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Sample records for blue native gel

  1. Separation of Protein Oligomers by Blue Native Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Braz, Valerie A.; Howard, Kathryn J.

    2009-01-01

    Native gel electrophoresis is used as a tool to assess structural differences in proteins. This note presents an application to separate oligomeric forms of proteins, such as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase monomers and homodimers. Technical difficulties encountered with various native gel techniques and ways to circumvent them are described.

  2. Resolving mitochondrial protein complexes using non-gradient blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Liang-Jun; Forster, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) is a powerful technique for separation and proteomic analysis of high molecular weight protein complexes. It is often performed on gradient gels and is widely used for studying mitochondrial membrane complexes involved in electron transportation and oxidative phosphorylation. In this paper, we present an alternative BN-PAGE method that uses highly porous, non-gradient polyacrylamide gels for separation of rat brain mitochondrial protein...

  3. Functional Characterization of Reductive Dehalogenases by Using Blue Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, S; Chan, W. W. M.; Fletcher, K. E.; Seifert, J.; Liang, X.; Loffler, F. E.; Edwards, E A; Adrian, L.

    2013-01-01

    Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains are obligate organohalide-respiring bacteria harboring multiple distinct reductive dehalogenase (RDase) genes within their genomes. A major challenge is to identify substrates for the enzymes encoded by these RDase genes. We demonstrate an approach that involves blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) followed by enzyme activity assays with gel slices and subsequent identification of proteins in gel slices using liquid chromatography coupled t...

  4. Deciphering metabolic networks by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: A functional proteomic exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Auger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism is the consortium of reactions within a cell which directs a variety of processes including energy synthesis, signalling and the behaviour of a biological system. Metabolic networks, and more specifically the activity of enzymes within them, provide an accurate status of how cellular information is being executed. The performance of these networks and their ability to siphon metabolites in a number of directions may be the difference between a healthy and diseased state. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE, owing to its simplicity and wide-ranging applications, permits the inspection of these nodules. The separation of proteins and enzyme complexes in their native format enables the exploration of enzymatic activity in metabolic networks via in-gel assays. These are quick, specific, and amenable to further studies. This electrophoretic technology not only enables the visualization of enzymatic efficacy but reveals the crosstalk among enzymes and their interactions with other organellar partners.

  5. The monitoring of nucleotide diphosphate kinase activity by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Ryan J; Darwich, Rami; Lemire, Joseph; Appanna, Vasu

    2008-04-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) has been shown to play a pivotal role in modulating a plethora of cellular processes. In this study, we report on a blue native (BN) PAGE technique which allows the facile assessment of NDPK activity and expression. The in-gel detection of NDPK relies on the precipitation of formazan at the site of immobilized enzyme activity. This is achieved by coupling the formation of ATP, as a consequence of gamma-phosphate transfer from NTP to ADP, to hexokinase (HK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), phenazine methosulfate (PMS), and iodonitrotetrazolium chloride (INT). 2-D denaturing gel analysis confirmed that the activity bands corresponded to NDPK as indicated by subunit composition. Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity of this readily accessible procedure was assessed by monitoring the in-gel activity of NDPK using different concentrations of GTP and CTP as well as deoxynucleoside triphosphates. This electrophoretic technique allows the quick and easy detection of NDPK, a housekeeping enzyme crucial to cell survival. PMID:18324728

  6. Blue Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectric Identification of Nuclear Protein Complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr; Man, Petr; Nováková, Zora; Havlíček, Vladimír; Bezouška, Karel; Hozák, Pavel

    Florida, 2002, s. 1-2. [ASMS Conference Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics /50./. Orlando (US), 02.06.2002-06.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 5902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : polyacrylamide gel * electrophoresis * cid spectra Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  7. The Goat (Capra hircus) Mammary Gland Mitochondrial Proteome: A Study on the Effect of Weight Loss Using Blue-Native PAGE and Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugno, Graziano; Parreira, José R; Ferlizza, Enea; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Carneiro, Mariana; Renaut, Jenny; Castro, Noemí; Arguello, Anastasio; Capote, Juan; Campos, Alexandre M O; Almeida, André M

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is the most important limitation to animal production in the Tropical and Mediterranean regions, conditioning producer's incomes and the nutritional status of rural communities. It is of importance to produce strategies to oppose adverse effects of SWL. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Most of the factors determining such ability are related to changes in biochemical pathways as affected by SWL. In this study, a gel based proteomics strategy (BN: Blue-Native Page and 2DE: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) was used to characterize the mitochondrial proteome of the secretory tissue of the goat mammary gland. In addition, we have conducted an investigation of the effects of weight loss in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptation to nutritional stress: Majorera (tolerant) and Palmera (susceptible). The study used Majorera and Palmera dairy goats, divided in 4 sets, 2 for each breed: underfed group fed on wheat straw (restricted diet, so their body weight would be 15-20% reduced by the end of experiment), and a control group fed with an energy-balanced diet. At the end of the experimental period (22 days), mammary gland biopsies were obtained for all experimental groups. The proteomic analysis of the mitochondria enabled the resolution of a total of 277 proteins, and 148 (53%) were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins were identified as subunits of the glutamate dehydrogenase complex and the respiratory complexes I, II, IV, V from mitochondria, as well as numerous other proteins with functions in: metabolism, development, localization, cellular organization and biogenesis, biological regulation, response to stimulus, among others, that were mapped in both BN and 2DE gels. The comparative proteomics analysis enabled the identification of several proteins: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit and lamin B1 mitochondrial (up

  8. The Goat (Capra hircus Mammary Gland Mitochondrial Proteome: A Study on the Effect of Weight Loss Using Blue-Native PAGE and Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziano Cugno

    Full Text Available Seasonal weight loss (SWL is the most important limitation to animal production in the Tropical and Mediterranean regions, conditioning producer's incomes and the nutritional status of rural communities. It is of importance to produce strategies to oppose adverse effects of SWL. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Most of the factors determining such ability are related to changes in biochemical pathways as affected by SWL. In this study, a gel based proteomics strategy (BN: Blue-Native Page and 2DE: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to characterize the mitochondrial proteome of the secretory tissue of the goat mammary gland. In addition, we have conducted an investigation of the effects of weight loss in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptation to nutritional stress: Majorera (tolerant and Palmera (susceptible. The study used Majorera and Palmera dairy goats, divided in 4 sets, 2 for each breed: underfed group fed on wheat straw (restricted diet, so their body weight would be 15-20% reduced by the end of experiment, and a control group fed with an energy-balanced diet. At the end of the experimental period (22 days, mammary gland biopsies were obtained for all experimental groups. The proteomic analysis of the mitochondria enabled the resolution of a total of 277 proteins, and 148 (53% were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins were identified as subunits of the glutamate dehydrogenase complex and the respiratory complexes I, II, IV, V from mitochondria, as well as numerous other proteins with functions in: metabolism, development, localization, cellular organization and biogenesis, biological regulation, response to stimulus, among others, that were mapped in both BN and 2DE gels. The comparative proteomics analysis enabled the identification of several proteins: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit and lamin B1 mitochondrial

  9. The Goat (Capra hircus) Mammary Gland Mitochondrial Proteome: A Study on the Effect of Weight Loss Using Blue-Native PAGE and Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugno, Graziano; Parreira, José R.; Ferlizza, Enea; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E.; Carneiro, Mariana; Renaut, Jenny; Castro, Noemí; Arguello, Anastasio; Capote, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is the most important limitation to animal production in the Tropical and Mediterranean regions, conditioning producer’s incomes and the nutritional status of rural communities. It is of importance to produce strategies to oppose adverse effects of SWL. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Most of the factors determining such ability are related to changes in biochemical pathways as affected by SWL. In this study, a gel based proteomics strategy (BN: Blue-Native Page and 2DE: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) was used to characterize the mitochondrial proteome of the secretory tissue of the goat mammary gland. In addition, we have conducted an investigation of the effects of weight loss in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptation to nutritional stress: Majorera (tolerant) and Palmera (susceptible). The study used Majorera and Palmera dairy goats, divided in 4 sets, 2 for each breed: underfed group fed on wheat straw (restricted diet, so their body weight would be 15–20% reduced by the end of experiment), and a control group fed with an energy-balanced diet. At the end of the experimental period (22 days), mammary gland biopsies were obtained for all experimental groups. The proteomic analysis of the mitochondria enabled the resolution of a total of 277 proteins, and 148 (53%) were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins were identified as subunits of the glutamate dehydrogenase complex and the respiratory complexes I, II, IV, V from mitochondria, as well as numerous other proteins with functions in: metabolism, development, localization, cellular organization and biogenesis, biological regulation, response to stimulus, among others, that were mapped in both BN and 2DE gels. The comparative proteomics analysis enabled the identification of several proteins: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit and lamin B1 mitochondrial (up

  10. Blue-native PAGE in plants: a tool in analysis of protein-protein interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Millar A Harvey; Braun Hans-Peter; Eubel Holger

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Intact protein complexes can be separated by apparent molecular mass using a standard polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system combining mild detergents and the dye Coomassie Blue. Referring to the blue coloured gel and the gentle method of solubilization yielding native and enzymatically active protein complexes, this technique has been named Blue-Native Polyacrylamide Gel-Electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). BN-PAGE has become the method of choice for the investigation of the respiratory pr...

  11. Combining blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as an effective strategy for analyzing potential membrane protein complexes of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease in humans caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and infects one-third of the world's total population. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine has been widely used to prevent tuberculosis worldwide since 1921. Membrane proteins play important roles in various cellular processes, and the protein-protein interactions involved in these processes may provide further information about molecular organization and cellular pathways. However, membrane proteins are notoriously under-represented by traditional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE and little is known about mycobacterial membrane and membrane-associated protein complexes. Here we investigated M. bovis BCG by an alternative proteomic strategy coupling blue native PAGE to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to characterize potential protein-protein interactions in membrane fractions. Results Using this approach, we analyzed native molecular composition of protein complexes in BCG membrane fractions. As a result, 40 proteins (including 12 integral membrane proteins, which were organized in 9 different gel bands, were unambiguous identified. The proteins identified have been experimentally confirmed using 2-D SDS PAGE. We identified MmpL8 and four neighboring proteins that were involved in lipid transport complexes, and all subunits of ATP synthase complex in their monomeric states. Two phenolpthiocerol synthases and three arabinosyltransferases belonging to individual operons were obtained in different gel bands. Furthermore, two giant multifunctional enzymes, Pks7 and Pks8, and four mycobacterial Hsp family members were determined. Additionally, seven ribosomal proteins involved in polyribosome complex and two subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex were also found. Notablely, some proteins with high hydrophobicity or multiple transmembrane

  12. Blue-native PAGE in plants: a tool in analysis of protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millar A Harvey

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intact protein complexes can be separated by apparent molecular mass using a standard polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system combining mild detergents and the dye Coomassie Blue. Referring to the blue coloured gel and the gentle method of solubilization yielding native and enzymatically active protein complexes, this technique has been named Blue-Native Polyacrylamide Gel-Electrophoresis (BN-PAGE. BN-PAGE has become the method of choice for the investigation of the respiratory protein complexes of the electron transfer chains of a range of organisms, including bacteria, yeasts, animals and plants. It allows the separation in two dimensions of extremely hydrophobic protein sets for analysis and also provides information on their native interactions. In this review we discuss the capabilities of BN-PAGE in proteomics and the wider investigation of protein:protein interactions with a focus on its use and potential in plant science.

  13. Characteristics of polyacrylamide gel with THPC and Turnbull Blue gel dosimeters evaluated using optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilařová (Vávrů), Kateřina; Kozubíková, Petra; Šolc, Jaroslav; Spěváček, Václav

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare characteristics of radiochromic gel - Turnbull Blue gel (TB gel) with polymer gel - polyacrylamide gel and tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (PAGAT) using optical tomography. Both types of gels were examined in terms of dose sensitivity, dose response linearity and background value of spectrophotometric absorbance. The calibration curve was obtained for 60Co irradiation performed on Gammacell 220 at predefined gamma dose levels between 0 and 140 Gy for TBG and 0-15 Gy for PAGAT. To measure relative dose distributions from stereotactic irradiation, dosimeters were irradiated on Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion. The cylindrical glass housings filled with gel were attached to the stereotactic frame. They were exposed with single shot and 16 mm collimator by 65 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for TB gel and 4 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for PAGAT. Evaluations of dosimeters were performed on an UV-vis Spectrophotometer Helios β and an optical cone beam homemade tomography scanner with a 16-bit astronomy CCD camera with a set of color filters. The advantages and potential disadvantages for both types of gel dosimeters were summarized. Dose distribution in central slice and measured profiles of 16 mm shot shows excellent correspondence with treatment planning system Leksell GammaPlan® for both PAGAT and Turnbull Blue gels. Gel dosimeters are suitable for steep dose gradient verification. An optical tomography evaluation method is successful. Dose response characteristics of TB gel and PAGAT gel are presented.

  14. Characteristics of polyacrylamide gel with THPC and Turnbull Blue gel dosimeters evaluated using optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare characteristics of radiochromic gel – Turnbull Blue gel (TB gel) with polymer gel – polyacrylamide gel and tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (PAGAT) using optical tomography. Both types of gels were examined in terms of dose sensitivity, dose response linearity and background value of spectrophotometric absorbance. The calibration curve was obtained for 60Co irradiation performed on Gammacell 220 at predefined gamma dose levels between 0 and 140 Gy for TBG and 0–15 Gy for PAGAT. To measure relative dose distributions from stereotactic irradiation, dosimeters were irradiated on Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion. The cylindrical glass housings filled with gel were attached to the stereotactic frame. They were exposed with single shot and 16 mm collimator by 65 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for TB gel and 4 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for PAGAT. Evaluations of dosimeters were performed on an UV–vis Spectrophotometer Helios β and an optical cone beam homemade tomography scanner with a 16-bit astronomy CCD camera with a set of color filters. The advantages and potential disadvantages for both types of gel dosimeters were summarized. Dose distribution in central slice and measured profiles of 16 mm shot shows excellent correspondence with treatment planning system Leksell GammaPlan® for both PAGAT and Turnbull Blue gels. - highlights: • Gel dosimeters are suitable for steep dose gradient verification. • An optical tomography evaluation method is successful. • Dose response characteristics of TB gel and PAGAT gel are presented

  15. Optimal parameters for laccase-mediated destaining of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250-stained polyacrylamide gels

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaodan; Ye, Xiuyun; Lin, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Destaining of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250-stained polyacrylamide gels with fungal laccase” [1]. Laccase is a class of multicopper oxidases that can catalyze oxidation of recalcitrant dyestuffs. This article describes optimal parameters for destaining of polyacrylamide gels, stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250, with laccase from basidiomycete Cerrena sp. strain HYB07. Effects of laccase activity, mediat...

  16. Optimal parameters for laccase-mediated destaining of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250-stained polyacrylamide gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaodan; Ye, Xiuyun; Lin, Juan

    2016-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Destaining of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250-stained polyacrylamide gels with fungal laccase" [1]. Laccase is a class of multicopper oxidases that can catalyze oxidation of recalcitrant dyestuffs. This article describes optimal parameters for destaining of polyacrylamide gels, stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250, with laccase from basidiomycete Cerrena sp. strain HYB07. Effects of laccase activity, mediator type and concentration, temperature and time on destaining of polyacrylamide gels were evaluated with respect to gel background intensity and protein band signals, and the optimal destaining effects were obtained with 15 U mL(-1) laccase and 2 μM ABTS at 37 °C after 2 h. PMID:26955647

  17. Grey, brown and blue coloring sol-gel electrochromic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Heusing, Sabine; Sun, Donglan L.; Otero-Anaya, J.; Michel A. Aegerter

    2006-01-01

    Pure and doped niobium oxide (Nb2O5) layers are electrochromic (EC) materials which change their colour by insertion of Li+ ions from transparent to brown, grey or blue depending on the crystallinity of the layer. EC-devices with the configuration K-glass / EC-layer / composite electrolyte / Ion-storage (IS) layer / K-glass, were produced using different Nb2O5 EC-layers, a (CeO2)x(TiO2)1-x (x=0.45) IS-layer and an inorganic-organic composite electrolyte to which a small amount of water (up to...

  18. Nanostructure of native pectin sugar acid gels visualized by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Marshall L; Cooke, Peter H; Coffin, David R

    2004-01-01

    Height and phase shift images of high methoxyl sugar acid gels (HMSAG) of pectin were obtained by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode. Images revealed that pores in these gels were fluid and flattened out when measured as a function of time. These images revealed for the first time the structure of adsorbed sugar on pectin in the hydrated native gels and how the pectin framework is organized within these gels. Segmentation of images revealed that the underlying pectin framework contained combinations of rods, segmented rods, and kinked rods connected end to end and laterally. The open network of strands was similar to pectin aggregates from 5 mM NaCl solution imaged earlier by electron microscopy (Fishman et al., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1992, 294, 253). Area measurements revealed that the ratio of bound sugar to pectin was in excess of 100 to 1 (w/w). Furthermore, images indicated relatively small differences in the organization of native commercial citrus pectin, orange albedo pectin, and lime albedo pectin gels at optimal pH as determined in this study. The findings are consistent with earlier gel strength measurements of these gels. In addition, values of gel strength were consistent with values of molar mass and viscosity of the constituent pectins in that they increased in the same order. Finally, we demonstrated the advantage of simultaneous visualization of height and phase shift images for observing and quantitating the nanostructure of relatively soft gels which are fully hydrated with a buffer. PMID:15002992

  19. Passive, integrated measurement of radon using 5A synthetic zeolite and blue silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic zeolite of 0.5 nm pore size (5A) and blue silica gel were tested to determine their capability to be used as radon collectors. Tests conducted in a radon chamber under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity indicate that simple, inexpensive and maintenance-free passive devices containing about 250 g of synthetic zeolite or about 270 g of blue silica gel in open face metal canisters that can measure radon conveniently and adequately, the latter though being suitable only for dry-medium dry atmosphere with quite high radon concentrations. Both materials can be recycled for reuse, in a way similar to the recycle and reuse of active carbon. The amount of radon adsorbed in such collectors is determined by counting the gamma rays from the radon decay products. The lower limit of detection (LLD) is estimated to ∼45 Bqm-3 for the synthetic zeolite and to ∼350 Bqm-3 for the blue silica gel, for an exposure of 48 h at a relative humidity of about 50%. In comparison, the corresponding LLD for active carbon is estimated to 10 Bqm-3. At relative humidity in the range between 10% and 50%, radon chamber experiments indicate that the measured radon in the canisters is proportional to the mean concentration of radon during the period of exposure. It is estimated that calibration uncertainty lies within ±20% for both materials, thus suggesting that at least detectors based on the 5A synthetic zeolite presenting a reasonably low LLD, are a feasible and of similar cost alternative to activated carbon for indoors radon concentration measurements in practical situations.

  20. Product-selective blot: a technique for measuring enzyme activities in large numbers of samples and in native electrophoresis gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method termed product-selective blotting has been developed for screening large numbers of samples for enzyme activity. The technique is particularly well suited to detection of enzymes in native electrophoresis gels. The principle of the method was demonstrated by blotting samples from glutaminase or glutamate synthase reactions into an agarose gel embedded with ion-exchange resin under conditions favoring binding of product (glutamate) over substrates and other substances in the reaction mixture. After washes to remove these unbound substances, the product was measured using either fluorometric staining or radiometric techniques. Glutaminase activity in native electrophoresis gels was visualized by a related procedure in which substrates and products from reactions run in the electrophoresis gel were blotted directly into a resin-containing image gel. Considering the selective-binding materials available for use in the image gel, along with the possible detection systems, this method has potentially broad application

  1. Native gel analysis of macromolecular protein complexes in cultured mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Nayla; Olivero, Giorgio; Jerman, Emilia; Doyle, Benjamin; Streubel, Gundula; Wynne, Kieran; Bracken, Adrian; Cagney, Gerard

    2015-11-01

    Native gel electrophoresis enables separation of cellular proteins in their non-denatured state. In experiments aimed at analysing proteins in higher order or multimeric assemblies (i.e. protein complexes) it offers some advantages over rival approaches, particularly as an interface technology with mass spectrometry. Here we separated fractions from HEK293 cells by native electrophoresis in order to survey protein complexes in the cytoplasmic, nuclear and chromatin environments, finding 689 proteins distributed among 217 previously described complexes. As expected, different fractions contained distinct combinations of macromolecular complexes, with subunits of the same complex tending to co-migrate. Exceptions to this observation could often be explained by the presence of subunits shared among different complexes. We investigated one identified complex, the Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2), in more detail following affinity purification of the EZH2 subunit. This approach resulted in the identification of all previously reported members of PRC2. Overall, this work demonstrates that the use of native gel electrophoresis as an upstream separating step is an effective approach for analysis of the components and cellular distribution of protein complexes. PMID:26223664

  2. Combined alcian blue and silver staining of subnanogram quantities of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Heinegård, D; Poulsen, J H

    1993-01-01

    Proteoglycans stain weakly in polyacrylamide gels by traditional protein stains such as coomassie brilliant blue or silver. In the present work preparations of large aggregating proteoglycan from human articular cartilage were used to evaluate a convenient staining method based on successive...... staining with alcian blue and neutral silver. The method is developed for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; with ultrathin minigels in a semiautomated electrophoresis system, takes 1 1/2 h, and uses stable reagents. Preparations, electrophoresis, and staining of up to 24 samples...

  3. Separation of nuclear protein complexes by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Zora; Hodný, Zdeněk; Man, P.; Hozák, Pavel

    Pavia: organizátor workhshopu, 2003. s. 1. [The Willhelm Bernhard Workshop - International Workshop on the Cell Nucleus /18./. 04.09.2003-09.09.2003, Pavia] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : electrophoresis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. Separation of nuclear protein complexes by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Zora; Man, Petr; Novák, Petr; Hozák, Pavel; Hodný, Zdeněk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2006), s. 1277-1287. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/1210; GA AV ČR IAA5039202; GA AV ČR IAA500390501; GA MŠk LC545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Actin * RNA polymerase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.101, year: 2006

  5. Methylene blue degradation by NaTaO3 sol-gel doped with Sm and La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, NaTaO3 compounds doped with 1 M% of La and Sm, were prepared by the sol-gel (SG) method and solid state (SS) reaction; and tested as photocatalysts on the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light. The structural characterization by X-ray powder diffraction revealed that the crystallization of the NaTaO3 phase prepared by the sol-gel method started at 600 deg. C, reaching maximum crystallization at 800 deg. C. It was determined that the presence of Sm and La retard the crystallization of the NaTaO3 phase. On the other hand, the compounds synthesized in this work showed particle sizes in the nanometric scale, as it was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specific surface area of the compounds synthesized by the sol-gel method, showed values 4 times higher than those obtained by the solid state reaction, favoring their functional and photocatalytic performance in the methylene blue degradation. In addition, the best photocatalytic performance was shown by the NaTaO3 doped with Sm and heated at 600 deg. C, having a half-life time of 65 min.

  6. Investigation of the chemical origin and evidential value of differences in the SERS spectra of blue gel inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yen Cheng; Lee, Wendy W Y; Bell, Steven E J

    2016-08-15

    Highly swellable polymer films doped with Ag nanoparticle aggregates (poly-SERS films) have been used to record very high signal : noise ratio, reproducible surface-enhanced (resonance) Raman (SER(R)S) spectra of in situ dried ink lines and their constituent dyes using both 633 and 785 nm excitation. These allowed the chemical origins of differences in the SERRS spectra of different inks to be determined. Initial investigation of pure samples of the 10 most common blue dyes showed that the dyes which had very similar chemical structures such as Patent Blue V and Patent Blue VF (which differ only by a single OH group) gave SERRS spectra in which the only indications that the dye structure had been changed were small differences in peak positions or relative intensities of the bands. SERRS studies of 13 gel pen inks were consistent with this observation. In some cases inks from different types of pens could be distinguished even though they were dominated by a single dye such as Victoria Blue B (Zebra Surari) or Victoria Blue BO (Pilot Acroball) because their predominant dye did not appear in other inks. Conversely, identical spectra were also recorded from different types of pens (Pilot G7, Zebra Z-grip) because they all had the same dominant Brilliant Blue G dye. Finally, some of the inks contained mixtures of dyes which could be separated by TLC and removed from the plate before being analysed with the same poly-SERS films. For example, the Pentel EnerGel ink pen was found to give TLC spots corresponding to Erioglaucine and Brilliant Blue G. Overall, this study has shown that the spectral differences between different inks which are based on chemically similar, but nonetheless distinct dyes, are extremely small, so very close matches between SERRS spectra are required for confident identification. Poly-SERS substrates can routinely provide the very stringent reproducibility and sensitivity levels required. This, coupled with the awareness of the reasons

  7. In-gel staining of proteins in native poly acryl amide gel electrophoresis using tetrakis(4-sulfonato phenyl)porphyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, Kalivarathan; Sujatha, Vijayan; Barath, Sridhar; Srinath, Krishnamurthy; Gautam, Pennathur

    2011-01-01

    Protein identification in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) requires post-electrophoretic steps like fixing, staining and destaining of the gel, which are time-consuming and cumbersome. We have developed a method for direct visualization of protein bands in PAGE using tetrakis(4-sulfonato phenyl)porphyrin (TPPS) as a dye without the need for any post electrophoretic steps, where separation and recovery of enzymes become much easier for further analysis. Activity staining was done to prove that the biochemical activity of the enzymes was preserved after electrophoresis. PMID:21233569

  8. In-gel staining of proteins in native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, K; Devi, G Nandhini; Gautam, Pennathur

    2012-01-01

    Protein identification in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) requires post-electrophoretic steps like fixing, staining, and destaining of the gel, which are time-consuming and cumbersome. A new method for direct visualization of protein bands in PAGE has been developed using meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS) as a dye without the need for any post-electrophoretic steps; thus, separation and recovery of enzymes become much easier for further analysis. Activity staining was carried out to show that the biochemical activity of the enzymes was preserved after electrophoresis. PMID:22585523

  9. Electrochemical and catalytic investigation of carbon paste modified with Toluidine Blue O covalently immobilised on silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toluidine Blue O (TBO) was covalently bound on silica gel and mixed with graphite powder and paraffin oil to produce modified carbon paste electrodes. The formal potential (E deg.') of the covalently bound TBO was found to be -100 mV versus Ag vertical bar AgCl (KCl sat.) at pH 7.0 and the E deg.' varied less than anticipated for a 2-electron-proton type mediator with pH. The bound TBO was found to act as an efficient electron acceptor for NADH as well as electron donor for oxidised horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The kinetics and the mechanism of the reaction between NADH and TBO were investigated with cyclic voltammetry and using a rotating disc electrode. Further experiments were done in the flow injection mode injecting different concentrations of NADH. Similar studies were done in the presence of hydrogen peroxide when HRP was adsorbed onto the TBO modified silica gel carbon paste electrodes

  10. Two-dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE analysis of whole cell lysate protein complexes of rice in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Amenehsadat; Gharechahi, Javad; Nematzadeh, Ghorbanali; Shekari, Faezeh; Hosseini, Seyed Abdollah; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2016-08-01

    To understand the biology of a plant in response to stress, insight into protein-protein interactions, which almost define cell behavior, is thought to be crucial. Here, we provide a comparative complexomics analysis of leaf whole cell lysate of two rice genotypes with contrasting responses to salt using two-dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE (2D-BN/SDS-PAGE). We aimed to identify changes in subunit composition and stoichiometry of protein complexes elicited by salt. Using mild detergent for protein complex solubilization, we were able to identify 9 protein assemblies as hetero-oligomeric and 30 as homo-oligomeric complexes. A total of 20 proteins were identified as monomers in the 2D-BN/SDS-PAGE gels. In addition to identifying known protein complexes that confirm the technical validity of our analysis, we were also able to discover novel protein-protein interactions. Interestingly, an interaction was detected for glycolytic enzymes enolase (ENO1) and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and also for a chlorophyll a-b binding protein and RuBisCo small subunit. To show changes in subunit composition and stoichiometry of protein assemblies during salt stress, the differential abundance of interacting proteins was compared between salt-treated and control plants. A detailed exploration of some of the protein complexes provided novel insight into the function, composition, stoichiometry and dynamics of known and previously uncharacterized protein complexes in response to salt stress. PMID:27362847

  11. An alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay for environmental biomonitoring with native rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The main advantages of single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCG are its applicability to any eukaryotic organism and cell type, its low cost and the short time required to obtain results. These properties make the SCG assay particularly useful in screening for environmental genotoxicity. The present study describes a modified version of this technique for use in field work with native rodents and examines some factors which influence the outcome of the assay. Wild rodents (Ctenomys torquatus, "tuco-tuco" from a region close to a strip coal mine and from a region with no coal mines were used. Animals from the coal mining region had significantly more DNA damage than those from the control area. The use of this SCG technique for direct sampling in the field should facilitate environmental genotoxicity studies with natural populations, without the need to remove the animals from their habitat or to sacrifice them.A mais importante vantagem do Ensaio Cometa é a possibilidade do seu uso em qualquer organismo e tipo celular. Além de ser barato e rápido, se obtem resultados em poucas horas. Devido a isto é que ele vem sendo recomendado como teste inicial para monitoramento genotóxico ambiental. Neste trabalho investigaram-se adaptações na técnica para trabalhos de campo, com o uso de roedores endêmicos de região de mineração de carvão. O organismo utilizado foi o Ctenomys torquatus, capturado em duas diferentes áreas: Pelotas (região sem mineração de carvão-controle e Candiota (zona de mineração de carvão. Foi coletado sangue periférico de 18 roedores, que após marcação foram liberados. O sangue foi protegido da luz e mantido sob refrigeração, e processado in loco. As concentrações das agaroses e as condições alcalinas de lise e eletroforese foram modificadas a partir das metodologias sugeridas pelas revisões existentes. As amostras restantes foram mantidas em RPMI 1640 (1:10 (4ºC e pela nossa experiência podem ser

  12. Electrochemical and catalytic investigation of carbon paste modified with Toluidine Blue O covalently immobilised on silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munteanu, Florentina-Daniela; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki; Gorton, Lo

    2003-01-10

    Toluidine Blue O (TBO) was covalently bound on silica gel and mixed with graphite powder and paraffin oil to produce modified carbon paste electrodes. The formal potential (E deg.') of the covalently bound TBO was found to be -100 mV versus Ag vertical bar AgCl (KCl sat.) at pH 7.0 and the E deg.' varied less than anticipated for a 2-electron-proton type mediator with pH. The bound TBO was found to act as an efficient electron acceptor for NADH as well as electron donor for oxidised horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The kinetics and the mechanism of the reaction between NADH and TBO were investigated with cyclic voltammetry and using a rotating disc electrode. Further experiments were done in the flow injection mode injecting different concentrations of NADH. Similar studies were done in the presence of hydrogen peroxide when HRP was adsorbed onto the TBO modified silica gel carbon paste electrodes.

  13. SYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITE SOCONY MOBIL FROM BLUE SILICA GEL AND RICE HUSK ASH AS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROTHERMAL LIQUEFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUYITNO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Renewable biofuels produced by the hydrothermal liquefaction of rice husks have received much attention because of rapid increases in fuel consumption and corresponding declines in fossil fuel resources. To increase biofuel yields, template-free syntheses of Zeolite Socony Mobil (ZSM catalysts based on blue silica gel and rice husk ash as silica sources were studied. After ZSM synthesis in a closed reactor at 170°C, the crystallinity and crystalline diameters of the products were determined by X-ray diffraction, affording values of 56.33%– 65.81% and 64.3–68.5 nm, respectively. The hydrothermal liquefaction of rice husks with or without a catalyst was conducted in a closed reactor (1200 mm length × 100 mm diameter at 275°C for 45 min. The light biofuel was separated from the ethanol solvent and heavy biofuel via vacuum evaporation. The ZSM catalysts increased the biofuel yields by 2.9%–6.0%. The light biofuels exhibited heating values, flash points, and viscosities of approximately 4.2–4.3 kcal·g−1, 19°C, and 1.48–1.52 cSt, respectively. However, further studies are required to enhance the activity of the ZSMs and increase the quality of the biofuels.

  14. Sol–gel synthesis of SnO2–MgO nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity towards methylene blue degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A simple sol–gel method for the synthesis of SnO2–MgO nanoparticles is reported. • Band gap of SnO2 can be tuned by varying the magnesium content in SnO2–MgO. • SnO2–MgO shows good photocatalytic activity towards degradation of methylene blue. - Abstract: SnO2–MgO mixed metal oxide nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol–gel method. The nanoparticles were characterized by power X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The XRD results indicate the formation of mixed metal oxide nanoparticles and also a decrease of SnO2 crystallite size in the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles with increasing magnesium oxide content. The reflectance spectroscopy results show a blue shift of the band gap of SnO2 in the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activity of the SnO2–MgO nanoparticles was tested using the photodegradation of aqueous methylene blue in the presence of sunlight. The results indicate that the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles possess higher efficiency for the photodegradation of methylene blue compared to pure SnO2 nanoparticles

  15. A facile approach to fabricate porous nanocomposite gels based on partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide and cellulose nanocrystals for adsorbing methylene blue at low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengjun; Lee, Sunyoung; Dooley, Kerry; Wu, Qinglin

    2013-12-15

    Porous nanocomposite gels were fabricated by a facile method consisting of the electrospinning and subsequent heat treatment based on partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) of ultra-high molecular weight, with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as crosslinker. The effects of three electrospinning parameters (i.e., solution concentration, composition of solvent mixture, and CNC loading level) on morphology and diameter of electrospun fibers were systematically investigated. The swelling properties of porous gels and their application in the removal of methylene blue dye (as a compound representative of contaminants) were evaluated. Electrospun fiber morphologies without beads, branches, and ribbons were achieved by optimizing the electrospinning solutions. The thermal crosslinking between HPAM and CNCs was realized through esterification, rendering the product nanocomposite membranes insoluble in water. Electrospun fibers of approximately 220 nm in diameter comprised the 3D porous nanocomposite gels, with porosity greater than 50%. The porous nanocomposite gels displayed a rapid swelling rate and an efficient adsorption capacity in removing methylene blue at low concentrations from aqueous solutions. PMID:23958139

  16. Species identification of smoked and gravad fish products by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, urea isoelectric focusing and native isoelectric focusing : a collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, I.; Craig, A.; Etienne, M.;

    2000-01-01

    A collaborative study on the use of sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), urea-isoelectric focusing (urea-IEF) and native isoelectric focusing for the identification of species of smoked salmonids, gravad salmonids and smoked eels was carried out by eight laborator...... species difficult to identify by SDS-PAGE or by urea-IEF in the case of cold smoked products. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Analytical QbD: development of a native gel electrophoresis method for measurement of monoclonal antibody aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Mili; Dutta, Debayon; Rathore, Anurag

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a quality by design (QbD) based development of a novel native PAGE (N-PAGE) method as a low-cost analytical tool for analysis of aggregates of monoclonal antibodies. Comparability to the present gold standard of SEC has been established. The motivation is the fact that SEC requires relatively expensive equipment and consumables, thus making N-PAGE relevant to those academicians and other small companies involved in early-stage development of biotherapeutics that do not have access to SEC, especially in developing countries. Furthermore, SEC suffers from certain disadvantages including the possibility of secondary interactions between the stationary phase and analyte resulting in higher elution time and therefore underestimation of the analyte size. The proposed N-PAGE method can also serve as an orthogonal analytical method for aggregate analysis. A QbD-based approach has been used for development and optimization of the protocol. First, initial screening studies were carried out with parameters including the running buffer pH, running buffer molarity, gel buffer pH, loading dye, sample concentration, and running voltage. Next, optimization of operating parameters was performed using principles of design of experiments. The final optimized protocol was compared to the traditional SEC method and the results were found to be comparable. While N-PAGE has been in use for protein analysis for several decades, use of N-PAGE for analysis of mAb aggregates with data comparable to SEC such as the case presented here is novel. PMID:24643784

  18. Photodegradation of indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution by SiC–TiO2 catalysts prepared by sol–gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Photodegradation of organic dyes is possible using sol–gel SiC–TiO2 catalysts. ► SiC–TiO2 makes a synergy effect that enhances its catalytic activity. ► Sol–gel allows good dispersion and attachment of TiO2 particles on SiC surface. ► SiC–TiO2 exhibits better activity than TiO2 (P25) on organic dyes degradation. ► SiC–TiO2 catalysts are settled down and easily separated after photocatalysis. - Abstract: Indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution were photodegraded using SiC–TiO2 catalysts prepared by sol–gel method. After thermal treatment at 450 °C, SiC–TiO2 catalysts prepared in this work showed the presence of SiC and TiO2 anatase phase. Those compounds showed specific surface area values around 22–25 m2 g−1, and energy band gap values close to 3.05 eV. In comparison with TiO2 (P25), SiC–TiO2 catalysts showed the highest activity for indigo carmine and methylene blue degradation, but this activity cannot be attributed to the properties above mentioned. Therefore, photocatalytic performance is due to the synergy effect between SiC and TiO2 particles caused by the sol–gel method used to prepare the SiC–TiO2 catalysts. TiO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed onto SiC surface allowing the transfer of electronic charges between SiC and TiO2 semiconductors, which avoid the fast recombination of the electron–hole pair during the photocatalytic process.

  19. Assessment of radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull Blue dye for relative output factor measurements of the Leksell Gamma Knife® PerfexionTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to perform assessment of radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull blue dye formed by irradiation (TB gel dosimeter) for measurement of ROFs for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators for the Leksell Gamma Knife PerfexionTM. All measurements have been carried out using home-made spherical Perspex glass phantom of diameter 160 mm. TB gel dosimeters were scanned using homemade optical CT scanner. The results are compared with vendor recommended Monte Carlo calculated ROFs values of 0.814 and 0.900 for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators, respectively. The comparisons between the gel measurements and the treatment planning system (TPS) calculation are presented in the form of 2D isodoses for the central slices and 1D profile. Measured ROF 0.746 and 0.874 for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators respectively are in a reasonable agreement with vendor recommended values and measured relative dose distribution in a central slice and measured profiles of all shots show excellent correspondence with TPS

  20. Glucose biosensor based on covalent immobilization of enzyme in sol-gel composite film combined with Prussian blue/carbon nanotubes hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guanglei; Yue, Xiuli; Dai, Zhifei

    2011-05-15

    A novel electrochemical glucose biosensor was developed based on in situ covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) by one-pot chitosan (CS)-incorporated sol-gel process in the presence of Prussian blue deposited multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrids (PB/MWNTs) using 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane (ICPTES) as both a sol-gel precursor and a covalent coupling agent for GOx and CS. The electrode modified with the PB/MWNTs-GOx-CS-ICPTES sol-gel composite film showed good electrical conductivity and effective low-potential electron transfer mediation toward H2O2 reduction attributed to the incorporation of PB/MWNTs. The biosensor exhibited a linear response to glucose in the concentration range from 2.5×10(-5) to 1.3×10(-3) M with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998, a detection limit of 7.5×10(-6) M, a low response time (10s ), good sensitivity and high anti-interference ability. Compared with the control biosensor based on the traditional tetraethoxysilane derived sol-gel composite film, the biosensor showed a similarly small apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of 3.67 mM but much higher electrochemical and biosensing stability. PMID:21478008

  1. Assessment of radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull Blue dye for relative output factor measurements of the Leksell Gamma Knife® PerfexionTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubikova, P.; Solc, J.; Novotny, J., Jr.; Pilarova, K.; Pipek, J.; Koncekova, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to perform assessment of radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull blue dye formed by irradiation (TB gel dosimeter) for measurement of ROFs for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators for the Leksell Gamma Knife PerfexionTM. All measurements have been carried out using home-made spherical Perspex glass phantom of diameter 160 mm. TB gel dosimeters were scanned using homemade optical CT scanner. The results are compared with vendor recommended Monte Carlo calculated ROFs values of 0.814 and 0.900 for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators, respectively. The comparisons between the gel measurements and the treatment planning system (TPS) calculation are presented in the form of 2D isodoses for the central slices and 1D profile. Measured ROF 0.746 and 0.874 for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators respectively are in a reasonable agreement with vendor recommended values and measured relative dose distribution in a central slice and measured profiles of all shots show excellent correspondence with TPS.

  2. Bright blue photoluminescence from a mixed tin and manganese oxide xerogel prepared via sol-hydrothermal-gel process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Xia; Cheng Xiao-Feng; He Shao-Bo; Yuan Xiao-Dong; Zheng Wan-Guo; Li Zhi-Jie; Liu Chun-Ming; Zhou Wei-Lie; Zu Xiao-Tao

    2011-01-01

    A new blue photoluminescent material,a mixed tin and manganese oxide xerogel,is prepared via sol-hydrothermalgel process assisted by citric acid.The composition xerogel exhibits strong blue emission at room temperature,with an emission maximum at 434 nm under short (234 nm) or long-wavelength (343 nm) ultraviolet excitation.The photoluminescent excitation spectrum of the mixed tin and manganese oxide xerogel,monitored at an intensity maximum wavelength of 434 nm of the emission,consists of two excitation peaks at 234 nm and 343 nm.With heat treatment temperature increasing from 110 ℃ to 200 ℃,the blue emission intensity increases remarkably,whereas it is almost completely quenched after being treated at 300 ℃.The carbon impurities in the mixed tin and manganese oxide xerogel,confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,should be responsible for the bright blue photoluminescence.

  3. Titanium dioxide-gold nanocomposite materials embedded in silicate sol-gel film catalyst for simultaneous photodegradation of hexavalent chromium and methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Ramaraj, Ramasamy

    2012-02-15

    Aminosilicate sol-gel supported titanium dioxide-gold (EDAS/(TiO(2)-Au)(nps)) nanocomposite materials were synthesized by simple deposition-precipitation method and characterized. The photocatalytic oxidation and reduction activity of the EDAS/(TiO(2)-Au)(nps) film was evaluated using hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and methylene blue (MB) dye under irradiation. The photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) was studied in the presence of hole scavengers such as oxalic acid (OA) and methylene blue (MB). The photocatalytic degradation of MB was investigated in the presence and absence of Cr(VI). Presence of Au(nps) on the (TiO(2))(nps) surface and its dispersion in the silicate sol-gel film (EDAS/(TiO(2)-Au)(nps)) improved the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of MB due to the effective interfacial electron transfer from the conduction band of the TiO(2) to Au(nps) by minimizing the charge recombination process when compared to the TiO(2) and (TiO(2)-Au)(nps) in the absence of EDAS. The EDAS/(TiO(2)-Au)(nps) nanocomposite materials provided beneficial role in the environmental remediation and purification process through synergistic photocatalytic activity by an advanced oxidation-reduction processes. PMID:22206972

  4. Species identification of smoked and gravad fish products by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, urea isoelectric focusing and native isoelectric focusing : a collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, I.; Craig, A.; Etienne, M.; Jerome, M.; Fleurence, J.; Jessen, Flemming; Smelt, A.; Kruijt, A.; Yman, I.M.; Ferm, M.; Martinez, I.; Perez-Martin, R.; Pineiro, C.; Rehbein, H.; Kundiger, R.

    2000-01-01

    A collaborative study on the use of sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), urea-isoelectric focusing (urea-IEF) and native isoelectric focusing for the identification of species of smoked salmonids, gravad salmonids and smoked eels was carried out by eight laborator......A collaborative study on the use of sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), urea-isoelectric focusing (urea-IEF) and native isoelectric focusing for the identification of species of smoked salmonids, gravad salmonids and smoked eels was carried out by eight...... laboratories. With SDS-PAGE, minor changes took place in the profiles of the processed salmonid species making it impossible or Very difficult to identify closely related species. With urea-IEF, there were fewer changes in the profiles due to processing and the system generally had greater species......-discriminating power for the processed salmonids than SDS-PAGE. The profiles of the eel species as obtained on SDS-PAGE or urea-IEF were not affected by smoking. Urea-IEF had greater species- discriminating power than SDS-PAGE for the eel species. Native IEF was useful in providing supplementary identification on...

  5. Blue-emitting photoluminescence of rod-like and needle-like ZnO nanostructures formed by hot-water treatment of sol–gel derived coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Wai Kian, E-mail: tanwaikian@cie.ignite.tut.ac.jp [Center for International Education, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia [School of Materials and Mineral Resources, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang 14300 Malaysia (Malaysia); Matsuda, Atsunori, E-mail: matsuda@tut.ee.ac.jp [Center for International Education, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    The morphological evolution of the zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures generated by hot-water treatment (HWT) of sol–gel derived coatings as a function of temperature from 30 to 90 °C was investigated. With increasing HWT temperature, the ZnO crystals evolved from nanoparticles to rod-like and needle-like nanostructures. High-resolution transmission electron microscope observations of rod-like and needle-like nanostructures generated at 60 and 90 °C indicated single crystal ZnO wurtzite structure was obtained. All the hot-water treated samples exhibited blue emission at approximately 440 nm in room temperature. The intensity of blue emission increased with higher HWT temperatures. The unique photoluminescence emission characteristic remained even after heat-treatment at 400 °C for 1 h. As the emission peak obtained in our work is approximately 440 nm (2.82 eV), the emission peak is corresponding to the electron transition from the interstitial Zn to the top of valence band. This facile formation of blue-emitting ZnO nanostructures at low-temperature can be utilized on substrate with low thermal stability for optoelectronic applications such as light emitting devices and biological fluorescence labeling. - Highlights: • Facile and novel formation of ZnO nanostructures by low temperature hot-water treatment. • No catalyst or inhibitor is used. • Evolution of ZnO nanostructures formation as a function of temperature is reported. • Dominant blue emissions are observed from the as-formed and annealed ZnO films. • Ultraviolet and visible emissions are observed for hot-water treated films.

  6. Blue-emitting photoluminescence of rod-like and needle-like ZnO nanostructures formed by hot-water treatment of sol–gel derived coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphological evolution of the zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures generated by hot-water treatment (HWT) of sol–gel derived coatings as a function of temperature from 30 to 90 °C was investigated. With increasing HWT temperature, the ZnO crystals evolved from nanoparticles to rod-like and needle-like nanostructures. High-resolution transmission electron microscope observations of rod-like and needle-like nanostructures generated at 60 and 90 °C indicated single crystal ZnO wurtzite structure was obtained. All the hot-water treated samples exhibited blue emission at approximately 440 nm in room temperature. The intensity of blue emission increased with higher HWT temperatures. The unique photoluminescence emission characteristic remained even after heat-treatment at 400 °C for 1 h. As the emission peak obtained in our work is approximately 440 nm (2.82 eV), the emission peak is corresponding to the electron transition from the interstitial Zn to the top of valence band. This facile formation of blue-emitting ZnO nanostructures at low-temperature can be utilized on substrate with low thermal stability for optoelectronic applications such as light emitting devices and biological fluorescence labeling. - Highlights: • Facile and novel formation of ZnO nanostructures by low temperature hot-water treatment. • No catalyst or inhibitor is used. • Evolution of ZnO nanostructures formation as a function of temperature is reported. • Dominant blue emissions are observed from the as-formed and annealed ZnO films. • Ultraviolet and visible emissions are observed for hot-water treated films

  7. Two dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE to identify mitochondrial complex I subunits modified by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jinzi; Luo, Xiaoting; Yan, Liang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) can form protein-linked HNE adducts, thereby impacting protein structure and function. Mitochondrial complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase), containing at least 45 subunits in mammalian cells, sits in a lipid-rich environment and is thus very susceptible to HNE modifications. In this paper, a procedure for the identification of HNE-modified complex I subunits is described. Complex I was isolated by first dimensional non-gradient blue n...

  8. Titanium dioxide-gold nanocomposite materials embedded in silicate sol-gel film catalyst for simultaneous photodegradation of hexavalent chromium and methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandikumar, Alagarsamy [Centre for Photoelectrochemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India); Ramaraj, Ramasamy, E-mail: ramarajr@yahoo.com [Centre for Photoelectrochemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Aminosilicate sol-gel supported TiO{sub 2}-Au nanocomposite material photocatalyst was prepared by deposition-precipitation method and used for the simultaneous oxidation and reduction of methyelene blue dye and Cr(VI) ions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EDAS/(TiO{sub 2}-Au){sub nps} is used to design the solid-phase thin film photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au promotes the interfacial electron transfer from TiO{sub 2} to Cr(VI) to form Cr(III). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The holes produced at the TiO{sub 2} oxidize the MB dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EDAS/(TiO{sub 2}-Au){sub nps} film was used for the simultaneous oxidation and reduction of toxic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photoinduced simultaneous redox process provides dual benefit for the environment remediation. - Abstract: Aminosilicate sol-gel supported titanium dioxide-gold (EDAS/(TiO{sub 2}-Au){sub nps}) nanocomposite materials were synthesized by simple deposition-precipitation method and characterized. The photocatalytic oxidation and reduction activity of the EDAS/(TiO{sub 2}-Au){sub nps} film was evaluated using hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and methylene blue (MB) dye under irradiation. The photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) was studied in the presence of hole scavengers such as oxalic acid (OA) and methylene blue (MB). The photocatalytic degradation of MB was investigated in the presence and absence of Cr(VI). Presence of Au{sub nps} on the (TiO{sub 2}){sub nps} surface and its dispersion in the silicate sol-gel film (EDAS/(TiO{sub 2}-Au){sub nps}) improved the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of MB due to the effective interfacial electron transfer from the conduction band of the TiO{sub 2} to Au{sub nps} by minimizing the charge recombination process when compared to the TiO{sub 2} and (TiO{sub 2}-Au){sub nps} in the absence of EDAS. The EDAS/(TiO{sub 2}-Au){sub nps} nanocomposite materials provided

  9. Titanium dioxide–gold nanocomposite materials embedded in silicate sol–gel film catalyst for simultaneous photodegradation of hexavalent chromium and methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Aminosilicate sol–gel supported TiO2–Au nanocomposite material photocatalyst was prepared by deposition–precipitation method and used for the simultaneous oxidation and reduction of methyelene blue dye and Cr(VI) ions. Highlights: ► The EDAS/(TiO2–Au)nps is used to design the solid-phase thin film photocatalyst. ► Au promotes the interfacial electron transfer from TiO2 to Cr(VI) to form Cr(III). ► The holes produced at the TiO2 oxidize the MB dye. ► The EDAS/(TiO2–Au)nps film was used for the simultaneous oxidation and reduction of toxic molecules. ► The photoinduced simultaneous redox process provides dual benefit for the environment remediation. - Abstract: Aminosilicate sol–gel supported titanium dioxide–gold (EDAS/(TiO2–Au)nps) nanocomposite materials were synthesized by simple deposition–precipitation method and characterized. The photocatalytic oxidation and reduction activity of the EDAS/(TiO2–Au)nps film was evaluated using hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and methylene blue (MB) dye under irradiation. The photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) was studied in the presence of hole scavengers such as oxalic acid (OA) and methylene blue (MB). The photocatalytic degradation of MB was investigated in the presence and absence of Cr(VI). Presence of Aunps on the (TiO2)nps surface and its dispersion in the silicate sol-gel film (EDAS/(TiO2–Au)nps) improved the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of MB due to the effective interfacial electron transfer from the conduction band of the TiO2 to Aunps by minimizing the charge recombination process when compared to the TiO2 and (TiO2–Au)nps in the absence of EDAS. The EDAS/(TiO2–Au)nps nanocomposite materials provided beneficial role in the environmental remediation and purification process through synergistic photocatalytic activity by an advanced oxidation–reduction processes.

  10. Investigation of the protein-binding ability of radiopharmaceuticals in plasma, tumor and organs by sequential native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native page)-autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important characteristic using for screening of radiopharmaceuticals is their selective accumulation in regions of interests (ROI). This is shown through their protein-binding ability (PB) in ROI. We have developed an effective method for investigating the PB of radiopharmaceuticals: Sequential native-PAGE-autoradiography. The study of PB of In-111, Sm-153 and Yb-169 and their complexes in plasma, tumor, liver, spleen and kidney was demonstrated the effectiveness of this new method. (author)

  11. Photodegradation of indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution by SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared by sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Solis, Christian [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi Av. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78290 (Mexico); Juarez-Ramirez, Isaias, E-mail: isajua13@yahoo.com [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Moctezuma, Edgar [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi Av. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78290 (Mexico); Torres-Martinez, Leticia M. [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photodegradation of organic dyes is possible using sol-gel SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} makes a synergy effect that enhances its catalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel allows good dispersion and attachment of TiO{sub 2} particles on SiC surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} exhibits better activity than TiO{sub 2} (P25) on organic dyes degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts are settled down and easily separated after photocatalysis. - Abstract: Indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution were photodegraded using SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared by sol-gel method. After thermal treatment at 450 Degree-Sign C, SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared in this work showed the presence of SiC and TiO{sub 2} anatase phase. Those compounds showed specific surface area values around 22-25 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and energy band gap values close to 3.05 eV. In comparison with TiO{sub 2} (P25), SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts showed the highest activity for indigo carmine and methylene blue degradation, but this activity cannot be attributed to the properties above mentioned. Therefore, photocatalytic performance is due to the synergy effect between SiC and TiO{sub 2} particles caused by the sol-gel method used to prepare the SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are well dispersed onto SiC surface allowing the transfer of electronic charges between SiC and TiO{sub 2} semiconductors, which avoid the fast recombination of the electron-hole pair during the photocatalytic process.

  12. Synthesis of micrometer SrAl2Si2O8 :Eu, Dy blue phosphor powders via sol- gel process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文; 宁桂玲; LIN Yuan; WANG Jing

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report on long- persistence white phosphor SrAl2Si2O8 :Eu2+ , Dy3+ synthe-sized by the sol - gel method. The luminescent materials prepared by the sol - gel method have many ad-vantages, such as uniform composition, high purity, fine grains and low synthesis temperature. We foundthat SrAl2Si2O8 :Eu2+ ,Dy3+ phosphor prepared by the sol -gel method can provide more luminescent in-tensity and better afterglow characteristic compared with the same phosphor prepared by solid -statemethod. Namely, the particle size and shape of phosphors should be optimized to obtain the maximumquantum efficiency through energy absorption. The mierostrueture of the phosphor consisted of regularfine grains with an average size of about 0.5. - 1 μm. Under 356 nm light excitation, the broadband emis-sion of the phosphor continues from 350 to 650 ntn and the emission peak is at about 414 nm, which canbe viewed as the typical emission of Eu2+ ascribed to the 4f→5d transitions.

  13. Influence of acid chain length on the properties of TiO2 prepared by sol-gel method and LC-MS studies of methylene blue photodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, Pratibha V; Volvoikar, Prajesh S; Vernekar, Amit A; Tilve, S G

    2016-07-15

    Nano-sized titanium dioxide photocatalysts were synthesized by hybrid hydrolytic nonhydrolytic sol-gel method using aliphatic organic acid templates to study the effect of chain length on their properties. X-ray diffraction pattern indicated crystalline anatase phase. The Barrett-Joyner-Halenda surface area measurement gave surface area ranging from 98.4 to 205.5m(2)/g and was found to be dependent on the chain length of the aliphatic acid. The longer chain acids rendered the material with high surface area. The organic acids acted as bidentate ligand and a surfactant in controlling the size and the mesoporosity. The size of the TiO2 nanoparticulate was found to be in the range of 10-18nm. The catalyst prepared by employing long chain acids octanoic acid and palmitic acid had smaller size, narrow pore radius, higher surface area and showed better photocatalytic activity than the commercially available Degussa P25 catalyst for the degradation of methylene blue dye. A new intermediate was identified by tandem liquid chromatography mass spectrometry studies during the degradation of methylene blue solution. PMID:27100905

  14. pH sensor based on sol-gel silica layer deposited on a plastic optical fiber with blue bromophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Méndez, Edgar; Hernández-Cruz, Daniel; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto; Andrade-Lucio, Jose A.; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M.; Trejo-Durán, M.; Ibarra-Manzano, Oscar G.; Ponce-Ballesteros, J. Erasmo; Lessard, Roger A.

    2004-11-01

    Design and characterization of a pH optical fiber sensor with a pH sensitive dye is described in this paper. TEOS (Tetra-ethyl-Orto-Silicate) was used to dope a plastic optical fiber, which will be used as the optical probe (OPTRODE). The sensor is prepared by fixing the doped plastic fiber on a fused ortosilica block surface with blue bromophenol. The fiber surface charged with silica modified the refractive index, which plays an important roll on the fiber, modifies the conditions of light propagation into the plastic optical fiber. The fiber transmittance is used to measure the pH of a solution or a fluid in a range between 4 and 7; such signal is captured by a photodetector and processed with a LabView program. The advantage of this system is that, 2cm of doped fiber are enough to measure the pH of a fluid in real time. The time response of the sensor reported in the present study is approximately 10s.

  15. Overexpression of the Synthetic Chimeric Native-T-phylloplanin-GFP Genes Optimized for Monocot and Dicot Plants Renders Enhanced Resistance to Blue Mold Disease in Tobacco (N. tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the natural plant resistance and to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of phylloplanin against blue mold, we have expressed a synthetic chimeric native-phylloplanin-GFP protein fusion in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. KY14, a cultivar that is highly susceptible to infection by Peronospora tabacina. The coding sequence of the tobacco phylloplanin gene along with its native signal peptide was fused with GFP at the carboxy terminus. The synthetic chimeric gene (native-phylloplanin-GFP was placed between the modified Mirabilis mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter with duplicated enhancer domains and the terminator sequence from the rbcSE9 gene. The chimeric gene, expressed in transgenic tobacco, was stably inherited in successive plant generations as shown by molecular characterization, GFP quantification, and confocal fluorescent microscopy. Transgenic plants were morphologically similar to wild-type plants and showed no deleterious effects due to transgene expression. Blue mold-sensitivity assays of tobacco lines were performed by applying P. tabacina sporangia to the upper leaf surface. Transgenic lines expressing the fused synthetic native-phyllopanin-GFP gene in the leaf apoplast showed resistance to infection. Our results demonstrate that in vivo expression of a synthetic fused native-phylloplanin-GFP gene in plants can potentially achieve natural protection against microbial plant pathogens, including P. tabacina in tobacco.

  16. Overexpression of the synthetic chimeric native-T-phylloplanin-GFP genes optimized for monocot and dicot plants renders enhanced resistance to blue mold disease in tobacco (N. tabacum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Dipak K; Raha, Sumita; Hall, James T; Maiti, Indu B

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the natural plant resistance and to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of phylloplanin against blue mold, we have expressed a synthetic chimeric native-phylloplanin-GFP protein fusion in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. KY14, a cultivar that is highly susceptible to infection by Peronospora tabacina. The coding sequence of the tobacco phylloplanin gene along with its native signal peptide was fused with GFP at the carboxy terminus. The synthetic chimeric gene (native-phylloplanin-GFP) was placed between the modified Mirabilis mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter with duplicated enhancer domains and the terminator sequence from the rbcSE9 gene. The chimeric gene, expressed in transgenic tobacco, was stably inherited in successive plant generations as shown by molecular characterization, GFP quantification, and confocal fluorescent microscopy. Transgenic plants were morphologically similar to wild-type plants and showed no deleterious effects due to transgene expression. Blue mold-sensitivity assays of tobacco lines were performed by applying P. tabacina sporangia to the upper leaf surface. Transgenic lines expressing the fused synthetic native-phyllopanin-GFP gene in the leaf apoplast showed resistance to infection. Our results demonstrate that in vivo expression of a synthetic fused native-phylloplanin-GFP gene in plants can potentially achieve natural protection against microbial plant pathogens, including P. tabacina in tobacco. PMID:24778589

  17. Novel Pd/TiO2 nanocomposite prepared by modified sol–gel method for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Chitosan (CS) has no obvious effect on the crystallizing process of the main form, anatase. •Crystallite size of TiO2/CS (18 nm) was smaller than that of pure TiO2 (116 nm). •CS prevents the agglomeration of both TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 with dispersion of Pd over TiO2. •CS and Pd significantly improved the visible light photocatalytic activity of TiO2. -- Abstract: TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared using the modified sol–gel method. TiO2 impregnated with Pd and/or chitosan (CS) was prepared using the impregnation method. The Pd/TiO2 composite photocatalyst was characterized by XRD, TEM, UV–Vis, Pl, and BET. A methylene blue dye (MB) was used as a model pollutant to study the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under visible light irradiation. The influence of the type and amount of catalyst as well as the initial concentration of MB was investigated. The results indicate that CS can effectively prevent the agglomeration of TiO2 nanoparticles. UV–Vis spectra demonstrated that the composite’s ability to absorb visible light is greatly improved. The photocatalytic degradation of MB was found to follow first-order kinetics. Recycling experiments confirmed the relative stability of the catalyst

  18. Synthesis of Blue-Green Phosphors Sr4Si3O8Cl4:Eu2+ by Gel-Combustion Method and Their Luminescent Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qing Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sr4Si3O8Cl4:Eu2+ blue-green phosphors were synthesized by the gel-combustion method. The as-synthesized phosphors were analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results indicate that orthorhombic phase Sr4Si3O8Cl4:Eu2+ has been formed after the precursor calcined at 900°C reductive temperature. The excitation spectrum of Sr4Si3O8Cl4:Eu2+ is a broad band in the range of 250 ~ 450 nm and the main peak at 324 nm. The emission spectrum is also a broad band with the main emission peak at about 484 nm, which is ascribed to the typical 4f5d1 to 4f7 transition of Eu2+. Moreover, the effects of the concentration of Eu2+, the reductive temperature, and the doping amount of Mg2+ on luminescent properties were discussed.

  19. Native SDS-PAGE: High Resolution Electrophoretic Separation of Proteins With Retention of Native Properties Including Bound Metal Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Nowakowski, Andrew B.; Wobig, William J.; Petering, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is commonly used to obtain high resolution separation of complex mixtures of proteins. The method initially denatures the proteins that will undergo electrophoresis. Although covalent structural features of resolved proteins can be determined with SDS-PAGE, functional properties are destroyed, including the presence of non-covalently bound metal ions. To address this shortcoming, blue-native (BN)-PAGE has been introduced. Th...

  20. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby blues). What are the baby blues? The word "blues" is not really correct since women with ... baby blues). What are the baby blues? The word "blues" is not really correct since women with ...

  1. Separation of native allophycocyanin and R-phycocyanin from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis performed in novel buffer systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Three buffer systems of Imidazole-Acetic acid, HEPES-Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris-HEPES-MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP and R-phycocyanin (R-PC from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES-Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris-HEPES-MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems.

  2. Separation of Native Allophycocyanin and R-Phycocyanin from Marine Red Macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Performed in Novel Buffer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gong, Xueqin; Wang, Shumei; Chen, Lixue; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Three buffer systems of Imidazole−Acetic acid, HEPES−Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris−HEPES−MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP) and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES−Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris−HEPES−MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems. PMID:25166028

  3. Estudo eletroquímico do azul de metileno adsorvido sobre sílica gel quimicamente modificada com óxido de nióbio Electrochemical study of methylene blue adsorbed on the silica gel modified with niobium oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Débora de Almeida Schiavo; Elizabeth Fátima Perez; Lauro Tatsuo Kubota

    2000-01-01

    Methylene blue (AM) was immobilised on surface of the silica gel modified with niobium oxide. This material was incorporated in a carbon paste electrode, which showed a redox couple in a potential of E= -113 mV vs SCE in KCl solution at pH 7.0. The formal potential, in 0.5 mol L-1 KCl at pH 7.0, shifted about 290 mV towards more positive values compared to those observed for AM solubilized in aqueous solution. The dependence on the formal potential with solution pH between 2 and 7 was much lo...

  4. The influence of the language proficiency of English teachers who are not native speakers of English on the language skills of their learners / Rhelda Krügel

    OpenAIRE

    Krügel, Rhelda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the language proficiency of English teachers who are not native speakers of English on the language skills of their learners. The words: English teachers in this study refer to teachers teaching English as subject learning area but who are not native speakers of English. The word learners refer to English second language learners. Although the literature review highlights the specific features of each of the language skills namely l...

  5. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... blues: Talk to your partner or a good friend about how you feel Get plenty of rest ...

  6. Tungsten oxide buffer layers fabricated in an inert sol-gel process at room-temperature for blue organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Stefan; Bruns, Michael; Strässle, Stefan; Feldmann, Claus; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2013-08-14

    WO3 deposition from tungsten ethoxide precursor solutions at room temperature is demonstrated. The W(OEt)6 precursor can be converted under inert conditions and hence avoids sample contamination with oxygen, opening a pathway to more stable devices. The stoichiometry of all WO3 layers and the optoelectronic performance of the respective SMOLEDs well match thermally evaporated WO3 and its corresponding SMOLEDs. The solution processed WO3 hole injection layers enable the fabrication of blue phosphorescent OLEDs with low onset voltage and current efficiencies of up to 14 cd A(-1) . PMID:23813694

  7. We Detect Blue Light Phenomena Correlating with Environmental and Weather Changes, and Historic Native American/span>s or Their Place Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Michael Ann; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, Edward M.

    2003-10-01

    Katahdin (Christ Cathar Spirit-signal stronghold) in Maine is sacred to the Penobscot Indian Nation. That mountain complex, and areas like Ellis Pond, ME and Penley Hill/Anasagunticook (adherent of Jesus Christ Spirit-signal doctor church) of the Mexico/Rumford/Mountain Valley region, also in Maine, have an association with historic Native Americans like the medicine woman Molocket/Molly Ockett. We have observed that these and other regions generate electromagnetic field (EMF) signals, which we can detect visually and in other ways. Such signals have sometimes been associated with significant and dynamic weather phenomena. Ohio's Serpent Mound and associated regions, or those now occupied by the Hopi Indian Nation, formerly an ancient Anasazi site, or areas of the current and earlier Mayan Nations, or the Nazca Plateau of Peru, may generate signals correlating with climate change, that may impact our technology, as in major power blackouts.

  8. Detection of phosphorylated subunits by combined LA-ICP-MS and MALDI-FTICR-MS analysis in yeast mitochondrial membrane complexes separated by blue native/SDS-PAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Buchholz, Udo; Becker, J. Susanne; Zoriy, Miroslav; Pickhardt, Carola; Przybylski, Michael; Rödel, Gerhard; Becker, J. Sabine

    2006-01-01

    We report on the identification of phosphorylated subunits of yeast mitochondrial ATPase using a novel screening technique in combination with BN/SDS-PAGE. Protein complexes present in yeast mitochondrial membranes were separated in their native state in the first dimension and their subunit composition was resolved by SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to rapidly screen for the presence of phosphorus in the subunits. The detection limits of elements investigated in selected protein spots are in the low [mu]g g-1 concentration range. Sulfur was used as the internal standard element for quantification. Phosphorus was detected in two of the proteins, that were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR-MS) as subunits Atp1p and Atp2p of the ATPase. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis using antibodies directed against phosphorylated amino acids. The combination of LA-ICP-MS and MALDI-FTICR-MS with BN/SDS-PAGE provides a fast and sensitive tool for structure analysis of phosphorus and metal-containing subunits of membrane protein complexes.

  9. Intense pulsed light versus photodynamic therapy using liposomal methylene blue gel for the treatment of truncal acne vulgaris: a comparative randomized split body study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moftah, Nayera Hassan; Ibrahim, Shady Mahmoud; Wahba, Nadine Hassan

    2016-05-01

    Acne vulgaris is an extremely common skin condition. It often leads to negative psychological consequences. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using intense pulsed light has been introduced for effective treatment of acne. The objective was to study the effect of PDT in truncal acne vulgaris using liposomal methylene blue (LMB) versus IPL alone. Thirty-five patients with varying degrees of acne were treated with topical 0.1 % LMB hydrogel applied on the randomly selected one side of the back, and after 60 min the entire back was exposed to IPL. The procedure was done once weekly for three sessions and patients were re-evaluated 1 month after the third session by two independent dermatologists. Acne severity was graded using the Burton scale. Patient satisfaction using Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) was recorded before and after treatment. On LMB-pretreated side, inflammatory acne lesion counts were significantly decreased by 56.40 % compared with 34.06 % on IPL alone. Marked improvement was seen on LMB-pretreated side in 11.5 % of patients compared with 2.8 % on IPL alone. There was a correlation between CADI score and overall improvement. Our study concluded that LMB-IPL is more effective than IPL alone, safe with tolerable pain in the treatment of acne vulgaris on the back. LMB-IPL is more effective than IPL alone, safe with tolerable pain in the treatment of acne vulgaris on the back. PMID:26993345

  10. Native Oxide Films on AZ31 and AZ61 Commercial Magnesium Alloys ─ Corrosion Behaviour, Effect on Isothermal Oxidation and Sol─gel Thin Film Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Feliu, Sebastían; Barranco, V.; Llorente, Irene; García-Galván, Federico R.; Jimenez Morales, Antonia; Galván Sierra, Juan Carlos; El Hadad, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a review of their recent research work in an endeavour to interpret the influence of native oxide films on the corrosion behaviour of commercial AZ31 and AZ61 magnesium alloys or on the oxidation kinetics in air at 200°C. The tendency of some of these thin films to be sufficiently protective in mild or weak corrosive environments is examined. For obtaining oxide films with different protective properties, some of the specimens are tested with the surface in the as-received...

  11. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems ... delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians ...

  12. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... with this condition are happy most of the time. But compared to how she usually feels, the ... the "blues" usually lessens and goes away over time. What causes the baby blues? Medical experts believe ...

  13. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... Postpartum care > The postpartum blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  14. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... usually lessens and goes away over time. What causes the baby blues? Medical experts believe that changes ... usually lessens and goes away over time. What causes the baby blues? Medical experts believe that changes ...

  15. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... Feels sad Feels confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end ... Feels sad Feels confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end ...

  16. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... postpartum blues Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... blues: Talk to your partner or a good friend about how you feel Get plenty of rest ...

  17. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... The postpartum blues The postpartum blues Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  18. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women do these things to help relieve the baby blues: Talk ... of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women do these things to help relieve the baby blues: Talk ...

  19. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... Medical experts believe that changes in the woman's hormones after delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can ... Medical experts believe that changes in the woman's hormones after delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can ...

  20. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women do ... can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women do ...

  1. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... postpartum blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  2. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Our research Research grants Prematurity research Birth defects research Infant ... postpartum blues are not pleasant, the woman can function normally. The feeling of the "blues" usually lessens ...

  3. Functional annotation of 2D protein maps: The GelMap portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter eBraun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In classical proteome analyses, final experimental data are (a images of 2D protein separations obtained by gel electrophoresis and (b corresponding lists of proteins which were identified by mass spectrometry (MS. For data annotation, software tools were developed which allow to link protein identity data directly to 2D gels (clickable gels. GelMap is a new online software tool to annotate 2D protein maps. It allows (i functional annotation of all identified proteins according to biological categories defined by the user, e.g. subcellular localization, metabolic pathway, or assignment to a protein complex and (ii annotation of several proteins per analyzed protein spot according to MS primary data. Options to differentially display proteins of functional categories offer new opportunities for data evaluation. For instance, if used for the annotation of 2D Blue native / SDS gels, GelMap allows identifying protein complexes of low abundance. A web portal has been established for presentation and evaluation of protein identity data related to 2D gels and is freely accessible at http://www.gelmap.de/.

  4. Staining Proteins in Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Sean; Chakavarti, Deb

    2008-01-01

    Following separation by electrophoretic methods, proteins in a gel can be detected by several staining methods. This unit describes protocols for detecting proteins by four popular methods. Coomassie blue staining is an easy and rapid method. Silver staining, while more time consuming, is considerably more sensitive and can thus be used to detect smaller amounts of protein. Fluorescent staining is a popular alternative to traditional staining procedures, mainly because it is more sensitive th...

  5. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day Your support helps babies We are determined to ... confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end by the tenth ...

  6. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . After ... blues" is not really correct since women with this condition are happy most of the time. But ...

  7. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... dashboard . After the baby is born, many new mothers have the postpartum blues (also called the baby ... compared to how she usually feels, the new mother: Is more irritable Cries more easily Feels sad ...

  8. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities ... baby blues: Talk to your partner or a good friend about how you feel Get plenty of ...

  9. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day World Prematurity Your support helps babies We are ... confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end by the tenth ...

  10. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses New parents Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ... your dashboard . After the baby is born, many new mothers have the postpartum blues (also called the ...

  11. Native listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Becoming a native listener is the necessary precursor to becoming a native speaker. Babies in the first year of life undertake a remarkable amount of work; by the time they begin to speak, they have perceptually mastered the phonological repertoire and phoneme co-occurrence probabilities of the native language, and they can locate familiar word-forms in novel continuous-speech contexts. The skills acquired at this early stage form a necessary part of adult listening. However, the same native ...

  12. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today. PMID:8065194

  13. Native excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syncrude Canada Ltd., operator of the oil sands mine and processing plant near Fort McMurray, Alberta, produces 11% of Canada's crude oil and is the country's largest private-sector employer of native Canadians. Syncrude has the goal of employing about 10% native Canadians, which is about the percentage of natives in the regional population. Examples are presented of successful native employment and entrepreneurship at Syncrude. Doreen Janvier, once employed at Syncrude's mine wash bays, was challenged to form her own company to contract out labor services. Her company, DJM Enterprises, now has a 2-year contract to operate three highly sophisticated wash bays used to clean mining equipment, and is looking to bid on other labor contracts. Mabel Laviolette serves as liaison between the oil containment and recovery team, who recover oil skimmed off Syncrude's tailings basin, and the area manager. The team approach and the seasonal nature of the employment fit in well with native cultural patterns. The excellence of native teamwork is also illustrated in the mine rescue team, one unit of which is entirely native Canadian. Part of Syncrude's aboriginal policy is to encourage development of aboriginal enterprises, such as native-owned Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., which has held welding and fabricating contracts with most major companies in the region and is a major supplier of skilled tradesmen to Syncrude. Syncrude also provides employment and training, encourages natives to continue their education, and promotes local community development. 4 figs

  14. Autofluorescence based visualization of proteins from unstained native-PAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, S.; Rao, Bola Sadashiva S.; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Mahato, Krishna Kishore

    2015-03-01

    Proteins are the most diverse and functionally active biomolecules in the living system. In order to understand their diversity and dynamic functionality, visualization in native form without altering structural and functional properties during the separation from the complex mixtures is very much essential. In the present study, a sensitive methodology for optimal visualization of unstained or untagged proteins in native poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis (N-PAGE) has been developed where, concentration of the acrylamide and bis-acrylamide mixture, Percentage of the gel, fixing of the N-PAGE by methanol: acetic acid: water and washing of the gel in the mili-Q water has been optimized for highest sensitivity using laser induced autofluorescence. The outcome with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in PAGE was found to be highest at acrylamide and bis-acrylamide concentrations of 29.2 and 0.8 respectively in 12% N-PAGE. After the electrophoresis run, washing of the N-PAGE immediately with miliQ water for 12 times and eliminating the methanol: acetic acid: water, fixing of the N-PAGE yielded better sensitivity of visualization. Using the above methodology 25ng of BSA protein band in PAGE was clearly identified by the technique. The currently used staining techniques for the visualization of proteins are coomassie brilliant blue and silver staining, have the sensitivity of 100ng and 5ng respectively. The current methodology was found to be more sensitive as compared to coomassie staining and less sensitive compared to silver staining respectively. The added advantage of this methodology is the faster visualization of proteins without altering their structure and functional properties.

  15. Blue Nile

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Manuel João

    2000-01-01

    The Blue Nile, whose source lies in highland Ethiopia, is known as “Al-Bahr al- Azraq” in Arabic, and as “Abbay” in Amharic. Along with the Atbara, it contributes more than 80 per cent of the Nile’s total water supply, the remainder coming mainly from the White Nile that stretches down to the Great Lakes plateau in Central Africa.

  16. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  17. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  18. Gel Mobility Shift Assays to Detect Protein–RNA Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Yakhnin, Alexander V.; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The gel mobility shift assay is a powerful technique for detecting and quantifying protein–RNA interactions. While other techniques such as filter binding and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) are available for quantifying protein–RNA interactions, gel shift analysis provides the added advantage that you can visualize the protein–RNA complexes. In the gel shift assay, protein–RNA complexes are typically separated from the unbound RNA using native polyacrylamide gels in Tris/borate/EDTA b...

  19. Research on pre-staining gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Gel electrophoresis is a powerful biochemical separation technique. Most biological molecules are completely transparent in the visible region of light, so it is necessary to use staining to show the results after gel electrophoresis, and the general steps of conventional staining methods are time-consuming. Purpose: We try to develop a novel approach to simplify the gel electrophoresis: Pre-Staining Gel Electrophoresis (PSGE), which can make the gel electrophoresis results monitored in real time. Methods: Pre-stain the protein samples with Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) for 30 min before loading the sample into the gel well. Results and Conclusion: PSGE can be successfully used to analyze the binding efficiency of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and amphiphilic polymer via chemical coupling and physical absorption, and the double PSGE also shows a great potential in bio-analytical chemistry. (authors)

  20. Effect of endophytic Bacillus cereus ERBP inoculation into non-native host: Potentials and challenges for airborne formaldehyde removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksar, Gholamreza; Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2016-10-01

    Phytoremediation could be a cost-effective, environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of indoor air. However, some drawbacks still dispute the expediency of phytotechnology. Our objectives were to investigate the competency of plant growth-promoting (PGP) endophytic Bacillus cereus ERBP (endophyte root blue pea), isolated from the root of Clitoria ternatea, to colonize and stabilize within Zamioculcas zamiifolia and Euphorbia milii as non-native hosts without causing any disease or stress symptoms. Moreover, the impact of B. cereus ERBP on the natural shoot endophytic community and for the airborne formaldehyde removal capability of non-native hosts was assessed. Non-native Z. zamiifolia was effectively inoculated with B. cereus ERBP through soil as the most efficient method of endophyte inoculation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of the shoot endophytic community verified the colonization and stability of B. cereus ERBP within its non-native host during a 20-d fumigation period without interfering with the natural shoot endophytic diversity of Z. zamiifolia. B. cereus ERBP conferred full protection to its non-native host against formaldehyde phytotoxicity and enhanced airborne formaldehyde removal of Z. zamiifolia whereas non-inoculated plants suffered from formaldehyde phytotoxicity because their natural shoot endophytic community was detrimentally affected by formaldehyde. In contrast, B. cereus ERBP inoculation into non-native E. milii deteriorated airborne formaldehyde removal of the non-native host (compared to a non-inoculated one) as B. cereus ERBP interfered with natural shoot endophytic community of E. milii, which caused stress symptoms and stimulated ethylene biosynthesis. Non-native host inoculation with PGP B. cereus ERBP could bear potentials and challenges for airborne formaldehyde removal. PMID:27362296

  1. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  2. The Blue Pony Lacrosse Program: Embracing the Spirit of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    An offshoot of a Denver, Colorado, alcohol and drug abuse prevention program, Blue Pony reclaims lacrosse as a Native American sport, and uses it to bridge tribal differences and promote cultural awareness, self-empowerment, and healthy lifestyles among urban Native American children. Discusses the game's history, a literacy program utilizing…

  3. Gypsy Sedge or Just Another Non-Native Invasive Weedy Sedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native weeds present a huge threat to agricultural and non-agricultural lands throughout the U.S.A. Blue sedge (Carex breviculmis R. Br.: Cyperaceae) is a non-native invasive weed discovered in North America in 2007. The sedge is native of Asia, Australia, and the Indian Subsontinent where it ...

  4. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  5. Efficacy observation of kecuo yintong gel combined with red blue light cure in the treatment of mild to moderate acne%克痤隐酮凝胶联合红蓝光治疗轻中度痤疮的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢道军; 谢明

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价克痤隐酮凝胶联合红蓝光治疗轻中度痤疮的临床效果及安全性。方法选择2013年1月~2015年1月在本院皮肤科就诊的116例轻中度痤疮患者,按随机数字表法分为治疗组和对照组,每组58例。两组均采用克痤隐酮凝胶外用,治疗组在此基础上加用红蓝光照射,均连用6周为1疗程。比较两组的临床疗效及不良反应。结果治疗组的总有效率为91.38%,显著高于对照组的74.14%(P0.05). Conclusion Kecuo Yintong Gel combined with red blue light cure in the treatment of mild to moderate acne is effective,less adverse reaction.It is worthy of clinic application.

  6. Polyacrylamide gel miniaturization improves protein visualization and autoradiographic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylamide gels shrink to one-quarter of their original area when soaked in a 50% (w/v) solution of polyethylene glycol. Gel miniaturization improves the contrast of protein bands, with four valuable consequences. (i) A 5- to 10-fold increase in sensitivity for Coomassie blue is observed. (ii) Gels are more durable; i.e., they resist tearing when wet and they do not crack during drying under vacuum. (iii) Shrunken gels give sharper photographic images and provide better interlane protein band comparisons. (iv) Condensed protein bands lead to an increased sensitivity for detecting low-abundance, radioactively-labeled proteins by fluorography

  7. Clinical Efficacy of Isotretinoin Erythromycin Gel Combined with Narrow Spectrum Blue/Red Light for Treating Acne and Its Impact on Quality of Life of Patients%异维A酸红霉素凝胶联合窄谱蓝/红光治疗痤疮的疗效及对患者生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石成方

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价异维 A 酸红霉素凝胶联合窄谱蓝/红光治疗痤疮的临床疗效及对患者生活质量的影响。方法选取痤疮患者60例,随机分为治疗组和对照组,各30例。对照组外用异维 A 酸红霉素凝胶治疗,治疗组采取联合窄谱蓝/红光治疗,对比疗效、起效时间、不良反应以及远期复发率。结果治疗6周后,治疗组总有效率为90.00%,明显高于对照组的53.33%( P <0.05)。治疗过程中,治疗组起效时间为(3.8±1.5)周,明显早于对照组的(4.5±1.8)周( P <0.05)。治疗后两组患者的生活质量得分均明显高于治疗前( P <0.05)。治疗组患者口干、皮肤干燥以及皮肤瘙痒等不良反应发生率明显低于对照组( P <0.05)。痊愈后随访复发率,治疗组低于对照组( P <0.05)。结论异维 A 酸红霉素凝胶联合窄谱蓝/红光治疗痤疮,可获得满意的临床效果,提高治愈率,降低不良反应发生率,改善患者长期生活质量,值得进一步推广。%Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of Isotretinoin Erythromycin Gel combined with narrow spectrum blue / red light for treating acne and its impact on the quality of life of patients. Methods 60 patients with acne were selected and randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group. The control group was treated with Isotretinoin Erythromycin Gel alone and the treatment group was given Isotretinoin Erythromycin Gel combined with the narrow spectrum blue / red light therapy. The efficacy,effect onset time,adverse re-actions and long - term recurrence rate were compared between the two groups. Results The total effective rate after 6 - week treatment was 90. 00% in the treatment group and 53. 33% in the control group,the treatment group was significantly higher than the control group with statistically significant difference between the two groups( P < 0. 05). The effect onset time of the treatment

  8. Improved Coomassie Blue Dye-Based Fast Staining Protocol for Proteins Separated by SDS-PAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Májek, Pavel; Riedelová-Reicheltová, Zuzana; Pecánková, Klára; Dyr, Jan E.

    2013-01-01

    The time required to visualize proteins using Coomassie Blue dye has been significantly reduced with the introduction of fast staining protocols based on staining with a Coomassie Blue dye solution at boiling temperatures. However, fast stainings suffer from high gel backgrounds, reducing the signal-to-noise ratio and limiting the number of detectable spots in the case of 2D SDS-PAGE. The aim of this work was to eliminate the high gel background, and thus improve fast staining protocols based...

  9. Energy dependence of radiochromic gels for low-energy photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution summarizes the results of measurement of energy dependence of two types of radiochromic gel dosimeters on low energy photon radiation between 14 and 145 keV. The energy dependence was determined for two different types of gels - a well-known Fricke infused xylenol orange ion indicator gel (FX gel) and a gel based on Turnbull blue dye (TB gel). Gel samples in PMMA cuvettes with a front wall replaced by a thin Mylar foil were irradiated at reference photon fields at the Czech Metrology Institute. Response of the irradiated gels was evaluated by UV-VIS spectrophotometry and by photographing with a 16-bit grayscale astronomical CCD camera. It was found out that the response of the TB gel is independent on photon energy down to at least 14 keV photons, while the FX gel is energy dependent for photons below roughly 50 keV (authors)

  10. Agarose gel shift assay reveals that calreticulin favors substrates with a quaternary structure in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Sanne Grundvad; Houen, Gunnar; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Here we present an agarose gel shift assay that, in contrast to other electrophoresis approaches, is loaded in the center of the gel. This allows proteins to migrate in either direction according to their isoelectric points. Therefore, the presented assay enables a direct visualization, separation......-sheets in their secondary structure. It is also demonstrated that the agarose gel shift assay is useful in the study of other protein interactions and can be used as an alternative method to native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis....

  11. Feeling blue? Blue phosphors for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hungshin Fu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs has been revitalized, partly due to the debut of the OLED TV by SONY in 2008. While there is still plenty of room for improvement in efficiency, cost-effectiveness and longevity, it is timely to report on the advances of light emitting materials, the core of OLEDs, and their future perspectives. The focus of this account is primarily to chronicle the blue phosphors developed in our laboratory. Special attention is paid to the design strategy, synthetic novelty, and their OLED performance. The report also underscores the importance of the interplay between chemistry and photophysics en route to true-blue phosphors.

  12. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lac Klamath, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Arthrospira maxima, Arthrospira platensis, BGA, Blue Green Algae, Blue-Green Micro-Algae, Cyanobacteria, Cyanobactérie, Cyanophycée, Dihe, Espirulina, Hawaiian Spirulina, Klamath, Klamath Lake Algae, Lyngbya wollei, Microcystis aeruginosa, ...

  13. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unresponsive to other treatments, taking 500 mg of spirulina blue-green algae by mouth 3 times daily for 6 months ... was seen in undernourished children who were given spirulina blue-green algae with a combination of millet, soy and peanut ...

  14. Templated blue phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnik, Miha; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2015-11-21

    Cholesteric blue phases of a chiral liquid crystal are interesting examples of self-organised three-dimensional nanostructures formed by soft matter. Recently it was demonstrated that a polymer matrix introduced by photopolymerization inside a bulk blue phase not only stabilises the host blue phase significantly, but also serves as a template for blue phase ordering. We show with numerical modelling that the transfer of the orientational order of the blue phase to the surfaces of the polymer matrix, together with the resulting surface anchoring, can account for the templating behaviour of the polymer matrix inducing the blue phase ordering of an achiral nematic liquid crystal. Furthermore, tailoring the anchoring conditions of the polymer matrix surfaces can bring about orientational ordering different from those of bulk blue phases, including an intertwined complex of the polymer matrix and topological line defects of orientational order. Optical Kerr response of templated blue phases is explored, finding large Kerr constants in the range of K = 2-10 × 10(-9) m V(-2) and notable dependence on the surface anchoring strength. More generally, the presented numerical approach is aimed to clarify the role and actions of templating polymer matrices in complex chiral nematic fluids, and further to help design novel template-based materials from chiral liquid crystals. PMID:26412643

  15. Superconductive ceramics obtained with sol gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several sol gel routes have been considered, studied and developed to produce large quantities of granulates which can be processed to obtain ceramics having good superconducting characteristics. In the considered process a mixture of commercial nitrates is atomized, at room temperature, in a solution 1:1 of Primene JMT and Benzene and a pale blue gel of the starting elements is suddently formed. The granulates obtained are free flowing, very reactive and well suited for pressing. For their intrinsic characteristics they could be very good precursors for the production of large quantities of superconductive ceramics in different forms. The precipitated gel is dried, calcinated, pressed in the form of cylindrical pellets which are sintered up to 960 degrees C. No griding or different thermal treatments are needed. The sintered material has low electric resistence, shows a clear Meissner effect and has a transition temperature of between 91 and 95 K

  16. Native Health Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APP WITH JAVASCRIPT TURNED OFF. THE NATIVE HEALTH DATABASE REQUIRES JAVASCRIPT IN ORDER TO FUNCTION. PLEASE ENTER ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Keywords Title Author Source of Publication ...

  17. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  18. Fluorescent thin gel films using organic dyes and pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Takashi, Tarao; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Nanto, Hidehito

    1997-10-01

    New organic-inorganic fluorescent thin gel films included with laser dyes or fluorescent organic pigments have been prepared for display application. The florescent dyes (benzoxazolium, pyrromethene, and rhodamine dyes) and super-fine particles of fluorescent pigments (coumarin and perylene) were successfully incorporated into thin silicate gel films prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), and methoxysilane oligomer (MTSO) under acid catalyzed hydrolysis. The blue, green, and red luminescence were observed from these thin films (thickness: 100 - 400 nm), respectively. Fluorescence spectra, fluorescent quantum yield and lifetime of thin gel films are examined. Fluorescent peaks for most of dyes and pigments used in gel films were similar to those in solution, and fluorescent lifetime for dyes and pigments used in gel films were 2.9 - 4.5 ns. Photostability of fluorescent gel films is dependent on fluorescent organic dyes and pigments used and/or silicate gel matrixes. Coumarin and perylene pigments have higher fluorescent quantum yield in gel film prepared from MTSO. The large Stokes shift was observed in fluorescent gel film using coumarin and benzoxazolium dyes. The coumarin and perylene pigments are significantly photo- stable in gel film prepared from MTSO, and photodegradation of perylene red after irradiation of 500 W Xi-lamp for 30 min is below 20%.

  19. Accent rating by native and non-native listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Wester, Mirjam; Mayo, Cassie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of listener native language with respect to talker native language on perception of degree of foreign accent in English. Listeners from native English, Finnish, German and Mandarin backgrounds rated the accentedness of native English, Finnish, German and Mandarin talkers producing a controlled set of English sentences. Results indicate that non-native listeners, like native listeners, are able to classify non-native talkers as foreign-accented, and native...

  20. Electrochemical Study of a Glucose Biosensor Based on SiO2 Sol-Gel Combined with Prussian Blue Film Modified Electrode%二氧化硅溶胶-凝胶-普鲁士蓝葡萄糖酶修饰电极的电化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛淑萍; 郭满栋

    2012-01-01

    A highly-sensitive glucose biosensor was prepared base on SiOz sol-gel combined with Prussian blue film immobilizating glucose oxidase. The electrode were used for the determination of glucose by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The response mechanism of glucose at the electrode was discussed in detail, and the kinetic parameters were calculated. The results indicated that the electrode had electrocatalytical activity to glucose in pH 6. 5 phosphate buffer. The calibration curve of glucose was linear in the range of 1. 6 X 10~6-3. 1X10"5 mol/L, with a detection limit of 1. 0 X 10~6 mol/L. The electrode remained 90% of its original response after laying 45 days and the interference from ascorbic acid and uric acid could be eliminated,thus the electrode was expected to be used as glucose biosensor.%制备了二氧化硅溶胶-凝胶-普鲁士蓝葡萄糖酶修饰电极,并用循环伏安法和差示脉冲伏安法对电极的响应机理进行了研究,计算了各种动力学参数.结果表明:该修饰电极在pH=6.5的磷酸盐缓冲溶液中对葡萄糖有明显的催化作用,其还原峰电流值和葡萄糖浓度呈良好的线性关系,线性范围为1.6×10-6~3.1×10-5 mol/L,检测限为1.0×10-6 mol/L.该修饰电极的稳定性好,45 d其响应值仍保持90%,并能有效消除抗坏血酸、尿酸等的干扰,可望用作葡萄糖传感器.

  1. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  2. Code blue: seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerth, Matthew T; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Noe, Katherine H; Sirven, Joseph I

    2011-06-01

    Eyewitnesses frequently perceive seizures as life threatening. If an event occurs on the hospital premises, a "code blue" can be called which consumes considerable resources. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of code blue calls for seizures and seizure mimickers. A retrospective review of a code blue log from 2001 through 2008 identified 50 seizure-like events, representing 5.3% of all codes. Twenty-eight (54%) occurred in inpatients; the other 22 (44%) events involved visitors or employees on the hospital premises. Eighty-six percent of the events were epileptic seizures. Seizure mimickers, particularly psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, were more common in the nonhospitalized group. Only five (17.9%) inpatients had a known diagnosis of epilepsy, compared with 17 (77.3%) of the nonhospitalized patients. This retrospective survey provides insights into how code blues are called on hospitalized versus nonhospitalized patients for seizure-like events. PMID:21546315

  3. Improving paper strength by gelation of native starch and borax in the presence of fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Shen; Xiaofan Zhou; Weibing Wu; Yuqin Ma

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts forward a novel non-ionic augmentation system, namely, gelation of native starch in the presence of borax and papermaking fibers. Native starch was blended with high concentration pulp and auxiliary agents. After pasting, the starch gel adhered onto fiber surfaces. However, an excess dosage of agents led to a rigid structure and poor gel strength. Starch became gelatinized and then cross-linked by borax and cured as an adhesive layer through the process of pressing and drying ...

  4. Comparative Study Of Native And Fructose Glycated Human Placental DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Imran; Garg, Nita; Raghushaker, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to glycate human placental DNA with Fructose and conduct a comparative study of properties of native and glycated DNA on the basis of UV spectrometry, fluorescence, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Methodology: Human placental DNA (10µg/ml) was incubated with 25mM fructose for 5, 10 and 15 days in phosphate buffer .Absorption profile and fluorescence emission spectra of native and glycated DNA samples were recorded. Native and glycated DNA was run on 0.8% a...

  5. Production of polyclonal antibodies against protein antigens purified by electroelution from SDS-polyacrylamide gel

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes the purification of insoluble or moderately soluble proteins using an electro-separation system for elution from SDS-polyacrylamide gel and the use of the purified proteins for the production of polyclonal antibodies. The proteins to be purified must be highly expressed in bacterial cells and visible in polyacrylamide gels following Coomassie Blue staining. The gel should not be stained because non-stained proteins are electroelueted much faster than fixed and stained ...

  6. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.

  7. The Blues of David Lynch

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, David

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to elaborate a typology of the color blue in the color films of David Lynch up to and including Mulholland Drive (2001). The color blue is considered alternately as light, matter or verbal language. The author studies the use, function, value and meaning of blue lighting, divided into static and flashing light, and of the blue objects in Blue Velvet (1986) and Mulholland Drive. The author shows how Lynch appropriates connotations Western culture, under the influence...

  8. Improved Performances of Polyacrylamide Gel by Addition of a New Type of Polymer: Detection of Allelic Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Korolija, Marina; Hadžija, Mirko; Pavković, Pajica; Kapitanović, Sanja; Popović Hadžija, Marijana

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve detection of heterozygous samples and loss of heterozygosity using a new type of gel polymer. A total of 60 samples of normal and tumor colon tissue were tested. Elctrophoresis of amplified loci was performed on a standard acrylamide / N,Nmethylenebisacrylamide gel, and the same gel containing Spreadex polymer, NAB (native acrylamide- bis). Standard gel displayed 36 samples of normal tissue as homozygous. Electrophoresis of the same samples ...

  9. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  10. Beyond Deep Blue

    CERN Document Server

    Newborn, Monty

    2011-01-01

    More than a decade has passed since IBM's Deep Blue computer stunned the world by defeating Garry Kasparov, the world chess champion at that time. Beyond Deep Blue tells the continuing story of the chess engine and its steady improvement. The book provides analysis of the games alongside a detailed examination of the remarkable technological progress made by the engines - asking which one is best, how good is it, and how much better can it get. Features: presents a total of 118 games, played by 17 different chess engines, collected together for the first time in a single reference; details the

  11. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  12. Sol–gel synthesis and characterization of fluoride-rich lanthanum-alumino-silicate gels doped with Ce{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 4+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshminarayana, G.; Torres, Joseph A.; Lin, Terri C. [Materials Science and Technology Division (MST-7), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Czestochowa University Technology, Armii Krajowej 19, 42-201 Czestochowa (Poland); Hehlen, Markus P., E-mail: hehlen@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division (MST-7), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Lanthanum-alumino-silicate gels with high fluorine content are synthesized. • Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is used as the fluorine source in a sol–gel process. • Thermal decomposition of TFA prevents the conversion of gels to monolithic glasses. • The Ce-doped gels show photoluminescence in the blue spectral region. - Abstract: A series of lanthanum-alumino-silicate gels doped with Ce{sup 3+} (0.5–10.0 mol%) and Ti{sup 4+} were synthesized by a sol–gel process using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as a fluorine source. The structural (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy), thermal (differential scanning calorimetry), and optical (absorption, photoluminescence, photoluminescence-excitation) properties were investigated. A high fluorine content of up to 22.3 at.% was measured in the dried gels, significantly exceeding the ⩽5 at.% fluorine content of earlier studies. The monolithic gels were transparent, amorphous, and stable up to 250–300 °C. However, the gels lost their structural integrity at temperatures above 315 °C due to the thermal decomposition of TFA. The sol–gel route using TFA as a fluorine source is therefore not a viable route for the preparation of nanostructured glass ceramics containing a high volume fraction of crystalline LnF{sub 3}. All Ce{sup 3+}-doped gels showed luminescence in the blue spectral region. Gels containing Ti{sup 4+} had an additional strong oxygen-to-metal charge transfer transition that competed with the Ce{sup 3+} optical excitation and led to overall lower emission intensity. The measured luminescence intensity of all gel compositions decreased with increasing Ce{sup 3+} concentration as a result of increased reabsorption of Ce{sup 3+} emission by other Ce{sup 3+} ions in the gel as well as energy migration among Ce{sup 3+} ions to quenching sites.

  13. A neutral branched platinum-acetylide complex possessing a tetraphenylethylene core: preparation of a luminescent organometallic gelator and its unexpected spectroscopic behaviour during sol-to-gel transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Nai-Wei; Huang, Junhai; Xu, Zheng; Sun, Dan-Dan; Wang, Cui-Hong; Xu, Lin

    2015-10-21

    A neutral branched platinum-acetylide complex TPA possessing a tetraphenylethylene core was successfully prepared, which was found to form luminescent organometallic gels in ethyl acetate. Stimulated by temperature or F(-), the reversible gel-sol transition was realized. More interestingly, TPA exhibited an unexpected blue shift of the emission during the sol-to-gel transition. PMID:26323961

  14. Building Native Nations through Native Student's Commitment to Their Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tiffany S.

    2009-01-01

    One aspect of building Native nations entails motivating American Indian/Alaska Native youth to become committed to their communities so as to sustain and move forward with the goals of American Indian/Alaska Native nations. This study determined the impact of one Native American Studies department on its Native students' life goals. Through its…

  15. GelTouch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miruchna, Viktor; Walter, Robert; Lindlbauer, David;

    2015-01-01

    We present GelTouch, a gel-based layer that can selectively transition between soft and stiff to provide tactile multi-touch feedback. It is flexible, transparent when not activated, and contains no mechanical, electromagnetic, or hydraulic components, resulting in a compact form factor (a 2mm thin...... touchscreen layer for our prototype). The activated areas can be morphed freely and continuously, without being limited to fixed, predefined shapes. GelTouch consists of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel layer which alters its viscoelasticity when activated by applying heat (>32 C). We present three different...

  16. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall S. Seright

    2003-09-01

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysis suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the

  17. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  18. Blue spectral inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Schunck, Franz E

    2008-01-01

    We reconsider the nonlinear second order Abel equation of Stewart and Lyth, which follows from a nonlinear second order slow-roll approximation. We find a new eigenvalue spectrum in the blue regime. Some of the discrete values of the spectral index n_s have consistent fits to the cumulative COBE data as well as to recent ground-base CMB experiments.

  19. The Blue Emu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  20. Synthesizing a Blue Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Vester, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this Master thesis was to determine how electronic musical instrument companies could utilize innovation strategies to add value to their products and create new business markets beyond their core. The theoretical framework was established by outlining competitive strategies suitable for adoption by electronic musical instrument companies. The Blue Ocean Strategy was compared to traditional competitive strategies such as Porter’s Five Forces, and subsequently chosen because of ...

  1. Native Americans and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the development of disease, has actually increased over time. Announcer: In the 1930s, the Pima's native diet ... disease. Rachel Peters: I knew for a long time that eventually if I didn't take care ...

  2. Native Americans and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease, the rate of the development of disease, has actually increased over time. Announcer: In the 1930s, the Pima's native diet started to change. They began eating less of the natural ...

  3. Native American Tribal Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric L.

    1999-01-01

    Lists Web sites maintained by 38 different Native American nations that deal with topics ranging from tribal history, news, arts and crafts, tourism, entertainment, and commerce. Represented nations include Apache, Blackfeet, Creek, Iroquois, Mohegan, and Sioux. (CMK)

  4. Native Americans and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the disease, the rate of the development of disease, has actually increased over time. Announcer: In the 1930s, the Pima's native diet started to change. They began eating less of the natural foods like squash, wild ...

  5. Native Americans and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... time. Announcer: In the 1930s, the Pima's native diet started to change. They began eating less of ... manage her early-stage diabetes through exercise and diet. Rachel Peters: I got to reading labels on ...

  6. Responsive Gel-Gel Phase Transitions in Artificially Engineered Protein Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, B. D.

    2012-02-01

    Artificially engineered protein hydrogels provide an attractive platform for biomedical materials due to their similarity to components of the native extracellular matrix. Engineering responsive transitions between shear-thinning and tough gel phases in these materials could potentially enable gels that are both shear-thinning and tough to be produced as novel injectable biomaterials. To engineer a gel with such transitions, a triblock copolymer with thermoresponsive polymer endblocks and an artificially engineered protein gel midblock is designed. Temperature is used to trigger a transition from a single network protein hydrogel phase to a double network phase with both protein and block copolymer networks present at different length scales. The thermodynamics of network formation and resulting structural changes are established using small-angle scattering, birefringence, and dynamic scanning calorimetry. The formation of the second network is shown to produce a large, nonlinear increase in the elastic modulus as well as enhancements in creep compliance and toughness. Although the gels show yielding behavior in both the single and double network regimes, a qualitative change in the deformation mechanism is observed due to the structural changes.

  7. Immigration and native welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel J. Felbermayr; Kohler, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    We unify two approaches towards identifying native welfare effects of immigration, one emphasizing the immigration surplus (Borjas, 1995,1999), the other identifying a welfare loss due to terms-of-trade effects (Davis & Weinstein, 2002). We decompose the native welfare effect of immigration into the standard complementarity effect, augmented by a Stolper-Samuelson effect, and a terms-of-trade effect. Using a structural model with three skill-classes we derive propositions on the wage and nati...

  8. The ancient blue oak woodlands of California: longevity and hydroclimatic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, D.W.; Griffin, R.D.; Meko, D.M.; Therrell, M.D.; Edmondson, J.R.; Cleaveland, M.K.; Burnette, D.J.; Abatzoglou, J.T.; Redmond, K.T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient blue oak trees are still widespread across the foothills of the Coast Ranges, Cascades, and Sierra Nevada in California. The most extensive tracts of intact old-growth blue oak woodland appear to survive on rugged and remote terrain in the south Coast Ranges and on the foothills west and southwest of Mt. Lassen. In our sampling of old-growth stands, most blue oak appear to have recruited to the canopy in the mid- to late-19th century. The oldest living blue oak tree sampled was over 459-years old and several dead blue oak logs had over 500 annual rings. Precipitation sensitive tree-ring chronologies up to 700-years long have been developed from old blue oak trees and logs. Annual ring-width chronologies of blue oak are strongly correlated with cool season precipitation totals, streamflow in the major rivers of California, and the estuarine water quality of San Francisco Bay. A new network of 36 blue oak chronologies records spatial anomalies in growth that arise from latitudinal changes in the mean storm track and location of landfalling atmospheric rivers. These long, climate-sensitive blue oak chronologies have been used to reconstruct hydroclimatic history in California and will help to better understand and manage water resources. The environmental history embedded in blue oak growth chronologies may help justify efforts to conserve these authentic old-growth native woodlands.

  9. The characterisation of a genipin-gelatin gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genipin cross links gelatin to slowly form a blue colour that bleaches upon irradiation. Spectrophotometric measurements of the absorbance change following irradiation to doses up to 100 Gy gives a linear dose response for certain concentrations of the gel ingredients; genipin, gelatin and sulphuric acid. Dose sensitivity increases with increasing concentrations of sulphuric acid and genipin and is also strongly dependent on the time allowed for the genipin-gelatin cross linking reaction (referred to here as blending) to take place. The optimum formulation of this gel was found for genipin concentration between 0.3 - 0.5 mM and blending time of at least 4 h.

  10. Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1996-01-01

    Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide gels, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained gels, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the gels is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated gels is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared gels, in contrast to blotting from wet stained gels, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the gel pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from complex mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.

  11. Conformance Improvement Using Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, Randall S.; Schrader, Richard; II Hagstrom, John; Wang, Ying; Al-Dahfeeri, Abdullah; Gary, Raven; Marin; Amaury; Lindquist, Brent

    2002-09-26

    This research project had two objectives. The first objective was to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective was to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil.

  12. Crystallization from Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  13. Preparation of chitosan gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerge S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerogel conditioning of the chitosan makes it possible to prepare porous solids of significant specific surface. The increase in the chitosan concentration or the degree of acetylation decreases the specific surface of the synthesized chitosan gel. Whereas drying with supercritical CO2 more effectively makes it possible to preserve the volume of the spheres of gel and to have a more significant specific surface in comparison with evaporative drying.

  14. Our Blue Gene Experience

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakl, Ondřej; Starý, Jiří

    Ostrava : Ústav geoniky AV ČR, 2009 - (Blaheta, R.; Starý, J.), s. 50-54 ISBN 978-80-86407-60-9. [SNA '09 - Seminar on numerical analysis: modelling and simulation of challenging engineering problems. Ostrava (CZ), 02.02.2009-06.02.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/09/1830 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : IBM Blue Gene/P * finite element solver * parallel scalability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  15. Estruturas fundamentais no blues

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rafael Palmeira da

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Esta pesquisa tem como objeto de estudo a aplicação e adaptação da teoria de Schenker como ferramenta analítica aplicada ao jazz, tendo em vista a possibilidade de encontrar estruturas fundamentais distintas na música popular. Tendo como base as análises feitas por Larson (1998; 2009), Forte (2011) e Stock (1993) a pesquisa abordará, em um primeiro momento, as origens do jazz (blues e ragtime) como parte essencial para sua abordagem analítica, através da ótica etno-schenkeriana propos...

  16. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-09-30

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate

  17. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Aslan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit

  18. Ultraviolet absorption detection of DNA in gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus for the detection and quantification of large fragments of unlabelled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in agarose gels is presented. The technique is based on ultra-violet (UV) absorption by nucleotides. A deuterium lamp was used to illuminate regions of an electrophoresis gel. As DNA bands passed through the illuminated region of the gel the amount of UV light transmitted was reduced due to DNA absorption. Two detection systems were investigated. In the first system, synthetic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond strip detectors were used to locate regions of DNA in the gels by detecting the transmitted light. CVD diamond has a high indirect band gap of 5.45 eV and is therefore sensitive to UV photons of wavelengths < 224 nm. A number of CVD diamond samples were characterised to investigate their suitability as detectors for this application. The detectors' quantum efficiency, UV response and time response were measured. DNA bands containing as little as 20 ng were detected by the diamond. In a second system, a deuterium lamp was used to illuminate individual sample lanes of an electrophoresis gel via an array of optical fibres. During electrophoresis the regions of DNA were detected with illumination at 260 nm, using a UV-sensitive charge coupled device (CCD). As the absorption coefficient of a DNA sample is approximately proportional to its mass, the technique is inherently quantitative. This system had a detection limit of 0.25 ng compared with 2-10 ng for the most popular conventional technique, ethidium bromide (EtBr) staining. Using this detection technique, the DNA sample remains in its native state. The removal of carcinogenic dyes from the detection procedure greatly reduces associated biological hazards. (author)

  19. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  20. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

  1. Blue tits are ultraviolet tits

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, S; Bennett, A.T.D.; Cuthill, I. C.; Griffiths, R.

    1998-01-01

    The blue tit (Parus caeruleus) has been classified as sexually monochromatic. This classification is based on human colour perception yet, unlike humans, most birds have four spectrally distinct classes of cone and are visually sensitive to wavelengths in the near-ultraviolet (300 to 400 nm). Reflectance spectrophotometry reveals that blue tit plumage shows considerable reflection of UV light. For example, the blue crest shows peak reflectance at wavelengths around 352 nm. Furthermore, the bl...

  2. Postpartum Blues and Postpartum Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem Ö et al.

    2009-01-01

    Postpartum blues which is seen during the postpartum period is a transient psychological state. Most of the mothers experience maternity blues in postpartum period. It remains usually unrecognized by the others. Some sensitive families can misattribute these feelings as depression. In this article, we tried to review the characteristics of maternity blues and its differences from depression. We defined depression and presented the incidence and diagnostic criteria, of major depression as well...

  3. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find that the...... increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability of...

  4. Review of Fricke gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The innovation of adding a gel matrix to the traditional Fricke dosimeter to stabilize geometric information established the field of gel dosimetry for radiation therapy. A discussion of Fricke gels provides an overview of the issues that determine the dose response of all gel dosimeters in general. In this paper we review some of the features of Fricke systems to illustrate these issues and, in addition, to motivate renewed clinical interest in Fricke gels

  5. Design of Autonomous Gel Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Shuji Hashimoto; Shingo Maeda; Yusuke Hara; Satoshi Nakamaru

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce autonomous gel actuators driven by chemical energy. The polymer gels prepared here have cyclic chemical reaction networks. With a cyclic reaction, the polymer gels generate periodical motion. The periodic motion of the gel is produced by the chemical energy of the oscillatory Belouzov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. We have succeeded in making synthetic polymer gel move autonomously like a living organism. This experimental fact represents the great possibility of the c...

  6. Design of Autonomous Gel Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Hashimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce autonomous gel actuators driven by chemical energy. The polymer gels prepared here have cyclic chemical reaction networks. With a cyclic reaction, the polymer gels generate periodical motion. The periodic motion of the gel is produced by the chemical energy of the oscillatory Belouzov-Zhabotinsky (BZ reaction. We have succeeded in making synthetic polymer gel move autonomously like a living organism. This experimental fact represents the great possibility of the chemical robot.

  7. 3D gel map of Arabidopsis complex I

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin ePeters; Katharina eBelt; Hans-Peter eBraun

    2013-01-01

    Complex I has a unique structure in plants and includes extra subunits. Here, we present a novel study to define its protein constituents. Mitochondria were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures, leaves and roots. Subunits of complex I were resolved by 3D blue native (BN)/SDS/SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. Overall, 55 distinct proteins were found, 7 of which occur in pairs of isoforms. We present evidence that Arabidopsis complex I consists of 49 distinct types of su...

  8. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    OpenAIRE

    Clare Aslan; Marcel Rejmanek

    2012-01-01

    Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The impor...

  9. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  10. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  11. Native Indian Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Felicity

    1988-01-01

    Identifies valued qualities and behaviors of Indian leaders through a literature review and unstructured interviews with three British Columbian tribal elders. Develops a model of Native leadership emphasizing connection to the people, wisdom, humility, personal integrity, service orientation, and the facilitator role. Contains 22 references. (SV)

  12. Gel-silica science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sol-gel techniques can be used to produce two new types of optical silicas, termed Type V for the full density material and Type VI for the optically transparent porous material. This paper summarizes the processing differences between these six types of commercial silicas. The primary emphasis of this paper is to discuss the scientific basis for the processing of Types V and VI optical silica. First, however, the use of sol-gel processing of other systems will be briefly reviewed. The controlled hydrolysis of alkoxides has also been used to produce submicrometer TiO2, doped TiO2 (17), ZrO2 (18), doped ZrO2 (18), doped SiO2 (19), SrTiO3 (20), and corderite (20) powders. Emulsions have been employed to produce spherical powders of mixed cation oxides, such as yttrium aluminum garnets (YAG) and many other systems (20). Sol-gel powder processes have also been applied to fissile elements (21) where spray form sols UO2, and rigid gel spheres of UO-PuO2 are formed during passage through a column of heated liquid. Both crystalline and vitreous ceramic fibers have been prepared using the sol-gel method. Compositions include TiO2-SiO2 and ZrO2-SiO2 glass fibers (22), high purity SiO2 waveguide fibers (23), Al2O3, ZrO2, ThO2, MgO, TiO2, ZrSiO4, 3AlO3-2SiO2 fibers (24). Sol-gel derived alumina grains are important commercial products (25)

  13. Highly concentrated zinc oxide nanocrystals sol with strong blue emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vafaee, M. [Solid State Lasers Research Group, Laser and Optics Research School, NSTRI, 11365-8486 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sasani Ghamsari, M., E-mail: msghamsari@yahoo.co [Solid State Lasers Research Group, Laser and Optics Research School, NSTRI, 11365-8486 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Radiman, S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    Highly concentrated ZnO sol was synthesized by an improved sol-gel method. Water was used as a modifier to control the sol-gel reaction and provide a way to increase the sol concentration. Concentration of ZnO in the prepared sol is higher than from other methods. Optical absorption and photoluminescence were used to investigate optical properties of the prepared sol. FTIR test was performed to study the influence of water on the compounds of as-prepared sol. The size and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles have been studied by HRTEM. The prepared colloidal ZnO nanocrystals have narrow size distribution (5-8 nm) and showed strong blue emission. The prepared sol has enough potential for optoelectronic applications. - Research highlights: {yields} Novel sol-gel route has been employed to prepare highly concentrated ZnO colloidal nanocrystals. {yields} Water has been used to control the sources of emission in synthesized material. {yields} A strong blue luminescent material has been obtained.

  14. Genetic diversity populations of the blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria) in eastern and western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria) is a native pollinator that is an excellent candidate to supplement the honeybee in agricultural settings. Genetic diversity of wild-caught bees from several locations in eastern and western USA is being measured with mitochondrial and nuclear DNA segments. Ther...

  15. Genetic diversity in populations of the blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria) is a native pollinator that is an excellent candidate to supplement the honeybee in agricultural settings. Genetic diversity of wild-caught bees from several locations in eastern and western USA is being measured across multiple mitochondrial and nuclear DNA seg...

  16. Conjuring the Colonizer: Alternative Readings of Magic Realism in Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues" has inspired both admiration and castigation. Critics such as Stephen Evans, Adrian C. Louis, Joseph Coulombe, and James Cox have praised Alexie's satiric upending of stereotypes about Native Americans, claiming that Alexie's work "uses stereotypes...of the...Indian, in new and entirely moral and ethical ways."…

  17. Use of Autologous Platelet Gel in Bariatric Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Chad; Vang, See; Christensen, Kevin; Isler, Jack; Vollstedt, Keith; Holt, David

    2006-01-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is a common corrective procedure for obesity that is associated with many risks. Recent studies describing the use of autologous platelet gel (APG) have shown promise in preventing certain operative complications and improved healing processes. These improvements have been credited to the concentrated platelets and growth factors present in APG, as well as the native concentrations of fibrinogen. There are numerous applications for the use of APG in surgery, and the lis...

  18. Intelligibility of native and non-native Dutch Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van

    2001-01-01

    The intelligibility of speech is known to be lower if the speaker is non-native instead of native for the given language. This study is aimed at quantifying the overall degradation due to limitations of non-native speakers of Dutch, specifically of Dutch-speaking Americans who have lived in the Neth

  19. Speech intelligibility of native and non-native speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The intelligibility of speech is known to be lower if the talker is non-native instead of native for the given language. This study is aimed at quantifying the overall degradation due to acoustic-phonetic limitations of non-native talkers of Dutch, specifically of Dutch-speaking Americans who have l

  20. Improving paper strength by gelation of native starch and borax in the presence of fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a novel non-ionic augmentation system, namely, gelation of native starch in the presence of borax and papermaking fibers. Native starch was blended with high concentration pulp and auxiliary agents. After pasting, the starch gel adhered onto fiber surfaces. However, an excess dosage of agents led to a rigid structure and poor gel strength. Starch became gelatinized and then cross-linked by borax and cured as an adhesive layer through the process of pressing and drying under a high temperature. This provided close and uniform contact between starch and fibers. As a result, the strength of the paper was increased after forming.

  1. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  2. Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — NPAM is a framework for guiding annual decisions about the management of Service‐owned native prairie parcels that are prone to invasions by non‐native grasses,...

  3. Skin toxicity determined in vitro by three-dimensional, native-state histoculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, L N; Margolis, L B; Hoffman, R M

    1991-01-01

    We describe a gel-supported in vitro system for culturing skin samples in a three-dimensional native state. All the cell types of skin remain viable and maintain their native architecture for at least 10 days. The culture system is used for toxicity measurements by ascertaining cell viability using two fluorescent dyes: 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and -6)carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester, specific for living cells, and propidium iodide, specific for dead cells. Cell staining with the d...

  4. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  5. Who Stole Native American Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Native American Studies has failed to develop into an academic discipline because of the continued influence of postcolonial theories, attempts to discredit Native American scholars, politically determined research agendas, and the ideology of the "New Historicism." Native American Studies must seek autonomy from other opportunistic epistemologies…

  6. Tm3+ activated lanthanum phosphate: a blue PDP phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma display panels (PDPs) are gaining attention due to their high performance and scalability as a medium for large format TVs. The performance and life of a PDP strongly depends upon the nature of phosphors. Currently, Eu2+ activated barium magnesium aluminate (BAM) is being used as a blue component. Because of its low life, efforts are being made to explore new blue emitting phosphors. One of the alternatives to BAM is Tm3+ activated lanthanum phosphate (LPTM) phosphor. LPTM phosphor samples are prepared by a solid-state as well as sol-gel process in presence of flux. The phosphor of the present investigation, having uniform and spherical shape particles in the range of 0.1-2 μm, is appropriate for thin phosphor screens required for PDP applications. It exhibits a narrow band emission in the blue region, peaking at 452 nm and also a number of narrow bands in the UV region when excited by 147 and 173 nm radiation from a xenon gas mixture. Various possible transitions responsible for UV and visible emission from Tm3+ ion are presented. These phosphors also exhibit good color saturation and better stability when excited with VUV radiation. To achieve higher brightness, they are blended with other UV excited blue emitting phosphors such as BAM. Results related to morphology, excitation, after glow decay, emission and degradation of these phosphors in the powder form as well as in plasma display panels are presented and discussed

  7. Blue-sky thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global environmental problems - such as the greenhouse effect, the depletion of natural resources and the accumulation of wastes - have been recognized as common international issues affecting humanity since the 1990s. Sustainable development on a global scale is now sought, for instance, with the establishment of the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, and with the adoption of the Declaration on Sustainable Development at the 2002 Johannesburg Summit. Honda launched the slogan 'Blue Sky for Children' in the 1960s when environmental pollution became a highly visible issue. During that decade we started an aggressive approach aimed at substantial environmental improvement, and unveiled the Compound Vortex Controlled Combustion (CVCC) engine - which used unique low-emission technology - in the United States and Japan. Since then, we have developed the Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electric Control System (VTEC) and the i-VTEC series with innovative engine technology, permitting global production of vehicles that combine high performance with state-of-the-art low-emission technologies. And we continued to work to preserve the global environment by releasing a hybrid vehicle, the Insight, which achieved the most efficient fuel consumption in the world at the time of its introduction in 1998

  8. Photoluminescence of sol-gel-prepared hafnia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiisk, Valter, E-mail: kiisk@ut.e [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia Str. 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Lange, Sven; Utt, Kathriin; Taette, Tanel; Maendar, Hugo; Sildos, Ilmo [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia Str. 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2010-01-15

    We employed a sol-gel route followed by a thermal treatment (up to 1000 deg. C) to prepare crystalline (monoclinic) hafnium dioxide. Thorough steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence characterization of the material within the temperature range of 10-300 K was conducted by using various excitation sources. The most prominent spectroscopic feature of the material was an intense broad emission band centered at 2.3-2.5 eV with an associated excitation band centered at 4.2-4.4 eV (well below the bandgap of monoclinic hafnia). The emission was characterized by an essentially non-exponential, thermally stimulated decay and exposed a marked blue shift with the increase of temperature from 10 to 300 K. Relation of the emission to the intrinsic defects of hafnia is discussed.

  9. Blue Angel for green electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher-Tiedemann, C.; Jacobs, B. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The Blue Angel was the first eco-label worldwide. It has been in existence for 26 years. For the last 12 years, modern electronic office and communications equipment has been among the products that are eligible for award of the Blue Angel. The Blue Angel eco-label is an important element of integrated product policy and is aimed towards environmentally sound product design. In addition, health aspects are increasingly being taken into account in criteria development. The use of the label gives innovative companies better market opportunities for products so labelled. For consumers and for purchasers in businesses and public administrations, it gives valuable guidance for product purchase. (orig.)

  10. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  11. Sequencing of proteins from two-dimensional gels by using in situ digestion and transfer of peptides to polyvinylidene difluoride membranes: application to proteins associated with sensitization in Aplysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, T. E.; Gawinowicz, M A; Barzilai, A; Kandel, E R; Sweatt, J D

    1988-01-01

    We have developed a method for obtaining partial internal amino acid sequence data from proteins isolated directly from preparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Proteins from a crude cell homogenate are separated using preparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Then, the gel is stained with Coomassie blue and the protein spots of interest are cut out. The in situ protein is digested with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease in a second polyacrylamide gel and the pept...

  12. Neuropsychological performance of native versus non-native English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Jason E; Wendell, Carrington R; Spencer, Robert J; Waldstein, Shari R

    2012-11-01

    Relatively little is known about differences in English-administered, clinical neuropsychological test performance between native versus non-native English speakers, with prior literature yielding mixed findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of native and non-native English speakers with similar age and educational backgrounds on a variety of cognitive tests. Participants were 153 university students (115 native and 38 non-native English speakers) who completed a neuropsychological battery during two testing sessions. Multiple regression analyses examined relations of native language to cognitive performance after adjustment for age, education, sex, and depressive symptomatology. Results showed that native English speakers outperformed non-native English speakers on several language-mediated tasks-Letter and Category Fluency and the Cognitive Estimation Test-as well as Trails A (p's executive functions, perceptuo-motor speed, verbal memory, and visuospatial abilities. These results suggest that non-native English language may have a negative influence predominantly on language-dependent tasks. PMID:22985952

  13. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  14. Linear electrochemical gel actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shailesh; McAdam, C. John; Hanton, Lyall R.; Moratti, Stephen C.

    2012-04-01

    By using electroactive monomers it is possible to produce gels that respond to oxidation or reduction by swelling and deswelling in the presence of solvent. By the inclusion of an appropriate biasing element such as a spring, it is possible to produce linear, reversible actuation. The process can be driven electrochemically in a standard cell, with driving voltages under +/- 1 V. For many systems, the intrinsic conductivity of the gel, leading to poor or no performance. This can be overcome by blending conductive carbon nanotubes at 1% concentration, which give reasonable conductivity without affecting mechanical performance. Extensions of up to 40% are possible, against an external pressure of 30 kPa. The process is slow, taking up to 160 minutes per cycle due to slow ionic diffusion. The electrochemical cell can be cycled many times without degradation.

  15. Evolutionary history inferred from the de novo assembly of a nonmodel organism, the blue-eyed black lemur

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Wynn K.; Venkat, Aarti; Kermany, Amir R.; van de Geijn, Bryce; Zhang, Sidi; Przeworski, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Lemurs, the living primates most distantly related to humans, demonstrate incredible diversity in behaviour, life history patterns and adaptive traits. Although many lemur species are endangered within their native Madagascar, there is no high-quality genome assembly from this taxon, limiting population and conservation genetic studies. One critically endangered lemur is the blue-eyed black lemur Eulemur flavifrons. This species is fixed for blue irises, a convergent trait that evolved at lea...

  16. Improved method for silver staining of glycoproteins in thin sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Poulsen, J H

    1995-01-01

    A method for detection of glycoproteins in thin sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels was developed by a combination of (i) initial periodic acid oxidation/Alcian blue staining and (ii) subsequent staining with silver nitrate. The procedure allowed detection of as little as 1.6 ng of alpha 1...

  17. MAGIC Gel Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifflin, Rachel; Shahnazi, Kambiz; Jesseph, Rick

    2008-10-01

    Proton therapy has proven a very successful tool in treating certain tumors, but a three dimensional view of this fact has not yet been clearly demonstrated. In this experiment we have used MAGIC (Methacrylic and Ascorbic Acid in Gelatin Initiated by Copper) gel to represent brain tissue and gone through normal treatment planning for an Acoustic Neuroma to show the three dimensional dose distributions associated with such a tumor.

  18. The Gel Generator option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a national policy for guaranteeing an ample supply of 99mTc to nuclear medicine, involves issues which go beyond the means by which radioactivation is achieved. Indeed, in such an exercise the pragmatic dictates of business and the sensitivities of politics must also be taken into account. Furthermore where a preference towards the nuclear reactor or the potential of cyclotrons is being questioned, the debate is incomplete if the only options that are considered are the fission-based 99Mo generator versus the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc. There is a third option (also neutron γ-based), an alternative to the fission 99Mo generator, which ought not be overlooked. The application of low specific activity (n,γ) 99Mo to a new type of generator, the Gel Generator, has been the focus of much research, particularly in Australia and more recently in China. After the initial concept had been established in the laboratory, the Australian researchers then undertook a comprehensive program of tests on the Gel Generator to assess its potential, either in the clinical laboratory or the centralised radiopharmacy, for supplying 99mTc suitable for nuclear medicine. The outcome of this program was a clear indication that the Gel Generator innovation had the capability to provide both technical and economic advantages to the nuclear medicine industry. These advantages are described. Since that time the Gel Generator has been selected for routine use in China where it now satisfies more than 30% of the 99mTc demand. (author)

  19. Aprotic gel polymer electrolytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Sedlaříková, M.; Krejza, O.

    Brno : University of Technology Brno, 2008, s. 71-72. ISBN 978-80-214-3659-6. [International Conference Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /9./. Brno (CZ), 29.06.2008-03.07.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/06/1471; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB208130604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : gel polymer electrolytes Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  20. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew; Stel, André; Thurik, Roy

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increasing profits. The authors conclude that the blue-ocean strategy or innovation approach is sustainable.

  1. Fatal proventricular dilatation disease in captive native psittacines in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatti, Rogério Venâncio; Resende, Maurício; Ferreira, Francisco Carlos Júnior; Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ecco, Roselene; Shivaprasad, H L; de Resende, José Sérgio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a fatal inflammatory disease of psittacines (Aves: Psittaciformes), is described in native Brazilian psittacines. Twenty captive psittacines that died of suspected PDD were necropsied and 10 were submitted to histopathology, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for avian bornavirus (ABV). Examined species were one pileated parrot (Pionopsitta pileata), three vinaceous-breasted parrots (Amazona vinacea), two blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana), one scarlet macaw (Ara macao), one chestnut-fronted macaw (Ara severa), one scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani), and one red-browed Amazon parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha). Gross examination and histopathology revealed typical PDD lesions in all birds. The presence of ABV was confirmed in four psittacines including one red-browed Amazon parrot, one blue-winged macaw, one scarlet macaw, and one chestnut-fronted macaw. In the red-browed Amazon parrot and in one blue-winged macaw, IHC demonstrated ABV antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in various organs. This is the first description of PDD by ABV in Brazilian psittacines and indicates the necessity for adopting a strategic control plan for reducing its impact in native birds. PMID:24758135

  2. The Impact of Immigration on the Local Labor Market Outcomes of Blue Collar Workers: Panel Data Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, J.; VERDUGO, G.

    2015-01-01

    Using a large administrative French panel data set for 1976-2007, we examine how low- educated immigration affects the wages, employment, occupations and locations of blue-collar native workers. The natives in the sample are initially in occupations heterogeneous in the presence of immigrants, which might reflect a different degree of competition with low-educated immigrants. We first show that larger immigration inflows into locations are accompanied by larger outflows of negatively selected...

  3. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  4. Primer registro del Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae como huésped nativo primario de Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae First record of Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae as primary native host of Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Cimicidae: Hemiptera: Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L Carpintero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta como huésped primario nativo de la chinche Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae al Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Su presencia en la provincia del Chaco constituye además un nuevo registro distribucional de esta chinche en la República Argentina. Se agrega una breve discusión acerca de la taxonomía de la misma y se comparan algunos parámetros poblacionales con los de otras especies de cimícidos. Finalmente, se discuten las vías de infestación posibles en el estado actual de conocimiento, incluyendo otras aves (Furnariidae y murciélagos (Chiroptera.The primary natural host of cimicid bug Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae is presented as Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Its presence in the Chaco province is also a new distributional record of this bug in Argentina. A brief discussion about the taxonomy is also given and some population parameters are compared with those of other bug species. Finally, we discuss possible infestation ways in the current state of knowledge, including other birds (Furnariidae and bats (Chiroptera.

  5. Radiotherapy gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    shapes and sizes while sparing normal tissue. The situation is further complicated if the normal tissues are critical organs or are particularly sensitive to radiation. Radiotherapy techniques employed to obtain a closer conformation of the dose distribution to the tumour volume are referred to as conformal radiotherapy techniques. The clinical implementation of conformal therapy has been delayed by limitations in the verification of conformal dose distributions calculated by treatment planning systems prior to the irradiation of the patient and the verification of complex treatments during its delivery to the patient. There are several aspects of conformal therapy that complicate dose verification. To achieve the dose distributions conforming to complex 3D volumes, high dose gradients arise in the treatment volume. Further, overdose or underdose regions can exist when separate radiation fields are used to deliver additional radiation. These aspects require that practical dose measurement (dosimetry) techniques be able to integrate dose over time and easily measure dose distributions in 3D with high spatial resolution. Traditional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiographic film do not fulfil these requirements. Novel gel dosimetry techniques are being developed in which dose distributions can potentially be determined in vitro in 3D using anthropomorphic phantoms to simulate a clinically irradiated situation. As long ago as the 1950's, radiation-induced colour change in dyes was used to investigate radiation doses in gels. It was subsequently shown that radiation induced changes in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation properties of gels infused with conventional Fricke dosimetry solutions could be measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In Fricke gels, Fe2+ ions in ferrous sulphate solutions are usually dispersed throughout a gelatin, agarose or PVA matrix. Radiation-induced changes in the dosimeters are considered to

  6. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. PMID:21426342

  7. Purification of Titania Gels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějová, Lenka; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Klusoň, P.; Benada, Oldřich; Matěj, Z.; Šolcová, Olga

    Bratislava : Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering, 2008 - (Markoš, J.), s. 166 ISBN 978-80-227-2903-1. [35th International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 26.05.2008-30.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA AV ČR IAA4072404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : sol-gel * TiO2 powder * supercritic fluid extraction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  8. Native Plants, Native Knowledge: Insights from Judy Bluehorse Skelton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bracken

    2003-01-01

    Judy Bluehorse Skelton is an herbalist of Native American descent who conducts field trips to identify plants and classroom activities to demonstrate their uses. She also works with Portland (Oregon) schools developing culturally appropriate strategies for presenting Native American content. She encourages students to look at events such as the…

  9. Gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan nano gels as potential drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to produce, characterize and assess the potential of gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan nano gels for drug delivery system. The carboxy methylation of κ-carrageenan was carried out in 2 propanol, activated with appropriate amount of 16N sodium hydroxide and reacted with monochloroacetic acid as etherifying agent. The carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan was further subjected to gamma-irradiation followed by the formation of nano gels. In this study, nano gels were prepared from gamma irradiated carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan encapsulating a model redox indicator (methylene blue, neutral, with a pH range of 6.0-7.6), using reverse microemulsions combined with thermally induced gelation. Nano gels were characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Differential Thermal Analysis. In vitro drug loading and in vitro drug release studies were done. It was found that gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan has the potential for drug delivery system, prolonged release in particular. Furthermore, it was proven that the loading capacity,as well as the amount of drug release, increases with the dose of gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan nano gels. No significant interaction effect was seen among the different dose of gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan nano gels; a significant increase in the methylene blue release was observed with time. (author)

  10. Methylene blue related sterile endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A K E; Ulagantheran V, V; Siow, Y C; Lim, K S

    2008-08-01

    To report a case of methylene blue related endophthalmitis. Observational case report. Review of clinical record, photographs. A 60 year old man developed endophthalmitis after methylene blue was accidentally used to stain the anterior capsule during phacoemulsification of cataract. His left visual acuity deteriorated from 6/12 to 6/36 two weeks after the operation. Despite intensive treatment with topical and intravitreal antibiotics, his condition deteriorated. A vitrectomy and silicone oil injection eventually managed to control the progression of the disease and salvage the eye. However the visual outcome remained poor due to corneal decompensation and retinal ischemia. Both vitreous tap and vitreous biopsy were negative for any organism. Methylene blue is extremely toxic to ocular structures and should not be used intraocularly. PMID:19248701

  11. Why Do Proteins Glow Blue?

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Sohini; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band structure of proteins with the optical band-gap in the visible region is possibly the origin of this phenomenon. We show here that the band structure of proteins is primarily the result of electron delocalization through the peptide chain, rather than through the hydrogen bond network in secondary structure.

  12. Capillary fracture of soft gels

    OpenAIRE

    Bostwick, Joshua B.; Daniels, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact-line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize i) the initiation process in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus and ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propaga...

  13. THE PROPERTIES OF CARRAGEENAN GELS

    OpenAIRE

    Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V., Chernyaev S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies on the functional properties of carrageenan, depending on the concentration of sodium chloride and xanthan in gels. It is established that the main factors in the syneresis of carrageenan gels are its concentration, the presence of ions and gums in solution. If using sodium chloride there is a change in the structure of mesh of the resulting gel, which leads to an increase in syneresis.

  14. THE PROPERTIES OF CARRAGEENAN GELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V., Chernyaev S.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the functional properties of carrageenan, depending on the concentration of sodium chloride and xanthan in gels. It is established that the main factors in the syneresis of carrageenan gels are its concentration, the presence of ions and gums in solution. If using sodium chloride there is a change in the structure of mesh of the resulting gel, which leads to an increase in syneresis.

  15. Colloidal thermoresponsive gel forming hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruixue; Tirelli, Nicola; Cellesi, Francesco; Saunders, Brian R

    2010-09-15

    Colloidal hybrids comprise organic and inorganic components and are attracting considerable attention in the literature. Recently, we reported hybrid anisotropic microsheets that formed thermoresponsive gels in polymer solutions [Liu et al., Langmuir, 25, 490, 2009]. Here, we investigate the composition and properties of these hybrid colloids themselves in detail for the first time. Three different cationic PNIPAm (N-isopropylacrylamide) graft copolymers and two inorganic nanoparticle types (laponite and Ludox silica) were used to prepare a range of hybrids. Anisotropic microsheets only formed when laponite particles were added to the copolymer implying directed self-assembly. Aqueous dispersions of the microsheets spontaneously formed gels at room temperature and these gels were thermoresponsive. They represent a new class of gel forming colloid and are termed thermoresponsive gel forming hybrids. The compositions of the hybrids were determined from thermogravimetric analysis and those that gave gel forming behaviour identified. Variable-temperature rheology experiments showed that the elasticity of the gels increased linearly with temperature. The reversibility of the thermally-triggered changes in gel elasticity was investigated. The concentration dependence of the rheology data was well described by elastic percolation scaling theory and the data could be collapsed onto a master curve. The concentration exponent for the elastic modulus was 2.5. The strong attractive interactions that exist between the dispersed gel forming hybrids was demonstrated by the formation of stable thermoresponsive hybrid hydrogels through casting of hybrid dispersions. PMID:20561633

  16. The blue-collar brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  17. Coyote's Eyes: Native Cognition Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafoya, Terry

    The document compares and contrasts the Standard Average European (SAE) and the Standard Native American (SNA) viewpoints with regard to fostering cognitive development in children. One basic difference is demonstrated by relating a story and noting that, in terms of Native American cognitive development, no further teaching would be done. In…

  18. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  19. Photoluminescence of titanium-doped zinc spinel blue-emitting nanophosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A blue-emitting phosphor of titanium-doped zinc spinel (ZnAl2O4:Ti; Ti=0–6.0 mol% in relation to Al) nanopowders was prepared by a simple sol–gel method. On annealing at 1000 °C, single-phase ZnAl2O4:Ti powders had primary particles of 25–30 nm in size and most Ti ions in the form of Ti4+. Under UV excitation at 280 nm, a strong and broad blue emission centered at 435 nm was observed. The sources of the excitation and emission were assigned to the charge-transfer excitation and recombination between O2––Ti4+ and Ti3+–O– ion pairs. Optimum brightness occurred at a doping of 2.0 mol% Ti. The decay lifetime of ZnAl2O4:2%Ti was calculated to be 3.0 ms for the blue emission with CIE coordinates of x=0.168 and y=0.153. The results suggest that ZnAl2O4:Ti is a promising candidate for application as a blue component phosphor for UV-converting white light-emitting diodes. - Graphical abstract: The absorption band around 270 nm is associated with the charge-transfer processes between octahedral Ti4+ and O2− ions. The excitation band around 280 nm corresponds to the charge-transfer excitations from O2–(2p)6 electrons to Ti4+ (3d0). Under 280 nm excitation, the PL spectrum shows a strong blue emission with a peak at around 435 nm. - Highlights: • Single-phase ZnAl2O4:Ti nanocrystals have been synthesized by a sol–gel process. • Under UV excitation at 280 nm, the blue emission centered at 435 nm is observed. • Blue emission is attributed to a charge-transfer transition involving the Ti4+ ions

  20. Structure and kinetics of chemically cross-linked protein gels from small-angle X-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kaieda, Shuji; Halle, Bertil

    2014-01-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GA) reacts with amino groups in proteins, forming intermolecular cross-links that, at sufficiently high protein concentration, can transform a protein solution into a gel. Although GA has been used as a cross-linking reagent for decades, neither the cross-linking chemistry nor the microstructure of the resulting protein gel have been clearly established. Here we use small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to characterise the microstructure and structural kinetics of gels formed by cross-linking of pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, myoglobin or intestinal fatty acid-binding protein. By comparing the scattering from gels and dilute solutions, we extract the structure factor and the pair correlation function of the gel. The protein gels are spatially heterogeneous, with dense clusters linked by sparse networks. Within the clusters, adjacent protein molecules are almost in contact, but the protein concentration in the cluster is much lower than in a crystal. At the $\\sim$ 1 nm SAXS resolution, the native ...

  1. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of intracellular proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since two-dimensional electrophoresis was established by O'Farrell for analysis of intracellular proteins of Escherichia coli, it has been applied to separation of proteins of animal cells and tissues, and especially to identification of stress proteins. Using this technique, proteins are separated by isoelectric focusing containing 8 m urea in the first dimension and by SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. The gels are stained with Coomassie Blue R-250 dye, followed by silver staining. In the case of radio-labeled proteins, the gels are dried and then autoradiographed. In order to identify a specific protein separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, a technique determining the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein has been developed recently. After the proteins in the gel were electrotransferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane, the membrane was stained for protein with Commassie Blue and a stained membrane fragment was applied to a protein sequencer. Our recent studies demonstrated that fish cells newly synthesized various proteins in response to heat shock, cold nd osmotic stresses. For example, when cellular proteins extracted from cold-treated rainbow trout cells were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the 70 kDa protein was found to be synthesized during the cold-treatment. N-Terminal sequence analysis showed that the cold-inducible protein was a homolog of mammalian valosin-containing protein and yeast cell division cycle gene product CDC48p. Furthermore, the sequence data were useful for preparing PCR primers and a rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide to analyze a role for the protein in the function of trout cells and mechanisms for regulation

  2. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  3. Antimicrobial Graft Copolymer Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Amanda C; Madsen, Jeppe; Douglas, C W Ian; MacNeil, Sheila; Armes, Steven P

    2016-08-01

    In view of the growing worldwide rise in microbial resistance, there is considerable interest in designing new antimicrobial copolymers. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial activity and copolymer composition/architecture to gain a better understanding of their mechanism of action. Specifically, the antibacterial activity of several copolymers based on 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine [MPC] and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) toward Staphylococcus aureus was examined. Both block and graft copolymers were synthesized using either atom transfer radical polymerization or reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and characterized via (1)H NMR, gel permeation chromatography, rheology, and surface tensiometry. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using a range of well-known assays, including direct contact, live/dead staining, and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), while transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the bacteria before and after the addition of various copolymers. As expected, PMPC homopolymer was biocompatible but possessed no discernible antimicrobial activity. PMPC-based graft copolymers comprising PHPMA side chains (i.e. PMPC-g-PHPMA) significantly reduced both bacterial growth and viability. In contrast, a PMPC-PHPMA diblock copolymer comprising a PMPC stabilizer block and a hydrophobic core-forming PHPMA block did not exhibit any antimicrobial activity, although it did form a biocompatible worm gel. Surface tensiometry studies and LDH release assays suggest that the PMPC-g-PHPMA graft copolymer exhibits surfactant-like activity. Thus, the observed antimicrobial activity is likely to be the result of the weakly hydrophobic PHPMA chains penetrating (and hence rupturing) the bacterial membrane. PMID:27409712

  4. Rheology and structure of milk protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Visschers, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on gel formation and rheology of milk gels are reviewed. A distinction is made between gels formed by aggregated casein, gels of `pure` whey proteins and gels in which both casein and whey proteins contribute to their properties. For casein' whey protein mixtures, it has been shown th

  5. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Melissa A.; Klimov, Victor L.

    2012-06-12

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites

  6. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Melissa A.; Klimov, Victor L.

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  7. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng

    2016-05-18

    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed. PMID:26952168

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D ISORDERS A MONG N ATIVE A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and ... share is alcohol problems and other health disparities. Native American populations experience significant health issues compared with the ...

  9. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native Spotlight ACA Infographic for American Indians/ ... Program Circle of Life multimedia youth education program American Indian/Alaska Native Profile Great Plains Area Alaska Area ...

  10. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  11. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  12. Pseudomonas fluorescens in dairy products: a new case of blue mozzarella in Sardinia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nogarol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Following a case of blue mozzarella occurred in Sardinia region, 14 isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens have been isolated. Data analysis of pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis profiles allowed to divide the isolates in two different clades, genetically unrelated. The presence of these two strains, deriving from nearby productions, confirmed the high diffusion of this microorganism. Multiples contamination sources (raw materials, processing surfaces and water supply made this specie one of the most relevant of the dairy productions chain.

  13. How native-like is non-native language processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald; Felser, Claudia

    2006-12-01

    Following several decades of research on native language (L1) processing, psycholinguists have more recently begun to investigate how non-native language (L2) speakers comprehend and process language in real time. Regarding the traditional assumption that L2 learners have 'difficulty with grammar', this new research has revealed some unexpected similarities and differences between L1 and L2 processing. Specifically, it appears that L2 processing can become native-like in some linguistic subdomains (including certain aspects of grammar) but that L1 and L2 processing differences persist in the domain of complex syntax, even in highly proficient L2 speakers. Thus, more subtle linguistic distinctions seem to be required to understand the nature of non-native language processing. PMID:17071131

  14. The Rise of native advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.

  15. Flavour production of Stilton blue cheese microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    In the blue cheese Stilton the starter mould Penicillium roqueforti grows and sporulates during the ripening period and is considered to be responsible for the unique blue cheese aroma. However, the sporulation of the mould, which results in the formation of blue veins, takes place in a fraction of the Stilton matrix which overall is very heterogeneous. Most blue cheeses develop a secondary microflora of yeasts which may affect their aroma. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast f...

  16. A Novel Method for Detection of Glycoproteins on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Using Radio-Iodinated Tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Draz, Hossam M.; Dole, Anita;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel method for detection of glycoproteins on polyacrylamide gel. In this method, radio-iodinated-tyrosine (125I-tyrosine) was conjugated to glycoprotein by schiff's base mechanism on the sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel. Ovalbumin and Concanavalin A...... agent like Sodium Metabisulfite. The radio-iodinated glycoprotein on gel was scanned using a Multi-Photon Detection (MPD) scanner. The elechtrophoretic analysis of ovalbumin and Con A were performed and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue to identify total proteins, while MPD detection of...

  17. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by F-doped TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: F-doped TiO2 is synthesized using a modified sol–gel method for visible photocatalytic degradation of MB with a high degradation rate of 91%. - Highlights: • F-doped TiO2 are synthesized using a modified sol–gel method. • The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by F-doped TiO2 is investigated. • A high methylene blue degradation rate of 91% is achieved under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: F-doped TiO2 (F-TiO2) were successfully synthesized using a modified sol–gel method. The morphologies, structures, and photocatalytic performance in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectra, respectively. The results show that F-TiO2 exhibits an enhanced photocatalytic performance in the degradation of MB with a maximum degradation rate of 91% under visible light irradiation as compared with pure TiO2 (32%). The excellent photocatalytic activity is due to the contribution from the increased visible light absorption, promoted separation of photo-generated electrons and holes as well as enhanced photocatalytic oxidizing species with the doping of F in TiO2

  18. Microstructural and optical properties of transparent conductive ZnO : Al : Mo films deposited by template-assisted sol–gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H-Y He; J-F Huang; Z He; J Lu; Q Shen

    2014-05-01

    Transparent conductive ZnO : Al : Mo films with a molar ratio of Zn : Al : Mo = 99 : 0.99 : 0.01 were deposited on quartz glass substrate by a template-assisted sol-gel process and characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and UV–Vis and luminescent spectrophotometries. The four types of organic template have induced nanowire morphology with varying aspect ratio. Dip coating in one constant positive and reverse direction causes the parallel array of ZnO : Al : Mo nanowires on the quartz glass substrate. Long and parallel arrayed nanowire films show obviously blue shifts and enhanced transmittances in the UV-Vis light range. The PEG-1000 and PEG-2000 have optimal effects among four templates as constant weight content is used. The films show strong ultraviolet, violet and bluish violet emissions. The templates also lead to overall thicker film and more native defect and thereby remarkably enhancing photoluminescence of the films. Long chain organic template can be used to optimize the optical properties of the doped ZnO film.

  19. Chemical Gel for Surface Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many chemical decontamination processes operate by immersing components in aggressive chemical solutions. In these applications chemical decontamination technique produce large amounts of radioactive liquid waste. Therefore it is necessary to develop processes using chemical gels instead of chemical solutions, to avoid the well-known disadvantages of chemical decontamination techniques while retaining their high efficiency. Chemical gels decontamination process consists of applying the gel by spraying it onto the surface of large area components (floors, walls, etc) to be decontaminated. The gel adheres to any vertical or complex surface due to their thixotropic properties and operates by dissolving the radioactive deposit, along with a thin layer of the gel support, so that the radioactivity trapped at the surface can be removed. Important aspects of the gels are that small quantities can be used and they show thixitropic properties : liquid during spraying, and solid when stationary, allowing for strong adherence to surfaces. This work investigates the decontamination behaviors of organic-based chemical gel for SS 304 metallic surfaces contaminated with radioactive materials

  20. Prussian Blue acts as a mediator in a reagentless cytokinin biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: · An electrochemical biosensor for detection of the plant hormone cytokinin. · Constitutive expression system for large-scale protein production. · CKX enzyme entrapment in sol-gel film on the surface of a PrB-modified electrode. · Prussian Blue as an electron mediator between the enzyme and the electrode. · The biosensor was sensitive to micromolar concentrations of several cytokinins. - Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor for detection of the plant hormone cytokinin is introduced. Cytokinin homeostasis in tissues of many lower and higher plants is controlled largely by the activity of cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX, EC 1.5.99.12) that catalyzes an irreversible cleavage of N6-side chain of cytokinins. Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana CKX2 from Pichia pastoris was used to prepare purified AtCKX2 as the basis of the cytokinin biosensor. Prussian Blue (PrB) was electrodeposited on Pt microelectrodes prior to deposition of the enzyme in a sol-gel matrix. The biosensor gave amperometric responses to several cytokinins. These responses depended on the presence of both the enzyme and the Prussian Blue. Thus Prussian Blue must act as an electron mediator between the FAD centre in CKX2 and the Pt surface.

  1. Prussian Blue acts as a mediator in a reagentless cytokinin biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalska, Marta, E-mail: marta.kowalska@email.cz [Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Slechtitelu 813/21, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Tian Faming [School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Smehilova, Maria; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo [Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Slechtitelu 813/21, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Napier, Richard; Dale, Nicholas [School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {center_dot} An electrochemical biosensor for detection of the plant hormone cytokinin. {center_dot} Constitutive expression system for large-scale protein production. {center_dot} CKX enzyme entrapment in sol-gel film on the surface of a PrB-modified electrode. {center_dot} Prussian Blue as an electron mediator between the enzyme and the electrode. {center_dot} The biosensor was sensitive to micromolar concentrations of several cytokinins. - Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor for detection of the plant hormone cytokinin is introduced. Cytokinin homeostasis in tissues of many lower and higher plants is controlled largely by the activity of cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX, EC 1.5.99.12) that catalyzes an irreversible cleavage of N{sup 6}-side chain of cytokinins. Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana CKX2 from Pichia pastoris was used to prepare purified AtCKX2 as the basis of the cytokinin biosensor. Prussian Blue (PrB) was electrodeposited on Pt microelectrodes prior to deposition of the enzyme in a sol-gel matrix. The biosensor gave amperometric responses to several cytokinins. These responses depended on the presence of both the enzyme and the Prussian Blue. Thus Prussian Blue must act as an electron mediator between the FAD centre in CKX2 and the Pt surface.

  2. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are...

  3. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  4. Native grassland inventory and monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Benton Lake refuge has nearly 6,000 acres of native western wheatgrass-green needlegrass prairie uplands. This pilot study was designed to assess the condition of...

  5. Configurational entropy of native proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Karplus, M.; Ichiye, T; Pettitt, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    Simulations of the residual configurational entropy of a protein in the native state suggest that it is nearly an order of magnitude larger than the entropy of denaturation. The implications of this result are discussed.

  6. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.

    1988-01-01

    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  7. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Food habits of blue grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R.E.

    1944-01-01

    The food habits of Blue Grouse vary from a simple winter diet that is made up predominantly of coniferous needles to a complex diet during the summer months, characterized by great variety of foods including green leaves, fruits and seeds, flowers, animal matter and coniferous needles. The spring and fall, which represent the transition periods between these two, are characterized by feeding habits that are generally intermediate. The diets of the two species of Blue Grouse, Dendrugapus obscurus and Dendragapus juliginosus, are quite similar as far as major types of food are concerned, but they differ considerably in the species that are taken. Such differences reflect differences in the vegetation within the ecologic and geographic ranges occupied by the two species.

  9. sol-gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto A. Monreal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo sintetizamos nanocilindros de dióxido de titanio de 30 a 400 nm por medio de ADN del plásmido pBR322 de 4,362 pares de bases y el uso de isopropóxido de titanio como precursor por medio del proceso sol-gel. Los geles resultantes fueron calcinados y los polvos caracterizados por medio de Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB, Espectroscopía de Energía Dispersiva, Microscopio Electrónico de Transmisión (MET y Difracción de Rayos X. Los resultados muestran que la síntesis in vitro de nanorods en presencia de ADN, puede ser activada. Muchas otras moléculas sintéticas pueden producirse por medio del uso de sistemas orgánicos, es así como reportamos la síntesis de híbridos hechos de ácidos nucleicos en materiales inorgánicos que pueden tener diversas aplicaciones en sistemas catalíticos, biomateriales y materiales nanoestructurados.

  10. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is worthwhile considering that only some 30 species make up the bulk of the bacterial population in human faeces at any one time based on the classical cultivation-based approach. The situation in the rumen is similar. Thus, it is practical to focus on specific groups of interest within the complex community. These may be the predominant or the most active species, specific physiological groups or readily identifiable (genetic) clusters of phylogenetically related organisms. Several 16S rDNA fingerprinting techniques can be invaluable for selecting and monitoring sequences or phylogenetic groups of interest and are described below. Over the past few decades, considerable attention was focussed on the identification of pure cultures of microbes on the basis of genetic polymorphisms of DNA encoding rRNA such as ribotyping, amplified fragment length polymorphism and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. However, many of these methods require prior cultivation and are less suitable for use in analysis of complex mixed populations although important in describing cultivated microbial diversity in molecular terms. Much less attention was given to molecular characterization of complex communities. In particular, research into diversity and community structure over time has been revolutionized by the advent of molecular fingerprinting techniques for complex communities. Denaturing or temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE/TGGE) methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of human, pig, cattle, dog and rodent intestinal populations

  11. The Rise of native advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Marius MANIC

    2015-01-01

    Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear ob...

  12. Native Geoscience: Pathways to Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Seielstad, G.

    2006-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all tribal societies. This inherent accumulated knowledge has become the foundation on which to build a "blended" contemporary understanding of western science. The Dakota's and Northern California have embraced the critical need of understanding successful tribal strategies to engage educational systems (K-12 and higher education), to bring to prominence the professional development opportunities forged through working with tribal peoples and ensure the continued growth of Native earth and environmental scientists The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on building and maintaining Native/Tribal students in earth and environmental sciences; 2) successful educational programs/activities in PreK-Ph.D. systems; 3) current Native leadership development in earth and environmental sciences; and 4) forward thinking for creating proaction collaborations addressing sustainable environmental, educational and social infrastructures for all people. Humboldt State University (HSU) and the University of North Dakota's Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment and the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) have been recognized nationally for their partnerships with Native communities. Unique collaborations are emerging "bridging" Native people across geographic areas in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive earth/environmental knowledge of tribal people. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native earth system students and scientists.

  13. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Amy; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2013-09-03

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  14. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Amy E; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2015-02-24

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  15. Field inversion gel electrophoresis in denaturing polyacrylamide gels.

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, C.; Beck, S

    1992-01-01

    The velocities of single stranded DNA molecules in denaturing polyacrylamide gels during symmetric and asymmetric field inversion were measured at different pulse times and gel concentrations. Under the conditions chosen in our study, pulse times as short as a few milliseconds lead to a retardation of DNA molecules larger than 400 bases. We found that a field inversion with an electric field in the forward direction of about double the strength of that applied in the backward direction is a g...

  16. Effect on in vitro starch digestibility of Mexican blue maize anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Sanchez-Rivera, Mirna M; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of blue maize extracts obtained by acid-methanol treatment on the nutritional in vitro starch fractions such as: rapidly digestive starch (RDS), slowly digestive starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) of native and gelatinized commercial maize starch. Chromatographic analysis (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) of blue maize extracts showed the presence of seven anthocyanins, where cyanidin-3-(6″-malonylglucoside) was the main. Blue maize extracts modified nutritional in vitro starch fractions (decrease of RDS) while RS content increased (1.17 and 2.02 times for native and gelatinized commercial maize starch, respectively) when anthocyanins extracts were added to starch up to 75% (starch weight). This preliminary observation provides the basis for further suitability evaluation of blue maize extract as natural starch-modifier by the possible anthocyanins-starch interaction. Anthocyanin extracts can be a suitable to produce functional foods with higher RS content with potential human health benefits. PMID:27283633

  17. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    CERN Document Server

    Sills, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended ...

  18. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  19. The human keratinocyte two-dimensional gel protein database (update 1995): mapping components of signal transduction pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Rasmussen, H H; Gromov, P;

    1995-01-01

    identified (protein name, organelle components, etc.) using a procedure or a combination of procedures that include (i) comigration with known human proteins, (ii) 2-D gel immunoblotting using specific antibodies, (iii) microsequencing of Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained proteins, (iv) mass spectrometry, (v...

  20. Control of the properties of xanthan/glucomannan mixed gels by varying xanthan fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, P; Meadows, J; Ratcliffe, I; Williams, Peter A

    2013-02-15

    The interaction of native xanthan gum, deacetylated xanthan gum and depyruvated xanthan gum with konjac glucomannan has been studied using DSC and controlled stress rheometry. In the absence of electrolyte the DSC cooling curves for native xanthan and deacetylated xanthan showed a single peak and there was a corresponding sharp increase in the storage modulus indicating gel formation. It is apparent that on cooling, association of the konjac glucomannan with the native xanthan molecules is triggered by the xanthan coil-helix transition. In the presence of electrolyte, there were two DSC peaks observed. The higher temperature DSC peak was attributed to the xanthan coil-helix transition while the lower temperature DSC peak was attributed to konjac glucomannan-xanthan association as noted by an increase in the storage modulus. The gels formed were much weaker than those in the absence of electrolyte. The DSC cooling curves for depyruvated xanthan in the absence of electrolyte showed two peaks. The higher temperature peak was attributed to the coil-helix transition while the lower temperature peak corresponded to gelation as noted by an increase in the storage modulus. The gels were very much weaker than for native xanthan gum and deacetylated xanthan gum. PMID:23399123

  1. Dosimetry aspects of a non-diffusing genipin–gelatin gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genipin–gelatin gel shows promise as a stable, three-dimensional dosimeter for use in quality assurance for radiotherapy treatments. Genipin creates cross-links in gelatin, forming a blue colour that bleaches quantitatively upon irradiation. A formulation suitable for dosimetry was investigated by varying the concentrations of genipin, gelatin and sulphuric acid and determining the dose sensitivity. An important parameter of the gel preparation that affects dose sensitivity is the temperature at which the cross-linking reaction takes place. The most suitable formulation for dose measurements in 1 cm pathlength cuvettes was found to be made from 50 μM genipin, 4% w/w gelatin and 100 mM sulphuric acid in the final gel. An evaluation of the diffusion coefficient of chromophores in this gel dosimeter demonstrated that this genipin–gelatin gel is a non-diffusing dosimeter. This dosimeter was also evaluated for stability, dose sensitivity, irradiation and measurement temperature dependence and dose rate dependence. No appreciable dependence on dose rate in the range 0.4–40 Gy min−1 was found. No appreciable dependence on measurement temperature between 15 and 23 °C was found. A slight dependence on irradiation temperature was found and this was used to determine the product of the molar linear absorption coefficient and the radiation chemical yield. Finally, the dosimeter measurement uncertainty was evaluated and this was used to determine the dose resolution. Although the focus of this work is on a genipin–gelatin gel dosimeter, the measurement and calibration techniques presented may be applied to any gel dosimetry system measured spectrophotometrically. - Highlights: ► The calibration of any optically measured gel dosimetry system is presented. ► Dosimetric evaluation of a genipin–gelatin gel dosimeter was investigated. ► This genipin–gelatin gel may be used as a non-diffusing 3D dosimeter. ► Measurement uncertainty was evaluated and used to

  2. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives

  3. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  4. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.;

    2004-01-01

    scattering at very low q, but no structure and formfactor information. However, on heating above the viscoelastic to plastic transition, the 'typical' scattering pattern of the copolymer gel builds-up. All reinforced gels are strengthened by the addition of the reinforcing agent. The transitions from a...... viscoclastic rubber to a plastic fluid and from a plastic fluid to a viscoelastic liquid are shifted to more elevated temperatures when silica is added to the triblock copolymer gel. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order to...

  5. Raft Instability of Biopolymer Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Borukhov, I.; Bruinsma, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Following recent X-ray diffraction experiments by Wong, Li, and Safinya on biopolymer gels, we apply Onsager excluded volume theory to a nematic mixture of rigid rods and strong ``$\\pi/2$'' cross-linkers obtaining a long-ranged, highly anisotropic depletion attraction between the linkers. This attraction leads to breakdown of the percolation theory for this class of gels, to breakdown of Onsager's second-order virial method, and to formation of heterogeneities in the form of raft-like ribbons.

  6. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S.; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A.; Lepage, M.; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose ...

  7. Suppression of Listeria monocytogenes by the Native Micro-Flora in Teewurst Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michline Brice

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumers are interested in the use of non-chemical methods to control pathogens when heat sterilization is not an option. Such is the case with teewurst sausage, a raw spreadable sausage and a popular German commodity. Although Listeria was not found in teewurst, the optimal microbial growing conditions of teewurst coupled with the ubiquity of L. monocytogenes in nature, makes the possibility of contamination of products very possible. This pilot study was conducted to examine teewurst’s native micro-flora’s ability to suppress the outgrowth of L. monocytogenes at 10 °C using standard plate counts and PCR-DGGE. Traditional plating methods showed L. monocytogenes growth significantly decreased when in competition with the teewurst’s native micro-flora (p < 0.05. The native micro-flora of the teewurst suppressed the overall growth of L. monocytogenes by an average of two logs, under these conditions. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE amplicons with unique banding patterns were extracted from DGGE gel for identification. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactobacillus curvatus were identified as a part of the teewurst’s native micro-flora. Although the native micro-flora did not decrease L. monocytogenes to below limits of detection, it was enough of a decrease to warrant further investigation.

  8. Synergetic effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter and determination of optimal wavelength to choose light source for optical computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiya Raj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The ultimate aim of this study is to observe the effect of Green tea as a co-antioxidant in PAGAT gel dosimeter and evaluate the appropriate light source for scanning the PAGAT and NIPAM polymer gel.Methods: Both PAGAT (Poly Acrylamide Gelatin Tetrakis hydroxyl phosphonium chloride and NIPAM (N-Isopropyl acrylamide gel were prepared in normoxic condition. The green tea extract (GTE was prepared and tested only on PAGAT. Co-60 teletherapy machine has been used for irradiation purpose, and the gel samples were scanned using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Water equivalency of the gel has been tested in terms of their electron density, effective atomic number and Ratio of oxygen and hydrogen (O/H. We have used NIST XCOM database to test the water equivalency.Results: In this study we found that the GTE added to the gel do not respond to the given doses. By adding sugar we can enhance the sensitivity of the gel. Further investigations are required to use Green tea as a co antioxidant concentration of THPC (Tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride. The optimal wavelength with different region for scanning the PAGAT is 450 to 480 nm (Blue region, for NIPAM it is 540 nm and 570 nm (Green and yellow region. The PAGAT and NIPAM showed better sensitivity at 510 nm. Both gels have their effective atomic number closer to water (NIPAM-7.2, PAGAT-7.379.Conclusion: As per our results, we concluded that GTE alone is not an effective co-antioxidant for polymer gels. When the GTE is combined with sugar and THPC, it protects the gel from pre-polymerization. This study strongly suggests that the blue light is an optimal source for scanning the PAGAT and green to yellow light for NIPAM gel. Though both gels were considered as water equivalent, the PAGAT is equivalent to water and the temporal stability of this gel is higher than NIPAM.

  9. Characterization of DNA metabolizing enzymes in situ following polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have detected the in situ activities of DNA glycosylase, endonuclease, exonuclease, DNA polymerase, and DNA ligase using a novel polyacrylamide activity gel electrophoresis procedure. DNA metabolizing enzymes were resolved through either native or SDS-polyacrylamide gels containing defined 32P-labeled oligonucleotides annealed to M13 DNA. After electrophoresis, these enzymes catalyzed in situ reactions and their [32P]DNA products were resolved from the gel by a second dimension of electrophoresis through a denaturing DNA sequencing gel. Detection of modified (degraded or elongated) oligonucleotide chains was used to locate various enzyme activities. The catalytic and physical properties of Novikoff hepatoma DNA polymerase β were found to be similar under both in vitro and in situ conditions. With 3'-terminally matched and mismatched [32P]DNA substrates in the same activity gel, DNA polymerase and/or 3' to 5' exonuclease activities of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (large fragment), DNA polymerase III (holoenzyme), and exonuclease III were detected and characterized. Several restriction endonucleases and the tripeptide (Lys-Try-Lys), which acts as an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, were able to diffuse into gels and modify DNA. This ability to create intermediate substrates within activity gels could prove extremely useful in delineating the steps of DNA replication and repair pathways

  10. Synthesis, properties, and biomedical applications of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kan; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Tamayol, Ali; Annabi, Nasim; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels have been widely used for various biomedical applications due to their suitable biological properties and tunable physical characteristics. GelMA hydrogels closely resemble some essential properties of native extracellular matrix (ECM) due to the presence of cell-attaching and matrix metalloproteinase responsive peptide motifs, which allow cells to proliferate and spread in GelMA-based scaffolds. GelMA is also versatile from a processing perspective. It crosslinks when exposed to light irradiation to form hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties. It can also be microfabricated using different methodologies including micromolding, photomasking, bioprinting, self-assembly, and microfluidic techniques to generate constructs with controlled architectures. Hybrid hydrogel systems can also be formed by mixing GelMA with nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide, and other polymers to form networks with desired combined properties and characteristics for specific biological applications. Recent research has demonstrated the proficiency of GelMA-based hydrogels in a wide range of tissue engineering applications including engineering of bone, cartilage, cardiac, and vascular tissues, among others. Other applications of GelMA hydrogels, besides tissue engineering, include fundamental cell research, cell signaling, drug and gene delivery, and bio-sensing. PMID:26414409

  11. Native English-speaking teachers versus non-native English-speaking teachers

    OpenAIRE

    García Merino, Iván

    1997-01-01

    There is a stereotype that takes for granted that a native speaker is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. This assumption leaves little room for non-native teachers. A comparison of these two kinds of teachers is made following Medgyes' 3 dimensional framework: native/non-native, non-native/ non-native and native/native. The aim of this article is to analyze their differences in order to prove that non-native teachers have some advantages which shoul...

  12. Alternative imaging modalities for polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirasek, Andrew, E-mail: jirasek@uvic.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2010-11-01

    This review summarizes recent work in the area of imaging polymer gel dosimeters using x-ray CT imaging, ultrasound, and radiation-induced changes in gel mechanical properties. In addition, recent work in the area of Raman tomographic imaging of canine bone, in conjunction with past efforts in Raman imaging of polymer gel dosimeters, raises new possibilities for new polymer gel imaging techniques.

  13. Health Disparities in the Native Hawaiian Homeless

    OpenAIRE

    Yamane, David P; Oeser, Steffen G; Omori, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While it is well accepted that Native Hawaiians have poor health statistics compared to other ethnic groups in Hawaii, it is not well documented if these disparities persist when comparing Native Hawaiian homeless individuals to the general homeless population. This paper examines the Native Hawaiian homeless population living in three shelters on the island of Oahu, to determine if there are significant differences in the frequency of diseases between the Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawai...

  14. The effect of spirulina gel on fibroblast cell number after wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rahmitasari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound healing treatment after tooth extraction should be an important consideration due to mouth discomfort and pain. Spirulina (blue green algae consists of C-phycocyanin, b–carotenoids, vitamin E, zinc, some other trace elements and natural phytochemical which are believed to act as antioxidant and takes part in wound healing process. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of spirulina gel on fibroblast cell number after wound healing process. Methods: Twenty eight males guinea pig are devided into four group, 7 guinea pig each. They are control group and treatment group which is given 0%, 3%, 6%, and 12% spirulina gel. After tooth extraction, histopathological evaluation was done to count fibroblast cell. The data was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: The research has proven the relation between the increased growth of fibroblast cell and spirulina gel application. The higher the doses, the more cell growth. Hence, there has been significant different (p < 0.05 among groups. Conclusion: Spirulina gel increases the number of fibroblast in wound after tooth extraction and 12% spirulina gel has the most potential ability.Latar Belakang: Proses penyembuhan luka pasca pencabutan gigi merupakan salah satu hal yang penting karena akan menimbulkan rasa nyeri dan tidak nyaman dalam rongga mulut. Spirulina (Blue green Algae mengandung C-phycocyanin, b-carotenoids, vitamin E, seng, beberapa trace elemen lainnya, dan phytochemical alami yang terbukti dapat berperan sebagai antioksidan dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek pemberian gel spirulina terhadap jumlah sel fibroblas pada proses penyembuhan luka pasca pencabutan gigi. Metode: Dua puluh delapan ekor guinea pig jantan dibagi dalam 7 kelompok, masing-masing terdiri dari 4 ekor. Kelompok tersebut adalah kelompok kontrol dan kelompok perlakuan yang diberikan gel spirulina dengan konsentrasi 0

  15. Predation on exotic zebra mussels by native fishes: Effects on predator and prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoulick, D.D.; Lewis, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. Exotic zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, occur in southern U.S. waterways in high densities, but little is known about the interaction between native fish predators and zebra mussels. Previous studies have suggested that exotic zebra mussels are low profitability prey items and native vertebrate predators are unlikely to reduce zebra mussel densities. We tested these hypotheses by observing prey use of fishes, determining energy content of primary prey species of fishes, and conducting predator exclusion experiments in Lake Dardanelle, Arkansas. 2. Zebra mussels were the primary prey eaten by 52.9% of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus; 48.2% of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens; and 100% of adult redear sunfish, Lepomis microlophus. Blue catfish showed distinct seasonal prey shifts, feeding on zebra mussels in summer and shad, Dorosoma spp., during winter. Energy content (joules g-1) of blue catfish prey (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; gizzard shad, D. cepedianum; zebra mussels; and asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea) showed a significant species by season interaction, but shad were always significantly greater in energy content than bivalves examined as either ash-free dry mass or whole organism dry mass. Fish predators significantly reduced densities of large zebra mussels (>5 mm length) colonising clay tiles in the summers of 1997 and 1998, but predation effects on small zebra mussels (???5 mm length) were less clear. 3. Freshwater drum and redear sunfish process bivalve prey by crushing shells and obtain low amounts of higher-energy food (only the flesh), whereas blue catfish lack a shell-crushing apparatus and ingest large amounts of low-energy food per unit time (bivalves with their shells). Blue catfish appeared to select the abundant zebra mussel over the more energetically rich shad during summer, then shifted to shad during winter when shad experienced temperature-dependent stress and mortality. Native fish predators can suppress adult zebra

  16. 78 FR 70956 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American... Title of Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian... American and Alaskan Native populations, most notably through the Indian Housing Block Grant. The level...

  17. 78 FR 75365 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American... Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs. OMB Approval... the United States. HUD provides funding though several programs to Native American and Alaskan...

  18. Literacy Skill Differences between Adult Native English and Native Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…

  19. Novel thermochromism in silica sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardener, Martin; Perry, Carole C.

    2000-05-01

    In this contribution we provide evidence for thermochromic color changes unique to silica based materials formed at low temperatures by the sol-gel process. The materials formed have potential application as temperature sensitive light filters, visual temperature indicators, self-diagnostic labels for electronic devices and IR recording media. The dopants, diamine complexes of copper(II)/nickel(II) chloride, change from purple to green following heating to 100 degrees C and revert to purple on cooling in the atmosphere. This color change has been explained by the substitution of water molecules by chloride ions in the first coordination sphere of the metal ions. When the same compounds are incorporated into a silica sol-gel matrix under acidic conditions the gel-glasses may be pale green, dark green, yellow, olive-yellow, blue or brown depending on the metal ion chosen and the extent of thermal treatment. Studies on the complexes themselves and on granular silicas doped with some of the complexes are assisting us in understanding the molecular mechanisms that give rise to these color changes.

  20. Blue and UV Semiconductor Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite many technological difficulties the group III nitrides: GaN, AlN and InN and their alloys are primary candidates for electro-optical coherent light sources. In the recent years the research and technology of the nitride based continuous wave (CW) laser diodes (LDs) led to creation of blue-violet coherent light sources of power up to 200 mW. The progress has been attained by using various ways to attack the main obstacles in the technology of these devices such as insufficient size of high quality lattice matched substrates, low p-doping efficiency of Mg acceptor, poor contact to p-type semiconductor and low efficiency of radiative recombination. The two different approaches were used to overcome the substrate problem: hetero-epitaxy and homoepitaxy. Homoepitaxy used high pressure GaN high quality crystals. Heteroepitaxy used sapphire, SiC or GaAs substrates and very sophisticated techniques of reduction of the dislocation density. The low p-doping efficiency by using Mg acceptor is related to creation of Mg - H complexes due to hydrogen presence during the growth of laser diode quantum structures. In addition, Mg acceptor has low efficiency due to its high energy. High Mg concentrations can be obtained by using either MOCVD or ammonia source MBE growth. An alternative route is to use hydrogen-free plasma activated MBE (PA-MBE) method. The recent advances and the prospects of both approaches will be discussed. Solid AlGaInN solution offers a possibility to cover wide spectral range, starting from near UV to blue, green and red. Arsenide based laser diodes (LDs) are efficient coherent red light sources. Therefore, nitride based LDs are considered to be devices of choice for green, blue and UV spectral range. So far only blue and violet laser has been realized. The progress toward green and UV lasers is far less spectacular. The results in all these areas and future prospects will be discussed. (author)

  1. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...... medium, light as energy source and they capture CO2 for the synthesis of new organic material, thus can grow on non-agricultural land, without increasing food prices, or using fresh water. Due to all these advantages in addition to very high biomass yield with high carbohydrate content, macroalgaes can...

  2. Spectroscopy of blue stellar objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. J.; Warnock, A., III; Nations, H. L.; Barden, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra have been obtained for the brightest objects from a list of blue stellar objects found in a Palomar Schmidt field centered on Kapteyn Selected Area 28. Four of the objects presented here comprise a complete sample of objects with UV excess and magnitudes brighter than or equal to B = 16.3 mag. The object with the largest UV excess is a previously undiscovered quasar of redshift 0.25 and cataloged B magnitude of 15.6 mag. The object shows some evidence of variability. Spectroscopy for one bright object in a companion field centered on Selected Area 29 is also presented.

  3. Blue-light induced development of chloroplasts in isolated seedling roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excised roots of pea seedlings (Pisum sativum var. 'Alaska') cultured in a synthetic medium under sterile conditions exhibited differentiation of functional chloroplasts from leucoplasts when irradiated with blue light (350 to 550 nm). This transition was a relatively slow process; nevertheless, the chloroplasts formed in blue light compared very well to leaf chloroplasts as far as micro-structure and photosynthetic activities are concerned. Apparently certain activities of the apical meristem are mandatory in bringing about a transition from leucoplasts to chloroplasts in blue light. After short-time labelling with [3H]uridine the synthesis of plastid ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was studied either during irradiation with blue and red light (600 to 700 nm), respectively, or in darkness. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that in blue light the synthesis of specific chloroplast rRNA species with molecular weights of 1.1 x 106 and 0.56 x 106 daltons was markedly stimulated. In contrast, in dark cultured roots these RNA species were synthesized to a limited extent only whereas the cytoplasmic rRNA species of 1.3 x 106 and 0.7 x 106 daltons molecular weight were preferentially formed. The same held true for roots irradiated with red light. (author)

  4. Listening natively across perceptual domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langus, Alan; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Uysal, Ertuğrul; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Marino, Caterina; Asaadi, Sina; Eren, Ömer; Toro, Juan M; Peña, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A H; Nespor, Marina

    2016-07-01

    Our native tongue influences the way we perceive other languages. But does it also determine the way we perceive nonlinguistic sounds? The authors investigated how speakers of Italian, Turkish, and Persian group sequences of syllables, tones, or visual shapes alternating in either frequency or duration. We found strong native listening effects with linguistic stimuli. Speakers of Italian grouped the linguistic stimuli differently from speakers of Turkish and Persian. However, speakers of all languages showed the same perceptual biases when grouping the nonlinguistic auditory and the visual stimuli. The shared perceptual biases appear to be determined by universal grouping principles, and the linguistic differences caused by prosodic differences between the languages. Although previous findings suggest that acquired linguistic knowledge can either enhance or diminish the perception of both linguistic and nonlinguistic auditory stimuli, we found no transfer of native listening effects across auditory domains or perceptual modalities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26820498

  5. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, Brian D.; Looney, Brian B.

    2015-10-27

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  6. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhia, Brian D.

    2011-03-01

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  7. Invasive non-native plants have a greater effect on neighbouring natives than other non-natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebbing, Sara E; Nuñez, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Human activity is creating a global footprint by changing the climate, altering habitats and reshuffling the distribution of species. The movement of species around the globe has led to the naturalization and accumulation of multiple non-native species within ecosystems, which is frequently associated with habitat disturbance and changing environmental conditions. However, interactions among species will also influence community composition, but little is known about the full range of direct and indirect interactions among native and non-native species. Here, we show through a meta-analysis of 1,215 pairwise plant interactions between 274 vascular plant species in 21 major habitat types that interactions between non-native plants are asymmetrical with interactions between non-native and native plants. Non-native plants were always bad neighbours, but the negative effect of non-natives on natives was around two times greater than the effect of non-natives on other non-natives. In contrast, the performance of non-native plants was five times higher in the presence of a neighbouring native plant species than in the presence of a neighbouring non-native plant species. Together, these results demonstrate that invaded plant communities may accumulate additional non-native species even if direct interactions between non-natives species are negative. Put another way, invasions may be more likely to lead to more invasions, requiring more active management of ecosystems by promoting native species restoration to undermine invasive positive feedback and to assist native species recovery in invaded ecosystems. PMID:27618506

  8. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M.;

    2014-01-01

    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After...... cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against...... detachment and decomposition. The chemical reaction between gluteraldehyde, the cross-linking agent, and chitosan was followed in situ using total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, which provided a molecular insight into the complex reaction mechanism, as well as the means to quantify the cross...

  9. Blue-sheet instability of Schwarzschild wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Schwarzschild wormhole geometry is found to be unstable against the gravitational effects of accumulated, blue-shifted matter and radiation, or ''blue sheets'', accreting along the past horizons. This is shown by constructing a simple model of a wormhole geometry featuring such blue sheets and manifesting their effects. In this model the blue sheets are treated as null delta-function surface layers, and we derive here general conditions for matching spacetime geometries across such null hypersurfaces of discontinuity. These junction conditions are then applied to the construction of the wormhole model. The wormhole evolution depicted in this model shows that the gravitational focussing produced by the blue-sheet mass-energy eventually encloses the blue sheets and past horizons within future horizons, leaving a black-hole geometry. These effects limit emission processes from the region of a wormhole's past singularity into the external universe, and severely restrict the possible role of wormholes in cosmological contexts. (author)

  10. Establishment of Native Grasses with Biosolids on Abandoned Croplands in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jurado-Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate establishment and forage production of native grasses with application of biosolids, a byproduct of waste-water treatment, at an abandoned field, in Ejido Nuevo Delicias, Chihuahua, Mexico. Four biosolids rates from 0 (control to 30 dry Mg ha−1 and two methods of application, surface applied (BioSur and soil incorporated (BioInc, were evaluated. Seedbed preparation included plowing and harrowing before rainfall. Field plots of 5 × 5 m were manually sown with a mix of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis (50% and green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia (50% in early August 2005. Experimental design was a randomized block with a split plot arrangement. Grass density, height, and forage production were estimated for three years. Data were analyzed with mixed linear models and repeated measures. Green sprangletop density increased under all biosolids rates regardless of method of application, while blue grama density slightly decreased. Biosolids were more beneficial for green sprangletop height than for blue grama height. Blue grama forage production slightly increased, while green sprangletop forage production increased the most at 10 Mg ha−1 biosolids rate under BioSur method. It was concluded that BioSur application at 10 and 20 Mg ha−1 rates had positive effects on the establishment and forage production of native grasses, especially green sprangletop.

  11. Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    James, Bethan L; Stark, Daniel P; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies are known to be very rare, despite the large numbers of low-mass galaxies predicted by the local galaxy luminosity function. This paper presents a sub-sample of galaxies that were selected via a morphology-based search on SDSS images with the aim of finding these elusive XMP galaxies. By using the recently discovered extremely metal-poor galaxy, Leo P, as a guide, we obtained a collection of faint, blue systems, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum, that have remained undetected until now. Here we show the first results from optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 of ~100 of these blue, diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies yielded by our search algorithm. Oxygen abundances were obtained via the direct method for eight galaxies, and found to be in the range 7.45<12+log(O/H)<8.0, with two galaxies being classified as XMPs. All BDDs were found to currently have a young star-forming population (<10 Myr) and relatively high ionisation parame...

  12. African Music: Source of the Blues

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Konrad Sidney

    2010-01-01

    [Abstract] African music is the primary source for the blues. Scholars have supplied ample evidence to support this assertion. However, the African retentions still present in the blues are not immediately apparent. African music and the blues share many similarities, including the predominance of rhythm, the uses of music as social commentary and critique, types of instruments, and musical structure. Slaves brought their culture with them to the New World when they were forcibly taken from t...

  13. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  14. The Red-Blue Transportation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Vancroonenburg, Wim; Della Croce, Federico; Goossens, Dries; Spieksma, Frits

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the Red-Blue Transportation Problem (Red-Blue TP), a generalization of the transportation problem where supply nodes are partitioned into two sets and so-called exclusionary constraints are imposed. We encountered a special case of this problem in a hospital context, where patients need to be assigned to rooms. We establish the problem's complexity, and we compare two integer programming formulations. Furthermore, a maximization variant of Red-Blue TP is presented, for...

  15. Variable blue straggler stars in NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine variable blue stragglers have been found in the globular cluster NGC 5466. The six dwarf Cepheids in this cluster coexist in the instability strip with other nonvariable stars. The three eclipsing binaries are among the hottest of the blue stragglers. The hypothesis is discussed that all blue stragglers in this cluster have undergone mass transfer in close binaries. Under this hypothesis, rotation and spin-down play important roles in controlling the evolution of blue stragglers in old clusters and in affecting some of their observational properties. 14 refs

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of Blue-headed Macaw (Primolius couloni): its comparison with mitogenome of Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urantowka, Adam Dawid

    2016-05-01

    Primolius is a genus of midsized Macaws comprising three species. Blue-headed Macaws (Primolius couloni) are native to eastern Peru, extreme western Brazil and north-western Bolivia. In this study, full mitochondrial genome of considered species was sequenced. It is 16,995 bp long and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region. Its comparison with published Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis) mitogenome revealed their high degree of identity. Primolius couloni mitogenome is the first complete genomic sequence of this genus. It will be indispensable to refine the phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Arini and will enrich the resource of markers for systematic, phylogenetic and population genetic studies. PMID:25391030

  17. Label-free DNA hybridization detection with molecular beacon immobilized in photopolymerized acrylamide gel microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Li, Jiong; Liu, Quanjun; Liu, Heping; Lu, Zuhong; Zhu, Jijun

    2001-10-01

    Photopolymerized acrylamide gel microarray used to immobilize the molecular beacon for label free DNA hybridization detection is described in this paper. Polyacrylamide gel microarray was prepared by UV photopolymerization of 4% acrylamide in 40% glycerol, 0.002%methylene blue, 0.012% TEMED and 0.1M phosphate buffer (PHequals7) with a Relpel-silane pretreated quartz mask. This kind of three-dimensional gel microarray provides more than 100 times great immobilization capacity. The hybridization and other processes with it resemble a homogeneous liquid phase reaction rather than a heterogeneous liquid-solid interface reaction. The specially designed molecular beacons contain a 15 base loop sequence with 5 base pair stem, a 20 base thymine as spacer, a 5'-end amino group for immobilization, a fluorescein in the middle of the sequence as the fluorophore and a 3'-end DABCYL as the quencher. Between the 5'-end amino group and the stem, the 20 base thymine is used to minimize destability caused by 5'-end immobilization. Confocal microscope was used to investigate the fluorescence intensity of gel immobilized molecular beacon probes. After hybridization we can easily distinguish complementary and noncomplementay targets with gel-immobilized molecular beacon probes. Image analysis showed that the fluorescence intensity ratio of complementary to noncomplementay probes is great than 5. The potential applications of gel-immobilized molecular beacon microarray are mutation detection, pathogenic detection, etc. in a parallel, cost saving and label-free detection way.

  18. Go native: blue gamma-buffalo grass and compost benefits urban soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban construction sites often have excessive erosion and compaction after topsoil removal, scraping, and grading. Restoring the hydrologic function of soils can reduce runoff and provide a useful tool for post construction stormwater management as it has very few site limitations. The purpose of th...

  19. Native Mussels Alter Nutrient Availability and Reduce Blue-Green Algae Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient cycling is a key process that ties all organisms together. This is especially apparent in stream environments in which nutrients are taken up readily and cycled through the system in a downstream trajectory. Ecological stoichiometry predicts that biogeochemical cycles of...

  20. Native American Languages: Subject Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joyce, Comp.

    This document is an eleven-page supplemental subject guide listing reference material that focuses on Native American languages that is not available in the Labriola National American Indian Data Center in the Arizona State University, Tempe (ASU) libraries. The guide is not comprehensive but offers a selective list of resources useful for…

  1. Native American College Student Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosholder, Richard; Goslin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Native American students are the most likely racial/ethnic group tracked in post-secondary American education to be affected by poverty and limited access to educational opportunities. In addition, they are the most likely to be required to take remedial course work and are the least likely to graduate from college. A review of the literature was…

  2. Two Native Americans' Journey Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussia, Leah L.; Krom, Darla R.

    1998-01-01

    Recounts two personal experiences of graduate school work on Indian Reservations. For one student, it was a returning home to the culture she was familiar with but for the other, who only learned about her Native American heritage in high school, it was an awakening. Their experiences led them to consider the identity problems they observed among…

  3. Rethinking Native American Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    As many linguists continue to work with and analyze First Nations/Native American languages, the consensus opinion usually direly predicts the loss of daily use for almost all of the extant Indigenous languages. Tremendous efforts are being expended for renewing, revitalizing, and restoring these languages to everyday use. The model upon which…

  4. Trypan Blue Staining to Determine Vaginal Exposure in Two Types of Plastic Vaginal Applicators Containing Two Different Microbicide Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmerling, A.; Harrison, WG; Brown, JM; Moscicki, AB; Oziemkowska, M; Bukusi, EA; Cohen, CR

    2012-01-01

    Dye staining of applicators has been shown to be a reliable and objective method to test vaginal insertion in clinical microbicide trials, but different plastics, dyes and product formulations may impact the accuracy of this method. Reportedly used applicators returned from three clinical trials were stained with 1% Trypan Blue. In a phase 1 study (VivaGel®), using gel-filled HTI polypropylene applicators, 1271 (97%) of applicators stained positive. In two phase 1 and 2a studies (LACTIN-V) us...

  5. Broad range pH sensor based on sol-gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Xiao-peng

    2014-01-01

    A broad-range fibre optic pH sensor based on evanescent wave absorption is presented in this paper. This sensor is prepared by immobilizing a mixture of three pH sensitive indicators (dyes):cresol red, bromophenol blue and chlorophenol red onto the unclad fibre surface using a sol–gel cladding technology. Triton is introduced into the sol–gel cladding to improve the cladding quality. Smooth and strong sol–gel cladding with entrapped indicators and triton has been fabricated and observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) and an atomic force microscopy (AFM). The pH sensor based the cladding has shown a linear, reversible and repeatable response over a broad range of pH values between 4.5 and 13.0.

  6. 3-dimensional polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently developed techniques in conformal radiotherapy demand special properties of radiation dosimeters. Polymer gel dosimeter evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is promising tool which can be used for measuring rather complicated 3-dimensional dose distributions with required precision of ± 5 %. This system is based on radiation-induced polymerisation and cross-linking of acrylic monomers which are uniformly dispersed in aqueous gel. The formation of cross-linked polymers in the irradiated regions of the gel increases the NMR relaxation rates of neighbouring water protons. BANG-2 type polymer gel was prepared. The composition of gel dosimeter was as follows: 3 % N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide, 3 % acrylic acid, 1 % sodium hydroxide, 5 % gelatine, and 88 % water, where all percentages are by weight. The dosimeters in glass vessels were homogeneously irradiated by 60Co gamma photons in a Gammacell 220 unit and by 4 MV, 6 MV and 18 MV X ray photons on Varian Clinac 600C and 2100 C linear accelerators by doses in the range of 0-50 Gy. Evaluation of dosimeters was performed on Siemens EXPERT 1 T and Siemens VISION 1,5 T scanners. Multi-echo CPMG sequence with 16 echoes was used for the evaluation of T2-relaxation times in irradiated gel dosimeters. The dependence of 1/T2 response of dosimeters was studied on following factors: absorbed dose, energy of applied radiation, temperature during NMR evaluation, time since irradiation to NMR evaluation and strength of the magnetic field. An exponential dependence of 1/T2 response on absorbed dose in the range of 0-50 Gy was observed, in the range 0-10 Gy the data could be fitted by a linear function. There was observed no dependence of 1/T2 response on: energy (for three different photon energies used in this study), strength of magnetic field of NMR scanner, time from irradiation of the dosimeters to NMR evaluation. Increase of gel dosimeter 1/T2 response with the decrease of the temperature during NMR evaluation

  7. Calcium alginate gels as stem cell matrix-making paracrine stem cell activity available for enhanced healing after surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schmitt

    Full Text Available Regeneration after surgery can be improved by the administration of anabolic growth factors. However, to locally maintain these factors at the site of regeneration is problematic. The aim of this study was to develop a matrix system containing human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs which can be applied to the surgical site and allows the secretion of endogenous healing factors from the cells. Calcium alginate gels were prepared by a combination of internal and external gelation. The gelling behaviour, mechanical stability, surface adhesive properties and injectability of the gels were investigated. The permeability of the gels for growth factors was analysed using bovine serum albumin and lysozyme as model proteins. Human MSCs were isolated, cultivated and seeded into the alginate gels. Cell viability was determined by AlamarBlue assay and fluorescence microscopy. The release of human VEGF and bFGF from the cells was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Gels with sufficient mechanical properties were prepared which remained injectable through a syringe and solidified in a sufficient time frame after application. Surface adhesion was improved by the addition of polyethylene glycol 300,000 and hyaluronic acid. Humans MSCs remained viable for the duration of 6 weeks within the gels. Human VEGF and bFGF was found in quantifiable concentrations in cell culture supernatants of gels loaded with MSCs and incubated for a period of 6 weeks. This work shows that calcium alginate gels can function as immobilization matrices for human MSCs.

  8. Native and Non-Native Perceptions on a Non-Native Oral Discourse in an Academic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dikilitaş

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study investigates discourse-level patterns typically employed by a Turkish lecturer based on the syntactic patterns found in the collected data. More specifically, the study aims to reveal how different native and non-native speakers of English perceive discourse patterns used by a non-native lecturer teaching in English. The data gathered from a Turkish lecturer teaching finance, and the interviews both with the lecturer and the students. The lecturer and the students were videotaped and the data was evaluated by content analysis. The results revealed a difference between the way non-native and native speakers evaluate an oral discourse of a non-native lecturer teaching in English. Native speakers of English found the oral performance moderately comprehensible, while non-native speakers found it relatively comprehensible.

  9. Two-dimensional phos-tag zymograms for tracing phosphoproteins by activity in-gel staining

    OpenAIRE

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Schwendke, Alexandra; Lüthje, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications regulating many cellular processes. The phos-tag technology was combined with two-dimensional zymograms, which consisted of non-reducing IEF PAGE or NEPHGE in the first dimension and high resolution clear native electrophoresis (hrCNE) in the second dimension. The combination of these electrophoresis methods was mild enough to accomplish in-gel activity staining for Fe(III)-reductases by NADH/Fe(III)-citrate/fe...

  10. III-nitride blue microdisplays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype blue microdisplays have been fabricated from InGaN/GaN quantum wells. The device has a dimension of 0.5x0.5mm2 and consists of 10x10 pixels 12 μm in diameter. Emission properties such as electroluminescence spectra, output power versus forward current (L--I) characteristic, viewing angle, and uniformity have been measured. Due to the unique properties of III-nitride wide-band-gap semiconductors, microdisplays fabricated from III nitrides can potentially provide unsurpassed performance, including high-brightness/resolution/contrast, high-temperature/high-power operation, high shock resistance, wide viewing angles, full-color spectrum capability, long life, high speed, and low-power consumption, thus providing an enhancement and benefit to the present capabilities of miniature display systems

  11. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  12. Ecology of Blue Straggler Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, H M J; Beccari, G

    2014-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars (BSS), which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution, as such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. As such, BSS could just be some quirks but in fact their understanding requires a deep knowledge of many different areas in astronomy, from stellar evolution through cluster dynamics, from chemical abundances to stellar populations. In November 2012, a workshop on this important topic took place at the ESO Chilean headquarters in Santiago. The many topics covered at this workshop were introduced by very comprehensive invited reviews, providing a unique and insightful view on the field. These reviews have now become chapters of the first ever book on BSS.

  13. Yield stress determination of a physical gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Pluronic F127 solutions form gels in water with high elastic moduli. Pluronic gels can, however, only withstand small deformations and stresses. Different steady shear and oscillatory methods traditionally used to determine yield stress values are compared. The results show that the yield stresse...... values of these gels depend on test type and measurement time, and no absolute yield stress value can be determined for these physical gels.......Pluronic F127 solutions form gels in water with high elastic moduli. Pluronic gels can, however, only withstand small deformations and stresses. Different steady shear and oscillatory methods traditionally used to determine yield stress values are compared. The results show that the yield stresses...

  14. Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M; Hino, M;

    2004-01-01

    Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions. The...... dehydrated NIPA-SA gel also makes the microphase separation but the dehydrated NIPA-AAc gel does not. These results indicate that ionic circumstance around charged bases strongly affects the nanostructures both of the dehydrated gel and the gel with low water content. (C) 2004 Elsevier B. V. All rights...

  15. Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism in Two Iranian Native Fowls (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari A

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical polymorphism study is a method of determination of genetic variation. This variability could be a basis for selection and subsequent genetic improvement in farm animals. The polymorphism in the intron 1 of chicken growth hormone (cGH gene was investigated in the Iranian native fowls by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method. The genomic DNA was extracted from 217 samples (129 samples from the native fowls of Isfahan province and 88 samples from the native fowls of Mazandaran province by using modified salting out technique. The DNA fragment of the growth hormone gene with 776 bp was amplified by PCR using specific primers. Then the PCR products were digested with MspI restriction enzyme and analyzed on 2.5% agarose gel. The allelic frequency of intron 1 locus for A1, A2 and A3 alleles in  Isfahan native fowls were 0.60, 0.21 and 0.19 and those in Mazandaran native  fowls were 0.28, 0.05 and 0.67, respectively. The results of current study indicated that the intron 1 of cGH is polymorphic in Iranian native fowls and could be exploited as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection for growth-related traits.

  16. An improved Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB R-250) staining to proteins in gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An improved CBB staining with higher sensitivity than that of the typical CBB staining was reported. The main improvement was using a fixing step of 25% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) before CBB staining. For most proteins studied, the sensitivity of the improved CBB staining was about twice as high as that of the typical method. For basic and low molecular weight proteins such as ribosomal proteins, the sensitivity of this improved staining method was about 3.5-28 times that of the typical method. It was speculated that the improved procedure would be suitable for exact quantitative analysis of proteins fractionated by SDS-PAGE, especially for basic and low molecular weight proteins. On the other hand, this new modified method might be also applied to multidisciplinary studies, such as biological researches and nuclear sciences.

  17. Blue enhanced light sources: opportunities and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Natural daylight is characterized by high proportions of blue light. By proof of a third type of photoreceptor in the human eye which is only sensitive in this spectral region and by subsequent studies it has become obvious that these blue proportions are essential for human health and well being. In various studies beneficial effects of indoor lighting with higher blue spectral proportions have been proven. On the other hand with increasing use of light sources having enhanced blue light for indoor illumination questions are arising about potential health risks attributed to blue light. Especially LED are showing distinct emission characteristics in the blue. Recently the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health & safety ANSES have raised the question on health issues related to LED light sources and have claimed to avoid use of LED for lighting in schools. In this paper parameters which are relevant for potential health risks will be shown and their contribution to risk factors will quantitatively be discussed. It will be shown how to differentiate between photometric parameters for assessment of beneficial as well as hazardous effects. Guidelines will be discussed how blue enhanced light sources can be used in applications to optimally support human health and well being and simultaneously avoid any risks attributed to blue light by a proper design of lighting parameters. In the conclusion it will be shown that no inherent health risks are related to LED lighting with a proper lighting design.

  18. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  19. Blue collection bag after ileal diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, T A; Cass, A S

    1978-02-01

    Five children with ileal diversions have shown asymptomatic blue staining of the urine collection bags. A tryptophan derivative (indican) in the urine that oxidizes to indigo blue on exposure to air is thought to be the cause of this benign transient phenomenon. PMID:628994

  20. NABS Program: (Native Americans in Biological Science).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettys, Nancy, Comp.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the four-week summer program of the Native Americans in Biological Sciences Program that engages Native American eighth- and ninth-grade students in studying the problems related to the waste water treatment plant in Cushing, Oklahoma. (MDH)

  1. Aloha Aina: Native Hawaiians Fight for Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealoha, Gard

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the history, values, and cultural background of the native Hawaiian population, asserting that Hawaiians want to recapture and reaffirm the native rights guaranteed by the constitution of Hawaii in 1846. (Author/JM)

  2. Capillary fracture of soft gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, Joshua B; Daniels, Karen E

    2013-10-01

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize (i) the initiation process, in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of the surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus, and (ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law L[proportional]t(3/4). We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid-solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and the magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids, finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent. PMID:24229192

  3. Immigrant versus natives ? displacement and job creation

    OpenAIRE

    Ozden, Caglar; Wagner, Mathis

    2014-01-01

    The impact of immigration on native workers is driven by two countervailing forces: the degree of substitutability between natives and immigrants, and the increased demand for native workers as immigrants reduce the cost of production and output expands. The literature so far has focused on the former substitution effect, while ignoring the latter scale effect. This paper estimates both of...

  4. Native Peoples' Concepts of Health and Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Native communities; efforts by Native communities to improve health conditions; and the role of Native Americans in ... the general public, legislators, and researchers about the health challenges in Indian Country ... used for long-distance travel across the Pacific Ocean. Today, the Polynesian Voyaging ...

  5. Native American Children in Michigan. [Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Native American Children in Michigan," provides a historical context for the tenuous relationship between Michigan's 12 federally recognized tribes and the state government, paying particular attention to the erosion of Native American education programs and the disproportionate number of Native children who find themselves in both the child…

  6. 75 FR 38817 - Administration for Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Administration for Native Americans AGENCY: Administration for Native Americans, ACF, HHS. ACTION: Notice to Award Five Urgent Single-Source Grants. CFDA... Administration for Children and Families (ACF), Administration for Native Americans (ANA) has awarded five...

  7. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The...

  8. Surrounded by Beauty: Arts of Native America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Native American languages have no equivalent for the word "art." Yet the objects Native Americans have used and still use suggest that they are a highly spiritual people who create objects of extraordinary beauty. In Native American thought, there is no distinction between what is beautiful or functional, and what is sacred or secular. Design goes…

  9. The properties of the mucus barrier, a unique gel - how can nanoparticles cross it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jeffrey P; Chater, Peter I; Wilcox, Matthew D

    2016-04-01

    The key criterion for a nanoparticle drug-delivery system is the ability to produce substantial bioavailability without damaging the physiological protective mechanisms. The main area for drug delivery is the aerodigestive tract. All epithelial surfaces have a membrane-bound layer and in the lung this layer is surmounted by a gel layer. In the gastrointestinal tract the membrane-bound mucin layer is covered by a mucus bilayer. The pore sizes of mucus gels are around 100 to 200 nm. Consequently, only nanoparticles in this size range could potentially penetrate without modification of these layers. To study nanoparticle permeation with results that pertain to in vivo conditions, native mucus mucin preparations must be used. Strategies to increase pores in mucus gels are discussed herein. PMID:27010985

  10. Calculating Percent Gel For Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Charles Neal; Scott, Robert O.

    1988-01-01

    Reaction state of thermosetting resin tracked to assure desired properties. Rate of gel determined as function of temperature by measuring time to gel of part of graphite fabric impregnated with Hexcel R120 (or equivalent) phenolic resin.

  11. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P....... realistic plant community with an attractive, low habit and beautiful colors. Phyteuma spicatum is an attractive, novel species for a shady garden site.......Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P....... maritima were found suitable for cultivation in wholesale-containers and applicable for dry, sunny conditions in gardens. On the other hand, Narthecium ossifragum, Pulsatilla palustris, Drosera rotundifolia, Vaccinium oxycoccos, Eriophorum angustifolium and Sphagnum sp. were cultivated and planted as a...

  12. Ecological impacts of non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  13. 75 FR 33589 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Alaska Native-Serving and Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... under this notice. At the time of application, an Alaska Native-Serving institution must have an... application, a Native Hawaiian-Serving Institution must have an enrollment of undergraduate students that is... Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Alaska Native-Serving and Native...

  14. A method for labeling polyacrylamide gels

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever struggled with the identification of your polyacrylamide gels after running a few of them at once? Here is a new method for labeling gels which is easy, free and does not interfere with your protein samples. You will be intrigued once you learn how you can add a label to your laboratory-made gels and will have no problem identifying your gels any more.

  15. Consolidation of Inorganic Precipitated Silica Gel

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Kind; Hussein Sahabi

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal gels are possible intermediates in the generation of highly porous particle systems. In the production process the gels are fragmented after their formation. These gel fragments compact to particles whose application-technological properties are determined by their size and porosity. In the case of precipitated silica gels, this consolidation process depends on temperature and pH, among other parameters. It is shown that these dependencies can be characterized by oedometer measureme...

  16. Hybrid Materials of Polymer Gels with Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yan; Kaoru Tsujii

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Polymer gels have been extensively studied[1~17] since the discovery of volume phase-transition of a gel by Tanaka[1~5]. As a unique soft material, gels attract much attention and are tried to be applied for drug-delivery systgems[6], actuators or chemo-mechanical devices[7~9] and so on. In particular, controlled-release of small molecules from a gel is now a subject of special interest[10].

  17. Optimal control of native predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; O'Connell, Allan F.; Kendall, William L.; Runge, Michael C.; Simons, Theodore R.; Waldstein, Arielle H.; Schulte, Shiloh A.; Converse, Sarah J.; Smith, Graham W.; Pinion, Timothy; Rikard, Michael; Zipkin, Elise F.

    2010-01-01

    We apply decision theory in a structured decision-making framework to evaluate how control of raccoons (Procyon lotor), a native predator, can promote the conservation of a declining population of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Our management objective was to maintain Oystercatcher productivity above a level deemed necessary for population recovery while minimizing raccoon removal. We evaluated several scenarios including no raccoon removal, and applied an adaptive optimization algorithm to account for parameter uncertainty. We show how adaptive optimization can be used to account for uncertainties about how raccoon control may affect Oystercatcher productivity. Adaptive management can reduce this type of uncertainty and is particularly well suited for addressing controversial management issues such as native predator control. The case study also offers several insights that may be relevant to the optimal control of other native predators. First, we found that stage-specific removal policies (e.g., yearling versus adult raccoon removals) were most efficient if the reproductive values among stage classes were very different. Second, we found that the optimal control of raccoons would result in higher Oystercatcher productivity than the minimum levels recommended for this species. Third, we found that removing more raccoons initially minimized the total number of removals necessary to meet long term management objectives. Finally, if for logistical reasons managers cannot sustain a removal program by removing a minimum number of raccoons annually, managers may run the risk of creating an ecological trap for Oystercatchers.

  18. Strain Diversity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Group with Potential Blue Pigment Phenotype Isolated from Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierici, Margherita; Picozzi, Claudia; La Spina, Marisa Grazia; Orsi, Carla; Vigentini, Ileana; Zambrini, Vittorio; Foschino, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The blue discoloration in Mozzarella cheese comes from bacterial spoilage due to contamination with Pseudomonas. Fourteen Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from international collections and 55 new isolates of dominant bacterial populations from spoiled fresh cheese samples were examined to assess genotypic and phenotypic strain diversity. Isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and tested for the production of the blue pigment at various temperatures on Mascarpone agar and in Mozzarella preserving fluid (the salty water in which the cheese is conserved, which becomes enriched by cheese minerals and peptides during storage). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis after treatment with the endonuclease SpeI separated the isolates into 42 genotypes at a similarity level of 80%. Based on the pulsotype clustering, 12 representative strains producing the blue discoloration were chosen for the multilocus sequence typing targeting the gyrB, glnS, ileS, nuoD, recA, rpoB, and rpoD genes. Four new sequence typing profiles were discovered, and the concatenated sequences of the investigated loci grouped the tested strains into the so-called ''blue branch'' of the P. fluorescens phylogenetic tree, confirming the linkage between pigment production and a specific genomic cluster. Growth temperature affected pigment production; the blue discoloration appeared at 4 and 14°C but not at 30°C. Similarly, the carbon source influenced the phenomenon; the blue phenotype was generated in the presence of glucose but not in the presence of galactose, sodium succinate, sodium citrate, or sodium lactate. PMID:27497132

  19. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Gamra, Z M; Ahmed, M A

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile route for synthesis a new photocatalyst based on TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method using chitosan as biodegradable polymer. The crystalline and the nanostructure were characteristic X-ray diffraction [XRD], adsorption-desorption isotherm and high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM]. However, the optical features of the samples were investigated by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. It is obvious to notice the removal of the majority of methylene blue dye on a pure titania surface via adsorption mechanism owing to the high surface area and to the organized mesoporous nature of the solid sample. Incorporation of curcumin on titania surface changes the removal direction from adsorption to the photocatalytic pathway. Various photocatalytic experiments were performed to investigate the influence of initial dye concentration, weight of catalyst, stirring and light intensity on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue as primary pollutant model. Chemical oxygen demand [COD] test confirms the complete degradation of methylene blue dye. The exceptional photocatalytic reactivity of titania-curcumin nanoparticles is referred to reduction in band gap energy and to the facility of electron transfer from II* curcumin energy level to titania conduction band which increases the concentration of reactive oxygen superoxide radicals which in turn prevents the electron-hole recombination. The effect of various scavengers on the methylene blue dye degradation was investigated using ethanol, ascorbic acid and methyl viologen. The results have pointed out that O2(-) and HO(.) are considered the main active species in the degradation process. A plausible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by titania-curcumin nanoparticles were illustrated. PMID:27107333

  20. Preliminary assessment of freshwater crayfish as environmental indicators of human impacts in canyons of the Blue Mountains, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Canyoning has become a popular recreation activity in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (Australia), and park management consider that the activity is having an impact on the local fauna of the fragile canyon ecosystems. Although only limited data exist on the native freshwater crayfish populations that inhabit these canyons, it has been suggested that freshwater crayfish have the potential to act as a rapid bioindicator of human impacts. As a preliminary assessment, we sampled c...

  1. Photoprotection of human retinal pigment epithelium cells against blue light-induced apoptosis by melanin free radicals from Sepia officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Seagle, Brandon-Luke L.; Gasyna, Elzbieta M.; Mieler, William F.; Norris, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Cultured retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells can phagocytize large foreign particles. Heterogeneous melanin aggregates from Sepia officinalis, a species of cuttlefish, were fed to cultured human RPE cells to produce cells laden with Sepia melanin. Blue light-induced apoptosis (BLIA) assays were performed by flow cytometry on parallel cultures consisting of RPE cells isolated from independent eyes and evenly divided into two cultures, one fed Sepia melanin and one containing only native mel...

  2. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  3. Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper;

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge.......Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....

  4. Cu-doped CdS and ZnS nanocrystals grown onto thiolated silica-gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, George Ricardo Santana; Nascimento, Cristiane da Cunha; Xavier, Paulo Adriano; Costa, Silvanio Silverio Lopes; Costa, Luiz Pereira; Gimenez, Iara F.

    2014-11-01

    CdS and ZnS nanocrystals were grown over specific binding sites onto a thiolated silica-gel aiming to favor defect emission processes. This strategy was found to be effective in yielding ZnS nanocrystals with simultaneous blue and blue-green emissions owing to different types of defects. The effects of doping with copper ions have been observed on the photoluminescence properties. The intensity of defect-related emissions from both semiconductor nanocrystals increased with increasing dopant concentration from 0.25% to 1.5% copper, consistent with the presence of sulfur vacancies. Higher dopant concentrations lead to concentration quenching.

  5. Isolation of Salmonella typhimurium from dead blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Germán B; Origlia, Javier; Gornatti, Daniel; Piscopo, Miguel; Salve, Angela; Caffer, María I; Pichel, Mariana; Binsztein, Norma; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2009-03-01

    Two blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) chicks died of fatal salmonellosis in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The birds were histopathologically and microbiologically examined. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from the liver, spleen, heart, lung, kidney, and intestine of both birds. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, fosfomycin, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The XbaI-PFGE profile of the Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from the two animals, which shared the same cage, was identical and showed a unique pattern compared with 301 isolates included in the PulseNet national database of Salmonella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. This is the first report that describes fatal cases of salmonellosis from blue and gold macaws. PMID:19432017

  6. Radiochromic blue tetrazolium film dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The colourless radiochromic chloride salt of blue tetrazolium (BT2+) is reduced radiolytically to the deep violet-coloured formazan. Dosimeter films of this radiation sensor can be produced by dissolving polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in a heated aqueous solution of the salt, and, upon cooling, by casting the solution on a horizontal glass plate. In the present development, the resulting flexible transparent film is readily stripped from the plate, with a thickness of 0.045 mm. Upon irradiation with gamma rays or electron beams, a permanent image is produced with a broad absorption band in the visible spectrum. The radiation response is approximately a linear function in terms of the increase in optical absorbance (ΔA) measured at λmax 552 nm wavelength versus absorbed dose (D) over the range 5 to 50 kGy. The radiochromic image has a relatively high spatial resolution and can be used to register dose distributions and beam profiles. The value of ΔA shows a gradual increase for the first 24 hours after irradiation but is stable thereafter. The variation of response with irradiation temperature is negligible over the temperature range -20 deg. C to +30 deg. C, but displays a pronounced positive temperature dependence at higher temperatures. The response to gamma radiation shows negligible dose-rate dependence as long as the radiochromic sensor concentration in the PVA matrix is sufficiently high (> 6 % by weight). (author)

  7. 75 FR 68026 - Native American CDFI Assistance (NACA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Native American CDFI Assistance (NACA) Program Funding... the Native American CDFI Assistance (NACA) Program. Announcement Type: Announcement of funding... direct at least 50 percent of their activities toward serving Native American, Alaska Native,...

  8. Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Native > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, ... 54. 1 At a glance – Cancer Rates for American Indian/Alaska Natives (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per ...

  9. Blue jays nest in an unusual structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin L.; Lyons, Curtis P.; Sedgwick, James A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a successful Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) nest in an unusual structure on the side of a building.  The nest was located near the edge of the species' range along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.  The nest was completely obvious, suggesting that the structure itself provided adequate cover and sercurity for the jays.  Blue Jays appear to be declining in some areas of the United States such as the Southeast.  Structures such as the one we describe may be more useful in attracting Blue Jays than the nesting platforms available commercially.

  10. Gel dosimetry for conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the continuum development of conformal radio therapies, aimed at delivering high dose to tumor tissue and low dose to the healthy tissue around, the necessities has appeared of suitable improvement of dosimetry techniques giving the possibility of obtaining dose images to be compared with diagnostic images. Also if wide software has been developed for calculating dose distributions in the fields of various radiotherapy units, experimental verifications are necessary, in particular in the case of complex geometries in conformal radiotherapy. Gel dosimetry is a promising method for imaging the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms, with the possibility of 3D reconstruction of the spatial dose distribution, with milli metric resolution. Optical imaging of gel dosimeters, based on visible light absorbance analysis, has shown to be a reliable technique for achieving dose distributions. (Author)

  11. The Swelling of Olympic Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael; Fischer, Jakob; Werner, Marco; Sommer, Jens-Uwe

    2014-03-01

    The swelling equilibrium of Olympic gels is studied by Monte Carlo Simulations. We observe that gels consisting of flexible cyclic molecules of a higher degree of polymerization N show a smaller equilibrium swelling degree Q ~N - 0 . 28φ0- 0 . 72 for the same monomer volume fraction φ0 at network preparation. This observation is explained by a disinterpenetration process of overlapping non-concatenated polymers upon swelling. In the limit of a sufficiently large number of concatenations per cyclic molecule we expect that the equilibrium degree of swelling becomes proportional to φ0- 1 / 2 independent of N. Our results challenge current textbook models for the equilibrium degree of swelling of entangled polymer networks. Now at: Bio Systems Analysis Group, Jena Centre for Bioinformatics (JCB) and Department for Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany.

  12. The Gel Electrophoresis Markup Language (GelML) from the Proteomics Standards Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Frank; Hoogland, Christine; Martinez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Medina-Aunon, J. Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Wipat, Anil; Hermjakob, Henning; Almeida, Jonas S; Stanislaus, Romesh; Paton, Norman W.; Jones, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    The Human Proteome Organisation’s Proteomics Standards Initiative (HUPO-PSI) has developed the GelML data exchange format for representing gel electrophoresis experiments performed in proteomics investigations. The format closely follows the reporting guidelines for gel electrophoresis, which are part of the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) set of modules. GelML supports the capture of metadata (such as experimental protocols) and data (such as gel images) resulting f...

  13. Electrophoresis of DNA in agarose gels, polyacrylamide gels and in free solution

    OpenAIRE

    Stellwagen, Nancy C.

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the electrophoresis of curved and normal DNA molecules in agarose gels, polyacrylamide gels and in free solution. These studies were undertaken to clarify why curved DNA molecules migrate anomalously slowly in polyacrylamide gels but not in agarose gels. Two milestone papers are cited, in which Ferguson plots were used to estimate the effective pore size of agarose and polyacrylamide gels. Subsequent studies on the effect of the electric field on agarose and polyacrylami...

  14. Synthesis, characterization, swelling and dye adsorption properties of starch incorporated acrylic gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Bidyadhar; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Several hydrogels were prepared by a free radical polymerization of acrylic acid (AA), sodium acrylate (SA) and AA/hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the presence of starch in water. These starch incorporated acrylic gels were prepared by varying the concentration of the initiator, monomer, crosslinker and the starch. The resulting gels were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD, DTA-TGA, pH at point zero charge (PZC), swelling and the diffusion in water. The gels showed high adsorption and removal% of Safranine T (ST) and Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) dyes from water. The swelling and the adsorption data were fitted to different kinetic models and isotherms. Amongst the three kinds of gels, the starch incorporated sodium polyacrylate gel showed the highest adsorption of 9.7-85.3mg/L (97-61% removal) of BCB dye and 9.1-83mg/L (91-60% removal) of ST dye for a feed dye concentration of 10-140mg/L. PMID:26318665

  15. Development of novel Sol-Gel Indicators (SGI's) for in-situ environmental measurements: Part 1, Program and a new pH Sol-Gel Indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of incorporating analytical indicators into a sol-gel glassy matrix and then coating substrates with this composite material has bee demonstrated. Substrates coated include paper, wood, glass, and the lens of an analytical probe. The first SRTC sol-gel indicator, comprising bromophenol blue dispersed in a silica matrix, was fabricated and successfully used to measure solution pH in the range of pH 3.0 to 7.5. material exhibited a quick response time, as measured by color changes both qualitatively and quantitatively, and the measuring device was reversible or reusable. Additional indicators with responses over other ranges as well as indicators sensitive to the presence of elements of interest, are also under development. The new SGI composites possess promising properties and an excellent potential for performing a variety important in-situ environmental measurements and area discussed in this report

  16. Bioorganically doped sol-gel materials containing amyloglucosidase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad-Oros Beatrice

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloglucosidase (AMG from Aspergillus niger was encapsulated in various matrices derived from tetraethoxysilane, methyltriethoxysilane, phenyltriethoxysilane and vinyltriacetoxysilane by different methods of immobilization. The immobilized enzyme was prepared by entrapment in two steps, in one-step and entrapment/deposition, respectively. The activities of the immobilized AMG were assayed and compared with that of the native enzyme. The effects of the organosilaneprecursors and their molar ratios, the immobilization method, the inorganic support (white ceramic, red ceramic, purolite, alumina, TiO2, celite, zeolite and enzyme loading upon the immobilized enzyme activity were tested. The efficiency of the sol-gel biocomposites can be improved through combination of the fundamental immobilization techniques and selection of the precursors.

  17. Four cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers for the detection of the Juglans ailantifolia chloroplast in putatively native J. cinerea populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Tim S; Robichaud, Rodney L; Nuanes, Steve; Anagnostakis, Sandra L; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Romero-Severson, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    Hybridization between butternut (Juglans cinerea), a forest tree native to eastern North America, and Japanese walnut (J. ailantifolia), a tree tolerant to the lethal fungal disease butternut canker, casts doubt on the genetic identity of the remaining butternuts. We report a diagnostic test to distinguish the J. cinerea chloroplast from the J. ailantifolia chloroplast using cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences resolvable in 1.5% agarose gels. J. ailantifolia maternal ancestry in naturally regenerated stands provides a site selection criterion for studies of introgression dynamics when the non-native parent and the hybrids tolerate a disease to which the native species is susceptible. PMID:21564682

  18. Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Zeff), electron density (ρe), photon mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), photon mass energy absorption coefficient (μen/ρ) and total stopping power (S/ρ)tot of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close (en/ρ for all polymer gels were in close agreement (tot of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application

  19. Gel fire suppressants for controlling underground heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng-gen; XUE Sheng

    2011-01-01

    One of the major safety issues in coal mining is heatings and the resultant spontaneous combustion in underground coal mines.CSIRO researchers have developed a number of polymer gels suitable for controlling heatings in coal mines.These gels were developed to meet strict selection criteria including easy preparation,no or low toxicity,controllable gelation time,adaptable to mine water chemistry,adjustable viscosity,relatively long gel life,thermally and chemically stable and low cost.The HPAM-Aluminum Citrate gel system was identified to be the most favourable gel system for fire suppression in underground coal mines.These gels can be applied to the areas undergoing coal heating or gas leakage at a controllable gelation time and impermeable gel barriers can be formed in the areas to block ingress of air.

  20. Consolidation of Inorganic Precipitated Silica Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kind

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal gels are possible intermediates in the generation of highly porous particle systems. In the production process the gels are fragmented after their formation. These gel fragments compact to particles whose application-technological properties are determined by their size and porosity. In the case of precipitated silica gels, this consolidation process depends on temperature and pH, among other parameters. It is shown that these dependencies can be characterized by oedometer measurements. Originally, the oedometer test (one-dimensional compression test stemmed from soil mechanics. It has proven to be an interesting novel examination method for gels. Quantitative data of the time-dependent shrinkage of gel samples can be obtained. The consolidation of the gels shows a characteristic dependence on the above parameters.

  1. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and...

  2. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-07-26

    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (distribution for commercial applications. PMID:27408982

  3. Properties of blue-stained wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Humar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Discoloration of wood is frequently caused by blue-stain fungi. Among them Aureobasidium pullulans and Sclerophoma pithyophila are reported as the most important staining organism. In previous researches, it was generally considered that blue-stain fungi do not influence mechanical properties. However, there were some opposite results published as well. In order to elucidate this issue, specimens made of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris sapwood were exposed to two blue stain fungi A. pullulans and S. pithyophila for periods between two and eight weeks. FTIR, weight, colour and non-destructive modulus of elasticity measurements were performed before and after exposure. The results showed that blue stain fungi, besides considerable discoloration, do not cause any significant damage to wood. Surprisingly the non-destructive MoE analysis showed that modulus of elasticity even slightly increase after fungal exposure.

  4. Aspects of dosimetry using radiation sensitive gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiation sensitive gels for dosimetry measurements was first suggested in the 1950s. It was subsequently shown that radiation induced changes in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation properties of gels infused with conventional Fricke dosimetry solutions could be measured. However, due to predominantly diffusion-related limitations, alternative polymer gel dosimeters were suggested. Clinical applications of these radiologically tissue equivalent gel dosimeters using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have subsequently been reported in the literature. In Fricke gels, Fe2+ ions in ferrous sulphate solutions are usually dispersed throughout a gelatin or agarose hydrogel matrix. Radiation-induced changes in the dosimeters are considered to be either through direct absorption of ionising radiation or via intermediate water free radicals. Fe2+ ions are converted to Fe3+ ions with a corresponding change in paramagnetic properties that may be quantified using NMR relaxation measurements. In polymer gels, monomers are also dispersed in a gelatin or agarose hydrogel matrix. Monomers undergo a polymerisation reaction as a function of absorbed dose resulting in a three-dimensional polymer gel matrix. The radiation-induced formation of polymer influences NMR relaxation properties. The growth in polymer also results in other physical changes that may be used to quantify absorbed radiation dose. This thesis investigates various aspects of radiation dosimetry using radiation sensitive gels. Image processing software was developed to calculate NMR relaxation images of dosimetry gels. Measurements were undertaken to investigate the diffusion problem in Fricke gels. Radiological properties were theoretically modelled for both Fricke and polymer gels. A methodology was developed for the preparation of polymer gels. Vibrational spectroscopic studies were undertaken to investigate the underlying mechanism involved in the radiation-induced formation of polymer. MRI pulse

  5. Chinese Native Speakers Counterfactuals Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.IntroductionI have found,in my teaching experience,that English counterfactuals are among the most diffi-cult problems for Chinese native speaker EFL learners. A recent survey of EFL teachers in Guilin,China also supports these findings. In response to the question“What do you think is the most diffi-cult for your students to learn in English”,5 6out of 71 ,or 79% said the English subjunctive verbsare. To the question“Do you think the English subjunctives are difficultfor your students”,1 0 0 % ofthe EFL ...

  6. Blue Flag: a Symbol of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Blue Flag is a high standard symbol of environmental protection and it is awarded to the beaches and agreement ports by the Foundation of Education for the Environment. The beaches having been awarded this distinction warrant particular protection for their visitors, which is a particular point of tourism attractiveness: the result, they are preferred by tourists and, therefore, by tour operators selling tourism packages for the littoral. In 2009, Romanian beaches were not awarded any Blue Flags.

  7. Blue Ocean Strategy and marketing Icelandic fish

    OpenAIRE

    Sigrún Guðbjartsdóttir 1976

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to explore if practice of Blue Ocean Strategy, through value innovation, or certain tools and framework of the strategy can be useful for Icelandic fish marketing companies. Blue Ocean Strategy is an innovative strategy that pushes companies to look beyond conventional boundaries of an industry and discover new market space through value innovation and consequently make competition irrelevant. Data was gathered through qualitative research methods, interviews as we...

  8. Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana L Melcón; Amanda J Cummins; Kerosky, Sara M; Lauren K Roche; Wiggins, Sean M.; John A. Hildebrand

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to...

  9. Quantitation of specific proteins in polyacrylamide gels by the elution of Fast Green FCF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L B; Hook, G E

    1981-07-01

    The quantitation of proteins in polyacrylamide gels stained with Fast green FCF has been investigated using a modification of the elution technique originally described by Fenner et al. (Fenner, C., Traut, R.R., Mason, D.T. and Wikman-Coffelt, J. (1975) Anal. Biochem. 63, 595--602) for Coomassie Blue and adapted by Medugorac (Medugorac, I. (1979) Basic Res. Cardiol. 74, 406--416) for use with proteins stained with Fast Green FCF. The elution of dye from stained protein was accomplished using 1.0 M NaOH instead of aqueous pyridine as required by the original method. The primary advantages of our modification are that the time required for protein quantitation has been considerably reduced and the use of toxic organic solvents has been eliminated. We have investigated the applicability of the method of several different proteins and our results indicate: (a) The quantity of Fast Green FCF eluted from specific proteins is proportional to the quantity of protein applied to the gel, but varies for each individual protein. (b) The method allows quantitation over a very wide range of protein (1--800 micrograms). (c) Quantitation of protein is independent of the width of the stained bands as well as acrylamide concentration. (d) The method is applicable to gels of many types including disc, slab and continuous gradient gels. (e) Protein can be estimated from the patterns obtained by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (f) The presence of Triton X-100 in gel and protein sample does not affect quantitation; the method is applicable to gels containing SDS provided that SDS is removed prior to staining. (g) Precipitation of protein with 12.5% TCA following electrophoresis does not interfere with quantitation. (h) The reproducibility of the technique is excellent, with standard deviations being less than 10% of the mean in all cases. This method appears highly versatile but requires appropriate standards for the quantitation of individual proteins. PMID:7276424

  10. Sol-Gel Preparation and Luminescence Properties of BaMgAl10O17∶Eu2+ Phosphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of BaMgAl10O17∶ Eu2+ (BAM) phosphors using the sol-gel method and their luminescence properties were reported. The blue-light emitting BAM was synthesized using citric acid and ethylene glycol as chelating materials. Emission of blue-light was obtained from these phosphors. The luminescent intensity increases as the temperature of heat treatment is increased. This study investigated the effects of the molar ratio of ethylene glycol to citric acid (Φ value), with respect to the phase formation and luminescence properties of BAM. The variation of the Φ value resulted in the change of the sol-gel reaction mechanism and the microstructures of the resultant powders. An increase in Φ value leads to an increase in the rate of BAM phase formation. The photoluminescent intensity of the prepared phosphors increases with heating temperatures because of enhanced crystallization.

  11. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space. PMID:26238330

  12. [Modified Gedelisa test (electrophoresis in gradient of polyacrylamide gel combined with Elisa test). Applications to Toxoplasma gondii exo-antigens (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgeorges, P T; Ambroise-Thomas, P; Falanga, P; Renversez, J C

    1980-01-01

    The authors describe a modified Gedelisa test made up an electrophorese in gradient polyacrylamide gel plus an Elisa test. The gel gradient, after electrophoretic migration is cut longitudinaly. One half is stained with Coomassie blue and the second half is cut in slices of 1 mm thick. Each slice is placed in a well of a microtitration polystirene plate, filled up with carbonate buffer pH 9,6 and then scrached. Proteins diffuse out of the gel and coated on the polystirene. The antigenicity of the coated proteins is revealed by Elisa test. This technique was applied to the study of Toxoplasma gondii exo-antigens obtained from medium of in vitro culture on Vero cells. This antigen contains four fractions, three of them are stained with Coomassie blue, their molecular weights are 160 000, 830 000 and more than one million daltons. PMID:7212392

  13. Detection of bacteriophage phi 6 minus-strand RNA and novel mRNA isoconformers synthesized in vivo and in vitro, by strand-separating agarose gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two urea-free agarose gel protocols that resolve the six individual strands of bacteriophage phi 6 dsRNA were developed and used to analyze phage RNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro. Citrate gels separate strands of the large and medium chromosomes while Tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) gels resolve the medium and small dsRNA segments. Minus strands migrate faster than plus strands on citrate gels but are retarded on TBE gels. A study of electrophoretic conditions showed that pH affects strand resolution on citrate gels, and that voltage gradient, agarose concentration, and ethidium bromide significantly alter strand migration on TBE gels. Analysis of native phi 6 RNA synthesized in vivo and in vitro showed that the large and medium message RNAs comigrate with the corresponding plus strands of denatured virion dsRNA. The small messenger RNA is exceptional. Native small mRNA was detected as three isoconformers in vivo and in vitro. The isoconformers were converted by heat denaturation to a single RNA species that comigrates with the virion s+ strand. Minus strands labeled in vivo were detected only after heat denaturation. Minus strand synthesis was detected also in heat-denatured samples from in vitro phi 6 nucleocapsid RNA polymerase reactions at pH values suboptimal for transcription

  14. Double-network gels and the toughness of terrestrial slug glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Alex M; Rabice, Sarah R; Garbacz, Holland S; Harro, Cailin C; Smith, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    The terrestrial slug Arion subfuscus produces a defensive secretion that is sticky and tough, despite being a dilute gel. It is unusual in having high stiffness for a gel, yet retaining the high extensibility typical of mucus. In tensile tests, it sustains an average peak stress of 101 kPa, and fails at an average strain of 9.5. This gives the gel toughness; it requires much greater strain energy to fracture than most gels. This toughness may arise from a double-network type mechanism. In this mechanism, two separate, interpenetrating networks of polymers with different properties combine to give toughness that can be several orders of magnitude greater than either network individually. Native gel electrophoresis suggests that A. subfuscus glue consists of two networks: a network of negatively charged proteins ranging in Mr from 40×10(3) to 220×10(3) that can be dissociated by hydroxylamine and a network of heparan sulfate-like proteoglycans. The two networks are not tightly linked, though proteins of Mr 40×10(3) and 165×10(3) may associate with the carbohydrates. Targeted disruption of either network separately, using enzymatic hydrolysis, disulfide bond breakage or imine bond disruption completely disrupted the glue, resulting in no measurable toughness. Thus, the two networks separately provide little toughness, but together they work synergistically to create a tough material, as predicted in the double-network mechanism. PMID:26276864

  15. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH SEKAM PADI MENJADI SILIKA GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Astuti Handayani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sekam padi merupakan salah satu sumber penghasil silika terbesar, berpotensi sebagai bahan pembuatan silika gel. Abu sekam padi mengandung silika sebanyak 87%-97% berat kering. Sintesis silika gel dari abu sekam padi dilakukan dengan mereaksikan abu sekam padi menggunakan larutan NaOH 1N pada suhu 800C selama 1 jam dan dilanjutkan dengan penambahan larutan asam hingga pH=7. Gel yang dihasilkan selanjutnya didiamkan selama 18 jam kemudian dikeringkan pada suhu dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 800C hingga beratnya konstan. Hasil percobaan diperoleh bahwa silika gel dengan penambahan CH3COOH menghasilkan yield yang lebih besar dibandingkan penambahan HCl. Berdasarkan analisis FT-IR silika gel yang diperoleh memiliki gugus Si-O-Si dan gugus Si-OH. Silika gel dengan penambahan HCl memiliki surface area sebesar 65,558 m2/g, total pore volume 0,1935 cc/g, dan average pore size sebesar 59,0196 Å. Sedangkan silika gel dengan penambahan CH3COOH memiliki surface area sebesar 9,685 m2/g, total pore volume 0,02118 cc/g, dan average pore size sebesar 43,7357Å. Silika gel dengan penambahanCH3COOH memiliki kemampuan menyerap kelembaban udara yang lebih baik dibanding silika gel dengan penambahan HCl. Rice hull ash (RHA is one of the biggest source of silica, potential for sintesis silica gel. RHA contains silica as many as 87 % -97 %. Synthesis of silica gel from rice hull ash was done by reaction using NaOH solution at temperature 800C for 1 hour and followed by the addition of an acid solution until pH=7. The gel were rested with time aging 18 hour, and then dried using oven at temperature 800C until constant weigh. The results obtained that the silica gel with the addition of CH3COOH produce higher yields than the addition of HCl. Based on FT-IR analysis, silica gel has a group of silanol (Si-`OH and siloxan (Si-O-Si group. Silica gel with the addition of HCl has a surface area 65,558 m2/g, a total pore volume 0,1935 cc/g, and average pore size 59

  16. Metal-silica sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  17. Walking in Balance: Native American Recovery Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Owen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Native American ritual practices, frameworks and key concepts employed by several substance abuse treatments centres in the U.S. and Canada. It also examines the way Alcoholics Anonymous’ Twelve Step programme has been modified to attract and serve the needs of Native Americans and First Nations and its potential impact on the ritual practices. Native concepts of wellbeing are highlighted and linked to the idea of living in “balance”.

  18. Immigration, education and native wage inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Lumpe, Christian; Weigert, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the effect of immigration on the labour market prospects for different skill groups among natives. We develop a model of endogenous labour supply in which immigration affects educational decisions of natives. We argue that the distributional consequences of immigration with respect to native between-skill-group inequality are ambiguous in general and crucially depend on the host country's level of educational attainment. We show that this result is robust irrespective...

  19. Chitosan: Gels and Interfacial Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Nilsen-Nygaard; Strand, Sabina P.; Kjell M. Vårum; Kurt I. Draget; Catherine T. Nordgård

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a unique biopolymer in the respect that it is abundant, cationic, low-toxic, non-immunogenic and biodegradable. The relative occurrence of the two monomeric building units (N-acetyl-glucosamine and d-glucosamine) is crucial to whether chitosan is predominantly an ampholyte or predominantly a polyelectrolyte at acidic pH-values. The chemical composition is not only crucial to its surface activity properties, but also to whether and why chitosan can undergo a sol–gel transition. T...

  20. Motility initiation in active gels

    CERN Document Server

    Recho, Pierre; Truskinovsky, Lev

    2015-01-01

    Motility initiation in crawling cells requires a symmetry breaking mechanism which transforms a symmetric state into a polarized state. Experiments on keratocytes suggest that polarization is triggered by increased contractility of motor proteins. In this paper we argue that contraction can be responsible not only for the symmetry breaking transition but also for the incipient translocation of the segment of an active gel mimicking the crawling cell. Our model suggests that when the contractility increases sufficiently far beyond the motility initiation threshold, the cell can stop and re-symmetrizes. The proposed theory reproduces the motility initiation pattern in fish keratocytes and the behavior of keratocytes prior to cell division.

  1. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Un Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS, floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  2. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall. PMID:26379749

  3. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N.L.

    1983-11-10

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  4. Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Callan-Jones, A C

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  5. GEM printer: 3D gel printer for free shaping of functional gel engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Muroi, Hisato; Yamamoto, Kouki; Serizawa, Ryo; Gong, Jin

    2013-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. The gels have both low surface friction and well permeability due to a large amount of water absorbed in the gels, which are superiority of the gels compering to the polyester fibers. It is, however, difficult for gels to be forked structure or cavity structure by using cutting or mold. Consequently, it is necessary to develop the additive manufacturing device to synthesize and mode freely gels at the same time. Here we try to develop an optical 3D gel printer that enables gels to be shaped precisely and freely. For the free forming of high-strength gels, the 1st gels are ground to particles and mixed with 2nd pregel solution, and the mixed solution is gelled by the irradiation of UV laser beam through an optical fiber. The use of the optical fiber makes one-point UV irradiation possible. Since the optical fiber is controlled by 3D-CAD, the precise and free molding in XYZ directions is easily realized. We successfully synthesized tough gels using the gel printer.

  6. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  7. Self-Pumping Active Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Ta; Hishamunda, Jean Bernard; Fraden, Seth; Dogic, Zvonimir

    Isotropic active gels are the network which is consist of cross-linked building blocks and the structure of which changes randomly and isotropically with time. Dogic et. al. show that pairs of anti-parallel microtubules form extensile bundles, which merge, extend, and buckle. In an unconfined system, the dynamics of these bundles causes spontaneous turbulent-like flow driven by motion of microscopic molecular motors. We found that confining these active gels in a millimeter sized toroids causes a transition into a new dynamical state characterized by circulation currents persisting for hours until ATP is depleted. We show how toroid dimensions impact the properties of self-organized circular currents, how directions of circulation can be designed by engineering ratchet-shaped boundaries, and how circulations of connected toroids can be either synchronized or antisynchronized. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the flow rate in the circulation is independent of curvature and length of flow path. The flow rate persists for centimeters without decay, disregarding conventional pipe flow resistance. Such findings pave the path to self-pumping pipe transport and performing physical work with biological system.

  8. Microfluidics of soft granular gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ryan; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E.

    Microfluidic methods for encapsulating cells and particles typically involve drop making with two immiscible fluids. The main materials constraint in this approach is surface tension, creating inherent instability between the two fluids. We can eliminate this instability by using miscible inner and outer phases. This is achieved by using granular micro gels which are chemically miscible but physically do not mix. These microgels are yield stress materials, so they flow as solid plugs far from shear gradients, and fluidize where gradients are generated - near an injection nozzle for example. We have found that tuning the yield stress of the material by varying polymer concentration, device performance can be controlled. The solid like behavior of the gel allows us to produces infinitely stable jets that maintain their integrity and configuration over long distances and times. These properties can be combined and manipulated to produce discrete particulate bunches of an inner phase, flowing inside of an outer phase, well enough even to print a Morse code message suspended within flow chambers about a millimeter in diameter moving at millimeters a second.

  9. Stabilized aqueous gels and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, B.L.

    1978-08-29

    New improved aqueous gels, and methods of using same in contacting subterranean formations, are provided. The gels are prepared by gelling an aqueous brine having incorporated therein a water-soluble cellulose ether such as a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and are rendered more stable to decomposition by incorporating a sulfoalkylated tannin stabilizing agent, such as a sulfomethylated quebracho (SMQ), in the gel during the preparation thereof.

  10. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tong-Chun

    2004-08-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula. PMID:15236477

  11. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    OpenAIRE

    Cucherousset, Julien; Aymes, J.-C.; Poulet, Nicolas; Santoul, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis

    2008-01-01

    International audience Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temp...

  12. "Blue and seven phenomena" among Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M

    1999-10-01

    To investigate color and number preferences in Japan, 586 university undergraduates (239 men and 347 women; M age = 20.9 yr.) were asked to name a color (Question 1), to name their preferred color (Question 2), and to name their preferred number between zero and nine (Question 3). The results showed that Japanese students chose blue (33.5%) or red (26.0%) when asked to name a color but that red was not chosen as frequently as blue as a preferred color (red: 11.1%, blue: 37.1%). Sex differences were found on both Questions 1 and 2 by chi-squared test. Black was chosen more by men, while pink was selected more by women. 22.5% subjects also selected the number seven, supporting Simon's observation of the "blue-seven phenomenon." The reasons given for the choice showed that seven was "a lucky number" and "represented happiness" among Japanese students. Four colors (blue, red, white, and black) accounted for 76.8% and 65.1% of responses to Questions 1 and 2, respectively, and odd numbers 68.4% for Question 3. PMID:10597589

  13. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  14. Structure and Frictional Properties of Colloid Gel

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Tokita

    2014-01-01

    Polymer gels are known to be opaque when the preparation conditions, such as the reaction temperature and the composition, are changed. The increase of the opaqueness of the gel suggests strongly the change of network structure. Here, we are going to review the recent studies on the structure and the frictional study of the opaque poly(acrylamide) gel. The results indicate that the opaque poly(acrylamide) gel consists of the fractal aggregate of the colloidal particles of sub-micrometer in si...

  15. Structure of chitosan gels mineralized by sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzejewska, Z.; Skwarczyńska, A.; Douglas, T. E. L.; Biniaś, D.; Maniukiewicz, W.; Sielski, J.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents the structural studies of mineralized chitosan hydrogels. Hydrogels produced by using sodium beta-glycerophosphate (Na-β-GP) as a neutralizing agent. Mineralization was performed method "post loading", which consisted in sorption to the gels structure Ca ions. In order to obtain - in the structure of gels - compounds similar to the hydroxyapatites present naturally in bone tissue, gels after sorption were modified in: pH 7 buffer and sodium hydrogen phosphate. In order to determine the structural properties of the gels, the following methods were used: infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transformation, FTIR, X-ray diffractometry, XRD, scanning electron microscopy, SEM.

  16. Native American History in a Box: A New Approach to Teaching Native American Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Emory C.; Hitt, Austin M.; Schipper, Jason A.; Jones, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Native American History in a Box curriculum which is designed to introduce elementary and middle-level students to Native American cultures. The curriculum consists of a five day unit addressing the following concepts pertaining to Native American Nations: settlements, tools, sustenance, pottery, and contact with…

  17. Troublesome Discourse: Analysis of Native Speaker/Non-Native Speaker Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairley, Michael S.

    This paper presents a case study of an episode in a conversation between a native English speaker (the female director of an English language school) and a non-native English speaker (a student apparently with minimal language skills) in which the native speaker is engaged in an extended telling of seemingly crucial information. The troublesome…

  18. Missing phonemes are perceptually restored but differently by native and non-native listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Mako; Arai, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how similarly present and absent English phonemes behind noise are perceived by native and non-native speakers. Participants were English native speakers and Japanese native speakers who spoke English as a second language. They listened to English words and non-words in which a phoneme was covered by noise (added; phoneme + noise) or replaced by noise (replaced; noise only). The target phoneme was either a nasal (/m/ and /n/) or a liquid (/l/ and /r/). In experiment, participants listened to a pair of a word (or non-word) with noise (added or replaced) and a word (or non-word) without noise (original) in a row, and evaluated the similarity of the two on an eight-point scale (8: very similar, 1: not similar). The results suggested that both native and non-native speakers perceived the 'added' phoneme more similar to the original sound than the 'replaced' phoneme to the original sound. In addition, both native and non-native speakers restored missing nasals more than missing liquids. In general, a replaced phoneme was better restored in words than non-words by native speakers, but equally restored by non-native speakers. It seems that bottom-up acoustic cues and top-down lexical cues are adopted differently in the phonemic restoration of native and non-native speakers. PMID:27375982

  19. Native- and Non-Native Speaking English Teachers in Vietnam: Weighing the Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, Ian; Duong, Oanh Thi Hoang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a common belief that learners of English as a foreign language prefer to learn English from native-speaker teachers rather than non-native speakers of English. 50 Vietnamese learners of English evaluated the importance of native-speakerness compared with seven qualities valued in an English language teacher: teaching…

  20. Profiles of Native American and/or Alaska Native English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on profiles of Native American and/or Alaska Native English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Largest Percentage of ELs Who Were Native American and/or…

  1. Within-category variance and lexical tone discrimination in native and non-native speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, C.W.G.; Sadakata, M.; Chen, A.; Desain, P.W.M.; McQueen, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show how acoustic variance within lexical tones in disyllabic Mandarin Chinese pseudowords affects discrimination abilities in both native and non-native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Within-category acoustic variance did not hinder native speakers in discriminating between lexical

  2. Influence of native and non-native multitalker babble on speech recognition in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Jain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess speech recognition in noise using multitalker babble of native and non-native language at two different signal to noise ratios. The speech recognition in noise was assessed on 60 participants (18 to 30 years with normal hearing sensitivity, having Malayalam and Kannada as their native language. For this purpose, 6 and 10 multitalker babble were generated in Kannada and Malayalam language. Speech recognition was assessed for native listeners of both the languages in the presence of native and nonnative multitalker babble. Results showed that the speech recognition in noise was significantly higher for 0 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR compared to -3 dB SNR for both the languages. Performance of Kannada Listeners was significantly higher in the presence of native (Kannada babble compared to non-native babble (Malayalam. However, this was not same with the Malayalam listeners wherein they performed equally well with native (Malayalam as well as non-native babble (Kannada. The results of the present study highlight the importance of using native multitalker babble for Kannada listeners in lieu of non-native babble and, considering the importance of each SNR for estimating speech recognition in noise scores. Further research is needed to assess speech recognition in Malayalam listeners in the presence of other non-native backgrounds of various types.

  3. Native proteomic analysis of protein complexes in murine intestinal brush border membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babušiak, M.; Man, Petr; Petrák, J.; Vyoral, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2007), s. 121-129. ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/03/H066; GA AV ČR KJB500200612; GA MŠk LC545 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/04/0003; GA MZd(CZ) NR8930; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06044; CZ(CZ) 023736; GA MZd(CZ) NR8317 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : blue native electrophoresis * brush border membranes * protein complexes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.479, year: 2007

  4. Selective predation by feral cats on a native skink on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Björn; Reed, Robert N.; Adams, Amy A. Yackel; Mazurek, M.J.; Hinkle, Thomas J.; Levasseur, Patricia M.; Palmer, Meredith S.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Two species of skinks (Fig. 1) occur in a 5-ha plot on Guam where we have been conducting intensive research on Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) population biology for nearly a decade (Rodda et al. 2007). The Pacific Blue-tailed Skink (Emoia caeruleocauda [de Vis 1892]) is native to Guam, whereas the Curious Skink (Carlia ailanpalai Zug 2004) is invasive. On the evening of 27 November 2012, PML and MSP discovered a pile of vomited skinks (Fig. 2) inside the plot (UTM 55P: 269125 m E, 1508930 m N).

  5. Comparison of Catalytic Activities for Sonocatalytic, Photocatalytic and Sonophotocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue in the Presence of Magnetic Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Ardiansyah; Tju, Hendry; Saleh, Rosari

    2016-04-01

    Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO nanocomposites with different molar ratio were synthesized using sol-gel method. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, BET surface area analyszer, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). The sonocatalytic-photocatalytic-sonophotocatalytic activity of as-synthesized samples was investigated based on methylene blue degradation. Moreover, the role of active species was investigated using scavenger technique. The results showed that hole plays an important key role in sono-photo-sonophotocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

  6. Two-dimensional gel-based alkaline proteome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Avishek; Cai, Liyang; Ejby, Morten; Schmidt, Bjarne G; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jacobsen, Susanne; Svensson, Birte

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) is a well-documented probiotic bacterium isolated from human gut. Detailed 2D gel-based NCFM proteomics addressed the so-called alkaline range, i.e., pH 6-11. Proteins were identified in 150 of the 202 spots picked from the Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained 2D gel using MALDI-TOF-MS. The 102 unique gene products among the 150 protein identifications were assigned to different functional categories, and evaluated by considering a calculated distribution of abundance as well as grand average of hydrophobicity values. None of the very few available lactic acid bacteria proteome reference maps included the range of pI >7.0. The present report of such data on the proteome of NCFM fundamentally complements current knowledge on protein profiles limited to the acid and neutral pH range. PMID:22522807

  7. Spectroscopic studies of Cu2+ ions in sol–gel derived silica matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P I Paulose; Gin Jose; Vinoy Thomas; Gijo Jose; N V Unnikrishnan; M K R Warrier

    2002-02-01

    The Cu2+ ion doped silica gel matrices in monolithic shape were prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The absorption, transmittance and fluorescence spectra of the gel matrices heat treated at different temperatures were monitored. The loss of water and hydroxyl group from silica network changes the optical properties of the Cu2+ ions in the host, noted by the change in colour of monolith and spectral characteristics. The pronounced blue shift observed (700–900 nm to 600–850 nm) for the broad band of the absorption spectra of the samples heated up to 700°C is attributed to the ligand field splitting and partial removal of hydroxyl group from the silica matrices. The results indicate broadband filtering effects of the samples in the wavelength region 400–600 nm. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of the glass matrices heated to 1000°C confirms the conversion of Cu2+ ion to Cu+ ion.

  8. The relationship of agarose gel structure to the sieving of spheres during agarose gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Griess, G A; Guiseley, K B; Serwer, P

    1993-01-01

    To understand the organization of fibers in an agarose gel, digitized electron micrographs are used here to determine the frequency distribution of interfiber distance (2Pc) in thin sections of agarose gels. For a preparation of underivatized agarose, a 1.5% gel has a Pc distribution that is indistinguishable from the Pc distribution of a computer-generated, random-fiber gel; the log of the occurrence frequency (F) decreases linearly as a function of Pc. As the agarose concentration decreases...

  9. Photoinduced properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 sol–gel derived thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akbar Eshaghi; Mahmoud Pakshir; Reza Mozaffarinia

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, nanostructure TiO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrates by sol–gel dip coating technique. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to determine film behaviour. The super-hydrophilicity was assessed by contact angle measurement. Photocatalytic properties of these films were evaluated by degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. The XRD pattern of TiO2 powder samples confirmed the presence of polycrystalline anatase phase with a crystal size of 17 nm. The results indicated that UV light irradiation had significant effect on super-hydrophilic and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 thin films.

  10. Optical properties of Cd1-xZnxS nanocrystallites in sol-gel silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cd1-xZnxS nanoparticles with different compositions (0≤x≤1) embedded in silica matrix were prepared in thin film form by the sol-gel technique. The film texture and structural transformation with increasing x value were studied from transmission electron micrographs and electron diffraction patterns. Optical study indicated increase in optical bandgap and decrease in refractive index with increasing zinc content (x value). Photoluminescence studies showed emission from surface states with emission energy blue shifted with increasing zinc content in the films. Annealing behaviour of the films with increasing annealing temperature and time was studied

  11. A Stable Blue Organic Electroluminescent Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新友; 吴有智; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to compare two kinds of blue electroluminescent materials,we have investigated two kinds of blue OLEDs with the similar structure ITO/CuPc/NPB/JBEM:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(J)] and ITO/CuPc/NPB/DPVBi:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(D)].The difference of luminance and efficiency was not obvious for the two devices,However,there was remarkable difference for their lifetime.The device(J) achieved longer half lifetime of 1035h at initial luminance of 100 cd/m2,and that of device(D) was only255h,According to their energy level diagrams,the differentce of their stability may originate from different host materials in the two devices.It may be attributed to the better thermal stability of JBEM molecues than that of DPVBi.It is shown that JBEM may be a promising blue organic electroluminescent material with great stability.

  12. Chinese Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Juan; LI Jiazhi; DENG Zequn; WANG Changsui

    2004-01-01

    Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain specimens from the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties have been systematically analyzed using a nondestructive test method--?energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF). The derived data of major and trace element compositions have been treated by correspondence analysis. The variation laws of the composition patterns for Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain in different historical periods owing to the change in raw materials, recipe and technology have been discussed, and a time model related to variation of element composition has been preliminarily established, It would be helpful for scientific dating of Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain, and even for the studies on the whole field of identification of ancient ceramics.

  13. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  14. 10 CFR 440.11 - Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Native Americans. 440.11 Section 440.11 Energy DEPARTMENT... involved as the population of all low-income Native Americans for whom a determination under paragraph (a... Americans. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the Support Office Director may...

  15. 50 CFR 216.23 - Native exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alaska Native organization(s). (2) Limitations. (i) Sale of Cook Inlet beluga whale parts and products... section to select the proper cell from the Harvest Table to determine the harvest levels for the next 5...) For purposes of creating and selling authentic native articles of handicraft and clothing, and (3)...

  16. Spatial arrangement overrules environmental factors to structure native and non-native assemblages of synanthropic harvestmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muster, Christoph; Meyer, Marc; Sattler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how space affects the occurrence of native and non-native species is essential for inferring processes that shape communities. However, studies considering spatial and environmental variables for the entire community - as well as for the native and non-native assemblages in a single study - are scarce for animals. Harvestmen communities in central Europe have undergone drastic turnovers during the past decades, with several newly immigrated species, and thus provide a unique system to study such questions. We studied the wall-dwelling harvestmen communities from 52 human settlements in Luxembourg and found the assemblages to be largely dominated by non-native species (64% of specimens). Community structure was analysed using Moran's eigenvector maps as spatial variables, and landcover variables at different radii (500 m, 1000 m, 2000 m) in combination with climatic parameters as environmental variables. A surprisingly high portion of pure spatial variation (15.7% of total variance) exceeded the environmental (10.6%) and shared (4%) components of variation, but we found only minor differences between native and non-native assemblages. This could result from the ecological flexibility of both, native and non-native harvestmen that are not restricted to urban habitats but also inhabit surrounding semi-natural landscapes. Nevertheless, urban landcover variables explained more variation in the non-native community, whereas coverage of semi-natural habitats (forests, rivers) at broader radii better explained the native assemblage. This indicates that some urban characteristics apparently facilitate the establishment of non-native species. We found no evidence for competitive replacement of native by invasive species, but a community with novel combination of native and non-native species. PMID:24595309

  17. An Analysis of Student Evaluations of Native and Non Native Korean Foreign Language Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Damron

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native teaching assistants and part-time teachers (both referred to as TAs in this article, students completed 632 evaluations of Ko-rean Language TAs from 2005 to 2008, and these evaluations were compiled for an analysis of variants (ANOVA. The evaluations were categorized into three groups of TAs: native Korean-speaking female, native Korean-speaking male, and non-native male; non-native females would have been included in the study, but there were not enough non-native female teachers to have a reliable sample. In an effort to encourage more self-examined teaching practices, this study addresses the greatest strengths and weaknesses of each group. Results revealed several significant differences between the ratings of the groups: native female TAs rated lowest overall, and non-native male TAs rated highest overall. The most prominent differences be-tween groups occurred in ratings of amount students learned, TAs’ preparedness, TAs’ active involvement in students’ learning, TAs’ enthusiasm, and TAs’ tardiness. This study reviews students’ written comments on the evaluations and proposes possible causes of these findings, concluding that differences in ratings are based on both teaching patterns associated with each group of TAs and student re-sponse bias that favors non-native male speakers. Teaching patterns include a tendency for native (Korean female TAs to teach using a lecture format and non-native male TAs to teach using a discussion format; for native TAs to have difficulty adapting to the language level of the students; and for a more visible enthusiasm for Korean culture held by non-native TAs. Causes for bias may include “other-ing” females and natives, TA selection procedures, and trends in evaluating TAs based on language level.

  18. Spatial arrangement overrules environmental factors to structure native and non-native assemblages of synanthropic harvestmen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Muster

    Full Text Available Understanding how space affects the occurrence of native and non-native species is essential for inferring processes that shape communities. However, studies considering spatial and environmental variables for the entire community - as well as for the native and non-native assemblages in a single study - are scarce for animals. Harvestmen communities in central Europe have undergone drastic turnovers during the past decades, with several newly immigrated species, and thus provide a unique system to study such questions. We studied the wall-dwelling harvestmen communities from 52 human settlements in Luxembourg and found the assemblages to be largely dominated by non-native species (64% of specimens. Community structure was analysed using Moran's eigenvector maps as spatial variables, and landcover variables at different radii (500 m, 1000 m, 2000 m in combination with climatic parameters as environmental variables. A surprisingly high portion of pure spatial variation (15.7% of total variance exceeded the environmental (10.6% and shared (4% components of variation, but we found only minor differences between native and non-native assemblages. This could result from the ecological flexibility of both, native and non-native harvestmen that are not restricted to urban habitats but also inhabit surrounding semi-natural landscapes. Nevertheless, urban landcover variables explained more variation in the non-native community, whereas coverage of semi-natural habitats (forests, rivers at broader radii better explained the native assemblage. This indicates that some urban characteristics apparently facilitate the establishment of non-native species. We found no evidence for competitive replacement of native by invasive species, but a community with novel combination of native and non-native species.

  19. The new digital natives cutting the chord

    CERN Document Server

    Dingli, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    The first generation of Digital Natives (DNs) is now growing up.  However, these digital natives were rather late starters since; their exposure to computers started when they could master the mouse and the penetration of computers in educational institutions was still very low. Today, a new breed of digital natives is emerging.  This new breed includes those individuals who are being introduced from their first instances to the world of wireless devices. One year olds manage to master the intuitive touch interfaces of their tablets whilst sitting comfortably in their baby bouncers. The controller-less interfaces allow these children to interact with a machine in a way which was unconceivable below. Thus, our research investigated the paradigm shift between the different generations of digital natives. We analysed the way in which these two generations differ from each other and we explored how the world needs to change in order to harness the potential of these new digital natives.

  20. TiO2/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol–gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH groups in the sol–gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48 h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells. - Highlights: • TiO2/PCL hybrids were obtained by the sol–gel process for biomedical applications. • Synthesized materials were found to be first-class hybrid nanocomposites. • Hybrids appear to be bioactive, a fundamental characteristic for osseointegration. • MTT and Trypan Blue viability test show that the materials are biocompatible. • The organic phase is able to modulate the biocompatibility of the materials

  1. Multicolored, Low-Power, Flexible Electrochromic Devices Based on Ion Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hong Chul; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Lodge, Timothy P; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Ion gels composed of a copolymer and a room temperature ionic liquid are versatile solid-state electrolytes with excellent features including high ionic conductivity, nonvolatility, easily tunable mechanical properties, good flexibility and solution processability. Ion gels can be functionalized by incorporating redox-active species such as electrochemiluminescent (ECL) luminophores or electrochromic (EC) dyes. Here, we enhance the functionality of EC gels for realizing multicolored EC devices (ECDs), either by controlling the chemical equilibrium between a monomer and dimer of a colored EC species, or by modifying the molecular structures of the EC species. All devices in this work are conveniently fabricated by a "cut-and-stick" strategy, and require very low power for maintaining the colored state [i.e., 90 μW/cm(2) (113 μA/cm(2) at -0.8 V) for blue, 4 μW/cm(2) (10 μA/cm(2) at -0.4 V) for green, and 32 μW/cm(2) (79 μA/cm(2) at -0.4 V) for red ECD]. We also successfully demonstrate a patterned, multicolored, flexible ECD on plastic. Overall, these results suggest that gel-based ECDs have significant potential as low power displays in printed electronics powered by thin-film batteries. PMID:26867428

  2. Chitosan: Gels and Interfacial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nilsen-Nygaard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a unique biopolymer in the respect that it is abundant, cationic, low-toxic, non-immunogenic and biodegradable. The relative occurrence of the two monomeric building units (N-acetyl-glucosamine and d-glucosamine is crucial to whether chitosan is predominantly an ampholyte or predominantly a polyelectrolyte at acidic pH-values. The chemical composition is not only crucial to its surface activity properties, but also to whether and why chitosan can undergo a sol–gel transition. This review gives an overview of chitosan hydrogels and their biomedical applications, e.g., in tissue engineering and drug delivery, as well as the chitosan’s surface activity and its role in emulsion formation, stabilization and destabilization. Previously unpublished original data where chitosan acts as an emulsifier and flocculant are presented and discussed, showing that highly-acetylated chitosans can act both as an emulsifier and as a flocculant.

  3. Topological characteristics of model gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Euler characteristic of an object is a topological invariant determined by the number of handles and holes that it contains. Here, we use the Euler characteristic to profile the topology of model three-dimensional gel-forming fluids as a function of increasing length scale. These profiles act as a 'topological fingerprint' of the structure, and can be interpreted in terms of three types of topological events. As model fluids we have considered a system of dipolar dumbbells, and suspensions of adhesive hard spheres with isotropic and patchy interactions in turn. The correlation between the percolation threshold and the length scale on which the Euler characteristic passes through zero is examined and found to be system-dependent. A scheme for the efficient calculation of the Euler characteristic with and without periodic boundary conditions is described.

  4. Radiation sensitive polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation sensitive gels are studied for their potential to retain a permanent 3D dose distribution for applications in radiotherapy. Co-monomers dissolved in a tissue-equivalent hydrogel undergo a polymerization reaction upon absorption of ionizing radiation. The polymer formed influences the local spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of the dosimeter that can be determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The relationship between T2 and the absorbed dose was studied for different initial chemical compositions. The aim was to find a model linking the changes in T2 with absorbed dose to the initial composition of the dosimeter. It is believed this will help designing new gel dosimeters having desired properties to minimize the uncertainty in the determination of the dose distribution. 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and FT-Raman spectroscopy were used to quantify the amount of monomers still remaining after the absorption of a given dose of radiation. This data is used to model the changes of T2 as a function of the absorbed dose. A model of fast exchange of magnetization between three proton pools was used, where the fraction of protons (fxH ) in the xth pool is obtained from the chemical composition of the dosimeter and the apparent T2 of each pool is determined for a given composition. Initially, the protons are contained in two pools; a mobile (mob), which contains the water protons and the monomers protons, and a gelatin (gela) proton pool. The mobile pool is partially depleted as polymer is formed, the protons are transferred into the polymer (pol) pool. In the figure, the experimental data along with the calculated values are plotted for three different monomer concentrations, with the gelatin concentration fixed. The model is seen to provide a good fit to the experimental data

  5. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  6. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis hominis in native cattle of central Iran: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimohammadi, B; Eslami, G; Oryan, A; Zohourtabar, A; Pourmirzaei Tafti, H; Moghaddam Ahmadi, M

    2014-03-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are two-host protozoan parasites belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Among different known species of Sarcocystis in cattle, only Sarcocystis hominis is important from the public health viewpoint, because of its zoonotic characteristics. This study presents the first molecular identification of S. hominis in native cattle in central Iran. A sample of diaphragm muscle from a 6-year-old native cow slaughtered at Yazd Slaughterhouse, Yazd, central Iran, was collected in May 2013. DNA extraction was performed, using the salting-out method. DNA purification and precipitation were performed consecutively. The amplicon and digestion results were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. A PCR product with 926 bp in length was obtained after amplification, and 376 bp and 550 bp in length after digestion that identified S. hominis. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to be reported from Iran. PMID:24862059

  7. Recrystallization of amylopectin in concentrated starch gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keetels, CJAM; Oostergetel, GT; vanVliet, T

    1996-01-01

    The relation between the recrystallization of amylopectin and the increase in stiffness of starch gels during storage was studied by various techniques. From transmission electron microscopy it was concluded that the size of the crystalline domains in retrograded 30% w/w potato starch gels was about

  8. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan g

  9. Cracking silica gels for surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of silica based gels, oxidising and non-oxidising, have been developed and investigated for decontamination of fixed α, β, and γ contamination from contaminated surfaces of glove boxes, PVC floors, fume hood glass doors. Ceric ammonium nitrate dissolved in nitric acid was used as oxidant in oxidising gel. In non-oxidising gel, water soluble reagent; tetra ethyl diglycolamide (TEDGA) in nitric acid was used as complexing agent. Silica gel and PEG-400 was base material in both the cases. The gels were brushed on a stainless steel surface, on drying; these gels crack to yield flakes that were easily scrubbed from the surfaces. The flakes, concentrated in activity, was immobilised in cement for storage. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of concentrations of oxidant, TEDGA and nitric acid for effective decontamination. Oxidising gels with 0.75 M Ce (IV) and 1 M Nitric acid have shown a maximum DF of 90 for fixed Pu contaminated SS surface. Non-oxidising gel showed a DF of 7 for similar surfaces with 0.075 M TEDGA, 1 M nitric acid and 1 M phosphoric acid. (author)

  10. Structure and Frictional Properties of Colloid Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymer gels are known to be opaque when the preparation conditions, such as the reaction temperature and the composition, are changed. The increase of the opaqueness of the gel suggests strongly the change of network structure. Here, we are going to review the recent studies on the structure and the frictional study of the opaque poly(acrylamide gel. The results indicate that the opaque poly(acrylamide gel consists of the fractal aggregate of the colloidal particles of sub-micrometer in size. The density of the colloid particle is calculated from the structural parameters and is found to be of the order of about 1 g/cm3. The results indicate that the main chain component and the cross-linker is densely cross-linked into the particle. The frictional property of poly(acrylamide gel is analyzed in terms of the structural parameters of the gel. It is found that the frictional property of the opaque gel is well explained in terms of the structural parameters of the opaque gel.

  11. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of Co60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms, leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective was to carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 m NaCl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD50), and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labeled with 29.6 MBq of I using chloramine T method and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35 @ 5 g) were injected IP with 0.1 mL (2.4x10 cpm/mouse) of I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10 cpm/mouse) of I irradiated crotamine. The animals were sacrificed by ether inhalation at 0.08, 0.25, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change protein concentration, electrophoretic profile, or protein primary structure, although differences could be seen by spectroscopic techniques. Gamma radiation reduced crotamine toxicity, but did not eliminate bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. Native and irradiated crotamine have an affinity to skeletal muscle and did not cross the blood-brain barrier. (author)

  12. A new polymer gel dosimeter composed of methacrylic acid, agarose gel and THPC with gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a new type of methacrylic acid based gel dosimeter is presented. This gel contains both agarose and gelatin with deferent roles respectively. The agarose conducts itself as a gelling agent, while the gelatin relates to the graft reaction of methacrylic acid. This new type of gel excels in the long-term stability of R2 after irradiation. The characteristics of this gel were studied by the measurements of R2 with MRI and the direct measurements of temperature in the gel during the irradiation.

  13. Intelligent gels and cryogels with entrapped emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Galina A; Starodubtsev, Sergey G; Lozinsky, Vladimir I; Kalinina, Elena V; Landfester, Katharina; Khokhlov, Alexei R

    2008-05-01

    Smart thermoresponsive gels and cryogels with incorporated emulsions have been synthesized and studied. The gels were obtained by three-dimensional copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide or N,N'-bis(acryloyl)cystamine in the presence of dispersion of tetradecane stabilized with sodium dodecylsulfate. Polymerization was performed at room temperature and below the water crystallization temperature. Both composite gels and cryogels were capable of heat-induced collapse. The extent of the collapse of the composite gel prepared at room temperature was much smaller and without squeezing of the lipophilic phase out of the shrunk composite gel. In contrast, shrinking of the composite cryogel was accompanied by release of tetradecane emulsion. PMID:18386880

  14. Comparative study of native and irradiated crotoxin. Biochemical and pharmacological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venom, without affecting significantly their antigenic and immunogenic properties. In order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative biochemical and pharmacological study between native and gamma irradiated (2000Gy) crotoxin, main toxin of south american rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified from crude venom by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and then irradiated. Immunodiffusion, electrophoresis and gel filtration showed that the molecular integrity was preserved after irradiation with some higher molecular weight aggregate formation and maintenance of its antigenic capacity. The antibodies induced by irradiated toxin had a similar titer to the antibodies induced by native crotoxin; however with higher protective effects in mice. Crotoxin toxicity became 15 times lower after irradiation, as determined by LD sub(50) in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution occurred with a similar general pattern, with renal elimination. In contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native crotoxin is initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3hs) occurs in phagocyticmononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junctions rich organs (muscle and brain). (author)

  15. Native bees and plant pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Bees are important pollinators, but evidence suggests that numbers of some species are declining. Decreases have been documented in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (which was introduced to North America), but there are no monitoring programs for the vast majority of native species, so we cannot be sure about the extent of this problem. Recent efforts to develop standardized protocols for bee sampling will help us collect the data needed to assess trends in bee populations. Unfortunately, diversity of bee life cycles and phenologies, and the large number of rare species, make it difficult to assess trends in bee faunas. Changes in bee populations can affect plant reproduction, which can influence plant population density and cover, thus potentially modifying horizontal and vertical structure of a community, microclimate near the ground, patterns of nitrogen deposition, etc. These potential effects of changes in pollination patterns have not been assessed in natural communities. Effects of management actions on bees and other pollinators should be considered in conservation planning.

  16. Collagen telopeptides (cross-linking sites) play a role in collagen gel lattice contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, D. T.; Yamauchi, M.; Wynn, K. C.; Mechanic, G.; Briggaman, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Solubilized interstitial collagens will form a fibrillar, gel-like lattice when brought to physiologic conditions. In the presence of human dermal fibroblasts the collagen lattice will contract. The rate of contraction can be determined by computer-assisted planemetry. The mechanisms involved in contraction are as yet unknown. Using this system it was found that the rate of contraction was markedly decreased when collagen lacking telopeptides was substituted for native collagen. Histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL) is a major stable trifunctional collagen cross-link in mature skin that involves a carboxyl terminal, telopeptide site 16c, the sixteenth amino acid residue from the carboxy terminal of the telopeptide region of alpha 1 (I) in type I collagen. Little, if any, HHL was present in native, purified, reconstituted, soluble collagen fibrils from 1% acetic acid-extracted 2-year-old bovine skin. In contrast, HHL cross-links were present (0.22 moles of cross-link per mole of collagen) in lattices of the same collagen contracted by fibroblasts. However, rat tail tendon does not contain HHL cross-links, and collagen lattices made of rat tail tendon collagen are capable of contraction. This suggests that telopeptide sites, and not mature HHL cross-links per se, are essential for fibroblasts to contract collagen lattices. Beta-aminopropionitrile fumarate (BAPN), a potent lathyrogen that perturbs collagen cross-linking by inhibition of lysyl oxidase, also inhibited the rate of lattice cell contraction in lattices composed of native collagen. However, the concentrations of BAPN that were necessary to inhibit the contraction of collagen lattices also inhibited fibroblast growth suggestive of cellular toxicity. In accordance with other studies, we found no inhibition of the rate of lattice contraction when fibronectin-depleted serum was used. Electron microscopy of contracted gels revealed typical collagen fibers with a characteristic axial periodicity. The data

  17. Increase in local protein concentration by field-inversion gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Aran

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins that migrate through cross-linked polyacrylamide gels (PAGs under the influence of a constant electric field experience negative factors, such as diffusion and non-specific trapping in the gel matrix. These negative factors reduce protein concentrations within a defined gel volume with increasing migration distance and, therefore, decrease protein separation efficiency. Enhancement of protein separation efficiency was investigated by implementing pulsed field-inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE. Results Separation of model protein species and large protein complexes was compared between FIGE and constant field electrophoresis (CFE in different percentages of PAGs. Band intensities of proteins in FIGE with appropriate ratios of forward and backward pulse times were superior to CFE despite longer running times. These results revealed an increase in band intensity per defined gel volume. A biphasic protein relative mobility shift was observed in percentages of PAGs up to 14%. However, the effect of FIGE on protein separation was stochastic at higher PAG percentage. Rat liver lysates subjected to FIGE in the second-dimension separation of two-dimensional polyarcylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE showed a 20% increase in the number of discernible spots compared with CFE. Nine common spots from both FIGE and CFE were selected for peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry (MS, which revealed higher final ion scores of all nine protein spots from FIGE. Native protein complexes ranging from 800 kDa to larger than 2000 kDa became apparent using FIGE compared with CFE. Conclusion The present investigation suggests that FIGE under appropriate conditions improves protein separation efficiency during PAGE as a result of increased local protein concentration. FIGE can be implemented with minimal additional instrumentation in any laboratory setting. Despite the tradeoff of longer running times, FIGE can be a powerful protein

  18. Radiological properties of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological properties of the normoxic polymer gel dosimeters MAGIC, MAGAS, and MAGAT [methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper; methacrylic acid gelatine gel with ascorbic acid; and methacrylic acid gelatine and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride, respectively] have been investigated. The radiological water equivalence was determined by comparing the polymer gel macroscopic photon and electron interaction cross sections over the energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV and by Monte Carlo modeling of depth doses. Normoxic polymer gel dosimeters have a high gelatine and monomer concentration and therefore mass density (kg m-3) up to 3.8% higher than water. This results in differences between the cross-section ratios of the normoxic polymer gels and water of up to 3% for the attenuation, energy absorption, and collision stopping power coefficient ratios through the Compton dominant energy range. The mass cross-section ratios were within 2% of water except for the mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients ratios, which showed differences with water of up to 6% for energies less than 100 keV. Monte Carlo modeling was undertaken for the polymer gel dosimeters to model the electron and photon transport resulting from a 6 MV photon beam. The absolute percentage differences between gel and water were within 1% and the relative percentage differences were within 3.5%. The results show that the MAGAT gel formulation is the most radiological water equivalent of the normoxic polymer gel dosimeters investigated due to its lower mass density measurement compared with MAGAS and MAGIC gels

  19. Gallstones in American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/Alaska Natives Immigrant and migrant issues Taking care ... Enter email address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health Gallstones Health conditions ...

  20. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How to Talk to ... disease. Return to top Health conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug ...

  1. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency Medicine," and "FDA Consumer"…

  2. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, E.

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  3. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

  4. Improper, Blue-Shifting Hydrogen Bond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, Pavel; Havlas, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 108, - (2002), s. 325-334. ISSN 1432-881X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : improper, blue-shifting hydrogen bond * properties * nature Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.421, year: 2002

  5. Key Words in China Economic Blue Book

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Fei

    2009-01-01

    @@ With a fluctuating 2008 comes to an end,nOW new 2009 has approaehed to us.Recently、Analvsis and Forecast of China Economy in 2009(Blue Book of Ckina Economy),by the Economics Department or Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

  6. Blue nano titania made in diffusion flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleki, Alexandra; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2009-05-21

    Blue titanium suboxide nanoparticles (including Magneli phases) were formed directly without any post-processing or addition of dopants by combustion of titanium-tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) vapor at atmospheric pressure. Particle size, phase composition, rutile and anatase crystal sizes as well as the blue coloration were controlled by rapid quenching of the flame with a critical flow nozzle placed at various heights above the burner. The particles showed a broad absorption in the near-infrared region and retained their blue color upon storage in ambient atmosphere. A high concentration of paramagnetic Ti3+ centres was found in the substoichiometric particles by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Furthermore particles with controlled band gap energy from 3.2 to 3.6 eV were made by controlling the burner-nozzle-distance from 10 to 1 cm, respectively. The color robustness and extent of suboxidation could be further enhanced by co-oxidation of TTIP with hexamethyldisiloxane in the flame resulting in SiO2-coated titanium suboxide particles. The process is cost-effective and green while the particles produced can replace traditional blue colored, cobalt-containing pigments. PMID:19421486

  7. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  8. Another supernova with a blue progenitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SN 1984A in NGC 3169 showed strong Hα emission which appeared between 2.2 and 23 years before maximum light. The authors suggest that this was produced by sudden mass loss from a blue supergiant. From the intense circumstellar Hα emission at maximum light they estimate that at least 0.4 solar masses of gas had been suddenly expelled

  9. A CCD-based system for the detection of DNA in electrophoresis gels by UV absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus for the detection and quantification of large fragments of unlabelled nucleic acids in agarose gels is presented. The technique is based on ultraviolet (UV) absorption by nucleotides. A deuterium source illuminates individual sample lanes of an electrophoresis gel via an array of optical fibres. As DNA bands pass through the illuminated region of the gel the amount of UV light transmitted is reduced because of absorption by the DNA. During electrophoresis the regions of DNA are detected on-line using a UV-sensitive charge coupled device (CCD). As the absorption coefficient is proportional to the mass of DNA the technique is inherently quantitative. The mass of DNA in a region of the gel is approximately proportional to the integrated signal in the corresponding section of the CCD image. This system currently has a detection limit of less than 1.25 ng compared with 2-10 ng for the most popular conventional technique, ethidium bromide (EtBr) staining. In addition the DNA sample remains in its native state. The removal of the carcinogenic dye from the detection procedure greatly reduces associated biological hazards. (author)

  10. Approaches to blue light emitting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue-light emitting polymers are important for full colour displays. Blue- light emitting polymers, such as poly(fluorene)s have been reported, but tend to be soluble in the conjugated form. The aim of the project was to produce insoluble polymers, prepared via processible soluble precursor polymers, so that multilayer devices could be easily fabricated. Multilayer devices are often required for more efficient light emission. The target materials were derivatives of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV), a green-yellow emitting polymer. To blue shift the emission of PPV, bulky substituents, namely chloro, phenyl and alkyl, were attached to the vinylic linkage. These bulky substituents were incorporated to introduce steric interactions between the side group and the backbone phenyl protons, to shorten the effective conjugation length and increase the HOMO-LUMO energy gap. Chloro substituents quenched the fluorescence. Phenyl substituents resulted in highly conjugated precursor polymers with low molecular weights, showing blue- green to green emission in the conjugated form. Alkyl substituted PPV derivatives, prepared via chloro or xanthate precursors, were blue-light emitting conjugated polymers, which were electroluminescent in ITO/polymer/AI devices. The PL quantum yields were found to be up to 38%. The incorporation of electron withdrawing groups into the polymers was attempted, to lower the barrier to electron injection. Chloro groups quenched fluorescence and methylsulfone substituents resulted in insoluble polymers, probably due to cross-linking. However a copolymer containing methylsulfone electron withdrawing groups could be prepared. Phenylsulfone substituents were found to give fluorescent polymers which were soluble in the precursor form. (author)

  11. Agonism and dominance in female blue monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Keren; Cords, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years. We assessed where blue monkeys fall along despotic, tolerant, and nepotistic spectra, how their dominance system compares to other primates, primarily cercopithecines, and whether their agonistic behavior matches socioecological model predictions. Blue monkeys showed low rates of mainly low-intensity agonism and little counter-aggression. Rates increased with rank and group size. Dominance asymmetry varied at different organizational levels, being more pronounced at the level of interactions than dyad or group. Hierarchies were quite stable, had moderate-to-high linearity and directional consistency and moderate steepness. There was clear maternal rank inheritance, but inconsistent adherence to Kawamura's rules. There was little between-group variation, although hierarchy metrics showed considerable variation across group-years. Overall, blue monkeys have moderately despotic, moderately tolerant, and nepotistic dominance hierarchies. They resemble other cercopithecines in having significantly linear and steep hierarchies with a generally stable, matriline-based structure, suggesting a phylogenetic basis to this aspect of their social system. Blue monkeys most closely match Sterck et al.'s [1997] Resident-Nepotistic-Tolerant dominance category, although they do not fully conform to predictions of any one socioecological model. Our results suggest that socioecological models might better predict variation within than across clades, thereby

  12. Fluency in native and nonnative English speech

    CERN Document Server

    Götz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This book takes a new and holistic approach to fluency in English speech and differentiates between productive, perceptive, and nonverbal fluency. The in-depth corpus-based description of productive fluency points out major differences of how fluency is established in native and nonnative speech. It also reveals areas in which even highly advanced learners of English still deviate strongly from the native target norm and in which they have already approximated to it. Based on these findings, selected learners are subjected to native speakers' ratings of seven perceptive fluency variables in or

  13. Internship Programs for Native American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, J.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is practicing a unique program for the implementation of internship programs for Native American students. The approach we developed was created with input from tribal communities, and has been well received from both the Native American and Agency perspectives. Culturally meaningful research assignments, advance communication with the Colleges, and a well planned agenda of activities and opportunities to network are aspects which will be covered. In this session we will share our approach with others who are interested in effective internship and mentoring plans for Native American students.

  14. Pianure Blues: From the Dialect of the Plains to the English of the Blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nadiani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors describe a joint performance project called Pianure Blues, in which poems in Romagnolo dialect are transposed into English and performed as blues songs, and in which songs from the Anglo-American blues/roots/folk tradition are transposed and performed as poems in Romagnolo dialect – a process they have called ‘trans-staging’. A process in which they are writers and performers and, especially, translators; translators of each other’s voices, stories, landscapes, rhythms and sounds as they look for the bond between places, languages and traditions that seem very distant from each other but which find a common mood and poetic language, a common aesthetic, in their performances. The authors reflect on the creative process involved and on the significance of establishing an intersemiotic dialogue between a ‘minority’ dialect such as Romagnolo and a ‘global’ language such as English, and the blues, have become.

  15. Modified paired end rapid library preparation protocol for 454 GS Junior 8 kb library preparation using Covaris g-tubes and BluePippin electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Janet Hill, Bonnie Chaban, Jennifer Town, Matthew Links & Tim Dumonceaux ### Abstract This protocol describes an alternative approach to performing Roche’s Paired End Rapid Library Preparation Method for 8 kb span libraries. This method uses the Corvaris g-tube for DNA fragmentation, eliminating the need for a HydroShear apparatus, and a Sage Science BluePippin electrophoresis platform to size select the 8 kb fragments, eliminating the need for agarose gel electrophoresi...

  16. Ionic liquid gel materials: applications in green and sustainable chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marr, Patricia C.; Marr, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquid gel materials offer a way to further utilise ionic liquids in technological applications. Combining the controlled and directed assembly of gels, with the diverse applications of ionic liquids, enables the design of a heady combination of functional tailored materials, leading to the development of task specific / functional ionic liquid gels. This review introduces gels and gel classification, focusing on ionic liquid gels and their potential roles in a more sustainable future. ...

  17. USA: Blue Rhino acquired by Ferrellgas; USA: Blue Rhino rachete par Ferrellgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-04-15

    Blue Rhino, pioneer and leader in the United States for branded propane tank exchange service and a leading provider of complementary products and services to consumers through many of the world's leading retailers, is acquired by Ferrellgas. Terms of the merger agreement call for the payment of $17 in cash for each share of Blue Rhino, for a total of approximately $343 million. (authors)

  18. Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellakumar, P. [Bangalore Institute of Oncology, 44-45/2, II Cross, RRMR Extension, Bangalore-560 027 (India)]. E-mail: psellakumar@rediffmail.com; James Jebaseelan Samuel, E. [School of Science and Humanities, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore-632 014 (India); Supe, Sanjay S. [Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Hosur Road, Bangalore-560 027 (India)

    2007-07-15

    To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}), electron density ({rho}{sub e}), photon mass attenuation coefficient ({mu}/{rho}), photon mass energy absorption coefficient ({mu}{sub en}/{rho}) and total stopping power (S/{rho}){sub tot} of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close (<1%) to that of water except PAGAT, MAGAT and NIPAM which had the variation of 3%, 2% and 3%, respectively. The value of {mu}/{rho} and {mu}{sub en}/{rho} for all polymer gels were in close agreement (<1%) with that of water beyond 80keV. The value of (S/{rho}){sub tot} of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application.

  19. Halogen-bonding-triggered supramolecular gel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meazza, Lorenzo; Foster, Jonathan A.; Fucke, Katharina; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe; Steed, Jonathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Supramolecular gels are topical soft materials involving the reversible formation of fibrous aggregates using non-covalent interactions. There is significant interest in controlling the properties of such materials by the formation of multicomponent systems, which exhibit non-additive properties emerging from interaction of the components. The use of hydrogen bonding to assemble supramolecular gels in organic solvents is well established. In contrast, the use of halogen bonding to trigger supramolecular gel formation in a two-component gel (‘co-gel’) is essentially unexplored, and forms the basis for this study. Here, we show that halogen bonding between a pyridyl substituent in a bis(pyridyl urea) and 1,4-diiodotetrafluorobenzene brings about gelation, even in polar media such as aqueous methanol and aqueous dimethylsulfoxide. This demonstrates that halogen bonding is sufficiently strong to interfere with competing gel-inhibitory interactions and create a ‘tipping point’ in gel assembly. Using this concept, we have prepared a halogen bond donor bis(urea) gelator that forms co-gels with halogen bond acceptors.

  20. Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects. PMID:25475835

  1. Studying mixing in Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions using color analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-Newtonian fluids occur in many relevant flow and mixing scenarios at the lab and industrial scale. The addition of acid or basic solutions to a non-Newtonian fluid is not an infrequent operation, particularly in Biotechnology applications where the pH of Non-Newtonian culture broths is usually regulated using this strategy. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We conducted mixing experiments in agitated vessels using Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions. Acid or basic pulses were injected to reveal mixing patterns and flow structures and to follow their time evolution. No foreign pH indicator was used as blue maize flours naturally contain anthocyanins that act as a native, wide spectrum, pH indicator. We describe a novel method to quantitate mixedness and mixing evolution through Dynamic Color Analysis (DCA in this system. Color readings corresponding to different times and locations within the mixing vessel were taken with a digital camera (or a colorimeter and translated to the CIELab scale of colors. We use distances in the Lab space, a 3D color space, between a particular mixing state and the final mixing point to characterize segregation/mixing in the system. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Blue maize suspensions represent an adequate and flexible model to study mixing (and fluid mechanics in general in Non-Newtonian suspensions using acid/base tracer injections. Simple strategies based on the evaluation of color distances in the CIELab space (or other scales such as HSB can be adapted to characterize mixedness and mixing evolution in experiments using blue maize suspensions.

  2. Native Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for...

  3. Black and Native American Relations before 1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rhett S.

    1977-01-01

    Throughout the Americas, Whites were afraid of Blacks entering into an alliance with native Americans. Yet, despite the opposition of the various colonial governments, alliances were formed and miscegenation was common between these two minority groups. (GC)

  4. Polymorphy in native cellulose: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a number of earlier studies, the authors developed a model of cellulose structure based on the existence of two stable, linearly ordered conformations of the cellulose chain that are dominant in celluloses I and II, respectively. The model rests on extensive Raman spectral observations together with conformational considerations and solid-state 13C-NMR studies. More recently, they have proposed, on the basis of high resolution solid-state 13C-NMR observations, that native celluloses are composites of two distinct crystalline forms that coexist in different proportions in all native celluloses. In the present work, they examine the Raman spectra of the native celluloses, and reconcile their view of conformational differences with the new level of crystalline polymorphy of native celluloses revealed in the solid-state 13C-NMR investigations

  5. Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nature Study, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)

  6. Pollination ecology and floral function of Brown’s peony (Paeonia brownii) in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Vance; Retha Meier; Peter Bernhardt

    2013-01-01

    Brown’s peony, Paeonia brownii (Paeoniaceae), is one of only two peony species native to the Western Hemisphere, yet its pollination ecology and breeding system have never been documented. Using flowering individuals of an endemic colony in the Blue Mountains of Oregon, U.S., we investigated the peony’s pollination system and floral function. We also examined pollen/carpel interactions through experimental pollinations aided by fluorescence microscopy. Paeonia brownii appears to be self compa...

  7. Phantom for moving organ dosimetry with gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindran, Paul; Babu, Ebenezer Suman [Department of Radiation Oncology, Christian Medical College, Vellore India (India); Mahata, Anurupa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indo-American Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Hyderabad (India)], E-mail: paul@cmcvellore.ac.in

    2009-05-01

    The displacements caused by the cardiac and respiratory motions cause smearing of the dose distribution that defeats the purpose of high precision radiotherapy. A phantom that holds a gel cylinder and radiochromic film, was designed and developed to simulate the respiratory motion in the superior and inferior directions. The effect of lung movement on dose distribution was studied by exposing gel as well as a radiochromic film using the phantom. The results obtained with Gel was comparable to those obtained with the radiochromic films.

  8. Phantom for moving organ dosimetry with gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Paul; Mahata, Anurupa; Suman Babu, Ebenezer

    2009-05-01

    The displacements caused by the cardiac and respiratory motions cause smearing of the dose distribution that defeats the purpose of high precision radiotherapy. A phontom that holds a gel cylinder and radiochromic film, was designed and developed to simulate the respiratory motion in the superior and inferior directions. The effect of lung movement on dose distribution was studied by exposing gel as well as a radiochromic film using the phantom. The results obtained with Gel was comparable to those obtained with the radiochromic films.

  9. Applications of sol gel ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sol gel method is a chemical technique in which polycrystalline ceramic films are fabricated from a solution of organometallic precursors. The technique is attractive for many industrial applications because it is a simple (films are processed in air), flexible (can be used to coat complex geometries) and cost effective (does not require expensive equipment) process. In addition, dense, high quality coatings can be achieved at much lower temperatures than is generally required for sintering bulk ceramics. In this paper the conventional sol gel method and the new datec process are reviewed and potential applications of sol gel coatings in automotive, aerospace, petrochemical, nuclear and electronic industries are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Critical behavior of modulus of gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Masayuki; Niki, Ryoya; Hikichi, Kunio

    1985-09-01

    The critical behavior of the shear modulus of casein gel is studied. The shear modulus of casein gel scales with the conductivity exponent in the immediate vicinity of the sol-gel transition point. The asymptotic behavior of the modulus in the region far above the transition point is governed by a different exponent which is much larger than the conductivity exponent. These results are explainable by the crossover behavior of the percolation process. This study shows that the gelation of the casein micelle solution is a realization of the percolation process.

  11. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Birren, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis: A Practical Guide is the first laboratory manual to describe the theory and practice of this technique. Based on the authors' experience developing pulsed field gel instruments and teaching procedures, this book provides everything a researcher or student needs to know in order to understand and carry out pulsed field gel experiments. Clear, well-tested protocols assume only that users have a basic familiarity with molecular biology. Thorough coverage of useful data, theory, and applications ensures that this book is also a lasting resource for more adv

  12. Epistemologies in the Text of Children's Books: Native- and non-Native-authored books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Morteza; Bang, Megan; Medin, Douglas; Marin, Ananda; Leddon, Erin; Waxman, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    An examination of artifacts provides insights into the goals, practices, and orientations of the persons and cultures who created them. Here, we analyze storybook texts, artifacts that are a part of many children's lives. We examine the stories in books targeted for 4-8-year-old children, contrasting the texts generated by Native American authors versus popular non-Native authors. We focus specifically on the implicit and explicit 'epistemological orientations' associated with relations between human beings and the rest of nature. Native authors were significantly more likely than non-Native authors to describe humans and the rest of nature as psychologically close and embedded in relationships. This pattern converges well with evidence from a behavioral task in which we probed Native (from urban inter-tribal and rural communities) and non-Native children's and adults' attention to ecological relations. We discuss the implications of these differences for environmental cognition and science learning.

  13. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  14. Native Darag Chicken Menu Variations: Its Acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras; REMEDIOS D. CATAMIN; Delia A. Paragados; AILEEN C. DE LA CRUZ

    2014-01-01

    Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefu...

  15. Abandoning native apps to become future friendly

    OpenAIRE

    Jergefelt, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Native apps have become the norm of mobile interaction with digital services, but it’s an expensive way to reach users. With responsive web design, a more inclusive and accessible experience can be crafted for all mobile users instead of just a majority. This article describes the move from a native library app to a responsive website, and why it is right for the future.

  16. Native Colombia: Contact, Conquest and Colonial Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Villamarín, Juan; Villamarín, Judith

    2003-01-01

    Studies done on Colombia’s population history during the last three decades have been influenced by the ideas, methods and approaches of Woodrow Borah. We will discuss three issues that he and Sherburne Cook considered in the course of their work on Latin American demography – probable size of native populations on the eve of European contact; the effects of climate and elevation on the intensity of different groups’ decline; and the impact on native populations of diseases brought from the O...

  17. Intraguild Predation and Native Lady Beetle Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, Mary M.; Matthew E O'Neal; Landis, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccin...

  18. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Mary M; O'Neal, Matthew E; Landis, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild

  19. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Gardiner

    Full Text Available Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows

  20. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  1. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...

  2. Linking Native and Invader Traits Explains Native Spider Population Responses to Plant Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jennifer N.; Emlen, Douglas J.; Pearson, Dean E.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretically, the functional traits of native species should determine how natives respond to invader-driven changes. To explore this idea, we simulated a large-scale plant invasion using dead spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) stems to determine if native spiders’ web-building behaviors could explain differences in spider population responses to structural changes arising from C. stoebe invasion. After two years, irregular web-spiders were >30 times more abundant and orb weavers were >23 t...

  3. Native terranes: examples from the Cordillera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    The suspect terrane concept has provided a new working hypothesis which has been invaluable for interpreting complex continental margin areas. This concept is restrictive, however, because it allows for only exotic or suspect terrane origins, while there is a growing body of evidence that many terranes have developed in situ. The authors propose that such in situ units be called native terranes. Stratigraphic, metamorphic, and disrupted terranes in the Klamath Mountains of northern California and southern Oregon are examples of native terranes. A variety of oceanic crust and Tethyan seamount-derived units were accreted in a Late Triassic subduction zone in this area. Each of these terranes is highly disrupted, and contains blocks derived from North American units to the east. The incorporation of North American blocks into these terranes, coupled with paleomagnetic data and intrusive relationships, indicates that these exotic block-bearing disrupted terranes developed in their present position adjacent to North America and are therefore native. A coeval blueschist terrane developed inboard of these melanges and is also considered native. A coherent Middle Jurassic arc (.) sequence built upon this melange basement constitutes a native stratigraphic terrane. The present melange basement constitutes a native stratigraphic terrane. The present boundaries of these terranes are typically thrust faults and normal faults which postdate accretion. Similar mixtures of North American and exotic blocks have been noted in coeval accretionary belts in the Sierra Nevada foothills, east-central Oregon and eastern British Columbia.

  4. Developments in Australia : native title and reconciliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, F. [National Native Title Tribunal, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2004-07-01

    Until 1992, there was no recognition in the Australian legal system of property or other laws recognizing Indigenous rights concerning European colonial settlement and beyond. Native title was first recognized in 1992. This paper presented an outline of the history leading up to the creation of the National Native Title Tribunal in Perth, Australia, an organization whose aims are to create recognition of native title in Australia. The objects of the Native Title Act of 1993 were discussed, as well as attempts to reconcile indigenous and non-indigenous interests. Particular attention was drawn to the mining industry, as a practical example of the paradigm change in relation to indigenous rights, with an outline of the mining industry's values underlying principles concerning indigenous relations. It was concluded that while there are stringent limits on what is available through the native title process, mediation procedures mean that opportunities for agreement exist. Although reconciliation is in its infancy in Australia, there is a growing acceptance that Aboriginal rights must be considered. The agreement making which is encouraged by the native title process is an acknowledgment of a new relationship in which indigenous people are stakeholders. 72 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Thermo-responsive behavior of a methacryloyl-DL-alanine methyl ester polymer gel prepared by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loosely cross-linked poly(methacrloyl-DL-alanine methyl ester, MA-DL-AlaOMe) gels, which were prepared by radiation-induced polymerization, exhibited a reversible low-temperature swelling and high-temperature deswelling when cycled in water at different temperatures at 24-h intervals, in the range of 0 and 40oC. The thermo-response strongly depended upon irradiation condition. Increasing the irradiation dose resulted in a formation of lower molecular weight polymer owing to the scission of polymer chain, in which it gave a high swelling ability at low temperature, in contrast to a sluggish shrinkage at high temperature. On the other hand, no irradiation temperature affects the thermo-response of the gel. An important characteristic of the MA-DL-AlaOMe polymer gel is the formation of the membrane barrier at the surface with the rise in temperature, but it disappears in reswelling, to be termed ''surface-controlling on-off switch system''. Brillant blue FCF (BB) as a model compound was incorporated into the gel to evaluate the capability as a thermo-responsive carrier for application in drug delivery systems, and it was found that the reversibly surface-controlling on-off switch function responsible to temperature changes plays an important role in the pulsatile release of BB from the gel in vitro. (author)

  6. The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ClaudiaFelser

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalise to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called 'short-distance pronouns', the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.

  7. Interplay between native topology and non-native interactions in the folding of tethered proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed the interplay of native topology and non-native interactions on surface-tethered protein folding via extensive Monte Carlo simulations of a simple lattice model. In particular, we investigated the thermodynamics and kinetics of protein-like sequences enclosing different amounts of non-native interactions to protein energetics, and which were designed to fold to distinct native topologies. Our results show that the high-contact order (CO) structure renders a folding transition that is robust to (external) steric constraints and non-native interactions. On the other hand, the folding process of the simple low-CO topology can be easily hampered by the presence of a nearby chemically inert plane. In this case, if non-native interactions are highly conspicuous during folding they can actually drive chain collapse into a very native-like trapped state, which impedes the formation of the native structure. The analysis of folding kinetics reveals that the empirical correlation between folding rate and CO may not apply to surface-tethered protein folding. Indeed, results reported here show that depending on the native environment of the tethered chain terminus the folding rate of a low-CO topology can become so drastically small that the high-CO topology actually folds faster under the same conditions. We predict that complex topologies are more likely to conserve their bulk folding mechanism upon surface tethering. (paper)

  8. Global water scarcity: the monthly blue water footprint compared to blue water availability for the world's major river basins

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Mekonnen, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional blue water scarcity indicators suffer from four weaknesses: they measure water withdrawal instead of consumptive water use, they compare water use with actual runoff rather than natural (undepleted) runoff, they ignore environmental flow requirements and they evaluate scarcity on an annual rather than a monthly time scale. In the current study, these shortcomings are solved by defining blue water scarcity as the ratio of blue water footprint to blue water availability – where the...

  9. Blue Horizontal Branch Stars in M92

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed high dispersion and high precision spectra of 5 blue horizontal branch stars in the globular cluster M92 to establish that the projected rotational velocity for these stars ranges from 15 to 40 \\kms. This is larger than that expected based on the rotation of their main sequence progenitors, the spin down of rotation with age, and the conservation of angular momentum. Possible explanations include a rapidly rotating stellar core. An abundance analysis of these spectra of these blue HB stars in M92 yields the same results as have been obtained from the giants in this cluster. There is a hint of a trend of higher abundance as the projected surface rotational velocity increases, which could be chance and requires confirmation.

  10. The thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi4O10. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after β irradiation (90Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals. (author)

  11. Blue light hazards for ocular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blue light range (400-500 nm) of visible radiation stimulates specifically cones and rods of the retina. The carried energy by these wavelengths is absorbed and transferred to specific pigments. Their energy is sufficient to produce free radicals and singlet form of oxygen. Intense sources, rich in blue light radiation, may induce, in the retina, photo-toxic lesions either limited or short-lived or photothermal lesions more or less definitive. Repeated photo-toxic lesions should be the root for the age-related maculo-pathy (A.R.M.) also called late macular degeneration (A.M.D.). As a consequence, the attention should be drawn on the potential risk linked to modern lighting as 'daylight' lamp, compact fluorescent lamps, energy saving (C.F.L.) and light-emitting diodes (L.E.D.) for which a specific vigilance should be enforced. (author)

  12. Reactive evaporation of anomalous blue VO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of vanadium dioxide exhibit a thermally induced semiconductor-to-metal phase transition near 670 C. In most deposition conditions, the transition is accompanied by large changes in optical properties at infrared wavelengths, but with only slight visible contrast. Recently, reactive evaporation at high temperatures and in stringent process conditions of so-called blue VO2 has been reported [G. A. Nyberg and R. A. Buhrman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 301 (1984)]. These films exhibit a striking blue-to-red transition in transmitted light. In this paper, a new technique for thin-film growth of anomalous vanadium dioxide will be presented. The primary steps in the process are the reactive evaporation of vanadium oxide at ambient temperature followed by anneal in flowing oxygen. Optical and microstructural data for material deposited on sapphire and fused quartz substrates will be compared to standard vanadium oxide

  13. Optical analysis of gel dosimeters: Comparison of Fricke and normoxic polymer gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G. [Department of Physics of University, Milan (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Milan (Italy)], E-mail: grazia.gambarini@mi.infn.it; Carrara, M. [Department of Physics of University, Milan (Italy); Department of Physics, National Cancer Institute of Milan (Italy); Mariani, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic of Milan (Italy); Pirola, L. [Department of Physics of University, Milan (Italy); Tomatis, S. [Department of Physics, National Cancer Institute of Milan (Italy); Valente, M. [Department of Physics of University, Milan (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Milan (Italy); Vanossi, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic of Milan (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Milan (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    The dosimetry method based on optical analysis of gel layers has been experienced utilising both Fricke and polymer (normoxic) gels. The aim of the work was that of investigating the potentiality of a normoxic polymer gel and of performing a further verification of the reliability of Fricke gel dosimeters. Optical absorbance was measured, both with a spectrophotometer and by imaging light transmittance detected with a CCD camera. The results of the study of sensitivity, linearity of the response and reproducibility of the polymer gel dosimeter have shown acceptable performances, except for doses below 2 Gy. The linearity range extends up to 20 Gy. On the other side, dose images and profiles have shown noticeable differences when compared to those calculated or measured with ionisation chambers or Fricke gel dosimeters. Such Fricke dosimeters have given further confirmation of their reliability.

  14. Novel tannin-based adsorbent in removing cationic dye (Methylene Blue) from aqueous solution. Kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J; González-Velasco, M; Beltrán-Heredia, J; Gragera-Carvajal, J; Salguero-Fernández, J

    2010-02-15

    Natural tannin-based adsorbent has been prepared on the basis of the gelification of Quebracho bark extract. The resulting product, Quebracho Tannin Gel (QTG) was tested as cationic dye adsorbent with Methylene Blue (MB). Kinetics of adsorption process were studied out and a period of 15 days was determined for reaching equilibrium. The influences of pH and temperature were evaluated. As pH or temperature raise q capacity of QTG increases. Theoretical modelization of dye-QTG adsorption was carried out by multiparametric adjustment according to Langmuir's hypothesis. Values of the k(l1), k(l2) and activation energies were calculated. PMID:19782466

  15. Coordination Polymer Gels by Electron Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Ha; Cho, Young Je; Jung, Jong Hwa [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogenation of a pyridine derivative possessing tetrazole moieties as end groups, without long alkyl chain groups, results in the formation of a Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} coordination polymer gel. The polymer exhibits a strong fluorescence enhancement upon gel formation. 1 can also be gloated with a variety of magnesium anions such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -} and I{sup -}, indicating that the coordination polymer gel formation of 1 does not strongly depends on anions. The Seam and ABM images of Mg{sup 2+} coordination polymer gel 1 display a flabbier network with several micrometers long, widths in the range 60-70 nm and thicknesses of about 3 nm. In addition, photophysical studies show that the hydrogel exhibits a typical {pi}-{pi} transition and gives rise to high fluorescence behavior. The coordination polymer hydrogel exhibits viscoelastic behavior as evidenced from the rheological studies.

  16. Coordination Polymer Gels by Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogenation of a pyridine derivative possessing tetrazole moieties as end groups, without long alkyl chain groups, results in the formation of a Mg(NO3)2 coordination polymer gel. The polymer exhibits a strong fluorescence enhancement upon gel formation. 1 can also be gloated with a variety of magnesium anions such as SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, Br- and I-, indicating that the coordination polymer gel formation of 1 does not strongly depends on anions. The Seam and ABM images of Mg2+ coordination polymer gel 1 display a flabbier network with several micrometers long, widths in the range 60-70 nm and thicknesses of about 3 nm. In addition, photophysical studies show that the hydrogel exhibits a typical π-π transition and gives rise to high fluorescence behavior. The coordination polymer hydrogel exhibits viscoelastic behavior as evidenced from the rheological studies

  17. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  18. K-Basin gel formation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key part of the proposed waste treatment for K Basin sludge is the elimination of reactive uranium metal by dissolution in nitric acid (Fkirnent, 1998). It has been found (Delegard, 1998a) that upon nitric acid dissolution of the sludge, a gel sometimes forms. Gels are known to sometimes impair solid/liquid separation and/or material transfer. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine the cause(s) of the gel formation and to determine operating parameters for the sludge dissolution that avoid formation of gel. This work and related work were planned in (Fkunent, 1998), (Jewett, 1998) and (Beck, 1998a). This report describes the results of the tests in (Beck, 1998a) with non-radioactive surrogates

  19. Procedure to prepare transparent silica gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Patrick G. (Inventor); Simpson, Norman R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of silica gels and in particular to a process for the preparation of silica gels which can be used as a crystal growth medium that simulates the convectionless environment of space to produce structurally perfect crystals. Modern utilizations of substances in electronics, such as radio transmitters and high frequency microphones, often require single crystals with controlled purity and structural perfection. The near convectionless environment of silica gel suppresses nucleation, thereby reducing the competitive nature of crystal growth. This competition limits the size and perfection of the crystal; and it is obviously desirable to suppress nucleation until, ideally, only one crystal grows in a predetermined location. A silica gel is not a completely convectionless environment like outer space, but is the closest known environment to that of outer space that can be created on Earth.

  20. Maize Arabinoxylan Gels as Protein Delivery Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Martínez-López

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The laccase induced gelation of maize bran arabinoxylans at 2.5% (w/v in the presence of insulin or β-lactoglobulin at 0.1% (w/v was investigated. Insulin and β-lacto-globulin did not modify either the gel elasticity (9 Pa or the cross-links content (0.03 and 0.015 mg di- and triferulic acids/mg arabinoxylan, respectively. The protein release capability of the gel was also investigated. The rate of protein release from gels was dependent on the protein molecular weight. The apparent diffusion coefficient was 0.99 × 10-7 and 0.79 × 10-7 cm2/s for insulin (5 kDa and β-lactoglobulin (18 kDa, respectively. The results suggest that maize bran arabinoxylan gels can be potential candidates for the controlled release of proteins.