Sample records for blue dots team

  1. Simulating and Characterizing the Pale Blue Dot (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D.

    The goal of this work is to develop and validate a comprehensive model of Earth's disk-integrated spectrum. Earth is our only example of a habitable planet, or a planet capable of maintaining liquid water on its surface. As a result, Earth typically serves as the archetypal habitable world in conceptual studies of future exoplanet characterization missions, or in studies of techniques for the remote characterization of potentially habitable exoplanets. Using spacecraft to obtain disk-integrated observations of the distant Earth provides an opportunity to study Earth as might an extrasolar observer. However, such observations are rare, and are often limited in wavelength range, spectral resolution, temporal coverage, and viewing geometry. As a result, modeled observations of the distant Earth provide the best means for understanding the appearance of the Pale Blue Dot across a wide range of wavelengths, times, and viewing geometries. In this work, I discuss a generalized approach to modeling disk-integrated spectra of planets. This approach is then used to develop a model capable of simulating the appearance of Earth to a distant observer| the Virtual Planetary Laboratory (VPL) three-dimensional, line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model incorporates absorption and scattering by the atmosphere, clouds, and surface, including specular re ectance from the ocean, and direction-dependent scattering by clouds. Data from Earth-observing satellites are used to specify the time- and location-dependent state of the surface and atmosphere. Following the description of this tool, I validate the model against several datasets: visible photometric and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth from NASA's EPOXI mission, mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite, and broadband visible observations of Earth's brightness from Earthshine observations

  2. Water-Soluble Silicon Quantum Dots with Quasi-Blue Emission (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Wang, Hao; Guo, Jun; Wu, Jiang; Gao, Li J.; Sun, Ying H.; Zhao, J.; Zou, Gui F.


    In this study, water-soluble silicon quantum dots have quasi-blue emission at 390 nm by being capped with 1-vinylimidazole in resese micelles. As-obtained silicon quantum dots have a diameter of 2~5 nm and high crystallinity. The quasi-blue emission of the silicon quantum dots is likely attributed to the polarity of the capping ligands. Moreover, the silicon quantum dots are water-soluble and have photoluminescence nanosecond decay time, suggesting their potential application in biological field.

  3. Red, green, and blue lasing enabled by single-exciton gain in colloidal quantum dot films (United States)

    Nurmikko, Arto V.; Dang, Cuong


    The methods and materials described herein contemplate the use films of colloidal quantum dots as a gain medium in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser. The present disclosure demonstrates a laser with single-exciton gain in the red, green, and blue wavelengths. Leveraging this nanocomposite gain, the results realize a significant step toward full-color single-material lasers.

  4. Synthesis, Photoluminescence and Bio-Targeting Applications of Blue Graphene Quantum Dots. (United States)

    Wang, Jigang; Zhou, Ji; Zhou, Wenhua; Shi, Jilong; Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yongsheng; He, Dawei; Fu, Ming; Zhang, Yongna


    Chemical derived graphene oxide, an atomically thin sheet of graphite with two-dimensional construction, offers interesting physical, electronic, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties that are currently being explored for advanced physics electronics, membranes, and composites. Herein, we study graphene quantum dots (GQD) with the blue photoluminescence under various parameters. The GQD samples were prepared at different temperatures, and the blue photoluminescence intensity of the solution improved radically as the heating temperatures increased. Concerning PL peak and intensity of the quantum dots, the results demonstrated dependence on time under heating, temperature of heating, and pH adjusted by the addition of sodium hydroxide. After hydrothermal synthesis routes, the functional groups of graphene oxide were altered the morphology showed the stacking configuration, and self-assembled structure of the graphene sheets with obvious wrinkles appeared at the edge structures. In addition, absorption, PL, and PLE spectra of the graphene quantum dots increase with different quantities of sodium hydroxide added. Finally, using GQD to target PNTIA cells was carried out successfully. High uptake efficiency and no cytotoxic effects indicate graphene quantum dots can be suitable for bio-targeting.

  5. Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red versus Blue Team Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, Armida J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Human Factors and Statistics; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Risk and Reliability Analysis; Silva, Austin Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling; Nauer, Kevin S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cyber Security Technologies; Anderson, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Assurance Technologies and Assessment; Forsythe, James Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling


    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red Versus Blue Team Exercises Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding concerning how to best structure training for cyber defenders. Two modes of training were considered. The baseline training condition (Tool-Based training) was based on current practices where classroom instruction focuses on the functions of a software tool with various exercises in which students apply those functions. In the second training condition (Narrative-Based training), classroom instruction addressed software functions, but in the context of adversary tactics and techniques. It was hypothesized that students receiving narrative-based training would gain a deeper conceptual understanding of the software tools and this would be reflected in better performance within a red versus blue team exercise.

  6. Excitonic structure and pumping power dependent emission blue-shift of type-II quantum dots (United States)

    Klenovský, Petr; Steindl, Petr; Geffroy, Dominique


    In this work we study theoretically and experimentally the multi-particle structure of the so-called type-II quantum dots with spatially separated electrons and holes. Our calculations based on customarily developed full configuration interaction ap- proach reveal that exciton complexes containing holes interacting with two or more electrons exhibit fairly large antibinding energies. This effect is found to be the hallmark of the type-II confinement. In addition, an approximate self-consistent solution of the multi-exciton problem allows us to explain two pronounced phenomena: the blue-shift of the emission with pumping and the large inhomogeneous spectral broadening, both of those eluding explanation so far. The results are confirmed by detailed intensity and polarization resolved photoluminescence measurements on a number of type-II samples. PMID:28358120

  7. Magnetic enhancement of photoluminescence from blue-luminescent graphene quantum dots (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Shi, Chentian; Zhang, Chunfeng; Pu, Songyang; Wang, Rui; Wu, Xuewei; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xue, Fei; Pan, Dengyu; Xiao, Min


    Graphene quantum-dots (GQDs) have been predicted and demonstrated with fascinating optical and magnetic properties. However, the magnetic effect on the optical properties remains experimentally unexplored. Here, we conduct a magneto-photoluminescence study on the blue-luminescence GQDs at cryogenic temperatures with magnetic field up to 10 T. When the magnetic field is applied, a remarkable enhancement of photoluminescence emission has been observed together with an insignificant change in circular polarization. The results have been well explained by the scenario of magnetic-field-controlled singlet-triplet mixing in GQDs owing to the Zeeman splitting of triplet states, which is further verified by temperature-dependent experiments. This work uncovers the pivotal role of intersystem crossing in GQDs, which is instrumental for their potential applications such as light-emitting diodes, photodynamic therapy, and spintronic devices.

  8. Ultrafast Method for Selective Design of Graphene Quantum Dots with Highly Efficient Blue Emission (United States)

    Kang, Suk Hyun; Mhin, Sungwook; Han, Hyuksu; Kim, Kang Min; Jones, Jacob L.; Ryu, Jeong Ho; Kang, Ju Seop; Kim, Shin Hee; Shim, Kwang Bo


    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attractive properties and potential applications. However, their various applications are limited by a current synthetic method which requires long processing time. Here, we report a facile and remarkably rapid method for production of GQDs exhibiting excellent optoelectronic properties. We employed the pulsed laser ablation (PLA) technique to exfoliate GQDs from multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs), which can be referred to as a pulsed laser exfoliation (PLE) process. Strikingly, it takes only 6 min to transform all MWCNTs precursors to GQDs by using PLE process. Furthermore, we could selectively produce either GQDs or graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) by simply changing the organic solvents utilized in the PLE processing. The synthesized GQDs show distinct blue photoluminescence (PL) with excellent quantum yield (QY) up to 12% as well as sufficient brightness and resolution to be suitable for optoelectronic applications. We believe that the PLE process proposed in this work will further open up new routes for the preparation of different optoelectronic nanomaterials.

  9. Hyaluronic Acid Conjugated Magnetic Prussian Blue@Quantum Dot Nanoparticles for Cancer Theranostics (United States)

    Yang, Yongbo; Jing, Lijia; Li, Xiaoda; Lin, Li; Yue, Xiuli; Dai, Zhifei


    A multifunctional nanotheranostic agent was developed by conjugating both hyaluronic acid and bovine serum albumin coated CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots onto the surface of magnetic Prussian blue nanoparticles. The obtained nanoagent could serve as an efficient contrast agent to simultaneously enhance near infrared (NIR) fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging greatly. The coexistence of magnetic core and CD44 ligand hyaluronic acid was found to largely improve the specific uptake of the nanoagent by CD44 overexpressed HeLa cells upon applying an external magnetic field. Both NIR fluorescence and MR imaging in vivo proved high accumulation of the nanoagent at tumor site due to its excellent CD44 receptor/magnetic dual targeting capability. After intravenous injection of the nanoagent and treatment of external magnetic field, the tumor in nude mice was efficiently ablated upon NIR laser irradiation and the tumor growth inhibition was more than 89.95%. Such nanotheranostic agent is of crucial importance for accurately identifying the size and location of the tumor before therapy, monitoring the photothermal treatment procedure in real-time during therapy, assessing the effectiveness after therapy. PMID:28255343

  10. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Quantum Confinement Effect on the Blue Shift in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changiz. Vatankhah


    Full Text Available Nano particles of zinc sulfide (ZnS of face centered cubic (fcc structures were synthesized using sulphur source of soium sulphide and mercaptoethanol respectively via Chemical Bath Deposition method. The synthesized quantum dots were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The average crystallite size calculated from TEM and XRD pattern has been found to in the range 4.6 – 1.9 nm, the pariticles size decreases with the increase of the capping agent concentrations from 0. 001 to 0.7 Mol. The absorption coefficient in the range 325 - 250 nm decreases with increasing capping agent and the particles. ZnS nanoparticles were also derived from time independent Schrodinger equations for ZnS system and calculated the coefficient absorption using the density functional theory (DFT . It is shown that decreasing of ZnS nanosize lead to changes the optical properties and coefficient absorption in the visible region does not occur and the particles act like a transparent material. In this work, the blue shift was observed in absorption-wavelength both theoretical and experimental method due to the quantum confinement effects.

  11. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team... (United States)


    ... Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services and Jacobsen Group, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance TA-W-74...., Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, including on-site leased workers from Kelly Services and...

  12. Intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent photoluminescence emission in the blue-violet region from phosphorene quantum dots (United States)

    Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan


    Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources.

  13. Intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent photoluminescence emission in the blue-violet region from phosphorene quantum dots. (United States)

    Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan


    Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources.

  14. White/blue-emitting, water-dispersible CdSe quantum dots prepared by counter ion-induced polymer collapse (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Goh, Jane Betty; Goh, M. Cynthia; Giri, Neeraj Kumar; Paige, Matthew F.


    The synthesis and characterization of water-dispersible, luminescent CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots that exhibit nominal "white" fluorescence emission and have potential applications in solid-state lighting is described. The nanomaterials, prepared through counter ion-induced collapse and UV cross-linking of high-molecular weight polyacrylic acid in the presence of appropriate aqueous inorganic ions, were of ∼2-3 nm diameter and could be prepared in gram quantities. The quantum dots exhibited strong luminescence emission in two bands, the first in the blue-region (band edge) of the optical spectrum and the second, a broad emission in the red-region (attributed to deep trap states) of the optical spectrum. Because of the relative strength of emission of the band edge and deep trap state luminescence, it was possible to achieve visible white luminescence from the quantum dots in aqueous solution and in dried, solid films. The optical spectroscopic properties of the nanomaterials, including ensemble and single-molecule spectroscopy, was performed, with results compared to other white-emitting quantum dot systems described previously in the literature.

  15. Growth and characterization of phosphor-free white light-emitting diodes based on InGaN blue quantum wells and green-yellow quantum dots (United States)

    Yang, Di; Wang, Lai; Lv, Wen-Bin; Hao, Zhi-Biao; Luo, Yi


    Phosphor-free white light-emitting diodes consisting of 4 layers of InGaN/GaN quantum dots and 4 layers of quantum wells have been grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. A white emission was demonstrated under electrical injection by mixing the green-yellow light from quantum dots and the blue light from quantum wells. At the injection current of 5 mA, the electroluminescence peak wavelengths of quantum dots and quantum wells were 548 nm and 450 nm, respectively, resulting in the color-rendering index Ra of 62. As the injection current increased, a faster emission enhancement of quantum well and an emission blue shift of the quantum dots were observed, which led to the decrease of Ra.

  16. Great blue-shift of luminescence of ZnO nanoparticle array constructed from ZnO quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Nengwen


    Full Text Available Abstract ZnO nanoparticle array has been fabricated on the Si substrate by a simple thermal chemical vapor transport and condensation without any metal catalysts. This ZnO nanoparticles array is constructed from ZnO quantum dots (QDs, and half-embedded in the amorphous silicon oxide layer on the surface of the Si substrate. The cathodoluminescence measurements showed that there is a pronounced blue-shift of luminescence comparable to those of the bulk counterpart, which is suggested to originate from ZnO QDs with small size where the quantum confinement effect can work well. The fabrication mechanism of the ZnO nanoparticle array constructed from ZnO QDs was proposed, in which the immiscible-like interaction between ZnO nuclei and Si surface play a key role in the ZnO QDs cluster formation. These investigations showed the fabricated nanostructure has potential applications in ultraviolet emitters.

  17. Blue-to-green single photons from InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-nanowire ordered arrays (United States)

    Chernysheva, E.; Gačević, Ž.; García-Lepetit, N.; van der Meulen, H. P.; Müller, M.; Bertram, F.; Veit, P.; Torres-Pardo, A.; González Calbet, J. M.; Christen, J.; Calleja, E.; Calleja, J. M.; Lazić, S.


    Single-photon emitters (SPEs) are at the basis of many applications for quantum information management. Semiconductor-based SPEs are best suited for practical implementations because of high design flexibility, scalability and integration potential in practical devices. Single-photon emission from ordered arrays of InGaN nano-disks embedded in GaN nanowires is reported. Intense and narrow optical emission lines from quantum dot-like recombination centers are observed in the blue-green spectral range. Characterization by electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence and micro-photoluminescence indicate that single photons are emitted from regions of high In concentration in the nano-disks due to alloy composition fluctuations. Single-photon emission is determined by photon correlation measurements showing deep anti-bunching minima in the second-order correlation function. The present results are a promising step towards the realization of on-site/on-demand single-photon sources in the blue-green spectral range operating in the GHz frequency range at high temperatures.

  18. Highly fluorescence-stable blue CdZnS/ZnS quantum dots against degradable environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki-Heon; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kang, Hee-Don; Han, Chang-Yeol [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Seung Muk [Kunsan National University Center For Research Facilities, Kunsan National University, Gunsan, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yangjin; Hwang, Jun Yeon [Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Jeonbuk 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Heesun, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: Blue-emitting CdZnS/ZnS alloy QDs exhibited the excellent fluorescent stability against a thorough purification cycle, long-term UV illumination, and hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic ligand exchange. - Highlights: • Highly efficient, color-pure blue CdZnS/ZnS QDs are synthesized. • Fluorescent properties of the QDs remain unchanged against various degradable conditions. • Closely-packed solid QD film is compared with QD solution in PL QY and emission decay dynamics. - Abstract: We report on synthesis of highly efficient, color-pure blue CdZnS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and their excellent fluorescent stability against degradable environmental conditions. The CdZnS/ZnS QDs finely emission-tunable in the range of 440–461 nm exhibit high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields (QYs) of 81–92% along with an exceptionally narrow spectral bandwidth of 19 nm. These QDs are subjected to various post-treatments of a thorough purification cycle, long-term UV illumination, and hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic ligand exchange, each of which is usually detrimental to QD fluorescence. As a result, no noticeable deterioration in the fluorescent properties is observed, indicative of the insensitiveness of our CdZnS/ZnS QDs to the above degradable processes. Furthermore, PL properties of a solid film of multiple QD layers are assessed and compared with those of a diluted QD solution, showing an unprecedentedly small QY reduction of solid QD film versus QD solution. The above promising results are justified mainly by emphasizing the role of a thick ZnS shell present in CdZnS/ZnS QDs.

  19. Excitation wavelength and intensity dependence of photo-spectral blue shift in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xingbo, E-mail:; Zheng, Shu; Gao, Wenli; Wei, Wei; Chen, Meiling; Deng, Fangming; Liu, Xia; Xiao, Qian [Hunan Agricultural University, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Food Science and Technology (China)


    The influence of excitation wavelength and intensity on core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) photo-spectral blue shift was investigated by spectral imaging. Analysis of the evolution of the distance between the zeroth-order spot and the first-order spectral streak, we found that the extent of blue shift strongly depends on the excitation wavelength and QDs sizes, but not on the excitation intensity. Converted the extent of blue shift into the decreased QDs volume at a series of time, the core oxidation kinetics of CdSe/ZnS QDs was uncovered that provided a quantitative comparison method for study the excitation wavelength and intensity dependence of single QDs blue shift. The core oxidation rate is almost proportional to the excitation intensity. These results are explained by a fact that higher energy excitation wavelength can accelerate individual exciton formation and higher excitation intensity can induce more amount of exciton formation per a unit time.

  20. Is the Pale Blue Dot unique? Optimized photometric bands for identifying Earth-like exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Charnay, Benjamin; Arney, Giada; Robinson, Tyler D; Meadows, Victoria; Catling, David C


    The next generation of ground and space-based telescopes will image habitable planets around nearby stars. A growing literature describes how to characterize such planets with spectroscopy, but less consideration has been given to the usefulness of planet colors. Here, we investigate whether potentially Earth-like exoplanets could be identified using UV-visible-to-NIR wavelength broadband photometry (350-1000 nm). Specifically, we calculate optimal photometric bins for identifying an exo-Earth and distinguishing it from uninhabitable planets including both Solar System objects and model exoplanets. The color of some hypothetical exoplanets - particularly icy terrestrial worlds with thick atmospheres - is similar to Earth's because of Rayleigh scattering in the blue region of the spectrum. Nevertheless, subtle features in Earth's reflectance spectrum appear to be unique. In particular, Earth's reflectance spectrum has a 'U-shape' unlike all our hypothetical, uninhabitable planets. This shape is partly biogenic...

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly luminescent blue-emitting ZnSe(S) quantum dots exhibiting low toxicity. (United States)

    Mirnajafizadeh, Fatemeh; Ramsey, Deborah; McAlpine, Shelli; Wang, Fan; Reece, Peter; Stride, John Arron


    Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) that emit in the visible spectrum are of interest to a number of imaging technologies, not least that of biological samples. One issue that hinders the application of luminescent markers in biology is the potential toxicity of the fluorophore. Here we show that hydrothermally synthesized ZnSe(S) QDs have low cytotoxicity to both human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT-116) and human skin fibroblast cells (WS1). The QDs exhibited a high degree of crystallinity, with a strong blue photoluminescence at up to 29% quantum yield relative to 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) without post-synthetic UV-irradiation. Confocal microscopy images obtained of HCT-116 cells after incubation with the QDs highlighted the stability of the particles in cell media. Cytotoxicity studies showed that both HCT-116 and WS1 cells retain 100% viability after treatment with the QDs at concentrations up to 0.5g/L, which makes them of potential use in biological imaging applications.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly luminescent blue-emitting ZnSe(S) quantum dots exhibiting low toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnajafizadeh, Fatemeh; Ramsey, Deborah; McAlpine, Shelli [School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Wang, Fan; Reece, Peter [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Stride, John Arron, E-mail: [School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)


    Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) that emit in the visible spectrum are of interest to a number of imaging technologies, not least that of biological samples. One issue that hinders the application of luminescent markers in biology is the potential toxicity of the fluorophore. Here we show that hydrothermally synthesized ZnSe(S) QDs have low cytotoxicity to both human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT-116) and human skin fibroblast cells (WS1). The QDs exhibited a high degree of crystallinity, with a strong blue photoluminescence at up to 29% quantum yield relative to 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) without post-synthetic UV-irradiation. Confocal microscopy images obtained of HCT-116 cells after incubation with the QDs highlighted the stability of the particles in cell media. Cytotoxicity studies showed that both HCT-116 and WS1 cells retain 100% viability after treatment with the QDs at concentrations up to 0.5 g/L, which makes them of potential use in biological imaging applications. - Highlights: • Highly luminescent ZnSe(S) QDs were synthesized using a simple, one-step hydrothermal method. • The as-synthesized QDs were found to be nontoxic in the presence of biological cells. • The QDs were stable in biological media with identical emission profile to that in water.

  3. Green and fast synthesis of amino-functionalized graphene quantum dots with deep blue photoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, E., E-mail:; Blanco, G.; Gonzalez-Leal, J. M.; Barrera, M. C.; Domínguez, M.; Ramirez-del-Solar, M. [University of Cádiz, Institute of Electron Microscopy and Materials (Spain)


    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were prepared using a top-down approach with a green microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis from ultrathin graphite, previously ultrasound delaminated. Results obtained by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy indicate that the so-fabricated GQDs are plates with 6 nm of average diameter, mostly single- or bi-layered. Photoluminescence characterization shows that the strongest emission occurs at 410–415 nm wavelength when the samples are excited at 310–320 nm wavelength. In addition to these down-conversion features, GQDs also exhibit up-conversion photoluminescence when excited in the range 560–800 nm wavelength, with broad emission peaks at 410–450 nm wavelength. Analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicates a higher proportion of C–C sp{sup 2} than sp{sup 3} bonds, with the sp{sup 3} ones mainly located at the GQD surfaces. Also evidences of C–O and C–N bonds at the GQD surface have been observed. The combination of these results with Raman and ultraviolet–visible absorption experiments allows envisaging the GQDs to be composed of amino-functionalized sp{sup 2} islands with a high degree of surface oxidation. This would explain the photoluminescent properties observed in the samples under study. The combined up- and down-conversion photoluminescence processes would made these GQDs a powerful energy-transfer component in GQDs–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite systems, which could be used in photocatalyst devices with superior performance compared to simple TiO{sub 2} systems.

  4. Singlet oxygen luminescence detecting in presence of hybrid associates of colloidal Ag2S quantum dots with methylene blue molecules (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Kondratenko, T. S.; Smirnov, M. S.; Perepelitsa, A. S.; Grevtseva, I. G.; Vinokur, Y. A.; Aslanov, S. V.; Matsukovich, A. S.


    In our work we demonstrate some spectroscopic investigation of colloidal Ag2S QDs associates with methylene blue. The photosensitizing of singlet oxygen by associates of colloidal Ag2S QDs with methylene blue was found.

  5. Carrier recombination spatial transfer by reduced potential barrier causes blue/red switchable luminescence in C8 carbon quantum dots/organic hybrid light-emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifang Chen


    Full Text Available The underlying mechanism behind the blue/red color-switchable luminescence in the C8 carbon quantum dots (CQDs/organic hybrid light-emitting devices (LEDs is investigated. The study shows that the increasing bias alters the energy-level spatial distribution and reduces the carrier potential barrier at the CQDs/organic layer interface, resulting in transition of the carrier transport mechanism from quantum tunneling to direct injection. This causes spatial shift of carrier recombination from the organic layer to the CQDs layer with resultant transition of electroluminescence from blue to red. By contrast, the pure CQDs-based LED exhibits green–red electroluminescence stemming from recombination of injected carriers in the CQDs.

  6. C8-structured carbon quantum dots: Synthesis, blue and green double luminescence, and origins of surface defects (United States)

    Xifang, Chen; Wenxia, Zhang; Qianjin, Wang; Jiyang, Fan

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted great attention in the past few years due to their low cytotoxicity, exploited various synthesis methods, unexampled abundance of raw materials on earth, and robust near-infrared to near-UV luminescence. Carbon nanoparticles have applications in biological labeling, delivery of drugs and biological molecules into cells, and light emitting diodes and lasing. CQDs generally exist as nanodiamonds or graphite quantum dots according to previous research reports. In this study, we report the first synthesis of the third-allotrope CQDs through carbonization of sucrose and study their luminescence properties. These CQDs have a body-centered cubic structure and each lattice point is composed of eight atoms which form a sub-cube (so called C8 crystal structure). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirm the C8 structure of the synthesized carbon nanocrystallites with an average size of 2 nm. The C8 CQDs exhibit double-band luminescence with two peaks centered at around 432 and 520 nm. The study based on the photoluminescence, UV-Vis absorption, Fourier-transform infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies reveals that the green emission originates from the C=O related surface defect.

  7. Visible photoelectrochemical sensing platform by in situ generated CdS quantum dots decorated branched-TiO2 nanorods equipped with Prussian blue electrochromic display. (United States)

    Wang, Yanhu; Ge, Shenguang; Zhang, Lina; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Huang, Jiadong


    In this study, based on in situ generation of CdS quantum dots (QDs) on the surface of branched TiO2 (B-TiO2) nanorods, an solar innovative photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing platform was constructed for real-time, and sensitive detection of cellular H2S. Specifically, B-TiO2 nanorods arrays consisting of TiO2 nanorods directly grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) further using TiCl3 mediated surface treatment of TiO2 nanorods are designed and fabricated as a new type of photoelectrode. CdS quantum dots (QDs) was formed on the surface of B-TiO2 nanorods arrays through the reaction between Cd(2+) and S(2-). And a significant enhancement in the photocurrent was obtained that ascribed to the formation of CdS-B-TiO2 heterostructures, thus leading to sensitive PEC recording of the H2S level in buffer and cellular environments. By using Prussian blue (PB) a electrochromic material to capture the photoelectron generated from the photoelectrode, a new visual system was proposed due to the formation of Prussian white (PW), which could be used to visualize the quantum photoelectric effect. This novel PEC sensing platform not only achieved satisfied analysis results toward S(2-), but also showed excellent sensitivity, selectivity, low cost, and portable features. The strategy through the in situ generation of semiconductor nanoparticles on the surface of wide band-gap semiconductor paves the way for the improvements of PEC analytical performance. Meanwhile, the quantitative read-out electrochromic display paves a facile avenue and initiates new opportunities for creation of cheap, miniaturization sensors for other relevant analytes.

  8. Synthesis of blue-photoluminescent graphene quantum dots/polystyrenic anion-exchange resin for Fe(III) detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenjun, E-mail:; Gan, Jie


    Highlights: • GQD/PS-AER was prepared as a solid fluorescent sensor with millimeter size. • The GQD/PS-AER sensor could detect Fe{sup 3+} ions selectively. • The GQD/PS-AER sensor could be reusable. • This method is simple and economical. - Abstract: A novel solid fluorescent sensor with millimeter size, based on graphene quantum dots/polystyrenic anion-exchange resin (GQDs/PS-AER) was obtained for the detection of Fe{sup 3+}. The linear response range of Fe{sup 3+} was obtained from 1 μM to 7 μM and the detection limit was as low as 0.65 μM. In addition, the sensor could be regenerated by adding complexing agent EDTA and be separated by using simple filtration.

  9. Polypyrrole and graphene quantum dots @ Prussian Blue hybrid film on graphite felt electrodes: Application for amperometric determination of l-cysteine. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tricard, Simon; Yue, Pengwei; Zhao, Jihua; Fang, Jian; Shen, Weiguo


    A novel polypyrrole (PPy) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) @ Prussian Blue (PB) nanocomposite has been grafted on a graphite felt (GF) substrate (PPy/GQDs@PB/GF), and has been proven to be an efficient electrochemical sensor for the determination of l-cysteine (l-cys). GQDs, which were fabricated by carbonization of citric acid and adsorbed on GF surface ultrasonically, played an important role for promoting the synthesis process of PB via a spontaneous redox reaction between Fe(3+) and [Fe(CN)6](3-). The PPy film has been electro-polymerized to improve the electrochemical stability of the PPy/GQDs@PB/GF electrode. The as-prepared electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical methods. It exhibited an excellent activity for the electrocatalytic oxidation of l-cys, with a detection sensitivity equal to 0.41 Amol(-1) L for a concentration range of 0.2-50 μmolL(-1), and equal to 0.15 Amol(-1) L for a concentration range of 50-1000 μmolL(-1). A low detection limit of 0.15 μmolL(-1), as well as a remarkable long-time stability and a negligible sensitivity to interfering analytes, were also ascertained.

  10. Hydrophilic and blue fluorescent N-doped carbon dots from tartaric acid and various alkylol amines under microwave irradiation (United States)

    Xu, Minghan; Xu, Shusheng; Yang, Zhi; Shu, Mengjun; He, Guili; Huang, Da; Zhang, Liling; Li, Li; Cui, Daxiang; Zhang, Yafei


    The desired control of particle size, doping element composition, and surface structure of carbon dots (CDs) are vital for understanding the fluorescence mechanism and exploring their potential applications. Herein, nitrogen-doped CDs (N-doped CDs) have been synthesized with tartaric acid and various alkylol amines (monoethanolamine, biethanolamine and triethanolamine) under microwave irradiation. A systematic investigation was performed to characterize the N-doped CDs. It is found that with increasing nitrogen proportion, the fluorescent quantum yield and lifetime of N-doped CDs increases, whereas cell toxicity decreases. In other words, N-doped CDs synthesized by tartaric acid and monoethanolamine have the highest nitrogen content, the highest fluorescent quantum yield, the longest lifetime and the lowest cell toxicity. A corresponding mechanism has been proposed. Moreover, as-synthesized N-doped CDs have been applied for selectively detecting the Fe3+ ion and writing letters as a fluorescent ink.The desired control of particle size, doping element composition, and surface structure of carbon dots (CDs) are vital for understanding the fluorescence mechanism and exploring their potential applications. Herein, nitrogen-doped CDs (N-doped CDs) have been synthesized with tartaric acid and various alkylol amines (monoethanolamine, biethanolamine and triethanolamine) under microwave irradiation. A systematic investigation was performed to characterize the N-doped CDs. It is found that with increasing nitrogen proportion, the fluorescent quantum yield and lifetime of N-doped CDs increases, whereas cell toxicity decreases. In other words, N-doped CDs synthesized by tartaric acid and monoethanolamine have the highest nitrogen content, the highest fluorescent quantum yield, the longest lifetime and the lowest cell toxicity. A corresponding mechanism has been proposed. Moreover, as-synthesized N-doped CDs have been applied for selectively detecting the Fe3+ ion and writing

  11. Polyethylene glycol-coated blue-emitting silicon dots with improved properties for uses in aqueous and biological environments (United States)

    Rodríguez Sartori, Damián; Lillo, Cristian R.; Romero, Juan J.; Dell‧Arciprete, María Laura; Miñán, Alejandro; de Mele, Mónica Fernández Lorenzo; Gonzalez, Mónica C.


    Grafting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to ultrasmall photoluminescent silicon dots (SiDs) is expected to improve and expand the applications of these particles to aqueous environments and biological systems. Herein we report a novel one-pot synthesis of robust, highly water compatible PEG-coated SiDs (denoted as PEG-SiDs) of (3.3 ± 0.5) nm size. The nanoparticles’ synthesis is based on the liquid phase oxidation of magnesium silicide using PEG as reaction media and leading to high PEG density grafting. PEG-SiDs enhanced photophysical, photosensitising, and solution properties in aqueous environments are described and compared to those of 2 nm size PEG-coated SiDs with low PEG density grafting (denoted as PEG-NHSiDs) obtained from a multistep synthesis strategy. PEG-SiDs form highly dispersed suspensions in water showing stable photoluminescence and quantum yields of Φ = 0.13 ± 0.04 at 370 nm excitation in air-saturated suspensions. These particles exhibited the capacity of photosensitising the formation of singlet molecular oxygen, not observed for PEG-NHSiDs. PEG robust shielding of the silicon core luminescent properties is further demonstrated in bio-imaging experiments stressing the strong interaction between PEG-SiDs and Staphylococcus aureus smears by observing the photoluminescence of particles. PEG-SiDs were found to be nontoxic to S. aureus cells at concentrations of 100 mg ml-1, though a bacteriostatic effect on S. aureus biofilms was observed upon UV-A irradiation under conditions where light alone has no effect.

  12. Synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-S/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots with Inhibited Blue-Shift Photoluminescence and Applications for Tumor Targeted Bioimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Guo, Na chen, Yu Tu, Chunhong Dong, Bingbo Zhang, Chunhong Hu, Jin Chang


    Full Text Available A facile strategy is reported here for synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-S/ZnS (ZCIS/ZnS core/shell QDs to address the synthetic issues that the unexpected blue-shift of CuInS2-based nanocrystals. In this strategy, Zn2+ ions are intentionally employed for the synthesis of alloyed ZCIS core QDs before ZnS shell coating, which contributes to the reduced blue-shift in photoluminescence (PL emission. The experimental results demonstrate this elaborate facile strategy is effective for the reduction of blue-shift during shell growth. Particularly, a hypothesis is proposed and proved for explanation of this effective strategy. Namely, both cation exchange inhibition and ions accumulation are involved during the synthesis of ZCIS/ZnS QDs. Furthermore, the obtained near infrared (NIR ZCIS/ZnS QDs are transferred into aqueous phase by a polymer coating technique and coupled with cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide (cRGD peptides. After confirmation of biocompability by cytotoxicity test on normal 3T3 cells, these QDs are injected via tail vein into nude mice bearing U87 MG tumor. The result indicates that the signals detected in the tumor region are much more distinguishing injected with ZCIS/ZnS-cRGD QDs than that injected with ZCIS/ZnS QDs.

  13. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  14. Characterization of the interaction of a mono-6-thio-β-cyclodextrin-capped CdTe quantum dots-methylene blue/methylene green system with herring sperm DNA using a spectroscopic approach. (United States)

    Shen, Yizhong; Liu, Shaopu; Wang, Lei; Yin, Pengfei; He, Youqiu


    Novel, water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) capped with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and ~ 4.0 nm in diameter were synthesized in aqueous solution, and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A fluorescence-sensing system based on the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) of (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs was then designed to measure the interaction of phenothiazine dyes [methylene blue (MB) and methylene green (MG)] with herring sperm DNA (hsDNA). This fluorescence-sensing system was based on a fluorescence "OFF-ON" mode. First, MB/MG adsorbed on the surface of (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs effectively quenches the fluorescence of (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs through PET. Then, addition of hsDNA restores the fluorescence intensity of (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs, because hsDNA can bind with MB/MG and remove it from the as-prepared (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs. In addition, detailed reaction mechanisms of the (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs-MB/MG-hsDNA solution system were studied using optical methods, by comparison with the TGA-CdTe QDs-MB/MG-hsDNA solution system.

  15. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  16. Carbon dots as antioxidants and prooxidants. (United States)

    Christensen, Ingeborg Lie; Sun, Ya-Ping; Juzenas, Petras


    In this study we report the effect of classical CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and novel spherical carbon dots on generation of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aqueous solutions in vitro. Free radicals were initiated either chemically using 2,2'-azodiisobutyramidine dihydrochloride (AAPH) or by radiation with a blue light source emitting 390-470 nm (peak 420 nm). Two reagents, dihydrorhodamine 123 (Dhr123) and singlet oxygen sensor green (SOSG), were used as radical probes. Quantum dots and carbon dots inhibited oxidation of the radical probes under decomposition of AAPH. However, when subjected to the blue light both the quantum dots and carbon dots induced oxidation of Dhr123 to a greater extent than SOSG in water. Generation of singlet oxygen was remarkably enhanced in deuterium oxide solutions while oxidation of Dhr123 remained unchanged. For comparison, traditional photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX mainly induced oxidation of SOSG in water. In conclusion, upon external radiation carbon dots or quantum dots generate reactive oxygen species acting as prooxidants. Carbon dots or quantum dots also scavenge free radicals that are generated chemically by an azo compound. Such dual properties of these nanoparticles can be used for photodynamic and photocatalytic or antioxidant applications.

  17. Detection of DNA using an "off-on" switch of a regenerating biosensor based on an electron transfer mechanism from glutathione-capped CdTe quantum dots to nile blue. (United States)

    Shen, Yizhong; Liu, Shaopu; Kong, Ling; Tan, Xuanping; He, Youqiu; Yang, Jidong


    Although various strategies have been reported for double-stranded DNA (DNA) detection, development of a time-saving, specific, and regeneratable fluorescence sensing platform still remains a desired goal. In this study, we proposed a new DNA detection method that relies on an "off-on" switch of a regenerated fluorescence biosensor based on an electron transfer mechanism from glutathione (GSH)-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) to nile blue (NB). Initially, the high fluorescence of GSH-capped CdTe QDs could be effectively quenched by NB due to the binding of NB to the GSH on the surface of the QDs and the electron transfer from the photoexcited GSH-capped CdTe QDs to NB. Then, the high affinity of DNA to NB enabled the NB to be dissociated from the surface of GSH-capped CdTe QDs to form a more stable complex with DNA and suppress the electron transfer process between GSH-capped CdTe QDs and NB, thereby restoring the fluorescence of NB surface modified GSH-capped CdTe QDs (QDs-NB). In addition, we have testified the regenerability of the proposed DNA senor. The corresponding result shows that this DNA sensor is stable for two reuses. This fluorescence "off-on" signal was sensitive to the concentration of DNA in the range from 0.0092 to 25.0 μg mL(-1) with a good correlation coefficient of 0.9989, and the detection limit (3σ/S) was 2.78 ng mL(-1). To further investigate for perfect analysis performance, the developed biosensor was applied for the determination of DNA in human fresh serum samples with satisfactory results.

  18. Implantação da estratégia DOTS no controle da Tuberculose na Paraíba: entre o compromisso político e o envolvimento das equipes do programa saúde da família (1999-2004 Implementation of the DOTS strategy in the control of TB in Paraiba: between the political commitment and the involvement of the teams of the family health program (1999-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenilde Duarte de Sá


    Full Text Available Foi analisada a implantação da estratégia Tratamento Diretamente Observado de Curta Duração (DOTS no controle da tuberculose, sob a ótica dos coordenadores do Programa de Controle da Tuberculose (PCT, nos seis municípios prioritários da Paraíba. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com sete coordenadores de PCT. Fortalezas do DOTS: cinco municípios alcançaram a taxa de cura de 90%. Entre as debilidades identificou-se, na dimensão política, a descontinuidade do cargo de coordenador de PCT, o despreparo da equipe local, a precariedade da estrutura técnico-administrativa e a insuficiência da rede laboratorial; na dimensão operacional ainda é baixa a incorporação da busca de sintomáticos respiratórios pelas Equipes de Saúde da Família. Ocorreram mudanças de cunho epidemiológico, operacional e político. a implantação e garantia da sustentabilidade do DOTS no Estado dependem do modo da organização dos serviços de saúde e o compromisso político do gestor no apoio a estratégia.The scope of this paper is to analyze the implementation of the Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS strategy in the control of tuberculosis, from the standpoint of the coordinators of the Tuberculosis Control Program (TCP in six priority municipalities in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven TCP coordinators. Five municipalities proved to be DOTS success points achieving a 90% cure rate. Among the DOTS weak points in the political dimension, the following aspects were identified: lack of continuity of the TCP coordinator position; lack of preparedness of the local team; precarious technical-administration structure and insufficiency of the laboratory network. In the operational dimension, the search for respiratory symptoms by the Family Health Teams is still low. Changes of an epidemiological, operational and political nature have been incorporated, though the implementation and

  19. Multicolor 3D super-resolution imaging by quantum dot stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. (United States)

    Xu, Jianquan; Tehrani, Kayvan F; Kner, Peter


    We demonstrate multicolor three-dimensional super-resolution imaging with quantum dots (QSTORM). By combining quantum dot asynchronous spectral blueing with stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy and adaptive optics, we achieve three-dimensional imaging with 24 nm lateral and 37 nm axial resolution. By pairing two short-pass filters with two appropriate quantum dots, we are able to image single blueing quantum dots on two channels simultaneously, enabling multicolor imaging with high photon counts.

  20. Characterizing Pale Blue Dots Around FGKM Stars (United States)

    Rugheimer, Sarah; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Sasselov, Dimitar; Segura, Antigona


    Exoplanet characterization of small rocky worlds will be a main focus in the coming decades. For future telescopes like JWST and UVOIR/HDST, an exoplanet’s host star will influence our ability to detect and interpret spectral features, including biosignatures. We present a complete suit of stellar models and a grid of model atmospheres for Earth-like planets at equivalent stages of geological evolution in their HZ for stellar effective temperature from Teff = 2300K to 7000K, sampling the entire FGKM stellar type range. Since M dwarfs are simultaneously the most numerous in the universe, the most active, and the most likely stars to host terrestrial exoplanets, we focus in particular on the range of UV emission possible in each sub M spectral class. The UV emission from a planet's host star dominates the photochemistry and thus the resultant observable spectral features of the planet. Using the latest UV spectra obtained by HST and IUE we model the effect of stellar activity on Earth-like planets. We also model the amount of UV flux reaching the surface for Earth-like planets at various geological epochs ranging from a pre-biotic world through the rise of oxygen and for Earth-like planets orbiting FGKM stars at equivalent stages of evolution. When modeling the remotely detectable spectra of these planets we focus on the primary detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely: H2O, CO2, O3, CH4, N2O and CH3Cl. We model spectra of Earth-like planets orbiting our grid of FGKM stars in the VIS/NIR (0.4 - 4 μm) and the IR (5 - 20 μm) range as input for future missions and concepts like UVOIR/HDST and JWST.

  1. Kind of Blue - Europa Blues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tore; Kirkegaard, Peter


    Bidraget reflekterer over sammenhænge mellem to værker fra det musikalske og litterære område. Det drejer sig om Miles Davis' Kind of Blue fra 1959 og Arne Dahls krimi, Europa Blues fra 2001. Den grundlæggende indfaldsvinkel er det performative, den frie, men samtidigt disciplinerede musikalske...

  2. Team Learning Ditinjau dari Team Diversity dan Team Efficacy


    Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani Pohan; Djamaludin Ancok


    This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...

  3. Management Teams

    CERN Document Server

    Belbin, R Meredith Meredith


    Meredith Belbin's work on teams has become part of everyday language in organizations all over the world. All kinds of teams and team behaviours are covered. At the end of the book is a self-perception inventory so that readers can match their own personalities to particular team roles. Management Teams is required reading for managers concerned with achieving results by getting the best from their key personnel.

  4. Blue Laser. (United States)


    HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION 13 4. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BLUE LASER 18 4.1 Operational and Processing Experience 18 4.2 Performance Testing 20 5...34 -. - . •. SECTION 3 BLUE HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION This section presents an overview of the steps taken in creating a HCL. There the laser assembly. These steps can actually be considered as the final steps in laser fabrication because some of them involve adding various

  5. Teaming up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah

    Questions we care about (Objectives): When students have to work on challenging tasks, as it is often the case in entrepreneurship classrooms that leverage experiential learning, team success becomes central to the students learning. Yet, the formation of teams is often left up to the students...... or pre-arranged at random. Therefore we investigate the importance of team formation in the entrepreneurial classroom and ask: (i) What are the underlying factors that influence outcomes of teamwork in student groups? (ii) How does team formation influence student perception of learning?, and (iii) Do...... functioning entrepreneurial student teams as most teams lack personal chemistry which makes them anchor their work too much in a pre-defined project. In contrast, we find that students that can form their own teams aim for less diverse teams than what is achieved by random assignment. However, the homophily...

  6. Modeling and simulation of Red Teaming. Part 1, Why Red Team M&S?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skroch, Michael J.


    Red teams that address complex systems have rarely taken advantage of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) in a way that reproduces most or all of a red-blue team exchange within a computer. Chess programs, starting with IBM's Deep Blue, outperform humans in that red-blue interaction, so why shouldn't we think computers can outperform traditional red teams now or in the future? This and future position papers will explore possible ways to use M&S to augment or replace traditional red teams in some situations, the features Red Team M&S should possess, how one might connect live and simulated red teams, and existing tools in this domain.

  7. A Single Molecule Investigation of the Photostability of Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Kulatunga, Pasad; Lagerholm, B. Christoffer


    Quantum dots (QDs) are very attractive probes for multi-color fluorescence applications. We report here however that single QDs that are subject to continuous blue excitation from a 100W mercury arc lamp will undergo a continuous blue-switching of the emission wavelength eventually reaching...

  8. Carbon dots as a luminescence sensor for ultrasensitive detection of phosphate and their bioimaging properties. (United States)

    Xu, Jingyi; Zhou, Ying; Cheng, Guifang; Dong, Meiting; Liu, Shuxian; Huang, Chaobiao


    Highly blue fluorescence carbon dots were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal treatment of potatoes. The as-obtained C-dots have been applied to bioimaging of HeLa cells, which shows their excellent biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. The results reveal that C-dots are promising for real cell imaging applications. In addition, the carbon dots can be utilized as a probe for sensing phosphate.

  9. Tunable multicolor carbon dots prepared from well-defined polythiophene derivatives and their emission mechanism. (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Ge, Jiechao; Liu, Weimin; Niu, Guangle; Jia, Qingyan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Pengfei


    Various functional precursors based on polythiophene derivatives are designed to prepare carbon dots (C-dots) with tunable emissions ranging from blue to near-infrared (NIR) at a single excitation wavelength (400 nm). The as-prepared C-dots demonstrate homogeneous size, superior optical properties, excellent water solubility, and low cytotoxicity. Thus, the C-dots are candidates for bio-imaging. A tunable photoluminescence mechanism is proposed to result from variations in the surface state and N content.

  10. Electro-absorption of silicene and bilayer graphene quantum dots (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Hazem; Talaat, Mohamed H.; Lukyanchuk, Igor; Portnoi, M. E.; Saroka, V. A.


    We study numerically the optical properties of low-buckled silicene and AB-stacked bilayer graphene quantum dots subjected to an external electric field, which is normal to their surface. Within the tight-binding model, the optical absorption is calculated for quantum dots, of triangular and hexagonal shapes, with zigzag and armchair edge terminations. We show that in triangular silicene clusters with zigzag edges a rich and widely tunable infrared absorption peak structure originates from transitions involving zero energy states. The edge of absorption in silicene quantum dots undergoes red shift in the external electric field for triangular clusters, whereas blue shift takes place for hexagonal ones. In small clusters of bilayer graphene with zigzag edges the edge of absorption undergoes blue/red shift for triangular/hexagonal geometry. In armchair clusters of silicene blue shift of the absorption edge takes place for both cluster shapes, while red shift is inherent for both shapes of the bilayer graphene quantum dots.

  11. Team Teaching. (United States)

    Bunyan, L. W.

    The purpose of this study was to review current developments in team teaching and to assess its potential in the Calgary, Alberta, schools. An investigation into team teaching situations in schools in the eastern half of the United States and Canada revealed characteristics common to successful programs (e.g., charismatic leadership and innovative…

  12. Highly fluorescent xerogels with entrapped carbon dots for organic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaranta, A., E-mail: [University of Trento, Department of Industrial Engineering, via Mesiano, 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Viale dell' Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Carturan, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Viale dell' Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); University of Padova, Department of Physics and Astronomy “Galileo Galilei”, Via Marzolo, 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Campagnaro, A.; Dalla Palma, M. [University of Trento, Department of Industrial Engineering, via Mesiano, 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Viale dell' Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Giarola, M.; Daldosso, N. [University of Verona, Department of Informatics, Strada le Grazie,15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Maggioni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Viale dell' Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); University of Padova, Department of Physics and Astronomy “Galileo Galilei”, Via Marzolo, 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Mariotto, G. [University of Verona, Department of Informatics, Strada le Grazie,15, 37134 Verona (Italy)


    Organically modified silicate thin film and bulk samples were prepared using [3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyl]trimethoxysilane (AEAP-TMOS) as precursor with the addition of different amounts of AEAP-TMOS functionalized C-dots, prepared by reaction of AEAP-TMOS and citric acid at high temperature. The synthesis of surface functionalized C-dots was followed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and the C-dots optical properties were characterized by optical absorption and UV–vis fluorescence. Thin xerogel films and bulk samples were studied by FTIR, Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. Intense blue-green emission was observed by UV excitation of functionalized C-dots. Carbon quantum dot (CQD) luminescence was preserved also in the xerogel matrices, and the energy transfer from the matrix to CQDs, which is a key characteristic for scintillation detectors, was investigated in the two systems. - Highlights: • Functionalized carbon dots were synthesized. • Carbon dots were dispersed in hybrid xerogel bulk and thin film. • Carbon dots exhibit a strong tunable blue luminescence. • Xerogels were characterized by FT-IR, Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies. • Energy transfer processes were evidenced between C-dots and xerogel matrix.

  13. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac


    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR


    Full Text Available Popularity ofteams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting theirwork done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that thecollective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances.Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensionsand qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as teamperformance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, teamefficiency, team decision making and team conflicts and Qualitative dimensionsof teams such as team communication, team coordination, team cooperation, teamcohesion, team climate, team creativity, team leadership and team conflictshave been discussed in this article.

  15. Virtual Teams. (United States)

    Geber, Beverly


    Virtual work teams scattered around the globe are becoming a feature of corporate workplaces. Although most people prefer face-to-face meetings and interactions, reality often requires telecommuting. (JOW)



    Sudhakar, Goparaju Purna


    Popularity of teams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting their work done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that the collective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances. Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensions and qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as team performance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, team efficiency, team decision making and tea...

  17. Team Learning and Team Composition in Nursing (United States)

    Timmermans, Olaf; Van Linge, Roland; Van Petegem, Peter; Elseviers, Monique; Denekens, Joke


    Purpose: This study aims to explore team learning activities in nursing teams and to test the effect of team composition on team learning to extend conceptually an initial model of team learning and to examine empirically a new model of ambidextrous team learning in nursing. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative research utilising exploratory…

  18. Color vision: retinal blues. (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon


    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  19. Team Building


    Galan, Adriana; Scintee, Silvia-Gabriela


    Because there are no pure formal or informal organisations in real world, one may conclude that an organisation is a mix of formal and informal groups. Thus, its performance depends on the management ability to recognise the existence of these groups, to transform them from groups into working teams, to motivate and stimulate them to achieve organisation’s goals. We must differentiate the concept of group versus the concept of team. A simple definition of the group can be: two or more persons...

  20. Quantum dot spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan

    Semiconductor quantum dots ("solid-state atoms") are promising candidates for quantum computers and future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantum dots are zero-dimensional electronic systems and therefore have discrete energy levels, similar to atoms or molecules. The size distribution...... of quantum dots, however, results in a large inhomogeneous broadening of quantum dot spectra. Work on self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots will be presented. Properties of atom-like single-dot states are investigated optically using high spatial and spectral resolution. Single-dot spectra can be used...

  1. Quantum dot spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan


    Semiconductor quantum dots ("solid state atoms") are promising candidates for quantum computers and future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantum dots are zero-dimensional electronic systems and therefore have discrete energy levels, similar to atoms or molecules. The size distribution...... of quantum dots, however, results in a large inhomogeneous broadening of quantum dot spectra.Work on self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots will be presented. Properties of atom-like single-dots states are investigated optically using high spatial and spectral resolution. Single-dot spectra can be used...

  2. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun


    © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Heteroepitaxy - atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate - is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned \\'dots-in-a-matrix\\' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Vinie; Haugaard, Lena


    organisation som denne? Når teams i samtiden anses for at være en organisationsform, der fremmer organisatorisk læring, beror det på, at teamet antages at udgøre et ikke-hierarkisk arbejdsfællesskab, hvor erfaringer udveksles og problemer løses. Teamorganisering kan imidlertid udformes på mange forskellige...

  4. Connecting dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, Kyoko; Jacobs, Rachel L.


    of connecting the dots of recalled moments of individual family members lives and is geared towards building a family’s shared future for posterity. Lastly, we consider a wider implication of family reminiscence in terms of human development. and Middleton, 1995). A reminiscence conversation is a dynamic talk-in-interaction, which can produce valuable learning experience for the participants involved. Reminiscence talk contains rich, personal, historic data that can reveal and inform family members of an unknown past. In this seminar/chapter, we...... shall present a discursive approach, a methodology that captures the dynamics of reminiscence. We analyse collected conversational data of British family members reminiscing on their past as a joint family activity. Through such talk-in-interaction, the family members develop continuity within...

  5. Construction of Blue-emissive Cellulose Hydrogels with Graphene Quantum Dots%石墨烯量子点与纤维素构筑的蓝色发光水凝胶研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 孟献瑞; 翟翠萍; 刘迎秋; 马宁; 于锦华; 张文凯


    Microcrystalline cellulose ( MCC ) was dissolved in NaOH/urea solvent, and graphene quantum dots ( GQDs) with high quantum yield were introduced in situ, then luminescent GQDs/cellulose hydrogels were obtained.As the amount of crosslinking agent increased, the mechanical strength of the composite hydrogels increased, the transmittance decreased, the swelling ratio decreased, and release rate decreased, but the spectrum remained stable.In addition, composite hydrogels were found to be sensitive and exhibit fluorescent quenching to a variety of metal ions, especially Fe3+.Thus, such luminescent hydrogel based on natural biological resources provided low cost, versatile and environmental friendly candidate for chemical and biological sensor.%以氢氧化钠/尿素为溶剂溶解微晶纤维素,在溶解过程中原位引入高量子产率的蓝光石墨烯量子点(GQDs),制备了GQDs/纤维素发光水凝胶。我们发现交联剂的用量增加,复合水凝胶的力学强度增大,透光率减小,溶胀率减小, GQDs释放速率减小,但是光谱仍保持稳定。 Fe3+对GQDs/纤维素水凝胶具有荧光猝灭特性。我们相信,这种基于天然生物资源的发光水凝胶为化学和生物传感器的设计提供了低成本、多样化、环境友好的选择。

  6. Team responsibility structure and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Hootegem, G. van; Huys, R.


    The purpose is to analyse the impact of team responsibility (the division of job regulation tasks between team leader and team members) on team performance. It bases an analysis on 36 case studies in The Netherlands which are known to have implemented team-based work. The case studies were executed

  7. Virtual teams


    Sanders, David


    This paper describes some early results from observing and interviewing groups working to achieve intellectually complex tasks that required the use of computers, WWW and other research resources. Three groups were virtual (they were working at a distance and rarely meeting face to face) and two groups were simple control groups They were real groups (working in relatively close proximity so that face to face contact was possible most of the time). All five teams completed their tasks but a s...

  8. Better to be red than blue in virtual competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Ioan, Silvia; Zagrean, Leon


    In the 2004 Olympic Games, opponents wearing red athletic uniforms were more likely to win against opponents wearing blue uniforms. To investigate whether this color bias extends to the world of virtual competition, we compared the performance of red and blue teams in a popular multiplayer first......-person-shooter (FPS) computer game. For 3 consecutive months, we collected data from a publicly available global statistics server. Outcomes from 1,347 matches played by the top 10 players on the same virtual arena were included. Red teams won 54.9% of matches, and this effect was highly significant. Our data suggest...... that joining the red team may offer a slight advantage over the blue team in virtual competition, and this should be accounted for when designing FPS games. It is likely that "seeing red" may trigger a powerful psychological distractor signal in human aggressive competition that can affect the outcome...

  9. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka


    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  10. Fabrication and optical properties of type-II InP/InAs nanowire/quantum-dot heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Li, Junshuai; Wu, Yao; Li, Bang; Ren, Xiaomin [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, 100876 (China)


    The growth and optical properties of InAs quantum dots on a pure zinc blende InP nanowire are investigated. The quantum dots are formed in Stranski-Krastanov mode and exhibit pure zinc blende crystal structure. A substantial blueshift of the dots peak with a cube-root dependence on the excitation power is observed, suggesting a type-II band alignment. The peak position of dots initially red-shifts and then blue-shifts with increasing temperature, which is attributed to the carrier redistribution among the quantum dots. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Study on Wide-gap Gallium-nitride Based Films and Their Quantum-dots Devices (United States)


    propose that the size controlled GaN based quantum dot LED for the prospective white light source cold be used to simulate the sun light for higher Lumen...compositions, the quantum dots of InGaN or InN could emit light to cover the whole visible spectrum. The quantum dot based white light device could...wavelength could be shifted from red to the blue region. The high efficiency, quantum dot size-controlled, white light LED could thus be produced

  12. The influence of bio-conjugation on photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torchynska, Tetyana V. [ESFM Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México, D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Vorobiev, Yuri V. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV) Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Querétaro (Mexico); Makhniy, Victor P. [Yuri Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubynsky Str., 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Horley, Paul P., E-mail: [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua/Monterrey, 120 Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)


    We report a considerable blue shift in the luminescence spectra of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots conjugated to anti-interleukin-10 antibodies. This phenomenon can be explained theoretically by accounting for bio-conjugation as a process causing electrostatic interaction between a quantum dot and an antibody, which reduces effective volume of the dot core. To solve the Schrödinger equation for an exciton confined in the quantum dot, we use mirror boundary conditions that were successfully tested for different geometries of quantum wells.

  13. Great Blue Herons in Puget Sound (United States)


    for her eternal patience and fine editing; and a special acknowl- edgement to the Puget Sound Nearshore Science Team for recognizing the Great Blue...mainland Sunshine Coast offer differing habitat op- portunities and breeding concentrations. Within the inland waters of British Columbia, 62 active...1966 and 1994 based on breeding bird survey results (Downes and Collins 1996). Observa- tions indicate that fewer herons now breed on the Sunshine

  14. Teams and team management in nurse education. (United States)

    Richardson, M


    Nursing traditionally relied upon power-coercive and status-oriented management styles similar to those which have underpinned failing British industry but team work and team management styles underpin the success and excellence of organisations in industry and commerce. The author argues that such team work and team management can create the dynamic 'problem-solving' style required for the management of complex issues such as exist within nurse education today. The author presents an outline of teams, their characteristics and the models currently available for managing, building and maintaining teams.

  15. Better team management--better team care? (United States)

    Shelley, P; Powney, B


    Team building should not be a 'bolt-on' extra, it should be a well planned, integrated part of developing teams and assisting their leaders. When asked to facilitate team building by a group of NHS managers we developed a framework which enabled individual members of staff to become more effective in the way they communicated with each other, their teams and in turn within the organization. Facing the challenge posed by complex organizational changes, staff were able to use 3 training days to increase and develop their awareness of the principles of teamwork, better team management, and how a process of leadership and team building could help yield better patient care.

  16. Employability Development Teams: Team Member Roles (United States)

    Otto, Mary L.; Lewis, Meharry H.


    The authors point out that team roles are designed to be complementary, but much of the frustration that develops among team members is due to lack of role definition and too much overlapping of responsibility. (Author)

  17. From DOT to Dotty

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    - Module types are interfaces, which can be abstracted. In this talk Martin will present DOT, a particularly simple calculus that can express systems following these principles. DOT has been developed as the foundation of the next version of Scala. He will also report on dotty, a new Scala compiler that implements the constructs of DOT in its core data structures and that uses the lessons learned to drive Scala’s evolution.

  18. Your cancer care team (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000929.htm Your cancer care team To use the sharing features on this page, ... help your body heal. Working with Your Care Team Each member of your care team plays an ...

  19. Functional surface engineering of quantum dot hydrogels for selective fluorescence imaging of extracellular lactate release. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Ding, Shushu; Cao, Sumei; Zhu, Anwei; Shi, Guoyue


    Selective and sensitive detection of extracellular lactate is of fundamental significance for studying the metabolic alterations in tumor progression. Here we report the rational design and synthesis of a quantum-dot-hydrogel-based fluorescent probe for biosensing and bioimaging the extracellular lactate. By surface engineering the destabilized quantum dot sol with Nile Blue, the destabilized Nile-Blue-functionalized quantum dot sol cannot only self-assemble forming quantum dot hydrogel but also monitor lactate in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor and lactate dehydrogenase through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Notably, the surface engineered quantum dot hydrogel show high selectivity toward lactate over common metal ions, amino acids and other small molecules that widely coexist in biological system. Moreover, the destabilized Nile-Blue-functionalized quantum dots can encapsulate isolated cancer cells when self-assembled into a hydrogel and thus specifically detect and image the extracellular lactate metabolism. By virtue of these properties, the functionalized quantum dot hydrogel was further successfully applied to monitor the effect of metabolic agents.

  20. Blue and White Pot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Many recent archaeological studies have proven that the earliest blue and white porcelain was produced from the kiln in Gongxian County, Henan Province in the Tang Dynasty (618-907). It was an important variety of porcelain available for export then. The early blue and white porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty appeared dark and gray. During the reign of Zhizheng, clear blue and white porcelain was produced, indicating

  1. Work team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBE Editorial


    Full Text Available Work Team 2016 (Jan-Jul1. Editorial TeamChief-editorsBayardo Bapstista Torres, Instituto de Química (USP, BrasilEduardo Galembeck, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Campinas (Unicamp, Brasil Co-editorsGabriel Gerber Hornink, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade - Federal de Alfenas (Unifal-MG, BrasilVera Maria Treis Trindade, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Brasil Editorial BoardAdriana Cassina, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayAngel Herráez, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología molecular, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, SpainAndré Amaral Gonçalves Bianco, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, BrasilDenise Vaz de Macedo, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilEneida de Paula, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilJose Antonio Martinez Oyanedel, Universidad de Concepción, ChileJosep Maria Fernández Novell, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, SpainLeila Maria Beltramini, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo (USP, BrasilManuel João da Costa, Escola de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Minho, PortugalMaria Lucia Bianconi, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, BrasilMaría Noel Alvarez, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayMiguel Ángel Medina Torres, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry Faculty of Sciences University of Málaga, SpainNelma Regina Segnini Bossolan, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo (USP, BrasilPaulo De Avila Junior, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas (CCNH Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC

  2. Cellular blue naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R


    Full Text Available A 31-year-old man had asymptomatic, stationary, 1.5X2 cm, shiny, smooth, dark blue nodule on dorsum of right hand since 12-14 years. In addition he had developed extensive eruption of yellow to orange papulonodular lesions on extensors of limbs and buttocks since one and half months. Investigations confirmed that yellow papules were xanthomatosis and he had associated diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. Biopsy of blue nodule confirmed the clinical diagnosis of cellular blue naevus. Cellular blue naevus is rare and its association with xanthomatosis and diabetes mellitus were interesting features of above patients which is being reported for its rarity.

  3. Team Learning in Teacher Teams: Team Entitativity as a Bridge between Teams-in-Theory and Teams-in-Practice (United States)

    Vangrieken, Katrien; Dochy, Filip; Raes, Elisabeth


    This study aimed to investigate team learning in the context of teacher teams in higher vocational education. As teacher teams often do not meet all criteria included in theoretical team definitions, the construct "team entitativity" was introduced. Defined as the degree to which a group of individuals possesses the quality of being a…

  4. Feeling blue? Blue phosphors for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hungshin Fu


    Full Text Available Research on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs has been revitalized, partly due to the debut of the OLED TV by SONY in 2008. While there is still plenty of room for improvement in efficiency, cost-effectiveness and longevity, it is timely to report on the advances of light emitting materials, the core of OLEDs, and their future perspectives. The focus of this account is primarily to chronicle the blue phosphors developed in our laboratory. Special attention is paid to the design strategy, synthetic novelty, and their OLED performance. The report also underscores the importance of the interplay between chemistry and photophysics en route to true-blue phosphors.

  5. Team coordination dynamics. (United States)

    Gorman, Jamie C; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Cooke, Nancy J


    Team coordination consists of both the dynamics of team member interaction and the environmental dynamics to which a team is subjected. Focusing on dynamics, an approach is developed that contrasts with traditional aggregate-static concepts of team coordination as characterized by the shared mental model approach. A team coordination order parameter was developed to capture momentary fluctuations in coordination. Team coordination was observed in three-person uninhabited air vehicle teams across two experimental sessions. The dynamics of the order parameter were observed under changes of a team familiarity control parameter. Team members returned for the second session to either the same (Intact) or different (Mixed) team. 'Roadblock' perturbations, or novel changes in the task environment, were introduced in order to probe the stability of team coordination. Nonlinear dynamic methods revealed differences that a traditional approach did not: Intact and Mixed team coordination dynamics looked very different; Mixed teams were more stable than Intact teams and explored the space of solutions without the need for correction. Stability was positively correlated with the number of roadblock perturbations that were overcome successfully. The novel and non-intuitive contribution of a dynamical analysis was that Mixed teams, who did not have a long history working together, were more adaptive. Team coordination dynamics carries new implications for traditional problems such as training adaptive teams.

  6. Quantum Dots: Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang


    This review covers the description of the methodologies typically used for the calculation of the electronic structure of self-assembled and colloidal quantum dots. These are illustrated by the results of their application to a selected set of physical effects in quantum dots.

  7. Synthesis of highly fluorescent hydrophobic carbon dots by hot injection method using Paraplast as precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talib, Abou [Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Pandey, Sunil [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Thakur, Mukeshchand [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hui-Fen, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Science and Technology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424, Taiwan (China)


    We have reported synthesis of bright blue colored hydrophobic carbon dots (hC-dots) using highly pure blend of polymers called Paraplast. We developed a hot injection method for making nearly monodispersed hC-dots with a diameter in a range: 5–30 nm as confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The involvement of various functional groups was confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. These hC-dots were incubated with breast cancer stem cells in order to check the entry as well as biological imaging. The cells were analyzed using epifluorescent microscopy. hC-dots showed concentration dependent cytotoxicity (LD{sub 50}: 50 mg/ml) and could be used for bioimaging even at lower concentration (0.5 mg/ml). hC-dots were found to be versatile agents for peeping inside the cells which could also be used for delivery of water insoluble chemotherapeutic agents to variety of solid tumors. - Highlights: • Synthesis of hydrophobic carbon dots from polymer based Paraplast • Deep blue color under the influence of UV light • Typical optical properties used for biological imaging • Biological imaging of breast cancer stem cells revealing potential of carbon dots.

  8. Photoluminescence of patterned CdSe quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on paper (United States)

    Isnaeni, Yulianto, Nursidik; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha


    We successfully developed a method utilizing colloidal CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on a piece of glossy paper. We deposited numbers and lines patterns of toluene soluble CdSe quantum dot using rubber stamper on a glossy paper. The width of line pattern was about 1-2 mm with 1-2 mm separation between lines. It required less than one minute for deposited CdSe quantum dot on glossy paper to dry and become invisible by naked eyes. However, patterned quantum dot become visible using long-pass filter glasses upon excitation of UV lamp or blue laser. We characterized photoluminescence of line patterns of quantum dot, and we found that emission boundaries of line patterns were clearly observed. The error of line size and shape were mainly due to defect of the original stamper. The emission peak wavelength of CdSe quantum dot was 629 nm. The emission spectrum of deposited quantum dot has full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 30-40 nm. The spectra similarity between deposited quantum dot and the original quantum dot in solution proved that our stamping method can be simply applied on glossy paper without changing basic optical property of the quantum dot. Further development of this technique is potential for anti-counterfeiting label on very important documents or objects.

  9. Blue Ocean Thinking (United States)

    Orem, Donna


    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  10. Blue Willow Story Plates (United States)

    Fontes, Kris


    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  11. Quantum Dot Solar Cells (United States)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Hepp, Aloysius; Bailey, Sheila G.


    We have been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe, CuInS2, and CuInSe2 for use in an intermediate bandgap solar cell. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Bawendi, et. al., in the early 1990's. However, unlike previous work in this area we have also utilized single-source precursor molecules in the synthesis process. We will present XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS characterization of our initial attempts at fabricating these quantum dots. Investigation of the size distributions of these nanoparticles via laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy will be presented. Theoretical estimates on appropriate quantum dot composition, size, and inter-dot spacing along with potential scenarios for solar cell fabrication will be discussed.

  12. Instructional Design Team (United States)

    Bancroft, Judith A.; Collins, Keith


    An instructional design team, composed of experts in nursing, education, and media production, is used at the University of Wisconsin School of Nursing, Madison, to produce instructional units for a new curriculum. The authors summarize steps of team/faculty communications, team methodology, and factors influencing the team's effectiveness. (EA)

  13. The Discipline of Teams. (United States)

    Katzenbach, Jon R.; Smith, Douglas K.


    Teams share commitment, translate purpose into performance goals, and have members be accountable with and to their teammates. Types of teams are those that recommend, make or do things, and run things. The distinction between teams and other working groups is performance: an effective team is worth more than the sum of its parts. (SK)

  14. Critical Care Team (United States)

    ... Patients and Families > About Critical Care > Team Tweet Team Page Content ​The critical care team is a group of specially trained caregivers who ... help very ill patients get better. The care team often teach the patient and family strategies that ...

  15. Dialogue in team formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F; Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R; Dignum, F; Chaib-Draa, B; Weigand, H


    The process of cooperative problem solving can be divided into four stages. First, finding potential team members, then forming a team followed by constructing a plan for that team. Finally, the plan is executed by the team. Traditionally, very simple protocols like the Contract Net protocol are use

  16. Speeding Up Team Learning. (United States)

    Edmondson, Amy; Bohmer, Richard; Pisano, Gary


    A study of 16 cardiac surgery teams looked at how the teams adapted to new ways of working. The challenge of team management is to implement new processes as quickly as possible. Steps for creating a learning team include selecting a mix of skills and expertise, framing the challenge, and creating an environment of psychological safety. (JOW)

  17. From blue jeans to blue genes. (United States)

    Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka


    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes.

  18. Evolution in Teams


    David P. Myatt; Chris Wallace


    Team formation will often involve a coordination problem. If no-one else is contributing to a team, there is little point in an agent exerting any effort. Similarly, once a team is formed, an agent within the team will not leave, as to do so would result in team collapse; non-contributing agents would not join, as they currently receive the benefits of the team`s efforts whilst paying none of the costs. The methods of the stochastic adjustment dynamics literature can help select between these...

  19. One-Step Synthesis and Photoluminescence Eva-luation of Cadmium-containing Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisha Shukla; Michael M Nigra; Abigail D Ondeck


    We have developed a simple one-step process for synthesis of ternary quantum dots (ZnCdSe, MgCdSe) with photoluminescence wavelengths ranging from the red to the blue region of the visible spectrum. The primary aim of this work was to develop a synthesis for the preparation of Cd-containing quantum dots using a Cd precursor with lower toxicity than those used in common syntheses. This synthesis makes use of Cd(acac)2 which is significantly less toxic than precursors such as CdO and CdCl2 . We have studied the effect of solvent boiling point, precursors and reaction time on the photoluminescence properties of the ternary quantum dots. Ternary quantum dots synthesized from Cd(acac)2 in low boiling point solvents have photoluminescence wavelengths in the blue region, while those synthesized in high boiling point solvents have photoluminescence wavelengths in the red region.

  20. Effective School Counseling Teams


    Lilley, Stacey Custer


    Despite much attention given to effective teams in the workplace, school counseling teams have been neglected in the research. The primary purpose of this mixed methods study was to learn what characteristics secondary counselors perceive contribute to an effective school counseling team. The first research phase conducted six team interviews; themes emerging from the interviews yielded the development of the Effective School Counseling Team Questionnaire (ESCTQ). The following research quest...

  1. Team Exploratory Testing Sessions


    Soili Saukkoriipi; Ilkka Tervonen


    Exploratory testing (ET) is popular, especially among agile development teams. In this paper, we study the team aspect in the ET context and explore how to use ET in team sessions to complement other testing activities. The goal was to define a team exploratory testing (TET) session approach and to provide evidence that the approach is worth using. A TET session approach is defined by means of parameters, roles, and process. Also, instructions for using the approach are given. The team is the...

  2. Propositional Team Logics


    Yang, Fan; Väänänen, Jouko


    We consider team semantics for propositional logic, continuing our previous work (Yang & V\\"a\\"an\\"anen 2016). In team semantics the truth of a propositional formula is considered in a set of valuations, called a team, rather than in an individual valuation. This offers the possibility to give meaning to concepts such as dependence, independence and inclusion. We define an expressively maximal propositional team logic, called full propositional team logic. This requires going beyond the logic...

  3. Highly Efficient Perovskite-Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes by Surface Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun


    A two-step ligand-exchange strategy is developed, in which the long-carbon-chain ligands on all-inorganic perovskite (CsPbX3, X = Br, Cl) quantum dots (QDs) are replaced with halide-ion-pair ligands. Green and blue light-emitting diodes made from the halide-ion-paircapped quantum dots exhibit high external quantum efficiencies compared with the untreated QDs.

  4. Rhizopus stolonifer mediated biosynthesis of biocompatible cadmium chalcogenide quantum dots. (United States)

    Mareeswari, P; Brijitta, J; Harikrishna Etti, S; Meganathan, C; Kaliaraj, Gobi Saravanan


    We report an efficient method to biosynthesize biocompatible cadmium telluride and cadmium sulphide quantum dots from the fungus Rhizopus stolonifer. The suspension of the quantum dots exhibited purple and greenish-blue luminescence respectively upon UV light illumination. Photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy confirms the formation of the quantum dots. From the photoluminescence spectrum the emission maxima is found to be 424 and 476nm respectively. The X-ray diffraction of the quantum dots matches with results reported in literature. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay for cell viability evaluation carried out on 3-days transfer, inoculum 3×10(5) cells, embryonic fibroblast cells lines shows that more than 80% of the cells are viable even after 48h, indicating the biocompatible nature of the quantum dots. A good contrast in imaging has been obtained upon incorporating the quantum dots in human breast adenocarcinoma Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 cell lines.

  5. Testing Game-Based Performance in Team-Handball. (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Orwat, Matthias; Hinz, Matthias; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Bacharach, David W; von Duvillard, Serge P; Müller, Erich


    Wagner, H, Orwat, M, Hinz, M, Pfusterschmied, J, Bacharach, DW, von Duvillard, SP, and Müller, E. Testing game-based performance in team-handball. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2794-2801, 2016-Team-handball is a fast paced game of defensive and offensive action that includes specific movements of jumping, passing, throwing, checking, and screening. To date and to the best of our knowledge, a game-based performance test (GBPT) for team-handball does not exist. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate such a test. Seventeen experienced team-handball players performed 2 GBPTs separated by 7 days between each test, an incremental treadmill running test, and a team-handball test game (TG) (2 × 20 minutes). Peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), blood lactate concentration (BLC), heart rate (HR), sprinting time, time of offensive and defensive actions as well as running intensities, ball velocity, and jump height were measured in the game-based test. Reliability of the tests was calculated using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additionally, we measured V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak in the incremental treadmill running test and BLC, HR, and running intensities in the team-handball TG to determine the validity of the GBPT. For the test-retest reliability, we found an ICC >0.70 for the peak BLC and HR, mean offense and defense time, as well as ball velocity that yielded an ICC >0.90 for the V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak in the GBPT. Percent walking and standing constituted 73% of total time. Moderate (18%) and high (9%) intensity running in the GBPT was similar to the team-handball TG. Our results indicated that the GBPT is a valid and reliable test to analyze team-handball performance (physiological and biomechanical variables) under conditions similar to competition.

  6. Two optically active molybdenum disulfide quantum dots as tetracycline sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Lin, Jintai [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Gao, Jinwei [Institute for Advanced Materials, Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Qianming, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, 510006 (China)


    In this work, we use the hydrothermal method to develop two luminescent MoS{sub 2} quantum dots (QDs) from L-cysteine and glutathione as sulfur precursors. The special blue emissions give rise to an instantaneous determination of tetracycline (TC) through the quenching of its luminescence. The accessibility of the optical materials and recognition mechanism have been extensively studied. This strategy demonstrated that MoS{sub 2} could act as a new platform for anchoring bioactive species or particular functional moieties. - Highlights: • MoS{sub 2} nanostructures with water solubility have been fabricated. • Blue emission has been achieved. • It displays selective detection to tetracyclines in water.

  7. Blue ocean strategy. (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée


    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  8. Le blue-jean


    Miller, Daniel


    Le Blue-jean: pourquoi la technologie vient en dernier. La plupart des personnes pensent que la technique (ou la technologie) correspond à ce qui vient en amont du produit. Dans cet article, Daniel Miller s’intéresse plutôt à des cas dans lesquels l’ordre de la séquence est renversé et où le produit précède, ou initie, en quelque sorte, la technique. L’auteur commence par décrire les techniques d’usure artificielle des blue jeans  : une technique qui vise à copier les effets du port des blue ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar SCARLAT


    Full Text Available The article is based on literature review and authors’ own recent experience in managing multicultural project teams, in international environment. This comparative study considers two groups of projects: technical assistance (TA projects versus information technology (IT projects. The aim is to explore the size and structure of the project teams – according to the team formation and its lifecycle, and to identify some distinctive attributes of the project teams – both similarities and differences between the above mentioned types of projects. Distinct focus of the research is on the multiculturalism of the project teams: how the cultural background of the team members influences the team performance and team management. Besides the results of the study are the managerial implications: how the team managers could soften the cultural clash, and avoid inter-cultural misunderstandings and even conflicts – in order to get a better performance. Some practical examples are provided as well.



    Boon, Laurence M.; Vikkula, Miikka


    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue in color and vary in size, number and location, and account for the majority of consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important as they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel t...

  11. Team Effectiveness and Team Development in CSCL (United States)

    Fransen, Jos; Weinberger, Armin; Kirschner, Paul A.


    There is a wealth of research on computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) that is neglected in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research. CSCW research is concerned with contextual factors, however, that may strongly influence collaborative learning processes as well, such as task characteristics, team formation, team members'…

  12. Training a team with simulated team members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstal, A.M.; Hoeft, R.M.; Schaik, M. van


    The process of training teams increasingly occurs in synthetic environments. However, it is often still modeled after live team training, including the disadvantages of live training, for example, the fact that all teammates must be available. This paper explores overcoming the disadvantages of huma

  13. Team training/simulation. (United States)

    Clark, Erin A S; Fisher, Janet; Arafeh, Julia; Druzin, Maurice


    Obstetrical emergencies require the rapid formation of a team with clear communication, strong leadership, and appropriate decision-making to ensure a positive patient outcome. Obstetric teams can improve their emergency response capability and efficiency through team and simulation training. Postpartum hemorrhage is an ideal model for team and simulation training, as postpartum hemorrhage requires a multidisciplinary team with the capability to produce a protocol-driven, rapid response. This article provides an overview of team and simulation training and focuses on applications within obstetrics, particularly preparation for postpartum hemorrhage.

  14. Blue Ribbon Panel Report (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  15. New York Blue (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  16. Methylene blue test (United States)

    Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... No special preparation is required for this test. ... which are genetic (problem with your genes). This test is used to tell the difference between methemoglobinemia ...

  17. Properties of Umbral Dots from Stray Light Corrected Hinode Filtergrams

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Rohan E; Rubio, Luis R Bellot; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Ravindra, B; Bayanna, A Raja


    High resolution blue continuum filtergrams from Hinode are employed to study the umbral fine structure of a regular unipolar sunspot. The removal of scattered light from the images increases the rms contrast by a factor of 1.45 on average. Improvement in image contrast renders identification of short filamentary structures resembling penumbrae that are well separated from the umbra-penumbra boundary and comprise bright filaments/grains flanking dark filaments. Such fine structures were recently detected from ground based telescopes and have now been observed with Hinode. A multi-level tracking algorithm was used to identify umbral dots in both the uncorrected and corrected images and to track them in time. The distribution of the values describing the photometric and geometric properties of umbral dots are more easily affected by the presence of stray light while it is less severe in the case of kinematic properties. Statistically, umbral dots exhibit a peak intensity, effective diameter, lifetime, horizontal...

  18. Rapid Synthesis of Carbon Dots by Hydrothermal Treatment of Lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Chen


    Full Text Available A rapid approach has been developed for the fluorescent carbon dots (CDs by the hydrothermal treatment of lignin in the presence of H2O2. The as-synthesized CDs were found to emit blue photoluminescence with excellent photostability. Moreover, the CDs displayed biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, and high water solubility properties. Finally, the as-resulted CDs were demonstrated to be excellent probes for bioimaging and biosensing applications.

  19. Optical anisotropy in InP string-like aligned quantum dots (United States)

    Kim, Yongmin; Song, J. D.; Han, I. K.


    InP quantum dots were grown by using the molecular beam epitaxy technique. The quantum dots were connected and composed a string-like one-dimensional structure in the [1-10] crystal direction due to the strain field along the [110] direction. Two prominent photoluminescence transitions from normal quantum dots and string-like one-dimensional structures were observed and showed strong optical emission anisotropy. Both peaks also showed blue-shifts while rotating the emission polarization from the [1-10] to the [110] direction. Such optical transition behaviors are the consequence of valence band mixing caused by the strain field along the [110] crystal direction.

  20. Graphene quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Güçlü, Alev Devrim; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel


    This book reflects the current status of theoretical and experimental research of graphene based nanostructures, in particular quantum dots, at a level accessible to young researchers, graduate students, experimentalists and theorists. It presents the current state of research of graphene quantum dots, a single or few monolayer thick islands of graphene. It introduces the reader to the electronic and optical properties of graphite, intercalated graphite and graphene, including Dirac fermions, Berry's phase associated with sublattices and valley degeneracy, covers single particle properties of

  1. Transforming Virtual Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille


    Investigating virtual team collaboration in industry using grounded theory this paper presents the in-dept analysis of empirical work conducted in a global organization of 100.000 employees where a global virtual team with participants from Sweden, United Kingdom, Canada, and North America were...... studied. The research question investigated is how collaboration is negotiated within virtual teams? This paper presents findings concerning how collaboration is negotiated within a virtual team and elaborate the difficulties due to invisible articulation work and managing multiple communities...... in transforming the virtual team into a community. It is argued that translucence in communication structures within the virtual team and between team and management is essential for engaging in a positive transformation process of trustworthiness supporting the team becoming a community, managing the immanent...

  2. Teaming up for learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Jos


    Fransen, J. (2012). Teaming up for learning: Team effectiveness in collaborative learning in higher education (Doctoral dissertation). November, 16, 2012, Open University in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  3. Formalization of Team Creation


    Rossman, Tomáš


    This paper is divided to practical and theoretical part. Theoretical part defines essential background of personality and work psychology which are pillars for using the personality and roles typology in practical part. I also define conceptions such as group, team, procedures of making the team. Practical part is focused at making the repertoary grid which outlines proximity of team roles, anchored in the repertoary grids upon personal atributes basis and picked team positions.

  4. Toward Learning Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoda, Rashina; Babb, Jeff; Nørbjerg, Jacob


    to sacrifice learning-focused practices. Effective learning under pressure involves conscious efforts to implement original agile practices such as retrospectives and adapted strategies such as learning spikes. Teams, their management, and customers must all recognize the importance of creating learning teams......Today's software development challenges require learning teams that can continuously apply new engineering and management practices, new and complex technical skills, cross-functional skills, and experiential lessons learned. The pressure of delivering working software often forces software teams...

  5. Leadership for Distributed Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, J.P.G.


    The aim of this dissertation was to study the little examined, yet important issue of leadership for distributed teams. Distributed teams are defined as: “teams of which members are geographically distributed and are therefore working predominantly via mediated communication means on an interdepende

  6. Ratiometric fluorescent paper sensor utilizing hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots for the visual determination of copper ions. (United States)

    Wang, Yahui; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Xiaochun; Yang, Bo; Yang, Liang; Jiang, Changlong; Zhang, Zhongping


    A simple and effective ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for the selective detection of Cu(2+) has been developed by covalently connecting the carboxyl-modified red fluorescent cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) to the amino-functionalized blue fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs). The sensor exhibits the dual-emissions peaked at 437 and 654 nm, under a single excitation wavelength of 340 nm. The red fluorescence can be selectively quenched by Cu(2+), while the blue fluorescence is a internal reference, resulting in a distinguishable fluorescence color change from pink to blue under a UV lamp. The detection limit of this highly sensitive ratiometric probe is as low as 0.36 nM, which is lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined limit (20 μM). Moreover, a paper-based sensor has been prepared by printing the hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots probe on a microporous membrane, which provides a convenient and simple approach for the visual detection of Cu(2+). Therefore, the as-synthesized probe shows great potential application for the determination of Cu(2+) in real samples.

  7. Atypical cellular blue nevus or malignant blue nevus?* (United States)

    Daltro, Luise Ribeiro; Yaegashi, Lygia Bertalha; Freitas, Rodrigo Abdalah; Fantini, Bruno de Carvalho; Souza, Cacilda da Silva


    Blue nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion whose most frequent variants are dendritic (common) blue nevus and cellular blue nevus. Atypical cellular blue nevus presents an intermediate histopathology between the typical and a rare variant of malignant blue nevus/melanoma arising in a cellular blue nevus. An 8-year-old child presented a pigmented lesion in the buttock since birth, but with progressive growth in the last two years. After surgical excision, histopathological examination revealed atypical cellular blue nevus. Presence of mitoses, ulceration, infiltration, cytological atypia or necrosis may occur in atypical cellular blue nevus, making it difficult to differentiate it from melanoma. The growth of blue nevus is unusual and considered of high-risk for malignancy, being an indicator for complete resection and periodic follow-up of these patients. PMID:28225968

  8. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, Manvir S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States)


    Semiconducting quantum dots – more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms – are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement – or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) – in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level

  9. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvir S. Kushwaha


    Full Text Available Semiconducting quantum dots – more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms – are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement – or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes – in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra

  10. Beginning DotNetNuke Skinning and Design

    CERN Document Server

    Hay, Andrew


    DotNetNuke is an open source framework built on top of the ASP.Net platform. While this system offers an impressive set of out-of-the-box features for public and private sites, it also includes a compelling story for folks who want to present a unique look and feel to visitors. The skinning engine inside of DotNetNuke has strengthened over the course of several years and hundreds of thousands of registered users. The success of its skin and module developer community is another key indicator of the depth and breadth of this technology. The Core Team responsible for the DotNetNuke brand has gon

  11. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden


    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  12. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen


    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  13. Evaluation of Domain-Specific Collaboration Interfaces for Team Command and Control Tasks (United States)


    Vocal process V Spatial concentrative S 2.2.6. Procedure As mentioned previously, several team roles employed in this experiment were...providing specific strategies for task execution. Following the behavioral training session, each confederate was assigned to a specific team role (blue

  14. Microwave-Assisted Polyol Synthesis of Water Dispersible Red-Emitting Eu3+-Modified Carbon Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Dong


    Full Text Available Eu3+-modified carbon dots (C-dots, 3–5 nm in diameter, were prepared, functionalized, and stabilized via a one-pot polyol synthesis. The role of Eu2+/Eu3+, the influence of O2 (oxidation and H2O (hydrolysis, as well as the impact of the heating procedure (conventional resistance heating and microwave (MW heating were explored. With the reducing conditions of the polyol at the elevated temperature of synthesis (200–230 °C, first of all, Eu2+ was obtained resulting in the blue emission of the C-dots. Subsequent to O2-driven oxidation, Eu3+-modified, red-emitting C-dots were realized. However, the Eu3+ emission is rapidly quenched by water for C-dots prepared via conventional resistance heating. In contrast to the hydroxyl functionalization of conventionally-heated C-dots, MW-heating results in a carboxylate functionalization of the C-dots. Carboxylate-coordinated Eu3+, however, turned out as highly stable even in water. Based on this fundamental understanding of synthesis and material, in sum, a one-pot polyol approach is established that results in H2O-dispersable C-dots with intense red Eu3+-line-type emission.

  15. After Stroke, 'Blue' Light May Help Beat the Blues (United States)

    ... After Stroke, 'Blue' Light May Help Beat the Blues Akin ... a danger for people recovering from a debilitating stroke. But new research suggests that tweaking a rehabilitation ...

  16. Hexagonal graphene quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, S.


    We study hexagonal graphene quantum dots, using density functional theory, to obtain a quantitative description of the electronic properties and their size dependence, considering disk and ring geometries with both armchair and zigzag edges. We show that the electronic properties of quantum dots with armchair edges are more sensitive to structural details than those with zigzag edges. As functions of the inner and outer radii, we find in the case of armchair edges that the size of the band gap follows distinct branches, while in the case of zigzag edges it changes monotonically. This behaviour is further analyzed by studying the ground state wave function and explained in terms of its localisation.

  17. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang


    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  18. Plaque Type Blue Naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentamilselvi G


    Full Text Available A case of plaque type blue naevus was encountered in a Dermatology Clinic in Madras. The various clinical differential diagnoses are discussed, the hitopathological features described and the benign nature of the tumour stressed. The case is reported for its rarity and to create an awareness of this entity.

  19. Blue rubber bleb naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R


    Full Text Available A 35 year old female had multiple progressive painful, tender, soft, bluish compressible nodules with the feel of rubber nipples. There was no evidence of gastrointestinal haemangiomas or other systemic abnormalities. Histopathologically, cavernous haemangioma with prominent smooth muscle outline proved the clinical diagnosis of blue rubber bleb naevus. Only cutaneous lesions were seen in the patient.

  20. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.


    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  1. The Blue Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    This paper makes an important contribution to the discussion about knowledge based localised externalities in the context of shipping and the maritime sector in Denmark. In the paper we ask if there is a national, knowledge‐based maritime cluster configured around the shipowners in Denmark. This ...... talk about The Blue Denmark....

  2. Blue spectral inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Schunck, Franz E


    We reconsider the nonlinear second order Abel equation of Stewart and Lyth, which follows from a nonlinear second order slow-roll approximation. We find a new eigenvalue spectrum in the blue regime. Some of the discrete values of the spectral index n_s have consistent fits to the cumulative COBE data as well as to recent ground-base CMB experiments.

  3. Dark Blue II



    Dark Blue II, high fired porcelain, decorated with cobalt chloride, woodfired with salt. 10,5 x 10,5 x 19 cm. Ferdigstilt: 2012. Innkjøpt til Collection of The American Museum of Ceramic Art, Pomona, California, USA.

  4. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan


    The complexities of new product development (NPD) teams present both opportunities and challenges to organizations. Very few researches have examined the combined effect of culture and geographical dispersion on teams. Especially, the role of distance still remains an open question. This paper...... elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...

  5. Improvement of the luminescent properties of cadmium sulfide quantum dots by a post-synthesis modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Israel; Gómez, Idalia, E-mail:


    Here the improvement of the luminescent properties of CdS quantum dots by a post-synthesis modification with aqueous solutions of NaOH at different concentrations is presented. The CdS quantum dots were synthesized by a microwave-assisted method using citrate ions as stabilizer. The addition of the hydroxide ions increased the intensity of the orange-red emission by about 80%. Besides, a violet-blue emission was achieved by means of this post-synthesis modification. The hydroxide ions control the precipitation equilibria of the CdS and Cd(OH){sub 2}, dissolving and precipitating the surface of the quantum dots. The NaOH treatment increases the number of traps, which produces less band-edge and more deep-trap emission, which explains the decrease and increase in the intensity of the violet-blue and orange-red emissions, respectively.

  6. On championship TEAMS. (United States)

    Jones, Daniel B


    Championship teams tap the strengths of the individuals working toward a common goal. Surgery is a team sport, which seeks to provide the very best patient care. For surgeons we seek to cure disease, alleviate suffering, and train the next generation of surgeons. When at our best, we build teamwork with a winning attitude, trust, respect, and love. Together there are no limits to what championship teams can achieve with passion, dedicated practice, mutual respect, and a little luck.

  7. Science and Team Development


    Bryan R. Cole; Ralitsa B. Akins


    This paper explores a new idea about the future development of science and teams, and predicts its possible applications in science, education, workforce development and research. The inter-relatedness of science and teamwork developments suggests a growing importance of team facilitators’ quality, as well as the criticality of detailed studies of teamwork processes and team consortiums to address the increasing complexity of exponential knowledge growth and work interdependency. In the fu...

  8. Managing multicultural teams. (United States)

    Brett, Jeanne; Behfar, Kristin; Kern, Mary C


    Multicultural teams offer a number of advantages to international firms, including deep knowledge of different product markets, culturally sensitive customer service, and 24-hour work rotations. But those advantages may be outweighed by problems stemming from cultural differences, which can seriously impair the effectiveness of a team or even bring itto a stalemate. How can managers best cope with culture-based challenges? The authors conducted in-depth interviews with managers and members of multicultural teams from all over the world. Drawing on their extensive research on dispute resolution and teamwork and those interviews, they identify four problem categories that can create barriers to a team's success: direct versus indirect communication, trouble with accents and fluency, differing attitudes toward hierarchy and authority, and conflicting norms for decision making. If a manager--or a team member--can pinpoint the root cause of the problem, he or she is likelier to select an appropriate strategy for solving it. The most successful teams and managers, the authors found, dealt with multicultural challenges in one of four ways: adaptation (acknowledging cultural gaps openly and working around them), structural intervention (changing the shape or makeup of the team), managerial intervention (setting norms early or bringing in a higher-level manager), and exit (removing a team member when other options have failed). Which strategy is best depends on the particular circumstances--and each has potential complications. In general, though, managers who intervene early and set norms; teams and managers who try to engage everyone on the team; and teams that can see challenges as stemming from culture, not personality, succeed in solving culture-based problems with good humor and creativity. They are the likeliest to harvest the benefits inherent in multicultural teams.

  9. Leadership for Distributed Teams


    De Rooij, J.P.G.


    The aim of this dissertation was to study the little examined, yet important issue of leadership for distributed teams. Distributed teams are defined as: “teams of which members are geographically distributed and are therefore working predominantly via mediated communication means on an interdependent task and in realizing a joint goal” (adapted from Bell & Kozlowski, 2002 and Dubé & Paré, 2004). Chapter 1 first presents the outline of the dissertation. Next, several characteristics of distri...

  10. Team Reflexivity and Innovation: The Moderating Role of Team Context


    Dawson, J.; Schippers, M; M. West


    Team reflexivity, the extent to which teams collectively reflect upon and adapt their working methods and functioning, has been shown to be an important predictor of team outcomes, notably innovation. As described in the current article, the authors developed and tested a team-level contingency model of team reflexivity, work demands, and innovation. They argue that highly reflexive teams will be more innovative than teams low in reflexivity when facing a demanding work environment. A field s...

  11. Fuzzy Dot Structure of BG-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Senapati


    Full Text Available In this paper, the notions of fuzzy dot subalgebras is introduced together with fuzzy normal dot subalgebras and fuzzy dot ideals of BG-algebras. The homomorphic image and inverse image are investigated in fuzzy dot subalgebras and fuzzy dot ideals of BG-algebras. Also, the notion of fuzzy relations on the family of fuzzy dot subalgebras and fuzzy dot ideals of BG-algebras are introduced with some related properties.

  12. Electron correlations in quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Tipton, D L J


    Quantum dot structures confine electrons in a small region of space. Some properties of semiconductor quantum dots, such as the discrete energy levels and shell filling effects visible in addition spectra, have analogies to those of atoms and indeed dots are sometimes referred to as 'artificial atoms'. However, atoms and dots show some fundamental differences due to electron correlations. For real atoms, the kinetic energy of electrons dominates over their mutual Coulomb repulsion energy and for this reason the independent electron approximation works well. For quantum dots the confining potential may be shallower than that of real atoms leading to lower electron densities and a dominance of mutual Coulomb repulsion over kinetic energy. In this strongly correlated regime the independent electron picture leads to qualitatively incorrect results. This thesis concentrates on few-electron quantum dots in the strongly correlated regime both for quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional dots in a square confining p...

  13. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.


    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small si

  14. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots. (United States)

    Teitelboim, Ayelet; Meir, Noga; Kazes, Miri; Oron, Dan


    Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole-dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single photon

  15. Understanding Software Development Team Performance




    This paper gives the popular definitions of team, essential characteristics of teams and team de-velopment stages. It discusses the previous empirical studies undertaken to investigate the software development team performance. The factors affecting the software development team performance have been explained. It reviews the past research done in finding the performance of software devel-opment teams. It also discusses some of the representative research done on team performance in non-softw...

  16. The Kinematic Team Role Behavior in Work Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel; H; N; Leung; Joseph; W; K; Chan; W; B; Lee


    Work-team has emerged as an important unit composi ng the organization today. The concepts relating to the properties of team-role t hat fit with today's business environment have attracted much attention from the theorists and researchers. A team having a balanced composition of team-ro les is called a balanced team. Theoretically, a balanced team usually renders a better team performance. Therefore, to improve the performance of the team, mana gement needs to ensure that their work teams are composed...

  17. Advantages of Team Teaching (United States)

    Frey, John


    Describes a high school biology program which successfully utilizes team teaching. Outlines the advantages of team teaching and how it is used in the large group lecture-discussion situation, with small groups in the laboratory and on field trips. (JR)

  18. Interactive Team Cognition (United States)

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.


    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  19. Making Science Teams Work (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz


    Science teachers, likely have more experience with students working together than teachers in any other subject area due to teaming students for hands-on activities. While the importance of teamwork is emphasized in the National Science Education Standards, getting teams to actually work-meaning getting students to share equally in the academic…

  20. Developing Successful Teams (United States)


    Who Moved My Cheese ?. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2002 Johnson, Spencer, and Blanchard, Ken. The One Minute Manager. New York: HarperCollins...2002. Scholtes, Peter R. and Others. The Team Handbook : How to Use Teams to Improve Quality. Madison, WI: Joiner Associates, Inc., 1988

  1. Groups Meet . . . Teams Improve: Building Teams That Learn (United States)

    Hillier, Janet; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M.


    Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach team skills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…

  2. The Problems Facing Multidisciplinary Teams: As Perceived by Team Members. (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.


    Investigated the problems team members perceive to exist on multidisciplinary teams. Results indicated the two major areas of concern for urban, multidisciplinary team members were: too constrictive a set of team roles and goals, and teams functioning under extensive pressure with minimal support. (Author)

  3. Measuring Team Learning Behaviours through Observing Verbal Team Interaction (United States)

    Raes, Elisabeth; Boon, Anne; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip


    Purpose: This study aims to explore, as an answer to the observed lack of knowledge about actual team learning behaviours, the characteristics of the actual observed basic team learning behaviours and facilitating team learning behaviours more in-depth of three project teams. Over time, team learning in an organisational context has been…

  4. Team Learning Beliefs and Behaviours in Response Teams (United States)

    Boon, Anne; Raes, Elisabeth; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip


    Purpose: Teams, teamwork and team learning have been the subject of many research studies over the last decades. This article aims at investigating and confirming the Team Learning Beliefs and Behaviours (TLB&B) model within a very specific population, i.e. police and firemen teams. Within this context, the paper asks whether the team's…

  5. Leading Teams of Leaders: What Helps Team Member Learning? (United States)

    Higgins, Monica; Young, Lissa; Weiner, Jennie; Wlodarczyk, Steven


    School districts are moving toward a new form of management in which superintendents need to form and nurture leadership teams. A study of 25 such teams in Connecticut suggests that a team's effectiveness is maximized when the team members are coached by other team members, not the superintendent, and when they are coached on task-related…

  6. Dream team or nightmare? Collaboration in project teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffeld, S.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Grote, S.


    Project teams are a contemporary organizing principle. They work on non-routine tasks. Team composition in project teams is often interdisciplinary (i.e., uniting team members from different departments or areas of expertise within an organization). Project teams face a number of challenges. In part

  7. Team members' emotional displays as indicators of team functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, A.C.; van Kleef, G.A.; Sanchez-Burks, J.


    Emotions are inherent to team life, yet it is unclear how observers use team members’ emotional expressions to make sense of team processes. Drawing on Emotions as Social Information theory, we propose that observers use team members’ emotional displays as a source of information to predict the team


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU


    Full Text Available The international diplomatic environment has reached to an unprecedented development, involving one of the newly specialized diplomatic types, namely the economic diplomacy. At the core of the fast movements in the diplomatic spheres across the Globe are the international agreements like the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP that determined diplomacy to dissolve into new subtypes, evolving from ground to the ocean and implementing new ways of achieving economic and climate sustainability. One of the newly created diplomatic spheres, is the blue ocean diplomacy that acts mainly in accordance with the rules and regulations that are being applied to the transatlantic economy. Even though TTIP encourages the increase of trade flows across the Atlantic, it will also ease the foreign investment procedures that, under the approach of keeping a sustainable environment, will represent one of the most important initiatives in implementing the blue economy concept within the framework of the transatlantic diplomacy.

  9. Faint Blue Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S


    The physical properties of the faint blue galaxy population are reviewed in the context of observational progress made via deep spectroscopic surveys and Hubble Space Telescope imaging of field galaxies at various limits, and theoretical models for the integrated star formation history of the Universe. Notwithstanding uncertainties in the properties of the local population of galaxies, convincing evidence has emerged from several independent studies for a rapid decline in the volume-averaged star formation rate of field galaxies since a redshift z~1. Together with the small angular sizes and modest mean redshift of the faintest detectable sources, these results can be understood in hierarchical models where the bulk of the star formation occurred at redshifts between z~1-2. The physical processes responsible for the subsequent demise of the faint blue galaxy population remains unclear. Considerable progress will be possible when the evolutionary trends can be monitored in the context of independent physical p...

  10. Confinement of gold quantum dot arrays inside ordered mesoporous silica thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Yaqing; Zhong Haiqin; Zhang Xueao; Fang Liang; Chang Shengli


    Periodic disposed quantum dot arrays are very useful for the large scale integration of single electron devices. Gold quantum dot arrays were self-assembled inside pore channels of ordered amino-functionalized mesoporous silica thin films, employing the neutralization reaction between chloroauric acid and amino groups. The diameters of quantum dots are controlled via changing the aperture of pore channels from 2.3 to 8.3 nm, which are characterized by HRTEM, SEM and FT-IR. UV-vis absorption spectra of gold nanoparticle/mesoporous silica composite thin films exhibit a blue shift and intensity drop of the absorption peak as the aperture of mesopores decreases,which represents the energy level change of quantum dot arrays due to the quantum size effect.

  11. Pulsed-laser micropatterned quantum-dot array for white light source (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Wen; Lin, Huang-Yu; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kao, Tsung Sheng; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Han, Hau-Vei; Li, Jie-Ru; Lee, Po-Tsung; Chen, Huang-Ming; Hong, Ming-Hui; Kuo, Hao-Chung


    In this study, a novel photoluminescent quantum dots device with laser-processed microscale patterns has been demonstrated to be used as a white light emitting source. The pulsed laser ablation technique was employed to directly fabricate microscale square holes with nano-ripple structures onto the sapphire substrate of a flip-chip blue light-emitting diode, confining sprayed quantum dots into well-defined areas and eliminating the coffee ring effect. The electroluminescence characterizations showed that the white light emission from the developed photoluminescent quantum-dot light-emitting diode exhibits stable emission at different driving currents. With a flexibility of controlling the quantum dots proportions in the patterned square holes, our developed white-light emitting source not only can be employed in the display applications with color triangle enlarged by 47% compared with the NTSC standard, but also provide the great potential in future lighting industry with the correlated color temperature continuously changed in a wide range.

  12. A Rapid and Cost-Effective Laser Based Synthesis of High Purity Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots. (United States)

    Gondall, M A; Qahtan, Talal F; Dastageer, M A; Yamani, Z H; Anjum, D H


    A rapid and cost effective method is developed to synthesize high purity cadmium Selenide (CdSe) quantum dots in acetone medium using second harmonic of Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser of 532 nm wavelength. The thermal agglomeration due the nanosecond pulse duration of the laser was successfully eliminated by using unfocussed laser beam and thereby providing a favorable conditions for the synthesis of quantum dots having the grain size of 3 nm. The morphological and optical characterizations like XRD, HRTEM, optical absorption of the synthesized CdSe quantum dots, reveal that the material possesses the similar characteristics of the one synthesized through cumbersome wet chemical methods. Relative to the CdSe bulk material, the synthesized CdSe quantum dots showed a blue shift in the measured band gap energy from near infrared spectral region to visible region, making this material very attractive for many solar energy harvesting applications like photo-catalysis and solar cells.

  13. Determination of sunset yellow in soft drinks based on fluorescence quenching of carbon dots (United States)

    Yuan, Yusheng; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Man; Zhu, Jinghui; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli


    Fluorescent carbon dots was prepared by heating N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene diaminetriacetic acid in air. The carbon dots were not only highly soluble in water but also uniform in size, and possessed strong blue fluorescence and excitation wavelength-dependent emission properties with the maximum excitation and emission wavelength at 366 nm and 423 nm, respectively. Food colorant sunset yellow whose excitation and emission wavelength at 303 nm and 430 nm could selectively quench the fluorescence of carbon dots, efficient fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the carbon dots and sunset yellow is achieved. This was exploited to design a method for the determination of sunset yellow in the concentration range from 0.3 to 8.0 μmol L- 1, with a limit of detection (3 σ/k) of 79.6 nmol L- 1. Furthermore the fluorimetric detection method was established and validated for sunset yellow in soft drinks samples with satisfactory results.

  14. Citations and Team Sizes (United States)

    Abt, Helmut A.


    I explore whether small or large teams produce the most important astronomical results, on average, using citation counts as our metric. I present evidence that citation counts indicate the importance of papers. For the 1343 papers published in A&A, ApJ, and MNRAS in 2012 January-February, I considered 4.5 years worth of citations. In each journal, there are larger citation counts for papers from large teams than from small teams by a factor of about 2. To check whether the results from 2012 were unusual, I collected data from 2013 for A&A and found it to be the same as that for 2012. Could the preponderance of papers by large teams be due to self-citations (i.e., citing and cited papers sharing one or more authors)? To answer this, I looked at 136 papers with one to 266 authors and discovered a linear relation that ranges from a 12.7% self-citation rate for single-author papers to a 45.9% self-citation rate for papers with 100 authors. Correcting for these factors is not enough to explain the predominance of the papers with large teams. Then I computed citations per author. While large teams average more citations than small ones by a factor of 2, individuals on small teams average more citations than individuals on large teams by a factor of 6. The papers by large teams often have far more data, but those by small teams tend to discuss basic physical processes.

  15. Photoluminescence study of the effect of strain compensation on InAs/AlAsSb quantum dots (United States)

    Zhao, Zhexin; Laghumavarapu, Ramesh B.; Simmonds, Paul J.; Ji, Haiming; Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana L.


    We investigate stacked structures of InAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum dots using temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence. The band gap of InAs/AlAsSb QDs is 0.73 eV at room temperature, which is close to the ideal case for intermediate band solar cells. As the number of quantum dot layers is increased, the photoluminescence undergoes a blue-shift due to the effects of accumulated compressive strain. This PL red shift can be counteracted using thin layers of AlAs to compensate the strain. We also derive thermal activation energies for this exotic quantum dot system.

  16. 100 Ways To Build Teams. (United States)

    Scearce, Carol

    Created in response to requests from organizations across the country that wanted help in establishing teams for many purposes, this guide is an easy-to-use recipe book on the essential areas of teaming. It does not cover all the aspects of teaming, but focusses on the essential components of team development necessary for a team to function. The…

  17. Silanization of Low-Temperature-Plasma Synthesized Silicon Quantum Dots for Production of a Tunable, Stable, Colloidal Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I. E.; Shircliff, R. A.; Macauley, C.; Smith, D. K.; Lee, B. G.; Agrawal, S.; Stradins, P.; Collins, R. T.


    We present a method for grafting silanes onto low-temperature-plasma synthesized silicon quantum dots. The resulting solution of dots is characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and determined to be a colloidal suspension. The silane is attached at a single point on the quantum dot surface to avoid cross-linking and multilayer formation, and photoluminescence spectroscopy shows the colloidal suspension of dots is stable for over two months in air. The hydroxyl-terminated surfaces required for silanization are created by wet chemical etch, which can be used to tune the luminescence of the silicon dots in the green- to red-wavelength range. We find, however, that the wet etch cannot move the emission into the blue-wavelength range and discuss this observation in terms of the nature of etching process and origin of the emission. In addition, we discuss the photoluminescence quantum yield in the context of other passivation and synthetic techniques.

  18. Teams without Roles: Empowering Teams for Greater Creativity. (United States)

    McCrimmon, Mitch


    Criticizes Belbin's team role theory on the basis that roles are appropriate only in static organizations. Argues that most teams have no set roles and members interchange them. Suggests that all team members be trained to manage teamwork effectively. (SK)

  19. Team dynamics in virtual, partially distributed teams : optimal role fulfillment


    Eubanks, Dawn L.; Palanski, Michael; Olabisi, Joy; Joinson, Adam; Dove, James


    In this study, we explored team roles in virtual, partially distributed teams, or vPDTs (teams with at least one co-located subgroup and at least two subgroups that are geographically dispersed but that collaborate virtually). Past research on virtual teams emphasizes the importance of team dynamics. We argue that the following three roles are particularly important for high functioning virtual teams: Project Coordinator, Implementer and Completer-Finisher. We hypothesized that the highest pe...

  20. A Project Team: a Team or Just a Group?


    Kateřina; Daniela; Martina,


    This paper deals with issues related to work in either teams or groups. The theoretical part discusses a team and a group with regards to its definition, classification and basic distinction, brings in more on the typology of team roles, personality assessment and sociometric methods. The analytical part tests the project (work) team of a medical center represented in terms of personality and motivational types, team roles and interpersonal team relations concerning the willingness of coopera...

  1. A Project Team: A Team or Just a Group?


    Katerina Hrazdilova Bockova; Daniela Maťovcikova


    This paper deals with issues related to work in either teams or groups. The theoretical part which discusses a team and a group with regards to its definition, classification and basic distinction brings in more on the typology of team roles, personality assessment and sociometric methods. The analytical part tests the project (work) team of a medical center represented in terms of personality and motivational types, team roles and interpersonal team relations concerning t...

  2. The Research of Self-Management Team and Superior-Direction Team in Team Learning Influential Factors


    Zhang Wei


    Team learning is a cure for bureaucracy; it facilitates team innovation and team performance. But team learning occurs only when necessary conditions were met. This research focused on differences of team learning influential factors between self-management team and superior-direction team. Four variables were chosen as predictors of team learning though literature review and pilot interview. The 4 variables are team motivation, team trust, team conflict and team leadership. Selected 54 self ...

  3. Biodistribution study of carbogenic dots in cells and in vivo for optical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Nan [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ruijin Hospital (China); Liang Xiaofei [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Renji Hospital (China); Wang Lili [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ruijin Hospital (China); Li Zonghai [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Renji Hospital (China); Li Peiyong, E-mail: [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ruijin Hospital (China); Zhu Yihua [East China University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Song Jing [University Hospital for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology Montefiore Medical Center (United States)


    Blue fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxicity and also for their optical imaging performance. The results showed that the C-dots could enter into the Hela cells in 15 min incubation and the uptake increased rapidly from 15 min to 2 h. In cytotoxicity study, C-dots were biocompatible and nontoxic to three human cells including two cancer cells (Hela and SMCC-7721) and one normal cell (HEK 293) in concentrations up to 500 {mu}g/mL. Since the endocytic interference factors, including NaN{sub 3}, M{beta}CD, sucrose, and low temperature, could not play an inhibitory effect on C-dots entering into cells, the direct nonendocytic pathway for C-dots was speculated. The C-dots showed encouraging cell-imaging applications in vitro and in vivo. They entered into cells without any further functionalization, and the fluorescence property of these particles can be used for fluorescence-based cell-imaging applications.

  4. Teams make it work: how team work engagement mediates between social resources and performance in teams. (United States)

    Torrente, Pedro; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Schaufeli, Wilmar B


    In this study we analyze the mediating role of team work engagement between team social resources (i.e., supportive team climate, coordination, teamwork), and team performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role performance) as predicted by the Job Demands-Resources Model. Aggregated data of 533 employees nested within 62 teams and 13 organizations were used, whereas team performance was assessed by supervisor ratings. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, team work engagement plays a mediating role between social resources perceived at the team level and team performance as assessed by the supervisor.

  5. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry


    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  6. Making Teamwork Work: Team Knowledge for Team Effectiveness. (United States)

    Guchait, Priyanko; Lei, Puiwa; Tews, Michael J


    This study examined the impact of two types of team knowledge on team effectiveness. The study assessed the impact of taskwork knowledge and teamwork knowledge on team satisfaction and performance. A longitudinal study was conducted with 27 service-management teams involving 178 students in a real-life restaurant setting. Teamwork knowledge was found to impact both team outcomes. Furthermore, team learning behavior was found to mediate the relationships between teamwork knowledge and team outcomes. Educators and managers should therefore ensure these types of knowledge are developed in teams along with learning behavior for maximum effectiveness.

  7. Building the team for team science (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; O'Rourke, M.; Hong, G. S.; Hanson, P. C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Crowley, S.; Brewer, C. A.; Weathers, K. C.


    The ability to effectively exchange information and develop trusting, collaborative relationships across disciplinary boundaries is essential for 21st century scientists charged with solving complex and large-scale societal and environmental challenges, yet these communication skills are rarely taught. Here, we describe an adaptable training program designed to increase the capacity of scientists to engage in information exchange and relationship development in team science settings. A pilot of the program, developed by a leader in ecological network science, the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), indicates that the training program resulted in improvement in early career scientists’ confidence in team-based network science collaborations within and outside of the program. Fellows in the program navigated human-network challenges, expanded communication skills, and improved their ability to build professional relationships, all in the context of producing collaborative scientific outcomes. Here, we describe the rationale for key communication training elements and provide evidence that such training is effective in building essential team science skills.

  8. Nanocrystal quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Victor I


    ""Soft"" Chemical Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, J.A. Hollingsworth and V.I. Klimov Electronic Structure in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Optical Experiment, D.J. NorrisFine Structure and Polarization Properties of Band-Edge Excitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, A.L. EfrosIntraband Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots, P. Guyot-Sionnest, M. Shim, and C. WangMultiexciton Phenomena in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, V.I. KlimovOptical Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Quantum Do

  9. Quantum dot nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Henini


    These sophisticated technologies for the growth of high quality epitaxial layers of compound semiconductor materials on single crystal semiconductor substrates are becoming increasingly important for the development of the semiconductor electronics industry. This article is intended to convey the flavor of the subject by focusing on the technology and applications of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs and to give an introduction to some of the essential characteristics.

  10. How to Collaborate through Teams (United States)

    Conderman, Greg


    Teachers are spending more of their time and making more decisions within teams. Effective teacher-based teams provide academic and behavioral support for students as well as professional development for teachers. Learn how the best teams function.

  11. Multiculturele teams in het onderwijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, L.; Winthagen, T.; Vries, S. de


    In opdracht van Sector Bestuur Onderwijsarbeidsmarkt is de onderhavige studie gedaan naar multiculturele teams in het onderwijs. Dit rapport biedt een handreiking bij invoering van multiculturele teams en het verbeteren van bestaande multiculturele teams in het primair -, voortgezet - en beroepsonde

  12. Quality Leadership for Quality Teams. (United States)

    Miskin, Val D.; Gmelch, Walter H.


    Discusses the role of teamwork in an American corporation: the role of team leadership in problem solving, training, and facilitating team interaction; showing team achievement to gain management support; commitment to the individual; shared leadership; and reward systems. (CT)

  13. Nanostructure assembly of indium sulphide quantum dots and their characterization. (United States)

    Vigneashwari, B; Ravichandran, V; Parameswaran, P; Dash, S; Tyagi, A K


    Nanocrystals (approximately 5 nm) of the semiconducting wide band gap material beta-In2S3 obtained by chemical synthesis through a hydrothermal route were characterized for phase and compositional purity. These nanoparticles exhibited quantum confinement characteristics as revealed by a blue-shifted optical absorption. These quantum dots of beta-In2S3 were electrically driven from a monodisperse colloidal suspension on to conducting glass substrates by Electophoretic Deposition (EPD) technique and nanostructural thin films were obtained. The crystalline and morphological structures of these deposits were investigated by X-ray diffraction and nanoscopic techniques. We report here that certain interesting nanostructural morphologies were observed in the two-dimensional quantum dot assemblies of beta-In2S3. The effect of the controlling parameters on the cluster growth and deposit integrity was also systematically studied through a series of experiments and the results are reported here.

  14. Optical and Micro-Structural Characterization of MBE Grown Indium Gallium Nitride Polar Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    El Afandy, Rami


    Gallium nitride and related materials have ushered in scientific and technological breakthrough for lighting, mass data storage and high power electronic applications. These III-nitride materials have found their niche in blue light emitting diodes and blue laser diodes. Despite the current development, there are still technological problems that still impede the performance of such devices. Three-dimensional nanostructures are proposed to improve the electrical and thermal properties of III-nitride optical devices. This thesis consolidates the characterization results and unveils the unique physical properties of polar indium gallium nitride quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy technique. In this thesis, a theoretical overview of the physical, structural and optical properties of polar III-nitrides quantum dots will be presented. Particular emphasis will be given to properties that distinguish truncated-pyramidal III-nitride quantum dots from other III-V semiconductor based quantum dots. The optical properties of indium gallium nitride quantum dots are mainly dominated by large polarization fields, as well as quantum confinement effects. Hence, the experimental investigations for such quantum dots require performing bandgap calculations taking into account the internal strain fields, polarization fields and confinement effects. The experiments conducted in this investigation involved the transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. The analysis of the temperature dependence and excitation power dependence of the PL spectra sheds light on the carrier dynamics within the quantum dots, and its underlying wetting layer. A further analysis shows that indium gallium nitride quantum dots through three-dimensional confinements are able to prevent the electronic carriers from getting thermalized into defects which grants III-nitrides quantum dot based light emitting diodes superior thermally induced optical

  15. Inter-dot coupling effects on transport through correlated parallel coupled quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shyam Chand; G Rajput; K C Sharma; P K Ahluwalia


    Transport through symmetric parallel coupled quantum dot system has been studied, using non-equilibrium Green function formalism. The inter-dot tunnelling with on-dot and inter-dot Coulomb repulsion is included. The transmission coefficient and Landaur–Buttiker like current formula are shown in terms of internal states of quantum dots. The effect of inter-dot tunnelling on transport properties has been explored. Results, in intermediate inter-dot coupling regime show signatures of merger of two dots to form a single composite dot and in strong coupling regime the behaviour of the system resembles the two decoupled dots.

  16. The issue of virtual teams


    Fleiberková, Šárka


    The aim of this diploma thesis is the introduction of teamwork and virtual teams. The theoretical part of this work describes the birth of teamwork, its definition, properties, advantages and disadvantages. Next part of diploma thesis is dedicated to the virtual team. It describes the difference among virtual and traditional team, definition and characteristics of virtual team as well as tools that are used in virtual team. The second, practical, unit is focused on virtual teams at universiti...

  17. Relationships among Team Trust, Team Cohesion, Team Satisfaction and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia


    Han-Ping Fung


    Today, more and more project teams are formed to achieve organizational objectives as organizations generally recognized the importance and benefits of project teams. There is a compelling reason to study what are the team outcome factors that can predict project team effectiveness as it is unclear whether these team outcome factors can yield the same result in project setting whereby there is resource and time constraint compare to normal work teams which are ongoing and operational in natur...

  18. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta


    the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...... decreased. PCB was also found to be more sensitive to pH than phycocyanin. Regarding the stability with time, PCB showed a similar stability at pH 3, and worse at pH 5 and pH 7. The change from blue to green colour in acid conditions was attributed to protonation of the chromophore. However, the effect...

  19. Media and Security Team (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Media And Security Team led by Prof. Min Wu was established in Fall 2001 at University of Maryland, College Park. A number of research and education activities...

  20. Virtual Project Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille

    methods used, the empirical cases conducted, the research field on virtual teams and, last, it relates the findings and results across cases and papers in respect to the two main lines of investigation: organisational issues of groupware adaptation and the challenges of establishing and developing...... technology in six real-life virtual teams, two in industry and four in education, applying interpretative research and action research methods. Two main lines of investigation are pursued: the first involves an examination of the organisational issues related to groupware adaptation in virtual project teams...... in virtual project teams whose members are spread across various geographical locations. The aim is to understand the specific factors, conditions and challenges underpinning such situations. This thesis describes, analyses and discusses three in-depth empirical studies on the practices and use of groupware...

  1. Trust in agile teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Fransgård, Mette; Skalkam, Signe


    success. This article reports from a study of two agile DSD teams with very different organization and collaboration patterns. It addresses the role of trust and distrust in DSD by analyzing how the team members’ trust developed and erode through the lifetime of the two collaborations and how management...... actions influenced this. We see two important lessons from the analysis. First the agile practices of daily Scrum and self organizing team can empower DSD teams to manage their own development of trust and thereby alleviate the obstacles of DSD. Second if management fails to support the development......Abstract. Distributed software development (DSD) is becoming everyday practice in the software field. Difficult challenges and difficulty reaching the expected benefits are well documented. The key challenges are communication, coordination and control issues due to temporal, geographical and socio...

  2. PPB | Study Team (United States)

    The Pleuropulmonary Blastoma (PPB) DICER1 Syndrome Study team is made up of researchers from the National Cancer Institute, Children¹s National Medical Center, the International Pleuropulmonary Blastoma Registry, and Washington University in St. Louis.

  3. Submarine Medicine Team (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  4. Hearing Conservation Team (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear. Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  5. Managing Global Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Stan


    Full Text Available Every global company’s competitive advantage depends on its ability to coordinate critical resources and information that are spread across different geographical locations. As a result of the increasingly global business environment, many companies are building teams that cross- national borders and / or include members from different countries of origin. Global teams are formed to enhance the efficiency of an organization by making effective use of the diversity or viewpoints.

  6. What is Team X? (United States)

    Warfield, Keith


    Team X is a concurrent engineering team for rapid design and analysis of space mission concepts. It was developed in 1995 by JPL to reduce study time and cost. More than 1100 studies have been completed It is institutionally endorsed and it has been emulated by many institutions. In Concurrent Engineering (i.e., Parallel) diverse specialists work in real time, in the same place, with shared data, to yield an integrated design

  7. TEAMS Model Analyzer (United States)

    Tijidjian, Raffi P.


    The TEAMS model analyzer is a supporting tool developed to work with models created with TEAMS (Testability, Engineering, and Maintenance System), which was developed by QSI. In an effort to reduce the time spent in the manual process that each TEAMS modeler must perform in the preparation of reporting for model reviews, a new tool has been developed as an aid to models developed in TEAMS. The software allows for the viewing, reporting, and checking of TEAMS models that are checked into the TEAMS model database. The software allows the user to selectively model in a hierarchical tree outline view that displays the components, failure modes, and ports. The reporting features allow the user to quickly gather statistics about the model, and generate an input/output report pertaining to all of the components. Rules can be automatically validated against the model, with a report generated containing resulting inconsistencies. In addition to reducing manual effort, this software also provides an automated process framework for the Verification and Validation (V&V) effort that will follow development of these models. The aid of such an automated tool would have a significant impact on the V&V process.

  8. Synthesis of colloidal SnSe quantum dots by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhen; Peng Liwei; Fang Yaoguo; Chen Zhiwen [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Pan Dengyu [Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wu Minghong, E-mail: [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China)


    Water-soluble orthorhombic colloidal SnSe quantum dots with an average diameter of 4 nm were successfully prepared by a novel irradiation route using an electronic accelerator as a radiation source and hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a surfactant. The quantum dots exhibit a large direct bandgap of 3.89 eV, greatly blue shifted compared with that of bulk SnSe (1.0 eV) due to the quantum confinement effect. The quantum dots show blue photoluminescence at {approx}420 nm. The influence of CTAB on the growth of the quantum dots was investigated and a possible reaction/growth mechanism was proposed. - Highlights: > A rapid, facile and green strategy is developed to synthesize SnSe QDs. > The raw materials are green and easily obtained. > The surfactant CTAB plays an important role in the formation of SnSe quantum dots. > The obtained SnSe QDs is well-dispersed with the average size of around 4 nm.

  9. Blue ocean leadership. (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée


    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  10. BlueSky Cloud - rapid infrastructure capacity using Amazon's Cloud for wildfire emergency response (United States)

    Haderman, M.; Larkin, N. K.; Beach, M.; Cavallaro, A. M.; Stilley, J. C.; DeWinter, J. L.; Craig, K. J.; Raffuse, S. M.


    During peak fire season in the United States, many large wildfires often burn simultaneously across the country. Smoke from these fires can produce air quality emergencies. It is vital that incident commanders, air quality agencies, and public health officials have smoke impact information at their fingertips for evaluating where fires and smoke are and where the smoke will go next. To address the need for this kind of information, the U.S. Forest Service AirFire Team created the BlueSky Framework, a modeling system that predicts concentrations of particle pollution from wildfires. During emergency response, decision makers use BlueSky predictions to make public outreach and evacuation decisions. The models used in BlueSky predictions are computationally intensive, and the peak fire season requires significantly more computer resources than off-peak times. Purchasing enough hardware to run the number of BlueSky Framework runs that are needed during fire season is expensive and leaves idle servers running the majority of the year. The AirFire Team and STI developed BlueSky Cloud to take advantage of Amazon's virtual servers hosted in the cloud. With BlueSky Cloud, as demand increases and decreases, servers can be easily spun up and spun down at a minimal cost. Moving standard BlueSky Framework runs into the Amazon Cloud made it possible for the AirFire Team to rapidly increase the number of BlueSky Framework instances that could be run simultaneously without the costs associated with purchasing and managing servers. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the features of BlueSky Cloud, describe how the system uses Amazon Cloud, and discuss the costs and benefits of moving from privately hosted servers to a cloud-based infrastructure.

  11. Postpartum Blues and Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Ö et al.


    Full Text Available Postpartum blues which is seen during the postpartum period is a transient psychological state. Most of the mothers experience maternity blues in postpartum period. It remains usually unrecognized by the others. Some sensitive families can misattribute these feelings as depression. In this article, we tried to review the characteristics of maternity blues and its differences from depression. We defined depression and presented the incidence and diagnostic criteria, of major depression as well as the risk factors and clinic findings of postpartum depression. Thus, especially at primary care we aimed to prevent misdiagnosis of both maternity blues and depression

  12. Skills Inventory for Teams (SIFT): A Resource for Teams. (United States)

    Garland, Corinne; And Others

    The Skills Inventory for Teams (SIFT) was developed for early intervention practitioners from a variety of disciplines to help them evaluate their ability to work as part of an early intervention team in identifying and serving young children with disabilities. The Team Member section is designed to help individual team members identify the skills…

  13. Increasing Student-Learning Team Effectiveness with Team Charters (United States)

    Hunsaker, Phillip; Pavett, Cynthia; Hunsaker, Johanna


    Because teams are a ubiquitous part of most organizations today, it is common for business educators to use team assignments to help students experientially learn about course concepts and team process. Unfortunately, students frequently experience a number of problems during team assignments. The authors describe the results of their research and…

  14. Team members' emotional displays as indicators of team functioning. (United States)

    Homan, Astrid C; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey


    Emotions are inherent to team life, yet it is unclear how observers use team members' emotional expressions to make sense of team processes. Drawing on Emotions as Social Information theory, we propose that observers use team members' emotional displays as a source of information to predict the team's trajectory. We argue and show that displays of sadness elicit more pessimistic inferences regarding team dynamics (e.g., trust, satisfaction, team effectiveness, conflict) compared to displays of happiness. Moreover, we find that this effect is strengthened when the future interaction between the team members is more ambiguous (i.e., under ethnic dissimilarity; Study 1) and when emotional displays can be clearly linked to the team members' collective experience (Study 2). These studies shed light on when and how people use others' emotional expressions to form impressions of teams.

  15. Single quantum dot nanowire photodetectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kouwen, M.P.; Van Weert, M.H.M.; Reimer, M.E.; Akopian, N.; Perinetti, U.; Algra, R.E.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Zwiller, V.


    We report InP nanowire photodetectors with a single InAsP quantum dot as light absorbing element. With excitation above the InP band gap, the nanowire photodetectors are efficient (quantum efficiency of 4%). Under resonant excitation of the quantum dot, the photocurrent amplitude depends on the line

  16. Team Leadership: Leadership Role Achievement in Supervision Teams in Turkey


    Ali Sabanci; Izzet Ozdemir


    The purpose of this paper is to explore the views of team leaders and team members of supervision teams about the extent that team leaders achieve their team leadership roles in Turkey. This research was conducted as a survey. The population of the study consisted of approximately 2650 supervisors (inspectors) working in 81 provinces distributed to seven geographical regions in Turkey. The sample consisted of 563 supervisors which were selected out by random sampling. The data were gathered b...

  17. Beautiful Teams Inspiring and Cautionary Tales from Veteran Team Leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew


    What's it like to work on a great software development team facing an impossible problem? How do you build an effective team? Beautiful Teams takes you behind the scenes with some of the most interesting teams in software engineering history. You'll learn from veteran team leaders' successes and failures, told through a series of engaging personal stories -- and interviews -- by leading programmers, architects, project managers, and thought leaders.

  18. The role of team goal monitoring in the curvilinear relationship between team efficacy and team performance. (United States)

    Rapp, Tammy L; Bachrach, Daniel G; Rapp, Adam A; Mullins, Ryan


    In this research, we apply a team self-regulatory perspective to build and test theory focusing on the relationships between team efficacy and 2 key team performance criteria: a performance behavior (i.e., team effort) and a performance outcome (i.e., objective team sales). We theorize that rather than having a linear association, the performance benefits of team efficacy reach a point of inflection, reflective of too much of a good thing. Further, in an effort to establish a boundary condition of the inverted-U shaped relationship we predict, we also test the moderating role played by team goal monitoring in the nonmonotonic relationship between team efficacy and team performance. The results from a lagged field test, in which we collect multisource data from 153 technology sales teams, reveal a significant curvilinear association that is moderated by team goal monitoring behavior. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  19. Solid-phase synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for sensitive and selective probing ferric ions in living cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Haijuan; Chen, Yonglei; Liang, Meijuan; Xu, Laifang; Qi, Shengda; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo


    Carbon quantum dots (C-Dots) have drawn extensive attention in recent years due to their stable physicochemical and photochemical properties. However, the development of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-doped C-Dots) is still on its early stage. In this paper, a facile and high-output solid-phase synthesis approach was proposed for the fabrication of N-doped, highly fluorescent carbon quantum dots. The obtained N-doped C-Dots exhibited a strong blue emission with an absolute quantum yield (QY) of up to 31%, owing to fluorescence enhancement effect of introduced N atoms into carbon dots. The strong coordination of oxygen-rich groups on N-doped C-Dots to Fe(3+) caused fluorescence quenching via nonradiative electron-transfer, leading to the quantitative detection of Fe(3+). The probe exhibited a wide linear response concentration range (0.01-500 μM) to Fe(3+) with a detection limit of 2.5 nM. Significantly, the N-doped C-Dots possess negligible cytotoxicity, excellent biocompatibility, and high photostability. All these features are favorable for label-free monitoring of Fe(3+) in complex biological samples. It was then successfully applied for the fluorescence imaging of intracellular Fe(3+). As an efficient chemosensor, the N-doped C-Dots hold great promise to broaden applications in biological systems.

  20. Science and Team Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Cole


    Full Text Available This paper explores a new idea about the future development of science and teams, and predicts its possible applications in science, education, workforce development and research. The inter-relatedness of science and teamwork developments suggests a growing importance of team facilitators’ quality, as well as the criticality of detailed studies of teamwork processes and team consortiums to address the increasing complexity of exponential knowledge growth and work interdependency. In the future, it will become much easier to produce a highly specialised workforce, such as brain surgeons or genome engineers, than to identify, educate and develop individuals capable of the delicate and complex work of multi-team facilitation. Such individuals will become the new scientists of the millennium, having extraordinary knowledge in variety of scientific fields, unusual mix of abilities, possessing highly developed interpersonal and teamwork skills, and visionary ideas in illuminating bold strategies for new scientific discoveries. The new scientists of the millennium, through team consortium facilitation, will be able to build bridges between the multitude of diverse and extremely specialised knowledge and interdependent functions to improve systems for the further benefit of mankind.

  1. Hierarchy and Opportunism in Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, J.J.M.; Sefton, M.; van der Heijden, E.C.M.


    We use experiments to compare two institutions for allocating the proceeds of team production.Under revenue-sharing, each team member receives an equal share of team output; under leader-determined shares, a team leader has the power to implement her own allocation.Both arrangements are vulnerable t

  2. Predictors of Team Work Satisfaction (United States)

    Hamlyn-Harris, James H.; Hurst, Barbara J.; von Baggo, Karola; Bayley, Anthony J.


    The ability to work in teams is an attribute highly valued by employers of information technology (IT) graduates. For IT students to effectively engage in team work tasks, the process of working in teams should be satisfying for the students. This work explored whether university students who were involved in compulsory team work were satisfied…

  3. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  4. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We ensured...... exogenous variation in -otherwise random- team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities (Raven test). Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub-teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  5. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 (student) teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We...... ensured exogenous variation in otherwise random team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub- teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  6. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances. We ensured exogenous...... variation in - otherwise random - team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities (Raven test). Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub-teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  7. Virtual team collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Ngwenyama, Ojelanki


    misunderstandings and a lack of shared meaning between participants. In this paper, we address the complexity of building shared meaning. We examine the communication breakdowns that occurred in two globally distributed virtual teams by providing an analytical distinction of the organizational context...... as the foundation for building shared meaning at three levels. Also we investigate communication breakdowns that can be attributed to differences in lifeworld structures, organizational structures, and work process structures within a virtual team. We find that all communication breakdowns are manifested...... and experienced by the participants at the work process level; however, resolving breakdowns may require critical reflection at other levels. Where previous research argues that face-to-face interaction is an important variable for virtual team performance, our empirical observations reveal that communication...

  8. Creativity and Creative Teams (United States)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Hunter, Craig A.


    A review of the linkage between knowledge, creativity, and design is presented and related to the best practices of multidisciplinary design teams. The discussion related to design and design teams is presented in the context of both the complete aerodynamic design community and specifically the work environment at the NASA Langley Research Center. To explore ways to introduce knowledge and creativity into the research and design environment at NASA Langley Research Center a creative design activity was executed within the context of a national product development activity. The success of the creative design team activity gave rise to a need to communicate the experience in a straightforward and managed approach. As a result the concept of creative potential its formulated and assessed with a survey of a small portion of the aeronautics research staff at NASA Langley Research Center. The final section of the paper provides recommendations for future creative organizations and work environments.

  9. Quantum dots of ZnSe(S) doped with copper as nanophotocatalyst in the degradation of organic dyes. (United States)

    Alamo-Nole, Luis; Bailon-Ruiz, Sonia; Cruz-Acuña, Ricardo; Perales-Pérez, Oscar; Román, Félix R


    Copper-doped quantum dots of ZnSe(S) synthesized via microwave-heating conditions were used as photocatalyst in the photo-degradation of methylene blue (MB), methyl violet (MV) and victoria blue (VB) under UV irradiation (302 nm) in aqueous phase and at pH 6.5. Quantum dots were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis, photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The degradation of MB, MV and VB were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) at 660 nm, 590 nm and 610 nm, respectively. Degradations percentages of 46%, 88% and 90% of MB, MV and VB, respectively, were achieved in presence of 1000 mg/L of quantum dots and 6 hours of UV-irradiation. Cu-doped ZnSe(S) QDs evidenced a remarkable capability to degrade cationic organic dyes as single components and in mixtures.

  10. A single molecule investigation of the photostability of quantum dots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Christensen Arnspang

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are very attractive probes for multi-color fluorescence imaging in biological applications because of their immense brightness and reported extended photostability. We report here however that single QDs, suitable for biological applications, that are subject to continuous blue excitation from a conventional 100 W mercury arc lamp will undergo a continuous blue-switching of the emission wavelength eventually reaching a permanent dark, photobleached state. We further show that β-mercaptoethanol has a dual stabilizing effect on the fluorescence emission of QDs: 1 by increasing the frequency of time that a QD is in its fluorescent state, and 2 by decreasing the photobleaching rate. The observed QD color spectral switching is especially detrimental for multi-color single molecule applications, as we regularly observe spectral blue-shifts of 50 nm, or more even after only ten seconds of illumination. However, of significant importance for biological applications, we find that even small, biologically compatible, concentrations (25 µM of β-mercaptoethanol has a significant stabilizing effect on the emission color of QDs, but that greater amounts are required to completely abolish the spectral blue shifting or to minimize the emission intermittency of QDs.

  11. Role selection and team performance


    Cooper, David J.; Sutter, Matthias


    Team success relies on assigning team members to the right tasks. We use controlled experiments to study how roles are assigned within teams and how this affects team performance. Subjects play the takeover game in pairs consisting of a buyer and a seller. Understanding optimal play is very demanding for buyers and trivial for sellers. Teams perform better when roles are assigned endogenously or teammates are allowed to chat about their decisions, but the interaction effect between endogenous...

  12. Enhance the Team Status Meeting (United States)


    collection and analysis tool chosen by the team : the Process Dashboard © 1998-2014 Tuma Solutions, LLC. Using this format , the PRT teams are now getting...status meetings of those teams coached by the NAVAIR PRT have evolved into more relevant, easier to understand, and more visually interesting formats, this submission to Open Forum highlights the team status meeting. These meetings help keep a team aware, engaged, and on-track. Their content

  13. Autonomous mobile robot teams (United States)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.


    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  14. MaTeam-projektet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Marikka; Damkjær, Helle Sejer; Højgaard, Tomas


    Projektet MaTeam beskrives med fokus på et toårigt forsøg hvor matematiklærerne på 4.-6. klassetrin på fire skoler i Silkeborg Kommune samarbejdede med forfatterne. Projektet handlede om udvikling af matematiklærerkompetencer med fokus på samarbejdet i de fire skolers matematiklærerfagteam...... matematiklærerfagteam og samarbejdsrelationer der indgår i projektet. Desuden beskriver vi forskellige typer af fagteam og lærere. Metodisk var MaTeam-projektet struktureret som en didaktisk modelleringsproces....

  15. A Project Team: a Team or Just a Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues related to work in either teams or groups. The theoretical part discusses a team and a group with regards to its definition, classification and basic distinction, brings in more on the typology of team roles, personality assessment and sociometric methods. The analytical part tests the project (work team of a medical center represented in terms of personality and motivational types, team roles and interpersonal team relations concerning the willingness of cooperation and communication. The main objective of this work is to verify the validity of the assumptions that the analyzed team represents a very disparate group as for its composition from the perspective of personality types, types of motivation, team roles and interpersonal relations in terms of the willingness of cooperation and communication. A separate output shall focus on sociometric investigation of those team members where willingness to work together and communicate is based on the authors’ assumption of tight interdependence.

  16. Effects of Team Emotional Authenticity on Virtual Team Performance. (United States)

    Connelly, Catherine E; Turel, Ofir


    Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students), suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others' emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis (n = 81 student teams) suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes.

  17. Effects of team emotional authenticity on virtual team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Connelly


    Full Text Available Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students, suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others’ emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM analysis (n = 81 student teams suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes.

  18. Effects of Team Emotional Authenticity on Virtual Team Performance (United States)

    Connelly, Catherine E.; Turel, Ofir


    Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students), suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others' emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis (n = 81 student teams) suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes. PMID:27630605

  19. Employee Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: Effects of Team Diversity, Emergent States, and Team Leadership (United States)

    Noh, Jae Hang


    Knowledge sharing in work teams is one of the critical team processes. Without sharing of knowledge, work teams and organizations may not be able to fully utilize the diverse knowledge brought into work teams by their members. The purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents and underlying mechanisms influencing the extent to which team…

  20. Putting the "Team" in the Fine Arts Team: An Application of Business Management Team Concepts (United States)

    Fisher, Ryan


    In this article, the author discusses current challenges to the idea of teamwork in fine arts teams, redefines the terms team and collaboration using a business management perspective, discusses the success of effective teams in the business world and the characteristics of those teams, and proposes the implementation of the business model of…

  1. Synthesis of highly fluorescent hydrophobic carbon dots by hot injection method using Paraplast as precursor. (United States)

    Talib, Abou; Pandey, Sunil; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Wu, Hui-Fen


    We have reported synthesis of bright blue colored hydrophobic carbon dots (hC-dots) using highly pure blend of polymers called Paraplast. We developed a hot injection method for making nearly monodispersed hC-dots with a diameter in a range: 5-30nm as confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The involvement of various functional groups was confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. These hC-dots were incubated with breast cancer stem cells in order to check the entry as well as biological imaging. The cells were analyzed using epifluorescent microscopy. hC-dots showed concentration dependent cytotoxicity (LD50: 50mg/ml) and could be used for bioimaging even at lower concentration (0.5mg/ml). hC-dots were found to be versatile agents for peeping inside the cells which could also be used for delivery of water insoluble chemotherapeutic agents to variety of solid tumors.

  2. Overcoming asymmetric goals in teams: the interactive roles of team learning orientation and team identification. (United States)

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Venkataramani, Vijaya


    Although members of teams share a common, ultimate objective, they often have asymmetric or conflicting individual goals that shape the way they contribute to, and pursue, the shared goal of the team. Compounding this problem, they are frequently unaware of the nature of these goal asymmetries or even the fact that such differences exist. Drawing on, and integrating, social interdependence and representational gaps theories, we identify 2 emergent states that combine interactively to enable teams to overcome asymmetric goals: team identification and team learning orientation. Using data from long-term, real-life teams that engaged in a computer simulation designed to create both asymmetric goals and representational gaps about those goals, we found that teams were most effective when they had a high learning orientation coupled with high team identification and that this effect was mediated by teams' ability to form more accurate team goal mental models and engage in effective planning processes. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  3. Personality and community prevention teams: Dimensions of team leader and member personality predicting team functioning. (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Greenberg, Mark T


    The predictors and correlates of positive functioning among community prevention teams have been examined in a number of research studies; however, the role of personality has been neglected. In this study, we examined whether team member and leader personality dimensions assessed at the time of team formation predicted local prevention team functioning 2.5-3.5 years later. Participants were 159 prevention team members in 14 communities participating in the PROSPER study of prevention program dissemination. Three aspects of personality, aggregated at the team level, were examined as predictors: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. A series of multivariate regression analyses were performed that accounted for the interdependency of five categories of team functioning. Results showed that average team member Openness was negatively, and Conscientiousness was positively linked to team functioning. The findings have implications for decisions about the level and nature of technical assistance support provided to community prevention teams.

  4. The Research of Self-Management Team and Superior-Direction Team in Team Learning Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei


    Full Text Available Team learning is a cure for bureaucracy; it facilitates team innovation and team performance. But team learning occurs only when necessary conditions were met. This research focused on differences of team learning influential factors between self-management team and superior-direction team. Four variables were chosen as predictors of team learning though literature review and pilot interview. The 4 variables are team motivation, team trust, team conflict and team leadership. Selected 54 self management teams and 23 superior-direction teams as participants, each member of all teams finished questionnaires which measure 4 predictor variables and dependent variable (team learning. Results show that in both the two type of teams, team motivation, team trust, team leadership are positive predictor of team learning, team conflict have negative correlation with team learning. Normative team motivation, team leadership (including feasance and democracy positively predict team learning significantly in self-management team, whereas team leader’s feasance is the only significant predictor which positively predict team learning in superior-direction team.

  5. Materials Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Roadmap identifying the efforts of the Materials Technical Team (MTT) to focus primarily on reducing the mass of structural systems such as the body and chassis in light-duty vehicles (including passenger cars and light trucks) which enables improved vehicle efficiency regardless of the vehicle size or propulsion system employed.

  6. Leading Strategic Leader Teams (United States)


    engage in productive vice non-productive task conflict.71 A common assessment tool such as the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) can demonstrate...assigning an individual to observe and critique alternatives which are discussed.81 These process designs can be used to counteract the risk of teams

  7. AA magnet measurement team

    CERN Multimedia


    Quickly improvised measurement equipment for the AA (Antiproton Accumulator) was all the tight schedule permitted, but the high motivation of the team made up for the lack of convenience. From left to right: Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, the other one was Simon van der Meer); Bruno Autin, Brian Pincott, Colin Johnson.

  8. Aircrew team management program (United States)

    Margerison, Charles; Mccann, Dick; Davies, Rod


    The key features of the Aircrew Team Management Workshop which was designed for and in consultation with Trans Australia Airlines are outlined. Five major sections are presented dealing with: (1) A profile of the airline and the designers; (2) Aircrew consultation and involvement; (3) Educational design and development; (4) Implementation and instruction; and (5) Evaluation and assessment. These areas are detailed.

  9. Heterogeneity and Work Teams (United States)

    Dyaram, Lata; Kamalanabhan, T. J.


    This paper attempts to extend and contribute to the domestic diversity literature by presenting a comprehensive model that takes into consideration the Indian work set up. It proposes to examine the effects of the composition of information systems development teams in Indian firms. Besides the conventional demographics which were studied…

  10. [Medical emergency teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, G.; Lund, C.; Petersen, John Asger


    The aim of medical emergency teams (MET) is to identify and treat deteriorating patients on general wards, and to avoid cardiac arrest, unplanned intensive care unit admission and death. The effectiveness of METs has yet to be proven, as the only two randomised, controlled trials on the subject...

  11. Making This Team (United States)

    Beitler, Alan; Bushong, Delores; Reid, Al


    As the sponsors of the Cohort at Wakefield High School in Arlington, Virginia--a program to increase the number of minority male students in Advanced Placement (AP) classes--the authors view their work with the young men in this program as very similar to coaching a team. The Cohort asks these young men to challenge and push themselves; to test…

  12. Team Collaboration Software (United States)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Schrock, Mitchell; Baldwin, John R.; Borden, Charles S.


    The Ground Resource Allocation and Planning Environment (GRAPE 1.0) is a Web-based, collaborative team environment based on the Microsoft SharePoint platform, which provides Deep Space Network (DSN) resource planners tools and services for sharing information and performing analysis.

  13. Survey team on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Mogens Allan; Bruder, Regina; Planas, Núria


    This paper presents the outcomes of the work of the ICME 13 Survey Team on ‘Conceptualisation and the role of competencies, knowing and knowledge in mathematics education research’. It surveys a variety of historical and contemporary views and conceptualisations of what it means to master...

  14. Das Reflektierende Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorensen, Marlene Ringgaard; Gaarden, Marianne


    dazu hat Marlene Ringgaard Lorensen das Potenzial des von außen kommenden, dezidiert ›andersartigen‹ Beitrags der Hörenden für die dialogische Predigt im Rückgriff auf Theorien von Mikhail Bakhtin analysiert. Als theologische Grundfigur steht hinter der Arbeit im reflektierenden homiletischen Team also...

  15. Facilitating leadership team communication


    Hedman, Eerika


    The purpose of this study is to understand and describe how to facilitate competent communication in leadership teamwork. Grounded in the premises of social constructionism and informed by such theoretical frameworks as coordinated management of meaning theory (CMM), dialogic organization development (OD), systemic-constructionist leadership, communication competence, and reflexivity, this study seeks to produce further insights into understanding leadership team communicati...

  16. Imagery Integration Team (United States)

    Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave


    The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one

  17. Blue moons and Martian sunsets. (United States)

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans


    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation.

  18. Deep ultraviolet photoluminescence of water-soluble self-passivated graphene quantum dots. (United States)

    Tang, Libin; Ji, Rongbin; Cao, Xiangke; Lin, Jingyu; Jiang, Hongxing; Li, Xueming; Teng, Kar Seng; Luk, Chi Man; Zeng, Songjun; Hao, Jianhua; Lau, Shu Ping


    Glucose-derived water-soluble crystalline graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with an average diameter as small as 1.65 nm (∼5 layers) were prepared by a facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The GQDs exhibits deep ultraviolet (DUV) emission of 4.1 eV, which is the shortest emission wavelength among all the solution-based QDs. The GQDs exhibit typical excitation wavelength-dependent properties as expected in carbon-based quantum dots. However, the emission wavelength is independent of the size of the GQDs. The unique optical properties of the GQDs are attributed to the self-passivated layer on the surface of the GQDs as revealed by electron energy loss spectroscopy. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the GQDs were determined to be 7-11%. The GQDs are capable of converting blue light into white light when the GQDs are coated onto a blue light emitting diode.

  19. Blue Man袭东京

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naomi Saeki; 李宝怡


    <正>20年前在美国曼克顿风靡一时的Blue Man Group,最近在东京出现,马上成为城中话题。在东京,每年有不少舞台剧演出,但是像Blue Man Group这样备受注目的,近年罕见。Blue Man Group in Tokyo于上年12月开始公演·1个月的门票早在9月中旬

  20. Leader–Member Skill Distance, Team Cooperation, and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Longwei; Li, Yuan; Li, Peter Ping


    Team heterogeneity research has been traditionally dominated by atomistic or single-culture assumptions. This study extends this stream by investigating the influences of cooperation and culture on the link between leader–member skill distance (one special type of team heterogeneity) and team...... performance. Building upon input-process-output framework from the perspective of individualist and collectivist cultures, we propose that the association between leader–member skill distance and team performance has an inverted-U shape in individualist cultures. Further, in such cultures, team cooperation...... can augment the positive effect of leader–member skill distance on team performance. In contrast, in collectivist cultures, the association between leader–member skill distance and team performance has a monotonic and positive shape, and team cooperation will attenuate the positive effect of leader...

  1. Sounds like Team Spirit (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward


    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  2. Lectin functionalized quantum dots for recognition of mammary tumors (United States)

    Santos, Beate S.; de Farias, Patricia M. A.; de Menezes, Frederico D.; de C. Ferreira, Ricardo; Júnior, Severino A.; Figueiredo, Regina C. B. Q.; Beltrão, Eduardo I. C.


    In this study we use CdS/Cd(OH) II quantum dots functionalized with concanavalin-A (Con-A) lectin, specific to glucose/mannose residues, to investigate cell alterations regarding carbohydrate profile in human mammary tissues diagnosed as fibroadenoma (benign tumor). These particles were functionalized with glutaraldehyde and Con-A and incubated with tissue sections of normal and to Fibroadenoma, a benign type of mammary tumor. The tissue sections were deparafinized, hydrated in graded alcohol and treated with a solution of Evans Blue in order to avoid autofluorescence. The fluorescence intensity of QD-Con-A stained tissues showed different patterns, which reflect the carbohydrate expression of glucose/mannose in fibroadenoma when compared to the detection of the normal carbohydrate expression. The pattern of unspecific labeling of the tissues with glutaraldehyde functionalized CdS/Cd(OH) II quantum dots is compared to the targeting driven by the Con-A lectin. The preliminary findings reported here support the use of CdS/Cd(OH) II quantum dots as specific probes of cellular alterations and their use in diagnostics.

  3. Transformational Leadership and Team Innovation : Integrating Team Climate Principles


    Eisenbeiss, Silke Astrid; Boerner, Sabine; Van Knippenberg, Daan


    Fostering team innovation is increasingly an important leadership function. However, the empirical evidence for the role of transformational leadership in engendering team innovation is scarce and mixed. To address this issue, the authors link transformational leadership theory to principles of M. A. West s (1990) team climate theory and propose an integrated model for the relationship between transformational leadership and team innovation. This model involves support for innovation as a med...

  4. Team Interactions in Specialized Palliative Care Teams: A Qualitative Study


    Klarare, Anna; Hagelin, Carina Lundh; Fürst, Carl Johan; Fossum, Bjoorn


    Background: Teamwork is a standard of care in palliative care and that is emphasized by leading organizations. When interdisciplinary teams communicate their varied assessments, outcomes may be more than additive due to the synthesis of information. Interprofessionality does not guarantee multidimensionality in health care interventions, however, and that interprofessional teams promote collaboration may be questioned. Aim: The aim was to explore team interaction among team members in special...

  5. Photoinduced band filling in strongly confined colloidal PbS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, B., E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210 (Mexico); Ullrich Photonics LLC, Wayne, Ohio 43466 (United States); Xi, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403-0209 (United States); Wang, J. S. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States)


    Increase in continuous wave laser excitation (6 W/cm{sup 2} to 120 W/cm{sup 2}) of colloidal PbS quantum dots in the strongly quantized regime (diameters 2.0 nm and 4.7 nm) deposited on semi-insulating GaAs and glass causes a clear blue shift (0.019 eV and 0.080 eV) of the emission spectra. Proof of the applicability of a dynamic three-dimensional band filling model is the significance of the presented results and demonstrates the effective electronic coupling in quantum dot arrays similar to superlattices. The work also reveals the influence of quantum dot sizes on photo-doping effects.

  6. Photoinduced band filling in strongly confined colloidal PbS quantum dots (United States)

    Ullrich, B.; Xi, H.; Wang, J. S.


    Increase in continuous wave laser excitation (6 W/cm2 to 120 W/cm2) of colloidal PbS quantum dots in the strongly quantized regime (diameters 2.0 nm and 4.7 nm) deposited on semi-insulating GaAs and glass causes a clear blue shift (0.019 eV and 0.080 eV) of the emission spectra. Proof of the applicability of a dynamic three-dimensional band filling model is the significance of the presented results and demonstrates the effective electronic coupling in quantum dot arrays similar to superlattices. The work also reveals the influence of quantum dot sizes on photo-doping effects.

  7. Understanding medical practice team roles. (United States)

    Hills, Laura


    Do you believe that the roles your employees play on your medical practice team are identical to their job titles or job descriptions? Do you believe that team roles are determined by personality type? This article suggests that a more effective way to build and manage your medical practice team is to define team roles through employee behaviors. It provides 10 rules of behavioral team roles that can help practice managers to select and build high-performing teams, build more productive team relationships, improve the employee recruitment process, build greater team trust and understanding; and increase their own effectiveness. This article describes in detail Belbin's highly regarded and widely used team role theory and summarizes four additional behavioral team role theories and systems. It offers lessons learned when applying team role theory to practice. Finally, this article offers an easy-to-implement method for assessing current team roles. It provides a simple four-question checklist that will help practice managers balance an imbalanced medical practice team.

  8. Collocation Impact on Team Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eccles


    Full Text Available The collocation of software development teams is common, specially in agile software development environments. However little is known about the impact of collocation on the team’s effectiveness. This paper explores the impact of collocating agile software development teams on a number of team effectiveness factors. The study focused on South African software development teams and gathered data through the use of questionnaires and interviews. The key finding was that collocation has a positive impact on a number of team effectiveness factors which can be categorised under team composition, team support, team management and structure and team communication. Some of the negative impact collocation had on team effectiveness relate to the fact that team members perceived that less emphasis was placed on roles, that morale of the group was influenced by individuals, and that collocation was invasive, reduced level of privacy and increased frequency of interruptions. Overall through it is proposed that companies should consider collocating their agile software development teams, as collocation might leverage overall team effectiveness.

  9. Quantum dots: Rethinking the electronics (United States)

    Bishnoi, Dimple


    In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically that the Quantum dots are quite interesting for the electronics industry. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-scale crystals, which have unique photo physical, quantum electrical properties, size-dependent optical properties, There small size means that electrons do not have to travel as far as with larger particles, thus electronic devices can operate faster. Cheaper than modern commercial solar cells while making use of a wider variety of photon energies, including "waste heat" from the sun's energy. Quantum dots can be used in tandem cells, which are multi junction photovoltaic cells or in the intermediate band setup. PbSe (lead selenide) is commonly used in quantum dot solar cells.

  10. Quadra-Quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules: Basic Nanostructures for Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panyakeow


    Full Text Available Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called 'Droplet Epitaxy' has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390'C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7'8'10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200'C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or, which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.

  11. Using artificial team members for team training in virtual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Muller, T.; Bosch, K. van den


    In a good team, members do not only perform their individual task, they also coordinate their actions with other members of the team. Developing such team skills usually involves exercises with all members playing their role. This approach is costly and has organizational and educational drawbacks.

  12. Cohesion in Online Student Teams versus Traditional Teams (United States)

    Hansen, David E.


    Researchers have found that the electronic methods in use for online team communication today increase communication quality in project-based work situations. Because communication quality is known to influence group cohesion, the present research examined whether online student project teams are more cohesive than traditional teams. We tested…

  13. Teams, Team Motivation, and the Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    A concern with teams was central to early attempts to grasp the nature of the firm, but fell out of favor in later work. We encourage a return to the emphasis on teams, but argue that the idea of teams as central to the nature of the firm needs to be grounded in an appreciation of the importance ...

  14. The Team Boat Exercise: Enhancing Team Communication Midsemester (United States)

    Cox, Pamela L.; Friedman, Barry A.


    This paper discusses the Team Boat Exercise, which was developed to provide students with a mechanism for addressing team problems and enhancing team communication midsemester. The inspiration for the exercise came from a video by Prentice Hall, Inc. (2001). Part III of the video, entitled "Corporate Coaching," shows senior staff members from the…

  15. Team Profiles and Team Performance in a Business Management Simulation. (United States)

    Perry, C.; Delahaye, B.


    A study of the effects of team roles on the success of teams in business simulations found, contrary to expectation, that teams analyzing data on the basis of beliefs and values rather than logic were more successful. Implications for use of simulation in management education are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  16. Team Entitativity and Teacher Teams in Schools: Towards a Typology (United States)

    Vangrieken, Katrien; Dochy, Filip; Raes, Elisabeth; Kyndt, Eva


    In this article we summarise research that discusses "teacher teams?. The central questions guiding this study are "How is the term teacher team" used and defined in previous research? And "What types of teacher teams has previous research identified or explored?" We attempted to answer these questions by searching…

  17. Team Learning: Collective Reflection Processes in Teacher Teams (United States)

    Ohlsson, Jon


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to further studies of theoretical and conceptual understanding of teachers' team learning processes, with a main focus on team work, team atmosphere, and collective reflections. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study was designed as a multi-case study in a research and development…

  18. Team Composition Optimization: The Team Optimal Profile System (TOPS) (United States)


    functional diversity of the team, and the person has been the primary “peacekeeper” when other members were in conflict. What factor(s) should be...the individual candidates (e.g., individual KSAOs, interests, availability), the team (e.g., functional diversity among the team, balance of

  19. Team Machine: A Decision Support System for Team Formation (United States)

    Bergey, Paul; King, Mark


    This paper reports on the cross-disciplinary research that resulted in a decision-support tool, Team Machine (TM), which was designed to create maximally diverse student teams. TM was used at a large United States university between 2004 and 2012, and resulted in significant improvement in the performance of student teams, superior overall balance…

  20. Engaging in Collaboration: A Team of Teams Approach (United States)

    Young, Carol; Hill, Rachel; Morris, Greg; Woods, Fabiola


    Adapting a Team of Teams model to a school environment provides a framework for a collaborative team culture based on trust, common vision, purposeful conversations, and interconnectivity. School leaders facilitate collaboration by modeling teamwork, as well as transparency and adaptability, to create a positive school culture and thereby improve…

  1. Physiological responses and time-motion characteristics of 4-a-side small-sided game in young soccer players: the influence of different team formation methods. (United States)

    Köklü, Yusuf; Ersöz, Gülfem; Alemdaroğlu, Utku; Aşç, Alper; Ozkan, Ali


    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of different team formation methods on the physiological responses to and time-motion characteristics of 4-a-side small-sided games (SSG4) in young soccer players. Thirty-two young soccer players (age 16.2 ± 0.7 years; height 172.9 ± 6.1 cm; body mass 64.1 ± 7.7 kg) voluntarily participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, technical tests, and maximum oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) tests were carried out on the players. The SSG4 teams were then created using 4 different methods: according to the coaches' subjective evaluation (CE), technical scores (TS), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (AP), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max multiplied by TSs (CG). The teams thus created played 4 bouts of SSG4 at 2-day intervals. During the SSG4, heart rate (HR) responses, distance covered, and time spent in HRmax zones were recorded. In addition, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate level (La) were determined at the end of the last bout of each SSG4. Percent of HRmax (%HRmax), La, and RPE responses during SSG4 were significantly higher for teams chosen according to AP and CG compared with that according to CE and TS (p teams chosen by AP and CG spent significantly more time in zone 4 (>90% HRmax ) and covered a greater distance in the high-intensity running zone (>18 km·h) than did teams formed according to TS. Moreover, AP teams covered significantly greater total distance than TS teams did (p teams in SSG4 should be formed according to the players' V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values or the values calculated using both the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and technique scores.

  2. Hydrophobin-Encapsulated Quantum Dots. (United States)

    Taniguchi, Shohei; Sandiford, Lydia; Cooper, Maggie; Rosca, Elena V; Ahmad Khanbeigi, Raha; Fairclough, Simon M; Thanou, Maya; Dailey, Lea Ann; Wohlleben, Wendel; von Vacano, Bernhard; de Rosales, Rafael T M; Dobson, Peter J; Owen, Dylan M; Green, Mark


    The phase transfer of quantum dots to water is an important aspect of preparing nanomaterials that are suitable for biological applications, and although numerous reports describe ligand exchange, very few describe efficient ligand encapsulation techniques. In this report, we not only report a new method of phase transferring quantum dots (QDs) using an amphiphilic protein (hydrophobin) but also describe the advantages of using a biological molecule with available functional groups and their use in imaging cancer cells in vivo and other imaging applications.

  3. Quantum Dots in Cell Biology


    Barroso, Margarida M.


    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals that have broad excitation spectra, narrow emission spectra, tunable emission peaks, long fluorescence lifetimes, negligible photobleaching, and ability to be conjugated to proteins, making them excellent probes for bioimaging applications. Here the author reviews the advantages and disadvantages of using quantum dots in bioimaging applications, such as single-particle tracking and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, to study receptor-mediated t...

  4. Quantum dots in cell biology. (United States)

    Barroso, Margarida M


    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals that have broad excitation spectra, narrow emission spectra, tunable emission peaks, long fluorescence lifetimes, negligible photobleaching, and ability to be conjugated to proteins, making them excellent probes for bioimaging applications. Here the author reviews the advantages and disadvantages of using quantum dots in bioimaging applications, such as single-particle tracking and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, to study receptor-mediated transport.

  5. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  6. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo


    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  7. When Teams Go Crazy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Münch, Jürgen


    Software development consists to a large extend of human-based processes with continuously increasing demands regarding interdisciplinary team work. Understanding the dynamics of software teams can be seen as highly important to successful project execution. Hence, for future project managers......, and borrows from controlled experiments to organize and implement its practical parts in which students then experience the effects of, e.g., time pressure, resource bottlenecks, staff turnover, loss of key personnel, and other stress factors. We provide a detailed design of the course unit to allow...... for implementation in further software project management courses. Furthermore, we provide experiences obtained from two instances of this unit conducted in Munich and Karlskrona with 36 graduate students. We observed students building awareness of stress factors and developing counter measures to reduce impact...

  8. Multinational team. Advantages and disadvantages.


    Pak, Alena


    The topic of the tesis is advantages and disadvantages of work in russian-czech multicultural teams. The research then analyzes the efficiency of such teams primarily from the side of partners and clients of such projects.

  9. The cohesiveness of sourcing teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Nina


    , the practical implementation is often unsuccessful leading to poor performance. Originating in PSM literature, factors influencing sourcing team performance are categorised into three: top management support, organisational structures, and those related to team members. In this paper, the concept...

  10. Team Approach to Pain Relief (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... Roberts is seen here with some of the team members, (left to right) Dr. Berger, Jacques Bolle, ...

  11. Cultural Diversity and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Van Praag, Mirjam

    One of the most salient and relevant dimensions of team heterogeneity is cultural background. We measure the impact of cultural diversity on the performance of business teams using a field experiment. Companies are set up by teams of undergraduate students in business studies in realistic though...... similar circumstances. We vary the cultural composition of otherwise randomly composed teams in a multi-cultural student population. Our data indicate that a moderate level of cultural diversity has no effect on team performance in terms of business outcomes (sales, profits and profits per share). However......, if at least the majority of team members is culturally diverse then more cultural diversity seems to affect the performance of teams positively. Our data suggest that this might be related to the more diverse pool of relevant knowledge facilitating (mutual) learning within culturally diverse teams....

  12. Managing global virtual teams


    Saarinen, Johanna


    Advances in technology-enabled communication and a constant search for economic advantage have led global organizations to rely on virtual collaboration. Together with rapid changes in working life, virtuality has also altered the context for leadership and has had a significant impact on the work of managers. This study addresses managerial work in global virtual teams. In my study, I give voice to the managers themselves with the aim of enhancing our understanding of what the work of virtua...

  13. Team ViGIR (United States)


    49 Figure 34. Behavior is running , but currently locked in one of its sub-statemachines. .............................. 49 Figure 35...the team experienced unexpected communication issues during the run . The operators adapted, but were slower than expected due to software issues caused...robot. The Robotics and Human Control Systems Lab has two goals: 1) To develop a deeper understanding of the neural control and biomechanics in the

  14. TEAM Experience in Astronomy (United States)

    McGruder, C. H., III; Tyson, N.; Williams, B.; Hackney, K.; Hackney, R.; Rudloff, M.; Scott, R.; Tyler, R.


    The purpose of the project was to increase minority interest and appreciation of science using astronomy as a tool. This goal was achieved by inviting high school minority students and their teachers to the campus of Western Kentucky University to participate along with minority role models in team based learning experiences. All participants worked together in many hands-on activities and events centered around the exploration of space.

  15. Professional Team Sports Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....

  16. Managing Resource Teams in the Hellenic Navy (United States)


    Storming Stage The team is faced with disagreements, counter dependence and the need to manage conflicts as team members compete for team roles . Challenges...mission. The preexisting knowledge about team roles , relationships and team overall mechanisms of team performance helps the team to cope with a demanding

  17. Closed String Thermodynamics and a Blue Tensor Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenberger, Robert H; Patil, Subodh P


    The BICEP-2 team has reported the detection of primordial cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization, with hints of a suppression of power at large angular scales relative to smaller scales. Provided that the B-mode polarization is due to primordial gravitational waves, this might imply a blue tilt of the primordial gravitational wave spectrum. Such a tilt would be incompatible with standard inflationary models, although it was predicted some years ago in the context of a mechanism that thermally generates the primordial perturbations through a Hagedorn phase of string cosmology. The purpose of this note is to encourage greater scrutiny of the data with priors informed by a model that is immediately falsifiable, but which \\textit{predicts} features that might be favoured by the data-- namely a blue tensor tilt with an induced and complimentary red tilt to the scalar spectrum, with a naturally large tensor to scalar ratio that relates to both.

  18. Nutrition in team sports. (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M


    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance.

  19. Why Team Boundary Work Matters: A Moderated Mediation Model of Team Boundary Activities, Team Emotional Energy, and Team Innovation.


    Leicht-Deobald, Ulrich; Lam, Chak Fu


    Past research on team boundary work has focused on a “cold,” information-exchange perspective to explain why boundary activities affect team innovation. Although the theory is widely accepted, empirical studies on the actual mechanism are scant and produce inconsistent results. Drawing from Interaction Ritual Theory (Collins, 2004), we propose a “warm,” affective perspective that emphasizes team emotional energy – a shared feeling of enthusiasm among team members – as a mechanism linking boun...

  20. Growth and characterization of InP ringlike quantum-dot molecules grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. (United States)

    Jevasuwan, Wipakorn; Boonpeng, Poonyasiri; Panyakeow, Somsak; Ratanathammaphan, Somchai


    In this paper, we have studied the fabrication of InP ringlike quantum-dot molecules on GaAs(001) substrate grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy using droplet epitaxy technique and the effect of In deposition rate on the physical and optical properties of InP ringlike quantum-dot molecules. The In deposition rate is varied from 0.2 ML/s to 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 ML/s. The surface morphology and cross-section were examined by ex-situ atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The increasing of In deposition rate results in the decreasing of outer and inner diameters of InP ringlike quantum-dot molecules and height of InP quantum dots but increases the InP quantum dot and ringlike quantum-dot molecule densities. The photoluminescence peaks of InP ringlike quantum-dot molecules are blue-shifted and FWHM is narrower when In deposition rate is bigger.

  1. Fuzzy dot ideals and fuzzy dot H-ideals of BCH-algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jia-yin


    The notions of fuzzy dot ideals and fuzzy dot H-ideals in BCH-algebras are intro duced,several appropriate examples are provided,and their some properties are investigated.The relations among fuzzy ideal,fuzzy H-ideal,fuzzy dot ideal and fuzzy dot H-ideals in BCH algebras are discussed,several equivalent depictions of fuzzy dot ideal are obtained. How to deal with the homomorphic image and inverse image of fuzzy dot ideals (fuzzy dot H-ideals) are studied. The relations between a fuzzy dot ideal (fuzzy dot H-ideal) in BCH-algebras and a fuzzy dot ideal (fuzzy dot H-ideal) in the product algebra of BCH-algebras are given.

  2. Modelling command and control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den; Essens, P.J.M.D.; Post, W.M.


    This paper describes a computational approach to modelling and simulating C2-team behaviour. Within this approach team models may be used to develop, test, and compare different C2-architectures, that is different structures and processes, without the need for real teams. The advantage of this metho

  3. Enabling Team Learning in Healthcare (United States)

    Boak, George


    This paper is based on a study of learning processes within 35 healthcare therapy teams that took action to improve their services. The published research on team learning is introduced, and the paper suggests it is an activity that has similarities with action research and with those forms of action learning where teams address collective…

  4. Team Projects and Peer Evaluations (United States)

    Doyle, John Kevin; Meeker, Ralph D.


    The authors assign semester- or quarter-long team-based projects in several Computer Science and Finance courses. This paper reports on our experience in designing, managing, and evaluating such projects. In particular, we discuss the effects of team size and of various peer evaluation schemes on team performance and student learning. We report…

  5. Structuring Successful Global Virtual Teams (United States)


    assigned to a specific leadership function such as planning , whereas another team member could be assigned to confidence building and team member...across time and space: Exploring shared leadership functions in virtual teams. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 26(1), 3–17

  6. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking (United States)

    Mentzer, Nathan


    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective was encompassed in the research question driving the inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  7. Leading and working in teams. (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Helen; Moneypenny, Michael J; McKimm, Judy


    This article considers the role of the clinical leader as a team member and leader and explores how an understanding of the purpose and functions of teams can help doctors work more effectively in the various teams with which they are involved.

  8. Activity Recognition for Agent Teams (United States)


    seek to use in the upcoming confrontation. There is not a simple mapping between a character capabilities and this policy; an effective team role must...additional research challenges, specific to the team role assumed by the agent. Agents that support individual human team members face the following chal

  9. Team perfectionism and team performance: a prospective study. (United States)

    Hill, Andrew P; Stoeber, Joachim; Brown, Anna; Appleton, Paul R


    Perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been found to predict sports performance in athletes. To date, however, research has exclusively examined this relationship at an individual level (i.e., athletes' perfectionism predicting their personal performance). The current study extends this research to team sports by examining whether, when manifested at the team level, perfectionism predicts team performance. A sample of 231 competitive rowers from 36 boats completed measures of self-oriented, team-oriented, and team-prescribed perfectionism before competing against one another in a 4-day rowing competition. Strong within-boat similarities in the levels of team members' team-oriented perfectionism supported the existence of collective team-oriented perfectionism at the boat level. Two-level latent growth curve modeling of day-by-day boat performance showed that team-oriented perfectionism positively predicted the position of the boat in midcompetition and the linear improvement in position. The findings suggest that imposing perfectionistic standards on team members may drive teams to greater levels of performance.

  10. Team effectiveness in academic primary health care teams. (United States)

    Delva, Dianne; Jamieson, Margaret; Lemieux, Melissa


    Primary health care is undergoing significant organizational change, including the development of interdisciplinary health care teams. Understanding how teams function effectively in primary care will assist training programs in teaching effective interprofessional practices. This study aimed to explore the views of members of primary health care teams regarding what constitutes a team, team effectiveness and the factors that affect team effectiveness in primary care. Focus group consultations from six teams in the Department of Family Medicine at Queen's University were recorded and transcribed and qualitative analysis was used to identify themes. Twelve themes were identified that related to the impact of dual goals/obligations of education and clinical/patient practice on team relationships and learners; the challenges of determining team membership including nonattendance of allied health professionals except nurses; and facilitators and barriers to effective team function. This study provides insight into some of the challenges of developing effective primary care teams in an academic department of family medicine. Clear goals and attention to teamwork at all levels of collaboration is needed if effective interprofessional education is to be achieved. Future research should clarify how best to support the changes required for increasingly effective teamwork.

  11. Single to quadruple quantum dots with tunable tunnel couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, T.; Noiri, A.; Obata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yoshida, K. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Otsuka, T.; Tarucha, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)


    We prepare a gate-defined quadruple quantum dot to study the gate-tunability of single to quadruple quantum dots with finite inter-dot tunnel couplings. The measured charging energies of various double dots suggest that the dot size is governed by the gate geometry. For the triple and quadruple dots, we study the gate-tunable inter-dot tunnel couplings. For the triple dot, we find that the effective tunnel coupling between side dots significantly depends on the alignment of the center dot potential. These results imply that the present quadruple dot has a gate performance relevant for implementing spin-based four-qubits with controllable exchange couplings.

  12. A Project Team: A Team or Just a Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Hrazdilova Bockova


    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues related to work in either teams or groups. The theoretical part which discusses a team and a group with regards to its definition, classification and basic distinction brings in more on the typology of team roles, personality assessment and sociometric methods. The analytical part tests the project (work team of a medical center represented in terms of personality and motivational types, team roles and interpersonal team relations concerning the willingness of cooperation and communication. The main objective of this work was to determine whether the existing team is not by its nature rather a working group that contributes to the generally perceived stagnation of that field.

  13. Cheap Talk: “Team Factors and Management Practices Influence on Team Trust”


    Doris Padmini Selvaratnam; Aini Aman; Muhamad Maziz Mahyuddin Bin Kamaludin; Gary Lynn; Richard Reilly


    Team trust has been cited as a contributing factor towards team performance. This paper looks at the antecedents of team trust and to what extent they influence team trust. The antecedents of team trust are team factors like team autonomy, team stability and team member experience; and the management practices are top management involvement and management support. The results demonstrated that team factors and management practices influence team trust individually. The key find...

  14. Professional Team Foundation Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Ed; Holliday, Grant; Keller, Brian


    Authoritative guide to TFS 2010 from a dream team of Microsoft insiders and MVPs!Microsoft Visual Studio Team Foundation Server (TFS) has evolved until it is now an essential tool for Microsoft?s Application Lifestyle Management suite of productivity tools, enabling collaboration within and among software development teams. By 2011, TFS will replace Microsoft?s leading source control system, VisualSourceSafe, resulting in an even greater demand for information about it. Professional Team Foundation Server 2010, written by an accomplished team of Microsoft insiders and Microsoft MVPs, provides

  15. Multidisciplinary team care in rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, Anne-Mette; Rasmussen, Jens Ole; Nielsen, Claus Vinther


    Objectives: To systematically investigate current scientific evidence about the effectiveness of multidisciplinary team rehabilitation for different health problems. Data sources: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in Cochrane, Medline, DARE, Embase, and Cinahl databases, and research...... from existing systematic reviews was critically appraised and summarized. Study selection: Using the search terms "rehabilitation", "multidisciplinary teams" or "team care", references were identified for existing studies published after 2000 that examined multidisciplinary rehabilitation team care...... for adults, without restrictions in terms of study population or outcomes. The most recent reviews examining a study population were selected. Data extraction: Two reviewers independently extracted information about study populations, sample sizes, study designs, rehabilitation settings, the team...

  16. Leading Teams of Higher Education Administrators: Integrating Goal Setting, Team Role, and Team Life Cycle Theories (United States)

    Posthuma, Richard; Al-Riyami, Said


    Leaders of higher education institutions can create top management teams of academic administrators to guide and improve their organizations. This study illustrates how the leadership of top management teams can be accomplished successfully through a combination of goal setting (Doran, 1981; Locke & Latham, 1990), understanding of team roles…

  17. Social Capital, Team Efficacy and Team Potency: The Mediating Role of Team Learning Behaviors (United States)

    van Emmerik, Hetty; Jawahar, I. M.; Schreurs, Bert; de Cuyper, Nele


    Purpose: Drawing on social capital theory and self-identification theory, this study aims to examine the associations of two indicators of social capital, personal networks and deep-level similarity, with team capability measures of team efficacy and team potency. The central focus of the study is to be the hypothesized mediating role of team…

  18. Optically active quantum dots (United States)

    Gerard, Valerie; Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.


    The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important optically active quantum dot (QD) based materials, study their properties and explore their biological applications. For the first time chiral II-VI QDs have been prepared by us using microwave induced heating with the racemic (Rac), D- and L-enantiomeric forms of penicillamine as stabilisers. Circular dichroism (CD) studies of these QDs have shown that D- and L-penicillamine stabilised particles produced mirror image CD spectra, while the particles prepared with a Rac mixture showed only a weak signal. It was also demonstrated that these QDs show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. These QDs have demonstrated highly specific chiral recognition of various biological species including aminoacids. The utilisation of chiral stabilisers also allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS nano-tetrapods, which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. Biological testing of chiral CdS nanotetrapods displayed a chiral bias for an uptake of the D- penicillamine stabilised nano-tetrapods by cancer cells. It is expected that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in nanobiotechnology, medicine and optical chemo- and bio-sensing.

  19. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues. (United States)

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari


    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  20. Building a rapid response team. (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard


    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  1. Roles of the Team Physician. (United States)

    Kinderknecht, James


    The roles of the team physician are much more than providing medical coverage at a sport's event. The team physician has numerous administrative and medical responsibilities. The development of an emergency action plan is an essential administrative task as an example. The implementation of the components of this plan requires the team physician to have the necessary medical knowledge and skill. An expertise in returning an athlete to play after an injury or other medical condition is a unique attribute of the trained team physician. The athlete's return to participation needs to start with the athlete's safety and best medical interests but not inappropriately restrict the individual from play. The ability to communicate on numerous levels needs to be a characteristic of the team physician. There are several potential ethical conflicts the team physician needs to control. These conflicts can create unique medicolegal issues. The true emphasis of the team physician is to focus on what is best for the athlete.

  2. The Return of the Blue Butterfly (United States)

    Santos, Anabela


    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  3. Team anderthalb : Wirkungsgrad



    Die Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie produziert in regelmäßiger Folge für das Universitätsmagazin CAMPUS TV Filme über physikalische Phänomene. Die Länge der Filme ist auf jeweils 90 Sekunden (oder anderthalb Minuten) beschränkt, woraus sich der Titel der Serie 'Team anderthalb' ergibt. In dieser Folge wird der „Wirkungsgrad“ behandelt. Eine Dampfmaschinen wandelt die Wärmeenergie von heißen Dampf in Bewegung um. Nur wie erfolgreich ist sie dabei? Der Wirkungsgrad gibt Auskunft. Die Einsch...

  4. Volunteer Team Management


    Monych, Maria


    This thesis looked into volunteer team management in a project in AIESEC in Finland through the action research method. AIESEC in Finland is a non-profit non-government organization with a purpose of “peace and fulfilment of humankinds potential” through development of the youth’s future leadership. AIESEC was not a commissioning party; the project was the basis for the thesis without the supervision of the company. The thesis is based on a project that the author was in charge of, in ...

  5. Optical absorption, photoluminescence and structural analysis of CdS quantum dots in weak confinement (United States)

    Mishra, Rakesh K.; Vedeshwar, A. G.; Tandon, R. P.


    The diffusion-controlled growth of CdS quantum dots (QDs) dispersed in a silicate glass matrix was investigated. It was found that the size of CdS QDs can be controlled by either heat treatment at various temperatures for a fixed duration or varying times at a constant temperature. Pastel yellow colored glass samples were obtained due to the presence of CdS petite crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used for determining the average dot size which varied from 3.8 to 30 nm. The typical quantum confinement effect was clearly observed from the blue shift measured in the optical absorption edge with decreasing dot size in the absorption spectroscopy. The band gap of CdS QDs ranges from 2.41 to 2.82 eV. Measured photoluminescence (PL) at an excitation wavelength of 350 nm showed the red shift of emission wavelength with increasing thermal treatment time and temperature in agreement with the increasing dot sizes. The half-width of PL spectra seems to indicate qualitatively the size distribution of dots and is consistent with the treatment parameters.

  6. Silicon Quantum Dots in a Dielectric Matrix for All-Silicon Tandem Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Green


    Full Text Available We report work progress on the growth of Si quantum dots in different matrices for future photovoltaic applications. The work reported here seeks to engineer a wide-bandgap silicon-based thin-film material by using quantum confinement in silicon quantum dots and to utilize this in complete thin-film silicon-based tandem cell, without the constraints of lattice matching, but which nonetheless gives an enhanced efficiency through the increased spectral collection efficiency. Coherent-sized quantum dots, dispersed in a matrix of silicon carbide, nitride, or oxide, were fabricated by precipitation of Si-rich material deposited by reactive sputtering or PECVD. Bandgap opening of Si QDs in nitride is more blue-shifted than that of Si QD in oxide, while clear evidence of quantum confinement in Si quantum dots in carbide was hard to obtain, probably due to many surface and defect states. The PL decay shows that the lifetimes vary from 10 to 70 microseconds for diameter of 3.4 nm dot with increasing detection wavelength.

  7. Self-assembled quantum dots in a nanowire system for quantum photonics. (United States)

    Heiss, M; Fontana, Y; Gustafsson, A; Wüst, G; Magen, C; O'Regan, D D; Luo, J W; Ketterer, B; Conesa-Boj, S; Kuhlmann, A V; Houel, J; Russo-Averchi, E; Morante, J R; Cantoni, M; Marzari, N; Arbiol, J; Zunger, A; Warburton, R J; Fontcuberta i Morral, A


    Quantum dots embedded within nanowires represent one of the most promising technologies for applications in quantum photonics. Whereas the top-down fabrication of such structures remains a technological challenge, their bottom-up fabrication through self-assembly is a potentially more powerful strategy. However, present approaches often yield quantum dots with large optical linewidths, making reproducibility of their physical properties difficult. We present a versatile quantum-dot-in-nanowire system that reproducibly self-assembles in core-shell GaAs/AlGaAs nanowires. The quantum dots form at the apex of a GaAs/AlGaAs interface, are highly stable, and can be positioned with nanometre precision relative to the nanowire centre. Unusually, their emission is blue-shifted relative to the lowest energy continuum states of the GaAs core. Large-scale electronic structure calculations show that the origin of the optical transitions lies in quantum confinement due to Al-rich barriers. By emitting in the red and self-assembling on silicon substrates, these quantum dots could therefore become building blocks for solid-state lighting devices and third-generation solar cells.

  8. Localized surface plasmon and exciton interaction in silver-coated cadmium sulphide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai- 400076 (India)


    Localized surface plasmon and exciton coupling has been investigated on colloidal solutions of silver-coated CdS nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by gamma irradiation. Two broad photoluminescence (PL) bands (blue/red) corresponding to band to band and defect state transitions have been observed for the bare and coated samples. In case of bare CdS NPs, the intensity of the red PL peak is about ten times higher than the blue PL peak intensity. However, on coating the CdS NPs with silver, the peak intensity of the blue PL band gets enhanced and becomes equal to that of the red PL band. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) images adequately demonstrate size distribution of these metal/semiconductor nanocomposites. UV-Vis absorption studies show quantum confinement effect in these semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) systems. Absorption spectrum of silver-coated SQDs shows signature of surface plasmon-exciton coupling which has been theoretically verified.

  9. Localized surface plasmon and exciton interaction in silver-coated cadmium sulphide quantum dots (United States)

    Ghosh, P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P.


    Localized surface plasmon and exciton coupling has been investigated on colloidal solutions of silver-coated CdS nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by gamma irradiation. Two broad photoluminescence (PL) bands (blue/red) corresponding to band to band and defect state transitions have been observed for the bare and coated samples. In case of bare CdS NPs, the intensity of the red PL peak is about ten times higher than the blue PL peak intensity. However, on coating the CdS NPs with silver, the peak intensity of the blue PL band gets enhanced and becomes equal to that of the red PL band. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) images adequately demonstrate size distribution of these metal/semiconductor nanocomposites. UV-Vis absorption studies show quantum confinement effect in these semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) systems. Absorption spectrum of silver-coated SQDs shows signature of surface plasmon-exciton coupling which has been theoretically verified.

  10. Transformational leadership and team innovation: integrating team climate principles. (United States)

    Eisenbeiss, Silke A; van Knippenberg, Daan; Boerner, Sabine


    Fostering team innovation is increasingly an important leadership function. However, the empirical evidence for the role of transformational leadership in engendering team innovation is scarce and mixed. To address this issue, the authors link transformational leadership theory to principles of M. A. West's (1990) team climate theory and propose an integrated model for the relationship between transformational leadership and team innovation. This model involves support for innovation as a mediating process and climate for excellence as a moderator. Results from a study of 33 research and development teams confirmed that transformational leadership works through support for innovation, which in turn interacts with climate for excellence such that support for innovation enhances team innovation only when climate for excellence is high.

  11. A grating-coupled external cavity InAs/InP quantum dot laser with 85-nm tuning range (United States)

    Wei, Heng; Jin, Peng; Luo, Shuai; Ji, Hai-Ming; Yang, Tao; Li, Xin-Kun; Wu, Jian; An, Qi; Wu, Yan-Hua; Chen, Hong-Mei; Wang, Fei-Fei; Wu, Ju; Wang, Zhan-Guo


    The optical performance of a grating-coupled external cavity laser based on InAs/InP quantum dots is investigated. Continuous tuning from 1391 nm to 1468 nm is realized at an injection current of 1900 mA. With the injection current increasing to 2300 mA, the tuning is blue shifted to some extent to the range from 1383 nm to 1461 nm. By combining the effect of the injection current with the grating tuning, the total tuning bandwidth of the external cavity quantum-dot laser can reach up to 85 nm. The dependence of the threshold current on the tuning wavelength is also presented.

  12. A visible-light-driven composite photocatalyst of TiO2 nanotube arrays and graphene quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald K. L. Chan


    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotube arrays are well-known efficient UV-driven photocatalysts. The incorporation of graphene quantum dots could extend the photo-response of the nanotubes to the visible-light range. Graphene quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays were synthesized by covalently coupling these two materials. The product was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The product exhibited high photocatalytic performance in the photodegradation of methylene blue and enhanced photocurrent under visible light irradiation.

  13. Why Do Proteins Glow Blue?

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Sohini; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj


    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band structure of proteins with the optical band-gap in the visible region is possibly the origin of this phenomenon. We show here that the band structure of proteins is primarily the result of electron delocalization through the peptide chain, rather than through the hydrogen bond network in secondary structure.

  14. Innovation in healthcare team feedback. (United States)

    Plaza, Christine; Beard, Leslie; Fonzo, Anthony Di; Tommaso, Michael Di; Mujawaz, Yaman; Serra-Julia, Marcel; Morra, Dante


    Healthcare delivery is evolving from individual, autonomous practice to collaborative team practice. However, barriers such as professional autonomy, time constraints and the perception of error as failure preclude learning behaviours that can facilitate organizational learning and improvement. Although experimentation, engaging in questions and feedback, discussing errors and reflecting on results can facilitate learning and promote effective performance, the cultural barriers within healthcare can prevent or inhibit this type of behaviour among teams. At the University Health Network's Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, we realize the need for a tool that facilitates learning behaviour and is sensitive to the risk-averse nature of the clinical environment. The vehicle for the Team Feedback Tool is a web-based application called Rypple (, which allows team members to provide anonymous, rapid-fire feedback on team processes and performance. Rypple facilitates communication, elicits feedback and provokes discussion. The process enables follow-up face-to-face team discussions and encourages teams to create actionable solutions for incremental changes to enhance team health and performance. The Team Feedback Tool was implemented and piloted in general internal medicine at the University Health Network's Toronto General Hospital from early May 2009 to July 2009 to address the issues of teamwork and learning behaviour in the clinical environment. This article explores the opportunities and barriers associated with the implementation of the Team Feedback Tool.

  15. Team Work Engagement: Considering Team Dynamics for Engagement


    Patricia L. Costa; Ana Passos; Bakker, Arnold B.


    Although teams are an important structure of organizations, most studies on work engagement focus almost exclusively the individual-level. The main goals of this paper are to argue that the construct of work engagement can be conceptualized at the team level and to discuss theoretically some of its possible emergence processes. A conceptual model that explains under which conditions team work engagement is more likely to emerge is developed. This model is developed based on the literature on ...

  16. Individual and team performance in team-handball: a review. (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P


    Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors. Key PointsThe specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, specific skills, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors define the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition.To increase individual and team performance in team-handball specific training based on these determinants have been suggested.Although there are comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex, or age are published, there is a lack of training studies, particularly for team-handball specific techniques and endurance, as well as cognition and social factors.

  17. Effects of Team Emotional Authenticity on Virtual Team Performance


    Catherine E Connelly; Turel, Ofir


    Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students), suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others' emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the cont...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Constantin RALEA


    Full Text Available A team is a collective of people with a minimal number of people with complementary attributes that have the same objective, a performance set of standards and a common approach to work. The team is a group of people under the management of a leader that fulfill at the same time a job and a common action. The team constitutes a component of social life made with people who interact, who know themselves and form together a common identity.

  19. Letting Down the Team? Social Effects of Team Incentives


    Babcock, Philip; Bedard, Kelly; Charness, Gary; Hartman, John; Royer, Heather


    This paper estimates social effects of incentivizing people in teams. In two fieldexperiments featuring exogenous team formation and opportunities for repeated socialinteractions, we find large team effects that operate through social channels. The teamcompensation system induced agents to choose effort as if they valued a marginal dollar ofcompensation for their teammate from two-thirds as much (in one study) to twice as much asthey valued a dollar of their own compensation (in the other stu...

  20. Multi-color quantum dot stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (qSTORM) (United States)

    Tehrani, Kayvan F.; Xu, Jianquan; Kner, Peter A.


    Although Single Molecule Localization (SML) techniques have pushed the resolution of fluorescence microscopy beyond the diffraction limit, the accuracy of SML has been limited by the brightness of the fluorophores. The introduction of Quantum Dots (QD) for SML promises to overcome this barrier, and the QD Blueing technique provides a novel approach to SML microscopy. QDs have a higher quantum yield and absorption cross-section, making them brighter, thereby providing a higher accuracy of localization. The blueing technique is also faster and more quantitative than other SML techniques such as dSTORM. The initial bleaching step required by dSTORM is not necessary and each QD is imaged only once as its emission spectrum moves through the blueing window in contrast to dSTORM where the same molecule might be imaged multiple times. Single color QD Blueing has been demonstrated. However in biological imaging, multi-color imaging is essential for understanding the samples under study. Here we introduce two color superresolution microscopy using QD Blueing on biological samples. We demonstrate simultaneous imaging of microtubules and mitochondria in HepG2 cells with a localization accuracy of 40nm. We further show how QD Blueing can be optimized through the control of the sample mounting medium.

  1. Chiral Graphene Quantum Dots. (United States)

    Suzuki, Nozomu; Wang, Yichun; Elvati, Paolo; Qu, Zhi-Bei; Kim, Kyoungwon; Jiang, Shuang; Baumeister, Elizabeth; Lee, Jaewook; Yeom, Bongjun; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Lee, Jaebeom; Violi, Angela; Kotov, Nicholas A


    Chiral nanostructures from metals and semiconductors attract wide interest as components for polarization-enabled optoelectronic devices. Similarly to other fields of nanotechnology, graphene-based materials can greatly enrich physical and chemical phenomena associated with optical and electronic properties of chiral nanostructures and facilitate their applications in biology as well as other areas. Here, we report that covalent attachment of l/d-cysteine moieties to the edges of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) leads to their helical buckling due to chiral interactions at the "crowded" edges. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the GQDs revealed bands at ca. 210-220 and 250-265 nm that changed their signs for different chirality of the cysteine edge ligands. The high-energy chiroptical peaks at 210-220 nm correspond to the hybridized molecular orbitals involving the chiral center of amino acids and atoms of graphene edges. Diverse experimental and modeling data, including density functional theory calculations of CD spectra with probabilistic distribution of GQD isomers, indicate that the band at 250-265 nm originates from the three-dimensional twisting of the graphene sheet and can be attributed to the chiral excitonic transitions. The positive and negative low-energy CD bands correspond to the left and right helicity of GQDs, respectively. Exposure of liver HepG2 cells to L/D-GQDs reveals their general biocompatibility and a noticeable difference in the toxicity of the stereoisomers. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that d-GQDs have a stronger tendency to accumulate within the cellular membrane than L-GQDs. Emergence of nanoscale chirality in GQDs decorated with biomolecules is expected to be a general stereochemical phenomenon for flexible sheets of nanomaterials.

  2. Quantum-dot emitters in photonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter


    The spontaneous emission from self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots is strongly influenced by the environment in which they are placed. This can be used to determine fundamental optical properties of the quantum dots as well as to manipulate and control the quantum-dot emission itself....

  3. Beer's law in semiconductor quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Adamashvili, G T


    The propagation of a coherent optical linear wave in an ensemble of semiconductor quantum dots is considered. It is shown that a distribution of transition dipole moments of the quantum dots changes significantly the polarization and Beer's absorption length of the ensemble of quantum dots. Explicit analytical expressions for these quantities are presented.

  4. Membrane analysis with amphiphilic carbon dots. (United States)

    Nandi, Sukhendu; Malishev, Ravit; Parambath Kootery, Kaviya; Mirsky, Yelena; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Jelinek, Raz


    Newly-synthesized amphiphilic carbon dots were used for spectroscopic analysis and multicolour microscopic imaging of membranes and live cells. We show that Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurred from the amphiphilic carbon dots to different membrane-associated fluorescence acceptors. The amphiphilic carbon dots enabled imaging of membrane disruption by the beta-amyloid peptide.

  5. Agminated blue nevus - Case report* (United States)

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna


    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus. PMID:27828645

  6. Physics and engineering of compact quantum dot-based lasers for biophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Rafailov, Edik U


    Written by a team of European experts in the field, this book addresses the physics, the principles, the engineering methods, and the latest developments of efficient and compact ultrafast lasers based on novel quantum-dot structures and devices, as well as their applications in biophotonics. Recommended reading for physicists, engineers, students and lecturers in the fields of photonics, optics, laser physics, optoelectronics, and biophotonics.

  7. Nanoscale quantum-dot supercrystals (United States)

    Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Turkov, Vadim K.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.


    We develop a theory allowing one to calculate the energy spectra and wave functions of collective excitations in twoand three-dimensional quantum-dot supercrystals. We derive analytical expressions for the energy spectra of twodimensional supercrystals with different Bravias lattices, and use them to analyze the possibility of engineering the supercrystals' band structure. We demonstrate that the variation of the supercrystal's parameters (such as the symmetry of the periodic lattice and the properties of the quantum dots or their environment) enables an unprecedented control over its optical properties, thus paving a way towards the development of new nanophotonics materials.

  8. Team-based global organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Lena; Butler, Christina; Mockaitis, Audra


    This chapter draws on a panel discussion of the future of global organizing as a team-based organization at EIBA 2014 in Uppsala, Sweden. We began by discussing contemporary developments of hybrid forms of hierarchy and teams-based organizing, but we venture to propose that as organizations become...... characterized by decreased importance of hierarchal structures, more fluidity across borders, even a possible dissolution of firm boundaries, we move towards team-based organizing as an alternative to more traditional forms of hierarchical-based organizing in global firms. To provide input for a discussion...... of challenges and opportunities of future global organizing as being team-based, we presented new advancements in the study of global teams, leadership, process and outcomes divided into four themes. Two specifically address processes in global teams: 1) the benefits of openness towards linguistic and value...

  9. A virtual team group process. (United States)

    Bell, Marnie; Robertson, Della; Weeks, Marlene; Yu, Deborah


    Virtual teams are a phenomenon of the Information Era and their existence in health care is anticipated to increase with technology enhancements such as telehealth and groupware. The mobilization and support of high performing virtual teams are important for leading knowledge-based health professionals in the 21st century. Using an adapted McGrath group development model, the four staged maturation process of a virtual team consisting of four masters students is explored in this paper. The team's development is analyzed addressing the interaction of technology with social and task dynamics. Throughout the project, leadership competencies of value to the group that emerged were demonstrated and incorporated into the development of a leadership competency assessment instrument. The demonstration of these competencies illustrated how they were valued and internalized by the group. In learning about the work of this virtual team, the reader will gain understanding of how leadership impacts virtual team performance.

  10. [Team management of rheumatoid arthritis]. (United States)

    Le Loët, X; Vittecoq, O


    The main objectives of team management of rheumatoid arthritis are to stop structural damage of joints and to reduce functional, psychological, socioprofessional and economic consequences. Team management requires the collaboration, around the patient, of a rheumatologist, a nurse, a psychologist, a physiotherapist, an occupational therapist, an orthopaedic surgeon at the same time, in the same place. More and more patients wish to manage their disease by themselves. Team care should not be proposed to every patient; it must be reserved to patients whose condition required such an approach because of the severity of the disease, comorbidity, psychological or socioprofessionnal difficulties. Team management should be personalized. Utility of team management is now accepted; out-patient administration is as effective as in-patient one. A good educational program is very important. However, search is still needed to define optimal modalities of team management and tools to measure the efficiency of this approach.

  11. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John


    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities consistent...... with a commodity team's objective of creating opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviors, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members....... In some cases, inconsistencies between these factors and the objectives of the commodity teams were associated with lower performance. The paper contributes theoretically by providing a rich description of commodity functioning, and to practice by bringing attention to a number of managerial issues...

  12. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John


    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between...... these factors and the objectives of the commodity teams were associated with lower performance. The paper contributes theoretically by providing a rich description of how commodity teams function, and to practice by bringing attention to a number of managerial issues that should be considered when implementing...

  13. Sports and colors: the color effect of team shirts on basketball games (United States)

    Iwase, Masanori


    The research for basketball has been focused upon the color effect on the team shirts by means of sports and colors. University basketball club members and university students (who did not belong to the university basketball club members) participated in this study. Colors of team shirts were analyzed by A.H. Munsell's method (Hue, Value, Chroma). To each of four games were given four different color conditions: The first is on condition that players of both teams wore different five-colored team shirts (white, red, blue, green, orange).The second is on condition that all players of both teams wore white team shirts. The third is on condition that all players of the one team wore red team shirts and the others wore orange. The fourth is on condition that all players of the one team wore blue team shirts and the others wore green. The questionnaire, the number of shots, and passes were analyzed of statistics (x2 :1 X m contingency table) on the above mentioned conditions. The results were as follows: (1) The number of successful shots that university basketball club members made were higher than university students. (2) The number of unsuccessful passes that university students made were higher than university basketball club members. (3) Analyzed by statistics (x2:1 X contingency table), the apparent distinction of the color effect was not found. These results could be due to players requirements of momentary judgement such as their recognition of the other players face or voice. This seems to depend upon different factors of the subject himself on a physical strength level as well as on a technical level.

  14. L3 Study Team Activities (United States)

    Shoemaker, David; L3ST Team


    The NASA-Chartered L3 Study Team is working to develop the US community participation and to support NASA's contribution to the ESA-led LISA mission to observe gravitational waves via space-based detectors. The present activities of the L3ST will be described, and the next steps for the Study Team will also be given. NASA supports travel activities and support for the Study Team activities.

  15. Roles in Innovative Software Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan


    With inspiration from role-play and improvisational theater, we are developing a framework for innovation in software teams called Essence. Based on agile principles, Essence is designed for teams of developers and an onsite customer. This paper reports from teaching experiments inspired by design...... science, where we tried to assign differentiated roles to team members. The experiments provided valuable insights into the design of roles in Essence. These insights are used for redesigning how roles are described and conveyed in Essence....

  16. New lenses on team learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    Team læring er sjældent blevet studeret fra et sociokulturelt perspektiv (vygotskiansk). Denne poster er et teoretisk bidrag til team læring, der fokuserer på dialog, tegn-mediering og kulturel historisk praksis for at udvikle en forståelse af team læring som mere end forøgelse i adfærd, viden og...

  17. Nonlinear effects of team tenure on team psychological safety climate and climate strength: Implications for average team member performance. (United States)

    Koopmann, Jaclyn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Wang, Mo; Zhou, Le; Shi, Junqi


    The teams literature suggests that team tenure improves team psychological safety climate and climate strength in a linear fashion, but the empirical findings to date have been mixed. Alternatively, theories of group formation suggest that new and longer tenured teams experience greater team psychological safety climate than moderately tenured teams. Adopting this second perspective, we used a sample of 115 research and development teams and found that team tenure had a curvilinear relationship with team psychological safety climate and climate strength. Supporting group formation theories, team psychological safety climate and climate strength were higher in new and longer tenured teams compared with moderately tenured teams. Moreover, we found a curvilinear relationship between team tenure and average team member creative performance as partially mediated by team psychological safety climate. Team psychological safety climate improved average team member task performance only when team psychological safety climate was strong. Likewise, team tenure influenced average team member task performance in a curvilinear manner via team psychological safety climate only when team psychological safety climate was strong. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and offer several directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Visible-light driven photocatalytic activity of β-indium sulfide (In2S3) quantum dots embedded in Nafion matrix (United States)

    Sumi, R.; Warrier, Anita R.; Vijayan, C.


    We report on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of highly stable β-indium sulfide (In2S3) quantum dots embedded in Nafion matrix. β-indium sulfide (In2S3) quantum dots (6-10 nm) embedded in Nafion matrix with strong quantum confinement were synthesized by a simple chemical route. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum shows a large blue shift (˜1 eV) which can be controlled by the reaction temperature and time. Strong broadband photoluminescence is observed in the blue, green and red regions of the emission spectrum with variation in particle size and stoichiometry of the quantum dots. Photocatalytic activity measurements show that these hybrid membranes synthesized with equimolar precursors of In and S show paramount photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation, with the degradation of Rhodamine-6G dyes up to 95% within 90 min. The photocatalytic membranes are tested for reusable and stable operation.

  19. Spin storage in quantum dot ensembles and single quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, Dominik


    This thesis deals with the investigation of spin relaxation of electrons and holes in small ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques. Furthermore, a method to detect the spin orientation in a single quantum dot was developed in the framework of this thesis. A spin storage device was used to optically generate oriented electron spins in small frequency selected quantum dot ensembles using circularly polarized optical excitation. The spin orientation can be determined by the polarization of the time delayed electroluminescence signal generated by the device after a continuously variable storage time. The degree of spin polarized initialization was found to be limited to 0.6 at high magnetic fields, where anisotropic effects are compensated. The spin relaxation was directly measured as a function of magnetic field, lattice temperature and s-shell transition energy of the quantum dot by varying the spin storage time up to 30 ms. Very long spin lifetimes are obtained with a lower limit of T{sub 1}=20 ms at B=4 T and T=1 K. A strong magnetic field dependence T{sub 1}{proportional_to}B{sup -5} has been observed for low temperatures of T=1 K which weakens as the temperature is increased. In addition, the temperature dependence has been determined with T{sub 1}{proportional_to}T{sup -1}. The characteristic dependencies on magnetic field and temperature lead to the identification of the spin relaxation mechanism, which is governed by spin-orbit coupling and mediated by single phonon scattering. This finding is qualitatively supported by the energy dependent measurements. The investigations were extended to a modified device design that enabled studying the spin relaxation dynamics of heavy holes in self-assembled quantum dots. The measurements show a polarization memory effect for holes with up to 0.1 degree of polarization. Furthermore, investigations of the time dynamics of the hole spin relaxation reveal surprisingly long lifetimes T{sub 1}{sup h

  20. Virtual Teams and Knowledge Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Miikka; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth


    How does culture affect virtual teams and the knowledge communication processes in which they engage? As virtual spaces are increasingly used to support teams and establish collaboration in cross-cultural projects, the notion of cross-cultural communication can be understood as shifting from...... contextual perspective to a semiotic perspective. That is to say, although the team members are using the same vocabulary they might attach different meanings to and have different knowledge about them thus highlighting the importance of approaching virtual teams and collaboration from a semiotic perspective...

  1. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John


    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between...

  2. The Management Team and Survival. (United States)

    Floratos, Nick; And Others


    The team administration model used in the Rio Linda School District is explained, including a definition of the concept, organizational structures, general operations, and problem solving strategies. (SJL)

  3. The organizational neurodynamics of teams. (United States)

    Stevens, Ronald; Gorman, Jamie C; Amazeen, Polemnia; Likens, Aaron; Galloway, Trysha


    Our objective was to apply ideas from complexity theory to derive expanded neurodynamic models of Submarine Piloting and Navigation showing how teams cognitively organize around task changes. The cognitive metric highlighted was an electroencephalography-derived measure of engagement (termed neurophysiologic synchronies of engagement) that was modeled into collective team variables showing the engagement of each of six team members as well as that of the team as a whole. We modeled the cognitive organization of teams using the information content of the neurophysiologic data streams derived from calculations of their Shannon entropy. We show that the periods of team cognitive reorganization (a) occurred as a natural product of teamwork particularly around periods of stress, (b) appeared structured around episodes of communication, (c) occurred following deliberate external perturbation to team function, and (d) were less frequent in experienced navigation teams. These periods of reorganization were lengthy, lasting up to 10 minutes. As the overall entropy levels of the neurophysiologic data stream are significantly higher for expert teams, this measure may be a useful candidate for modeling teamwork and its development over prolonged periods of training.

  4. Two-photon absorption and efficient encapsulation of near-infrared-emitting CdSe{sub x}Te{sub 1−x} quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeremeta, Janusz [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Lamch, Lukasz [Department of Organic and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Wawrzynczyk, Dominika [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Wilk, Kazimiera A. [Department of Organic and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Samoc, Marek [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Nyk, Marcin, E-mail: [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)


    Highlights: • Synthesis of the IR emitting alloyed CdSe{sub x}Te{sub 1−x} quantum dots has been performed. • Two-photon absorption cross section of the CdSe{sub x}Te{sub 1−x} QDs was measured in the IR range. • The QDs were encapsulated into Brij 58® micelles and transferred to the aqueous environment. • A blue-shift of fluorescence of QDs in the micelles was observed. - Abstract: Hydrophobic CdSe{sub x}Te{sub 1−x} quantum dots with near infrared emission in the 700–750 nm range were synthesized by a wet chemistry technique. Their nonlinear optical properties were studied using Z-scan technique with a tunable femtosecond laser system. The peak value of the two-photon absorption cross section was found to be ∼2400 GM at 1400 nm. To demonstrate a possible way of utilizing the CdSe{sub x}Te{sub 1−x} quantum dots in aqueous environment we describe here a convenient method of preparation of Brij 58® micellar systems loaded with the quantum dots. The obtained nanoconstructs were characterized using optical spectroscopy, TEM and DLS. The micelles colloidal stability, and the influence of the encapsulation process on the spectroscopic properties of the quantum dots are discussed. In particular, we have observed a 60 nm blue-shift of the emission maxima upon loading quantum dots inside the micelles.

  5. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increa

  6. Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybecker, Martin Bell; Stawowy, Marek; Clausen, Niels


    Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare vascular disorder with malformed veins, or blebs, appearing in the skin or internal organs. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is the most common feature and often subject to bleeding, potentially resulting in chronic occult blood loss and iron...

  7. The blue revolution in asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid


    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  8. The Effect of Team Size on Management Team Performance: The Mediating Role of Relationship Conflict and Team Cohesion


    Espedalen, Lars Erik


    The purpose of the present study was to create a better understanding of the processes and emergent states that can explain the relationship between team size (number of members) and team performance in management teams. Although many researchers have looked at the relationship between team size and team performance in for instance student teams, experimental groups, and production teams, there are very few studies that so far have looked at mediating variables in this relationship. Within re...

  9. Optical Properties of Amorphous Silicon Quantum Dots(a-Si QDs) with various dot size using Extended H\\"uckel Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, K M


    A high quality amorphous silicon (a-Si) nanostructures has grown experimentally to study the origin of light emission and the quantum confinement effect in a-Si. The quantum confinement effect increases the band gap of material as the size of quantum structure decreases, which results in a blue shift in optical luminescence and energy absorption. Here we demonstrate this effect using extended H\\"uckel method to calculate fundamental band gap and optical absorption energy of a-Si samples with various dot sizes. As result, when the dot size was decreased from 2.2 to 1.0 nm, the absorption spectra peak shifted toward higher energy from 2.278 eV to 3.856 eV.

  10. Diversity in goal orientation, team reflexivity, and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Anne Nederveen; van Knippenberg, Daan; van Ginkel, Wendy P.


    Although recent research highlights the role of team member goal orientation in team functioning, research has neglected the effects of diversity in goal orientation. In a laboratory study with groups working on a problem-solving task, we show that diversity in learning and performance orientation a

  11. Team Collectivist Culture: A Remedy for Creating Team Effectiveness (United States)

    McAtavey, Jean; Nikolovska, Irena


    This article provides a review of literature on collective orientation and effective teams by theoretically elucidating the relationship between these two constructs. The relationship between these two constructs is found by identifying the elements that go into creating an effective team, which are also found in a collectivist orientation. As…

  12. The impact of team and work characteristics on team functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, E.; Slomp, J.


    In this article, the authors seek to strengthen the theoretical foundation of team and cell formation through the inclusion of human factors. They distinguish three types of team characteristics: global, shared, and compositional attributes. In this last category, they also deal with diversity in te

  13. Practice effects on intra-team synergies in football teams. (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Chung, Dante; Carvalho, Thiago; Cardoso, Tiago; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio


    Developing synchronised player movements for fluent competitive match play is a common goal for coaches of team games. An ecological dynamics approach advocates that intra-team synchronization is governed by locally created information, which specifies shared affordances responsible for synergy formation. To verify this claim we evaluated coordination tendencies in two newly-formed teams of recreational players during association football practice games, weekly, for fifteen weeks (thirteen matches). We investigated practice effects on two central features of synergies in sports teams - dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation here captured through near in-phase modes of coordination and time delays between coupled players during forward and backwards movements on field while attacking and defending. Results verified that synergies were formed and dissolved rapidly as a result of the dynamic creation of informational properties, perceived as shared affordances among performers. Practising once a week led to small improvements in the readjustment delays between co-positioning team members, enabling faster regulation of coordinated team actions. Mean values of the number of player and team synergies displayed only limited improvements, possibly due to the timescales of practice. No relationship between improvements in dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation were found for number of shots, amount of ball possession and number of ball recoveries made. Findings open up new perspectives for monitoring team coordination processes in sport.

  14. Virtual Teaming: Placing Preservice Middle Level Teachers on Interdisciplinary Teams (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer L.


    In this action research study, 24 preservice middle level educators participated in simulated interdisciplinary teams for a semester. The impact this authentic pedagogy had on preservice teachers' developing knowledge of middle school teaming is documented through student artifacts (e.g., journals, assignments), tape-recorded interviews, and field…

  15. Facilitating Team Cognition: How designers mirror what NPD teams do

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stompff, G.


    Products are developed by large multi-disciplinary teams. The teams deal with many topics requiring the expertise of several specialists simultaneously. They have to decide together if something is a problem; propose multi-disciplinary solutions; and align their activities into a seamless whole. Sta

  16. Eco-friendly intracellular biosynthesis of CdS quantum dots without changing Escherichia coli's antibiotic resistance. (United States)

    Yan, Zheng-Yu; Du, Qing-Qing; Qian, Jing; Wan, Dong-Yu; Wu, Sheng-Mei


    In the paper, a green and efficient biosynthetical technique was reported for preparing cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots, in which Escherichia coli (E. coli) was chosen as a biomatrix. Fluorescence emission spectra and fluorescent microscopic photographs revealed that as-produced CdS quantum dots had an optimum fluorescence emission peak located at 470nm and emitted a blue-green fluorescence under ultraviolet excitation. After extracted from bacterial cells and located the nanocrystals' foci in vivo, the CdS quantum dots showed a uniform size distribution by transmission electron microscope. Through the systematical investigation of the biosynthetic conditions, including culture medium replacement, input time point of cadmium source, working concentrations of raw inorganic ions, and co-cultured time spans of bacteria and metal ions in the bio-manufacture, the results revealed that CdS quantum dots with the strongest fluorescence emission were successfully prepared when E. coli cells were in stationary phase, with the replacement of culture medium and following the incubation with 1.0×10(-3)mol/L cadmium source for 2 days. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated that the sensitivities to eight types of antibiotics of E. coli were barely changed before and after CdS quantum dots were prepared in the mild temperature environment, though a slight fall of antibiotic resistance could be observed, suggesting hinted the proposed technique of producing quantum dots is a promising environmentally low-risk protocol.

  17. Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes for Large-Area Displays: Towards the Dawn of Commercialization. (United States)

    Dai, Xingliang; Deng, Yunzhou; Peng, Xiaogang; Jin, Yizheng


    Quantum dots are a unique class of emitters with size-tunable emission wavelengths, saturated emission colors, near-unity luminance efficiency, inherent photo- and thermal- stability and excellent solution processability. Quantum dots have been used as down-converters for back-lighting in liquid-crystal displays to improve color gamut, leading to the booming of quantum-dot televisions in consumer market. In the past few years, efficiency and lifetime of electroluminescence devices based on quantum dots achieved tremendous progress. These encouraging facts foreshadow the commercialization of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs), which promises an unprecedented generation of cost-effective, large-area, energy-saving, wide-color-gamut, ultra-thin and flexible displays. Here we provide a Progress Report, covering interdisciplinary aspects including material chemistry of quantum dots and charge-transporting layers, optimization and mechanism studies of prototype devices and processing techniques to produce large-area and high-resolution red-green-blue pixel arrays. We also identify a few key challenges facing the development of active-matrix QLED displays.

  18. Polymer-coated quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, Nikodem; Liu, Rongrong; Vancso, Julius G.


    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with distinct photophysical properties finding applications in biology, biosensing, and optoelectronics. Polymeric coatings of QDs are used primarily to provide long-term colloidal stability to QDs dispersed in solutions and also as a source of addit

  19. DOT strategies versus orbiter strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.


    The Dutch Open Telescope is a high-resolution solar imager coming on-line at La Palma. The definition of the DOT science niche, strategies, and requirements resemble Solar Orbiter considerations and deliberations. I discuss the latter in the light of the former, and claim that multi-line observation

  20. Nuclear Spins in Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erlingsson, S.I.


    The main theme of this thesis is the hyperfine interaction between the many lattice nuclear spins and electron spins localized in GaAs quantum dots. This interaction is an intrinsic property of the material. Despite the fact that this interaction is rather weak, it can, as shown in this thesis, stro

  1. Luminescent Surface Quaternized Carbon Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bourlinos, Athanasios B.


    Thermal oxidation of a salt precursor made from the acid base combination of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and betaine hydrochloride results in light-emitting surface quaternized carbon dots that are water-dispersible, display anion exchange properties, and exhibit uniform size/surface charge. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. An Air Force Guide to Team Building. (United States)


    mission and goals. In his book, The Team Handbook, Peter Scholtes describes the ideal team as one in which its members agree on the team’s mission and...tasks. Consequently, the ideal team has formally designated roles and responsibilities. Its members understand which roles belong to one individual...decisions affect all other subsequent team decisions and actions (1:1-2). In his book, The Team Handbook, Peter Scholtes describes the ideal team as one

  3. Trust and team coordination in critical situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H. Pitariu


    Full Text Available In this paper I explore the process of team coordination. I propose a model by which team coordination emerges as a function of team mental models and team trust. Furthermore, I introduce a hierarchical approach to team mental models, and propose a framework that provides a better understanding of team processes and opens new avenues of research in the area of team cognition. I conclude with implications for future research and practice.

  4. QCD-inspired spectra from Blue`s functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, M.A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik]|[Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Papp, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Zahed, I. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics


    We use the law of addition in random matrix theory to analyze the spectral distributions of a variety of chiral random matrix models as inspired from QCD whether by symmetries or models. In terms of the Blue`s functions recently discussed by Zee, we show that most of the spectral distributions in the macroscopic limit and the quenched approximation, follow algebraically from the discontinuity of a pertinent solution to a cubic (Cardano) or a quartic (Ferrari) equation. We use the end-point equation of the energy spectra in chiral random matrix models to argue for novel phase structures, in which the Dirac density of states plays the role of an order parameter. (orig.)

  5. Spin transport through quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, A.T. da Cunha; Anda, Enrique V. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)


    Full text: We investigate the spin polarized transport properties of a nanoscopic device constituted by a quantum dot connected to two leads. The electrical current circulates with a spin polarization that is modulated via a gate potential that controls the intensity of the spin-orbit coupling, the Rashba effect. We study a polarized field-effect transistor when one of its parts is constituted by a small quantum dot, which energies are controlled by another gate potential operating inside the confined region. The high confinement and correlation suffered by the charges inside the dot gives rise to novel phenomena. We show that through the manipulation of the gate potential applied to the dot it is possible to control, in a very efficient way, the intensity and polarization of the current that goes along the system. Other crucial parameters to be varied in order to understand the behavior of this system are the intensity of the external applied electric and magnetic field. The system is represented by the Anderson Impurity Hamiltonian summed to a spin-orbit interaction, which describes the Rashba effect. To obtain the current of this out-of-equilibrium system we use the Keldysh formalism.The solution of the Green function are compatible with the Coulomb blockade regime. We show that under the effect of a external magnetic field, if the dot is small enough the device operates as a complete spin filter that can be controlled by the gate potential. The behavior of this device when it is injected into it a polarized current and modulated by the Rashba effect is as well studied. (author)

  6. A balanced team generating model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Water, Tara; van de Water, Henny; Bukman, Cock


    This paper introduces a general team balancing model. It first summarizes existing balancing methods. It is shown that for these methods it is difficult to meet all the conditions posed by Belbin on balanced teams. This mainly is caused by the complexity of the balancing problem. A mathematical mode

  7. Team Teaching in High School (United States)

    Mandel, Kenneth; Eiserman, Terry


    Too often at the high school level, teachers work in isolation, without the ability to see other practitioners at work. Team teaching offers an effective antidote: It provides a comfortable environment in which to grow because it enables teachers to learn from another professional on a regular basis. "Teaming," notes the authors,…

  8. Text Signals Influence Team Artifacts (United States)

    Clariana, Roy B.; Rysavy, Monica D.; Taricani, Ellen


    This exploratory quasi-experimental investigation describes the influence of text signals on team visual map artifacts. In two course sections, four-member teams were given one of two print-based text passage versions on the course-related topic "Social influence in groups" downloaded from Wikipedia; this text had two paragraphs, each…

  9. Team-Based Global Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Lena; Butler, Christina Lea; Mockaitis, Audra;


    Purpose-We propose team-based organizing as an alternative to more traditional forms of hierarchy-based organizing in global firms. Methodology/approach-Advancements in the study of global teams, leadership, process, and outcomes were organized into four themes: (1) openness toward linguistic and...

  10. Data Teams for School Improvement (United States)

    Schildkamp, Kim; Poortman, Cindy L.; Handelzalts, Adam


    The use of data for educational decision making has never been more prevalent. However, teachers and school leaders need support in data use. Support can be provided by means of professional development in the form of "data teams". This study followed the functioning of 4 data teams over a period of 2 years, applying a qualitative case…

  11. Synthesis of poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene/MnO2 composites and their applications in the adsorptive removal of methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxangul Jamal


    Full Text Available The poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene/MnO2 composites (PProDOT/MnO2 were prepared successfully by soaking the PProDOT powders into potassium permanganate (KMnO4 solution, with the mass ratio of PProDOT and KMnO4 from 2:1 to 1:2. The structure and morphology of composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra (UV, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. Furthermore, PProDOT/MnO2 composites were tested as the adsorbents for removal of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solution. The results revealed that the composites were successfully synthesized, and the thiophene sulfur was oxidized into sulfoxide by KMnO4. The highest percentage removal of MB after 30 min was 91% for PProDOT/MnO2 (1:2 composite, and the percentage removal of MB was ~12 mg g−1 after 60 min at initial concentrations of MB dye of 5.6 mg L−1 in the case of PProDOT/MnO2 (1:2 composite. Besides, the adsorption process of PProDOT/MnO2 (1:2 composite was described by pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models.

  12. Harnessing members' positive mood for team-directed learning behaviour and team innovation : The moderating role of perceived team feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; van der Vegt, Gerben S.


    This study examines the role of individual team members' positive mood and perceived team feedback for their team-directed learning behaviour. Results obtained in a sample of 186 members from 27 work teams showed that positive mood was positively associated with team-directed learning behaviour if i

  13. Decreased scattering coefficient of blue sclerae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, P J; Borsboom, P C; te Meerman, G J; ten Kate, L P


    The optical scattering properties of blue and normal sclerae were studied with a fiber optic scattering monitor. The scattering was clearly reduced in two osteogenesis imperfecta patients with blue sclerae, and low normal in one osteogenesis imperfecta patient without blue sclerae.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enes Huseinagić


    Full Text Available This work includes research of team conflict resolution styles in sports by basketball coaches. This research was conducted at the European Junior Basketball Championship B Division held from July 23 to August 2, 2009 in Sarajevo. Research tasks were created with the goal to establish styles for resolving team conflict by coaches in basketball, to determine dominating styles and with the help of a questionnaire to analyze opinion about correlation of the offered styles and their effectiveness. The questionnaire created by Kreitner and Kinicki (1998, has given answers on these hypotheses. Sample was comprised of 14 coaches from 24 basketball teams which took part in competition. The research was conducted through the questionnaire which covered five different conflict resolution styles: bonding, reconciling, imposing, avoiding and compromise. Coaches of tested teams who have dominating styles for resolving team conflicts caused by certain reasons, have shown that hypothesis relating to coach’s different adaptational styles of conflict resolution is completely confirmed.

  15. Controllable Synthesis of Highly Luminescent Boron Nitride Quantum Dots. (United States)

    Li, Hongling; Tay, Roland Yingjie; Tsang, Siu Hon; Zhen, Xu; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong


    Boron nitride quantum dots (BNQDs), as a new member of heavy metal-free quantum dots, have aroused great interest in fundamental research and practical application due to their unique physical/chemical properties. However, it is still a challenge to controllably synthesize high-quality BNQDs with high quantum yield (QY), uniform size and strong fluorescent. In this work, BNQDs have been successfully fabricated by the liquid exfoliation and the subsequent solvothermal process with respect to its facileness and easy large scale up. Importantly, BNQDs with high-quality can be controllably obtained by adjusting the synthetic parameters involved in the solvothermal process including filling factor, synthesis temperature, and duration time. Encouragingly, the as-prepared BNQDs possess strong blue luminescence with QY as high as 19.5%, which can be attributed to the synergetic effect of size, surface chemistry and edge defects. In addition, this strategy presented here provides a new reference for the controllable synthesis of other heavy metal-free QDs. Furthermore, the as-prepared BNQDs are non-toxic to cells and exhibit nanosecond-scaled lifetimes, suggesting they have great potential biological and optoelectronic applications.

  16. The Spectrum of Quantum Dots Film for UV CCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jiang


    Full Text Available A new kind of UV-responsive film with quantum dots (QDs fabricated by a spin-coating method is proposed in this paper. In a previous study, the monolayer QDs film is deposited onto fused silica slides by the spin-coating way, which has some luminous problem. The introduction of composite QDs coating which adds PEDOT:PSS and poly-TPD films to the monolayer QDs film is found to have excellent performance. The reason can be that PEDOT:PSS and poly-TPD weaken the scattering and enhance the emitting of quantum dot fluorescence. The intensity of photoluminescence (PL for composite QDs coating is dozens of times stronger than that for monolayer QDs film. Experiment results show that this composite coating has excellent fluorescent properties and emits a blue purple glow together a wide excitation spectrum field from 190 nm to 300 nm. The spectrum of the composite coating matches accurately with the detected zone of CCD, which achieves an outstanding UV-responsive coating for conventional silicon-based image sensors.

  17. Model of Team Organization and Behavior and Team Description Method (United States)


    tud team stiructure of the squad. Only slight v;ariations in acttijll team role names wee observed: one squad leader dsignatf., his fir- tamnq a.s...positions . Nombhr of act,,al te.m roles and role titles - Responsib’lites assigned each actual term.role * P.q,,ipment aisociated with each actual team ... role Typos (f dopendencies observed daring mission performance * I),,p,,nto.ncy posrpo.)st obse.rvedl (fierir, mission performance . tepol)ien,.y

  18. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.


    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  20. The Physics of the Blues (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray


    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  1. Probing silicon quantum dots by single-dot techniques (United States)

    Sychugov, Ilya; Valenta, Jan; Linnros, Jan


    Silicon nanocrystals represent an important class of non-toxic, heavy-metal free quantum dots, where the high natural abundance of silicon is an additional advantage. Successful development in mass-fabrication, starting from porous silicon to recent advances in chemical and plasma synthesis, opens up new possibilities for applications in optoelectronics, bio-imaging, photovoltaics, and sensitizing areas. In this review basic physical properties of silicon nanocrystals revealed by photoluminescence spectroscopy, lifetime, intensity trace and electrical measurements on individual nanoparticles are summarized. The fabrication methods developed for accessing single Si nanocrystals are also reviewed. It is concluded that silicon nanocrystals share many of the properties of direct bandgap nanocrystals exhibiting sharp emission lines at low temperatures, on/off blinking, spectral diffusion etc. An analysis of reported results is provided in comparison with theory and with direct bandgap material quantum dots. In addition, the role of passivation and inherent interface/matrix defects is discussed.

  2. The Team Milestone Process: Integrated Team Activities to Track Team Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Knott


    Full Text Available The well established use of teams in the classroom and in business has increased the need for teaching students tangible team skills. More than merely imparting knowledge about teams from an abstract perspective students need to graduate with effective team experiences. This paper presents a milestone process that helps students develop as a team and provides students with the opportunity to reflect on and learn from their experiences. As students familiarize themselves with different team processes and dynamics, this process allows students to hone their team skill with feedback from instructors who now have an additional tool to monitor and coach the students on an ongoing basis. For example, the milestone process allows the instructor to provide students with an early progress report on their semester projects while giving the instructor an opportunity for course content clarification and valuable early feedback that students can use for project revision. This paper describes the team milestone process along with instructions, grading, and possible modification and also presents feedback from instructors and students after use in an undergraduate organizational behavior course.

  3. Cognitive model supported team skill training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, W.A. van; Stroomer, S.M.


    Complex tasks require coordinated performance by multiple team members. To perform the task effectively each team member must not only master the individual task component but also needs to function in the overall team. To increase team performance, each team member will need to acquire the relevant

  4. An Ecological Perspective on Team Cognition (United States)


    model is not always clear (e.g., knowledge of the task, knowledge of team roles , understanding of equipment, team member beliefs). The term sharing is...instead of cross training each team member, members assume the same team role but are mixed with new team members for some variety in coordination

  5. Influence of the Shell Thickness and Ratio Between Core Elements on Photostability of the CdTe/CdS Core/Shell Quantum Dots Embedded in a Polymer Matrix. (United States)

    Doskaliuk, Nataliia; Khalavka, Yuriy; Fochuk, Petro


    This paper reports a study of photooxidation and photomodification processes of the CdTe/CdS quantum dots embedded in a polymer matrix under ambient condition. During the first few minutes of irradiation, the quasi-inverse increase in photoluminescence intensity has been observed indicating the passivation of the nanocrystal surface traps by water molecules. A prolonged irradiation of the polymer film containing CdTe/CdS quantum dots leads to a significant decrease in the photoluminescence intensity together with the "blue shift" of the photoluminescence peak energy associated with quantum dot photooxidation. The mechanisms of the CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dot photooxidation and photomodification in a polymer matrix are discussed. We have found a correlation between the photostability of the quantum dots and the CdS shell thickness as well as the ratio of core elements.

  6. Association of flavin adenine dinucleotide with the Arabidopsis blue light receptor CRY1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.; Robertson, D.E.; Ahmad, M. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others


    The Arabidopsis thaliana HY4 gene encodes CRY1, a 75-kilodalton flavoprotein mediating blue light-dependent regulation of seedling development. CRY1 is demonstrated here to noncovalently bind stoichiometric amounts of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). The redox properties of FAD bound by CRY1 include an unexpected stability of the neutral radical flavosemiquinone (FADH{center_dot}). The absorption properties of this flavosemiquinone provide a likely explanation for the additional sensitivity exhibited by CRY1-mediated responses in the green region of the visible spectrum. Despite the sequence homology to microbial DNA photolyases, CRY1 was found to have no detectable photolyase activity. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  7. A Cusp Catastrophe Model for Team Learning, Team Potency and Team Culture. (United States)

    Rebelo, Teresa; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Lourenco, Paulo Renato; Dimas, Isabel; Pinheiro, Margarida


    This paper examines team learning behaviors within a nonlinear dynamical system (NDS) perspective. The present research is based on a sample of 36 project workgroups, where data were collected at two moments of their life cycle, with visual analogue scales. Using both the least squares method and maximum likelihood, it proposes a cusp catastrophe model for explaining team learning. The cusp model is superior to its linear alternatives and implements team culture as the asymmetry variable and team potency as bifurcation. The findings of cusp structure in the data support the existence of discontinuous shifts in learning behavior and furthermore a proposition that the punctuated equilibrium model (PEM) might be a reasonable model for describing group functioning, since it encompasses such sudden changes between distinct stages (attractors). A discussion on small group research is also provided by highlighting the nonlinear dynamics of team processes, along with further implications for research and practice.

  8. Teaching Engineering Students Team Work (United States)

    Levi, Daniel


    The purpose of this manual is to provide professor's in engineering classes which the background necessary to use student team projects effectively. This manual describes some of the characteristics of student teams and how to use them in class. It provides a set of class activities and films which can be used to introduce and support student teams. Finally, a set of teaching modules used in freshmen, sophomore, and senior aeronautical engineering classes are presented. This manual was developed as part of a NASA sponsored project to improve the undergraduate education of aeronautical engineers. The project has helped to purchase a set of team work films which can be checked out from Cal Poly's Learning Resources Center in the Kennedy Library. Research for this project has included literature reviews on team work and cooperative learning; interviews, observations, and surveys of Cal Poly students from Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Psychology; participation in the Aeronautical Engineering senior design lab; and interviews with engineering faculty. In addition to this faculty manual, there is a student team work manual which has been designed to help engineering students work better in teams.

  9. How to Preempt Team Conflict. (United States)

    Toegel, Ginka; Barsoux, Jean-Louis


    Team conflict can add value or destroy it. Good conflict fosters respectful debate and yields mutually agreed-upon solutions that are often far superior to those first offered. Bad conflict occurs when team members simply can't get past their differences, killing productivity and stifling innovation. Destructive conflict typically stems not from differences of opinion but from a perceived incompatibility between the way certain team members think and act. The conventional approach to working through such conflict is to respond to clashes as they arise. But this approach routinely fails because it allows frustrations to build for too long, making it difficult to reset negative impressions and restore trust. In their research on team dynamics and experience working with executive teams, Toegel and Barsoux have found a proactive approach to be much more effective. In this article, they introduce a methodology that focuses on how people look, act, speak, think, and feel. Team leaders facilitate five conversations--one focused on each category--before the team gets under way, to build a shared understanding of the process, rather than the content, of work and lay the foundation for effective collaboration.

  10. Team members cheer their team during FIRST competition (United States)


    Members of a FIRST robotic team cheer their teammates on during early competition at the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition held March 9-11 in the KSC Visitor Complex Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students from all over the country are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing at the Southeast Regional event, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  11. Diversity in Teams: was macht diverse Teams erfolgreich?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Buengeler; A.C. Homan


    Teams in Organisationen sind zunehmend divers zusammengesetzt. Mit Diversity sind neben Unterschieden bezüglich demografischer Merkmale beispielsweise auch Differenzen in unmittelbar aufgabenbezogenen Merkmalen sowie in Werten, Einstellungen und Eigenschaften gemeint, welche oftmals nicht sofort ers

  12. Team mums: team sport experiences of athletic mothers


    Batey, Jo; Owton, Helen


    Maintaining involvement in sport and exercise activities is a challenge for mothers with young children. This study therefore qualitatively explores the experiences of 7 mothers who have managed to remain physically active in team sports exploring how the team environment might meet their psychological needs. We analyse the results through Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Semi-structured interviews were thematically analysed to reveal the following themes: perceived benefits of sport, perceiv...

  13. Making a team of experts into an expert team. (United States)

    Charney, Carol


    Health care has traditionally been delivered primarily by experts working individually in a decentralized system lacking cohesive organization among professional disciplines. Only recently have the advantages of teamwork training been acknowledged in health care. This article explores the history, benefits, and recommendations for team training in neonatal care. TeamSTEPPS (Rockville, MD) and the revised Neonatal Resuscitation Program are cited as promising models for improved neonatal outcomes through professional teamwork.

  14. Team networking in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odette Spruyt


    Full Text Available "If you want to travel quickly, go alone. But if you want to travel far, you must go together". African proverb. The delivery of palliative care is often complex and always involves a group of people, the team, gathered around the patient and those who are close to them. Effective communication and functional responsive systems of care are essential if palliative care is to be delivered in a timely and competent way. Creating and fostering an effective team is one of the greatest challenges for providers of palliative care. Teams are organic and can be life giving or life sapping for their members.

  15. Building a sports medicine team. (United States)

    Fu, Freddie H; Tjoumakaris, Fotios Paul; Buoncristiani, Anthony


    There have been a growing number of participants in high school and collegiate athletics in recent years, placing ever-increasing demands on the sports medicine team. Building a winning sports medicine team is equally as important to the success of an athletic organization as fielding talented athletes. Acquisition of highly qualified, motivated, and hard-working individuals is essential in providing high quality and efficient health care to the athlete. Maintaining open paths of communication between all members of the team is the biggest key to success and an optimal way to avoid confusion and pitfalls.

  16. Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Keser


    Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.

  17. Embracing transformational leadership: team values and the impact of leader behavior on team performance. (United States)

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Cha, Sandra E


    The authors investigated the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and group performance in 218 financial services teams that were branches of a bank in Hong Kong and the United States. Transformational leadership influenced team performance through the mediating effect of team potency. The effect of transformational leadership on team potency was moderated by team power distance and team collectivism, such that higher power distance teams and more collectivistic teams exhibited stronger positive effects of transformational leadership on team potency. The model was supported by data in both Hong Kong and the United States, which suggests a convergence in how teams function in the East and West and highlights the importance of team values.

  18. Employing carbon dots modified with vancomycin for assaying Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Zhong, Dan; Zhuo, Yan; Feng, Yuanjiao; Yang, Xiaoming


    By employing attractive performance of fluorescent carbon dots, we herein successfully established an assay for analyzing bacteria firstly. Specifically, carbon dots with blue fluorescence were initially synthesized according to a previous report, and modified with vancomycin on their surfaces. Subsequently, the prepared carbon dots were applied to detect Staphylococcus aureus accompanied with a linear range of 3.18×10(5)-1.59×10(8) cfu/mL as well as a detection limit of 9.40×10(4) cfu/mL. Compared with other regular methods, our method is more rapid and convenient in term of methodology. Meanwhile, the current strategy was applied for detection of other bacteria including Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, and the modified carbon dots showed obvious affinity with Gram-positive bacteria owing to the ligand-receptor interactions between vancomycin and the cell walls, suggesting its value for detecting Gram-positive bacteria. Additionally, the practicability of this sensing approach was validated by recovery experiments conducted in orange juice, confirming its potential to broaden avenues for detection of Gram-positive bacteria.

  19. Emissive ZnO-graphene quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes. (United States)

    Son, Dong Ick; Kwon, Byoung Wook; Park, Dong Hee; Seo, Won-Seon; Yi, Yeonjin; Angadi, Basavaraj; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Choi, Won Kook


    Hybrid nanostructures combining inorganic materials and graphene are being developed for applications such as fuel cells, batteries, photovoltaics and sensors. However, the absence of a bandgap in graphene has restricted the electrical and optical characteristics of these hybrids, particularly their emissive properties. Here, we use a simple solution method to prepare emissive hybrid quantum dots consisting of a ZnO core wrapped in a shell of single-layer graphene. We then use these quantum dots to make a white-light-emitting diode with a brightness of 798 cd m(-2). The strain introduced by curvature opens an electronic bandgap of 250 meV in the graphene, and two additional blue emission peaks are observed in the luminescent spectrum of the quantum dot. Density functional theory calculations reveal that these additional peaks result from a splitting of the lowest unoccupied orbitals of the graphene into three orbitals with distinct energy levels. White emission is achieved by combining the quantum dots with other emissive materials in a multilayer light-emitting diode.

  20. Synthesis and optical properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots for white light-emitting diode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xianmei; Wang, Yilin; Gule, Teri; Luo, Qiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China); Zhou, Liya, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China); Gong, Fuzhong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China)


    Highlights: ► Stable CdSe QDs were synthesized by the one-step and two-level process respectively. ► The fabricated white LEDs show good white balance. ► CdSe QDs present well green to yellow band luminescence. ► CdSe QDs displayed a broad excitation band. - Abstract: Yellow light-emitting cadmium selenide quantum dots were synthesized using one-step and two-step methods in an aqueous medium. The structural luminescent properties of these quantum dots were investigated. The obtained cadmium selenide quantum dots displayed a broad excitation band suitable for blue or near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode applications. White light-emitting diodes were fabricated by coating the cadmium selenide samples onto a 460 nm-emitting indium gallium nitrite chip. Both samples exhibited good white balance. Under a 20 mA working current, the white light-emitting diode fabricated via the one-step and two-step methods showed Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage coordinates at (0.27, 0.23) and (0.27, 0.33), respectively, and a color rendering index equal to 41 and 37, respectively. The one-step approach was simpler, greener, and more effective than the two-step approach. The one-step approach can be enhanced by combining cadmium selenide quantum dots with proper phosphors.

  1. Dot-in-Well Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors (United States)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Bandara, Sumith; Ting, David; Hill, cory; Liu, John; Mumolo, Jason; Chang, Yia Chung


    Dot-in-well (DWELL) quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) [DWELL-QDIPs] are subjects of research as potentially superior alternatives to prior QDIPs. Heretofore, there has not existed a reliable method for fabricating quantum dots (QDs) having precise, repeatable dimensions. This lack has constituted an obstacle to the development of uniform, high-performance, wavelength-tailorable QDIPs and of focal-plane arrays (FPAs) of such QDIPs. However, techniques for fabricating quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) having multiple-quantum- well (MQW) structures are now well established. In the present research on DWELL-QDIPs, the arts of fabrication of QDs and QWIPs are combined with a view toward overcoming the deficiencies of prior QDIPs. The longer-term goal is to develop focal-plane arrays of radiationhard, highly uniform arrays of QDIPs that would exhibit high performance at wavelengths from 8 to 15 m when operated at temperatures between 150 and 200 K. Increasing quantum efficiency is the key to the development of competitive QDIP-based FPAs. Quantum efficiency can be increased by increasing the density of QDs and by enhancing infrared absorption in QD-containing material. QDIPs demonstrated thus far have consisted, variously, of InAs islands on GaAs or InAs islands in InGaAs/GaAs wells. These QDIPs have exhibited low quantum efficiencies because the numbers of QD layers (and, hence, the areal densities of QDs) have been small typically five layers in each QDIP. The number of QD layers in such a device must be thus limited to prevent the aggregation of strain in the InAs/InGaAs/GaAs non-lattice- matched material system. The approach being followed in the DWELL-QDIP research is to embed In- GaAs QDs in GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum- well (MQW) structures (see figure). This material system can accommodate a large number of QD layers without excessive lattice-mismatch strain and the associated degradation of photodetection properties. Hence, this material

  2. Brightness-equalized quantum dots (United States)

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.


    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices.

  3. The effectiveness of coach turnover and the effect on home team advantage, team quality and team ranking.




    The effectiveness of coach turnover on team performance is widely discussed in the literature due to the indirect impact of a team’s performance on a club’s revenues. This study examines the effect of coach turnover within a competition season by focusing on the change in team quality and the change in home team advantage under the new coach. The change in team quality or home team advantage can vary according to the team (team specific) or might be an independent quantity (non-team specific)...

  4. Interdisciplinary collaboration in hospice team meetings. (United States)

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Parker Oliver, Debra; Demiris, George; Regehr, Kelly


    Hospice and palliative care teams provide interdisciplinary care to seriously-ill and terminally-ill patients and their families. Care teams are comprised of medical and non-medical disciplines and include volunteers and lay workers in healthcare. The authors explored the perception of collaboration among hospice team members and actual collaborative communication practices in team meetings. The data set consisted of videotaped team meetings, some of which included caregiver participation, and team member completion of a survey. Findings revealed that the team's reflection on process was most likely to occur in team meetings, however least likely to occur when caregivers were present. Although team members had a high perception of interdependence and flexibility of roles, this was less likely to be enacted in team meetings with and without the presence of caregivers. Caregiver participation in team meetings had a positive impact on collaborative communication and the potential benefit of caregiver inclusion in team meetings is explored.

  5. Leader affective presence and innovation in teams. (United States)

    Madrid, Hector P; Totterdell, Peter; Niven, Karen; Barros, Eduardo


    Affective presence is a novel personality construct that describes the tendency of individuals to make their interaction partners feel similarly positive or negative. We adopt this construct, together with the input-process-output model of teamwork, to understand how team leaders influence team interaction and innovation performance. In 2 multisource studies, based on 350 individuals working in 87 teams of 2 public organizations and 734 individuals working in 69 teams of a private organization, we tested and supported hypotheses that team leader positive affective presence was positively related to team information sharing, whereas team leader negative affective presence was negatively related to the same team process. In turn, team information sharing was positively related to team innovation, mediating the effects of leader affective presence on this team output. The results indicate the value of adopting an interpersonal individual differences approach to understanding how affect-related characteristics of leaders influence interaction processes and complex performance in teams. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. China's Shineray Racing Team Hits International Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ China Shineray International Motocross Racing Team is Chongqing Shineray Group's international racing team, established in March 2004. in less than two years, this team has developed into the representative of numerous Chinese enterprises.

  7. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solairaj Dhananasekaran


    Full Text Available Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB, Bromophenol Blue (BPB and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798 shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  8. Synthesis and applications of carbon dots


    Nolan, Andrew Steven


    The use of non-invasive methods to visualise and monitor processes inside living organisms is vital in the understanding and diagnosis of disease. The work in this thesis details the synthesis and applications of a new imaging modality; carbon dots, whose inherent fluorescence and non-toxic nature makes them attractive alternatives to more traditional ‘quantum dots’. In this thesis, different methods of carbon dot synthesis were attempted in order to produce carbon dots of t...

  9. Colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, properties and applications (United States)

    Brichkin, S. B.; Razumov, V. F.


    Key recent results obtained in studies of a new class of luminophores, colloidal quantum dots, are analyzed. Modern methods for the synthesis and post-synthetic treatment of colloidal quantum dots that make it possible to achieve record high quantum yield of luminescence and to modify their characteristics for specific applications are considered. Currently important avenues of research on colloidal quantum dots and the problems in and prospects for their practical applications in various fields are discussed. The bibliography includes 272 references.

  10. [A case of black dot ringworm on the right forearm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans]. (United States)

    Fujita, Shigeru; Mochizuki, Takashi


    We report a case of black dot ringworm on the right forearm caused by Trichophyton (T.) tonsurans. A 16-year-old male high school Judo-wrestler visited our clinic on September 30, 2005, complaining of a round erythematosquamous eruption with a distinct margin on the right forearm. Black dots were observed in the lesion. KOH-Parker ink prepared direct microscopy revealed abundant large endotrix arthroconidia in the hair shaft. Culture yielded yellowish-brown colonies. The isolate produced numerous round, short club-shaped microconidia along the hyphae unstained with lactophenol cotton blue (resembling matchsticks) and chlamydospores. PCR-RFLP analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA revealed a banding pattern compatible with T. tonsurans. The lesion was cured by daily administration of 125 mg of terbinafine for 13 weeks.

  11. A type of novel fluorescent magnetic carbon quantum dots for cells imaging and detection. (United States)

    Su, Xi; Xu, Yi; Che, Yulan; Liao, Xin; Jiang, Yan


    A new type of multifunctional fluorescent magnetic carbon quantum dots SPIO@CQDs(n) ([superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO), carbon quantum dots, (CQDs)]) with magnetic and fluorescence properties was designed and prepared through layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The as-synthesized SPIO@CQDs(n) exhibited different emission colors including blue, green, and red when they were excited at different excitation wavelengths, and its fluorescent intensity increased as the increase of CQD layer (n). SPIO@CQDs(n) with quite low toxicity could mark cytoplasm with fluorescence by means of nonimmune markers. The mixture sample of liver cells L02 and hepatoma carcinoma cells HepG2 was taken as an example, and HepG2 cells were successfully separated and detected effectively by SPIO@CQDs(n), with a separation rate of 90.31%. Importantly, the designed and prepared SPIO@CQDs( n ) are certified to be wonderful biological imaging and magnetic separation regents.

  12. Process Variables Critical for Team Effectiveness: A Delphi Study of Wraparound Team Members. (United States)

    Fleming, Janetta L.; Monda-Amaya, Lisa E.


    Wraparound team members (n=20) identified as teaming experts rated 109 items that support team effectiveness across six categories: team goals, member roles and membership, communication, cohesion, logistics, and outcomes. Items in the team outcomes, goals, and cohesion categories were ranked most critical to team effectiveness. (Contains…

  13. The bigger they are, the harder they fall: linking team power, team conflict, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L. Greer; H.M. Caruso; K.A. Jehn


    Across two field studies, we investigate the impact of team power on team conflict and performance. Team power is based on the control of resources that enables a team to influence others in the company. We find across both studies that low-power teams outperform high-power teams. In both studies, h

  14. Learning and performance in multidisciplinary teams : The importance of collective team identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Gerben S.; Bunderson, J. Stuart


    In multidisciplinary teams in the oil and gas industry, we examined expertise diversity's relationship with team learning and team performance under varying levels of collective team identification. In teams with low collective identification, expertise diversity was negatively related to team learn

  15. Using Belbin's Role to Improve Team Effectiveness


    Stevens, K. Todd; Henry, Sallie M.


    This paper presents a controlled experiment conducted with software engineering students that demonstrates the utility of forming teams based on R. Meredith Belbin's set of team roles. The overall research effort is a demonstration of the general utility of Belbin's roles in improving the effectiveness of teams, even industry teams. The significance of this work is twofold: performance and team viability. Performance improvements clearly improve a team's productivity; viability issues are i...

  16. Valuing gender diversity in teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Villeseche, Florence


    Team gender diversity has been much debated in many different contexts – not least since the search for a main effect of diversity on performance was launched. However, results have so far been inconclusive, and a number of scholars suggest that more attention should be directed at contextual...... factors which could influence the effect of gender diversity on team performance. In this study, we explore the effect of positive diversity attitudes and assess the degree of gender diversity where such group attitudes have greater impact. This is done by using a sample of 1085 leaders of academic...... research teams. Findings show that positive diversity attitude in the form of group openness to diversity is strongly associated with team performance. We also find a moderating effect of gender diversity meaning that the effect of openness to diversity is stronger when gender groups are more balanced...

  17. Family, Team or Something Else?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Murtha


    Full Text Available When referring to staff, is the term "family" or "team" most accurate? John Murtha explores the importance of setting a company's core value to create and maintain a positive culture, expectations, and support hiring practices.

  18. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca C. ZOLTAN


    Full Text Available Today’s organization increasingly utilizes all kind of teams in order to surpass their competitors through flexibility, adaptability and innovation, features which are seen to characterize the teams. For this purpose, the concept of synergy in teams’ activity is often mentioned as the prime reason for which collective work is considered to be superior comparative with individual work. But what exactly does it mean? The present paper aims to shed some light on the concept of synergy in work teams and its positive effects, namely, the social consequences of collective work such as social compensation, social indispensability, social comparison, social identity, but also its negative effects, such as free-riding, social loafing and sucker effect. These are important group phenomena that managers should be aware of because they have a major impact on team performance, and consequently, on organization performance.

  20. <300> GeV team

    CERN Multimedia


    The 300 GeV team had been assembled. In the photograph are Hans Horisberger, Clemens Zettler, Roy Billinge, Norman Blackburne, John Adams, Hans-Otto Wuster, Lars Persson, Bas de Raad, Hans Goebel, Simon Van der Meer.

  1. Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Fuel Cell Technical Team promotes the development of a fuel cell power system for an automotive powertrain that meets the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) goals.

  2. Diversity Management in Global Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lisbeth


    This study is based on in-depth interviews in a successful diverse team in a Japanese subsidiary of an American multinational corporation. While this study exemplifies both processes of homogenization and diversification in global team communication, the focus is an investigation of global, natio...... to secure economic growth. This study contributes with a multi-contextual model to understand the complexity of dissemination processes from global to local. The diversity attributions in focus are nationality, functional expertise, experience and gender.......This study is based on in-depth interviews in a successful diverse team in a Japanese subsidiary of an American multinational corporation. While this study exemplifies both processes of homogenization and diversification in global team communication, the focus is an investigation of global...

  3. Diving and Environmental Simulation Team (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Diving and Environmental Simulation Team focuses on ways to optimize the performance and safety of Navy divers. Our goal is to increase mission effectiveness by...

  4. Information Demand Pattern for Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Stamer


    Full Text Available Modern organizations face the challenge of having to manage an increasing amount of information. The resulting information overload leads more and more to problems in decision making with potentially negative economic consequences. Decision-makers and knowledge intensive workers are especially affected. To address this problem, information demand patterns were proposed which capture organizational knowledge about the information demand of single roles. This work extends the concept of information demand patterns from single roles to teams. Using the knowledge intensive field of project management, the paper shows how to apply the concept of information demand patterns for a whole team. The contributions of this work are (1 the methodical approach to develop information demand patterns for teams, (2 an actual information demand pattern for a steering committee in the context of project management, (3 reflections on the differences between role patterns and team patterns.

  5. Creating and Nurturing Strong Teams. (United States)

    Martin, Kaye M.


    Discusses ways to create and sustain strong teaching teams, including matching curriculum goals, complementary professional strengths, and exercise of autonomy. Elaborates the administrator's role in nurturing and supporting teamwork. (JPB)

  6. Thermoelectric energy harvesting with quantum dots. (United States)

    Sothmann, Björn; Sánchez, Rafael; Jordan, Andrew N


    We review recent theoretical work on thermoelectric energy harvesting in multi-terminal quantum-dot setups. We first discuss several examples of nanoscale heat engines based on Coulomb-coupled conductors. In particular, we focus on quantum dots in the Coulomb-blockade regime, chaotic cavities and resonant tunneling through quantum dots and wells. We then turn toward quantum-dot heat engines that are driven by bosonic degrees of freedom such as phonons, magnons and microwave photons. These systems provide interesting connections to spin caloritronics and circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  7. Activation of silicon quantum dots for emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Wei-Qi; Miao Xin-Jian; Huang Zhong-Mei; Liu Shi-Rong; Qin Chao-Jian


    The emission of silicon quantum dots is weak when their surface is passivated well. Oxygen or nitrogen on the surface of silicon quantum dots can break the passivation to form localized electronic states in the band gap to generate active centers where stronger emission occurs.From this point of view,we can build up radiative matter for emission.Emissions of various wavelengths can be obtained by controlling the surface bonds of silicon quantum dots.Our experimental results demonstrate that annealing is important in the treatment of the activation,and stimulated emissions at about 600 and 700 nm take place on active silicon quantum dots.

  8. Synthetic Developments of Nontoxic Quantum Dots. (United States)

    Das, Adita; Snee, Preston T


    Semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots (QDs), are candidates for biological sensing, photovoltaics, and catalysis due to their unique photophysical properties. The most studied QDs are composed of heavy metals like cadmium and lead. However, this engenders concerns over heavy metal toxicity. To address this issue, numerous studies have explored the development of nontoxic (or more accurately less toxic) quantum dots. In this Review, we select three major classes of nontoxic quantum dots composed of carbon, silicon and Group I-III-VI elements and discuss the myriad of synthetic strategies and surface modification methods to synthesize quantum dots composed of these material systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Polaron states in cylindrical and spherical quantum dots with parabolic confinement potentials are investigated applying the Feynman variational principle. It is observed that for both kinds of quantum dots the polaron energy and mass increase with the increase of Frohlich electron-phonon coupling constant and confinement frequency. In the case of a spherical quantum dot, the polaron energy for the strong coupling is found to be greater than that of a cylindrical quantum dot. The energy and mass are found to be monotonically increasing functions of the coupling constant and the confinement frequency.

  10. Random Feature Maps for Dot Product Kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Kar, Purushottam


    Approximating non-linear kernels using feature maps has gained a lot of interest in recent years due to applications in reducing training and testing times of SVM classifiers and other kernel based learning algorithms. We extend this line of work and present low distortion embeddings for dot product kernels into linear Euclidean spaces. We base our results on a classical result in harmonic analysis characterizing all dot product kernels and use it to define randomized feature maps into explicit low dimensional Euclidean spaces in which the native dot product provides an approximation to the dot product kernel with high confidence.

  11. Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.


    -power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...

  12. Dissipative tunneling in structures with quantum dots and quantum molecules


    Dahnovsky, Yu. I.; Krevchik, V. D.; Semenov, M. B.; Yamamoto, K.; Zhukovsky, V. Ch.; Aringazin, A. K.; Kudryashov, E. I.; Mayorov, V. G.


    The problem of tunneling control in systems "quantum dot - quantum well" (as well as "quantum dot - quantum dot" or quantum molecule) and "quantum dot - bulk contact" is studied as a quantum tunneling with dissipation process in the semiclassical (instanton) approximation. For these systems temperature and correlation between a quantum dot radius and a quantum well width (or another quantum dot radius) are considered to be control parameters. The condition for a single electron blockade is fo...

  13. Team Effectiveness and Leadership Roles


    Duygulu, Ethem; Ciraklar, Nurcan


    In this study we aim to explain the patterns of leadership roles for team effectiveness in non economic organizations compared to economic organizations. For this purpose, we studied three successful organization types, i.e the amateur sports clubs (football, basketball), theater companies and, regional folk groups. Our basic hypothesis is that the relationship between the type of organization (specially teams) and the role of leadership is not random. Therefore, we believe that an empirical ...

  14. Leading the Team You Inherit. (United States)

    Watkins, Michael D


    Most leaders don't have the luxury of building their teams from scratch. Instead they're put in charge of an existing group, and they need guidance on the best way to take over and improve performance. Watkins, an expert on transitions, suggests a three-step approach: Assess. Act quickly to size up the personnel you've inherited, systematically gathering data from one-on-one chats, team meetings, and other sources. Reflect, too, on the business challenges you face, the kinds of people you want in various roles, and the degree to which they need to collaborate. Reshape. Adjust the makeup of the team by moving people to new positions, shifting their responsibilities, or replacing them. Make sure that everyone is aligned on goals and how to achieve them--you may need to change the team's stated direction. Consider also making changes in the way the team operates (reducing the frequency of meetings, for example, or creating new subteams). Then establish ground rules and processes to sustain desired behaviors, and revisit those periodically. Accelerate team development. Set your people up for some early wins. Initial successes will boost everyone's confidence and reinforce the value of your new operating model, thus paving the way for ongoing growth.

  15. Fire Whirls, Vortex Breakdown(?), and Blue Whirls (United States)

    Oran, Elaine; Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael


    As we were investigating the efficiency of fire-whirl burning on water, we observed the usual transformation of a pool fire to a fire whirl, and then suddenly, we saw the fire undergo a third transition. A blue cup appeared around the base of the fire whirl, surrounding the yellow flame, the yellow flame receded into the cup and finally disappeared. What remained was a small, rapidly spinning blue flame that burned until the fuel on the water was consumed. The blue whirl was shaped like a spinning cup, closed at the bottom near the water surface, and spreading in radius moving upwards towards the rim. Above the blue cup lip, there was a purple cone-shaped mist. The fuel was usually n-heptane, but at one point it was crude oil, and still the blue whirl formed naturally. The height of the fire whirl on the laboratory pan was larger than a half meter, and this evolved into a blue whirl about 4-8 cm high. Occasionally the blue whirl would become "unstable" and revert to a transitional state of blue cup holding a yellow flame. When the blue whirl formed, turbulence seemed to disappear, and the flame became quiet. We will show videos of how this happened and discuss the evolution of the fire whirl to the blue whirl in vortex-breakdown concepts. This work was supported by and EAGER award from NSF and Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

  16. Novel cookie-with-chocolate carbon dots displaying extremely acidophilic high luminescence (United States)

    Lu, Siyu; Zhao, Xiaohuan; Zhu, Shoujun; Song, Yubin; Yang, Bai


    A fluorescent carbon dot with a cookie-with-chocolate film structure (about 5 × 5 μm2) showed a high fluorescence quantum yield (61.12%) at low pH. It was hydrothermally synthesized from l-serine and l-tryptophan. The formation mechanism of the film with carbon dots (CDs) was investigated. The film structure was formed by hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions between aromatic rings. The strong blue fluorescence of the CDs increased under strong acidic conditions owing to the changes in the N-groups. These cookie-like CDs are attractive for their potential use as effective fluorescent probes for the sensitive detection of aqueous H+ and Fe3+.A fluorescent carbon dot with a cookie-with-chocolate film structure (about 5 × 5 μm2) showed a high fluorescence quantum yield (61.12%) at low pH. It was hydrothermally synthesized from l-serine and l-tryptophan. The formation mechanism of the film with carbon dots (CDs) was investigated. The film structure was formed by hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions between aromatic rings. The strong blue fluorescence of the CDs increased under strong acidic conditions owing to the changes in the N-groups. These cookie-like CDs are attractive for their potential use as effective fluorescent probes for the sensitive detection of aqueous H+ and Fe3+. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03965c

  17. Quantum Dot Spectrum Converters for Enhanced High Efficiency Photovoltaics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to enhance solar cell efficiency, radiation resistance and affordability. The Quantum Dot Spectrum Converter (QDSC) disperses quantum dots...

  18. Various Shades of Blue's Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Janik, R A; Papp, G; Zahed, I; Janik, Romuald A.; Nowak, Maciej A.; Papp, Gabor; Zahed, Ismail


    We discuss random matrix models in terms of elementary operations on Blue's functions (functional inverse of Green's functions). We show that such operations embody the essence of a number of physical phenomena whether at/or away from the critical points. We illustrate these assertions by borrowing on a number of recent results in effective QCD in vacuum and matter. We provide simple physical arguments in favor of the universality of the continuum QCD spectral oscillations, whether at zero virtuality, in the bulk of the spectrum or at the chiral critical points. We also discuss effective quantum systems of disorder with strong or weak dissipation (Hatano-Nelson localization).

  19. Motion Perception of Short-Wavelength Sensitive Cones in Glaucoma Using Random Dots Moving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baowen Gu; De-Zheng Wu; Jongji Liang; Minzhong Yu


    Purpose: To determine whether motion perception of short-wavelength sensitive(SWS)cones is capable of predicting primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) optic neuropathy.Methods: Motion perceptions of SWS cones were isolated by Blue random dot stimulusdisplayed on the Yellow background, then the detecting displacement threshold of motionperception from SWS cone in POAG was measured, and compared with the age-matchednormal group.Results: The detecting displacement thresholds of motion perception from SWS cones in8 sites of 15 degrees were all elevated in POAG compared with the normal group.Conclusion: These findings suggest that motion perception of SWS cones may revealpreclinical visual nerve damage in early POAG.

  20. Green Synthesis of Bifunctional Fluorescent Carbon Dots from Garlic for Cellular Imaging and Free Radical Scavenging. (United States)

    Zhao, Shaojing; Lan, Minhuan; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Xue, Hongtao; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Meng, Xiangmin; Lee, Chun-Sing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Wenjun


    Nitrogen and sulfur codoped carbon dots (CDs) were prepared from garlic by a hydrothermal method. The as-prepared CDs possess good water dispersibility, strong blue fluorescence emission with a fluorescent quantum yield of 17.5%, and excellent photo and pH stabilities. It is also demonstrated that the fluorescence of CDs are resistant to the interference of metal ions, biomolecules, and high ionic strength environments. Combining with low cytotoxicity properties, CDs could be used as an excellent fluorescent probe for cellular multicolor imaging. Moreover, the CDs were also demonstrated to exhibit favorable radical scavenging activity.

  1. Fluorescent N-Doped Carbon Dots as in Vitro and in Vivo Nanothermometer. (United States)

    Yang, Yanmei; Kong, Weiqian; Li, Hao; Liu, Juan; Yang, Manman; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Wang, Zhongyang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Zhong, Jun; Wang, Chao; Liu, Zhuang; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Kang, Zhenhui


    The fluorescent N-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) obtained from C3N4 emit strong blue fluorescence, which is stable with different ionic strengths and time. The fluorescence intensity of N-CDs decreases with the temperature increasing, while it can recover to the initial one with the temperature decreasing. It is an accurate linear response of fluorescence intensity to temperature, which may be attributed to the synergistic effect of abundant oxygen-containing functional groups and hydrogen bonds. Further experiments also demonstrate that N-CDs can serve as effective in vitro and in vivo fluorescence-based nanothermometer.

  2. Post-growth thermal treatment of the InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, J.; Babinski, A.; Bozek, R.; Baranowski, J.M.


    The effect of post-growth thermal treatment of the InAs/GaAs quantum dots is investigated in this work. The photoluminescence (PL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of samples annealed at temperatures up to 950 degrees C are presented. A complete dissolution of QDs and substantial broadening of the wetting layer (WL) can be seen from TEM. We propose that the thermally induced modification of the WL rather than QDs can be responsible for a blue-shift and narrowing of PL peaks in structures containing InAs/GaAs QDs.

  3. InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot interdiffiusion induced by cap layer overgrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, J.; Babinski, A.; Czeczott, M.; Bozek, R.


    The effect of thermal treatment during and after growth of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) structures was studied. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy confirmed the presence of interacting QDs, as was expected from analysis of temperature dependence of QD photoluminescence (PL) peak. The results indicate that the effect of post-growth annealing can be similar to the effect of elevated temperature of capping layer growth. Both, these thermal treatments can lead to a similar In and Ga interdiffiusion resulting in a similar blue-shift of QD PL peak.

  4. Consequences of Team Charter Quality: Teamwork Mental Model Similarity and Team Viability in Engineering Design Student Teams (United States)

    Conway Hughston, Veronica


    Since 1996 ABET has mandated that undergraduate engineering degree granting institutions focus on learning outcomes such as professional skills (i.e. solving unstructured problems and working in teams). As a result, engineering curricula were restructured to include team based learning--including team charters. Team charters were diffused into…

  5. Using Existing Teams to Teach about Teams: How an MBA Course in Managing Teams Helps Students and the Program (United States)

    Isabella, Lynn A.


    This article chronicles the unique manner in which a second-year MBA elective course in managing teams has been crafted using existing first-year learning teams as its core. The design and orchestration of this course are detailed, as are the challenges posed, in delivering a course that not only teaches about teams and team dynamics but does so…

  6. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots for "green" Quantum Dot Solar Cells. (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Sun, Pengfei; Cong, Shan; Wu, Jiang; Gao, Lijun; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Yi, Qinghua; Zou, Guifu


    Considering the environment protection, "green" materials are increasingly explored for photovoltaics. Here, we developed a kind of quantum dots solar cell based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots. The nitrogen-doped carbon dots were prepared by direct pyrolysis of citric acid and ammonia. The nitrogen-doped carbon dots' excitonic absorption depends on the N-doping content in the carbon dots. The N-doping can be readily modified by the mass ratio of reactants. The constructed "green" nitrogen-doped carbon dots solar cell achieves the best power conversion efficiency of 0.79 % under AM 1.5 G one full sun illumination, which is the highest efficiency for carbon dot-based solar cells.

  7. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here:

  8. A simple turn on fluorescent sensor for the selective detection of thiamine using coconut water derived luminescent carbon dots. (United States)

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu


    In this study microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was used to prepare highly luminescent carbon dots (1-6 nm size) within a minute from tender coconut (Cocos nucifera) water. The synthesized carbon dots (C-dots) exhibit emission of blue and green lights while excited at 390 and 450 nm wavelengths, respectively. As an application, these C-dots were tested for a simple "turn on" fluorescent sensor for rapid detection of thiamine (vitamin B1). The detection of thiamine in human body is very important to prevent various diseases such as beriberi, neurological disorders, optic neuropathy, etc. The fluorescence emission intensity of C-dots quenches after addition of Cu(2+) ion and then again increases selectively (turn on) after the addition of thiamine. The fluorescence emission intensity enhancement of Cu(2+) ion modified C-dots in the presence of thiamine exhibits a linear relationship within the thiamine concentration range of 10-50 μM. The limit of detection was found to be 280 nM from this study. The selectivity of the detection was also tested in the presence of different organic molecules and inorganic ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NO3(-)) which are present in blood serum and urine and found to be almost no interference in the detection. Finally, to see the applicability in real samples a commercial vitamin capsule was tested and found less than 3% error in the detected concentration. The C-dots were also used for bioimaging of fungus and the results show they are also suitable for this application too.

  9. Identification of luminescent surface defect in SiC quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Dejian; Guo, Xiaoxiao; Fan, Jiyang, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)


    The surface defect that results in the usually observed blue luminescence in the SiC quantum dots (QDs) remains unclear. We experimentally identify that the surface defect C=O (in COO) is responsible for this constant blue luminescence. The HO···C=O [n{sub (OH)} → π*{sub (CO)}] interaction between the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups changes the energy levels of C=O and makes the light absorption/emission arise at around 326/438 nm. Another surface defect (Si–Si) is identified and its light absorption contributes to both C=O-related luminescence and quantum-confinement luminescence of the SiC QDs.

  10. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Chen, Yongfen; Klimov, Victor I.; Htoon, Han; Vela, Javier


    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  11. Optically active quantum-dot molecules. (United States)

    Shlykov, Alexander I; Baimuratov, Anvar S; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Rukhlenko, Ivan D


    Chiral molecules made of coupled achiral semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots, show great promise for photonic applications owing to their prospective uses as configurable building blocks for optically active structures, materials, and devices. Here we present a simple model of optically active quantum-dot molecules, in which each of the quantum dots is assigned a dipole moment associated with the fundamental interband transition between the size-quantized states of its confined charge carriers. This model is used to analytically calculate the rotatory strengths of optical transitions occurring upon the excitation of chiral dimers, trimers, and tetramers of general configurations. The rotatory strengths of such quantum-dot molecules are found to exceed the typical rotatory strengths of chiral molecules by five to six orders of magnitude. We also study how the optical activity of quantum-dot molecules shows up in their circular dichroism spectra when the energy gap between the molecular states is much smaller than the states' lifetime, and maximize the strengths of the circular dichroism peaks by optimizing orientations of the quantum dots in the molecules. Our analytical results provide clear design guidelines for quantum-dot molecules and can prove useful in engineering optically active quantum-dot supercrystals and photonic devices.

  12. Research on Self-Assembling Quantum Dots. (United States)


    0K. in a second phase of this contract we turned our efforts to the fabrication and studies of self assembled quantum dots . We first demonstrated a...method for producing InAs-GasAs self assembled quantum dots (SAD) using MBE. (AN)

  13. Double Acceptor Interaction in Semimagnetic Quantum Dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Merwyn Jasper D. Reuben


    Full Text Available The effect of geometry of the semimagnetic Quantum Dot on the Interaction energy of a double acceptor is computed in the effective mass approximation using the variational principle. A peak is observed at the lower dot sizes as a magnetic field is increased which is attributed to the reduction in confinement.

  14. Quantum Dots Coupled to a Superconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellinggaard, Anders Robert

    are tuned electrostatically. This includes tuning the odd occupation of the dot through a quantum phase transition, where it forms a singlet with excitations in the superconductor. We detail the fabrication of these bottom gated devices, which additionally feature ancillary sensor dots connected...

  15. Detecting the chirality for coupled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Huijuan [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Hu Lian [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)], E-mail:


    We propose a scheme to detect the chirality for a system consisting of three coupled quantum dots. The chirality is found to be determined by the frequency of the transition between chiral states under the chiral symmetry broken perturbation. The results are important to construct quantum gates and to demonstrate chiral entangle states in the triangle spin dots.

  16. Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan;


    We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...... number due to increasing dot size....

  17. Optical studies of capped quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuister, S.F.


    This thesis describes the synthesis and spectroscopy of CdSe and CdTe semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The first chapter gives an introduction into the unique size dependent properties of semiconductor quantum dots. Highly luminescent QDs of CdSe and CdTe were prepared via a high temperature method

  18. Optical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perinetti, U.


    This thesis presents different optical experiments performed on semiconductor quantum dots. These structures allow to confine a small number of electrons and holes to a tiny region of space, some nm across. The aim of this work was to study the basic properties of different types of quantum dots mad

  19. The Relationship Between Team Psychological Safety and Team Effectiveness in Management Teams: The Mediating Effect of Dialogue.


    Bilstad, Julie Brat


    This study is a response to the research and request presented by Bang and Midelfart (2010), to further investigate the effect dialogue can have on management team s effectiveness. The purpose of the study was to investigate and explain the effect of team psychological safety on task performance and team member satisfaction, with dialogue as a mediator in this relationship. 215 Norwegian and Danish management teams in the private and public sector were studied. As expected, team psychological...

  20. Leader emotional intelligence, transformational leadership, trust and team commitment: Testing a model within a team context


    Anton F. Schlechter; Jacoba J. Strauss


    This exploratory study tested a model within a team context consisting of transformational-leadership behaviour, team-leader emotional intelligence, trust (both in the team leader and in the team members) and team commitment. It was conducted within six manufacturing plants, with 25 teams participating. Of the 320 surveys distributed to these teams, 178 were received (which equals a 56% response rate). The surveys consisted of the multi-factor leadership questionnaire (MLQ), the Swinburne Uni...

  1. Software project team dynamics a study of enablers and barriers to successful teams


    O'Connor, Rory V.


    peer-reviewed Team dynamics is the term used to define how people work and interact together in teams. Positive team dynamics are those that enable and contribute to high performing successful teams. Negative team dynamics are the dynamics that create barriers preventing teams from achieving their full potential. Teamwork is more effective with the existence of positive team dynamics and will encourage a better working environment with satisfied, fulfilled employees, who will in turn be...

  2. When teams collide managing the international team successfully

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Richard D


    FROM THE AUTHOR OF THE BESTSELLING WHEN CULTURES COLLIDE International teams are rapidly becoming the central operating mode for global enterprises. They are often agile and perceptive, know local markets better than HQ does, lead innovation and exploratory ventures, and are more culturally aware than their parent company. But how much autonomy should they be allowed? How can we get things done with colleagues who have different worldviews? How can we strike a balance between core values and the necessary diversity -? and is diversity within the team a strength or a hindrance? What is the rol

  3. The Spectrum of Earthshine A Pale Blue Dot Observed from the Ground

    CERN Document Server

    Woolf, N J; Traub, W A; Jucks, K W


    We report the visible reflection spectrum of the integrated Earth, illuminated as it would be seen as an spatially-unresolved extrasolar planet. The spectrum was derived from observation of lunar earthshine in the range 4800 to 9200 Angstrom at a spectral resolution of about 600. We observe absorption features of ozone, molecular oxygen and water. We see enhanced reflectivity at short wavelengths from Rayleigh scattering, and apparently negligible contributions from aerosol and ocean water scattering. We also see enhanced reflectivity at long wavelengths starting at about 7300 Angstrom, corresponding to the well-known red reflectivity edge of vegetation due to its chlorophyll content; however this signal is not conclusive, due to the breakdown of our simple model at wavelengths beyond 7900 Angstrom.

  4. The Blue Dot Workshop: Spectroscopic Search for Life on Extrasolar Planets (United States)

    Des Marais, David J. (Editor)


    This workshop explored the key questions and challenges associated with detecting life on an extrasolar planet. The final product will be a NASA Conference Publication which includes the abstracts from 21 talks, summaries of key findings, and recommendations for future research. The workshop included sessions on three related topics: the biogeochemistry of biogenic gases in the atmosphere, the chemistry and spectroscopy of planetary atmospheres, and the remote sensing of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. With the observation that planetary formation is probably a common phenomenon, together with the advent of the technical capability to locate and describe extrasolar planets, this research area indeed has an exciting future.

  5. Using teams and committees effectively. (United States)

    Spilker, B


    In a corporate setting, the term "team" usually refers to members of a group with different responsibilities and/or skills working together to achieve a common goal or objective. The major reason why a company desires group as opposed to individual involvement is to derive sounder decisions. Two essential issues to resolve in establishing teams or committees are 1) who should be a member or representative; and 2) what is the charter or mandate for the group. Representatives join a team or group in numerous ways; four common methods are 1) appointment by the group member's supervisor; 2) recruitment by the team leader; 3) appointment by a senior manager; and 4) volunteering. There are various profiles of how groups can approach a decision, including "groupthink," the "ideal group process" and the "debating society" approach. Group meetings must be structured to ensure that decisions are reached and then implemented. Foresight and planning are essential prerequisites to have efficient teams and committees that work effectively and achieve their goals.

  6. Team learning center design principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, B.; Loveland, J.; Whatley, A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)] [and others


    This is a preliminary report of a multi-year collaboration of the authors addressing the subject: Can a facility be designed for team learning and would it improve the efficiency and effectiveness of team interactions? Team learning in this context is a broad definition that covers all activities where small to large groups of people come together to work, to learn, and to share through team activities. Multimedia, networking, such as World Wide Web and other tools, are greatly enhancing the capability of individual learning. This paper addresses the application of technology and design to facilitate group or team learning. Many organizational meetings need tens of people to come together to do work as a large group and then divide into smaller subgroups of five to ten to work and then to return and report and interact with the larger group. Current facilities were not, in general, designed for this type of meeting. Problems with current facilities are defined and a preliminary design solution to many of the identified problems is presented.

  7. The effects of combined application of inorganic Martian dust simulant and carbon dots on glutamate transport rat brain nerve terminals (United States)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Nazarova, Anastasiya; Borysov, Arseniy; Pastukhov, Artem; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Dudarenko, Marina


    During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and can be transported to the central nervous system (Oberdorster et al., 2004). Recently, the research team of this study found the minor fractions of nanoparticles with the size ~ 50 -60 nm in Lunar and Martian dust stimulants (JSC-1a and JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin), whereas the average size of the simulants was 1 mm and 4mm, respectively (Krisanova et al., 2013). Also, the research team of this study discovered new phenomenon - the neuromodulating and neurotoxic effect of carbon nano-sized particles - Carbon dots (C-dots), originated from ash of burned carbon-containing product (Borisova et al, 2015). The aims of this study was to analyse acute effects of upgraded stimulant of inorganic Martian dust derived from volcanic ash (JSC-1a/JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin) by the addition of carbon components, that is, carbon dots, on the key characteristic of synaptic neurotransmission. Acute administration of carbon-containing Martian dust analogue resulted in a significant decrease in transporter-mediated uptake of L-[14C]glutamate (the major excitatory neurotransmitter) by isolated rat brain nerve terminals. The ambient level of the neurotransmitter in the preparation of nerve terminals increased in the presence of carbon dot-contained Martian dust analogue. These effects were associated with action of carbon component of the upgraded Martian dust stimulant but not with its inorganic constituent.

  8. Establishment of self-governing teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voxted, Søren

    Paperet har til formål at diskutere former for deltaglse og autonomi ved forkellige typer af teams både som team og for teamets enkeldeltagere......Paperet har til formål at diskutere former for deltaglse og autonomi ved forkellige typer af teams både som team og for teamets enkeldeltagere...

  9. 42 CFR 488.314 - Survey teams. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survey teams. 488.314 Section 488.314 Public Health...-Term Care Facilities § 488.314 Survey teams. (a) Team composition. (1) Surveys must be conducted by an interdisciplinary team of professionals, which must include a registered nurse. (2) Examples of...

  10. School Improvement Teams: A Qualitative Perspective. (United States)

    Maloy, Robert W.; Fischetti, John C.


    The authors identify and discuss four components of teamwork in the Boston Secondary Schools Project: team viewpoints, team roles and power, team projects, and team continuity. The discussion is based on findings from a variety of qualitative and research techniques including interviews, participant observations studies, and content analysis of…

  11. Team Trust in Online Education: Assessing and Comparing Team-Member Trust in Online Teams versus Face-to-Face Teams (United States)

    Beranek, Peggy M.; French, Monique L.


    Trust is a key factor in enabling effective team performance and, in online teams, needs to be built quickly and early. As universities expand their online offerings students are increasingly working in online teams. Understanding how trust development may differ in online teams versus face-to-face can have implications for online education…

  12. Towards team formation via automated planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muise, Christian; Dignum, Frank; Felli, Paolo; Miller, Tim; Pearce, Adrian R.; Sonenberg, Liz


    Cooperative problem solving involves four key phases: (1) finding potential members to form a team, (2) forming the team, (3) formulating a plan for the team, and (4) executing the plan. We extend recent work on multi-agent epistemic planning and apply it to the problem of team formation in a blocks

  13. Team Learning: Building Shared Mental Models (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Gijselaers, Wim; Segers, Mien; Woltjer, Geert; Kirschner, Paul


    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning behaviors and team effectiveness. Analyses were…

  14. Coherent control of quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier...... measurements the coherence time of the selfassembledquantum dots (QDs) has been reported to be limited by the spontaneousemission rate at cryogenic temperatures1.In this project we propose to alter the coherence time of QDs by taking advantage of arecent technique on modifying spontaneous emission rates...

  15. Biocompatible quantum dots for biological applications. (United States)

    Rosenthal, Sandra J; Chang, Jerry C; Kovtun, Oleg; McBride, James R; Tomlinson, Ian D


    Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, size-tunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including fluorescent assays for drug discovery, disease detection, single protein tracking, and intracellular reporting. This review introduces the science behind quantum dots and describes how they are made biologically compatible. Several applications are also included, illustrating strategies toward target specificity, and are followed by a discussion on the limitations of quantum dot approaches. The article is concluded with a look at the future direction of quantum dots.

  16. Quantum-dot supercrystals for future nanophotonics (United States)

    Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Turkov, Vadim K.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.


    The study of supercrystals made of periodically arranged semiconductor quantum dots is essential for the advancement of emerging nanophotonics technologies. By combining the strong spatial confinement of elementary excitations inside quantum dots and exceptional design flexibility, quantum-dot supercrystals provide broad opportunities for engineering desired optical responses and developing superior light manipulation techniques on the nanoscale. Here we suggest tailoring the energy spectrum and wave functions of the supercrystals' collective excitations through the variation of different structural and material parameters. In particular, by calculating the excitonic spectra of quantum dots assembled in two-dimensional Bravais lattices we demonstrate a wide variety of spectrum transformation scenarios upon alterations in the quantum dot arrangement. This feature offers unprecedented control over the supercrystal's electromagnetic properties and enables the development of new nanophotonics materials and devices.

  17. Blood Compatibility Evaluations of Fluorescent Carbon Dots. (United States)

    Li, Sha; Guo, Zhong; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Wei; Liu, Zonghua


    Because of their unique advantages, fluorescent carbon dots are gaining popularity in various biomedical applications. For these applications, good biosafety is a prerequisite for their use in vivo. Studies have reported the preliminary biocompatibility evaluations of fluorescent carbon dots (mainly cytotoxicity); however, to date, little information is available about their hemocompatibility, which could impede their development from laboratory to bedside. In this work, we evaluated the hemocompatibility of fluorescent carbon dots, which we prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of α-cyclodextrin. The effects of the carbon dots on the structure and function of key blood components were investigated at cellular and molecular levels. In particular, we considered the morphology and lysis of human red blood cells, the structure and conformation of the plasma protein fibrinogen, the complement activation, platelet activation, and in vitro and in vivo blood coagulation. We found that the carbon dots have obvious concentration-dependent effects on the blood components. Overall, concentrations of the fluorescent carbon dots at ≤0.1 mg/mL had few adverse effects on the blood components, but at higher doses, the carbon dots impair the structure and function of the blood components, causing morphological disruptions and lysis of red blood cells, interference in the local microenvironments of fibrinogen, activation of the complement system, and disturbances in the plasma and whole blood coagulation function in vitro. However, the carbon dots tend to activate platelets only at low concentrations. Intravenous administration of the carbon dots at doses up to 50 mg/kg did not impair the blood coagulation function. These results provide valuable information for the clinical application of fluorescent carbon dots.

  18. Peptide dot immunoassay and immunoblotting: electroblotting from aluminum thin-layer chromatography plates and isoelectric focusing gels to activated nitrocellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, O.J.; Holm, A.; Lauritzen, Edgar;


    Peptide dot immunoassay, electroblotting, activated nitrocellulose, dot blot, membranes, peptides and proteins......Peptide dot immunoassay, electroblotting, activated nitrocellulose, dot blot, membranes, peptides and proteins...

  19. [Research on the Highly Stable White LED with CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot as Light Conversion Layer]. (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Zhou, Jie; Xie, Jing-weil; Chen, An-ping; Zhang, Xuel; Yin, Lu-qiao; Zhang, Jian-hua


    In accordance with the one-step synthesis, in this paper, we synthesized 510, 550 and 630 nm three emission peaks CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots with high stability and high quantum yield whose quantum yield were 82%, 98% and 97%. We used the quantum dot material to replace the phosphor material, and mixed QDs with the silicone uniformly, then dispersed the QDs/silicone composites onto the blue InGaN LEDs to fabricate the QDs-WLEDs. By successively adding different colors of quantum dots for the preparation of quantum dot light converting layer, We investigated that how does the ratio of the three kind of quantum dots whose peaks were 510, 550 and 630 nm effect on the properties of the white LED devices. This paper also studied the mechanism of energy conversion between different colors of quantum dots. We also utilized the mechanism that the quantum dots effect on the white spectrum and color coordinates; we got the results of the optimization of the white device and the ratio of three-color quantum dots. The results show that when the quantum dot ratio is 24:7:10, white LED devices with high stability and high efficiency can be obtained, in the current range of 20-200 mA, the range of color temperature is from 4 607 to 5 920 K, the CIE-1931 coordinates is from (0.355 1,0.348 3) to (0.323 4, 0.336 1), the color rendering index is from 77. 6 to 84. 2, and the highest power efficiency of the devices achieves to 31.69 lm · W⁻¹ @ 20 mA. In addition, in order to further investigate the reason of stable device performance, We studied the effects of time, temperature, UV treatment on the stability of CdSe/ZnS QDs/silicone light conversion material, the results show that the excellent stability of the devices attributes to the stability of the one-step synthesis of core-shell structure of the quantum dot material, the final optimized device is a low-power high-quality white light source and the device has good application prospects in the field of standard white

  20. Silicon quantum dots for optical applications (United States)

    Wu, Jeslin J.

    Luminescent silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) are emerging as attractive materials for optoelectronic devices, third generation photovoltaics, and bioimaging. Their applicability in the real world is contingent on their optical properties and long-term environmental stability; and in biological applications, factors such as water solubility and toxicity must also be taken into consideration. The aforementioned properties are highly dependent on the QDs' surface chemistry. In this work, SiQDs were engineered for the respective applications using liquid-phase and gas-phase functionalization techniques. Preliminary work in luminescent downshifting for photovoltaic systems are also reported. Highly luminescent SiQDs were fabricated by grafting unsaturated hydrocarbons onto the surface of hydrogen-terminated SiQDs via thermal and photochemical hydrosilylation. An industrially attractive, all gas-phase, nonthermal plasma synthesis, passivation (aided by photochemical reactions), and deposition process was also developed to reduce solvent waste. With photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) nearing 60 %, the alkyl-terminated QDs are attractive materials for optical applications. The functionalized SiQDs also exhibited enhanced thermal stability as compared to their unfunctionalized counterparts, and the photochemically-hydrosilylated QDs further displayed photostability under UV irradiation. These environmentally-stable SiQDs were used as luminescent downshifting layers in photovoltaic systems, which led to enhancements in the blue photoresponse of heterojunction solar cells. Furthermore, the QD films demonstrated antireflective properties, improving the coupling efficiency of sunlight into the cell. For biological applications, oxide, amine, or hydroxyl groups were grafted onto the surface to create water-soluble SiQDs. Luminescent, water-soluble SiQDs were produced in by microplasma treating the QDs in water. Stable QYs exceeding 50 % were obtained. Radical-based and