiments is to build a combined likelihood function and use it to perform the desired inference. This is not always possible for various reasons, hence approximate methods are often convenient. Among those, the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) is the most popular, allowing to take into account individual uncertainties and their correlations. The method is unbiased by construction if the true uncertainties and their correlations are known, but it may exhibit a bias if uncertainty estimates are used in place of the true ones, in particular if those estimated uncertainties depend on measured values. In those cases, an iterative application of the BLUE method may reduce the bias of the combined measurement.

  14. Experiencing Blues at the Crossroads: A Place-Based Method for Teaching the Geography of Blues Culture (United States)

    Strait, John


    This article offers a pedagogical module that explores the geography of blues culture across the Mississippi Delta. By focusing on blues culture, rather than simply blues music itself, this project provides a forum for understanding the broader geographical conditions from which this musical form emerged. This module utilizes place-based…

  15. Diabetic retinopathy in native and non-native Sarawakians--findings from the Diabetic Eye Registry. (United States)

    Mallika, P S; Aziz, S; Goh, P P; Lee, P Y; Cheah, W L; Chong, M S; Tan, A K


    This study aims to determine the risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) among natives and non-natives Sarawakians who were seen at 3 public hospitals and one health clinic in Sarawak. It is a cross sectional study where data on patients with DM were collected by staff at these healthcare facilities and entered into the web-based Diabetic Eye Registry. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to determine the association factors for DR. DR was significantly less associated with natives (24.4%) compared to non-native Sarawakians (34.1%) (p < 0.001). The odds of getting DR was higher in patients whose duration of DM was more than 20 years (OR = 2.6), who have renal impairment (OR = 1.7) and non-natives (OR = 1.4).

  16. Quasars and the Big Blue Bump


    Shang, Zhaohui; Brotherton, Michael S.; Green, Richard F.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Scott, Jennifer; Quijano, Jessica Kim; Blaes, Omer; Hubeny, Ivan; Hutchings, John; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Koratkar, Anuradha; Oegerle, William; Zheng, Wei


    We investigate the ultraviolet-to-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 17 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using quasi-simultaneous spectrophotometry spanning 900-9000 Angstrom (rest frame). We employ data from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and the 2.1-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO). Taking advantage of the short-wavelength coverage, we are able to study the so-called "big blue bump," the region where the...

  17. Great Blue Herons in Puget Sound (United States)


    for her eternal patience and fine editing; and a special acknowl- edgement to the Puget Sound Nearshore Science Team for recognizing the Great Blue...mainland Sunshine Coast offer differing habitat op- portunities and breeding concentrations. Within the inland waters of British Columbia, 62 active...1966 and 1994 based on breeding bird survey results (Downes and Collins 1996). Observa- tions indicate that fewer herons now breed on the Sunshine

  18. Invasive blue mussels threaten regional scale genetic diversity in mainland and remote offshore locations: the need for baseline data and enhanced protection in the Southern Ocean. (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P A; Zbawicka, Małgorzata; Westfall, Kristen M; Wenne, Roman


    Human-mediated biological transfers of species have substantially modified many ecosystems with profound environmental and economic consequences. However, in many cases, invasion events are very hard to identify because of the absence of an appropriate baseline of information for receiving sites/regions. In this study, use of high-resolution genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms - SNPs) highlights the threat of introduced Northern Hemisphere blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) at a regional scale to Southern Hemisphere lineages of blue mussels via hybridization and introgression. Analysis of a multispecies SNP dataset reveals hotspots of invasive Northern Hemisphere blue mussels in some mainland New Zealand locations, as well as the existence of unique native lineages of blue mussels on remote oceanic islands in the Southern Ocean that are now threatened by invasive mussels. Samples collected from an oil rig that has moved between South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand were identified as invasive Northern Hemisphere mussels, revealing the relative ease with which such non-native species may be moved from region to region. In combination, our results highlight the existence of unique lineages of mussels (and by extension, presumably of other taxa) on remote offshore islands in the Southern Ocean, the need for more baseline data to help identify bioinvasion events, the ongoing threat of hybridization and introgression posed by invasive species, and the need for greater protection of some of the world's last great remote areas.

  19. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)


    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  20. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita


    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and inter......This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...... and intermolecular self-organization that typically determine transport and optical emission in π-conjugated oligomers and polymers. In this context, hydrostatic pressure through diamond anvil cells has proven to be an elegant tool to control structure and interactions without chemical intervention. This has been...... highlighted by high pressure optical spectroscopy whilst analogous x-ray diffraction experiments remain less frequent. By focusing on a class of blue-emitting π-conjugated polymers, polyfluorenes, this article reviews optical spectroscopic studies under hydrostatic pressure, addressing the impact of molecular...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU


    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  2. Intravital staining with methylene blue in tympanoplasty. (United States)

    Vaiman, Michael; Sarfaty, Shlomo; Gavriel, Haim; Kraus, Moshe; Kaplan, Daniel; Puterman, Max


    Objective of the study is to investigate usefulness of the methylene blue staining for the operation of tympanoplasty in surgical training process with randomized, controlled trial. Two hospitals were involved: Department of Otolaryngology, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, and Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Soroka University Medical Center. Tympanoplasty with graft placement was performed by young surgeons on 30 patients (30 ears) with anterior perforations using intraoperative staining of tympanoplasty grafts with methylene blue (Group 1). The same number of patients/ears was operated by the young surgeons without intraoperative staining (Group 2). 76 patients operated without staining by experienced surgeons served as a control group. Results showed tympanic membrane healing (graft take) in 30 (100%) cases in Group 1 and in 26 (86.66%) cases in Group 2. The pure-tone audiogram testing revealed significant improvement of hearing in all successful cases (p < 0.05). No side immediate or postponed effects were detected. We conclude that intravital staining with methylene blue in tympanoplasty simplifies the operation and could assist in better visualization and proper placement of the graft. This technique could be most useful in a training process for resident surgeons.

  3. Blue Rose perimeter defense and security system (United States)

    Blackmon, F.; Pollock, J.


    An in-ground perimeter security system has been developed by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport based upon fiber optic sensor technology. The system, called Blue Rose, exploits the physical phenomenon of Rayleigh optical scattering, which occurs naturally in optical fibers used traditionally for Optical Time Domain Reflectometry techniques to detect sound and vibration transmitted by intruders such as people walking or running and moving vehicles near the sensor. The actual sensor is a single-mode optical fiber with an elastomeric coating that is buried in the ground. A long coherence length laser is used to transmit encoded light down the fiber. Minute changes in the fiber in response to the intrusion produce phase changes to the returning backscattered light signal. The return light signal contains both the actual intrusion sound and the location information of where along the fiber the intrusion has occurred. A digital, in-ground, Blue Rose system has been built and is now operational at NUWC. Due to the low cost of the optical fiber sensor and unique benefits of the system, the Blue Rose system provides an advantage in long perimeter or border security applications and also reduces security manning requirements and therefore overall cost for security.

  4. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments (United States)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.


    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  5. Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells. (United States)

    Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav R; Wang, Jixian; Park, Yong; Liu, Ran; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yorio, Thomas; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua


    Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence.

  6. Nature's palette: the search for natural blue colorants. (United States)

    Newsome, Andrew G; Culver, Catherine A; van Breemen, Richard B


    The food and beverage industry is seeking to broaden the palette of naturally derived colorants. Although considerable effort has been devoted to the search for new blue colorants in fruits and vegetables, less attention has been directed toward blue compounds from other sources such as bacteria and fungi. The current work reviews known organic blue compounds from natural plant, animal, fungal, and microbial sources. The scarcity of blue-colored metabolites in the natural world relative to metabolites of other colors is discussed, and structural trends common among natural blue compounds are identified. These compounds are grouped into seven structural classes and evaluated for their potential as new color additives.

  7. Decoding speech perception by native and non-native speakers using single-trial electrophysiological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Brandmeyer

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs are systems that use real-time analysis of neuroimaging data to determine the mental state of their user for purposes such as providing neurofeedback. Here, we investigate the feasibility of a BCI based on speech perception. Multivariate pattern classification methods were applied to single-trial EEG data collected during speech perception by native and non-native speakers. Two principal questions were asked: 1 Can differences in the perceived categories of pairs of phonemes be decoded at the single-trial level? 2 Can these same categorical differences be decoded across participants, within or between native-language groups? Results indicated that classification performance progressively increased with respect to the categorical status (within, boundary or across of the stimulus contrast, and was also influenced by the native language of individual participants. Classifier performance showed strong relationships with traditional event-related potential measures and behavioral responses. The results of the cross-participant analysis indicated an overall increase in average classifier performance when trained on data from all participants (native and non-native. A second cross-participant classifier trained only on data from native speakers led to an overall improvement in performance for native speakers, but a reduction in performance for non-native speakers. We also found that the native language of a given participant could be decoded on the basis of EEG data with accuracy above 80%. These results indicate that electrophysiological responses underlying speech perception can be decoded at the single-trial level, and that decoding performance systematically reflects graded changes in the responses related to the phonological status of the stimuli. This approach could be used in extensions of the BCI paradigm to support perceptual learning during second language acquisition.

  8. Linking Native and Invader Traits Explains Native Spider Population Responses to Plant Invasion. (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer N; Emlen, Douglas J; Pearson, Dean E


    Theoretically, the functional traits of native species should determine how natives respond to invader-driven changes. To explore this idea, we simulated a large-scale plant invasion using dead spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) stems to determine if native spiders' web-building behaviors could explain differences in spider population responses to structural changes arising from C. stoebe invasion. After two years, irregular web-spiders were >30 times more abundant and orb weavers were >23 times more abundant on simulated invasion plots compared to controls. Additionally, irregular web-spiders on simulated invasion plots built webs that were 4.4 times larger and 5.0 times more likely to capture prey, leading to >2-fold increases in recruitment. Orb-weavers showed no differences in web size or prey captures between treatments. Web-spider responses to simulated invasion mimicked patterns following natural invasions, confirming that C. stoebe's architecture is likely the primary attribute driving native spider responses to these invasions. Differences in spider responses were attributable to differences in web construction behaviors relative to historic web substrate constraints. Orb-weavers in this system constructed webs between multiple plants, so they were limited by the overall quantity of native substrates but not by the architecture of individual native plant species. Irregular web-spiders built their webs within individual plants and were greatly constrained by the diminutive architecture of native plant substrates, so they were limited both by quantity and quality of native substrates. Evaluating native species traits in the context of invader-driven change can explain invasion outcomes and help to identify factors limiting native populations.

  9. Rare Earth based Sol-Gel Materials: An Intra- and Inter- Collegiate Collaborative Research Project (United States)

    Silversmith, Ann


    Sol-gel glasses containing rare earth (RE) impurities form an exciting class of new optical materials with potential uses as phosphors and solid state laser media. The low temperature glass synthesis based on the liquid organic precursor tetramethoxysilane allows incorporation of higher RE concentrations than in traditional melt glasses without compromising the amorphous character of the material. The synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of these materials have together formed the basis for a fruitful interdisciplinary and multi-institutional research collaboration. All materials used in this project are made by Hamilton College chemistry students; spectroscopy experiments are performed by students and faculty in the physics departments at Hamilton, Franklin and Marshall, and Davidson Colleges. In this talk results from two ongoing spectroscopic investigations will be presented, both connected to the long-term goal of improving the low fluorescence efficiency of these materials. The first is the chelation of the RE metal to create an enhanced fluorescence excitation path and to physically separate the RE from the sol-gel matrix. Chelating molecules absorb strongly in the uv, and subsequent energy transfer can produce intense visible emission from the RE. Results are presented for the chelating agent 2,6-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) bound to europium ions and incorporated into gels. Red emission from europium follows excitation into the PDC absorption band below 300nm. The second investigation focuses on fluorescence quenching of blue emission from trivalent terbium. Two separate mechanisms -energy transfer from terbium to residual hydroxide ions and among terbium ions - lead to reduced intensity of the blue emission lines relative to other longer wavelength signals.

  10. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB. (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong


    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB ( provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  11. Managing the Sacred Lands of Native America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne T. Ornelas


    Full Text Available This research paper is a review of ten years of sacred lands management and policy in the United States. The author reports from the unique position of having been involved in national and international meetings with communities of indigenous peoples and intergovernmental stakeholders during this time. Discussion includesan historical overview of such topics as environmental justice and the 2001 Native American Sacred Lands Forum, one of the first national meetings in the United States to specifically address the sacred lands of Native Americans. Further discussion draws attention to the adoption of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007 as a gateway to better sacred lands management and policy for Native Americans in the future.

  12. Optimization of separation and detection schemes for DNA with pulsed field slab gel and capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, D.A.


    The purpose of the Human Genome Project is outlined followed by a discussion of electrophoresis in slab gels and capillaries and its application to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Techniques used to modify electroosmotic flow in capillaries are addressed. Several separation and detection schemes for DNA via gel and capillary electrophoresis are described. Emphasis is placed on the elucidation of DNA fragment size in real time and shortening separation times to approximate real time monitoring. The migration of DNA fragment bands through a slab gel can be monitored by UV absorption at 254 nm and imaged by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Background correction and immediate viewing of band positions to interactively change the field program in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis are possible throughout the separation. The use of absorption removes the need for staining or radioisotope labeling thereby simplifying sample preparation and reducing hazardous waste generation. This leaves the DNA in its native state and further analysis can be performed without de-staining. The optimization of several parameters considerably reduces total analysis time. DNA from 2 kb to 850 kb can be separated in 3 hours on a 7 cm gel with interactive control of the pulse time, which is 10 times faster than the use of a constant field program. The separation of {Phi}X174RF DNA-HaeIII fragments is studied in a 0.5% methyl cellulose polymer solution as a function of temperature and applied voltage. The migration times decreased with both increasing temperature and increasing field strength, as expected. The relative migration rates of the fragments do not change with temperature but are affected by the applied field. Conditions were established for the separation of the 271/281 bp fragments, even without the addition of intercalating agents. At 700 V/cm and 20{degrees}C, all fragments are separated in less than 4 minutes with an average plate number of 2.5 million per meter.

  13. Pyrene-based fluorescent ambidextrous gelators: scaffolds for mechanically robust SWNT-gel nanocomposites. (United States)

    Mandal, Deep; Kar, Tanmoy; Das, Prasanta Kumar


    With the rapid progress in the development of supramolecular soft materials, examples of low-molecular-weight gelators (LMWGs) with the ability to immobilise both water and organic solvents by the same structural scaffold are very limited. In this paper, we report the development of pyrene-containing peptide-based ambidextrous gelators (AGs) with the ability to efficiently gelate both organic and aqueous solvents. The organo- and hydrogelation efficiencies of these gelators are in the range 0.7-1.1% w/v in various organic solvents and 0.5-5% w/v in water at certain acidic pH values (pH 2.0-4.0). Moreover, for the first time, AGs have been utilised to prepare single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT)-included soft nanocomposites in both hydro- and organogel matrices. The influence of different non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic, π-π and van der Waals interactions in self-assembled gelation has been studied in detail by circular dichroism, FTIR, variable-temperature NMR, 2D NOESY and luminescence spectroscopy. Interestingly, the presence of the pyrene moiety in the structure rendered these AGs intrinsically fluorescent, which was quenched upon successful integration of the SWNTs within the gel. The prepared hydro- and organogels along with their SWNT-integrated nanocomposites are thermoreversible in nature. The supramolecular morphologies of the dried gels and SWNT-gel nanocomposites have been studied by transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and polarising optical microscopy, which confirmed the presence of three-dimensional self-assembled fibrillar networks (SAFINs) as well as the integrated SWNTs. Importantly, rheological studies revealed that the inclusion of SWNTs within the ambidextrous gels improved the mechanical rigidity of the resulting soft nanocomposites up to 3.8-fold relative to the native gels.

  14. 21 CFR 524.660b - Dimethyl sulfoxide gel. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dimethyl sulfoxide gel. 524.660b Section 524.660b... Dimethyl sulfoxide gel. (a) Specifications. Dimethyl sulfoxide gel, veterinary contains 90 percent dimethyl sulfoxide in an aqueous gel. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions...

  15. Separation of Pneumcoccal Capsular Polysaccharide BY Gel Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaoping; Huang Xinghua; Li Zhongqin; Chen Jiebo


    Separation of pneumcoccal capsular polysaccharide by gel was investigated in this paper. The gels used here were poly(acrylamide-co-sodium methacrylate)gels and prepared by free radical polymerization in aqueous solution. The experimental results indicated that gel extraction is a potential method to separate pneumcoccal capsular polysaccharide from its dilute solution.

  16. Preparation and characterization of lidocaine rice gel for oral application. (United States)

    Okonogi, Siriporn; Kaewpinta, Adchareeya; Yotsawimonwat, Songwut; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat


    The objective of the present study was to prepare buccal anesthetic gels using rice as gelling agent. Rice grains of four rice varieties, Jasmine (JM), Saohai (SH), Homnil (HN), and Doisket (DS) were chemically modified. Buccal rice gels, containing lidocaine hydrochloride as local anesthetic drug were formulated using the respective modified rice varieties. The gels were evaluated for outer appearance, pH, color, gel strength, foaming property, adhesion, in vitro drug release and in vivo efficacy. It was found that the developed rice gels possessed good texture. Rice varieties showed influence on gel strength, color, turbidity, adhesive property, release property, and anesthetic efficacy. JM gel showed the lowest turbidity with light transmission of 86.76 ± 1.18% whereas SH gel showed the highest gel strength of 208.78 ± 10.42 g/cm(2). Lidocaine hydrochloride can cause a decrease in pH and adhesive property but an increase in turbidity of the gels. In vitro drug release profile within 60 min of lidocaine SH gel and lidocaine HN gel showed that lidocaine could be better released from SH gel. Evaluation of in vivo anesthetic efficacy in 100 normal volunteers indicates that both lidocaine rice gels have high efficacy but different levels. Lidocaine SH gel possesses faster onset of duration and longer duration of action than lidocaine HN gel.

  17. Hexagonal phase based gel-emulsion (O/H1 gel-emulsion): formation and rheology. (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Mydul; Aramaki, Kenji


    The formation, stability, and rheological behavior of a hexagonal phase based gel-emulsion (O/H1 gel-emulsion) have been studied in water/C12EO8/hydrocarbon oil systems. A partial phase behavior study indicates that the oil nature has no effect on the phase sequences in the ternary phase diagram of water/C12EO8/oil systems but the domain size of the phases or the oil solubilization capacity considerably changes with oil nature. Excess oil is in equilibrium with the hexagonal phase (H1) in the ternary phase diagram in the H1+O region. The O/H1 gel-emulsion was prepared (formation) and kept at 25 degrees C to check stability. It has been found that the formation and stability of the O/H1 gel-emulsion depends on the oil nature. After 2 min observation (formation), the results show that short chain linear hydrocarbon oils (heptane, octane) are more apt to form a O/H1 gel-emulsion compared to long chain linear hydrocarbon oils (tetradecane, hexadecane), though the stability is not good enough in either system, that is, oil separates within 24 h. Nevertheless, the formation and stability of the O/H1 gel-emulsion is appreciably increased in squalane and liquid paraffin. It is surmised that the high transition temperature of the H1+O phase and the presence of a bicontinuous cubic phase (V1) might hamper the formation of a gel-emulsion. It has been pointed out that the solubilization of oil in the H1 phase could be related to emulsion stability. On the other hand, the oil nature has little or no effect on the formation and stability of a cubic phase based gel-emulsion (O/I1 gel-emulsion). From rheological measurements, it has found that the rheogram of the O/H1 gel-emulsion indicates gel-type structure and shows shear thinning behavior similar to the case of the O/I1 gel-emulsion. Rheological data infer that the O/I1 gel-emulsion is more viscous than the O/H1 gel-emulsion at room temperature but the O/H1 gel-emulsion shows consistency at elevated temperature.

  18. Comparative genome analysis of wheat blue dwarf phytoplasma, an obligate pathogen that causes wheat blue dwarf disease in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chen

    Full Text Available Wheat blue dwarf (WBD disease is an important disease that has caused heavy losses in wheat production in northwestern China. This disease is caused by WBD phytoplasma, which is transmitted by Psammotettix striatus. Until now, no genome information about WBD phytoplasma has been published, seriously restricting research on this obligate pathogen. In this paper, we report a new sequencing and assembling strategy for phytoplasma genome projects. This strategy involves differential centrifugation, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, whole genome amplification, shotgun sequencing, de novo assembly, screening of contigs from phytoplasma and the connection of phytoplasma contigs. Using this scheme, the WBD phytoplasma draft genome was obtained. It was comprised of six contigs with a total size of 611,462 bp, covering ∼94% of the chromosome. Five-hundred-twenty-five protein-coding genes, two operons for rRNA genes and 32 tRNA genes were identified. Comparative genome analyses between WBD phytoplasma and other phytoplasmas were subsequently carried out. The results showed that extensive arrangements and inversions existed among the WBD, OY-M and AY-WB phytoplasma genomes. Most protein-coding genes in WBD phytoplasma were found to be homologous to genes from other phytoplasmas; only 22 WBD-specific genes were identified. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that WBD phytoplasma had strongly reduced metabolic capabilities. However, 46 transporters were identified, which were involved with dipeptides/oligopeptides, spermidine/putrescine, cobalt and Mn/Zn transport, and so on. A total of 37 secreted proteins were encoded in the WBD phytoplasma chromosome and plasmids. Of these, three secreted proteins were similar to the reported phytoplasma virulence factors TENGU, SAP11 and SAP54. In addition, WBD phytoplasma possessed several proteins that were predicted to play a role in its adaptation to diverse environments. These results will provide clues for research on

  19. Mock Observations of Blue Stragglers in Globular Cluster Models

    CERN Document Server

    Sills, Alison; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A


    We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters, and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will choose approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates the lifetime of collision products. Because our observationally-motivated s...

  20. Fabricating porous materials using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Volosin, Alex


    Porous materials are fabricated using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels. A mixture or precursor solution including an inorganic gel precursor, an organic polymer gel precursor, and a solvent is treated to form an inorganic wet gel including the organic polymer gel precursor and the solvent. The inorganic wet gel is then treated to form a composite wet gel including an organic polymer network in the body of the inorganic wet gel, producing an interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gel. The composite wet gel is dried to form a composite material including the organic polymer network and an inorganic network component. The composite material can be treated further to form a porous composite material, a porous polymer or polymer composite, a porous metal oxide, and other porous materials.

  1. Clinical Effects of Subgingivally Delivered Spirulina Gel in Chronic Periodontitis Cases: A Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial (United States)

    Mahendra, Jaideep; Mahendra, Little; Muthu, Jananni; John, Libby; Romanos, Georgios E.


    Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effects of Spirulina in-situ gel as an adjunct to Scaling And Root Planning (SRP) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis subjects. Material and Methods: 64 sites were selected with probing pocket depth of ≥5mm and they were divided into 2 groups; 33 sites were treated with SRP along with spirulina gel (Group A) and 31 sites were treated with SRP alone (Group B). Clinical parameters were recorded at baseline before SRP and at 120th day after the treatment therapy. The parameters included Probing Pocket Depth (PPD) and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL). Results: Both the groups showed significant improvement in the parameters. However, Group A (SRP along with spirulina) showed statistically significant decrease in mean probing pocket depth and gain in the clinical attachment level after 120 days as compared to Group B SRP alone. Conclusion: Locally delivered spirulina gel, along with scaling and root planning, has been shown to cause a beneficial impact. The efficacy of the product as a local drug delivery system in the non-surgical treatment of periodontitis without any side effects has been proved. Spirulina appears to be promising. It exerts strong anti-inflammatory effects which are closely connected with its antioxidative activity. This study can have a significant impact on the treatment procedures of periodontitis, with the use of blue green algae in the future. PMID:24298522

  2. Photocatalytic activity of titania coatings synthesised by a combined laser/sol–gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adraider, Y. [School of Science and Engineering, Teesside University, Middlesbrough TS1 3BA (United Kingdom); Pang, Y.X., E-mail: [School of Science and Engineering, Teesside University, Middlesbrough TS1 3BA (United Kingdom); Nabhani, F.; Hodgson, S.N. [School of Science and Engineering, Teesside University, Middlesbrough TS1 3BA (United Kingdom); Sharp, M.C.; Al-Waidh, A. [General Engineering Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Sol–gel method was used to prepare titania coatings. • Titania thin films were coated on substrate surface by dip coating. • Fibre laser was employed to irradiate the titania coated surfaces. • Photocatalytic efficiency of titania coatings was significantly improved after laser processing. - Abstract: Titania coatings were prepared using sol–gel method and then applied on the substrate surface by dip coating. Fibre laser (λ = 1064 nm) in continuous wave mode was used to irradiate the titania coated surfaces at different specific energies. The ATR-FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDS and contact angle measurement were employed to analyse surface morphology, phase composition and crystalline structure of laser-irradiated titania coatings, whilst the photocatalytic activity was evaluated by measuring the decomposition of methylene blue (MB) after exposure to the visible light for various illumination times. Results showed that the laser-irradiated titania coatings demonstrate significant different composition and microstructure in comparison with the as-coated from the same sol–gel titania. Photocatalytic efficiency of titania coatings was significantly improved after laser processing. The photocatalytic activity of laser-irradiated titania coatings was higher than that of the as-coated titania. The titania coating processed at laser specific energy of 6.5 J/mm{sup 2} exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity among all titania samples.

  3. Interaction between hepatocytes and collagen gel in hollow fibers


    Dai, Jing; ZHANG Guo-liang; Meng, Qin


    Gel entrapment culture of primary mammalian cells within collagen gel is one important configuration for construction of bioartificial organ as well as in vitro model for predicting drug situation in vivo. Gel contraction in entrapment culture, resulting from cell-mediated reorganization of the extracellular matrix, was commonly used to estimate cell viability. However, the exact influence of gel contraction on cell activities has rarely been addressed. This paper investigated the gel contrac...

  4. Alkali cold gelation of whey proteins. Part I: sol-gel-sol(-gel) transitions. (United States)

    Mercadé-Prieto, Ruben; Gunasekaran, Sundaram


    The cold gelation of preheated whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions at alkaline conditions (pH>10) has been studied to better understand the effect of NaOH in the formation and destruction of whey protein aggregates and gels. Oscillatory rheology has been used to follow the gelation process, resulting in novel and different gelation profiles with the gelation pH. At low alkaline pH, typical sol-gel transitions are observed, as in many other biopolymers. At pH>11.5, the system gels quickly, after approximately 300 s, followed by a slow degelation step that transforms the gel to a viscous solution. Finally, there is a second gelation step. This results in a surprising sol-gel-sol-gel transition in time at constant gelation conditions. At very high pH (>12.5), the degelation step is very severe, and the second gelation step is not observed, resulting in a sol-gel-sol transition. The first quick gelation step is related to the quick swelling of the WPI aggregates in alkali, as observed from light scattering, which enables the formation of new noncovalent interactions to form a gel network. These interactions are argued to be destroyed in the subsequent degelation step. Disulfide cross-linking is observed only in the second gelation step, not in the first step.

  5. Evolution of gel structure during thermal processing of Na-geopolymer gels. (United States)

    Duxson, Peter; Lukey, Grant C; van Deventer, Jannie S J


    The present work examines how the gel structure and phase composition of Na-geopolymers derived from metakaolin with varied Si/Al ratio evolve with exposure to temperatures up to 1000 degrees C. Gels were thermally treated and characterized using quantitative XRD, DTA, and FTIR to elucidate the changes in gel structure, phase composition, and porosity at each stage of heating. It is found that the phase stability, defined by the amount and onset temperature of crystallization, is improved at higher Si/Al ratios. Two different mechanisms of densification have been isolated by FTIR, related to viscous flow and collapse of the highly distributed pore network in the gel. Gels with low Si/Al ratio only experience viscous flow that correlates with low thermal shrinkage. Gels at a higher Si/Al ratio, which have a homogeneous microstructure composed of a highly distributed porosity, undergo both densification processes corresponding to a large extent of thermal shrinkage during densification. This work elucidates the intimate relationship between gel microstructure, chemistry, and thermal evolution of Na-geopolymer gels.

  6. Proficient beyond borders: assessing non-native speakers in a native speakers’ framework

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    Johanna Fleckenstein


    Full Text Available Abstract Background English language proficiency is considered a basic skill that students from different language backgrounds are expected to master, independent of whether they are native or non-native speakers. Tests that measure language proficiency in non-native speakers are typically linked to the common European framework of reference for languages. Such tests, however, often lack the criteria to define a practically relevant degree of proficiency in English. We approach this deficit by assessing non-native speakers’ performance within a native speakers’ framework. Method Items from two English reading assessments—the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA and the National Assessment (NA for English as a foreign language in Germany—were administered to N = 427 German high school students. Student abilities were estimated by drawing plausible values in a two-dimensional Rasch model. Results Results show that non-native speakers of English generally underperformed compared to native speakers. However, academic track students in the German school system achieved satisfactory levels of proficiency on the PISA scale. Linking the two scales showed systematic differences in the proficiency level classifications. Conclusion The findings contribute to the validation and international localization of NA standards for English as a foreign language. Practical implications are discussed with respect to policy-defined benchmarks for the successful participation in a global English-speaking society.

  7. Invasive prey indirectly increase predation on their native competitors. (United States)

    Castorani, Max C N; Hovel, Kevin A


    Ecological theory predicts that invasive prey can interact with native prey directly by competing for shared resources or indirectly by changing the abundance or behavior of shared native predators. However, both the study and management of invasive prey have historically overlooked indirect effects. In southern California estuaries, introduction of the Asian nest mussel Arcuatula senhousia has been linked to profound changes in native bivalve assemblages, but the mechanisms of these interactions remain unclear. We performed three field experiments to assess the mechanisms of competition between Arcuatula and native bivalves, and evaluated the potential for Arcuatula to indirectly mediate native predator-prey dynamics. We found that Arcuatula reduces the diversity, abundance, and size of native bivalve recruits by preemptively exploiting space in surface sediments. When paired with native shallow-dwelling clams (Chione undatella and Laevicardium substriatum), Arcuatula reduces adult survival through overgrowth competition. However, Arcuatula also attracts native predators, causing apparent competition by indirectly increasing predation of native clams, especially for poorly defended species. Therefore, invasive prey can indirectly increase predation rates on native competitors by changing the behavior of shared native predators, but the magnitude of apparent competition strongly depends on the vulnerability of natives to predation. Interestingly, our results indicate that the vulnerability of invasive prey to predation can greatly exacerbate impacts on their native competitors. Our findings suggest that consideration of both direct and indirect effects of invasive prey, as well as native predator-prey relationships, should lead to more effective invasive species management.

  8. Studies on the proteins of mass-cultivated, blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis)

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    Annusuyadevi, M.; Subbulakshmi, G.; Madhair' devi, K.; Venkalaramein, L.V.


    The characteristics of the protein of fresh-water, mass-cultured Spirulina platensis have been studied. The solubility of this algal protein in water and various aqueous solvents has been estimated. The total protein content of the blue-green algae was approximately 50-55% of which nearly 9.9% was nonprotein nitrogen. About 80% of the total protein nitrogen can be extracted by three successive extractions with water. Ths isoelectric point of this algal protein is found to be 3.0. The total proteins were characterized physicochemically by standard techniques. In the ultracentrifuge total proteins resolve into two major components with S20w values of 2.6 and 4.7 S. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern of the total protein showed seven bands including three prominent ones. The in vitro digestibility of the total protein of fresh algae was found to be 85% when assayed with a pepsin-pancreatin system.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue with a nanocomposite system: synthesis, photocatalysis and degradation pathways. (United States)

    Xia, Shengjie; Zhang, Lianyang; Pan, Guoxiang; Qian, Pingping; Ni, Zheming


    Three different composites, including a calcined FeOOH supported ZnAl layered double hydroxide (FeOOH-LDO), a calcined ZnAl layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDO) and a calcined ZnFeAl layered double hydroxide (ZnFeAl-LDO), were synthesized via a sol-gel method, and their activity for the visible light photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was studied. The composites were characterized by PXRD, SEM, and BET techniques, confirming the formation of highly crystalline structures. The activity performance of MB degradation was in the following order: FeOOH-LDO (∼95%) > ZnFeAl-LDO (∼60%) > ZnAl-LDO (∼23%). In addition, a possible photocatalytic degradation reaction mechanism for MB was also proposed. Moreover, the frontier electron densities on the atoms of MB were calculated, which were in satisfactory agreement with the postulated mechanism.

  10. My maize and blue brick road to physical organic chemistry in materials. (United States)

    McNeil, Anne J


    Similar to Dorothy's journey along the yellow brick road in The Wizard of Oz, this perspective carves out the path I took from my early childhood fascinations with science through my independent career at the University of Michigan (maize and blue). The influential research projects and mentors are highlighted, including some fortuitous experimental results that drew me into the field of supramolecular chemistry, specifically, and organic materials, broadly. My research group's efforts toward designing new sensors based on small molecule gelators are described. In particular, I highlight how our design strategy has evolved as we learn more about molecular gelators. This perspective concludes with some predictions about where molecular gels, as well as my personal and professional life, are headed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  12. New polymer gel dosimeters consisting of less toxic monomers with radiation-crosslinked gel matrix (United States)

    Hiroki, A.; Yamashita, S.; Sato, Y.; Nagasawa, N.; Taguchi, M.


    New polymer gel dosimeters consisting of less toxic methacrylate-type monomers such as 2-hydroxymethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and polyethylene glycol 400 dimethacrylate (9G) with hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) gel were prepared. The HPC gels were obtained by using a radiation-induced crosslinking technique to be applied in a matrix instead of a gelatin, which is conventionally used in earlier dosimeters, for the polymer gel dosimeters. The prepared polymer gel dosimeters showed cloudiness by exposing to 60Co γ-ray, in which the cloudiness increased with the dose up to 10 Gy. At the same dose, the increase in the cloudiness appeared with increasing concentration of 9G. As a result of the absorbance measurement, it was found that the dose response depended on the composition ratio between HEMA and 9G.

  13. Overview of Native-speaker English Teacher Versus Non-native-speaker English Teacher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xu


    As much more non-native-speaker English teachers teach alongside native-speaker English teachers, either in China or any other non-English-speaking country, research on the differences between native-speaker English teacher and non-na⁃tive-speaker English teacher is necessary. This paper offers an overview of such difference between the two groups of English teachers in terms of their strengths and weaknesses, teaching styles and approaches. The conclusion suggests that cooperation and communication be emphsised and that the two groups of teachers communicate more and exchange their ideas on how to teach the same group of students more effectively.

  14. Interpreting Native American Literature: An Archetypal Approach. (United States)

    Sevillano, Mando


    Compares two approaches to discussing Indian literature and religion. Demonstrates Jungian archetypal approach as transcultural method of analyzing Indian literature. Relates and analyzes Hopi traditional story. Emphasizes accessibility of Native American literature to the non-Indian while supporting multicultural plurality of interpretations.…

  15. 50 CFR 216.23 - Native exceptions. (United States)


    ... Eskimo who resides on the coast of the North Pacific Ocean or the Arctic Ocean may take any marine mammal... an Alaska Native must be authorized under an agreement for the co-management of subsistence uses (hereinafter in this paragraph “co-management agreement”) between the National Marine Fisheries Service and...

  16. Nativization, Linguistic Theory, and Deaf Language Acquisition. (United States)

    Gee, James Paul; Goodhart, Wendy


    Considers the acquisition of language by deaf children of deaf parents and by deaf children of hearing parents in the light of such linguistic theories as Andersen's "nativization-denativization" and Bickerton's "bioprograms." Findings both support the theories and bring to light complexities that the theories do not exactly explain. (SED)

  17. Stylized Figures: Inspired by Native American Art (United States)

    Jensen, Susie B.


    Teaching elementary-level art in the Pacific Northwest makes it natural for the author to develop a lesson based on Native American art of the area. The designs of the Northwest Indians can sometimes be a bit too sophisticated for the students to grasp, however, and it can be frustrating when developing such a project. Over a Labor Day weekend,…

  18. Influence of Family on Native American Students (United States)

    Fox, Lisa J.


    "Native American"* postsecondary education students encounter several barriers to academic persistence including cultural assimilation issues, limited access to career information services, and an individual sense of duty and responsibility to remain tied to traditional spiritual values and beliefs systems, joined with family pressure to…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Tian Luh


    In this paper some equivalence definitions are given for native spaces which were introduced by Madych and Nelson and have become influential in the theory of radial basis functions. The abstract elements in na tive spaces are interpreted. Moreaver, Weinrich and Iske's theonies are unified.

  20. Two Native American Near-Death Experiences. (United States)

    Schorer, C. E.


    Discusses two tales of near-death experiences from the Chippewas in Michigan during the 1820s with reference to local origin, influence of White American culture, and universality. One tale has autoscopic, specifically Native American elements while the other contains elements of the transcendental type. (Author/NRB)